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Rebirth / Reincarnation

University of Colorado, Boulder

College of architecture and Planning Spring 2002

WTC - Rebirth / Reincarnation

Compiled and Edited By Scott Sworts, Instructor All Materials in this book were produced by students in the Architecture and Planning Program at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Spring Semester 2002. This project would not have been possible without the assistance of: Beverly Willis, Director, The Architecture Research Institute Ron Shiffman, Director, Pratt Institute Center for Community and Environmental Development (PICCED) The members of Rebuild Downtown, Our Town (R.DOT) Acknowledgments: Patricia OLeary, Dean of the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Colorado, Denver Geraldine Forbes Isais, Chair of the Department of Architecture Allen Harlow, Assistant Chair of the Department of Architecture Dwayne Nuzum, Chair of the Department of Planning and Design Funds for this Project Were Donated By: American Institute of Architects, Colorado Chapter Daryl Maus, D-M Design Architecture and Planning Student Government, University of Colorado

Frontispiece: Manhattan Rendering by Michael Knoll 2

Table of Contents
Introduction Introduction Life - Nicole Rasmussen Executive Summary General Concepts Planning Points Architectural Recommendations Memorial Recommendations Manifestos Architecture is Life - Jessica Meyer Manifesto - Michael Knoll On... - Tyler Cooper Memorial Inscription - Lance Fischer Unity - Anthony Heinz To Rebuild - Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford An Awakening - Adam Hillhouse Design Concepts The Outward Spiral - Jessica Meyer The Tree of Life - Nicole Rasmussen The Inspiration of Unity - Anthony Heinz Synergy - Adam Hillhouse Shadow Patterns - Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford The Physical Healing Process - Tyler Cooper Respiration - Forrest Garrison 21st Century Environment - Jason Sidelko Planning Analysis Neighborhoods in Lower Manhattan - Gina Wortmann Pedestrian Connections - Duane Martinez and Carrie Dincan Existing Open Space - Tyler Schwartz Proposed Open Space - Tyler Schwartz Image-ability - J. Daniel Malouff 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33 34 35

A Sketch Model of a Green Building by John Hoffman 3

Table of Contents
Programming Dividing the Superblock - Michael Knoll Memorials - Adam Hillhouse Program for NYC Rebuild Project- WTC Site - Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford Growth Over Time - Nicole Rasmussen The Mental Process of Healing - Tyler Cooper Green Technologies The Integrated Green High-rise - Forrest Garrison Circulation Systems In a Tall Building - Forrest Garrison Wind Harness - Lance Fischer Photovoltaic Panel Systems - John Hoffman Wind Turbine Technology - Lance Fischer Fuel Cells - John Hoffman Geothermal Energy - Forrest Garrison Double Skin Cooling System - Jason Sidelko Nanogel(tm) Translucent Insulation - Lance Fischer Wireless Networking - Jace Christopher Recycling Systems - Paul Kearney Green Skyscrapers Respiration - Forrest Garrison Poised for Balance - Jason Sidelko Greet the Dawn - John Hoffman Design Concepts Unity - Anthony Heinz Anahata, A Place To Live - Jessica Meyer From Shadows to Light - Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford Cycle of Life - Nicole Rasmussen Synergy - Adam Hillhouse Manifestations of Healing - Tyler Cooper Re//Icarnate - Michael Knoll Appendix A: Urban Comparisons Appendix B: Biographies Appendix C: Large Format Drawings 36 37 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 61 68 74 75 79 83 87 91 96 100 104 111 117

Conceptual Sketch by Anthony Heinz 4

In a few horrific hours on Sept. 11, 2001, the New York tragedy drew Americans together as one to salvage lives and reinstate safety and security for the nation. The events of that day are well-documented. Less known is a New Yorkers ability to grasp the awesome scope of the job ahead. Within the purposeful response and grief of the weeks to follow, there developed a realization that New York would need to fill a great void and to do so it would become the leader of a revolution in the way urban areas plan and build their infrastructures. The vastness of the loss of people and structures has created a process not seen since the earliest days of the City. Planners, architects, government leaders and citizens have begun to see the area of the World Trade Center must be built as the City was in its earliest days in an evolutionary manner and not by a massive, one-shot development. Rebuilding will take years, not months. It will, of course, respond to social and commercial needs, and equally important, to an overwhelming call to honor those who lost their lives and those who survived. The site must memorialize and still function as a commercial, residential and retail center for the nation and the world. The memorial must allow a grieving nation and City to deal with emotion; it must reflect our societys values and stand as a symbol of our patriotism and strength as a nation. The rebirth of the site must be built to give physical form to the Citys and the nations resolve to move forward, in a manner that demonstrates our vision of the future. Students of the College of Architecture and Planning at the University of Colorado at Boulder are honored to contribute to this historic event. Here are their dramatic and insightful drawings, plans and thoughts of the rebirth of the World Trade Center site.

Scott Sworts April 12, 2002 Instructor, College of Architecture and Planning University of Colorado Boulder

World Trade Center Image Manipulation by Tyler Cooper 5

Life will be brought back into the World Trade Center site. We must develop architecture that remembers. New Yorks skyline will be redefined. We will rebuild: a place to grieve a place to work a place to gather a place to reflect a place to remember... the innocent the heroes More importantly, we will rebuild: a place to move forward a place of new beginnings a place of motion a place of greatness a place full of life - Nicole Rasmussen

The Oak Tree creates a space that represents life 6

Executive summary
There are overriding themes developed by the students regarding the rebuilding of the World Trade Center. The following points appear consistently within their work and seemed to guide their designs and concepts. For brevity, the themes and conclusions are listed as follows.

Generalized Concepts
Students: questioned the need for a World Trade Center and many concluded that the financial industry is decentralizing in the wake of Sept. 11. Each decided the site must become more mixed in its uses. made clear the rebuild should not carry a corporate label and should not be identified with one industry or corporation. made clear the world would watch what was done on the site, how it was built and understood that our actions will influence architectural design for years to come. stated plans and designs should respond to a need for closure and provide an opportunity for a new beginning. designs and plans reflect an overwhelming need to make development 24/7, the new understanding that vital urban areas must be open for use 24 hours a day, seven days a week. concluded the redevelopment of the site must provoke emotion putting faces to the site and humanizing it. plans and designs recognize that todays citizens are forever tied emotionally to the site but that relationship while present, will change in generations to come. want the site to acknowledge the process of grieving and address it as an engagement of the site. felt the needs of the families of victims must be decidedly met and must allow them and the survivors a way to deal with emotion. acknowledge that native New Yorkers must play the dominant role in rebuilding plans. advise that the plans for rebuilding not alienate New Yorkers. They must reflect the spirit, determination and courage of the city dwellers. make an overriding point that the rebuild must reflect what New York City wants it must reflect the culture and the vitality of the City.

Times Square at Night Photo by Tyler Cooper 8

Planning Points
Student design concepts call for: a caution to planners that converting the entire site to a park could create a dead zone for activity in Lower Manhattan. The site must be an active part of the community. the reintroduction of the street grid that existed prior to the construction of the World Trade Center. submerging the West Side Highway at Chambers Street to the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel. They suggest leaving two lanes of surface street one each direction. They also suggest converting the remainder of the right of way to park space or break it up into blocks and build on it. making the streets on the site pedestrian-only with minimal automobile access. minimizing traffic in lower Manhattan possibly closing off major pedestrian routes such as Fulton and Nassau streets. making permanent the single occupant vehicle ban below Chambers Street to ease congestion in downtown. creating a transportation hub that encompasses the PATH trains, subways and bus lines. creating a linear station to link all of the subway lines and the PATH station. reconstructing the parking garage for the WTC to provide parking for lower Manhattan. rebuilding the infrastructure so that future upgrades to the system can be made with a minimal impact on those who live and work in lower Manhattan.

