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aUTG>v, OnO~eIKVUel OTI etc aMouc;: onel3Aenov oxcnouc xol OTi rrcvroc n npoan0gel0 TWV earn ~tv ijTO oveniAnmoc;:, tVTlIJOC; Kai 0lJep6hllmoc;, (I3Mne Kai «' Qyuyiav» E' T61J0c;:oeAic;: 1. EioaywV1i» Kai BaolA, BtMa. «CJ>Aal3iou , Iwatinou A6yol A' Kai B' KaT' , Aniwvoc;:»"nepi noooncestoc aunic;: TG>V ~tvwv ouvvocoeov, Kai «naYK60I-.IIoc;: 'Ioropto TOO nOAITIOIJOO» TOO W. NTUPOVT, Kai «<Ioropio Tfic;: , Apxaiac;: . EAM~oc;:» TOO XeplJOV MntVYKTOOV, xol T6 aMo veov I3ll3Aiov 1J0u «' H 'AAn9Ivr; npo"iOTOpia» x.d.), Eival crnoreuroc, ~IO VO IJri e'inwlJev Kai unorrroc OpKeTO. Ii tmnoAat6Tnc:: f) Ii cveueuvornc. IJt rnv 6noiav E~OXOI KaTO TO aMa ~tvOI epeuvnrcl, ernornuovec Kai ouvvpooelc. EXOUV oaxoAn9fi IJt aUTO TO ool3apo gelJaTa. 'E~OpYIOTlKr; KupIOAeKTlKG>c;: elver n rrooxeioornc TG>V ~tvwv aUTG>vouvvocq>twv Kai ~figev eoeuvnrov - Onwc;: EXOlJeV ono~ei~el Kai slc T6v i~laiTepov T61J0V TfiC;: 'EYKuKAonQl~eiac;: TOO «HAIOY» TO «APXAION EAAHNIKON nNEYMA» - lJe rnv 6noiav EXOUVepavl09fi t1 EXOUV~nlJlOUpYrioel Kai napageTouv ~laq>6pouc;: ove~eMYKTouc;: f) OIJq>lol3nTOUlJtvac;: ouvnsoc nxnooeopiac;: t1 ncooxetnouv aMac;: onucvruccc ~lamarwoelC;: Kai ncooooosic. rrou cvceeoovrc: sic TO «etuevo TG>V oPxaiwv • EMr;vwv ooq>G>vxol ouvvpaq>twv rrepi Koouovovloc, 8PTlOKeloAoyiac;:. ' Aoroovoulcc Kai· ' Aotpoeuoueic, 0nwc;: Kai nepl nic;: "toroploc Kai nic;: KaTaywyfic;: TfiC;:CJ>IAoooq>iac;:. Koivcnic;: vloAoyiac;: Kai yevIKG>c;:Tfic;: emornunc, ~IO va ueuooouv eK nooeeosec TnV rspnortov OUIJ130Ar;vTOO' EMnVIKOO nVeUlJaTiKOO napOYOVTOC;: ic;: rnv ~nlJle oupyiav TG>VemOTTlIJG>vKai TOO nOAITIOIJOO, ' E~UnTlpeToOVTec;: OUYKeKpllJtVOUC;: tvOUC;: Kai ~oAiouc;: oxonouc, nou onel3Aenov Kai onol3Mnouv elc Tr;V ~ uekooiv Kai Tr;V Ono13091J10IVTfiC;:opxaiac;: 'EMnvIKfic;: eruornunc Kai eic;: T6v cocviouov TOO' EMTlVlOIJOO. onwc;: drtooeucvuercr ono ncponeeuevo «oroTepw eVT6c;: aUTG>v TG>VoeAi~wv Kai Kupiwc;: etc T6v EnlAOrON TOO aMou I3ll3Aiou 1J0u. «H AAH81NH npO'I'rTOPIA» O~I04JeUOTa ororxeio, errexelpnoov ~laq>opoTp6nwc;: va' ncocnomoouv xol vc ~laoTpsl3AWOOuv rnv npaylJaTlK6TTlTa. rnv Mrigelav xol Tr;V "loroolov. (Bxerre KGli T6 aMo 13113Aiov 1J0u «T6 "EYKATllJa Tfic;: eruomunc» Kai aMTlv onucvnxnv Kai aYVWOTOV131I3Aloypaq>iav etc T6 TeAoc;: aUTOO TOO Flpoxovou Kai eic;: T6 aMo I3ll3Aiov IJOU «H AAH81NH npO'I'rTOPIA». XIAlernpi~ac;: nplv euoovroeouv oi Aivurrnor, oi XaMaiol. oi Bal3uAwVIOI. oi CJ>oiVlKec;: oi aMol Aaoi Tfic;: , AVQTOAfic;:.oi 'Opq>IKOi, onwc;: cnooeisvueKai Tal ono TO «eluevo nou IJOC;: eKAnpo~6rnoav. eTxov ~laTunwoel TOC;: ewpiac;: g TWV neol rOlJnavTOC;:. nepl CJ>uoewc;:. rtepi ZwfiC;:. nepi Mov0ge'iac;: KAn. Kai TOC;: gewpiac;: TWV aUTOC;:,onwc;: Exel ~lamarw9fi. OUTe eyvwpl~OV. OUTe ijoav eic;: geOlv vc ~laTunwoouv oi aMol opxaiol Aaoi. onwc;: Exel e~aKpll3w9fi cno TOOc;:"YIJVouc;: TOO . Opq>ewc;:. TOOc;:onoiouc ev TOOTOIC;: uovov nvvonOXI ocv Kai oneq>uyov vo epeuvnoouv Kai ouoerrore npoel3aAov oi ~evol emornuovec, OAM 5UOTUXG>c;: enp60e~av Kqi ~ev liaxoAr'j9Tloav lJe aUTOOc;: Mv OUTe Kai oi "EMTlvec;: ernornuovec Kai eoeuvnrot. Kai OlJwc;:, onwc;: one~el~av noxcroreoov 6 "EAATlV coroovouoc 'AvrwVlO~nc;: (I3Mne oxenxov ap9pov elc rnv 'EYKuKAonQl~eiav TOO «HAIOY») 6 onoioc oneKoAU4Je TOC;: Aonoc;: TOO Kortepvlxou Kai eaxOTwc;: (1967) 6 "EAK AnV corpovouoc Kai ouvepvcrnc Tfic;: , EYKuKAonQl~eiac;: TOO «HAIOY» K. Xooermc, IJt TOC;:eKnAnKTIKOC;:Kai evreAG>c;: npcrrorunouc ncoornonoeic TOU, nou nep.exovror elc Tr;V onwAe0geioav ueoo elc TO OKOVIOlJtva «XpO-

rnc

12

vOVTOUAana» TOU naVentOTrU..liou TWV . A8T)vwv ~IQTPIj3JiV TOU em ~1~aKTopia, noero: oi . OpCPIKoi elxov ouM6j3el Kai ~leTunwoelTJiv evvoiov TOOJiAIOKeVTplKOO ouornpcroc. Kai npWTOI aUTOi ~leTunwoav ernonc rnv yvWI..lT)V, OTi 6 "HAloe; euoloxero KaT6 TJiV ecpivnv 'tonueoiov ete; rnv rreoioxnv TOO Toupou 6n6 T6 3.620 n.X. I..ltXPI TOO 1.841 n.X. Kai 6n6 T6 5.000 n.X. elxov Ka80pioel Kai KaTayp64Jel T6e; ~la~oXIK6e; 8toele; TOO Bopelou n6AOU Kai KaT6 ouveneicv T6e; 6noKAioele; TOO nMou, tvw 6n6 T6 11860 n.X. elxov noonvuevoc vvooerc xoi l..leAeTOOOav TO.ocrvouevo TOO l:UJ..lnaVTOe;, orcv ouoeuto aMT) cpuAIi 6v8pwnwv rtoooceuuevov unnpxe ete; T6 ncooxnVIOV Tne; "loropioc f) elxe nopouoicc vvooeic Kai T600v noonvuevoc. n6VTwe; yevIK6 txel nMov ~lantOTw8n, OTI 6n6 T6e; 8ewpiae; aUT6e; TWV OPCPI,KWV nponA80v Kai at npwTaI 6Pxai Tne; <l>uOIoAoyiae;, Tne; Koouovovloc, Tne; oeovovtoc Kai Tne; <l>IAooocpiae;,nou ~leTunw8T)oav covorepov uno TWV npOOWKpaTlKWV Kai TWV uercnerro l..ley6Awv 'EMJivwv cpIAoo6cpwv Kai ~IaVOT)TWVKai ouvenoc KaT' errexroorv 6n6 Tne; tnoxne; TWV . OPCPIKWVelxov Te8n at j36oele; xni Tne; oT)l..lepIVne; ernornunc. Ji 6noia TO.n6VTa naptAaj3ev tv onepucn f) we; nAJipele; 8ewpiae; f) ~lantOTWOele; Kai t~I~6X8T) 6n6 TOUe; 6pxaioue; "EMT)vae; oooouc. (Bxerrs Kai T61..l0V «T6 . Apxaiov 'EMT)vIK6v flveuuo» Tne; . EYKUKAonQl~eiae; TOO «HAIOY». 'Qe; tK TOUTOU elver ecvepov OTi ot . OpCPIKoi ncpexouv yvwoele;, nou cnooeucvuouv j3a8uT6TT)v Kai euourcrnv ~leio~uOIv ete; TO.cpuOIK6 ooivouevc Kai Kupiwe; ete; TJiV eoeuvov TOO Oupovou, 6M6 Kai elc TJiV l..leMTT)v TWV nveuuunxov tK~T)AWOeWV TWV 6T61..lwv, TWV 6v8pwnwv xcl we; KOIVWVIWV, once crtooerxvuouv TO. noccrneeuevo KaTwTtpw xeluevo TWV 8ewplwv TWV Kai ete; enoxnv, KaT6 TJiV 6noiav «cvevcc aMoe; Aa6e; Mv tl..lcpavi~eTQI vo txel ncoouolcc yvwoele; .. Ecp' ooov ~t ot . OpCPIKoi tYVWPI~OV xcl xcrevporpov cpuOlK6 ecnvouevo TOO 3.600, TOO 5.000 Kai TOO 11860 n.X., onoc cno~elKvuouV at corpovouuccl tpl..lT)veiat TWV ncoornonoeov TWV Kai TWV 6n64Jewv TWV, 86 enosne vc noav K6Toxoi noocrnonoeov Kai yvwoewv l..leplKwV XIAI6~wv tTWV nponvouuevoc, ~16 vc Ka80pi~ouv Kai vo epunveuouv sic TJiV tnoxJiv TWV, ~T)Aa~Ji T6 5.000 f) T6 11.860 tTT) n.X., TO.cpUOlK6 ecnvouevo nou ovooepouev OVWT€:PW.Kai 6 iOXupl01..l6e;OTi tyvwPI~ov Kai xorsvooeov TO.cpUOlK6ecuvouevo KQTOTJiV novcoxclcv ournv enoxnv ~tv elver unepj3oAli OUTe npoyovonAT)~ia, 6M' Ji 6~16oeloToe; oAli8ela nou j3yaivel cno TO a~164JeUOTa xeluevo. Ll16T1ecv Mv unnpXOv 01 apXaiol "EMT)vee; ooeot Kai epeuvnrol, 6ocpaAwe; Ji ernornun 86 nTO a~UVaTOV vc eIxe T600v nooooeuoet de; TJ'Tvenoxnv ucc, xwpie; TTiV acpeTT)piav Kai T6e; j3aoele; nou t8eoav tKeiVal, oq>oG «oro yevlKtlv napa~OXtlv, We; yvwoT6v, «Ji apxTi elver TO f)I..lIOUTOO
ncvroc».

Kcrornv TWVaVWTtpW elver oovepov. on, env 6 l:xAll..lav ~16 TWVcvooxocpwv TOU eie; TTiVTpoiav, TTiVTipuv8a, T6v . Opxouevov Kai T6e; MUKr')vac; Kai 6 "Ej3ave; eie; TTiV Kvwo6v, l..leTt8eo<\v TJiV . EMT)vIKTiv "Ioropiov nap6 TOe; ovnoccoerc TWV ~tvwv KQT6 1000 TOUAOXIOTOVtTT) e ie; T6 napeA86v, 6 t~oxoe; "EMT)v Kai ~le8voOe; npoj3oAne; coroovouoc Kai ouvepvcrnc uou Kwv. xcocnnc I..lt rnv l..leAtTtjv TOU ern TWV «"Yl..lvwv» TOO ' Opcptwe; Kai TJiV epunvelov TWV aOTPOVOI..lIKWe; rnv 6noiav xoincpceerouev KaTwTtpw - OXI uovov anw8noe Kai t~antOTelAe TTiV 'EMT)VIKJiv npo'iOTopiav &iC;T6

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Kai KaTtOT110& avallQuoPtiT11TOV
13

TT;V nOAMKIC; KaKOnOl1l8eioav crro roue ~EVOUC;oAM Kai cno WPIOIlEVOUC; ouyxp6vouC; "EAAllvac; on8ev ouvvooostc, neplCPPovOUIlEVllv oAJi8elav, on oi "EAAllvec;, Ii 'EAAIlVIKJi CPUAJi, np6 roO KaraKAUOIlOOrou ' Qyuyou Kai Kai rnv Kara13u81olV mc; AiYllTooC;, DIlAaoJi OVEKa8ev Kai orro rnv enoxnv nou eveecvtoen 6 av8pwnoc; Kai unnp~ev Ii CPUAJi nurn, e~lloe Kai ~n oOlaropaKTOC;Kai xwpiC; vo EKpl<;W8n r; vc OAAOIW8n etc rov '{OIOV'xwpov, elc rov 6noiov Kai onuepov (1984) unopxel Kai euploxerm. 'Evvoelror on Ilero ro rsooonov cure oAlla rnc; Flpoloroploc nooc ro crrooociocrorov XPOVOAOYIKWC; napeA86v, ouroucroc cvoxurrre: OXI uovov Ii ovaolop8pWOIC; Kai Ji rOn08ETIlOlC; rnc; 'EAAllvIKfjC; npolOTopiac; elc noxoroTEPOUC;XP6vouC; oocpaAwc;, OAM Kat Ii iorOPIKJi ovaolop8pwolC; rou'xcpou 6AOKMpou rnc; Meooyeiou Kai rnc; Meoortorculoc, 010 vc IlJi elnWllev Kai me EKTloAlTlo8eiollC; uero rotrro ov8pwn6T1lTOC;. Kai rnv ovaOlap8pWOIV ournv ertexetonoo slc ro aMo I3ll3Aiov 1l0U «' H AAH81NH npO'I'I:rOPIA», 016n Onwc; ecivercn, ono T6v Xwpov roO Aiyaiou, npo Kai uero rnv Karal3t:J8lolV mc; AiYIlTooC;, EOllllelW81l Kai E~eKiV1loev Ii E~IlIlEpwOIC; Kai 6 EKnOAITIOIl6C; roO ov8pwnou Kai Ii nveullaTIKfl ovomu~lC; EKeivwv noo EOlllllOuPYlloav rov nOAITIOIl6v, OOIOCPOPOV ov8pwmva ovro elxov EIlCPavI08n Kai elc aMac; EOV neploxoc; TnC; vnc; - 'AvaToAflv, N6TOV r; fluolv KOTO0lacp6pouc; ernornuovoc ov8pwnoA6youC; Kai aMouc; - np6, ouyxp6vwc;'r; Kat cpvorsoov cno TOUC;A iyaiouc;, 'APXOloEAAllvac;. Ka8' OAa OE rd oeoollEva Kai roc; onooei~elC; EK rwv oPxaiwv nopnooosov Kai KelllEvwv, EK rwv noooocrov ovaoKacpwv rwv o~~OIoA6ywv (19601984) Kai KupiwC; cno rnv epunvelcv, Ilt OOTPOVOIlIKOC; lle8600uc;, ncoornPfloelC; Kai olamOTwoelC; oOlaoeiOTouc; EK rwv «"Yllvwv rou ' OPCPEWC;», T6 epyov ouro, roO EKTlOAITIOIlOU rnc; ov8pwn6T1lroc;, unnp~e Kai elver erroreAeolla rwv ouvexwv npoona8elwv TnC; 'EAAIlVIKnC; cpUAnc;,rwv ncvcoxctov Aiyaiwv, rwv 'ApXOloeMJivwv, Kai OXIrwv «npwroeMJivwv» r; rwv 'Ivooeupwnaiwv, OnCi>C; onoKaAoOv roue 'APXOloEMllvac;, OIOCPOPOI 0lla8EOTaroi ~tVOI, OAAOxol "EAAllvec; 6n8ev ouyypacpeic;, olaorpocpeic; TllC; 'EMllvIKnc; rtootorootoc. Kai rwv uero raOra 'EMJivwv rnc; iOTOpIKnC;neorooou, oi onotoi unnp~av, onooeoelYIlEvwC; nMov, cnovovor Kai ouvenorol rou EKTlOAITIOTIKOO epyou aurwv rov noovovev rev. "AhAwC; re Kai crro roc; navapxaiac; , EMllvIKOC; ncoooooerc Kai rc xelusvc naAOIwv . EMflvWV ouyypacptwv, rc 6noia eTxov rtcpoueploet Kai oxornuox; nvvonoov oi ~tVOI, Kai ouoenore noooencenoov vc epeuvnoouv EmOTaIlEvw.C;ouro Kai oi nuerepor, onooelKvuerOl, on oi Aiyaiol, oi 'APXOloEAAllvec;, oMo Kai oi cnovovot rov, OXI1l6vov OEVeTxav eA8el cno aMouc; ronouc sic rnv 'EMooa, oM' OVTl8ErWC;, EKKlvoOvrec; cno rov xwpov rou Aiyaiou, eTxov EneKra8n Kat eioxwPfloel npoc OAac; roc; Kareu8uvoelC; ron YVWOTOO Kai 0YVWOTOUK6oll0U rnc; EnoXnC; rov, cno rnv cnorcrnv oPxal6T1lra, ocpunvi~ovrec;, olacpwri~ovrec; Kai E~llllepwvovre~ ric; noorovovec Kai a~eOTec; vOllooec; cpuMC; CMWVaurwv rwv neploxwv, ollAaoJi nooc rnv ovaroAJiv Kai rnv fluolv Kai nooc rov l3opp5v Kai rev v6rov, Kai ouvenwc; noav vnvevslc. aur6x80vec;, eic; rov xwpov curov, nou umlP~av, oveoeix81loav Kai unopXOUV.(BMne Kai Kouuopn 'Iwov. «Cl>UOIKJi 'Av8pwnoAoyio» etc ro A' IlEPOC; rou T61l0u «EAAAI:», rnc; 'EYKuKAonOloeiac; roO «HAIOY»: Apll nOUAlavoO
14

«0H npOtAeuOIC; rwv EAAHNON» xol <cO H KOTaywyt'! rwv KpTlrwv» Kai BIBAiov 1..I0U AAH91NH npOol·rTOPIA»). «H Kai yvwpi~oJ..1&vtni011<;;OTi np6<;; ovaroM<;; eTxov eioxwpt'!oel IltXPI Kai ntpav npocpavw<;; rwv 0IV~lwv (ai napa~60el<;; nept 610vOoou noO ovacptpovrm Kai etc ro «0OPCPIKO» nept 0HpaK"-tou<;;. OTaV tr3o~l~e np6<;; r6v Kai KaUKaoov. Karo r6v 0Applav6v. ~IO va oneAeugepw011 T6v npoJ..l119to. Onw<;; Kai ono~ei~el<;; rrept Onop~ew<;;AeuKf)<;;cpuM;<;; oi 0AivoO - ei<;;rnv °lanwviav K.r.A.) oMo Kai ei<;; r6v °IV~IK6v °OKeav6v. elc rnv viioov navxaiav (Karo rov EOt'!llepov Kai rov Aarivov nomrnv - Evviov « 0lepo ovaypacpt'!») Kai IltXPI n;<;; Kiva<;; (nepinAou<;; MapKlavoO roO 0HpaK"-ewrou) Kai etc rnv Meoonoroulov (rOulltpIOI) ei<;;rnv Ml1~eiav Kai etc rnv nepoiav (oi xerrotoi naAQl6repov nou noav Kpfjre<;; navOPXOIol. 0Ere6KPl1re<;; Kai Tuponvol Kai ourol, Kai ai napa~60el<;; rrepi MTl~eia<;; Kai Fleposcoc) Kai ei<;; rov V6TOV t'! rtooc~00l<;;, KaTo rt'!v 6noiav 6 i~purt'!<;; n;<;; npwT11<;; AiyunTlaKf)<;; ~uvaOTeia<;; Mt'!v t; Mtve<;; t; MTlvo<;;. nro Kpt'!<;;. Kai CPUOlKO ~lamOTw9tv, ro emonuoveev Koro niv napoOoav epeuro vav, e i<;; ro . Aovovcunxc roO . Opcptw<;; (OTixol 44 Kai 102. 104) on 6 oOpeeuc llerar3o<;; etc rnv A'iyunTOV Kai ei<;; rnv AIr30Tlv «t~eMxeuoe», t~i~a~e rov «lepov Myov» ei<;;onpoo~16Pl0T0V oPxaiav tnoxliv. ~tv ~IKQIoxovet rnv OnoOTTlPI~olltV11v On6 rwv ~tvwv Kai tmKpanioooav Ole9vw<;; cnounv. ro couorcrov ~le9vt<;; 4JeO~o<;;.OTi T600v 6 'OpcpeO<;; ooov xol 6 nu9ay6pa<;; Kai 6 nMrwv t~l~ox9Tloav ei<;; rnv A'iyumov Tt'!V cvurmpxrov, Onw<;;one~eix9Tl. oocpiav rwv Aiyumiwv. (oxeTlKw<;; r3Mne Kai evroc rwv Kellltvwv) . XapaKTTlPIOTIKai t~ cMou ano~ei~el<;; n;<;; ~lelo~Ooew<;; rwv . ApXOIoehM)vwv etc rnv 600lv elvoi Ii tKOTpareia roO 0HpaKMou<;; Kai rreoov rwv . HpaKheiwv OTTlAWV. TlAa~t'! tVT6<;; TOO 0ArhavrlKoO Kai npoc r3oppov IltXPI ~ rfj<;; KehTlKfj<;; -clc rnv KevrplKt'!v raMiav (KaTo rov rrpor3wva, 616~wpov rov rlKehlwTTlV, 610vOOIov rov 0MIKapvaoota Kai CiMou<;;) onw<;; Kai 6 ~IOnAou<;; rou ' ArAaVTIKoO On6 rwv . Apvovourov, oi ortoioi ~IO rwv tKBohWV roO Pio-vre Ao nMra. onou oveuoeenoov ro 1978 0EMTlvlKOi oPxaiol OIlCPOpelc roO 50u aiwvo<;; n.X., elc ro oOvopa OOpouYOUOTl<;; ai Bpa~lhia<;;, tK cp9aoav IltXPI rwv • Av~ewv Karg ro xeluevo rwv . OPCPIKWV roO . AnoAAwviou TOOPoolou, 10W<;; t Kai elc rov EipTlVIK6v, ocpoO slc rnv Yhwooav ~ rwv xoroucov n;<;; Xar3oTl<;; leow9Tloav ourououn 0EMTlvlKai M~el<;;, ~I' Oh~ ATlhO~la~6xwv npocpavw<;; ocpi~ewv Kai ~leloMoewv, ai orrokn ~tv onoKheisror Koi vc ~OVOVTOl o tmMoouv ro IlUOTliplOV TWVoyaAIlOrwv - nporouov v - n;<;; vnoou TOOn6OXo, elc rov vonov EiPTlVlK6v Koi 6 ~lonhou<;; covorepov rou : ArAaVTlKOO On6 roO . O~uootw<;;, nou elxe cp900el IltXPI roO K6hnou TOO ME~IKOO, l)nwc; ont6EI~E IJt roc; tKTTAI1KTIKO<;; tpeuva<;; TI1<;; oi J..It T6 K onOKOhUnTIK6v BlBAiov TTl<;; "WINE DARK SEA" (Ii "90Aaooo Ilt ro oxorervo Kpaooro XPWIlO", tK~OOI<;;I:IKOYOU1965) Ii . AlleplKavic; 0PXQloMyoC; . Evp. Mtpr~ Kai Ilt ro r31r3hiov rTlC;«' Arxcvrlc» (..EK~OOlC;:IKOYOU1974) .. EnioTlC; I BMneKai ro BIBhiov TOOI:OPh MntpAlr~ «MVI:THPIA AnO =EXArMENOVI: KOI:MOVI:». ono oehi~a 11-35 Kai 45-168 K.r.A.). oH tYKaroOTaol<;; t~ CiMou eic; rov EO~elvov n6VTOV ncvooxolov . EMIivwv on06elKvOeTai crro TOC;n6AelC; rrou 'i6puoav eic OAI1Vcurnv rnv rreoioKai on6 ro O11IlEPlVO OK6IJTleuonuoro rwv ovooKacpwv rwv rOBleTlKWV (1950-'980) nou ~eixvouv n600v rtcvcoxclc nro Ii ~leio~uOlC; rwv . EhAJivwv

