Definition

O A process that inIluences other people to achieve an objective and guides the
company in a way to make it more coherent and cohesive is called
leadership.
O a process oI leading people in the right direction in order to achieve goals.
O as a process that can have a positive impact on others. It motivates people to
excel in the Iield they are working.
O as a process that encourages the Iollowers to achieve their objectives. You
can also deIine leadership as an action that directs the Iollowers to lead a
respectable and honorable liIe.
O eadership qualities are not inborn but can be developed gradually through
education and selI-study. eadership can also be deIined as learnership as it
is a continuous learning process. Some scholars have deIined leadership as
an ability to inspire other people with a dream.
O eadership is the process oI inIluencing others towards the attainment oI
certain pre-deIined goals.
There are several other types oI deIinitions available Ior leadership but our
concern here is how an engineering manager can work things out using this
quality or how important leadership is Ior the engineers to drive the private as
well as public sectors. For that we need to study various leadership styles and
sort out which one is the most suitable one Ior the engineers.

Leadership styles
Various leadership styles include:
1.Authoritarian Or Autocratic
eaders using this style will have total authority over any decision-making and will
basically tell their Iollowers what needs to be done and how the tasks should be
completed. This style is particularly eIIective when time is limited, like a medical
emergency or when it is vital Ior someone to take charge and prevent conIusion. It
is also needed when close supervision is needed and would not necessarily prove
much useIul to contribute to any decision-making process e.g. supervising children
or inexperienced employees.
haracteristics of Autocratic Leadership
Some oI the primary characteristics oI autocratic leadership include:
O ittle or no input Irom group members.
O eaders make the decisions.
O roup leaders dictate all the work methods and processes.
O roup members are rarely trusted with decisions or important tasks.

enefits of Autocratic Leadership
Autocratic leadership can be beneIicial in some instances, such as when decisions
need to be made quickly without consulting with a large group oI people. Some
projects require strong leadership in order to get things accomplished quickly and
eIIiciently.
Have you ever worked with a group oI students or co-workers on a project that got
derailed by poor organization, a lack oI leadership and an inability to set
deadlines? II so, chances are that your grade or job perIormance suIIered as a
result. In such situations, a strong leader who utilizes an autocratic style can take
charge oI the group, assign tasks to diIIerent members and establish solid deadlines
Ior projects to be Iinished.
In situations that are particularly stressIul, such as during military conIlicts, group
members may actually preIer an autocratic style. It allows members oI the group to
Iocus on perIorming speciIic tasks without worrying about making complex
decisions. This also allows group members to become highly skilled at perIorming
certain duties, which can be beneIicial to the group.
Downsides of Autocratic Leadership
While autocratic leadership can be beneIicial at times, there are also many
instances where this leadership style can be problematic. People who abuse an
autocratic leadership style are oIten viewed as bossy, controlling and dictatorial,
which can lead to resentment among group members.
Because autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting the group, people in
the group may dislike that they are unable to contribute ideas. Researchers have
also Iound that autocratic leadership leads to a lack oI creative solutions to
problems, which can ultimately hurt the perIormance oI the group.
While autocratic leadership does have some potential pitIalls, leaders can learn to
use elements oI this style wisely. For example, an autocratic style can be used
eIIectively in situations where the leader is the most knowledgeable member oI the
group or has access to inIormation that other members oI the group do not.
. Participative Or Democratic
This kind oI style priorities team participation and because each member is
allowed to contribute his/her ideas. There is increased employee satisIaction and
ownership. The democratic leader will listen to his group`s ideas and give them
Iair consideration, although the ultimate authority Ior the decision will still rest
with him.
This style is oIten used in the workplace when the leader has some oI the
inIormation needed and the employees have the other necessary parts, esp.
eIIective dealing with knowledge workers and skilled employees.
haracteristics of Democratic Leadership
Some oI the primary characteristics oI democratic leadership include:
O roup members are encouraged to share ideas and opinions, even though the
leader retains the Iinal say over decisions.