Image of the World Trade Center Site on September 12, 2001 Taken by a NOAA Infra-red Imaging Satellite 9

Architectural Recommendations
Students thoughts are that: the architecture should not be created by one architect, rather it should be an evolutionary process and involve many architects over an extended period of time. the architecture should look to the future. Sustainable architecture should be substantially different from past architectural styles. even though the architecture should reflect the American spirit, it should also acknowledge the fact that people from over 90 countries lost their lives in the tragedy. the architecture must be a positive contribution to the New York skyline, it must not be a statement of ego. the architecture should add something back to the skyline of Manhattan. The original WTC was a directional landmark that many people used for orientation. Without the towers, many people have a lowered sense of direction (maze way disintegration). The creation of a new icon on the skyline would help alleviate this problem. buildings should be created that have flexibility to their uses. As technology evolves, it will change how buildings are used and what they need. Adaptable architecture is sustainable architecture because it has a much longer usable life. green technologies should be incorporated whenever possible. This should include Photo-Voltaic panels and wind turbines for electricity, co-generation, fuel cells, advanced insulation materials, day lighting, roof top gardens, and provide interior garden spaces to improve interior air quality. when developing the site, taller buildings should be placed to the south in close proximity to the taller buildings of Lower Manhattan. Buildings on the northern edge of the site should be lower, in keeping with the scale of the buildings in TriBeCa. within the reintroduced city grid, no buildings requiring two or more blocks (super blocks) should be permitted. to keep the street level of the buildings pedestrian friendly with retail facilities and restaurants. This will help bring life and spirit back into the area.

The Statue of Liberty at Sunset Photo by Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford 10

Memorial Recommendations
Students believe the memorial should: consider the use and the importance of sacred geometries in the architecture. They reflect the religions of the world in a non-denominational manner, and when used, will create liminal spaces that act as a bridge to connect people to an event. have two aspects - individual and societal. The individual aspect of a memorial is to provide the person with a way to deal with grief and loss. It should honor the persons stages of grief and allow them to connect with their emotions (in the manner of the Vietnam Memorial). The societal aspect of a memorial provides a community with a way to mark an event, to connect with history (such as the Lincoln Memorial). acknowledge that the memorial itself will mean different things to different generations. In just 100 years, no one will be alive who has first-hand memories of September 11. serve as an ongoing time capsule. be carefully considered as to its location. It might possibly be placed at the elevations where the planes struck the towers. acknowledge and provide for the comfort one gains for such actions as leaving flowers on a grave. The act of leaving something behind is very powerful. document and preserve pieces from the spontaneous memorials that sprung up over the City. This would bring an understanding of the emotions and experiences immediately present after September 11. possibly be located where the towers once stood, possibly not even allowing people to walk in those areas. Reflecting pools are a way this could occur.

Image from Here Is New York A Democracy of Photographs 11

For every project there must be a point of beginning, an initial intent to intervene in a site in a positive manner. This point of beginning can be a gesture, a word, an image that captures the central idea. The students first task was to mark their point of beginning, to define their intent. They wrote statements that declared their beliefs about what should happen on the World Trade Center site. The following is a collection of these manifestos.


Jessica Meyer In the minds of the survivors, heroes, and witnesses of the September 11th terrorist attacks, life in New York City will never be the same, and it shouldnt be the same. But we must ensure that life in Lower Manhattan moves forward to meet the needs of new generations. Life is about change and progress. The three go hand-in-hand. Without change, life could not progress into the future. Without progress, life would, and rightfully should, cease to exist. Like it or not, life changes everyday. It moves forward into the future everyday. Even if attacked, it still moves onto the next moment in time, adjusting to changes, rebuilding where it must, and becoming stronger than it ever was before. ARCHITECTURE IS LIFE It, too, changes and progresses with each day. Architecture now is not LIFE. the same as it was 30 years ago, but does that mean we can never rebuild buildings when destroyed? We must be relentless, the architecture in Lower Manhattan must change and adapt to the events of September 11th. It must become stronger. The people of New York City have begun to show us what can be in the future. They show the world we cannot dwell on one day forever. The World Trade Center must be rebuilt; not the same as it was before, but better than it ever was. The new WTC must not only reflect the present strength of the people of New York, but also the growing and changing economies of our nation and of the world. The communities and neighborhoods surrounding the WTC site must understand each other, learn from each other, and must be connected not only by one fateful day in the past, but also by the many days in the future. The new WTC must grow along with the people of New York City. The process to rebuild must welcome them, not only with a space created from concrete and steel, but also of the hope and strength of the human spirit. The strongest foundation of the new WTC is a fitting memorial. However, historic monuments are often static, inert, and never-changing. Such qualities do not necessarily reflect an everchanging world or the fast-paced place that is New York City. The standard memorial is not a reflection of the life found in Lower Manhattan. A better memorial should be live and interactive. It should remember the victims of the terrorist attacks, and recognize the lives of those who survived, and the heroes that rescued them. The memorial should celebrate life in its ever-changing fashion by changing and growing with the people who celebrate it. A real memorial would be part of the new WTC itself; an integration of past, present, and future that would welcome anyone and everyone not only to remember lost loved ones, but to celebrate their own lives, and the lives of their children. This memorial should be inspiring, enlightening, and invigorating the minds of everyone who sees it. The architects of New York and of the world have the power to open peoples minds and see the world not just for what has happened in the past, but also for what is to come in the future. Should we the architects of the world decide to use our compassion and our minds, we could indeed give respect to the victims as well as life back to Lower Manhattan and to the communities of New York. There is no better tribute to life than living.


Michael Knoll The New York City we once knew no longer exists. It has been transformed, not just by a terrorist attack which left destruction, but by now and forever serving as a symbolic place of human compassion and unity. Because the world responded in such a dramatic and loving way, New York City is transformed into a stage that the world will forever keep a trained eye upon. New York City has united the world. It is this uniting factor that will direct a design departure, and provide a possible solution as to what should happen in the future to the World Trade Center site. We are humble, yet strong. Let our actions speak of this. We are united, yet speak with many voices. Let our cities hold true to this. We are proud, yet selfless. Let our children know this. We are calm, yet ready to act. You have seen proof of this. Some of us have died, yet most of us are living. Let our Architecture reflect this.

Image taken from video footage by Michael Knoll 14

Tyler Cooper On bloodlines The tragedy of 9.11 was not a far away war, it was not a static moment for only the people there; and surely the lives lost are everyones to mourn. In a sense, a portion of that day will exist in everyone who witnessed it. This piece will grow smaller and smaller as the generations that were witness become fewer and fewer. In truth though, someday 9.11 will be a day in history and no one will be alive to tell of the world, as it was that morning. This is the reason that the memorial itself must heal and revise with each passing day. The memorial will listen and learn to the people now and the born tomorrow. On consideration In the process of determining the memorial, one must realize that the grief is shared with millions. The separation into different factions and political movements severs the brotherhood tie that in times like these is so critical. The hate and exclusion, the vicious and bitter battles leave the memory and history tainted. To deny or not acknowledge the validity of one group is the actions of a calculated and self-defeating pain. This site must be significant to all. To every use that it could, should, and was it will now fulfill. It shall appeal as much to history and memory as to commerce and vitality. On rebirth Building nothing and replacing what was there are equal miscarriages of honor and hope. The traditional memorial is hackneyed and could not apply to this circumstance while it is after all in its infancy. A memorial for what was the WTC should live and grow, just as the City of New York is a child thriving among ancient cities. The rebirth will be an entity to which the people of New York come for many reasons.

Initial concept sketch by Tyler Cooper 15

Memorial Inscription
Lance Fischer Everyone has lost something precious Everyone here has lost homes, dreams, and friends This world is what we make of it Working together, now we can make new homes for ourselves And new dreams The journey will be fraught with hardships But together we will prevail One thing though The people and the friends that we have lost And the dreams that have faded Never forget them.

Early conceptual sketch by Lance Fischer 16

Anthony Heinz Architecture is the reflection of our lives: our philosophies, our beliefs and even the needs created in the way we go about our days. It is the balance and the harmony between the built and the natural environment. With the tragedy of 9-11, architecture must take precedence on bringing that unity back to the heart of New York City. Let this Architecture start a new era that can reflect the lives of those who have passed and for those who are still living.

Activity patterns on the WTC site Gestural Sketch by Anthony Heinz 17

To Rebuild
Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford What is built on the World Trade Center site will be the beginning of the complete revitalization of the financial district. The new buildings will be the veins that will pump blood back into New York, but they are not the heart that will keep it beating. The revitalization of the financial district will be accomplished only by building a thriving business district. I propose an office space with a community atmosphere and ambitious character. This office space will be responsible for the economic revival of New York. We must rebuild and restore the damage done to New Yorks economic infrastructure. We have been given an opportunity to design and create an architecture that will reflect the nature of our current technological, political, environmental, and social demands and achievements. This must involve rebuilding a new infrastructure that will be the foundation for a sustainable future through the use of renewable energy. Green building technology and the use of new, high-tech materials and building systems must provide all needed energy demands, independent of the energy grid. What is built on this site will introduce a prototype for the 21st century. It will inevitably have a great influence on the profession, but more importantly, on our society and social consciousness. It cannot be another static memorial. The concept of a memorial as a statue is no longer viable. It should have not been in the past nor should it be now or in the future. To truly memorize the event we must educate. With learning and knowledge comes an understanding and comprehension that will inevitably imprint a memory in the mind of those who wish to learn of the WTC disaster. In this case, a proper memorial must be a museum and educational facility that would hold extensive information about September 11. Let us teach of what happened, only then will the memory hold strong so that our children will not forget. We must educate the public and thus memorialize the tragedy forever.