.xnv

15

Eie;;OUTOe;; Oe;;XWpOe;;TOO 130ppo (rtepl OAWVOUTWVypOcpW AEmOIJEptcrrEPOV T etc T6 o.Mo I3ll3Aiov IJOU «H AAH01NH npO·I·I:TOPIA»). Koi tvw OVTIStTWe;; OU6EIJiO nATlPOcpopio il nOAOIO ncocoooic UnOPXEI nept Eiol3oMie;; elc T6v 'EMI1VIK6V XWpOV, KOTO rnv npO"icrrOpIKT')V neoiooov, ~tvwv cpUAWV il ~tvwv AOWV on6 rnv 'AVOTOAriV, rnv flUOIV, T6v N6TOV ft T6v Boppdv, nAriv TWV YVWOTWVtKOTPOTEIWV TWV nEpOWV KOTO rnv 'IOTOPIKriV neolooov Koi o.Mwv T1VWVnOAOIoTtpWV, oMo OOUOTOTWVrlWVIOTIKWV Kupiwe;; IJUSEUIJOTWV Koi KOTOOKEUOOIJOTWV, nEpi <PolviKWV Eie;; rnv . Apyo( Ai60, 0000v K.o..) Ii 61ocrrpocpri Koi Ii nooonotnorc TIle;; 'EMl1vIKfie;; Ilpotoropioe;; Koi "loroolcc nTO OXI uovov unouxoc. OUOTl1lJOTIKri Koi t~OPYIOTIKri, oMo Koi riAISio, ocpoO OAOI curoi oi KOAOSEAI1TOi nou t611IJIOUPVl100V TOe;; yVWOToe;; ovSEMI1VIKOe;; SEwpioe;; nepi KoS660u etc TOV ' EMI1VIKOV xwpOV OVunopKTWV, 0YVWOTWV Koi OKOntIJWe;;tCPEUPEStVTWV 'Ivi5oe:upwnaiwv, 0vvonocvrec TOe;;ncocooosrc KOt TO KEtIJEVO, 6tv OVTe:AricpSI100V,OTI6tv nTO 6UVOT6v va ononvrvn xol vo OTPOYYOAIOSfi err cneioov Ii nocvuorucornc Koi oAIiSEIO, once on06EIKVUOUV Kupiwe;; TO KEilJSVO TWV ' OPCPIKWV Koi oi TEAe:UTOiol OVOOKocpoi TWV ' ApXOIoMywv. ilion Kai ol nAI1PocpopiOI nepl Ocpi~EWe;;~tvwv elc rnv . EM060 uno T6v K061J0V, T6v KtKpwno, TWV ilovo"i"5wv nOAOl6TEPOV il <PolviKWV nou EIXOV tASEI elc T6 "Apyoe;; Opy6TEpOV, tKT6e;; TOO OTI e:lVOI IJUSe:UIlOTO VEWTtpee enoxfie;;, e:lVOI KOI OOUcrrOTO, OOTI'lPIKTOKOTOOKe:UOOIlOTO VEWTtpWV Xp6vwv, Onwe;; t~I1YW Koi elc T6 I3ll3Aiov uou «H AAH01NH npO·I·rTOPIA». , AAM Koi TO nepl ' AXOIWV, nou nASOV crro T6v n6VTOV KOt EiafiASov e:ie;; T6 Aiyoiov, e:lVOI nxnooecolot nou npoepxovrot uno KlvI'lOEIe;; rtovcpxokov . EMI1VIKWV CPUAWV,nou e:Txov tYKOTOOTOSfi E ie;; TOe;;OKTOe;;TOO EU~Eivou n6VTOU nOAOIOTEPOV, cno onou OpyOTEpOV My~ npocpOVwe;; enesrcoeoc TWV nOYETWVWV, OIJ06Ee;; t~ OUTWV KOTfiASOV elc T6 Aiyoiov Koi opvorepOV nOAIV, ncoocuoouoor Koi o.Mo OTOIXEio, Ollo6oe;;, cno T6 Aiyoiov, erreoroeoov elc TOe;;Xwpoe;; TOO Eu~e:ivou novrou, TOe;;onoior; «ol enol-a' l,ov, i6puOVTEe;; ouvoucououc OPXIKWe;;xcl n6AEIe;; OAOKAlipoue;; OKOAOUSWe;;. ill1A06ri tnpOKe:ITO nepi nOAlV6pOIJriOEWV ncvuoxciov . EMI1VIKWV CPUAWV, nEAoaywv xoi o.AAWV, nou t~I1KOAOUSI100V we;;YVWOT6v Koi KOTO rnv 'IOTOPIKriV nepiooov Koi OXI nepl ovuncoxnov 'Iv60Eupwnoiwv! ... 'Qe;; rtpoc TOe; Se:wpioe; M WPIOlltvwv oVSpwnoMywv nou unoornolcouv Koi taxoTwe; OKOIJI1,On Ii npooSio ' Aoic, Ii ' ACPPIKri KOi ni OKTOiTfie; MouPI1e; SoMool1e; elver 0 xwpoq onou tYEvvriSI1 0 Homo Sapiens, (0 tllCPPWV o.vSpwnoe;) ocpoMouv OOcpOAWe;,616n Onwe; oi OKToi Tfie; MouPI1e; SoMool1e; (TOO Eu~e:ivou nOVTOU) 6tv noov KOTOMI1AEe; 51' ovomu~lv Koi t~tAI~IV TOO ovSpwnou, ocpoO xol np6 15 il 12,000 tTWV, once xcl nOA0I6Te:pOV, KOTO TOUe; OPll05ioue; ernorruiovcc, oi neptoxcl oUTOi tKo'A.UmovTo KOTO 510cp6pouc nEp1050ue; cno ncverovcc Koi ouvenec nTo Oi5UVOTOVvc tml,liol1 Koi vc ovomuxSfi 0 o.vSpwnoe;, rorourorpornoc Koi oi CPAEYOIJEVOIKoi 1J0AlOTO nspiooorepov cno onuepov (1984) neoioxot Tfie; , Aq,pIKfie;, Mv noov enionc KOTOMI1AOI 510 rnv tlJCPOVIOIV TOO tIlCPpOVOe; ovSpwnou Koi 510 T6v Myov oUT6v oi rrscroxcl TOO Boppd Koi TOO N6TOU 5tv ovt5e:I~ov noonvuevouc ovSpwnoue;; (I3MnE Koi OXEnKOe;; nATJPocpopioe;; Koi On64JEle; Ere; TO veov I3ll3Aiov uou «H AAH01NH npO·I·rTOPIA»). ruve:nwe; 0 noxrnouevoc o.vSpwnoe; e:IVOI 5TJIJlOUPYTlIlo Tfie; e:UKPOTOU

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16

sWVI1C;Koi tIJCPOVWC; T1ic; neploxtic; TTic;Meooyeiou xol KupiwC; TTic; 'AVOTOAlKflc;, orrou Koi evecpovio811 Koi aVemUX811 Koi np6 TtiC; Koral3u8ioewc; rnc AiVTlTi5oC;,cno onou t~eAloo6IJevoc; IJE TTiV ncoooov TWV trwv ecp800e elc TTiV aVWTaTllV 13081Jii50TtiC; aVomu~ewC; TOU, lJe anOi5ei~elC; ai510oeiorouC; TTiV KoranAI1KTlKTiv t~EAl~IV TtiC; 'EMI1VlKtiC; cpuAtiC;. naVTWC; ours 0 Boppuc OUTe Ti 'AVOToM, aMa ours Koi 0 NOTOC; tVE;cpaVlOOV i51a IJEOOU TWV XlAleTl1pii5wv nou noptiA80v nVeUIJOTlKaC; aVOTaOelC; Koi tKi5I1AwoelC; il KOAAlTeXVlKaC; tmi5ooelC;, onwc; TaC; acp8aorouC; Koi anopOlJiMouC; tKi5I1AwoelC; Koi KOToKTTioelC; TtiC; 'EMI1VlKtiC; cpuAtic;, TOO 'EMI1VlKOO nveuIJOTOC;, TtiC; 'EMI1VlKtiC; tmorTiIJI1C;, TTic; 'EMI1VlKtiC; TtXVI1C; Koi yeVlKa TOO 'EMI1VlKOO rponou swtic;, nou unflp~e KOTa yevlKTiv ouoxoviov Koi aVOYVWPlOlV TO nopai5elYIJO TOO ncoooeuuevou Koi nOAlTlOIJEVOU av8pwnou. (BII3AlOypocpiov, oxeTlKl'lv IJE TO avwTtpw I3Mne Koi eic; TO TEAOC;TOOnooovroc KellJEVOU TtiC; «revIKtic; Eiooywytic;»)· Koi OC;IJTi oneuoouv va 1J00 npOTa~OUV tni TOO onuetou OUTOOoi i51acpOPOI «eii51Koi lJeAeTllrai», OTI untip~e Koi neotoooc, KOTa TTiV onoiov eic; TTiV I:II3I1Piov soOoov aPKeTa sWo TWV rporuxev xwpwv, i510n T6 KAiIJo flTO 6ePIJ6v, Koi ouvenoc i5Ev anOKAeieTOl vc Unflpxov Koi av8pwnot, nou 80 KOTtiA8ov Koi WC; 'Ivi5oeupwnaiol npvorepov eic; rnv 'EAMi5o!,.. 'AMa Koi etc TTiV 'AVTOPKTii5o, untip~ev neoloooc. 'IowC; ouoio IJE rnv aVWTtpW, KOTa TTiv onoicv i5Ev EKoMmeTo curn ono ncvouc, onwc; anOi5elKvUOUV nOAOloi XaPTeC; nopoTl8EIJeVOI eic; T6 13113Aiov OO MnEpAlTs «MUOTTiPlO ana T ~eXOOIJEVOUC;Koououc» Koi repoonoi i5elvooouPOI soOoov xoro ncxcioreoouc KOlPOUC;eic; TTiV 'AlJeplKTiv Koi oMoC; nePlOXaC; TTic; Yflc;, aAM 0 av8pwnoc; eveecvtoen apYOTepOV Koi i5Ev untipxev, orov elc TTiV I: 11311 piov, i5ev unflpxov naYOI elc i5E rnv 'AVTOPKTlKTiv OXI uovov Mv untipxov novor, aMa i510AOU'ani80vov vc acp80voOoov TOTe wC; npoiovro EKei rc l3epllKoKO, oi cppaOUAec; Koi ol avovai5ec;!!. .. Koi ecv exouv i510CPOPOV YVWIJI1Voi «eii51KOi», nopOKOAOOVTOlVOIJOC;TO anoi5ei~ouv, i510TlaPKeTO cnouomorpcvn IJU8eU'IJOTO, IJE ai5ioroKTec;. lVeui5oAoyiec; Koi IJE evrexvouc rtcoonomoeic eypolVov Koi i51EorpelVov IJEXPI onuepov TTiVnOYK6oIJIOV, oMo Koi TTiV ' EAAI1VlKTiVnpo'ioropiov, onwc; crtooeucvuerrn IJt orotxelo oi51ooeloTo kcl ek; TO xeluevo TOO ava, xeipoc; 13113Aiou I..I0U, oMa Koi elc T6 oMo I3ll3Aiov I..I0U«H AAH81NH npO·I·I:TOPIA». HTO YVWOTOVtv TOllTOlC;cno TTiVapxoiov tnoxTiv, OTl, elre Myw 1')1..111..108eioc; il KOKtiC; tKTll..lTioewc; Koi ncpouomosoc nuxmorerxov nAI1PocpoPlWV ("OI..lI1POC;, 'HP0i50TOC;, 810i5WPOC;,Krnoioc, Movtawv, BTipwooC; Koi OMOl), etre uno ecveocv nooeeoiv nopoAellVewc; il i5loorpoCPtic; 'IOTOPIKWV i5ei5ouevov Koi yeyovoTwV cpvorspov KOlll TTiV PWI..IO'iKTiv Koi mv 'AAe~ovi5plVYlV neplooov, (Cl>Ml3loc; '!wol1nOC;, «A6yol KOT' 'Ankovoc», (0, 13), «<Ioui50'iKTi . ApXOlOAOyio» eic; e'iKool I3II3Aio, Cl>iAWV0 'AAe~ovi5pellC;, . APIOTOl3ouAoc; xol OMOl) il Myw OUOTI1IJOTIKtiC; ernuovou Koi tVTtXVOU ncoonomoecc, xcxortomoecc. anoKpulVewc; il Koi cvvoloc 'IOTOPIKWV ororxelov. veereoov iorOPIKwv, YAwoooMywv, oPXOloMywv, t8voMywv K.T.A. Koi usTO~U otJTWV rwv MeyuEp, MOPYKOV, rKA6Ts, Cl>oAl..lepO Uep, rK6PVTOV, BIAO1..I0131TC;, KOUPTiou, Bov-Aoouv, Ail3lYKorov, nOAlJep Koi ol nATipelC; i5100TPOcpwv Koi nopoAeilVewv tKi5ooelC; TtiC; OUVtOKO «npo'iOTopio Koi . Apxoi TOO nOAlTlOIJOO» Koi «0 . ApxoioC; Koouoc, 1200 n.X. - 500 n.X.» onwc; Koi TO
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17

avSe:MIlv1K6v nOAUrOj..lOVepyov roO W. DURANT «naYK6oj..lloC;; 'Ioroplo roo nOAITIOj..lOO»Kai vecreooi 'EAAIlvIKa{ 'Ioropkn Kai ~uaruxwc;; j..Ie:ra~OaOrwv Kai «'H 'toroptc roO 'EMIlVIKOO "ESvouC;;» n;c;; . EK~OTlKnC;;,-a~ltnOlvll noooncseo-, n 6noia ()j..ICA>C;; aurn aruxwc;; MyCA>rnc;; cvencpxeorcrnc Kai xoroortoeoc rwv ouyypacptCA>v rnc, ~tv ri~uvl;ell va ~laonaO'l ro cppayj..lO mc;; MIVCA>IKnC;;-MuKIlvaIKnC;; neoiooou Kai va anaAAayn orto rcc E:nt~paoe:lC;; rwv avSe:AAIlVIKwV Se:CA>PIWV rrspl 'Iv~oe:upCA>naiCA>v K.r.A., Koi aMo!. Kai eva vtov tpyov eniO'lC;;rrou ne:pltxe:1 dneipo oroiretc ~IO rnv vevouevnv ~Iaorpocpl'jv rnc;; 'EMIlvIKnC;; npo'ioropiac;; uno rwv ~tVCA>V rrou j..ItXPI Kai onueoov tXe:1 onueueoer cpxercc eKo6oe:IC;;.tvw rouroroovoc m:pltX£1 nAIlpeorcrnv ~1~Aloypacpiav Kai avacpE:pe:l, j..IE: uvexeicv . loropuctv OAOUe;; o roue ~tvouC;; ouvvoceetc, Fepunvouc, • AYYAOUC;,'ITOAOUC;;,oMouC;; nou ouvnor vnoov e:iC;rnv rmportolnciv rnc; . EMIlvIKnC;;, aMo Kai rnc; naYKooj..liou Flpoiorooicc. elvor «' H "loroplc rnc;; . Apxaiac; 'EMoooC;» (Griechische Geschichte) roO HERMANN BENGTSON (Xepucv MntvYKToov), KaSIlYllroO rnc; . Apxaiac; "loroolcc elc ro nave:man')j..Ilov roO Movoxou, nou tXe:1 ueroecooSn Kai eic rnv 'EMIlvIKl'jv np6 TlVOC;cno rnv "MtAlooa"). , Emonpnlverm etc ro xeluevo aura, ()TI n epe:uva 010 rnv npooeopcv roO 'EAAIlvlOj..lOO e:iC;rnv Ollj..llOupyiav roO nOAITIOj..lOO. ore rriv vscrrepav « nepiooov, ollAaol'j uerc rnv ' AvayewIlOlv, KaSuoreplloe: Kai oev npOnASe:V cno rl'jv Cl>IAoAoyiav, aMa cno rnv rcxvnv, rnv nolnoiv Kai rnv Cl>IAooocpiav (oe:AiC;17) Kai KupiCA>C; axe:TlKl'j epeuvo 010 r6v 'EMIlVloj..l6v tne:~PoouvSIl n Kai otv enooxoonce TOxeCA>C;, ()nCA>C; epeuvo ola roue aMouc; Aaouc; rnc; n , AvaroAnc; Kai TOO N6rou, 016n 6 Lle:ononoj..l6c; Kai 6 neorooiouoc rwv eA£uSe:PIWV, nou enexocre: e:iC;rnv LlOolv (rrpcrrloror; Auorooouvvcptc, Fepuovia, Poole), j..IeXPIKai TOO npWTOU naYKooj..liou noxeuou, Myw TnC; "e:pO€; oUj..Ij..Iaxiac;KupiCA>C;, (Poole, Auorpoouvvopio, re:pj..lavia, ' AYYAia), t~Ae:ne: j..I6 unorrrov ~Mj..IlJa Kai tiTO cpuOIKa aauj..I~i~aOTOC;;j..It T6 CPIAe:Ae:OSe:pov Ka aotOj..l&UTOV apxaiov' EMIlVIK6v nveuuc, nou e~tcppa~ovra K£ij..le:va rW\i apxaiwv 'EAlI.l'jvCA>v uyypacptCA>v. ' AVTlSerCA>C;; ne:ple:x6j..1e:vovmc; ocnvoeio ro 000C; ypacpnc; TWV Ba~UACA>viCA>\l, , Aooupkov Kai ne:powv xol rc ie:POYAUCPIKO TWV Aiyumiwv, rc orrolo j..Ier600v evolacptpov Kai j..It a~loSauj..IaaTov npovucn orrouonv tpe:uvoOoav cno rnv PCA>j..Ia·iKnV aK6j..11lnepiooov, aAA' evroVWTe:pOVcno r6v 150v ckovo Kai j..I£TO()AOI oi Euponolor eoeuvnrol, tnp601' oe: Kai an£oe:iKvUe: ro anoAuTOPXIK6v Kai rupovucov ouorn uc , uno ro onolov t~Iloav Kal ~oOoav aK6j..11lol Aaoi ourol rnc; , Avcroxnc, nou otv tiro Ka r600v ovnnceec £iC; roue oroucouvrnc KaTO rnv veoreoov neplooov roue Acouc mc; EupwnllC; (neorooorepcc Ae:moj..le:pe:iac;;Kai anooe:i~e:IC; ola rl'j' olaorpocpl'jv Kai rnv ncocnolnorv rnc;; 'EMIlvIKnC; Kai rnc;; naYKooj..liou Flpoioropicc Kai 'Ioropicc I3Atne: etc ro I3ll3Aiov j..IOUn «AAH8INH npO·I·rTO· PIA», tKOOOlC; 1984, ortou KUPIOAe:KTlKWC; ovcrpenovrot Kai tKI-IIlOe:vi~oVTO I-Ie oOlaoe:iorouc; anooe:i~e:IC; ai YVCA>oTai an64Je:IC;rwv ~€VWV 010 rnv npo'ioro' piav TOO 'EAAIlVIOI-iOO Kai 6AOKAl'jpOU TnC; avSpCA>n6rnTOc;).Elvcn aAACA>C; TE yvCA>or6v on n' EMIlvlKn "Ioroolo, aMa KupiCA>C; npo'iOTopia. e:1Xe:Oe:IVO' n noenoei. enaVaAal-ll3ovoj..le:v, I-ItXPI np6 100 erwv Kai np6 rwv avaoKacpW\i rnc; T poicc, TwvMuKIlVWV Kai rnc; KvwooO. Kai otv elver One:pl3oAr; il coxonov vn nooorcan on 61-100I-It rnv ' EMil' VIKl']V npo'iaTopiav cpxerc toe:lvonaSIloe:v Kai 6 «nape:ioaKroc;» Kai KareOlW'