O embers oI the group Ieel more engaged in the process.
O reativity is encouraged and rewarded.
enefits of Democratic Leadership
Because group members are encouraged to share their thoughts, democratic
leadership can leader to better ideas and more creative solutions to problems.
roup members also Ieel more involved and committed to projects, making them
more likely to care about the end results. Research on leadership styles has also
show that democratic leadership leads to higher productivity among group
members.
Downsides of Democratic Leadership
While democratic leadership has been described as the most eIIective leadership
style, it does have some potential downsides. In situations where roles are unclear
or time is oI the essence, democratic leadership can lead to communication Iailures
and uncompleted projects. In some cases, group members may not have the
necessary knowledge or expertise to make quality contributions to the decision-
making process.
Democratic leadership works best in situations where group members are skilled
and eager to share their knowledge. It is also important to have plenty oI time to
allow people to contribute, develop a plan and then vote on the best course oI
action.
3. Delegative Or Free Reign Or Laissez-faire
This leadership style is also oIten called 'laissez-Iaire¨ leadership, meaning that
Iollowers are eIIectively given Iree rein to make decisions and do what they think
is appropriate. There is no continuous supervision. This leadership style works
when team members are highly-experienced. This style oI leadership works well, iI
the leader is able to trust and have conIidence in the abilities oI his or her
Iollowers.
On the contrary this style can also be an excuse Ior a 'lazy¨ leader who Iail to
supervise their team members and essentially doesn`t lead at all. This results in a
lack oI control and a loss oI productivity as well as higher costs, resulting in Iailure
to meet deadlines.
haracteristics of Laissez-Faire Leadership
aissez-Iaire leadership is characterized by:
O Very little guidance Irom leaders
O omplete Ireedom Ior Iollowers to make decisions
O eaders provide the tools and resources needed
O roup members are expected to solve problems on their own.
enefits of Laissez-Faire Leadership
aissez-Iaire leadership can be eIIective in situations where group members are
highly skilled, motivated and capable oI working on their own. While the
conventional term Ior this style is 'laissez-Iaire' and implies a completely hands-oII
approach, many leaders still remain open and available to group members Ior
consultation and Ieedback.
Downsides of Laissez-Faire Leadership
aissez-Iaire leadership is not ideal in situations where group members lack the
knowledge or experience they need to complete tasks and make decisions. Some
people are not good at setting their own deadlines, managing their own projects
and solving problems on their own. In such situations, projects can go oII-track and
deadlines can be missed when team members do not get enough guidance or
Ieedback Irom leaders.
4. ureaucratic
Bureaucratic leadership is where the leader manages 'by the book¯. Everything
must be done according to procedure or policy. II it isn`t covered by the book, the
leader reIers to the next level above him or her. This leader is really more oI a
police oIIicer than a leader. He or she enIorces the rules.
In the working world bureaucratic leadership skills would be best utilized in jobs
such as construction work, chemistry-related jobs that involve working with
hazardous material, or jobs that involve working with large amounts oI money.
enefits of ureaucratic Leadership
In school work, you may Iind that bureaucratic leadership skills are necessary
when working on a group project Ior a science class. Precision is key in a science
project, and meticulous notes are essential.
A natural bureaucratic leader will tend to create detailed instructions Ior other
members oI a group. This type oI leader would also be very successIul working in
student government roles.
AIter going through the details oI the basic leadership style`s the only question
which comes in Iront is which style to go for being an engineer?
A good leader uses all three styles - depends on the situation and the ability oI
Iollowers and leader.
Some examples include:
O Authoritarian style - new employee learning the job. The leader is
competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn. The
situation is new Ior the employee.
O Participative style - a team oI workers who know their job. The leader
knows the problem, but does not have all the inIormation. The employees
know their jobs and want to become part oI the team.