Initial design sketches by Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford 18

An Awakening
Adam Hillhouse The events of Sept. 11 have often been described as an awakening for America. The nation has began to understand that terror is no longer three continents or two oceans away we know now that it is here with us. The tragedy has caused us to examine many aspects of our society. Within our examination has come a greater grasp of the responsibilities that accompany our societys ambition to produce and to succeed. This understanding has made us more aware that symbols of our success our buildings and infrastructure must change in a way that both fulfills our ambitions and helps in the effort to improve the human condition in the world. Our buildings must consist of materials that are both composed of environmentally friendly products, and are self-sufficient in energy demands. Technology has created a canvas on which an objective view of our actions can be painted and observed. We are learning. We see the life-cycles of our processes and can work in cooperation to improve upon them until a balance is achieved. The experience of the user must be reflected in the product. The processes of rebuilding Lower Manhattan must reflect on the scale of the disaster and create, through architectural endeavors, a testament to our synergy. Our buildings, not only in New York City but the world over, must express coordination and serve to in some way improve the broader human condition. No example exists that fully encompasses the dynamics of American contemporary society. We must now invent our own examples of architecture.

Early Conceptual Sketch by Adam Hillhouse 19

Design Concepts
The students used a number of different strategies to generate their initial design concepts: some delved into the creation of a metaphoric source for their design; some derived concept from the human form; and others looked to ancient sacred geometries for their inspiration. Presented in this section are some of the concept generators that the students used in their design process.


The Outward Spiral

Jessica Meyer SPIRAL The spiral is an ever-moving path - never stopping in the same place as before. To move along the path is to move with life, to accept and embrace change in life, to LIVE CHAKRA A Chakra is an energy point within the human body. A place to focus mental and physical energy in order to bring balance into life. The path of the seven chakras is aligned on a path throughout the human body. To follow this path is to accept and embrace change in life; to LIVE

THE SEVEN CHAKRAS Saharara - Crown - awareness, consciousness (Violet) Ajna - Brow - intuition, imagination (Indigo)

Vishuddha - Throat - communication, self-expression (Blue)

Anahata - Heart - love, relationships (Green) Manipura - Solar Plexus - power, will (Yellow) Svadhisthana - Navel - emotions, desire (Orange) Muladhara - Root - grounding, survival (Red)

The Outward Spiral overlaid by the 7 Chakras by Jessica Meyer 21

The Tree of Life

Nicole Rasmussen Reflection is the essential idea, the center of the development of the World Trade Center site. It is critical to remember and honor the innocent and the heroes. Not only do we need to develop architecture that remembers but we need architecture that will redefine New Yorks skyline. Life needs to be brought back into this area - we need to feel New Yorks pulse again. There is an ancient legend of the enchanted wishing tree. It says that you must scribble your dreams onto red slips of paper tied to an orange and toss them into the air. Tradition holds that if your paper charm catches on the tree, your wish will be granted. My concept holds fast to the idea that tectonic forms have the possibility to expand and grow over time. Spiritual and physical growth should be represented by an enchanted tree, and spiritual growth, derived from the tree of life. This Oak tree will represent the continuation of life and will be a place for visitors to the site to leave their thoughts. The design of the site was derived from the tree of life, an ancient sacred geometric form that many believe represents the structure of the Universe. The organization of the site is based on the interrelationships of the circles from the diagram at the bottom of this page. The Oak tree will be placed in the middle of the site and visitors can tie messages on it. This will be a place to reflect and mourn but it will also be a place that represents life. The tree of life diagram 0. Knowledge - Knowledge and experience required to live life through a perfect (unfallen) Tree. 1. Supreme Crown - Life closest to God, Ancient of Days, the Highest Point. 2. Wisdom - The ability of learning everything in life seed of creation. 3. Understanding - The ability of appreciating all in life brings out the whole pattern of things. 4. Mercy - Compassion of all lesser lives, state in which forgiveness is given. 5. Strength - Control of powers by discipline and duty justice, awe, power. 6. Beauty - Universal health, harmony, and happiness in life, equilibrium, balance. 7. Victory - Achievement of what is right in life, instincts, emotions. 8. Glory - The honor of being alive for the sake of spirit. 9. Foundation - Faith in life and its fertility, underlying reality. 10. Kingdom - Our world of natural life as we live it, sphere of nature.

The Inspiration of Unity

Anthony Heinz The Circle: Wholeness, Unity

The Triangle: Creativity, Vision, Dreams The Square: Stability, Power, Grounding The Inspiration of Unity: Brotherhood: Intimate friendship and unity between the bond of companionship. Togetherness: Simultaneous unity of humanity. Remembrance : The recognized honor of those who have passed and for those who are still living. Harmony: Peaceful unity between all things Time: Unity of all from past, present and future

Evolution of form derived from the concept of unity by Anthony Heinz 23

Adam Hillhouse The attacks of September 11, 2001, affected not only the lower tip of Manhattan, but was also burned into the collective psyche of New York as a whole, and indeed the whole world. The diagram below attempts to express the broad nature of this event while providing the basis for my concept of synergy within the context of the Manhattan urban environment. Just as the debris spread through lower downtown, so too did the spirit of each individual- not only lost, but forever affected. The rebuilding of the World Trade Center site must reflect the nature of this event by physically reaching out into the city through its architectural language, both in massing and in proportion. My concept involves the placement throughout the city of two distinct architectural elements: memorial markers and interactive transit stops. The markers will be a testament to our humanity, while the transit stops will become testaments to our technology. On the site, the two distinct elements will merge together in a symbolic gesture of our social reaction to September 11.

Site Plan Showing synergy geometry by Adam Hillhouse 24

Shadow Patterns
Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford A study was conducted concerning the times of the impacts and the collapses of the two WTC Towers on September 11th, 2001. The shadow footprints that the towers cast during their respective impacts and collapses were documented. An overlay of these footprints introduces a possible new geometrical form. This geometry can then be used for the design and development of architectural forms.

Shadow diagrams and overlays Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford 25

The Physical Healing Process

Tyler Cooper The wound healing process is comprised of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. During the inflammatory phase, blood vessels contract and red blood cells clot the wound while white blood cells collect in the wound to fight infection. During the proliferative phase, special skin cells migrate into the wound beneath the crust (scab) and grow. Granulation tissue fills the wound and new capillaries form, giving the tissue its red color and granular texture. The wound begins to contract and the granulation tissue is soon covered with a layer of epithelial tissue (new skin cells). During the maturation phase, also known as the remodeling phase, new collagen is formed to create a scar. The wound slowly regains strength as the scar reaches its final size and shape. Scar maturation usually takes at least a year. A scar is only about 80% as strong as the original skin. To address form, I needed to look at the fringes of the buildings of the site, where the fall of the WTC stripped facades and partially collapsed other buildings. From these broken but not condemned buildings is where the cut begins to be healed.

Building connections derived from the scar concept by Tyler Cooper 26

Forrest Garrison In this picture, the woman is administering life support to the man. From the picture, it seems that the mans lungs were injured due to smoke inhalation moments after the collapse of one of the World Trade Center towers on 9/11. The body is a perfect example of strength, growth, movement, life, and beauty. Most people think of a building as being lifeless but in fact buildings are living and breathing. Like the body, there are layers upon layers of systems in a building that work together in order to maintain a healthy environment.

The diagrammatic sketch overlaid on the source photo by Forrest Garrison 27

21st Century Environment

Jason Sidelko These figures represent an instantaneous, dynamic balancing act of beauty and grace resulting from a reciprocal relationship of strength and trust. Now, imagine a building in Lower Manhattan, balancing commercial, residential, cultural and recreational uses. This creates many reciprocal relationships, enhanced by sustainability, green building systems, and integrates the media and technologies of the 21 st century

The Balancing Act 28

Planning Analysis
The following section has been submitted by the planning students at the University of Colorado. The students are studying Urban Planning under the direction of Dr. Dwayne Nuzum. The students analyzed various aspects of Lower Manhattan, including, neighborhood character, pedestrian corridors, open space, and landmarks.