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18

X61lIJE ouvexetc aVOKOlVWOele;Koi AOl60pioe; cno TO 6le6vEe;, EmOTlllJOVIKOV 6i;6ev KOTeOT1lIJEVOV,TO onolov eixe yeAOlononioel IJE roc eoeuvoc TOU 0 LXAiIJOV, evoe; elJnopOe; raOYlOO !, 0 onoloc eroxunoe va elonnonon eie; rc oiKone60 TG>V . ApXOlOAOYWV Koi TG>VaMwv «ei6lKG>v ernomuovov», Ta cnotc, EV TOUTOle;, onwe; KOTE6el~ev 6 EPOOlTEXVlle; LXAilJov, nOOVaViKOVOl OUTOI va Ta a~lonoltioouV. Koi q>uOlKa 6lKOiwe; 0 L.B. repalJ, eie; TO epyov TOU «eeOl, TOq>OIKOt roq>oi», unepOIJUVeTOl TOOrXAtIJOV Koi TOUe; ernxplvei, aVOq>EpwV ouyxpovwe; noool~aMol EPOOtTEXVOl epeuvnrol Ej3oti61lo0V IJt Tae; OVOKOAUijlele; TWV xol TO epyov TWVeic;: rnv nooooov Ti;c;:'EmOTtilJlle;;, tvG> TOUTOXPOVWC;: tK6ETel OUVOnTlKG>e;; uev, aMo Aiov XOPOKTllPlOTIKG>e;; 0610TOC;: xonouc xol srnnovouc nooonceefcc TOO rXAilJOV vc nepcuoon TO epyov TOU (eK60qlC;: Koi sic rnv 'EMllVlKtiv, relJeT~onouAoc;:, oeAi6ec; 207-291). 'AAAO Koi taxOTWe;;, KonolOe;; corotxeloroc Koi 01J06tOloTOe;; oMo rrooj3ej3AllIJEvoc;: 6UOlUXG>e; 'OAAov60c;: K061lYllTtie;; OVOIJOTtrOIJ MntOl, Koi 0 K061lYllTtic;: r. MnpouK Ti;e; . E6voypoq>ioc;: Koi rewypoq>ioc;: eic TO novemOTtilJlOV Ti;e; Moaxoe;; (eie;; TO j3lj3Aiov TOU «0 nATl6uolJ0e; TOO KOOIJOU»nou t61lIJOOleu6Tl TO 1983 xol OlO nOpiOl) onwc;: xoi ti «nOYKOOIJIOe;;, IOTOpio» Ti;e;; AK06TllJioe; TG>V. EmOlTlIJG>v Ti;c;: Moaxoc;: Koi aMOl 6l0q>OPOl ~tVOl Koi ..EAATlvee; aTuxG>e;;6i;6ev np006eUTtKOi Koi urtoneeuevor lJeAeTTlTOi Koi soeuvnrnl Ti;c;: 'EMTlVlKi;e; 'toroploc Koi npOIOlOpioe;;, onwe; TOUe;avoq>tpw elc TO j3lj3Aiov IJOU «H AAHelNH npO'I'rTOPIA», uneoTtipl~OV, OTt ti' EMTlVlKti 'IOTOpio apXl~e ana TO 876 n.X. il TO 776 n.X. - evop~lC;: TG>V' OAulJmoKG>v aywvwv - OTt ot <l>oivlKee;;Koi oi aMol Aool Ti;e;;. AvoToAi;e;; Koi Tfie;;Meoovslou noov apxoloTepol TGlV 'EMtivwv, etc TOUC;: onotouc 1J0Al0l0 elxov 6l6a~el Koi rnv ypoq>tiv Koi roc eruornucc, onwc;: avoq>tpw xoi avwTtpw OTt oi MOKe60vee Koi oi epOKee; 6tv elver novoPxolOl ..EMTlvec;:, OTl, 6 Mtyoc;: . AAt~ov6poe;; nTO LAoOoe;;, xoi OTt ti 'EMTlVlKT'l q>uAti exel np6 nOAAoO aq>ovlo6i;, aMOlw6fi Koi t~0q>ovlo6i;, cno TOC;: ioj3oAae;; Koi cno rnv tmlJl~iov uerc TG>V e ~tvwv KOTOKTJlTG>V, 6TlA06ti TG>VaMwv AoG>v TOO j3oppo, TfiC;: . Avoroxnc il TOO N6TOU, nou elxov eioxwptioel Koi tYKOTOOT06fi, KOT' OUTOUe;;,eie;; T6v 'EAATlVlKOV XG>pov KOTa 6l0q>6poue;; enoxcc. nptnel 61Jwe;;vc rovlo6i;, OTt etc rnv vevucnv OUTtiV ouvxoootov TWV ~tvwv Kora rfic;: 'EM060e;; unfip~ov Koi uepucol t~Olptoele;;, lJeTO~U rGlv orrotov TOO Tosxep, roO AOOKU, TOO rKoire, TOO riMep, TOO LtAe U, TOO Bupovoc, TOO <l>oAKe, TOO Nirae, TOO M. XoivreYKep Koi aMwv nvov, ci cpwvoi OIJWe;;TW\l orrolov tnviYOVTO, tXOVOVTO ueoo e ie;;T6v tKKWCPOVTtK6v 86puj3ov 6Awv TWV aMwv, nou wlJoio~e KOTa T6v NTp6 uoev, (MoKe60vlK6e;; . EMTlVlOIJ6e;) I-lt TOe; Kpauyae;; Kai TOUe; aAoAoYI-l0Ue;; nou nooxcxouoov oi 6upooq>6pOl BOKxol Koi ol e~oMee;; MOlva6ee;;, KOTa roc OPYlOOlIKae;;rexercc TOO blOVUOOU. Kai we; nooc TOe; aOUOTaTOUe;8ewpiae; nepl aq>ovlopoO Koi t6voAoYIKi'je; aMolwoewc;: Ti;e;; q>uAi;e;;TG>V'EMtivwv, ti tm6elx6eioo Koi np6 TlVOe;;(19401949) npootiAwoic;: TWV etc TO uneorcrov i6ew6ee;; Ti;c;: . EAeu6epioc;, nou elvor anOKAelOTIKOV Koi OiWVlOVYVWPlOIJOTi;c;: 'EMTlVIKi;e; q>UAi'je;; TO onotKoi OV, KOTa TOUC;:.EMTlvoe;, elver Koi TO OijllOTOV ay060v TOOav6pwnou, coco. Awe; oOTJl cnorsxet rnv nMov ' EMTlvonpenfi Koi ouvrpurruotv cncvrnoiv e ie; . rae; 6poouTaTOe; ouroc ijleu60Aoyioc;:, 6loOTpOq>ac;:,nopcnomoeic Koi KOKOTl8eioc;:,
19

MaXOl1eVOI OA0l10VaXOI nepinou oi ..EMTwec;, onoc oi ' A8T'}Vaiol s iC;TOV Mapa8wva, KaTO TI')V OIOpKelaV TOO S' Flovxoouiou nOAel10U eic; TO XlOVlousvc ulj.Iineoa Tr;c; , Hneipou, Tr;C; ,AA{3aviac; Kai TfjC; MaKeOovia<; Kai eic TOC;olucroacuuevcc neOlOOac; Tnc:;K pI')111<; evcvriov TWV OUOKaTa<PPOKTWV , OUVOl1eWV TOO ..A~ovoC;, ('lmAlae; Kai rePl1avia<;, oMo Kal Tr;C; OUI1110XOU TWV Bouxvopioc) OVTE:OTT)OaV I1E:XPlC;8axOTWV, 118 OnOTE:AEOl1a,A6yw Tr;C; Ka8uoTepT)8eioT)C; eio(3oAr;C; TWV repl1avwv eic; TI')V Pwoiav, vc l1eTa(3AT)8r; I') TUXT)TOO nOAel10U urrco TWV IlUTlKWV Kat TWV Peoov. Kat OKOAou8wC; xcnoxuoavTec; Tnc; , E8vOKTOVOU Kat a<ppovoc; enovocrcoeoc TWVKOI.II.IOUVIOTOOUI1110PlTWV,ontoel~av, onwc; ovtKa8ev, eic; TI')V KaTOnAT)KTOVov8pwnornrc, OTl I') , EAeu8epia, TO euvsvsoreoov, TO oomoreoov oMo Kai TO ioxuooreoov Kai ootOl1eUTOV ouvoioer- 'a TOO Qv8pwnou, E~naE:, ~fi Kat 86 ~r;, eic; TO iepo aUTO XWl1aTa TnC; 'EAAOOOe;, 010 va ai<pvlolO~T) K06e T600 TOUC; oOlop8wTOUC; E:X8pouC; TT)C;Kat VO Olalj.leUOT) TOUC;ooiaraKTOUC;, OAM Kat OVOi]TOUC;lj.IEUooMyouc; Kai ouxoecvrcc TT)e;, Kat ac; 1-11') napanAavT)800v ti ncocouoeoov vc rncreuouv 01 OIO<pOPOI oortovoor <ptAOll1aC; ti 01 nAl8101 E:X8pol ucc, n tniopaOlC; tvoe; olouonnors euoat110V101100, onwc; TOO' OT)l1epIVOO, il I') ola!3pWTlKI') I-It800oC; ola<popwv lj.IeUTlKWV Kat OOAiwv ioeOAOYlWV rrou ouvnveioov ncxcroreoov Kai ouvevetpouv Kal TOUe; Ka8uOTepT)l1tvouC; Kal ol1a8eic; ti E:V80UOlWoelC; Kal o<peAeic; ov8pwnouc; Tr;C; E:noxfic; ucc, elva I (Kavai VO 0la<p8eipouv Kat VO E:~ou8evooouv nAl')pwc; TI')V 'EMT)VIKI')V lj.IUxl')v, IlloTI EtC; TI')V KaTOMT)AOV OTIYI1I')V, orov 80 81yfi TO <plAOTlI10, TO iOlaiTepov aUTO Kai 110vaOlKOV yvwplOl1a TOO ..EMT'}VOC;Kat 0leyep8ei, crto otovonnore npOKAT)OIVIi ' E8vIKIi TOU ouveton0lC;, Ii o KaTaviKT)TT) I') TlTaVIKI'), Ii <po(3epo aUTI') ouval1ic; TOU, nou TOV ncoop, I1T)Oe,TOV nopopud Kai TOV w8ei eic; ornoreurec E:KOT)AwOelC;, 800nooelx8fi Kat onuspov Kai oupiov Kai nOVTOTe, onwc; ouvt(3T) TOOTOKai KaTO TO OIOOTT)uo TWV XlAleTT)piowv, rrou unfip~ev, unoPxel Kai 80 unoPXT) aUTI') Ii aiwvia <pUAI') OTI cure 0la<p8etpeTal OUOlaarIKWC;, cure oal10~eTat TeAIKWC;, ours , unOTOOOeTQI OptOTIKWC;, E:neloli txel yaAouXT)8fi, 0lanoTlo8fi, eunveeror, oOT)yelTal Kat xcreueuvercn ana TO nveuuo, ana TOC;OPXOC;Kat TO ioewon TOO oPXaiou 'EMT)VlKOO nVeUl1aTOS;, TO orrolov e1VQIo00l.laarov, oOlo<p80pov Kai 080vaTOv Kat 010 T()UC; MyouC; aUTOUC;, onwc; Kat Ii ' EAeu8epia, OOTe OUAAal1(3oveTQI, OUTe unoxurrret, OUTe on08vlioKel!!. .. , An60el~lC; of: oval1<Plo!31')111ToC; Tfic; oKaTo(3AT)TT)C; ai OOQl1aOTT)C; K aUTfic; <puAfic; eIvOI, OTt OAat at aMal <puAai nou E:ve<pavlo8T)oav, oveoetx8T)oav Kat 8KUPlOPXT)Oav KaTO oprouevcc rreorooouc sic TOV YVWOTOVK00l10V Tfic; erroxnc; TWV (' AOOUPIOI, Sa(3uAwvlol, Xerroloi, LOUl1tPIOI, Aivurmoi, Flepom), OKOAou8wC;, covorepov E:~el1T)oevio8T)oav Kai f:~T)<pavto8T)oav ti OUVQl1elC; um;ptxouoQl iloAooxepwc; crro TO npooxnviov Tfic; 'Ioroplcc, Kat cocoAWC;Mv e1XOV KaAUTf:paV ruxnv at curoxouropior nou E:KUPIOPXI10av TOO yvwaroO K00l10U Tfic; enoxnc l1ac;, (' lorrovlo, Auorpoouvvoplo, ' 08WI1avIKI') Auroxooroplo. ' AYYAia, repl1avta), 0<p00, aMdl uev t~ curov xcreoosuoov nco noMoO, aMQI M onoouval-lw8eioal !3aoi~ouv ouvexwc; Kai !3e!3aiwc; nooc nAl')pT) t~OU8tvWOlV, KamOIKaOl1tVat cno TOV <pUOlKOVvouov Tfic; <p80pCiC; . ..AC; 111') cpovTao8fi ot xoveic OTI ana TOV uoipoiov, TOV aouownl1Tov V0l10V Tfic; <p80pCic; 80 0laow800v eic; TO I1tMov KOt at OUO cvnuoxouevor unepou-

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vcueic Tfie; tnoxfie; I-Iae;.lUOTi r, uev Pwoia 51aAuSeloa ernonc T oaplKr, Auroxporoplo Kai cvcorneetoo K0I-II-iOUVIOTIKr, 5fiSev unep5uval-lle;, roxtwe; So. anwMoll Tr,V unoneeuevnv onuepivnv ioxuv rnc, aq>oOOl-lol~~ell-lt yiyavra nou oTllpi~eTat at YUaAIVa n051a, tq>' ooov f)51l eUKpIVWe;aKOUOVTat oi rorvuol Tfie; sneoxouevnc Korappeuoewe;, TO. spoono towTePIKa npoaM)r uoro nou aVTll-leTwni~el. (uekooic Kupiwe; Tfie; napaywyfie;. Kai aD~avol-ltvll avri5paOle;. eie; TO L<VeAeUSepov ouornuo nou ernxoorst. TWVaq>unvl~Ol-ltvwv I-Ia~wv) r, 5t ereoo 'Ynepouvou«; Tfie; 6uoewe;. ai H.n.A. Tfie; , Al-iepIKfie;. elver a5uvarov va anaMayoOv Kal elver Kara51KaOl-ltvai vc UnOKU410UV eie; TOV ecvcouiov tvaYKaAI0I-I0V TWVI:lwvIOTWV, nou «rreueovouv tK TOOaq>avouc Kai onueoov, Tr,V OiKOVOl-IlKriVKai t~wTeplKriv nOAITIKriv rnc, onwe; npot(3Ae:41e:V51' ournv eva orro TO.l-Ie:yaMTe:pa rexvo rnc, 0 <l>paYKAIVOe;, tKTOe; eov tne1-I(3e:IKai eKe:! KanOIOe;veorepoc XiTAep ... «(3Mne: Kai cnoxoAUmlKa ororxslc. etc TO tiMo (31(3Aiov I-I0U «" H ' AAIlSIVri npo'iaropia». , AMa 0 VOI-I0e; UTOe;Tfie; q>Sopoe;elver avioxupoe; va KaTlOXUOIl,f) l-IoMov a onwe; Exel dnoc5elx6fi, c5EVi'axu<J€ KOl6Ev iOXU€I, c5ld rriv d6dvaTov 'EAAllvlKriv q>uM)v, r, onolc, o.Moe; , Avroloc.jtlrtret Kai cvtororcn KaTa rnv 5lapxeiov TWVXIAleT1lpi5wv nou naPfiASov. 510Tl QAOIol txSpoi me, nou ensoko~av vo Tr,V un050uAWOOUV. 5tv aVTeAriq>ell0aV OTi r, 'EMae; Mv e:IVOIre:wYPo<pIKOe; xwpoe;, 510.vo KaTaKTIlSfi, aMa ovrmcoooneuer TOtAe:USe:pov, TO a5tOI-le:urov, ro aVUnOraKTOV. ro aSaVOTOVnveuuo ro onolov ours ouMOI-I(3aVe:Tat,ours 5al-la~e:rat, ours ononvtvercr. Kai r, , EMae; 510.rfie; 5uval-le:we; TOO rrveuucroc me, acpoO t51l1-l10upYlloe:v rov anapol-IlMov. TOV uneooxov Kai cvenovcxnrrrov noxrnouov-rtou yvwpi~ol-le:v. aKOAOUSWe; 10 Tfie; 5uvo5 I-Ie:we; oO nveuuaroc Tne; erucnc. t~e:noAiTloe:v Kai rnv unOAOtnOVovSpwnor mrc, rnv onolov KaAe:ITol onueoov Kai nOAlv vo rnv ooon etc rnv enoxnv ucc, I-It rae; «pcuvoc nou aKOUOVral Kai nOAlv elc Tr,V 6UOlV, «onloo elc rov nMrwva!», I-Ie:TO rnv onuerouuevnv ovooov rfie; Neue 6e:~loe; elc rnv raAAiav Kai rnv rrromv TWVaPIOTe:pWVi5e:OAOYIWV e:ie; rnv 'AyyAiav. re:pl-laviov, 'IraAiav x.d., nou e:IVat ro cnorexeouo rfie; xnrorrrooscoc rwv i)SIKWV Kai nve:UI-IOTlKWV a~lwv xoi rfie; all5iae; Kai rfie; crtovonreuoeoc rev oropov, cno nc e~oMe:e; Kai cvcrperrnxec tK5nAwoele; rwv 5fiee:v npo05e:uTIKWV Kai ovonrov ona5wv xcl eunveuorov f) r,yerc';)v rwv 5loq>opwv xpe:wKOnlll-ltvwv nOAITIKOKOIVWVIKWVuornucrov o rfie; tnoXfie; I-IOe;. , AMo oi txSpoi rou 'EMllvlol-ioO 5tv CXOUVnpoot~e:1 nooc rouroic, OTi tvw tntTuxov vo TOV OUPIKVWOOUV KaTO rae; apxae; roO ncpovroc aiwvoe; (xoroorooon TOO MIKPOOIOTtKOO'EMIlVlol-loO, Tfie; KWVOTOVTlVOUnOAeWe;, Tfie; Aivurrrou, etc rnv VOTIOVPwoiov Koi aMoxoO), ncoc rriv cnsvvoouevnv. oM' o.KapnOV npOOnOee:laV TOO 'EAe:US. Be:VI~tAOU. Myw rwv ckovkov tOWTe:PIKWVaVTlStoe:wv ucc, f)5n evcc o.Moe; 'EMllvlol-loe;. cMn noAUKtq>aAOe;t\e:pvaia uc3pa, Ti)V onoiov c3tv unopxel 0 'HpaKAfie; nou So rnv anOKe:q>aAioe:l, cvoxurrrer, veoreooc .. oq>pIYIlA6e;, 5paonlpIOe;, 5uvaI-lIK6e;, xni aVOmUaae:TQI, avSe:i. errexreivercr Kai 5po, elc TOe;oikovouucoc loxupac; xol tAE:UStpac; Xwpac; Tfic; tnoxfic; I-Iae;,eic TOe;H.n.A., e:ie;rov Kavac3Civ,elc rnv Auorpoxlov KaCaMaxoO, c31500KWV rnv Uq>riAIOV.51lAOM roue; onouxouc q>iAOUC; TOUC;ovonrouc txspoue; rou, OTt ouc3tnore: eo <'5laKai uieuon rnv 'Ioropiov TOU Kai TOe;napac36oe:le; rou, ai orrokn rov unoxosccvouv uno oicoonnore Karac3pol-lae;, 5Iw~ele; Kai 50Kll-laoiae;, vc tcrcroi oo-