O Delegative style - a worker who knows more about the job than you. The
employee needs to own` her job. Also, you might need to be doing other
things.
O &se all three: Tell your employees that a procedure is not working correctly
and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Ask Ior their ideas on
creating a new procedure (participative). ive tasks in order to implement
the new procedure (delegative).


Q&ALITIES OF A GOOD LEADER
1. &nderstanding the Objective
A leader must understand goals and have the capacity to plan the steps needed to
accomplish them. This does not imply trying to understand grand corporate
objectives. It means projects and schedules within your own scope oI work. And
go beyond that, as Iar as you can: Who generated the need Ior this project? How
was it budgeted? What are the maximum and minimum results expected? What is
the real urgency?
Success involves identiIying the correct results required and knowing the right
steps which includes recognizing the wrong steps. eaders must have a clear
understanding oI what it takes to accomplish the overall objective eIIectively. And
that means doing the job quickly, and well, on budget, on time.

A leader does not require detailed knowledge; it suIIices to have someone on the
team who has the required expertise. It`s important Ior the leader to recognize what
is needed, and where to get it. The broad knowledge is important, not the details.
.Willing followers
First and Ioremost, leadership involves willing Iollowers people who are
motivated to work with you to accomplish the objectives. When workers put in
their best eIIorts, leaders must oIIer something in return respect, encouragement,
appreciation and reward. etting the best out oI people is the hallmark oI a good
leader.
DiIIerent people have diIIerent needs and motivations. Spend some time with each
person on your team, listening to their ideas. Here`s an old axiom that helps:
'People like to do what they`re good at, and good at what they like to do.¨
Understanding what a person enjoys will go a long way towards getting the best
out oI that person.

The days oI the slave-driver are long gone; intimidation achieves very little beyond
immediate acceptance by timid Iollowers, or angry rejection by good workers.
People who are yelled at may go back to do the job correctly, but it`s never their
best eIIort. eaders have the ability to inspire and motivate people to do their best.
3.TORI - Trust, Openness, Respect, Interdependence
A good leader trusts, which engenders trust. Don`t hide mistakes. When there is a
setback, share your problems openly and get the team involved in solutions.
Respect peoples diIIerences and needs, their weaknesses and their strengths. Use
people Ior their skills, and provide teamwork where experience is lacking.
elebrate small successes. ive credit when it`s due. et the team involved in
recognition oI jobs well done. When extra eIIort is put in, recognize and reward it
appropriately. Don`t bribe motivate.
For some, winning an argument provides a Ialse sense oI control and leadership.
ood communication seeks to achieve and resolve, not to deIeat or humiliate
others. Never back anyone into a corner. Don`t seek to prove the other person
wrong. It is important to remember that no one is always right.
eaders have conIidence in themselves, and the people working Ior them. No
matter what the situation, when a problem comes up the leader takes responsibility.
The best way to solve problems is to resolve it by Iocusing 100° on the solutions.
And aIter the problem has been resolved, review the 'lessons learned.¨ The beneIit
oI leadership is that everyone can learn Irom both success and Iailure bad and
good experiences alike. Problem solving can be a good experience and a great
builder oI character and leadership.
4.Taking responsibility
Recognizing mistakes is oIten the best sign oI leadership. eaders stimulate
teamwork, without blame. They expect results, and look Ior solutions when results
are below expectations.
II you make a mistake, admit it. It is surprising how quickly people will support
someone who accepts the blame. A team quickly closes ranks and solves the
problem behind a person who admits Iailure. Indeed, Iailure is 'experience¨ which
is unlikely to be repeated.
A successIul senior executive at HP relates this insightIul story: He was product
manager Ior a calculator which developed keyboard reliability problems. He was
called to EO Dave Packard`s oIIice to explain the problems, the reasons Ior
Iailure and the solutions. AIter he presented the truth, expecting to be chewed out,
he was told that he was promoted to lead the product management team on the next
major product¨ When he asked why he was chosen, Dave Packard said simply,
'You Iailed on your Iirst project; it`s unlikely that you`ll Iail on this next, more
important project. Someone new would not have your experience.¨ That next
product turned out to be a best-selling HP calculator.