Neighborhoods in Lower Manhattan

Gina Wortmann There are many neighborhoods that comprise Lower Manhattan, each with a different character. This district map depicts these areas. Two new neighborhoods have been created in this area as well. One neighborhood, Old New York is centered around the tip of the island and would include such landmarks from early New York as the Stone Street Historic District and Fraunces Tavern. The other new neighborhood would be located between the Wall Street area and South Bridge. This area is becoming more of a residential area, with many buildings being converted to co-ops. This new district has been named Maiden Lane.

District Map by Gina Wortmann


Duane Martinez and Carrie Duncan The following lists the major pedestrian corridors in Lower Manhattan and the primary destinations along the route. 1. Hudson River Corridor Stuyvesant High School World Financial Center NY Mercantile Exchange Museum North Cove Winter Gardens Museum of Jewish History Museum of Women Museum of Skyscrapers Battery Park Ferries to: Jersey City, NJ Hoboken, NJ 2. West Street Stuyvesant High School Manhattan Community College PS 234 St. Johns University World Trade Center site Rector Place Museum of Skyscrapers Museum of Women Jersey City, NJ Hoboken, NJ 3. Broadway City Hall NYC Financial District Battery Park St. Pauls Chapel Liberty Plaza Trinity Church Bowling Green Museum of the American Indian Subways: 4, 5, N, R
Pedestrian Map by Duane Martinez and Carrie Duncan 31

Pedestrian Connections Continued

4. FULTON STREET Battery Park Citys North Cove Winter Gardens World Trade Center Site South Street Seaport Drake Business School Subways: 4, 5, N, R 5. PARK ROW / BROOKLYN BRIDGE City Hall Berstraum High School Brooklyn Bridge Pace University NY Academy of the Arts 6. BATTERY PARK East River Castle Clinton Museum of Jewish History Museum of the American Indian Numerous Memorials Hudson River Subways: 4, 5, N, R Ferries to: Governors Island Staten Island Ellis Island Statue of Liberty Jersey City, NJ Hoboken, NJ 7. SOUTH STREET Battery Park East River Piers South Street Seaport Brooklyn Bridge South Street Bike Path Ferries to: Governors Island 90th / 34th Streets Glen Cove, NY Jersey City, NJ Keyport, NJ Highlands, NJ Weehawken, NJ 8. RECTOR ST / WALL ST Hudson River Rector Place NYSE Trinity Church NYC Financial District East River Subways: 1, 2, 4, 5, N, R Ferries to: 90th / 34th Streets Glen Cove, NY Jersey City, NJ Keyport, NJ Highlands, NJ Weehawken, NJ

Pedestrian Map by Duane Martinez and Carrie Duncan 32

Existing Open Space Map

Tyler Schwartz This map depicts the existing parks and plazas in Lower Manhattan. In addition to the open space, the map also shows the location of the two major historic districts in the area, the area at the southern tip of the island and the South Street Sea Port. There are three major paths through the area that interact heavily with the open space usage. There are 2 major bicycle routes, one on each edge of the island. The other major route is the pedestrian walking tour of Lower Manhattan. It starts near the Staten Island Ferry Port, and winds its way through downtown, to terminate at the Brooklyn Bridge.

Open space map by Tyler Schwartz


Proposed Open Space

Tyler Schwartz From the South Street Seaport to the WTC viewing platform and down to Battery Park, there are many pedestrian corridors one may take. Through good urban design and landscape architecture, this dense urban environment can transform into a place of accessibility. In order to revitalize Lower Manhattan, the feeling of a sense of place in each district must be maintained. This is the goal of public spaces and the connections that they make in the city for residents, workers, and visitors to find their way.

Open space map by Tyler Schwartz


J. Daniel Malouff This diagram depicts many of the major points of interest and activities in Lower Manhattan. The major areas of activity are, Battery Park, Wall Street, The South Street Seaport, City Hall and South Cove. The World Trade Center must be rebuilt as a major activity zone, because it is needed to unify and give continuity between the other zones of activity. The landmarks that are depicted are: The Museum of Jewish Heritage, the Skyscraper Museum and the Museum of Women, all on the edge of Battery Park; Trinity Church; the Stock Exchange and Federal Hall, on Wall Street; the Brooklyn Bridge; City Hall; the Woolworth Building; Saint Pauls Chapel; The World Trade Center Site; and the World Financial Center. In addition to the individual subway stops located all over the area, there are two major transportation nodes. The first is the major subway station located on Fulton Street, the other is at the Staten Island Ferry.

Image Map by J. Daniel Malouff 35

The students in Scott Sworts section developed architectural programs for the World Trade Center site. Among aspects that they analyzed were: what function or functions should be included on the site; what patterns of development should be addressed; and what issues arose in the programming phase. Included in this publication are some of the concepts that were developed from this highly complex problem. The focus at this stage was not to demonstrate a specific architectural solution, but to create algorithms that could apply to many projects. For reference, the original World Trade center contained approximately 12 million square feet of usable space. This is the equivalent of a 14 story building that would cover the entire site. For comparison, Grand Central Station is 129,000 square feet, the Sears Tower is 4.5 million square feet and the Pentagon (the worlds largest office building) is 6.5 million square feet. The World Trade Center site is 16 acres, the Pentagon covers 34 acres. In other words, the World Trade Center had twice the office space of the Pentagon, in less than half the area.


Dividing the Super Block

Michael Knoll One main objective of this project was to break up the super block that originally occupied the World Trade Center site. Block sizes are developed and are approximately 1/8, 1/4 and 1/3 the original size of the super block. The forms of the blocks were dependant on the location in the site and the intended development uses. One other rule for the block layout was that Greenwich Street had to be reconnected through the site. The number of permutations of layouts with these kinds of restrictions reaches into the thousands. Not all the layouts were generated because of impracticality or because they didnt respond to the desired percentages of uses. The final layout was chosen because it respected the footprints of the World Trade Center towers, gave appropriate percentages for mixed-use buildings and provided a stage for a high-rise building. All schemes start with 10 million raw square feet. 8 Blocks 597,000 Square Feet at Street Level
1 - 76619sf 2 - 64989sf 3 - 72173sf 4 - 62567sf 5 - 98887sf 6 - 77445sf 7 - 80102sf 8 - 64114sf

3 million sf Memorial 3 million sf Mixed Use 3 million sf Office 1 million sf support

Yields an average building height of 17 stories with maximum land coverage

1 3 5 7

2 4 6 8

Block Configuration

Space Allocation

Building Massing

1 2 4 6

3 5 7

1 - 76619sf 2 - 72173sf 3-145064sf 4 - 98887sf 5 - 77445sf 6 - 80102sf 7 - 64114sf

7 Blocks 615,000 Square Feet at Street Level

4.5 million sf Memorial 4.5 million sf Mixed Use 1 million sf support

Yields an average building height of 16 stories with maximum land coverage


Block Configuration
1 - 40845sf 2 - 25544sf 3 - 64989sf 4 - 35789sf 5 - 25077sf 6 - 62567sf 7 - 42275sf 8 - 40835sf 9 - 77445sf 10 - 30186sf 11 - 40398sf 12 - 64114sf

Space Allocation

Building Massing

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

12 Blocks 550,000 Square Feet at Street Level

3 million sf Memorial 3 million sf Mixed Use 3 million sf Office 1 million sf support

Yields an average building height of 18 stories with maximum land coverage

1 3

2 4

1 - 75481sf 2 - 45064sf 3 - 00611sf 4 - 59949sf

4 Blocks 681,000 Square Feet at Street Level

2 million sf Memorial 5 million sf Mixed Use 2 million sf Office 1 million sf support

Yields an average building height of 15 stories with maximum land coverage

1 3 5

2 4 6

1 - 75977sf 2 - 64797sf 3-198267sf 4-160228sf 5 - 79515sf 6 - 64366sf

12 Blocks 643,000 Square Feet at Street Level

3 million sf Memorial 4 million sf Mixed Use 2 million sf Office 1 million sf support

Yields an average building height of 16 stories with maximum land coverage


Adam Hillhouse The individual markers will act as memorials to the victims of September 11. Each marker will be approximately 3x3x6, symbolic of the human scale. One facial image of one victim will be placed on each marker. This will allow the survivors to associate personally to a monument to their loss, while the city as a whole can benefit from these markers as catalysts for education about not only September 11, but also of world affairs. The interactive transit stops will act as the means for such education to take place. They will house numerous interactive computer panels that will display everything from bus schedules, to real time taxi locators, to info pages regarding the world to which we all belong. Serving as a transit stop will allow this element to offer the user a direct means to access the new lower tip of Manhattan, and the architecture which these elements have produced.