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810<;, oKaTa!3AI1To<;, 6(5l1y6<; Kat onuciocoooc IJt T6 08avaTOV nVEOlJa TOU, TWV WPOIOTEPCA>Vat ll4JI1AOTtpwV t(5avlKwv TWV ov8pwnCA>v, nou elver Ji . EK AEu8Epta, Ji (5IKaIOOllVI1, Ji ~I1IJOKpaTta, i(5avlKa Ta ortotc npWTOI ol ..EAAI1VE<;, W<; VVCA>rrr6v,t(5t(5a~av 6MKAI1POV rnv ov8pCA>n6T11TaL .. Kai cpUOIKa OUTE 6 nOAlTlolJ6<; np6KElTaI vc 6mo80(5pOIJJiOTl Kat vc E~acpavlo8fi. 'EKKlvTioa<; orro rnv ' AVQTOATiV - rnv . EMa(5a onou T6 noorov EVEcpavt0811 - tcp8aoE etc TTiV ~UOIV - Kat EKEiSEV eic rnv . AIJEPIKTiV, (510vc IJETOnl1i5TiOTlKOt naAlv elc TTiV . Avcroxnv - etc rnv 'Icnevtcv - onou iil>n QVOKumEI, E~EAiOETOI Kat aVamUOOETOI, aKOAou8wv T6v uoipolov, T6v CPUOIK6v, T6v cveunoororov (5p61J0v Tfi<; aiCA>vta<; VaKUKAUOEW<; TOU. a . Q<; npoc roc aM<Ji<; (5t (5larrrpE!3AwOEI<; Kat nooonomosic Tfi<; . EMl1vlKfic; Flpoloroplcc xol 'torootoc, Ji OUVTPITrrIKTi srnonc anaVTl101<; l>il>ETaIl>IO TWV KaTCA>TEpCA>. ~16Tlan6 TJiV IJEAET11VKai TJiV EPlJl1VEiav TWV . OPCPIKWVnou aKOAOU800v, - (5I1IJOOlEUOVTOIIJETa TTiVnapaTl8EIJEVI1V npOI1YOUlJtVCA><; IJEAETI1VTOO K. Xooonn - (5tv E~aVElJtsOVTOI uovov ai avacpEp8EiOQl naAQlat av8EMI1VIKat 8ECA>PtOlTWV ~EVCA>V cptACA>Vcc Kat WPIOlJtVCA>VavoTiTCA>V u Kat alJa8ErrraTCA>V ouYXP6vwv aVlrrr6PI1TCA>v 'EMJivCA>v "loropucov, nou tm(5lwKouv vo tPIJT'1VEllOOUV T600v TJiV naAalav OOOVKat rnv VECA>Ttpav 'EMI1VIKJiV 'Ioroplcv, IJt T6 XPECA>KOnl1lJtvov nAtov Map~lrrrlK6v OUOTTllJa, f't rnv ~EnEpaOlJtVI1V, naAOICA>8Eioav, (5laTPI1TOV Kat anOTUXOOOav EntOI1<;, IJt80(5ov TOO «<Ioropucou YAIOIJOO», Ei<; rnv 6noiav aK61l11 rnoreuouv, MyCA>Tfi<; alJ08Eia<; TWV xni TOO a8EpanEUTOU Kat VOOI1POO qxivcnouou TWV, (!3AtnE Kat !31!3AtOVIJOU «T6 "EYKAl1lJa Tfi<; 'Emornpnc» Kat rnv Ei<; aUT6 nEplExollEvnV 0l1lJaVTIKJiv Kat nAOUOICA>TclTI1V Map~loTiKTiv Kat aVTt8ETOV !31!3Aloypacpiav), oMo nPO!3aMETQI ertionc Kat Ji a(5laOElrrrO<; nAtov aATi8Ela, on Kat Ji ernornun xol Ji <i>IAooocpio, (5I1Aa(5JiOAAI AI rNQrElr TOO ov8pwnou, ai exouool KUptW<; OXEOIV IlE rnv <t>UOIKJiV,TTiv "Aorpovoulov, aMa Kat IlE TTiV Bioxoviov, TTiV 1\0YIKTiv, TTiv H8IKTiV, TJiV 0Pl10KEloAoytaV Kat rnv Koivovroxovtov. npofiA80v f't lloMov r,oov vvooroi Kat Ei<; TOU<; 'OPCPIKOU<;. 'Avamux8EioOl 6t opvorepov cno roue npOOWKpaTlKOU<; Kat aKOAou8w<; cno T6v rWKpaT11, T6v nMTwvo, T6v 'APIOTOTEAI1 KOt TOU<; aMou<; aPXatou<; ..EAAI1Va<; ooeouc, IlETE(568I1oav YVJiOIOl ii rrcocnomuevor, oncc ouvssn ouvneoc - Kat i(5tw<; IlE roc an64JEI<; TWV oocplrrrwv Kat TWV aMwv CPIAoo6cpCA>v napOKlJti<; - Kat e i<; oAOU<; TOU<; Tti<; aMou<; apxatou<; Kat VEWTEPOU<; Acouc, I-IE anOTEAEOlJa vo acpunvlo8fi Kat vc EKnoAlTlo8fi Ji av8pCA>n6T11<;. rUvEnw<; anO(5ElKVUe:TOI ernonc EK TWV 'OPCPlKWV, OXl1l6vov Ji ncvcoyolo KaTaywvn Tti<; 'EAAI1VIKfi<; cpuAfi<;, aAM Kat Ji A~(ArnArTOr OUVEXEIO Kat ouvveveio TOO nve:UI-IOTO<; Kat TWV YVWoe:WV TWV 'APXOIOEMTivwv, I-It TOU<; (5laVOI1Ta<; KOt ooeouc Tfi<; '(rrropIKti<; neoiooou, rnv nveuuctucnv nooexeuOIV Kat cvcrcoiv TWV onouov ont(51(5ov KOt oVEsJiTOUV ot VEWTEPOI (5ti8Ev epeuvnrol etc TJiV aVUnaPKTOV, onw<; ane:(5EtX811, ooelov KOt rnv tnt(5poOlv TWV aMwv apxatwv Aawv Tfi<; 'AvaTOAfi<; Kal TOO N6TOU, em TWV apxatwv 'EMTivwv. ! 'Onwo6TinOTe: np6 TWV 'EMJivwv, KOl-illio ev(5El~I<;, «ovevo rrrOlXE)OV (5tv unapxe:l, E~ OOWV TouMXlrrrov yvwptsOI-lEV, Kal E~ oowv ano(5ElKvUe:TOI tK TWV Ke:ll-ltvWV Kat nooxurrrst Kat ono roc veoreocc (51amoTWOEl<; TWV 61acp6pwv tPEUVI1TWV 'E8voMywv, rAwoooMyCA>V Kat' APXOIoMywv, EK TOO
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orroiou va ~uvaTal va unooT11Plx8fJ ~aoilJ.WC;Kai neIOTIKWC;,OTI oMoC; Acoc, oMn cpuAJi, eixe npoax8fJ, tKnOAlTl08fJ Kai yevlKo ovamux8fJ nVeU~aTlKWC; Kai ~lacpopoTp6nwc;, evootrspov TWV . EMlivwv, fJ eTxev on~elw8fJ rrpoonc8ela ~lepeuVlioewc; TWVCPUOIKWV POlVO~tvwv, rrpo TWV 'OPCPIKWV,TWV . ApC XOloeMlivwv. Kai cpUOIKa, OUTe ~ixvoC;cpiAOOOCPIKfJC; oKt4JeWC; ~tv unapxel ernonc etc T6v nveuucnxov 6pi~ovTa rfJe; ov8pwn6T11TO<;, etc ro Kei~eva oMwv opxaiwv Aawv, rrpo TWV 'OPCPIKWVKai TWV uererrerrc . EMlivwv 00cpwv, nMv ~lacp6pwv 8eooocpIKWV crtouieov WPIO~tVWV opxaiwv Aawv,ai 6n0101 CPUOIKO ouosulov oxeoiv exouv ~t rnv ouornuoruow, T11vcpwTelvliv, ovenovcxnrrrov Kai t~pOlo~tvnv 'EMnvlKliv <l>IAooocpiav. (SMne Kai T6~OUC;«T6 ' Apxaiov . EMnvIK6v Flvsuuo», «T6 Iu~nav», «Aaoi TfJC;'AvcroAliC;» Kai «Ilooloroptov» Touou «EAAAI», ueooc r' rfJc; 'EYKuKAonOl~eiac; TOY "HAIOY", onwc; Kai T6 ~1~Aiov uou «H AAH01NH npO'I'ITOPIA»), npWTOC;, oMwC; re, 6 AiaxUAOC;, t~oowv yvwpi~o~ev, ~IO va ono~ei~n OTI Kai elc rnv enoxnv TOU, cno TOC;YVWOCIC; TWV ncxororeoov OVTAoOoav Kai oi ouVXpovoi TOU, elxev e'inel xaOaKTTJpIOTIKWe;~IO TOC; Tpayw~iac; TOU on ((iloo" TO onocpaYlo on6 TO ~eyoAO ~eInvo TOO' OIJ1')pou» (np6~pOIJOc; EAATJVIKfJC;~1~AI08liKTJC;'A~a~, KopafJ, «AUTOaxt~IOI oroxnouot» Kai 'Aanvoioc «LlemvooocpIOTai», ~1~Aiov H' ) xwpiC; ~e~aiwc; vo (m04JIO~eTOI Kai aUT6c; - 6 AiaxUAOC; - OTI Kai 6 "Opnpocxoi 6 . Hotoooc Kat oi npOOWKpaTlKOt, oMo Kai o nMTwv Kai 6 'APIOTOTtATJC; tv ~tpel, KaTo rnv o~oAoyiav TOU tnionc; (<<MeracpuOIKo» (1, 983, 13) Kai «nOAITlKO» A, S, r, E), onwc; «ol OAOIoi oMol OPXOIOIoocpoi, cpuOIoMyol Kat ouvvpooslc, elXOV euwXTJ8fJ, eIxov ~elnv1')oel eic T6 nveuucrucoc nAouOIwTOTOV Tpant~1 TWV npo a(JTwv ~lavOnTWV Kat KupiwC; TWV 'OPCPIKWV,- ~Ia VO ueroxeioroeouev T6 axfJ~a tKcppooewc; TOO AiaxUAOU, -onoc orrooeuevuouv TO xeluevo TWV,'OPCPIKWV,' "Ouokoc evac; cno TOUC; onouoororeoouc . EMTJvIOTOC;Tt)<; veorepcq tnoxf)c;, 0 0w1JOC;Tt UAOP, eic; T6 epyov rou «THE MYSTICAL HYMN US OF ORPHEUS» ouoxovet, on ri opxaia . EMTJVIKri 0eoAoyia rrpofJA8ev cno TOUe; 'OPCPIKOUC;Kat OTI T600v 6 nu8ay6pac;, Scov Kai 6 nMTwv, t~ave:io8TJoav ono TOUC;'OPCPIKOUC; nOAMe; 000 TOC;8ewpiac; TWV, onwc; e:IvOI roOTO cpave:pov cno rnv OUYKPIOIVTWV Kel~tvwv TWV opxaiwv . EMrivwv ooqxov IJt TO xeiuevo TWV 'OpcpIKWV. (I3Atm: etoovovnv TOO OVWTtpW spvou TOO 0wIJO

1. (nepi . 0J.lnpou Kai . H0166ou, nou eixov AST(AaTnOSI KUPIOAsKTlKWe; TOUe; . Opq)lKOUt;, I3Atns KaTwTl:pw Kai tVT6e; TWV KSIJ.ltVWV AnoonaoJ.lciTla» 6, 18, 31, 39, Kai . Opq>twc; ccQvtK60Ta anoOnciOJ.laTa» 24, Kai 33 Kai 41 nspi . H0166ou. nspi nu9ay6pou Kai nu9ayopsiwv nou sixov OVTAnoel tniOT'[C; on6 TOUe; . OPq>IKOUC;I3Atns cc'AnoonaoJ.lciTla» 24 Kai 36, nepi . HpaKAeiTou . AnoonaoJ.lciTlov» 19, Kai YJ.lvov 10, . Opq>twc; (OTixouC; 3,6,26), 6nwc; Kai T61l0V IZ' a&Ait; 182 Kai T61loV ccT6 . Apxaiov . EAAT(vIK6v nVsOJ.la», odic; 206 TijC; . EYKuKAonQI~&iQ~ TOU ccHJ\IOY». n&pi nAciTWVOC;, I3A&ns Opq>twe; ovtK6oTa onooncioJ.laro» (FRAGMENTA INEDITA) un' apl6J.16v 3, 15, 26, Kai siC;. ccJ\uK6q>pova» ·Iwav. Ti';tTZ;T(, (tK6oole; PWJ.lT(e;, 803, napaypaq>oe; 275). Alci T6v ..OJ.lT(pov tnioT(e; I3Atns Kai onoonaOJ.lclTl1 ov 33, on6 T6 enotov tJ.lq>aiV&Tal bTl T6 'OJ.lT(pIK6v cc&lC;Koipavoe; - TupavVOe; - tOTW, &1e; l3aoIAeue;» elval . Opq>IK6v Kai 610 T6v 'Hoi06ov bTl &iX& 6av&lo6fj no.\.\ci on6 TOUe; . Opq>lKOUt;, I3Atn& Kai &ie; 6AAac; on06eil;ele; nou civaq>tpovTal 0X&TlKWe; tVT6e; TWV KSIJ.ltVWV Kai onoonaoJ.lciTia 41 Kai 36 (ovtK6oTa . Opq>twe;), 610 TWV 6noiwv On06&IKVU&Tal OTl, Kai 6 . EJ.ln&6oKAfje;, 6 . Ava!;ay6pae;, 6 Eupmi6T(e; Kai oAol oi aVWTtpW oPXaiol ooq>oi sixov 6av&loat; 0",6",&1e; on6 T6v . Opq>ta Kai TOUe; 'Opq>IKOue;).

c.

c.

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TE:UAOp). ' AMo OnE:cpUYEKai curoc vo E:PIlIlVEUOIl TOUe; "Yuvouc, ii'iowe; 5E:v n5uvn81l, 516n 5E:v nTO ale 8E:OIV vc epunveuon TOUe; <Yuvouc TOO , Oprpetoc», tnEI5n eoreoerro norpovouucov YVWOEWV,onwe; xol OAOI oi ~tVOl nou nOXoAn81loav Ilt TOUe; , OPCPIKOUe;, ,6T1 noav cpIMAOYOI, (KaTo TnV 5 I3El3aiwOlv Kai ouoxoviov rtpooqxrrcoc eic tilE: IlEYOAOUouyxp6vou rEPllavoO emornuovoc. IlETO Ti)v 51l1l0oiEUOIV nap' tlloO rwv ' °PCPIKWV), nep.opt08Eie; Eie; TnV KaTo M~lv uercoocorv TWVKEIIlE:VWV,n 6noia elvot aVEU o~iae; Kai euoureocc onucotoc 510 TnV ernorrumv. (CLASSICAL JOURNAL, FOR MARCH AND JUNE 1824, THE MYSTICAL HUMNUS OF ORPHEUS IlETQCPPOOIlE:VOItK TOO . EMllvlKOO uno THOMAS-TAYLOR LONDON). Kai TnV i5iav Ilopcpnv Kai nEpIEx6IlEVOV, (5IlAa5n xwpie; tv51acptpouoav epunvslcv. EXEI Kai n EK500le; ovovuuou ouvvocoeoc. n vevouevn T6 1792 nooc XOPIV TOO0YVWOTOUouyypacpE:We; (EK500le; uno TO PAYVE AT THE MEWS GATE, B. WHITE Kai utoc FLEET STREET, LONDON). Kai CPUOIKO 5E:v EIvQI 510cpopa Kai TO Epya TOO BOCK, "De Aeschylo poeta Orfico et Orfico - Pythagoreo", ' ltva, 1914, 100 BOULANGER, "L'ORPHISME DANS Le Argonautigue, d'Orphee" (Bulletin Bude Paris) Janvier 1929, onwc; Kai TO epya TOO E. ABEl\. "ORFICA", Leipzig, 1885, TOO COMPARETI. D. "Laminette Orfiche", Florence, 1910, TOO CONWAY. R.S. "From Orpheus to Cicero", (Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 1933), TOO DOTTIN G. "Les Argonautigues d'Orphee, texte etabli et traduit", Paris (Bude) 1930, IlETa~u 5t Kai aMwv nOAAWv ~tvwv ouvvooeeov Kai TOO W.K.C. GUTHRIE, "Orphee et la Religion Grecgue", (PAYOT PARIS 1956) xol TOO VICTOR MAGNIEN, "Les MYSTERES 0' ELEUSIS" (Payot, PARIS 1938), TOOPaul Diel, «Le symbolisme dans la mythologie grecque» onwe; Kat ol cvoeepouevor, uno TOO n. rpo131YYEP Eie; T6 I3ll3Aiov TOU «' OPCPIKO! "Yuvot», I:uyypacpEle; DAVID-KARL-DIETSCH, O.J. PLASSEMAN Kai aMol, oMo KQi IlEPIKOi ncxoicreoor tK56TOI TWV ' 0PCPIKWV,oi onotoi onwe; Kai oi nlltTEpOI IlEAETIlTQi, 5lavooullEVOI, ou56AWe; OVTEAi)cp81loav TnV l3a8uTtpav EWOlav Kai TOUe; unelpouc oUll130Alolloue; TWV ' 0PCPIKWV, nou npooloouv YVWOEIe;Kai ncocrnonoeic. TOe; onoicc OUTE EIxov unolVlao8n, ii ecv 8tAETE, 5E:v n5uvn81loav vc TOe; evvonoouv ii cno cvvorov. ii Kai oKonil-lwc; neorooioaevrec OAOIOVE~Q1ptTwe; etc TnV eoeuvov TWV8PllOKEUTlKWV 50~aOIWV Kat TWV IlUOTlKlarlKWV TEAETOUPYIWVKat E:K5IlAWOEWVKat On04JEWV TWV , OPCPIKWV. . Kat TnV curnv onucolov Kat a~iav EXOUV 5uaruxwc; 510 TnV noooncesrcv TOOoxoAlaoroO Kai ai ovooepouevcr uno TOOnavay. rEWpyOuvr£:ou noxciorepcn eKo6oelC; TWV ' 0PCPIKWV,TaC; onolcc npol3oMEI elc T6v T ojJOV 34/35 TOO beATiou TWV . EAAnvwv cplAoMywv ((nAOTWV» (EK500lC; 1984, E:~ cooo. !,.lIic;rf)c; E:KOOOEWc; TWV ' OPCPIKWV uno Tne; , EYKUKAon0l5Eiae; TOO('HAIOY») oQ>oOKai at E:K500EIC;aUTai 5tv neplE:XOUV tpjJllvEiac;, Myw Q>UOIKO ovvoicc TWVoxoAlaoTwv Kai TWVtK50TWV, Ilt oorpovouuccc 5IamarwoEIC;. Koi q>UOIKO oi oxoxicoro! Kai ot epEUVT)Tai Kai TWV tK500EWV curov nEplopi£:ovral MONON, onwc; CAOI at eK56oEIC;, EiC;rnv (mAnV nap08EOIv TWVKEIIlE:VWVKa! TnV tKElEOIV TWV IlUOTIlPlaKwv ortourstov Kai TEAETWV TWV . Opq>IKWV, KQTOTnV oVTiAT)4JIVr1 yvwllT)v exoorou tK50TOU r1 oxoxioorou. "Onoc Of: oacpwc; eveAUETOI Ka! e:k; TO OXOAla TWV «"YIJVWV TOO' Opq>twC;» mc; avo XElpaC; E:KOOOEWC;TWV . 0PCPIKWVuno TOO ypaCPOVTOC;, noooneeeio aUTT) ETvOl jJoMov n
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OVv.>epEAr,e; ucroto Kai epUOIKO Kai aVEU ool3apoO OnOTEMolJaTOe; Kai o~iae; 510 rnv eruornunv. Myv.> tMEi4JEv.>e; 8ETlKWV nA'lPOepOPlWV 510 TOe;IJUOT'lPlaKOe; Kai IJUOTlKIOTIKOe; EAETOe;TWV 'OpeplKWV Kai Tr,V OA'l8ft eounvelov TWV OUIJT 130AlOIJWV. 'AVTl8tTv.>e; cno TO 51aOv.>8tvra KEilJEVa rrou nEpltxovTal etc rnv 8K500lV TAUCHNITIZ Tlie; I\EI4Jiae; TOO 1829, nou XP'l011J0nolw. on05ElKvUETOl, IJETO rnv eounvelov TWV cc"YIJVv.>VTOO 'Opeptv.>e;» cno T6v K. xoocrmv, OTI TO KEtlJEVa nooexouv on05Ei~Ele; Kai nxnpocooloc, ai onokn 510 npornv oopcv tml3EI3Olw8'loav Kat 8XOUV t~aKpll3v.>8ft OOTPOVOIJIKWe;,rsxeurclcc 5t Kat 510 0PXOlOAOYlKWV 51amOTwoEv.>v, onv.>e; ovaeptpv.> Kai tVT6e; TWV KEllJtVv.>V auTOO TOO 13113AtOU Kai Eie; T613113AiovIJOU «H AI\HGINH npO·I·LTOPIA». IJOU 'MM. orro Tr,V emorouevnv IJEMT'lV Kai rnv epunvelcv TWV «<Yuvov TOO 'Opeptv.>e;» uno TOO K. Xcoorm on05ElKvUETOl ernonc, OTl 6 'OpepEUe; Kai oi "Opoucoi, ii ol 'APXOlotM'lVEe;, 01 ncvopxoror KOTOlKOI Tfte; Xwpae; aUTftc;, npwTol riOXoAr,8'lOaV Kai IJt rnv epeuvov Kai rnv t~Jiy'lOlV rwv <l>UOIKWV ecrvouevov Kai Eep8aoav elc oniOTEUTEe; OOTPOVOIJIKte; ncocrnonoeic Kat 51amOTwOEIe;, nou ep80vouv Kai np6 TOO 10.000 n.X., onv.>e;8XEl t~aKpll3v.>8ft crro TO KEilJEVa TWV "YIJVv.>V nou napa8tTOIJEV (I3MnE KaTv.>Ttpv.>Kai KEiIJEVOV K. xoocrrn ccKEepOAOlOV 'H JiAlKia TWV 'OpeplKWV "YI..IVv.>V»),Kat on G, npWTOI ot "Opoucol Kat OXI oi 'lou5aiol, onoc iOXUpt<;OVTOl510epOPOIKaTO KOlpOUe; Llv.>VlOTai, . El3paiol ouvvooeetc, (I3MnE OXETlKOe;nxnooeoolcc elc ro 13113Aia IJOU «H AI\HGINH npO'I'LTOPIA» Kai «T6"EYKA'llJa Tfte; . ErnornlJ'le;» npOOOpT'llJa B' , 51a Tr,V ecvepcv ii oepavft 5poOlv TWV . El3patv.>v Llv.>VlOTWV KaTa rfte; . EM'lVlKfte; epUAfte;Kat TOO' EAA'lVlKOO "E8voue; Kat oJiIJEPOV OK61J'l), Ka81tpv.>oav rnv Movoeetov, Eie; enoxnv «rro rnv onoiov !loav cvunooxrot Kai we; epuAJi oi 'Iouoolor, oi El3paiol Kat oi aMOI . Avcroxucol I\aoi, Kat rnv onolov t5i5a~av OKOAOu8v.>e;Kai Eie; OAOUe;TOUe; aMoue; oPxatOUe; I\aouc U~Atn& onoonaolJoTia 2, 3, 4, 6, 18, 36, 39 Kat ovtKl5oTa onOonaOIJOTIa . 0pfPtwc; 11 Kat 15, Kat unOOlllJ&lWO&lC; &iC;T6 K&ij.l&VOV K. Xaoonll 45 Kai 61) Kat OTl npwTOI tYVWPl<;OV enlonc or Oprpucoi T6 JiAlOKEvTPlK6v OUOT'llJa, np6 TOO . APlOTOPXOU Kat OAv.>V TWV aMv.>v oPxatv.>v I\awv (pAtn& Kai cc"YIJVOVTOO HAIOY» oplelJ6C; 8) Kai "YIJVOV TOO' An6AAwvoc;, (oplej.l6v 34 Kat ccK&fPaAalOV A' napaypafPOl 27 Kat 28 &iC;K&ilJ&vOV K. Xaoanll, nou napaetTOIJ&V KaTwTtpw) . . Enlonc npwTol 01 . Opqnxot 51ETunv.>oav KOOIJOYOVIKOe; Ev.>pjae; tlJepavwe; 8 tmOT'lIJOVIKOe; (ri 8Ev.>pia «rrc TJiV 6noiav cno T6 «nporovevec» ouvo nou eoncos Kai t~ftA8Ev t~ aOToO 6 oovnc). Kat aj onotci tMXlora 51aeptpouv cno TOe; 8Ev.>piae; Kai TOe; 51amOTWOEIe;TWV ouvxpovrov lJae; . AOTPOepUOIKWV Kat tPEUV'lTWV (GEv.>ptOl T<;Jive;, Ba'i<;tKEP, X6 UA Kai OAAOl) TOO lJaKp6KO0IJOU, TOG LUlJnaVTOe; nou 61JlAOOVnepl IJIKpOe; npv.>TapXlKfte; OUlJnEnuKVv.>I1tVIl<;; l1a~a<;; OAIl<;;, ii veeptAv.>lJa IJlKp6v rrou 51EOnoo8'l, nou 51EPPOY'l Kat tnnKOAOu8'lOEV ri 5'lIJIOuPyia TOO LUIJnaVTOe;, orro TJiV au~aVOlJtv'lV Kat tnEKTElvOl1tvllV apXIKr;V aUTriv 1J0<;av rnc UA'le; K.T.A. (pAtn& Kat &VT6c; TWV K&llJtvWV onoonaolJaTia 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, Kai 24, 26, 28 Kat 52 Kat ovtKl5oTa ertoOnaOlJaTa . OPfPtwc; OpleIJOUC; 4, 5, 7 Kai 28). T¢l avaepEp6IJEVa t~ aMou Eie; T6v (c"YIJVOV TOO N61J0u» oTiXOI4-6, 7-8, Kai 9-11, (I3MnE evroc TWV KEllJtVv.>V op181J6e; "YIJVOU 64) Kai TO onoto OXETi<;ovrOl IJt TJiV 1310AOYlKJiv,TJiV AOYlKriv Kat rnv ri81KJiv un6OTaOIV, 1J0p25