.Rewards follow success
ood leaders don`t need status to inspire support and best eIIorts. ore money and
titles Iollow good results. What counts most is the ability to bring out the best in
others. eaders rely on good people, and good people deliver because they know
that they are relied upon.
ost important know your customer. These are the people (inside or outside
your company) Ior whom you are doing the work. eaders know and care Ior their
core customers, because they recognize that the impression they make on a
customer today will dictate the tone oI their relationship with that customer in the
Iuture. SatisIaction with a job well done brings customers back to generate success
Ior all involved.
Types of leadership styles
The charismatic leader (Weber, 1905) leads by inIusing energy and eagerness
into their team members. This type oI leader has to be committed to the
organization Ior the long run. II the success oI the division or project is attributed
to the leader and not the team, charismatic leaders may become a risk Ior the
company by deciding to resign Ior advanced opportunities. It takes the company
time and hard work to gain the employees' conIidence back with other type oI
leadership aIter they have committed themselves to the magnetism oI a charismatic
leader.
The people-oriented leader (Fiedler, 1967) is the one that, in order to comply
with eIIectiveness and eIIiciency, supports, trains and develops his personnel,
increasing job satisIaction and genuine interest to do a good job.
The task-oriented leader (Fiedler, 1967) Iocuses on the job, and concentrates on
the speciIic tasks assigned to each employee to reach goal accomplishment. This
leadership style suIIers the same motivation issues as autocratic leadership,
showing no involvement in the teams needs. It requires close supervision and
control to achieve expected results. Another name Ior this is deal maker (Rowley
& Roevens, 1999)and is linked to a Iirst phase in managing hange, enhance,
according to the Organize with haos approach.
The servant leader (reenleaI, 1977) Iacilitates goal accomplishment by giving
its team members what they need in order to be productive. This leader is an
instrument employees use to reach the goal rather than an commanding voice that
moves to change. This leadership style, in a manner similar to democratic
leadership, tends to achieve the results in a slower time Irame than other styles,
although employee engagement is higher.
The transaction leader (Burns, 1978)is given power to perIorm certain tasks and
reward or punish Ior the team`s perIormance. It gives the opportunity to the
manager to lead the group and the group agrees to Iollow his lead to accomplish a
predetermined goal in exchange Ior something else. Power is given to the leader to
evaluate, correct and train subordinates when productivity is not up to the desired
level and reward eIIectiveness when expected outcome is reached.
The transformation leader (Burns, 1978)motivates its team to be eIIective and
eIIicient. ommunication is the base Ior goal achievement Iocusing the group in
the Iinal desired outcome or goal attainment. This leader is highly visible and uses
chain oI command to get the job done. TransIormational leaders Iocus on the big
picture, needing to be surrounded by people who take care oI the details. The
leader is always looking Ior ideas that move the organization to reach the
company`s vision.
The environment leader ( armazzi, 2005)is the one who nurtures group or
organisational environment to aIIect the emotional and psychological perception oI
an individual`s place in that group or organisation. An understanding and
application oI group psychology and dynamics is essential Ior this style to be
eIIective. The leader uses organisational culture to inspire individuals and develop
leaders at all levels. This leadership style relies on creating an education matrix
where groups interactively learn the Iundamental psychology oI group dynamics
and culture Irom each other.
The leader uses this psychology, and complementary language, to inIluence
direction through the members oI the inspired group to do what is required Ior the
beneIit oI all. eadership associated with positions oI authority.
According to Thomas arlyle, leadership emerges when an entity as "leader"
contrives to receive deIerence Irom other entities who become "Iollowers". The
process oI getting deIerence can become competitive in that the emerging "leader"
draws "Iollowers" Irom the Iactions oI the prior or alternative "leaders"