Massing Model of the World Trade Center Site . This shows how the individual units come together to create buildings Design by Adam Hillhouse

An example of what the memorial markers might look like Design by Adam Hillhouse 39

Program for NYC Rebuild Project- WTC Site:

Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford A memorial to honor and respect the loss of life. A memorial for the process of grieving, to satisfy the emotional needs of both the survivors and those who lost loved ones. A memorial to honor the bravery of extraordinary and ordinary heroes. Separate from the above mentioned, a memorial that will survive the lives of those immediately affected, so the memory of this disaster will last and not be lost to time. A memorial to teach, an educative facility with informational resources concerning the political, social, environmental, and economical systems prevalent during the time of the WTC disaster. This facility shall include a vast information base dealing with international affairs and global trade occurring during and after 2001. Any information of current and future affairs concerning global business would also be available for public access. Cultural awareness is of great importance. A multi-cultural center to express a world community, reflective of New Yorks cultural diversity. Shedding light on cultural differences in politics, religion, economics, art, architecture, and overall views in order to gain acceptance through understanding. To tighten the loose rope between our countries and renew the ties with our neighbors, both globally and locally. A museum to save the numerous objects that would hold the memory of the event frozen in time. For example the numerous temporary memorials that spread throughout New York, and the Faces of Ground Zero exhibition. A public museum for the various arts and artifacts that deal directly with the tragedy. A connection to the city and the office space will be created by the introduction of a large mixed-use center. This center will include commercial, retail, and residential services. This center will add to the economic revitalization of New York by attracting and catering to the local consumers and tourists alike. New York must be economically revitalized through the successful reconstruction of the financial district. Education is of great importance. With knowledge comes power. Educational centers such as the museum and cultural center will educate the public. Let them learn of what happened and it will forever be memorialized.

Quick study sketches of how the shadow diagrams might evolve into built form by Joe Luis La Cruz-Crawford 40

Growth Over Time

Nicole Rasmussen The architectural language I developed speaks specifically to the immediate needs of New Yorkers and the city. We know, the site is in need of a memorial, but as time passes the needs of those who visit there will change. As these needs change, the buildings must accommodate this change by being equally flexible. A central corridor connects each section of the building, which allows the space to grow. (See the diagrams) This concept of growth is especially important in a place where ground is so sacred. The towers footprints would be replaced with a library and a museum/memorial, which are connected by a protruding corridor. This implies the connection the twin towers once had.

How the construction might be phased using a linear corridor spine, where pieces are added as needs require Diagrams by Nicole Rasmussen 41

The Mental Process of Healing

Tyler Cooper Throughout time the human mind has developed a psychological capacity for grieving. This process can be carried out within minutes or it can take years. While most people proceed through the stages of grief within their lifetime some remain perpetually within one. The architecture of the site remains undefined for a time because of the current emotional charge. To be able to confront this sacred ground requires a process of engagement that reflects the ways in which humans grieve. Each stage of grieving is connected to a function of programmatic development that is the same in terms of intensity of engagement. There are five defined stages to the grieving process: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance. For each of the five stages of grieving, I have applied a programmatic element. Denial: For those individuals who do not wish to engage the site or rather circumvent their realities regarding it; the subway station will act as a bypass. Many proposals thus far have acknowledged neither the site nor the memorial processes are to be considered in denial. Anger: A Park will be a place for appropriate forms of anger to be released. Exercise or a place for public voices to be heard will be positive manifestation of anger. Bargaining: A community center functions as a core facility to give community based organizations and individuals the opportunity to participate in the grieving process together. Depression: A memorial must not only accommodate those individuals who are directly affected now, but it must also be able to provide a tectonic manifestation that will create historical significance. Acceptance: A compressive habitat is created where people can work and live within the context of the site.

Progression Images assembled by Tyler Cooper


Green Technology
One group of students, working under Architect and Assistant Professor Julee Herdt, focused efforts on developing a tall green building for the WTC site. Building proposals indicate renewable energy sources including solar electric power, ground source heating and cooling, wind power, and fuel cells. Students were required to propose a building that breathes, takes in the sun, is operated by the users - a building derived from the students interpretation of survival of the human soul, body and mind.


The Integrated Green High-rise

Forrest Garrison


Circulation Systems In a Tall Building

Forrest Garrison


Wind Harness:
Lance Fischer I propose a WTC concept calling for two 2,000 foot high towers with a connecting bridge at the level of the surrounding buildings. I envision one additional structure on the site to act as an energy substation for integration into the citys power grid. Four large wind turbines, roughly fifty meters in diameter, would be placed at the top of the structure. These turbines should easily produce enough energy for the buildings needs. The upper levels are to be screened in photovoltaic cells to supplement the energy provided by the turbines. Nanogel Insulation is to be used throughout the structure for lighter weight and better heat insulation. Nanogel is also to be used on the exterior because of its ability to transmit light and it can be used as a replacement for glass. Each tower will have one bank of two three-deck high speed elevators, which will stop at every 20th level. These elevators will be glass-backed to take advantage of the excellent views of the city and have pressurizing systems to help people adjust to the pressure change due to the height of the towers. From each express stop, there will be four banks of regular elevators to deliver people to their destinations. Use of the new Segway Human Transporter will be highly encouraged throughout, with ramps built to Segway spec in major circulation zones. Much of the interior accent and direction lighting will be provided by new electro-lumenescent flat lighting, which uses much less electricity than conventional lighting, and lasts longer. The buildings will include around 12.5 million square feet of office space, and about 500,000 square feet of retail space. A memorial will be housed in the base of the structure, and the towers will be capped with shining beacons, reminders of what happened there, and to properly memorialize what has risen up from the ashes. Also, a number of green spaces will be enclosed within the building, to help improve air quality and as recreational areas for people to visit. The bridge between the towers and the tops of the towers themselves serve as good examples of locations where these Sky-parks would work.

The Wind Harness Buildings on the site Designed by Lance Fischer 46

(P.V.s) Photovoltaic Panel Systems (P.V. s)

John Hoffman Photovoltaic panels create a direct current from the suns photons (sunlight). For a tall building, the amount of energy required to sustain itself solely on photovoltaics would require most of the buildings exterior cladding to be covered in panels. Photovoltaic panels, which are made up of individual cells, need to be positioned on the south facing sides of the building to collect as much sunlight as possible. In the context of the WTC site, the panels should be located according to the shadows of the surrounding buildings and the daily and yearly sun paths. Electricity produced from the panels can be used directly; when the sun shines, electricity is produced and used. When the sun is not shining, no electricity is produced. Electricity can be stored in batteries, or given back to public service on the grid so that any excess electricity could be used at night or on a cloudy day.

Important terms used in Solar Technology

An AC/DC P .V. system 47

Wind Turbines
Lance Fischer Wind turbines are a proven way to harness a natural and renewable resource. Mounting turbines high in buildings helps catch more wind. Wind turbines can provide all the energy the buildings will ever need. They are mounted facing the most common high wind direction. Wind turbines are quiet and new manufacturing and higher quality make them run very smoothly. They generate no more noise than a refrigerator. In the building, they run to a substation, and then to a larger power plant also located on the site. The system is then integrated into the citys power grid. These wind turbines rotate at a maximum speed of 36 rotations per minute. To address the concerns of some, it is important to note there is evidence that more birds are killed from power lines than from wind turbines.

These buildings have 2 turbines each. This should be more that adequate to provide all of the buildings energy needs Building Design by Lance Fischer 48

Fuel Cells
John Hoffman A fuel cell converts hydrogen and oxygen into electricity and heat with an emission of pure H20 (water). In a tall building, a fuel cell system can supplement the energy needs directly on the site or in the building itself. Fuel cells are very quiet and efficient. There are two major types of fuel cells, direct and hydrogen. The direct fuel cell can use existing natural gas infrastructure to supply the on site cell directly where the energy is needed. The more efficient fuel cell is the pure hydrogen cell, but requires an oxygen and hydrogen line routed to the site or building, something the existing infrastructures do not yet have. Fuel cells can address diverse energy requirements throughout a single structure.