<Ptiv Kat t~tAI~IV TWVOTOIlWV(TWVOvepwnwv) onOTeAOOv EIl<Pavw<;rnv o<pernplcv TWV uerenerro on04JeWV, 61amarwoewv Kat 6laTunwoewv, ern TWV eelloTwv aUTWV, TWV npOOWKpaTIKWV Kai TWV uer aUTOU<;eoeuvnrev, <plAOOO<P4>V ouvvoooeov (TpaYII(WV, KWIlW610yP0<pWVK,l,A,) 0<p00 ei<; auxcl TOUe;TOU<; tAaxiaroue; onxouc TOO <Yuvou TOO Nouou» neplAallj3overOl nepIAllmIKwe;, Kai we; evcuouc, c.J<; KtVTpiOlla, eo ti6uvaro va Aexefl, o.n oKplj3we; vvwpi~ollev axenKWe; OTTO rnv uerenerro a<peaarov rtveuucruotv tK61'lAWOIV Kai cvorcoiv TWV opxaiwv ' EMr;vwv ooeev. Kai 0IlWe; rnv KaTanAnKnKtiv nurnv lleMTIlv roO K. Xcocrm, onw<; Kai TO 61l1l00leuetVTa eie; rnv ' EYKut<Aon0l6eiav TOO «HAIOY» xelusvc OAQN TWV ' OP<PIKWV,rc onotc ei<; apepOV TOU 151l1l00leuetv noooecroc elc rnv , E<pllllepi6a «EI:TIAN» (28-4-83), Kai 0 novxooukoc yvwor6e; IJEyahoe; "EMnv MaelllJaTIKOe;, EuoyyeAo<; I:Tallollle;, txapaKTl'lploev we; «uunornv tevlKl'lv rrooooopcv xoi 1l0Va61KI'lv xol aveKrillllTov j3ol'leelav Kai oUIlj3oMv 1510 rnv 6per;v ronoeernorv Til<; KaTaywyf)e; Tile; , EMllvIKfl<; <puAfl<;Kai Tile; cvorrru~ewe; Tfle; , EAAIlVIKfle; <l>IAooo<piae;Kai ' Ernornunc», onwe; Kai tij...leie;unoornp'tl,ollev, 0'1aplloblol ToD navem(rrrnilOu' .b.er,vwv, Tiic; nepiobou 1965-1967 rnv antKpU4JaV Kai rnv KaTtxwooV eie; TO «OKOVIOj...ltvavrouxorno» roO flnvernomutou. Tooov 6t i) , AKa15llllia ' AeIlVWv, ooov Kai ro Floveruorruno Kat TO nOAUrexvetov, t~aKOAOUeOOV vo t<papfJo~ouv tni ron repcorlou ourou ' EeVIKOO 8tllaTOe; «rnv ouvouootov Tfle; OIwnfle;», tAni~ovrae; on 610 roO rponou auroO eo onaAAayoOv anD TOe; reocortoc eueuvae; TWV cnevovn TOO "Eevouc Kai rfle; , loroploc. Kai napa TO yeyovoe; on ono ro 1982, fJa~i Ilt rnv avwrtpw lleAtTllV TOO K. Xcoorm, r; , EYKuKAon0l6eia roo «HAIOY» t15llj...lOoleuoe de; TOV 240v T OIlOV Tile; t<ai OAA TO «etuevo TWV 'OP<PIKWV j...It tpunvelov, Kpioele; Kai axoAla Kai tK rwv onokov, j...It j300lV TOe; , AoroovouiKOe; 6lamarwoele; Kai epunveloc TOO K. Xcocnn, onoKaAUmoVTOI Kai tK-: 1l1l6evi2:oVTOI ai aeAIOI KaKonoll'loele;, i5laOTpej3Awoele; Kai ncoonomoeic Tile; npo"iaropiae; roO "EevouC; j...Iae;,rfle; <puAfle; ucc, cno TOUe; 06iaraKTOUe;Kai KaTaXe6vIOUe; ~tvoue; noxeuiouc uoc, ouosulo 6uaruxwe; ovrt6paOle; tOllllelwell tK uepouc TWV nuerepov opj...l06iwv Kai uneueuvov 610 rnv ncocornoiv rwv uunorov aurwv ouuoepovrov roO "Eevoue;. LllaTi; To xetuevc nou t61lj...looieUelloav 6tv elver vvnoro: Ai 6lamarwoele; xcl ai tpj...lllVeiol roO Xnonnn, rrou tll<pavi~ouv roue; npovovouc j...Iae; c unapxouv Kai rrpo 10.000 trwv eie; TOV rorrov j...Iae; at va v K uexeroov ro aarpa,il TWVOPXOlOA6yWV'EMtivwv Kat ~tvwv, nou ruoronoroOv on ol "EMllvee; ~oOoav e Ie;r6v ronov ourov nco 200 il'towe; Kat 800. 000 trwv elver to<paAj...ItvOl; "H elver aviKavol j...IJinwe; a ouMoj3ouv, va tKTlfJl'lv oouv Kat va a~loAoytioouv ro tKTlatj...leva Kai va npoj3oAouv Kat va unecoornoeoov TO ' EaVIKOV ouuoepov, ro uneprorov Kai npwrapXIKOv ' ESVIKOVOUIloepov, rrou elver i) anaMayr; Tfle; cpuAfle; uoc cno TO oxornuo, OnOUAa Kai 4Jeui5fl xcrcoxeucouoro TWV~tvt.>v, rrou EXOUVtmj3AIlSfl6IeSvwe; Kat OKOIlIl onuepov (1984) tnavaAallj3ovoVTOI, 610 rnv «rrovevnv fJae;, 610 rnv rrooeAeuOlv roo ooxoiou ' EAAIlVIKOOnveuuoroc Kai rnv i5llllloupytav roO nOAITI01100; LllaTi ouortouv; To Stlla core 6tv elver Stj...la uunoroo tevlKOO OUIl<ptpoVTOe; Kai tv6Iacptpovroe;; Kai tnavaAallj3oVOj...lev: Lllart oicnouv; Tl oUfJj3aivel;
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• Exouv OlappwSei cno TOUe; txspOUe; TOO • ESvoue;, Ii tXOUV aXP'loreuSei on6 T6v euOalj..lQvloj..l6v n;e; tnoxi;e; uoc, tvOlacpep6j..1evoi Kai oaxoAOUj..IeVOIKupiwe; j..It mv eu~wTav TWV. f1'lj..lOOleUOVTee; onuepov 010 npornv cpopov etc PIPAiqv j..It ouunxnocuoTlKO ax6Ala xol noocserouc onueucoeic rnv j..IeMTTlv aUTTlY TOO K. Xnoorm, n;v napaStTOj..leV, n;v noorcooouev TOOapxaiou Kelj..ltvou Kai Ti;e; cnooooe'we; elc rnv ouyxpovov YAwooav uno TOO KaS'lY'lTOO <l>iAoMyou r.x. Mayyivo. OAWV TWV Kelj..leVwV TWV 'OPCPIKWV, TO 6noia 010 npcrnv eoocv tnio'le; tKOiOoVTal elc n;v . EAAoOa AI\I\A KAI hIE8NQr, !-It ueroeoooiv. ax6Ala Kai eounvelov, j..It coroovouucoc Olamorwoele;, wore 0 cvovvoornc va OuvaTOI va tX'l euSue; t~opxi;e; nAnp'l TnV elxovc ii j..IoMov TnV EWOlav Kai TnV o~iav· TWV neplexoj..ltvwv rrou aKOAOUSOOV Kai TWV Kpioewv noo OlaTUnwVOj..lev . . EniO'le; noocaerouev Kai neplsnunv elc TnV . AYYAIKnV Ti;e; eounvetoc TWV «"Yj..IVWV TOO' Opcptwe;» uno TOOK. xcoorm nooc yevlKov xcrcrornopov TWV ~tvwv ernomuovov rrou ayvooOv TnV . EM'lVIKnV, ocpoO Kai eie; TnV ~tV'lV vpouucroxoviov TO «eluevo aUTO elvor ayvwara, otv unopxouv, j..It TOe; oorPOVOj..lIKOe; Olamorwaele; TOO K. Xnocrm Kai j..It TOe; eounveloc Kai TO ax6Ala tnavaAaj..lpo.vOJ,lev rrou O'lj..lOOleUOVTOIonueoov (1984) elc aUTOe;TOe; OeAtOae;. ..Ae; tAniowj..lev 5t OTt OUVT6j..1we; eupeeouv elc TnV . EAAaOa uneueuvor So Kai c5XI tnayyeAj..IaTiOl nOAITIKOi, Kai KOl'lPTIOj..ltVOI nVeUj..IaTIKOi ny£rOl Kai rmrpuorrn aA'lSlvoi, 010 vo a~lonolnOOuv Kai vo npopOAOUV Kat 5leevwe; cure TO aeovara, XP'lOlj..lwraTa Kat KUPIOAe:KTtKWe;eVIKO «eiuevc, nooc uet vtornv t~Un'lptT'lOIV Kai TWV ~tvwv, ol onotoi ernrexouc eo nOUxOOOUV Kai ea nouoouv etc T6 j..ItMov va oywvi~wVTOI Kai VO nooonceouv vo 5laarptuiouv j..It TOUe; OUVe:XI~Oj..ltvoue; KpWYj..lOUe; WV TnV . EM'lVIKnV oMa Kai TnV T naYK60j..llov npoIaropiav Kai'laropiav, ocpoO ea elver cornoucror Kai oveu cnorexsoucroc nMov ai npoonoeeroi TWV, np6e;auOKOTIOIV Kai ncocnotnoiv Ti;e; . laropIKi;e; npaYj..laTIK6TTlTOe; j..Ie:TOTnV 5m.i00ie:uOIv Kai TnV 510500lv TWV epunveueevnov j..It corpovouucoc Olamarwoe:le; Ke:lj..ItVWVTWV ' OPCPIKWV. , AAAa Kai npoc Ocpe:AOe; nc norptooc j..Iae;ea e:IVOIn 510500le; xol n O~IOr nolno.c aUTWv TWV Ke:lj..ItVWV, ocpoO 51' aUTwv eo 51acpwTlOeoov Kai eo ouvei5'lTOnOlnOOUV oneoonnore 0 /\a6e; Kai T6 ..Eevoe; TnV uneooxnv Kai TnV o~iav Tfje; cpuAfjc; TWV . EMnvwv, n onoto orroc e:lVOI cpave:p6v, nTUX'loe: KOla TnV veoreocv nepiooov. acpoO tXe:1 T600v aOlacp6pouc; xoi OlaTi OXI Kai cpeove:poue;, aj..laee:ie; ii Kai oT6Aj..IOUC;,i ncocnxovneevroc tarw, aM' eueoi vwe; epvcoeevrcc KOt tpyasOj..ltvouc; unsp TWV orroursov TWV ~tvwv, nOAITIKOUe; KOt nveuuorucouc nytrae;. Kai aUT6 an05e:IKvUe:TOI cno TnV eruuovov Koi OUOTlltJoTlKnV aOlocpopiav ii Kai rnv npocpavfj a5uvaIJiav TWV vo evvonoouv, vo eounveuouv Kai vo npopaMouv apxaia . EM'lVIKO xeluevo. onwc; cure nou OT}J.lOOIe:OOJ.le:V TOe; enouevoc 0e:Ai5ae; Kai TO onolo onoTe:AOOV e ie; TnV aVatJCPIOPnTTlTOVan60e:1~lv Ti;e; novcoxcicc Karaywyi;e; TfjC; cpuAi;c; uoc Kai TnV oncpxnv, TnV acpe:TIlPiav, TOU acpeaarou . EM'lVIKOO nVe:OlJaTOC; Kai TnV nAliPTJ xoroooosoorv, t~ouetvwolv Kai tKIJTJ5tVIOIV OAWVTWV oveeMIlVIKWVee:WpIWV, tJt roc onolcc elxov KaTaKAUoe:1tJtXPI onuepov tnavaAalJpavouev, oi i5locpopol ~tVOI 5r;eev cpiAol tJac;, OMKAIlPOV T6v K6otJ0v ... h16Tt, xwpic; KalJlJiav une:pPoAliv, scv ouve:Xloefj Kai e:iC; T6 tJtMov n rpovepo «ouvouooto TTJC; uonfic», nou tne:Oe:iXell tJtXPI onuepov cno TOUe; o
27

nOAITIKOU<;Koi nVEUI10TlKOU<;nytTO<; 110<;,eVOVTl TWVUljJiOTWVOUTWVOUI1CPEpovrov TOO" E9vou<;, 6p9w<; Koi ~IKOiw<; 90 noener VOXOPOKTllPl0900v OUTOI w<; npO~OT AI TOO "E9vou<; Koi TOO 1\000. ~IO TfJ<;;OUVEX1£;0I1E:Vll<;; <; 0I1W Olwnfj<; TWV 90 ono~Ei~ouv ernonc, OTl ~UOTUXW<;Mv ElVOl uneueuvoi Koi OUVEI~llTOi nOAITIKOi nytTOl TOO ronou OUTOO. xoi nOTpIWTOl. OAM onAW<; KIVOOVTOI Koi ~poOv w<; EnArrEI\MA TIAI noAITIKOi. «ellPElIOVTEe; MONON TOe; Tl110e; Koi TO KtP~ll» TOO tnovvtAI1QT6e; TWV.. AAM Koi oi OPI16~IOI . AKO~lll1o"iKOi Koi K091lYllToi TWV nOVEmOTlll1iwv KOi TWV oMwv ovoTOTWV nVEUI10TlKWV 'l~puI1OTWV, tOCPOAl1tVW<;Kai KaKw<; 80 nooiorcvouv Koi 0l'lI1EPOV Koi Ei<; T6 I1tMov TOUe;nVEUI10TlKOUe;nytTOe; Koi eo gewpoOvTOI we; K090~llYllToi TOO 1\000 Koi tl1nVEUOTOi, 51500KOAOI Koi uneccornorcl TWV . E9vlKWV i~EW~WV Koi Tfje; Ocp900TllC; nVeUI-I0TIKt;C; KAllPOvoj...liac; TOG "E9vou<;, tcp' ooov ~IO TfJe;Olwnfje; TWV 90 EIvOl nxeov oovepov OTl t~unllPETOOV TOe;_tm~IW~Ele; Koi TO OUl1cptPOVTOoMwv. TWV YVWOTWVOnOUAwv. ~oAiwv Koi acpovwv noxeulov TOO "E9voue; 110e;.Tfje; CPUAfj<; WV . EMnvwv. T nou elxov xol txouv tmOT)~ov9fj ~lOcpopoTp6nw<;. Koi 6n6 rnv nOAatOv 6K6111l tnoxnv. 6M6 xol toxoTwe;. np6 nvoc, KOTllVVtA91looV 6n6 ernonuo XEiAll. ~lll1ooio 1. xwpie; OI1We; xoupiov ouvtXEIOV ii tvtpYEIOV ~UOTUxWe;npoc ovnucrornotv TWV. onwe; tK9tTW ~16 6no~Ei~EWV OUVTPlnTlKWV elc T6 oMo 13113Aiov10U «.H AI\H81NH npO·I·rTOPIA». 1 IQANNHI dHM. nAIIAI

BIBl\lOrPACI>IA
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28

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29

Euplni~ou Tpay~ial Ol;cpop~1'I 1832), Kai avaAoya ap8pa eie; TOV To~ov "TO APXAION EMHNIKON nNEYMA" TIle; . EYKUKAonal~eiae; TOO "HAIOY". tl'lpelCl)Tt:ov 6T1 TO.ap8pa aUTO.nepl TWV!pywv TWVTpaYIKWv, 6nw«; Kai i) 'IOTopia TIle; . EAAI'IVIK;;e;CJ)IAooocplae;,!XOUV ypacpei we; tnl TO nAeiOTOV ano TOV peyaAuTepov . EAAI'IVIcm'Jv T;;e; tnoxiie; pae;, TOY Kwv. rewpyouAnv. ·APIOTOcpaVOUe;,,-OpvI8ec;" oeAI~ee; 58, 61, 67, tK~oOIe; Aelllllae;, TwUpnvep. ·AnoAAo~wpov T6v . A81'1vaiov "nepi 8ewv" (plpAia 3, tK~ooie; BIt:vVI'Ie; 1811), · Hp6~OTOV «IOToplal" (plpAia 1-5), - EK~OOIe;nanupou, . A8;;val 1939 Kai HENRICUS STEIN ,,' HPO~OTOU 'loToplal", BepoAivov 1884, Kai avaAoyov ap8pov eie; Ti)v' EYKUKAonal~eiav TOO "HAIOY". 90UKU~I~l'Iv, PlPAiOV A, tK~oOIe; . Ol;cpop~l'Ie; 1834 Kal . EAeu8. Bevl~tAou 90ul<ulSi~nc; tK~OOIC; 1972 "BlPAlO81\KI'I TWV . EAAl\vwv" £",~£Mla K.A. I:T£PYlonouAou (T6~Ol 5), Kai avaAoyov ap8pov eie; Ti)v . EYKuKAonal~elav TOO "HAIOY ... nu8ay6pav, eie; Aloytvl'IV Aat:pTlQv, JhPAlov VIII odie; 90 tK~oOIe; Aelllliae; OTTONIS HOLTZE, 1870, ele; "npOOWKpaTlKOUe;" H. DIElS To~oe; A odie; 96: EniOlle; pAtne Kai nu8ayopou ..Xpuoa - Enl'l" p&TacppaOIe; . Ep. r. naVTeAaKll, - EK~OOIe;"nAnYPOt .. . A8;;val 1938, Kai nu8ayopae; Euay. tTa~TI'I, . A8;;va11981 Kai avaAoyov ap8pov eie; T6v Topov ..TO AP-XAION EMHNIKON nNEYMA" TIle; . EYKuKAonal~eiae; TOO"HAIOY". · HpaKMlTov, eie; AlOytVI'lV AatpTlov, tK~oOIe; Aelllliae;, 1870, PIPAiovVIII oeAie; 130, eie; H. Diels Topoe; A oeAie; 139 Kai N.I. tnuponouAou ... HpaKAeITOe;», . A8;;vaI1948. · Eniol'le; pAtm: eie; AlOytVl'lV AatpTlov "Bioue; CJ)tAooocpwv»,- EK~OOIe;Aelllliae; OTTONIS HOLTZE 1870, T6poe; A'. 9aA;;e; an6 odi~a 10-20 nepi . Aval;lpaV~pou, . Aval;lptVI'l, . Aval;ayopa, . APXdaOU, t(O)KpQ.TOUC; oeM6a 60-88 Kal nepl t6)'(o)voC;, n\naKOU, Bla, K).e6~ou).ou, nep\an6 avlipou, . Em~evllil'l, Muowvoe;, CJ)epeKuliou, ana o&Ailia 21-60 Kai &ie; TOpOY B' ana oiAilia 3-248, Zl\vwv 6 KITI&ue;, KAeav81'1e;, XpuolnnOe;, . EpnelioKAI'Ie;, :evocpaVI'le;, napp&vilil'le;, Zl\vwv 6 . EAeaTI'le;, MtAloOOe;, EOliol;oe;, A&UKtnnOe;, AI'IP6KpITOe;, npwTayopae;, Aloytvl'le; 6 . AnoAAwvlame;, . Aval;apxoe;, nuppwv 6 . HAeioe;, . EniKoUpOe;. Kai npoe; TOUTOie;pAtne OX&TlKWc;Kai HERMAN DIElS ..npOOWKpaTiKOUe;» T6pol 3, tKlioOle; 1961, 6nou n&P\Aa~PaVOVTal 6Aol oi aVWTtpw CJ)uoloA6yol Kai CJ)IA6ooCPOI &ie; Keli T6pov "T6 . Apxaiov . EAAI'IVlK6v nV&Opa", T;;e; . EYKuKAonalli&iae; TOO ..HAIOY", 6nou &UpiOKeTal nAilpr,e; avaAuou; TOO tpyou Kal TWV 8&wplwv OAQN TWVapXaiwv . EAAiIvwv CJ)IAoo6cpwvKai tuyypacptwv Kal £KTeTaptVl'l P&AtTI'I n&pi TIle; . Apxalae; . EAAl'lvl. Kfje; CJ)IAooocpiae; ai T(;WtmT&UypaTwv Tl'le;,pt ouoTllpaTlKilv aYTInapa8&OIV TWV8ewK PlWV TWVapXalwv Kai TcAW 8ewplwv TWVvewTtpwv CJ)IAoo6cpwv,£K TIle; 6nolae; anoli&lKVU&Tal lITI ai 8ewpial TWV V&WTtpWV, Ii &lval om'lXI'IOIe; Ii OVTlypacpil Kai noAAaKle; lilaoTpoCPil TWV8&WPlWV TWVapxalwv Kal an6 Ti)v 6noiav anOlielKVU&Tal 6T1TlnOT& T6 oopap6v Ii pdAAov TO npwT6Tunov £ntTuxov va lil'l~loupYlioouv oi V&WT&POI. Eniol'le; . pAtn& Kai Popalv PoAAav ... E~n&lioKAile; 6 . AKpayavTivoe;" nlvliapou, p&TaqlpaOle; n.r. A&KaTOd, tKlioOIe; AI'IPI'ITpaKOu, . A8;;val 1938 . . EnIOlle; pAtn& &ie;nAaTWVa ..Tipalov», "KpITiav", ..CJ)ailipov», ..9eaiTI'ITov», ..nOAlT&iav» "KpaTUAov» Kal Kuplwe; eie; ..ropyiav» Kal ..CJ)ailiwva» (K&cpaAalov NH') A&IIIIla 1829, Kai ovaAoya dp8pa TOOT6pou "To' Apxaiov . EAAI'IVIKOVnV&O~a», &ie; Tilv ' EYKUKAonaliSelav TOO "HAIOY .., nAaTwVOe; tupn6010v un6 'Iwav, tUKOUTpfj, tKlSoOle; 'Iwav. KoAAapou, 1934, Kai. EiC; , APlOTOTtAl'lv "MeTaCPUOIKa» I, 3, 4, Kal 12, 2 Kal ..nOAlTIKa, A, B, r, E, Kal «" H81Ka NIKO~aX&la» KecpaA. 1 Kal4 Kal 5 Kal 6 Kal "nepl \IIUX;;e;»I, 5, « n&pl OupavoO» II, 13, ..CJ)uoIKa» I, 4, Kai "M&T&WpoAoYlKa» II, 7 Kai "CJ)uoIOyvwpIKa» (&ie; tKli6o&le; A&l\lllae;, 1829) Kai' K. rewpyouAI'I ' APIOToTtAoue; "npwm CJ)IAooocpla» Kai :eVOqlwVTa "Kupou ' Avapaole;», ,,' EAAI'IVIKa» Kal "tupnoolov" ItOKPATH uno rouA. NTlVTOAqll, A&I\IIla TwUpnv&p 1825. , EmKTilTOU anaVTa TO~012, A' To~oe;' EmKTilTOU lSlaTplpal, KaT' , Applavov, o&Alli&e; 680 Kal B' To~oe; , EmKTi)Tou ' EyxelplliloV, o&Alli&e; 685-738 Kal ' Anoanao~aTa ' Em-

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KT1'JTOU, odU5&C; 739-792. - EKi5oolC;(TunoYPGq,&iov TOMAS WOODWARD, Aovi5ivov 1741 (MDCCXLI). Aoyyivou luov. «n&pi "YllloUC;» -EKi5001C; Aovi5ivou M.DCCXXIV (1724). CDlA6oTPGTOV IJ&Ta~U TCi)V6noiwv «To &iC;Tuavta . AnoAAwvIOV», «BiolloqIlOTCi)V», ... Hpw'iK6C;» «Ntpwv» «" EmOToAai» «EiK6v&C;» K.T.A. ("EKi5001C; TURICI, 184~1846). «luyypaq,&iC; . EPWTlKCi)V A6ywv» (T61J0C;II) • AVTwviou AIOytVOUC; «TCi)vuntp n'lv 90uAI1v onioTwv», tKi5001C; A&lllllac; Twi.ilJnv&p» 1855. - EAAl1v&c; PIiTOp&c;,un6 A&ovopi5ou lntVVKd, A&llllia TWiilJnv&p 1853. ANTHOLOGIA GRAECA un6 HUGO STADTMUELLER, A&llIIla TWiilJnv&p, 1845. BIPYIAiou «Aiv&IOC;» j:hpAia 4 Kai KupiwC; PAtn& ..ll1lJ&IWO&IC;» &iC;plpAia A. (a, p, y) Kai «' Ynool1l-.l&IWO&IC;» &iC;plpAia A, B, r, A, - EKi5001C; Iwav. NOTOPI1,tK TOOAaTlvIKOO, · · A8iival 1890).. EniOl1C;pAtn& m.wTivou«Ai . Evv&oi5&C;» (&ioaywYIi, o&Aii5&C; 4-40) np6KAou «CDUOIKit"Kai ox6Ala &iC;"TilJalov» nAOTc.»VOC;, tniOl1C; np6KAou ..nAaTwvlKit 9&oAoyia» (tKi56o&lC; A&lllliac; Twi.ilJnY&p) Kai «lTOIX&ic.»OIC; £oAoYIKIiIt (tKi5oolC; 8 · O~q,6pi5l1C; 1963, IJt IJ&Toq,paolV &iC;n'lv . EAAnVIKliv (' EKi56o&lC;..nOAuTunolt). TOKITOC;un6 C. CORNELLI,' EKi56'Tr!C; AROLI HALMII, A&llllia Tc.»i.iJ,lnv&p(1856). C •A8. I:TaY&lpITOU «'Qyuyla» T6J,loc; A, o&Ale; 45 (tK6001e; BltWI1e; 1818) CDoAK& 'laKwl3ou «H EAAAl .. (6 1310e; Ci)V. Apxaiwv . EAAftvwv) J,l&Toq,paolC; N.r. T noAiTOU tKi5oole; . A8iival 1887. ELI SEE RECLUS "NOUVELLE GEOGRAPHIE, LA TERRE ET LES HOMMES" -EKi50OIC;naploiwv 1877. nAOUTOPXOU«lulJn6olov»: «n&pi op&OK6VTWV ToiC; q,IAoo6cpOIC;»,1,3 Kai ,t H8IKO" Kai «napaAAI1Aol PiOI».. EniOl1C; ..To . ApyovauTIKO» TOO . AnoAAwviou P06iou, (plpAia II Kai III, OTixol 1192-1198 £Ki5001C;1961 . O~cp6pi5I1C;). Eie; . Applav6v (13ll3Aiov E', K&cpoAalov A, 4 Kai K&cpoAalov E', 8 nepl TOO bTl «6 · AAt~avi5poc; noAAo ol1lJ&ia 6Ial3oo&wc; TOO luovuoou on6 TOe; 'Ivi5iac; OV&OP&v»). · EniOl1C;pAtn& CDOUPVOUTOU ..6&wpia n&pi Tiic; TCi)V8&Ci)v cpuo£wC;» (odic; 305 twc; 365), naAalcpoTou ..n&pi . AniOTwv 'loTopial» (o&AiC; 227-269), . HpaKA&iTOU «n&pi . AniOT&lV» (o£AiC; 285), £iC; . AnoAA6i5wpo1l (tKi5001C; BltvVl'lC; 1804) Kai CD.laAlvloK «' H 'IOTopia TOOTI1A&J,loxou» - EK60olC; B&V&Tiac; (' EV&Til1olv) 1803, Ii «Ai Tuxal TOO TI1A&J.lOXou» Kai nauoaviav «BOIWTlKO», «M&OOl1vlaKo», «' ApKa6IKo», «' HA&laKo» Kai «' ATTIKO" (tKi5oole; A&lllliac; 1827), AIOi5WPOUlIK&AIWTOU ,,'IOTOPIKft 13113Al081iKI1" (13lpAia A', r" Kai E'), · A8l1vaiou «A£lnvooocpIOTai», lTol3aiou «CDUOll(O» (T6J,loc; A' o£AiC; 76) Kai «' Av80A6YIOV», T6J,l0C;B, 2, 3. lTPOl3wvoc; «r&wypacpIKo» (13113Aia Kai 5 KupiwC;) Kai "XPI1OToJ,lo8&lal» (tK6001e; 3 Kopaii, napiolol 1805). 610vuaiou . Al\1Kapvaoot:wc;: "PWlJa"KI'I . ApxaloAoyia" (131l3Aiov (tKi5oole; A&lllliac; A); TwulJnv&p 1840) -Hpwv 6 . AA&~avOp&uc;, un6 Wilhelm Schmidt, 2 T61J01, A&llllia TwiilJnv&p 1899. Hermanns Peter, Historicorum Romanorum (Fragmenta), A£llIIla Twi.ilJnv£p, 1883. ·Iwav. T~tT~11 «AUK6cppwv» odiC; 275 (tKi5oole; PWIJI1e;1803), «' 0 611oaup6C; Tiic; . EAAl1vlKi;C; 'yAwoOl1C;" TOO . EplKOU I:T£q,QVOU EKi5001C; M.DLXXII 1572, T61J01 4). I:ouf6a A£~IK6v, (5 T61J01)tK6001C; A£llIIla Twi.ilJnv£p 1827. I:KapAoTou Bu~aVTiou «A£~IK6v Ti;c; . EAAl'lvlKi;C; rAwoOl1C; (' A8ftval 1907). A£l;IK6v TOOAITTpt EK6oolC; raAAIKIi 1894). I. navTa~ii511 ... OIJI1PlK6v A&~IK6v», IJ&TOnapapn'llJaTOC; MIA' KwvoTavTlvii5n, tK6001(; 'Iwav. I:lotPI1. nauAou KapoAi6n «Ka80AIKIi Ii nay~6olJlo~ 'loTopia«, . A8lival 1894. HERMAN DIELS «npOOWKpaTlKoI», tTtpa -EK60olC; 1954. EDVAR SCHURE ... H rtvVl101C; Tfle; Tpayc.»i5iac; Kai TO • EA&uoivla MuaTflpla", Victor Magnlen «Ta J,lucm'tPla TnC; • EA£uOivoc;" Payot Paris 1938.

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Ferdinand Noack ..EAEYlll" &K6001e; npaYlJaTIKO IJvl'JlJclw61'Je;BcpoAivov - I\cullia ( 1927) ouvoocuolJtVI'J on6 6A6KAI'JPoV T61J0V (i6IaiTcpov) IJt oxc61aYPOIJIJaTa Kai avanapaOToOCIe; T(;.)VKTlpi(,)v Kai T(;.)Vxwp(')v 6AoKAI'\pou TOO icpoO oUVKpoTl'\lJaToc;. A.N. rou6fj "To lJuoTl'\pla Tfje; . EAcuoivoe;" (1935) IJt 0l'JlJavTllO'!v 0XCTIKI'\V131131.10ypacpiav, tpyov cie; T6 6noiov tniol'Je;tmOl'JlJaivcTalli ciKapnOe; npoon08cla 610 n'lv tplJl'Jvciav T(;.)VoUlJl3oAlolJ(;.)v Kai TOO ncpICxolJtvou T(;.)VMUOTI'Jpi(')v. C. Schlymberger, ccBu~avTlvti . Enonolfa». - EK60ole; BII3Alo8tiKI'Je; MapaoAfj 19051906. «" H 8cia rpacpti" (naAalo Kai Nta Ala8JiKI'J) &K6001e; M6axaC; 1821 6anavI'J T~V Z(')oI1JQ6(;')v . . H ccnaAalo Ala8I'\KI'J", &K6001e; I\clllliae;, Mnp6KXooU~ 1880 cie; TI'\V . EAAl'JvlKtiv T61J01 cc'H naAala Ala81'\KI'J" KaTO TOUC; 70KovTa, tK TOO tv MOoxa npWTOTOnou, IJCTaTun(,)8cioa CPPoVTi61 Tile; icpde; luv6lSou Tile; . EAAalSoe;Kai &KlSo6cioa cie; . AS",vae; un6 X. NIKoAaR5ou - CJ>IAa6&Acptwe; 6 QWIJY' (1843). T cc'H KalVJi 61a9JiKI'J" KaTo Tl'\v &K6001V TOOOiKOUIJCVIKOO naTplapxciou KWVOTaVTIvoun6Acwe;, tmlJtAcla e. KOUVTOUpd, &K6001e; MIX· laAll3tpou . A9fjval 1917. cc'H Kalvli Ala91'\KI'J" (Talolciov Tile; . Ayiae; rpacpfje;) C.H. BRUDER, &K6001e; I\cuI/iae; 1888, tntlJtAcla • EAAl'JvIKfje; E:KlS60C we;, icptwe; "wav. K. 6IWTI'J, 'A9;;val 1978. ,,' H naAalo Ala91'\KI'J" un6 T6 cp(;.)e; Tfje; KpITtK;;e;, ·Iwov. Kop60TOU, -EKlSoole; MnouKOUIJOVI'J 1973 . . AyytAou npoKoniou cc6l\a6e; Tile; BiI3Aou»,' A9fjval 1959. c,nI'J60Alov», T;;e; • Op90lS6~ou . EKKAl'Joiae;,ncpltxov 6Aoue; TOUe;icpoOe; Kai 9cioue; Kav6vae;, un6 MovaxoO NIKOlSl'\lJou, tKlSoOle; ·Iwov. NIKoAaR5ou, . A8;;val 1908. ccT6 I3ll3Aiov TOO' EvwX" (xapaKTI'JPlo9tv we; an6KPUcpOV) un6 rpl'JY. KaToapta, &K6001e; lnavoO, . A9;;vat 1973. "To' An6Kpucpa EuayytAla» &KlSoOle;I\culliae; 1853. - Exci ypacpci IJt 1300lv TOUe; 0l'JlJaVTlKwTtpoue; . EAAI'JVIKOUe; Kai l\aTlVIKOUe; KwlSIKae;, un6 C. TISCHNDORF (t~c6691'J Kai cie; TI'\V . EAAl'JvIKl'\v, un6 TOO tK60TIKOO OiKOU lnavoO T6 1972. n.N. TpClJntAa ,,' AnoAoYI'JTlKai M&AtTal", &K6001e; Ze.,I'\, . A9;;val 1930. ccT6 Kopavlov" IJcTacppao9tv tK 1'00 • Apa131KoO un6 rcpaailolou I. nCVTOKI'J Kai tK609tv un6 . AvtoTI'J KwvOTaVTlvilSl'J, . A9;;val 1886. cc'0 MwolJc9» TOO OUOOIYKTOV-EPI3CYK, &KlSOOIe;. EAcu9cpdUlSOKI'J 1930. «" 0 Bou6101J6c;» TOOPYS NTAIBINTS (IJCTocppaOIe;B. PWTa, &KlSOOle; EAcu9cpou. 6OKI'J 1931 . A9;;val . ..BpaXlJavloIJ6e;» I3Atnc ,,'lvlSIKO" 61'J1J· raAavoO (nPWTI'J IJCTocppaole;), &KlSoOIe;navernernutou . A9l'Jv(;.)v 1854. TAO'I'lMOl, KONCJ>OYKllMOl, cc'H 'loTopia T(;.)VepI'JOKCI(;.)V"TOO P.O. CHANTER IE DE LA SAUSSA YE IJCTocppaOIe;cie; TJiV . EAAI'JVIKJivA. 6aAc~iou, tK60ole; MIX. laAtl3tpou . A9fjval1924 Kai avoAoya cip9pa, cie; n'lv . EYKuKAonallSciav TOOccHI\IOY". cc'H npO'jC1TOPIIO'! Av9p(')n6TI1e;" TOO M. HOLLEBECQUE . 1928. cc'H . Apxaia 'IVlSIKJi M. HOLLEBECQUE (1924). Oi . Apxaiol AiyunTiol GUSTAVE SEQUIER (1926). DEGOUY CHALLAYE - LEROU VIDAUD - Kiva, 'Ianwvia, ell3tT, Kopta (1925) Kai clvaAoya cip9pa Tfje; 'EYKuKAonallSciae; ccHI\IOY". naYK6olJloe; Mu90Aoyia TOOPlentv, nttYK6olJl0e; Mu90Aoyia TOONTCOOPIJ,.naYK6OIJIOe;Mu90Aoyia TOO NTunpt Kai . A9. lTayclpiTOI1 cc'Qyuyia", . EAAI'JVIIO'! ai naYK6K OIJIOe;Mu90Aoyia Kai npO·iOTopia. N. KOT~lci ,,' H 'IOTopia T;;e; CJ>IAooocpiae;" 61J0e; A' ocAilSce; 7-65 (1876) .. Eniol1C; T I3Atnc K. l09a ccMvl'JlJcia . EAAl'JvIKfje; . IOTopiae;" (cpwToTumKJi avaTunwOIe; un6 BaoiA. rpl'JyoplOlSl1, - EKlSoole; 1972, T61J01 9) . . AKalSl'JlJa'iKo. AvayvwolJaTa, rcwp. N. XaT~l'JlSoKI'J, T61J012 &KlSOOIe; n.6. laKcAapiou . A9f'1val 1902 Kai TOO ilSiou cc'IOTopia Tf'le; . EAAl'JvIKf'le;rAwOOI1e;" . EKlSoole; 1915. Wer .. JAEGER (nallScia) IJCTOcppaOIe; ie; TI'\V . EAAl1vIKl'\v un6 r. Bcppoiou, 6nou 6 c

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32

61C~lC""JOe;; r£p~ov6e;; . EAAllvlcm'le;; XOpaKT11Pi~1 n;V tni6poolv TOU . Opqllo~oO £ie;;n;v . EAAllvIKi)V CDIAooocpiov Koi Ti)V . H8IK08PIlOK£UTlKi)V t~tAI~IV, we;;aA~o ~Ta T6 700 n.X. (odie;; 203). G. HEGEL c. H CDIAooocpio TOU nV£U~OTOe;;(CDolvo~£voAoyio Koi IIIUxoAoyio TOO nV£U~OTOe;;),M£TaqlpOOIe;;£ie;;n;V . EAAIlVIKi)V Koi cK6001e;; . AVOyYWOTi61l, . A8t;vol Koi KaVT .. E~~. ccnpoA£y6~£vo» £ie;; n;V KPITlKi)V TOO K080poO II.6you. M£TaqlpaOIe;; «OiKOUI3I~Mou", . A8t;vol Koi e. KopAaUA «Oi ..Hpw£e;;», cK6001e;; laAll3tpou, . A8t;vol 1923. J.W.N. Sulliwan 'Limitations of Science', (Ai KOTOKTi)o£le;; t;e;;. Emon;~Ile;; yupw an6 T Ta ~£yaAo npoI3AiJ~oTO), "EK6001e;;£ie;;Ti)V . EAAllvIKi)V un6 «CDiAOI OOBII3Aiou», 1947. T HENRY SCHLIEMANN (IXAi~ov), «" H Tpoio", cK6001e;;II.ov6ivou 1884 ~t oql80vov £iKovoypaqlIlOIV, Koi MARTIN D. NILSSON 'THE MINDAN-MYCENAEAN,RELIGION, LUND 19~_". "El3ove;;, «IKpinTo Mlvwo" Koi T£TpQTO~OV cpyov «Ta avaKTopo TOO Mivwoe;;.. I(oi Ko131306io..npo'ioToPIKi) . APxoloAoyio» Koi cc' 10Topio Tt;e;; txvlle;;" cK6001e;;1916,Kpi T «T6 i£p6v TOO' AOKAllmou" "EK6001e;; . A8t;vol 1960, Koi Xp. ToouVTo «MUKt;vOI" Koi r1 ~VIl~£lw61le;; cK6001e;;nl «npO'iOTOPIKOi . AKpon6Ai:Ie;; ItoKAou Koi dl~llviou" KOi' H 'loTopio Tt;e;; . Apxoioe;; . EAAllvlKt;c;; Ttxvlle;; ~£"a ~75 £iK6vwv, . A8t;vol 1928. A.n: AP0130VTIVOO cc'AOKAllm6e;; Koi . AOKAllm£lo" II.£llIIio 1907. · 10Kw13ouew~onouAou T6 KAoOIK6v cpyov TOU ccn£AOOYIKa"; EK6001e;; 912 Koi . Ava. 1 A. nonoYlovvonouAou - noAolou «' Apxoiol . EAAIlVIKOi . EmYPoqloi», Inupou MoplvaTou cc'0 . Apxoioe;; KpIlTlK6e;; noAITl0~6e;;", cK6001e;;=£V. E. IT£pYla60u, 1927. dll~. e£oXapll ceN£oAI8IKi) . EAAae;;" Koi «Ta npo'ioToplKa 8£~tAlo TOU . EAAIlVIKOU noAlTlo~oO", £ie;; . APXoloAoYIKa . AvaA£KTo . A8llvwv, T6~0e;; II.. Eniolle;; I3Atn£ BtvTple;; Koi ToaYKou'iK «MUKllvo'iKa K£i~£vo" (1956) Koi cc'H rpo~~IKi) ypoqli) B" TOU ToaVTVou'iK, (' A8t;vol 1963) · AVTlvouapxou n.E. KWVOTO cc'H NOUTlKi) . Hy£~ovio TWV MUKIlVWV" Koi icH npotA£uole;; TWV . EAAi)vwv» TOU . Ap. nouAlovou, Koi cc'H KOTOYWYr'J WV KPI1T TWV" TOU i6iou. cc'0 Aiyaioe;; noAITl0~6e;;" TOO rKA6T~, II.£ovap6 rouAA£U ceAiavaoKaqlai £ie;; Ti)V Oup" - KaTaypaqlli &pyaolwv 6w6£Ka &TWV" (£ie;; M£aOnOTa~iav an6 T6 1920-1932). ANDRE PARROT 'SUMER' "EK60ole;; CALLIMARD, 1960 Kai v£wTtpa cK6001e;; 1981. ANDRE PARROT 'ASSUR', Nta cK6001e;; CALLIMARD 1969. KURT BITTEL, 'LES HITTITES', cK6001c,;CALLIMARD 1976, (vta cK6001e;;)Kai un6 LOUIS DELAPORTE, 'LES HITTITES', ~t 34 qlwToypaqli£e;;, cK6001e;;L' EVOLUTION DE L' HUMANITE, napiol 1936 Kai 'LES TRESORS de BABY LONE, tK6001e;; PRINCESSE, napiol 1981. RENE DUSSAUD, LES CIVILISATIONS PREHELLENIQUES, PARIS 1914. ED. SCHURE ceOi M£yaAol MOOTal", . EK66TI1e;; . ApyuPI1e;; nana~r'Jone;, . A8iivOl
1940.

«Oi . ApXI~£TaAAoupyoi TOO n6VTOU" TOU rep. Kav61lAamou Kai cc'ATAaVTaiol oi npwTon6poi Tt;e;; Eupwnl1e;;", TOU Bao. Tcrrcipnocn ~t apK£Tte; nAIlPOqlopi£e;; 61a Tae;;T£A£uTaiae;; OI1~aVTIKae; . APXaloAoYIKae; aVaOKOqlae; TWVIoI3IETlKWV, ~ETa T6 1950, Eie;;Tae; n£ploxae; TOU EU~Eivou n6VTOU. cc'H MIVW'iKi) rpaq,i)" TOU Kwv. KTiOTonouAou Kai ce'Av90Aoyia cipxaiwv K£I~£VWV" Euay. ITa~aTI1. · AnoAAwviou KwvlKa, uno Euay. ITa~aTI1, . A8iival 1975. dlocpavoue;; . API8~I1T1Ka, un6 EuayytAou ITa~aTI1, . A8iivol 1963. EUKA£i6ou ITolx£ia, 5 T6~01, un6 EuayytAou ITa~aTI1, cK6001e; II.£lljJiac; Twi.i~nvEp

1969.

Euay. ITa~aTIl,

EUKA£i60u rEW~ETpia,

. A8iival

1958 Kai
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IToIX&ia EUKA&USouI.L. HEIBERG, TO~ol 9, ..EK6ootc; J\cllilia TwU~nvcp 1883 Kai tniOTlC; ~Atn& ' Euay. ITa~aTIl, ....AnaVTa TOO . APXI~,,6ouC;", CK6001C; • A9nvwv . ..MaK&6ovia Kai MaK&66v&C;" TOO' AVT. K&pa~onouAou, ,,' H nAaOToypaqlllolC; n;c; 'IOTOpiac; n;c; MaK&6oviac;", un6 N.K. MapTll, 'A9fjval 1983. BaoiA. BtUa "J\6yol KaT' 'Aniwvoc; (a' p') tK6001C; nanupou 1938. rlOVVI'l CJ)oupaKIl ,,' E~paiol: Oi nAaoToYpQqlOI n;c; 'IOTopia~" . EK660clC; rpa~~1'1 1982. ,,' H KaTaywyli TWV apxaiwv MaK&66vwv» TOO nay. rU6Ka, VOYAGE DU JEUNE ANACHARSIS EN GRECE, PAR.J.J. BARTHELEMY, CHEZ FIRMIN DIDOT, PARIS 1843, ouvo6&u6~cvov an6 T6v E:K609tvTa cic; Tf)v BltvvT'JV rcwypaqllK6v ..ATAavTa T6 1837 . . , AAqlptVT Kai Mwpic; Kpoua~lt, ..' H 'loTopia n;c; , Apxaiac; 'EAAnVIKi\c; AOYOTCxviac;", ..EK6oolc; 'A911VWV nanupou 1938, ALBIN LESKY ,,' H 'loTopia TfjC; , Apxaiac; 'EAAllvIKfjC; J\oyoTcxviac;", ~&TaqlpaOIC; r, ToOnavaKl1, ..EK6oolc; 9&00aAoviKI1 1964, Kai HERMAN BENGTSON ..' H 'loTopia Tfjc; 'Apxaiac; 'EAAa6oc;", cK6001C; cic; Tf)v 'EAAl1vlKliv ..MtAlooa", 'AAc~av6pou PaYKa~fj "J\&~IK6v TfjC; 'EAAI1VIKfjC; 'APXaloAoyiac;, A, 9&pclavoO ..' A6a~aVTloc; KopafjC; (T&pytOTI1 1889), , A6a~avTiou Kopafj ..np66po~oc; , EAAllvIKfjC; PI~AI091iKIlC;" napiolol, ..EK6oolc; CJ)IPuiviou AI66TOU, (DIDOT), ncpltxwv Kai KAau6iou AiAlavoO n'lv ..nOIKiAI1V 'Joroplcv» Kai Ta ow~6~cva ' HpaKA&i6ou TOOnOVTIKOOKai NIKoA, Aaj.laOKIlVOO (' EK660clC; 6anoVIl TWV a6&Aqlwv Zwolj.la6wv), 'Aooj.l, Kopali 'EntOTOAai tK609&ioal ciC; 'A9livac; T61885 E:ntjJ&Aeia NIK, M, AajJaAn (1805), T6 ..Apyoc; 61a jJtoou TWVaic;,vwv" TOOrcp, ZCYKivll Kai Tf)v tv61aqltpouoav j.lcAtTIlV TOO ::, Aipa «" H AiYl1ic;", tjJn&plOTaTwjJtvll ~&AtTI1 ~t nA&ioTac; avaqlopac; ciC; Tliv 'EYKuKAonal6&iav TOO "HJ\IOY" (T6~oC; ..EJ\J\AI,,), ,,' H 'IOTopia TOO 'EAAI1VIKOO ..E9vouC;" K, nanapl1yonouAou, CK6001C; 'AvtOTll KwvOTavTlvi611 'A9fjval 1886 (npc;,TIl cK6001C;T6~ol 5) Kai vcwTtpa 511tK6001C; tnt~tACla nauAou KapoAi611 T6~ol 9 ~cTa npo0911KWV Kai OIl~&Ic;,Of"WVKai ~t nAlipll KaTaAoyov 'EAAlivwv Kai ~tvwv ouvypaqltwv rrou cypalllav 'EUI1VIKliv 'IOTopiav ii OXCTlKOC;~ovoypaqliac;, ciC; T6v rexeurctov T6~ov TOO cpyou, Kai tniollC; ~Atnc T6 ..EMAI", Tp&iC; T6~OI, 611Aa61i Ii 'loTopia n;c; 'EAAa6oC; an6 Tf)v anwTaTI1V apxal6TI1Ta jJtXPI TwvlijJ&pwV jJac; (1982), cK6001C;n;c; 'EYKuKAonal6ciac; TOO..HJ\IOY" ~t nAouolWTOTI1V CiKOVOYPOqll10lv, ..' H 'loTopia TfjC; PWOOIKfjC; UToKpaTopiac;", un6 N, Kapa~&I~lvOO (~cTaqlpaOIC; K. A KpoKl6a) . A9fjval 1856 cK6001C; X, NIKoAaRSou - CJ)IAa6cAqltwc::T6~ol 12, Kai avaAoyov ap9pov siC; Tliv 'EYKuKAonal6&iav TOO ..HJ\IOY", 'H 'IOTopia n;c; '09wjJavlKfjc; AUToKpaTopiac; un6 'I, Xa~~cp (jJcTaqlpaOIC; K. KPOKI6a), CK6001C;X.N. CJ)tAa6cAqltwc; 'A9fjval 1844, T6~ol 6, Kai clvoAoyov ap9pov ciC; T6v T6~ov «J\aoi n;c; , AvaToAfjc;" TfjC; 'EYKuKAonal6ciac; TOO ..HJ\IOY", 'H 'IOTopia n;c; raAAiac;, clvoAoyov ap9pov ciC; TI;V 'EYKuKAonal6&iav TOO"HJ\IOy" Kai . . H "lercpte n;c; raAAIKfjc; 'EnavaOTooewc; un6 F. Mignet Kal A. Mathiez 1876, cc' H 'loTopia TfjC; 'ITaAiac;", ~t clvaAoyov ap9pov clC; Tliv 'EYKUKAonal6ciav TOO « HAIOY .., 'H 'IOTopia n;c; , AyyAiac; MaKc;,A&U, jJcTaqlpa09cioa un6 'E~, Poi~I1, CK600tc; ~IPAI09nKI1C; MapaoAfj 1908 T6~ol 6 Kai 'loTopia TfjC; 'AyyAiac; , AVTpt Mwpoua cK6001C; 'A9fjval 1954, Kai avaAoyov ap9pov siC; TnV . EYKuKAonal6ciav TOO ..HJ\IOY .., 'H 'IOTopia ..Twv 'Hvwj.ltvwv nOAIT&IWV" n;c; , Aj.lcpIKfjC; un6 MnpavT6v (~cTaqlpaOIV I. KapaPici) cK6001C; , A9fjval 1930, Kai ANDRE MAUROIS ..' H ' 10Topia TWV . Hvw-