A diagram of how a fuel cell works 49

Geothermal Energy
Forrest Garrison Geothermal energy can be easily incorporated into a tall building. Large diameter pipes go down into the ground and circulate fluid. This fluid can be used to heat and cool the building. This can be done because the ground temperature is constantly around 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Once the fluid is at this temperature, it takes much less energy to increase that temperature to 70 degrees, than from an outside temperature of say 20 degrees. This fluid is circulated throughout the building.

A geothermal system 50

Double-Skin Cooling System

Jason Sidelko Double-Skin systems are a cooling system that reduces the heat gain of a buildings outer facade. When the sun hits the exterior of a building during the summer, some of the heat will be absorbed and raise the inside temperature of the building. In a Double-Skin Cooling System, the outer secondary skin provides shade for the inner opaque walls, while ventilation in the cavity between the skins removes excess heat that passes through the outer skin. This is important in a tall building because it reduces the energy needed to cool the inside of the building with air conditioning.

How a double -skin cooling system works Drawn by Jason Sidelko 51

Nanogel(tm) Translucent Insulation

Lance Fischer The benefits of using NANOGEL Translucent Insulation in a building are: It increases the ability to satisfy building code insulation R requirements and the requirements for transmitted light. It introduces the best insulating, diffuse light-transmitting technology known. It doubles light transmission and thermal insulation over current technologies. It yields constant insulating properties over time there are no changes in its properties. It provides designers a tool to increase the use of natural day lighting for enhanced aesthetic value.

This diagram depicts how Nanogel is incorportated into a building. 52

Wireless Networking
Jace Christoper The use of wireless networks within a tall building should be considered a green technology. The savings in copper and fiber optics wires is a bonus. It allows for greater flexibility of space and its uses. It reduces the miles of copper and fiber optic wire that run throughout the entire building. Using this technology, along with the integration of networked computers, can reduce the amount of paper that is consumed in an office building.

Wireless Technology in a Tall Building Jace Christopher 53

Recycling System
Paul Kearney In a tall building recycling is considered to be one of the main systems. Chutes, which extend the entire height of the building, are required in order to pick up recyclables from every floor. The recyclables are then stored in a collection area at ground level. They are kept there until collection trucks can haul them to the proper facilities.

Recycling System Image from Hi-Rise Recycling Systems, Inc. 54

Green Skyscrapers
This section includes design concepts for integrating Green Technology into a tall building. The unconventional form of these buildings evolved from the theory that the appearance of a Green Skyscraper be as innovative as the technology used in its systems. These pages were created by the students in Julee Herdts studio.




















In this section are included the architectural concepts that the students derived from their source material. Presented here are ideas for development of the site, memorials, and other buildings. This is not intended to provide design solutions, but to expand on the possibilities. Many of the images in this section are from the boards created by the students.


Anthony Heinz The use of geometric shapes in my design creates harmony throughout the site, both vertically and horizontally. Harmony is critical to the physical environment of New York City in the wake of September 11 and brings the City and its people a sense of unity. The three linked towers were inspired by the unified support shown by the world in response to the events of that day. The towers contain approximately 6 million square feet of office space. (This is half of the square footage of the original World Trade Center.) The design moves the elevators and stairways from the traditional location at the center of the tower, to exterior structural columns on the four corners. The towers also are linked by three sets of skywalks to allow people to move between the buildings without descending to ground level. The structure surrounding the base of the three towers is a transportation hub, for subways, buses and taxis. It also contains a street-level shopping concourse, art galleries, performance spaces and community spaces. This structure will occupy approximately half of the site. The rest of the site is left as open space and a memorial, with the footprints of the World Trade Center being marked by reflecting pools that are partially enclosed by fragments of the original buildings that were left after the September 11 attack.








Site Plan

Site Floor Plan

Main Floor Plan

Section of Tower

North Elevation

Floor Plan

East Elevation

South Elevation

North Section

East Section

South Section


Perspective View of Front Entrance

Perspective View of Side Entrance

Perspective View of Front Entrance

Perspective View of Side Entrance

Aerial View of Front Entrance

Aerial View of Side Entrance

Central view looking up at towers Interior Perspective Interior Perspective

Interior Perspective

Interior Perspective

Perspective of Store Front

Perspective of Bridge


Anahata - A Place to Live

Jessica Meyer The WTC must be rebuilt in a way that allows it to grow and adapt to changes in society. It must reflect the present strength of the people of New York City and also the growing and changing economies of our nation and the world. My architectural concepts come from the influences a spiral form has in our lives and the use of the Chakra to create representation of the human body within architectural form. I envision a series of paired towers connected by walkways. No longer would the WTC towers exist as separate worlds; they would be forever joined just as their functions and populations are linked. These towers would contain functions essential to the continuance of life: a school and daycare center; retail space and restaurants; a hospital and clinic; an apartment building that would provide affordable housing; office space; civic spaces that would include art galleries, performance spaces, museums and a 9-11 memorial; and a large open plaza space for people to come together.



Lobby Floorplan

Retail Space

Standard Floorplan with Skywalk Connection

Gallery Space

Penthouse Floorplan

South Section through Skywalks

The green & white spaces denote residential areas, which is the primary function of Anahata. The green areas are the Penthouse levels, while the white are standard residential dwellings. The red color denotes educational facilites, such as a day care center and youth afterschool programs. The orange color denotes recreational facilities and public spaces such as a movie theater, game room, and retail shopping areas. The yellow color denotes health-related facilities, such as a fitness area and pharmacy. The cyan color denotes business spaces, such as personal office space and small conference rooms. The blue color denotes cultural spaces, such as an art & sculpture gallery. The purple color denotes community spaces, spaces that are gathering points for the residents.

East Section of Tower B

South Section of both Towers


Interior View of Skywalk

Perspective View of Skywalks

Interior View of a Standard Apartment

South Elevation

East side Elevation of Tower A

Anahata - (unstruck) A residential complex for Lower ManhattanA way to recapture the vitality and life of New York Cityby living there.
Northeast Perspective View


From Shadows to Light

Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford I believe what is built on the WTC site will mark the beginning of a complete revitalization of the financial district. It will introduce a prototype for the 21st century and will influence our profession, our society and our social consciousness. To truly memorialize Sept. 11, we must educate. If we teach what happened, the memory will hold strong and future generations will not forget. I have created an architectural form based upon a map of the shadows cast by the two towers as they were struck and as they collapsed. As I overlaid these maps, I clearly saw building forms. These forms are the basis of all the buildings I designed for the site. The program for the site would include an office building, a transportation hub with street level retail, a cultural center, a museum dedicated to the events of September 11, and memorial spaces that occupy the footprints of the World Trade Center Towers.





Cycle of Life
Nicole Rasmussen My design for the World Trade Center site is based on the idea of growth. What the site needs today is not what it needed 30 years ago, nor is it what will be needed 30 years in the future. To accommodate the changing needs of the area, I have proposed creating an architectural framework that allows for growth, much like a tree is able to grow and mature. For example, in the proposed office building, a central core would be constructed, and office modules would be added to this central core to accommodate requirements of the time. Through this process, the structures would grow at an appropriate pace, and not create an overbuilt, economically unfeasible development. The center of the site would be occupied by a memorial Wishing Tree. This concept, derived from the Wishing Tree in Hong Kong, would allow people to write messages on slips of paper and hang them from the tree. This would allow people to leave their thoughts, feelings, prayers and hopes, much as flowers are left on a grave.


Tree of life diagram on the site


view from West Street towards site The towers footprints would be replaced with a library and a museum/memorial , which are connceted by a protruding corridor. This implies the connection the twin towers once had.

view up Greenwich

view of site The central corridor connects each section of the building, which allows the space to grow. Over time the needs of the people will change and the buildings need to accommodate this. This concept of growth is especially important in a place where ground is so sacred. view from south side of site

looking up at tower


New York City Skyline

North Elevation

East Elevation

Phase 1 - 1-5 years Phase 2 - 5-10 years Phase 3 - 10+ years The phasing process is designed to allow modular sized pieces that can be North Section added to the building when the city needs more office space.

office space

central core space

circulation space


perspective views of tree

interior atrium space

interior view of office space

view south looking down Church Street

view to southeast

view to east

view looking at tower from Greenwich Street


Adam Hillhouse I developed my design process by basing my interpretations on the concept of synergy, or more specifically the phenomenon of individual elements coming together for a common good. Using the power of digital modeling, I based the my conceptual scheme loosely on four material units stone, glass, steel and brick. These four elements became the virtual building blocks for my process. The interactions of these elements gave me an approach to my design that applied to the individual buildings as well as the complex as a whole that is to use each individual element to the point where its influence drives the evolution of the whole. As for the memorial to victims, I believe simple, human-sized monuments should be placed throughout the city to emphasize the fact that the Sept. 11 attacks reached further than the immediate site. The buildings at the site, the markers to memorialize our fallen and the transit opportunities that help bridge the gap between the two all follow a process of evolution. Not everything should be built at once. Each step of the rebuilding can then reflect the ever-changing structure and needs of contemporary urban life.