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~VWV nOAI1'£LCi;v "EK6oolC; N. 'YOPKl1C; 1943, lCai av6Aoyov lap9pov &iC;n'Jv 'EylCu.., ICAonal6&iav TOO ..HAlOY ... navay. Kav&AAonouAou ..' H 'IOTopia TOO Eupc.;nailCoO nV&UIJaTOC;", "&6001C; ..Oi CJ)iAolTOO BIJlAiou" Kui JlIJlAiov reu ..6 KapA Map~ .., .. EAAIlVIICOC; nOAITlOIJOC;Kai ... t~&AIICTIKf! TOU nop&ia" TOO 'EA&u9&piou npolCOU, 'H OXtOIC; T(;)V M&OOllViwv npoc; TOUC;A91lvaiouc; lCai TOUC; Iwvac; .. TOOnay, r&Wp' " YOUT~OU(' AVOTunov onO TO n&pl06IICOV ..nAOTWV» 1980) 'Hp060TOC; &iC; Ti)V Aiyumov .. TOO 'lw01'tcp BOYK, ..TO np(;)Tov KIVOOVOKiYllTOV KaT' 'ApIOToTtAIlV" lCai ..Ai n&pi XpOvou aVTIAi)lI'&IC; TOO . ApIOTOT&Aoue;», . EIJn&PIOTaTWIJtYll IJ&AtTIl Tilc; XplOTivae; K. Zi)OIl . •c H r&wypacplKf! . Ev6TIlC; TOU EAAIlVIKOOM&OOY&laKOOxwpou» TOO . AA&~. Iivou, (TOIJoe; A odi6&e; 94-95 Kai T6IJO«; B odi6&C; 179-182 K,A.) .c H 'IOTopia Tile; ropTuviae;» TOO 'Iwov. KOUTOOUKOU,. Eniolle; TOO I.B. I&pOIJ (C,W, CERAM) "6&oi, TocpolKai 10cpol», "EK6001C; Kai e:ic;n'Jv . EAAIlVIKf!v (' A9i1val r&IJ&T~onouAou), IJt 9auIJaoiav avoAuolv T(;)VavaoKacp(;)v Kai T(;)Vtpe:uv(;)v T(;)V apxaloA6ywv &iC; lIAae; TOC;n&pIOXOe; TOO K60IJou. CJ)ouPlwTll . AvvtAou ..npOOIJIlPIKoi nemrec» (J\ivoc; - anoKaAumlKf! IJ&AtTr) 610 TOe; C5laOTpOcpOe; napanoli)O&Ie; T(;)V ~tvwv, tni npoownwv Tile; npo"iOTopiae;, Kai Mivae; Zwypocpou « ' AIJa~6v&e;» (tKC5oole; &ie; Ti)V raAAIKi)v . A9ilval 19721. . EniOlle; JlAtn& &ie; Cambridge, Ancient T6IJoe; V, 10 oeAie; 103 Kai 66p Xay&pvTaA ..T6 K6v-TiKI" Kai IaJla r&wpyiou ..T6 T~&iC5t Tile; Xapde;" Kai T6 Ta~&iC51 Tile; 'lanwviC5oe; "AAte; . ToOUYK XOYK&P, 1'1 6noia T6 KaAoKaipt TOO 1984 &ie; C5looTllIJa 78 nIJ&p(;)v Kai IJt oKdcpoe; 9 IJtTPWV C5tt.nA&uo& IJ6Vll Kai &ie; 1'IAtKiav 63 tT(;)V T6v EiPllVIK6v . QK&av6v, an6 T6v" Aytov CJ)paYKioKoV&ie;Ti)V KaYKooiIJa Tile; 'Ianwviae;, tK T(;)V 6noiwv cinoC5&tKVU&TatOTt IJt npwT6yova IJtoa C5lanAtoVTal Kai oi)IJ&POV oi ·QK&avoi. Kai Kupiwe; pAtn& «" Apxaioue; ..EAAIlvae; r&wypocpoue;" (eKC5oote;BltvV'le; 2 T6IJOI, 1804-1808). Kai IJ&Ta~U aUT(;)v (&ie; A' T6IJov) ..n&pinA<?ue;" IKuAaKoe; KapuavC5ptwe;, tni 4ap&iou, o&A, 7-109, 'AvwvuIJoU ..Eu~&ivou n6VTOU Kai MatwTtC5oe; IJYIle; t~&P&UM VIlole;", o&A. 111-139, . Aya9t'lI.ttpou TOO - Op9wvoe; « n&pi naAalWv y&wypacpwv" o&A. 141-190, . AyaeapxiC50u ..n&pinAoue; . Epuepde; 6aAOoolle;", o&A. 193-258, - Avwvoe;, KapXIlC5oviou BaotAtwe; ..n&pinAoue;" o&A, 260-267, . ApplavoO ·..n&pinAoue; Eu~&ivou n6VTOU" o&A. 270-333, N&oPXou ..napanAoue;" o&A. 337-373, MapKlavoC. . HpaKA&wTOU « n&pinAoue;" oeA. 374-454' -(evea Kai n&ptypacpn ayvwOTOe; IJtXPI Tile; tnoxile; TOU, (380 IJ.X.) nepl 'IvC5tKile; ntpav TOO rayyou Kai nept Itv(;)v (Ktvt~wv) IJt C51&peUVllOtV T(;)VcivaTOAtK(;)VaKT(;)v Tile; Kivae;, tKTao&We; 2650 oTaC5iwv, cin6 oeA. 408-453). - . ApT&IJtC5wpou TOO . Ecp&oiou, «TeIJoXta Tilf; 'EntTOIJile; T(;)V 11 PIPAiwv ~TOU"an6 o&AiC5oe; 455-476), « MapTupiat Kai TeIJaXta" Mevinnou nepyaIJIlvoO o&A, 455-456, 4tKatapXou ..Bioe; . EAAoC5oe;"oeA. 479-504, 'lotC5wpou XapaKflvoO "napetKoi OTaeIJoi" o&A. 507513, IKUIJvOU TOO Xiou "neptnYflOte;" o&A. 516-556, nAOuTapxou «Flepl nOTaIJ(;)v Kai opwv tnwvuIJiae;" o&}.. 557-605, "XPfloTOIJOe&tat" tK T(;)VTOOITpal3wvoe; "rewypacptKc;,V» (~tVIOTOV ~tpo«: n:w 13113Aiwv OO 6noiou txouv anwA&oeil) o&A. 609-812. T Kai B' T6IJOC;tK6oate; BltvVr)e;, 1808, nepltxwv 41ovuoiou "OiKOUIJtvfl«: n&pn'lYneic», IJ&Ta T(;)Vnap&IJPoA(;)v TOO EuoTaeiou, an6 oeA. 6-262 (onou unopxouv anetpot Kai A&mOIJ&ptoTaTOt nAflPocpopial nepi . Apxato&AAt'!vwv Kai n&Aaoy(;)v &ie; UnOOllIJ&tWO&te;,an6 od. 6-192 Kai tcp&~ile;). 'ApptavoO Ii ~dAAov . AvwvuIJoU « n&pinAoue; Eu~Eivou Ilovrou» (trtpou rewypacpou auyypacptwe; ayvwoToU) o&A. 266-276, nTO IJaiou ..Kavwv tntaJiIJwv n6A&wv n&pi . ApaJliac; Kai T(;)V . AOT&ptOIJWVtKe&Ote;" o&A. 279-392, . AvwvuIJoU ..napacppaole; &ie;Ti)V 4tovuoiou n&ptt'!YflOtV", IJt nap&Kl3oAae; Kai cinoonaoIJaTa ycwypacptKa», oet: 393-530 Kai . AIJnouA CJ)cC5aIOj.lanA ..Apal3oe; l3aot. Atwe; 'AnaIJ&iae; « tK TWV ycwypacptKWV ntvaKwv" . ..AnaVTa Ta avwTtpw tpya TWVapxaiwv r&wypacpwv m:pttxouv cicpavTaoTov nAoOTOV nAnpocpopl(;)v, nep] T(;)VnapaC560&wv Kai n&pi T(;)VKtvi)O&WV T(;)V. ApxatoeAAt'!vwv, T(;)V rlcAaoy(;)v Ka~ T(;)V . EAAr')vwv KaTa Tr')VnpOIOTOptKr')V ncpioC5ov cie; TJiV Mco6yctOV, T6v Eu~etvov n6VTOV, n;v . Apal3tKr')v Kai . Epuepav eaAaooav, Tr')V 'IvC5tKt'!VKai KtVC~tKr')V 9clAacr.;av, T6v . ATAavTtK6v . QKcav6v Kai ntpav aUT(;)v np6e; Tr')V . AIJ&pt-

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KtlV, TO~ 6nola~ nAIlPOqlOpla~ 01 ~tVOI 6ii8&v OOqlOI tp&UVIlTal oKonl~w~ l'lyv61l0av, 6nw~ qlalv&Tal on6 TO tpya TWV, nou &ival K&VO on6 napo~ola~ nIlYO~, nAnv tAaxiOTWVn&pmT(i)O&WV, tvw tyvc;,PI~OV Kai yvwpi~ouv, OTi ouC5&~ia napoC5oolC;, !Cal ouC5£~la 'loTopia, ou6&v6~ l\aoO, n&pltX&1 Ii naptX&1 T600v OniOT&UTOVnAoOTov nAil poqlOPIWV, 'E~' Ieou o~w~ 01l~aVTIK6v i:pyov T6 6noiov n&pltX&1 T&POOTIOVnAoOTov nAIlPOqlOPIWV,610 TnV ~wnv Kal TnV 6pCiolv TWVnpO'iOTOPIKWV. EAAnvwv, Kai OAwv TWV6AAwv oPxalwv I\awv, &ival Ii n&VTOTO~O~,,' QYUl'la .. TOO' A8av. ITaY&lpITOU, Ka81lYllTOU Tii~ . EAAIlVIKii~ yAc;,OOIl~ &i~ nlV . AKa61l~lav TWV . AvaToAIKWV yAwoowv Tft~ BltVVIl~, ~&Ta~U TOO 1796 Kal 1820. T6 n&VTOTO~OVaUT6 Kal KaTanAIlKTIK6v i:pyov, ouv&ToX81l Kai t~&6681l ~t TnV OUv&pyaolav TOO n&plqltl~OU PlPAl081lKapiou T1;~ BIPAI08tlKIl~ Tii~ BltvVIl~ Xoa~& Kal TOO . AC5a~aVTlou Kopaii. n&pltX&1 6t - Onw~ ovaYPOql&Tal etc TO n&pl&x6~&va tKOOTOU T6~ou, Onw~ Kal &i~ TO n&pl&x6~&va TOU E' repou TOU i:pyou - 'IOToplav 6Awv TWV . ApxalOTOTWV 'Eevwv, ii TWV 6uo npWTwv aiwvwv, TOU «" A6tlAou .. Kal TOO,,' Hpw'iKOO.. TnV "loroplav Tii~ Koo~oyovia~, e&oyovia~, TtlV opxJiv Kai np60C5ov Tiic; EiC5wAoAaTpla~ Kal noOll~ KnOToAaTP&la~, TO~ 'I&ponpa~la~, . lepooKonla~, Mu80AoYIav nAIlP&OTOTIlV (OIl~&IWOI~: ouC5&~la on6 TOe;YVWOTOe; OT&A&OTOTae; :tvae; Kai 'EAAIlVIKOe; Mu80AoYlae; Plontv, NT&OOP~ NTunpt Kal 6.AAwv, C5uvaTal VO OUYKPl8ii ~t au,",v TtlV A&nTo~&p&OTOTIlV Mu80AoYlav) n&pl 8&wv Kal ' Hpc;,wv, ~t y&v&aAoyiae; OaqlIlVI~o~tvae;, 610 Tfte; 'loTopiae; Kai . AAAllyopiae;, Toe; T&A&TOc;"TOUe; . Ayc;,vae;, TO MaVT&'ia Kai 8&oyoviae; OAwv TWV opxaiwv . E9vwv Tiie; . AvaToAi;e;, Tiie; Eupc;,nlle; Kai Tiie; . A~&pIKiie; "Kai navrc TO OU~P&PIlK6Ta, ou~paVTa Kai i:91~a TWV I\awv, np6c; nAIlP&OTtpav YVWOlv (KaTav61l0lv Kai tK~091l0IV) Tfje; . APXaloAoyiae; Kai KaToAlllIIlV (KaTav61l0Iv) TWV opxaiwv nOlllTWv Kai Iuyypaqltwv». np6K&ITal n&pi nV&U~aTlKOO tpyou OV&KTI~nTOUo~iae; Kai XPIlOI~WTOTOU&ie; oiovC5tlnOT& . IOTOPIK6v Kai tp&UVllnlV, . Eniolle; nptn&1 vo npoOT&9ii np6e; YVWOIV TWV tv6Iaql&po~tvwv tp&UVIlTWV, On &ie; T6 TtAoe; TOO E Teuou TI;e; ,,' Qyuyiae; » n&pltx&Tal KaT" AAqlaPIlTlKtlv o&lpav Kai TO~IV niva~ "Kupiwv 6VO~OTWV(o&Aie; 385-476) "niva~ npay~aTlK6e; .. (6VO~OTWV ~t tp~llv&iae;, o&Aie; 477-514) niva~ r&wypaqlIK6e; (0&Aie; 515-549) niva~ 6VO~OTWV OAwv TWV . Apxaiwv . A9AIlTWV (o&Aie; 550-558) niva~ T&XVIlTWV (o&Aie; 559-563) niva~ TWVtv TW K&I~tvw ovaql&po~tvwv Iuyypaqltwv (0&Aie; 564-571) icai niva~ TWV ovacp&po~tvwv &ie; TOe;unOOll~&Ic;,O&Ie; . EAAnvwv Kai ~tvwv Iuyypaqltwv (o&Aie; 572-576), Kai T6 tpyov aUT6, 6nwe; Kai oi C5uoT6~01 TWV . Apxaiwv 'EAAnvwv r&wYPoqlwv, nou oVaqltpoVTal ciVWTtpW, &ie; aUnlv TtlV PlpAloypaqliav, 6tv t~&6691l0av nore &ie; TnV 'EAA06a .. E~&6691l0av KaTO TO 1804-1820 uevov &ie; TnV BltvvllV, Kai 6tv &ival 6.oKonov vo A&X9i;, OTi oyvooOVTal, nMv tAaxiOTwv iowe;, on6 TOUe;..EAAllvae; 6Iavoou~tvoue; Kai nV&U~aTlKOUe; liytTae;, i6iwe; TOUe;OIl~&pIVOUe;, OqloO &ie; Kavtva tpyov TOUe; ~tXPI Otl~&POV Kai &ie; Ka~~iav PIPAloypaqliav TOUe;,6tv ciVaqltpoVTal aUTO TO tpya, Onwe; Kai 6AAa noAAo, nou n&pltxoVTOI &ie;au,",v TnV PlpAloypaqliav Kai TO 6noia &ival OX&TlKO ~t TnV npo'ioTopiav . . AAAo X&lpoTtpav TaKTIKliv IiKoAou91l0av Kai oKoAou900v Kai c;,PIO~tvOI oUY~POVOI ..EAAIlV&e; 6ii9&v ouyypaql&ie;, 6na60i TOO 'IOTOPIKOO uAlo~oO Kai TWV 9&wp1WV TOO Mop~, ai 6noial txouv ~&n&paoe&i on~&POV (1984) &ie; 6Aae; TOe;tA&u9tpae; xc;,pae; Tfte; Eupc;,nlle; Kai TnV . A~&pIKnV, 6nou Ii tA&u8&pia Tfte; tKqlpOO&We; Kai Tfte; 6poo&we; TWV ciT6~wv, TWV av9pc;,nwv, &ival ci6to~&UT6e;, Kai Ii 6.v060e; Tfje; vtae; 6&~lde; &ival toxoTWe; t~qlavlie; Kai txouv tYKaTaA&lql8ii Kai &ie; TnV MtKKav TOO KO~~OUVIO~OO, nlV Pwoiav, (pAtn& Kai PIPAiov uou "T6 ..EyKAIl~a Tiie; . EmaTli~Il~"), oi enoto: au9alptTwe;, xwpie; Ka~~iav PIPAloypaqliav Kai ~t nAnPIl n&plqlp6Vll0lV np6e; TO cipxaia K&i~&va, TOe;ciPxaloAoYIKOe; 6Iamarc;,0&1e; Kai ovaKaAulII&Ie;, 616T1TOe;oyvooOv oi ci~a9toTaTOI, t~aKoAou800v vo TpauAi~ouv TOe;KOvlopTOnOI1l8&ioae; np6 noAAoO naAaloe; 9&wpia~ nepl . Iv60&upwnaiwv, nou, ijA90v Kai KaTtKTIlOaV nlV ' EAAoC5aKai 6.AAa ciouOTaTa lII&u60Aoytl~aTa Kai ~U8&U~aTa ciouOToAa Kai OarnplKTa n&pi MaK&66vwv nou 6tv &ival 'EAAIlVIKli qluM, On 6 Mtyae; . AAt~av6poe; ijTO IA~Ooe; Kai 6AA&e; 09AI6TIlT&e; ouvaywvl~6~&vol &ie; TOOTO,Ii tnIlP&a~6~&vol cin6 TOe;civ9&AAIlVIKOe; 611~OOI&UO&Ie;TOOn&pIPOnTOU i6pu~aTOe; 4payov, ai 6noial C51l~OOI&UOVTal toxoTWe; Kai