Manifestations of Healing
Tyler Cooper On Sept. 11, this nation was attacked and entered a new phase of existence as the site of a war. Our nation was no longer involved in a far away struggle, the war was here, in our own homeland. But as dramatic as that time was for us, future generations not involved with the event will have healed and moved on to a new day. They will need structural bridges that connect them to the facts and the horrible loss of that day. To address form, I needed to look at the fringes of the site, where the fall of the WTC stripped facades and partially collapsed other buildings. From these broken, but not condemned buildings is where the site should began to be healed. The new buildings, like scar tissue on the human form, should evoke a remembrance of the past structures, but capture the spirit of healing by reflecting on the needs and character of the future. As I envisioned my project, I saw a scar was not just a physical manifestation. It also serves to invoke mental images of what once was and what is no longer. A scar helps remind us of what was lost and how we have changed due to an experience.




My memorial design has several areas: 1) The outside reflection pool is surrounded with pieces of the old faade of the World Trade Center. 2) Inside the first gallery is a presentation of New York before September 11. 3) From the gallery, one descends to a void. The only illumination in this void is provided from behind a scroll of names of the victims. 4) Next one ascends to a presentation of New York and the world after September 11. Two floors present a timeline to the present day. 5) Finally, one climbs to a viewing deck. Here the pool and the void are visible. From this point, one sees the scar created by the loss of the towers.


Michael Knoll My concept is driven by the character of New York City. The defining images of Lower Manhattan - the images most of us hold - are narrow streets with small blocks, tall graceful towers, and diverse architecture that spans 300 years of American history. I propose that the site not be the work of one hand, but of many, each contributing to the fascinating pastiche that is the City. This site would be occupied by one large office tower, to restore the lost skyline, and many smaller buildings that would be a mixture of uses. I believe the memorial should occupy the area taken up by the footprints of the two towers. As a gesture of respect, the memorial should have only minimal contact with what has become hallowed ground. To accomplish this, I propose a bridge-like structure that will only penetrate the ground at four points. This building will become a liminal space, a bridge between the living and the dead, and the past to the future.





Appendix A: Urban Comparisons

In this section are graphics which relate the size of the World Trade Center site to the urban cores of other major metropolitan areas in the United States. All maps were compiled by J. Daniel Malouff.


World Trade Center Site Total building collapse. Heavy Damage, partial collapse and major structural damage. Moderate Damage, broken windows, minor structural damage Light Damage, some windows broken, heavy debris fall. Infrastructure Damage, moderate debris, heavy infrastructure disruption.

New York, Downtown: The World Trade Center occupies a large section of Lower Manhattan.

New York, Midtown: The WTC is positioned above Rockefeller Plaza and covers approximately six city blocks, including the entirety of Rockefeller Center. 105

Boston, Massachusetts: The WTC is positioned in central downtown Boston, not covering any specific building. Since Boston blocks are irregularly shaped, the number that are covered changes depending on where the comparison occurs.

Boulder, Colorado: The WTC covers approximately six and a half city blocks, and completely covers the Pearl Street Mall east of Broadway. 106

Chicago, Illinois: The WTC is positioned above the Sears Tower (the tallest in the city) and covers approximately nine city blocks.

Denver, Colorado: The WTC is positioned above Republic Plaza (the tallest in the city). It covers approximately 6 city blocks, or almost half of the 16th Street Mall. 107

Houston, Texas The WTC is positioned above the densest part of downtown and covers approximately seven and a half city blocks.

Los Angeles, California: The WTC is positioned above the Library Tower (the tallest in the city) and covers approximately three and a half city blocks. 108

Miami, Florida: The WTC is positioned above the First Union Tower (the tallest in the city until the Four Seasons Hotel is completed later this year) and covers approximately seven city blocks.

San Francisco, California: The WTC is positioned with the upper right corner over the TransAmerica Pyramid (the tallest in the city) and the lower left corner over the Bank of America Building (the 2nd tallest in the city) and covers approximately six city blocks. 109

Seattle, Washington: The WTC is positioned above the Bank of America Building (the tallest in the city and formerly known as the Columbia Seafirst Center) and covers approximately nine city blocks.

Washington D.C.: The WTC is positioned above the Reagan Building (aka The World Trade Center) in the Federal Triangle. The National Mall is to the south. Following Pennsylvania Avenue (the big street just north of where the WTC is placed) to the lowerright will take you to the U.S.. Capitol Building (which is just off the screen); following it to the upper-left will take you to the White House. The Washington Monument is visible in the lower-left hand corner of the screen. The WTC site would normally cover approximately seven city blocks. 110

Appendix B: Biographies


Faculty Biographies
Scott Crisman Sworts, Instructor, University of Colorado at Boulder The architecture program, WTC Rebirth/Reincarnation, at the University of Colorado for the 2002 spring semester was proposed, conceptually designed and co-taught by Scott Crisman Sworts of Denver, Colorado. The administrative leadership at the university approved Mr. Sworts plans to offer students of Architecture and Planning an opportunity to formally participate in the reconstruction proposals for the area destroyed by a terrorist attack on the New York City World Trade Center site on September 11, 2001. Mr. Sworts worked in cooperation with Rebuild Downtown, Our Town, (R.DOT) and Pratt Institute Center for Community and Environmental Development and has been offered the opportunity to formally present student work to those entities and other involved groups in New York City. Mr. Sworts is an instructor at the university. He received his Bachelors Degree in Environmental Design from the university in 1992 and a Masters Degree in Architecture in 2000. Mr. Sworts has several years experience teaching architecture and computer-aided design software classes in Colorado. He has worked extensively in the architectural profession for 10 years. He has been recognized for his residential design plans, was nominated for the Log Home of the Year award in 1996 and won second place for a team transportation project for the City of Boulder in 1991. He has received awards for his scholastic achievements. Julee Herdt, Assistant Professor, University of Colorado, Denver Since 1994, Julee Herdt has been an Assistant Professor of Architecture at the University of Colorado at Denver, teaching Architectural Design and Green Building Technology. Since 1974, Ms. Herdt has worked in the architecture profession in design, construction and project management, and environmental building materials research and application. Ms. Herdts major research has been funded by United States Department of Agriculture grants and cooperative agreements. She recently established a non-profit research and development corporation, The Architecture Plant. Ms. Herdts work has been featured in newspaper and magazines articles and on national public radio. Julee Herdt has worked as a team architect with the internationally award-winning design firms Coop Himmelblau, Vienna, Austria, and Morphosis Architects, Los Angeles, California. Ms. Herdt received an Masters of Architecture from the Southern California Institute of Architecture, where she was awarded the Best Graduate Thesis Project award in 1989. She received a Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Tennessee, Knoxville with highest honors in 1980. Ms. Herdt holds a Bachelor of Science in Industrial Technology degree from Western Kentucky University, 1975.


Dr. Dwayne C. Nuzum Dr. Dwayne C. Nuzum has been a Professor and Chair of Planning and Design of the College of Architecture and Planning at the University of Colorado at Denver since 1999. Dr. Nuzum was the Executive Director of the Colorado Commission on Higher Education from 1994 to 1999 and from 1993 to 1994, he was the Dean of the College of Architecture and Planning at the University of Colorado at Denver. He was Chancellor of the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs from 1986 to 1992. His extensive and award-winning career began in 1964 and has included such eminent positions as Acting Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs at the University of Colorado, Dean of the College of Environmental Design at the university and Director of the Center for Urban Affairs at the university. Dr. Nuzum holds a Doctoral in Town Planning from Delft Technical University, The Netherlands, a Master of Architecture, Urban Design Option from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a Bachelor of Architecture from the University of Colorado, and Associate of Arts Degrees from Lamar Community College, Colorado State University and the University of Colorado at Boulder.


Student Biographies
Jace W Christopher - I was born on September 4, 1976, in Aspen, Colorado. I have lived in the Roaring Fork Valley since I was 7 and graduated from Aspen High School in May 1995. This studio has been a great experience. The project itself is immense, far larger than anything I imagined. The most notable experience was the opportunity to travel to New York City for the first time with the studio classes. This project, itself, has not been easy. There are so many issues that need to be resolved and there is so little time in a semester to tackle them all. I just hope that what little I have done in the past few months can help in some way no matter how small. Tyler Cooper - I have loved art my entire life. I studied the Fine Arts for two years before falling into the rapture of Architecture. Travel is the most fantastic experience, and I desire to see every square inch of this planet. Education is the most valuable of all the assets a man can have, so I plan to peruse a masters degree after some work experience. I was born in Glenwood Springs, Colorado, and will someday return to the mountains where I was born. Joshua Thomas Cox - I am from Colorado Springs, Colorado, and am 22. I hope to become a city planner in the public sector for a few years while earning my Masters in Environmental Design. Then I hope to find a profitable job in the private sector. (But, there is always the option of joining the Peace Corps) Carrie Jo Duncan - I am from Pueblo, Colorado, and am 22. I am a senior planning major graduating in December of 2002. I plan on attending graduate school at the University of Colorado in Denver with an interest in pursuing a Masters of Urban Design. Forrest Garrison - I was born in 1979, the only boy in the first set of Quadruplets born in Colorado on record. I grew up in Littleton and have a love of the outdoors. I plan on staying in Colorado, primarily because of the great seasons. We have beautiful summers and incredible white winters. My free time consists of biking, motorcycling, swimming, climbing, and skiing. I am currently graduating from CU in Boulder with a BA in Architecture and will work some before going to Grad School. Lance Fischer - I was born at a military hospital outside Seattle, Washington. My parents divorced when I was five. When I was 15 my father passed away. In my senior year of high school, I went to work for the Boulder-based architecture firm Downing, Thorpe and James. In the fall of 1998, I began my study of architecture at the University of Colorado in Boulder. In 2001, with the assistance of my associate Zoya Voronovich, I started my own design company, FischerVoronovich. I currently live in Boulder, Colorado, and my other interests include three dimensional computer graphics and motorcycles. Anthony Heinz - I grew up in the small eastern Colorado town of Cheyenne Wells on my familys farm. I have always dreamed of becoming an architect, and the opportunity to come to Boulder and to succeed in my goals has been an awarding experience. To be able to participate in probably the biggest design project of this century has been an important accomplishment in my life. I hope to continue my career in architecture and I will always carry this experience with me.


Adam Ray Hillhouse - I was born in Boulder, Colorado, on March 11, 1980. My father, an architect, exposed me to the world of building at an early age. When I was old enough to work on a job site, I began helping numerous contractors with many different aspects of the building process. My experiences in the trades have instilled in me a respect for the crafts involved in erecting our built environment. From this I studied design at the University of Colorado, and used the skills I acquired there to assist my father in many design commissions. As I move closer to creating my own architectural processes, I hope to combine the inspirational aspects of theory with the pragmatic responsibilities of contextual architecture. John Hoffman - I was born on June 16, 1980, in Denver, Colorado. I live in Bailey, and am a senior in the architecture program. I feel fortunate to participate in a design project that means so much to the people of New York and to people all over the world. This is a great opportunity for me to share my ideas, design processes, and explore new and inventive architecture. Paul Kearney - I was born on September 11, 1978, in Warwick, Rhode Island. I grew up in Boulder, Colorado, and currently attend the University of Colorado. I am studying Architecture here and plan to graduate in the fall of 2002. I am interested in the WTC project because it is allowing me to be included in the biggest design project in history, and one which will play a vital role in the future of Lower Manhattan. I am excited to incorporate my own conceptual ideas as well as green technology and sustainable architecture into the design for the Trade Center. Michael Knoll - I was born outside New Orleans and spent my childhood growing up in the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. I moved to Colorado when I was 13 and plan to graduate from C.U. in May of this year. My future plans are to travel in Spain and France and then pursue a career in 3D/4D computer modeling. Brandon Lucero - I was born March 3, 1975, in Fort Collins Colorado and grew up in nearby Loveland. I am currently a senior at the University of Colorado in Boulder and will graduate in May 2002. My future plans include traveling, getting practical work experience and eventually graduate school. I feel very fortunate to have the opportunity to work on the World Trade Center Site project. Jose Luis La Cruz-Crawford - I was born in the city of Trujillo, Peru, where I lived until the age of 6; its influence has always been with me. In 1986 my mother and I moved to Colorado, U.S.A., I am still being influenced by my early life. I am a product of a Latin upbringing and of American cultural identity development. I am an entity created by our modern times and the contradictions I face daily. I see the gravity of our current human situation. We cannot stand idle. We cannot have humble intentions, but rather, we must make plans that move the hearts of men. Only then can we create Architecture that will influence our future generations. As of now, I am not an Architect, I am merely a designer, I have not built, and I have yet to influence. J. Daniel Malouff I am currently a junior at the University of Colorado. I am originally from Gaithersburg, Maryland, a satellite city of Washington, D.C. I have worked for DeRosa Architecture of Silver Spring in Maryland, and for the Planning Department in the City of Fairfax, Virginia. I have always been an aficionado of cities and skyscrapers, and currently maintain a website dedicated to tracking the urban flow of the Washington region at

Jeffrey A. Marck - I am a senior planning student from Pueblo, Colorado. I am planning on pursuing a career in the public sector, I am interested in transportation planning. I plan on moving into the private sector in the future of my career. Duane Martinez I am from Monte Vista, Colorado, and am 21. I am a junior planning major with a sustainable environments emphasis and an ethnic studies minor with emphasis in crosscultural comparatives. My interests include: affordable housing, neighborhood planning and urban areas; and residential architecture. I hope to get a Masters of Urban Planning, Architecture, or Urban Studies. Eventually, I plan on expanding good urban design to the often neglected economic classes in our society. Jessica Marie Meyer - I was born and raised in Pueblo, Colorado. I have always loved exploring things and figuring out how things work and go together. I grew up admiring two people more than anyone: my grandfather for his ability to fix and build anything, and my mother for her persistence and hard work. It is these traits that I believe have carried me this far in my architectural education. In my own designs, I have always looked to explore new ways to create, and I have always strived to develop those ways as far as possible. I believe that new ideas, methods and techniques will determine the future of architecture in the world, and that they can be successfully developed with persistence and hard work. Nicole Rasmussen - I was born in a small town in Iowa and was raised in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Then I moved to Boulder to start my college experience, which will end in May. Working on this project has been emotionally challenging, yet undeniably exciting. Through this project and my senior seminars I have learned to think about how the built environment effects our lives. J. Schneider - (teaching assistant) - I was born in 1974 and have lived most of my life in Colorado. Overcome later in life with an architectural epiphany, I was led to the University of Colorado at Denver, School of Architecture and Planning where I am currently finishing a Masters of Architecture. Asked to participate in a design studio engaging the aftermath of Sept. 11th was an opportunity to understand the act, to question its psychological implications and to explore the tectonic potential of redevelopment. Tyler L. Schwartz - I am from Miami, Florida, and am 22. My major is Urban Planning. I plan on getting a Masters and then run my own firm in Urban Ecological Restoration and Urban Ecology (a new and exciting design field of urban planning/design). This summer I am going to intern with EDSA (a Landscape Architecture/Planning/Eco-Tourism firm) and the Miami-Dade County Parks and Recreation Resource Planning Department. I have worked with Design Workshop in Aspen, Colorado, in the past. Jason Michael Sidelko - I am a senior at the University of Colorado and this is my final studio before graduating. New York City is very different from Littleton, Colorado, where I grew up and I am very excited to work on this project. Helping to shape the future of New York City by introducing new ideas and green technologies is a once in a life time opportunity. I think that the synthesis of these new ideas will help New York City to become the model city of the 21st century. Gina Wortmann - I am a Minnesota native, but have lived in Colorado for the past five years. As an Urban Planning major, my interests include New Urbanism, sustainability, and parks and recreation planning. I will be graduating this May with a Bachleors degree in Urban Planning.


Appendix C: Large format drawings


Manhattan from the Hudson River Side


Manhattan From the East River Side


WTC Site from the East


WTC Site From the West


WTC Site From THe North


Section of the WTC Site Showing the PATH Trains, Subway lines and the depth of the original parking garage. Also depicted in this section is a Buried West Site Highway.


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