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eic TI'lv Eupwnrw (raAAiav), nie; H.n.A., T6v Kavai5dv Kai Tl'lv AUOTpaAiav, &iC;i51aql6pouc tqln~&pii5ac; Kai ~1~Aia, xwpie; Ka~~iav ouoTn~aTlKliv Kai CVTOVOV aVTii5paoLV ifje; , EAAnV1Kfje;Ku~&pvJiocwc; Ii TWV ap~oi5iwv nVCU~anKWV liYCTWV, (~Atnc Kai ~1~Aiov ~OU .< H . AAnelVt1 npo"ioTopia") onou cK~ni5cvi~ovTal KaTa rperrcv OUVTpmTlK6v, ~t OT01X&la ai5laOC10Ta, TO.napa~Uela TWV ai516pewTWV Ii a~aeCOTaTWV aUTWV . EAMvwv, i5fjecv ouyypaqltwv). ntpov o~wC; TWVavaqlcpo~tvwv uno TWVaVWTE:pWapxaiwv . E,\,vrvwv ouyypaq1E:WV, qlaiVCTal OTl, oi npo"ioTOP1KOi " EAAnvce; cixov KaTcueuvefj Kai np6 TOOKoA6~~ou qlU01KO ciC; Tt1V ~6PC10V Koi N6nov . A~CplKliv. Kai ncpi aUTwv ~Atnc Koi n:uxii510v rcpaoi~ou KoAal'rou nAOlapXOU «" Oi5uootwe; ncpinAouc;" (tKi5oetv cie; 'leOKnV Koi cie; Tt1V . AyyA1KJiv T6v 'IOUV10V TOO 1958) Kai cie; T6 ~1~Aiov TfjC; . EvpltTTae; MtPT~ ..The Wine Dark Sea" (CKi5oo1e;I1KayOU 1965). T6 ~1~Aiov euptcseror Kai ciC;TJiV ~eVlKt1V ~1~A10eliKnV Kai TI'lv ~1~A10eliKl1V Tfie; . APXOlOAoY1Kfje;. ETalpciae; . Aenvwv, tov i5tv CXCI t~OqlaV10eCI ! . Yn6 TfjC;MtPT~ aVaqltpcTal Ii ncpmAtlvnOle; TOO' Oi5uootwe; &ie; Tt1V B6pC10V 'A~CP1Kliv, Kai (ncpi TWV K1Vliocwv TOO 6noiou napaetTo~CV Kai &ii51KouC;XapTae;, i5n~oolcuetvTae; i510 npWTnV qlOPOV, eie; T6v A' Teuov, ocAii5ce; 48-49, Tlie; . EYKuKAonali5ciae; TOU «HJ\IOY .., KaT6mv cuycvoOe; tKxwpliocwe; aUTwv un6 Tlie; ouyypaqltwe;) .. H ii5ia i5t unoOTnpi~cl Koi anoi5clKvucl ~OOCI TWVaOTpovo~lKWVnAnpOqlOplWV, nou ncpltxoVTal cie; TO .< ApyovaUTlKa ... AnoAAwviou TOOP0i5iou, OTl Kai 01 ' ApyovaUTal np6 TOO . Oi5uootwe; ~cTt~noav cie; Tliv N6nov . A~eplKIi\" qleaOaVTcc; Koi cioxwplioavTce; cie; Tliv ~np6v ~cTa~u TWV ouv6P.wv Bpa~lAiae; Koi Oupouyoua1"l'"::, onou cuptenoov Kai mvaKii5ce; ~t tAAnV1KO ypa~~aTa, TpCIe; tK TWV 6noiwv Kai i5nl-001CUOVTal, KaTo napaXWpn01V Tfie; ii5iae; ouyypaqltwe; cie; T6v A' T6~OV ocAii5ce; 48- ~9 Tfje; . EYKuKAonali5ciac; TOU ..HJ\IOY .. Kai cie; T6 nap6v ~l~AiOV. 'H MtPT~ aVaqlCPCl ~oAlOTa Kai apKcTae; n6Acle; Tfje; Bpa~lAiae;, nou Kai Ot1~,.,:pov CXouv apxaia 'EAAnV1KO eveuero Kai ncplmwoCle; avcuptocwe; cie; TOe;'Hvw~cvae; nOA1Tciae; Tfje; 'A~cplKfje; apxaiwv KTlo~aTwv, nou cnp6i51i5ov navapxaiav 'EUnV1Kliv nooexeuerv Kai tnii5paolv Kai TO enotc KaTtOTpc",av ai Ku~CpVnnKai 'Ynnpcoial, (OXCTlKWe; Atnc T6 ~1~Aiov uou c< H . Mnelvt1 npo"iOTopia" Kai cie; T6 ~1~Aiov "ATJ\AN~ TII .. Tfje; Evp. MtPT~ cKi5oo1e;I1KOYOV 1974) onou Acmo~cptoTcpOV CKTieCVTal oAa TO avwTtpw), tvw 6 ToopAe; MntpA1T~ cie; T6 ~1~AiOVTOU ..MuoTlipla an6 K6o~oue; ~cxoo~tvoue;" (ocAie; 282) - T6 ~1~Aiov tyypOq1n ~t Tt1V ouvcpyaoiav 20 ~tvwv YVWcJTWV tmOTn~6vwv - napoetTcl At~cle; 'EAAnV1KOC;,curouotoc nou ncpltxovTal ciC; Tliv yAwooav TWVXa~avt~wv .. An6 noAAtle; i5t qlWToYPoqliae; Kai nAnpoq1opiae; nou i5n~oOICUCI cie; T6 ~1~Aiov TOU, ~cTa~u TWV ocAii5wv 64-65, 160-161 Koi 240-241, (cuvoxov 32 qlWToypaqllwv) 6 nClpoo~6e; napaKlvcl T6v ~CACTnTliv vo unoeton, on Kai oi ayvwOTOUnpocAcuocwe; apxalol . A~cplKavlKoi noxrneuo! TWV . AT~tKWV, TWV "lvKae; Kai TWV Mayuae;, npoliAeov Kai ti5n~loupYlienoav tin6 McooyclaKOe; Kupiwe; tmi5poocle;, on we; ~c~alwvouv I(ai 6 MntpA1T~ Kaili MtPT~. Kai tncli5li Kavtvae; aAAoe; apxaloe; J\a6c;, nAliv TWV . ApxaocAAt1vwv, TWV KUKAai51Twv, TWVMlvw"iKWV Kai TWVMUKnvaiwv, Kai TWV ' EAAJivwv Tfje; 'loToplKfje; nCPl6i5ou, i5tv cixcv tmi50efj cie; Tt1VvauomAoiav, KOTOTl'JVnpO"iOTopIKl'JVauTl'Jv neptoeov, oui56Awe; anoKAeicTal, ~CTti TOUe;. Apyovauroc Kai T6v . Oi5uoota Ii Kai np6 aUTwv kai aAAol ToA~npoi "EAAnvce; eaAaooon6pol, ayvwOTol cie; li~dC;, ncpceupeuevo. an6 "T6 rK6AqI-ITPt1~" vo Cqleaoav cie; Tt1V . A~cP1Kliv, npoocAKU6~cVOI Kai tin6 nAnpoqlopiae; naAaloTtpwv, i5lCiT6v aqleOVOv Xpuo6v ceT6xpuoo~a'\ov i5tpac;" - TO onolov Koi 1'1 MtPT~ TonoecTcl ciC; Tliv NOTloV . A~CP1Kliv " Kai Td~ noAUTiIlOU~ ntTpac;: nou unfjpxov Kai unopxouv Koi o1'l~cpov (1984) tKci, 6nwc; liTO Koi Ii "pay~onK6TnC; Kai onwe; tinci5cixen Koi tin6 T1'lVAcnAuaiov Kai Tliv nAouoiav Aciav nou ancK6~loav, oi npwTol 'Ionavoi tmi5po~CIC; KaTo Tt1V V(;WTtpav CnOxt1v. . MAa i5l0 nAnpcOTtpav tvn~tpwOlV tni TWV tiVWTtpW tKT6e; TWV oowv napaetTw eic; T6 ~l~Aiov uou "H AJ\H9INH npO'I'ITOPIA", ~Atnc Kai T6 ~1~Aiov TOOHenri Stierlin, ..L' ART AZTEGUE" cKi5oo1e; 1982, Office du Livre. S.A. Fribourg Suisse) o£Aii5ce; 30, 74-76, qlwToypaqliac; ~t ox"~aTa nupa~ti5wv, ocAtC; 72 KTio~a, {mwc; Ii ciooi5oe; TOO TaqlOU TOO' ATptwc; elc Tae; MUKfjvac;, ocAii5ce; 111 Kai 112, Koo~tli~aTa, 6nwe; • E:AAnvl37

Ka >ApxalKa, KoAlt ~t ~IKpa Kp&~aOTa ~&Aavi6Ia Kai 6AAa axr')~aTa K.T.A. nou &ival 6YVWOTa Kai wC; Oxr')~aTa, Kai WC;npotA&uolC; ft 6n~loUpyr')~aTa KaAAIT&XVIKOaAAwv tnoxwv naAalwv Kai I\awv. >Enionc; ~Atn& T6 ~1~Aiov TOO Simone Waisbard L' ART INCAS tK6001C; 1980, >ATAaVTic; Verlag. S.A. Zurich Kai tK6001C; 1980 naploiwv (Edition Arthaud Paris) o&Ai6&C; 65, 73, 76 Kai eic; 6AAac; &iK6vac; TOO ~1~AiOU, nou t~cpavil:&1 TOlx060~iav, Onwc; TWVapxaiwv . EAAnVIKWVKnO~OTwv Kai oxr')~aTa nupa~i6wv, 6~oiwC; Kai O&AiC;125 xwpoC; 9&aTpOU ~t K&PKi6&C;,nou 000 9u~il:ouv 9taTpov apxaiov . EAAnv1K6v. >Enionc; ~Atn& Kai T6 V&WT&POV ~1~Aiov TOU Henri Stierlin L' ART INCAS Office du Livre S.A. Fribourg, tK6001C; 1983 (Suisse), ertou &ie; Tae; o&Ai6ae; 173, 174 Kai 257 napaTi9&VTal cpwToypacpiec; nou t~cpavil:ouv KTio~aTa apxaiou . EAAnVIKOU (MuKnva'iKou) pu9~oO, &iC;Tac; o&Ai6ac; 166-167, KTio~aTa OUV&xo~tvwv oiKIWV OUVOIKIO~OO,Onwc; TOO ItOKAou Kai AI~nviou Kai &iC;Tr')v eixovo 163 napaTigeTal Kon, T6 aniOT&UTOV npay~an, aUa aAn9toTaTOV. Q)wToypa!pia nOTnplOO Ilt ~IaKoo~lioelC; . EAAnVIKOU Malav6pou (rKptKa) 610. va tmp&l3au;,an Tr')V anoljJlv T1ic; MtPTl: Kai TOO MntpAITl:, On apxalotAAnv&C; &ixov cpeaO&1&iC;Tr')VK&VTPIKr')V . A~&PIKr')V Kai &Ixov &io6uo&1 &iC;T6 tOWT&PIK6v TWVn&pIOXWV, enou av&muX9noav Karernv Kai ave6eix9noav tK&i, oi . Al:TtKOI,oi Mayuac; Kai oi ·lvKac; .. Enionc; ~Atn& Kai T6 ~1~Aiov TOO Henri Stierlin L'ART MAYA tK6001C; 1981 Office du Livre S.A. Fribourg, Suisse, cpwToypacpiec; 145, 149, 159, 166, 179, 187 ~t axr')~aTa an6 61acpopa KTiO~Ta tm6paoewc; AiyalC1. ,,,iie; Kai Ilt nupa~i6ac;, nou 6tv 6~0Ia~ouv Ka96Aou Ilt Tac; AiyunnaKac;, 9u~i~ouv o~wC; Tliv AaTpeuTIKr')v ouvr')9&lav TOO Mivwoc; rrou avr')pX&TO &iC;T6 6poC; 61a va ouvo~IAei ~t T6v 9&6v, ouvr')9&la Ii '6noia ~&T&cptp9n apy6T&POV un6 TWV KPI1TWVnpocpavWc; Kai &ie; Tr')VAiyunTov, Onou avnytp9noav Kai tK&i nUPGlli6&C; Kal &iC;Ti:aV:EoUIl&piav, 6nou acp90voOv ai AaTp&UTIKOi A6cpOI- TO ZlyKoupaT - an6 6nou tniane;, 6nAa61i tK TWVKpnTWV Kai Ii tni6paolC; tni TOOMwUotwc; nou KaTt!puy&V &iC;T6 OpOC;,6u) va Aa~n Tae; 10 tVToAae; an6 T6v . lax~t Kai Ii 6noia AaTP&UTIKIi ouvli9&la 6tv anoKA&ieTal va eix& ~eTa!pe9il an6 navapxaioue; Kpii','ae; 9aAaooon6pouc; Kai eic; T1'lV KeVTplK1'lv 'AllepIK1'lv, 616TI nupalli6ec; 6oxeTec; WC; ~op!pli an6 Tac; AiyunTlaKac;, 6tv aVaqltpoVTal nougeva aUou we; unapxouoal KaTa Tae; npoloToplKae; aUTac; nepI660ue;. . Enianc; Kal eic; rnv KOIA66a TOO MIOIOOlnli, aql90voOv ol ayvwOTou npoeAeuoewc; ~uoTflPlw6elC; A6cpOI, tvw an6 Tac; tpeuvac; Tiic; . Evp. MtPT~ tni TWV«" ApyovauTIKwv» . AnoAAwviou TOOP06iou Kai Tf\c; «" 06uooeiaC;1> TOO' Ollilpou ane6eix9n (~Atne Kaj ~1~Aiov uou •• H . AAn9lvr') npoloTopia») On T600voj . ApyovaOTal eeev Kai 6 . 06uoo&uC; eixov cp9aoel Kai eic; Tilv . A~epIKliv, jowc; 6t np6 aUTwv Kai 6AAoi npOIOTOplKOi ..EUnv&c; 9aAaooon6pol. T6 n&plepy6T&pOY 6~wC; ~t TOUC;-lvKac;, . ATl:tKOUC; Kai Mayuac; elver, on noAM an6 Ta 61aow9tvTa KTiO~aTa aUTwv TWV I\awv Kai KupiwC; TWV -lvKac;, OOU9u~il:ouv (~Atn& qlwToYPGCPiac;tVT6C; TWV avwTtpw ~1~Aiwv) Kai ~aAloTa xwpiC; ~&yaAnv npoOnae&laV Tilc; qlaVTaoiac; oou Kai pu9~ouC; Bul:avTlvouc; TOO40u Kai Sou aiwvoc; ~.X., Onwc; 6 pu9~6C; TWVtKKAnOIWV TOO>Ayiou r&wpyiou, POT6VTa, (4 aiwv ~.X.) nic; . Ayiac; IOqIiac; (SOC;aiwv) Kai Tf\c; 6&OT6KOU Tf\c; . AX&lponolr') rou Tiic; 6&ooaAoviKnC; (5 aiwv ~.X.) XPOVIKr')n&pi060C; KaTa Tr')V 6noiav npo0610pil:&Tal un6 TWV tp&UVnTWV Kai Ii npwTn t~cpavr')c; t~tAI~IC; Kai r') T&XVIKrl avanTu~lC; TWV noAlTlo~wv TWV I\awv aUTwv Tf\c; K&VTPIKilc; . AIl&PIKlic;· . Eav &iC;Ta avwTtpw npoOT&9ii On &iC;Tr')VyAwooav K&TooOa ft KOulToouac; TWV-lvKac; unapxouv apK&Ttc; At~&IC; . EAAnvIKtc;, Onwc; Kai elc Tac; yAWaoac; TWV . Al:TtKwv, TWV Mayuac; Kai TWVnoAuvnoiwv TOOEipnVIKOO, Ii m9av6Tnc; On oi I\aoi aUToi Tilc; . A~&PIKilc;, va untoTfloav tm6pao&u; apXalo&AAilvwv, nou tql9aoav &iC;Tac; n&ploxaC; aUTac; ~t Tr')V ~0r')9&lav, ft napaoup9tVT&C; cm6 T6 rK6Acp ITPr')~, npoo&yyil:&1 tKnAnKTIKac; npay~aTl 6IamOTwoelC;, 61a Tr')v 6paolv TWV . APXaloeUr')vwv Kai Tilv anpo0616pIOTOV qlUOIKa npOIOTOplKilv n&pi060v, KaTa Tr')V 6noiav £ql9aoav OUTOI &iC; Tilv . A~eplKavlKilv - Hnerpov. Kai m9avw!:; va t~nYn9&i Kai T6 ~uOTliplO TWVayaA~aTwv Tilc; VI'!OOU'TOO naoxa, eic; T6v N6Tlov EipnVIK6v, acpou elva I 6uvaT6v apxalotAAnv&c; va 61ilA90v tK&i9&v, tql' eoov &iC;Tr')VnoAuvnoiav oi KaTOIKOI tv9u~oOVTal WC; &UKOUC; A TOUe;npovevouc TWV Kai &iC;Tliv yAwooav TWVKaToiKWV Tf\c; Xa~anc;, unapxouv aUTOUOlal At~&IC; . EAAl1vlKai (a&T6C;, Nouc;, Mav9avw, l\a6c;,

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M£Aw6ia, cp8(lvw Kai 6U£e;) pAtn£ Kai icMuon'lPla an6 ~£xao~tvoue; ~6o~oue;», TOOI, MntpAIT~ odie; 282 Kai an6 odi6£e; 12-25 Kai an6 32 twe; 53 Kai 115 teai tql£~fje;), Kai I.B. I£pa~ "8£oi, Tacpol Kai IOqIoi» an6 o£Ai6£e; 388 nept . A~TtKWV, ToATtKwv Kai ~tXPI 406 n£pi vtwv, ~AAovnK(;)v tp£uv(;)v T(;)V tmcmw6vwv, aqloO, ~e; yvwoT6v, Ii 'IOTOPIK1'!'Kai y£vlKa Ii . ApxaloAoYIKIi tp£uva £ie; T6 8t~a Tfje; npoloTopiae; t~qlav(;)e; KapKlvopaT£i Kai ouv£n(;)e; 6tv yvwpi~o~£v nOiae; tKnAit~£Ie; ~ae; tmqluAaoo£1 Kai an6 Tfje; nA&upOe; aLI'Tfje;T6 ~tUOY. (pAtn£ Kupiwe; Kai PIPAiov uou ,,' H ' AA1181Vitnpo"""opia» tni TOOavwTtpw 8t~aTOe;, 6nou ~t ci6uio£IOTa OTolX£ia Kai ~t Tf)V pof)8£lav T(;)V , AOTPOVO~IK(;)V6lamOTwo£wv TOO K, Xaoanll Kai Tfie; 'Evp, MtPT~, ANAdIAP8PQNETAl nI\HPQI, OXI MONON H EI\I\HNIKH AI\I\A KAI H nArKOIMIOI npO'I'ITOPIA. XP£Ia~£Tal va npoOT&8fj 6ui TitV ci~lomOTiav TOO MntpAIT~, tni T(;)V 8£~aTWv alJT(;)v, on £ie; Tae; npWTae; o£Ai6ae; TOO tpyou TOU "MuOTitPla an6 ~&xao~tvoue; K6o~oue;», 6 MntpAIT~ ypacp£1 Kai Ta t~fje;: «" 0 ouyypacp£ue; tm8u~£i - lSl1AalSf)6 MntpAIT~ - va £uxapIOn;ol1 Yla TitV ouv£pyaoia TOU T6v T~, Mavoov BaA&vTalv, d6KTopa Tfje; CDIAooocpiae;, 'Enin~ov ' Em8£wPllTit TOO"Mouo&u;>u Tfje; , Eman;~I1e; TOOMa'ia~l» Kai MtAoe; Tfje; 'O~alSae; 'Ep£uv(;)v TOO "Mouo£iou Mnioon» Tfje; XovoAouAoO, '0 dp, BaA£vTalv npooqltp&1 0' aUT6 T6 PIPAio n;v ~aKp6xpoVll n£ipa TOU, Tie; 8£wpice; TOU Kai Ta £lipr;~aTa TOU O)(£TIKa ~t npo'ioTopIKr; apxalo,\oyia, noli' npay~aTonoirro£ ot cinoOToAtc; OTf)v KCVTPIKit Kai N6no ' A~CPIK1'l, oTa vll0la ~iT~I, on; Xapall, on; Nta ZI1Aav6ia, OTitv 'lpAav6ia, an; I\anwvia, OT" B6pclo 'AqlPIKit, ertc Kavaplce;, oTie; dUTIKte; 'Iv6i&e; Kai 'oTie; Mnaxa~£e;, 6nou OUVtXIO& Tie; tp&Uvte; TOU Yla TOUe;noAITIo~oue; nou xa811Kav OTie;~oOyKA&e;, OTa pouva, ertc onllAltc; Kai KaTw an6 Tf)V 8aAaooa. Oi n£ploo6T&P£C; qlwToypaqli&e; aUToO TOOPIPAiou nap811Kav 0' aUTte; Tie;anoOToAte; Kai noAAte; 611~OOI&UOVTalt6(;) Yla npwTTI cpopa», 'Eniolle; Kai Ii Mtpr~ &ie; T6 PIPAiov TTle;,,' ArAaVTiC;», 6nou napa8tT£1 Kai tva KpllnK6v ni80v ~t 6,"AoOe; n&AtK&Ie;, neu av£upt811 &ie; Titv n&ploxitv - AvlSpoe; - Mm~ivl, &ie; rae; Mnaxa~ae;, avacptp&ral &ie; Tae; tpyaoiae; TOO BaA£vOTalv (pAtn£ Kai PIPAiov uou "H AI\H81NH npO'I'ITOPIA», Kai tmnpoo8tTwe; npooayw, 61a r6 y&yov6e;, r6 cpalv6~&vov, on Ii npolOTopia KapKIVOpaT&i, ii OTpayyaAi~Tal £ie; Tae; x&ipae; OnouAwv Kai KaTax80viwv 6IWKT(;)V Tile;, Kai Titv 6la~apTupiav TOU avacp&po~tvou avwTtpw ouyypacptwc; Kai tp&UVllTOU Tfje; npO'iOTopiae;, I,B. I&pa~, 6 6noioe; £ie; T6 PIPAiov TOU ,,8&oi, Tacpol, Kai IOqIoi», 6tv 610Ta~&1 va tmKpiv&1 xwpie; Ka~~iav tmcpuAa~lv Kai TOUe;, A~£pIKavOUe; Kai TOUe; Eupwnaioue; apxaloA6youe; Kai 6AAoue; &i6IKOUe; tmOTit~ovae;, 616n, tv(;), lip&UVllOav Kai tp&uvoOV Tae; Xwpae; rfje; M£oonoTa~iae; Kai T"v,AiyunTOv, anoql&uyouv va ciO«oA1180uv Kai 6tv tp&UVOUV tmoTa~tvwe; Tae; Xwpae; Tfie; K&VTpIKfje; 'A~&pIKfje; nou t~l1oav Kai aV&nTux8110av oi -lvKae;, oi ' A~TtKOI, oi ToATtKol Kai oi Mayuae;, Kai onou &IXOV 611~loupYlio&1 a~16Aoyoue; naAalouc; noAlTlo~oue;. CDalv6~&vov r6 6noiov ioxu&1 ~C; yvwOT6v Kai 61a T1'IV. EAAci6a, lSla T6v . EAAllVIK6v X(;)pov, 6 6noioe; &IVal cpav£p6v Kai naoiyvwOTov, 6n 6tv tX&1 tp&UVI18&i tnapK(;)e;, tv(;) an6 noAu naAaI6T&pa, oAol "~pinou oi I;;CVOl cp~uv'lTai Kai (Juvvpacpeic; eixov anocpav8ei KaTllyopll~anlC(;)e;, on oi "EAAllV&e; 6tv iloav aUT6x8ov&e;, Ylly&v&iC; &iC;T1'IV. EAAa6a, on ilA80v Kai tYKaTcoTa811oav etc n'lv . EAAcilSa,cin6 aUae; xwpae;, OTI T6 apxaiov . EAAllVIK6v nv£u~ci rrou aV&nTUx811 Kai tAa~ip&v cie; T6v rerrov aUT6v, £Ival lSaV&IOV, T6 tnfjpav oi "EAAllV&e; an6 TOUe;Ka8uOT£pll~tvoue;, onwe; an06&IKVU&Tall\aoue; Tfje; , AvaTo,\fic; Kai r1'lv A'iyunrov, Kai Ta aUa yvwoTa ~u8£u~aTa, nou xovropronorouvrm nMov tln6 Ttl 'OpcplKa Kai rac; r&A£UTaiac; 'ApxaloAoYIKac; tlVaOKaqlae; &iC; Tf)V . EAAa6a, , Onwo6f)noT£ Ii tlnaVTll01e; tni oAwv aUT(;)v £UpiOK&Tal vo~i~w £ie; Tae; KaTayy&Aiae; Kai rae; cinOKaAuip£le; Tfje; ,.Evp, MtPT~ 61a T1'IV. EAAnvIK1'Iv Kai TI'Iv naYK6o~lov npoIoroplav, nou n£pltxovral cie; re PIPAiov uou ,,' H' AA1181v1'l npo'ioropia», onou tKTi8cTal tnione;, OTt «ol op~66lal 'A~cplKavlKai unnp&oial KaT£u8uv6~cval, ii tnllp&a~6~cval an6 YVWOTOUe; oA&~ioue; TOO . EAAllvIO~OO, nou clval Kai o1'l~&POV yvwoToi, n TOUe; 'Eppaioue; IlwvIOTae;, oUoTTl~anKwe; cicpavi~ouv Tac; ano6&i~&Ie; nou unfjpxov, 610 T1'IV61cio6uolv 'Apxalo£AA1'Ivwv (' Apyovaur(;)v, '06uootwc; Kai aAAwv tlKoAou8we;) &ie; T1'IV'A~CPIK1'IV, KaTa T1'IVnpo'ioTopIK1'Iv n&pio6ov, tm6IwKOVT&e; va KaToonl-

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39

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Tat; an6q1elt; TOU, ac'5laq>opov tav eival aihal, bnwt; ou~l3aivel ouvrWwt;, Kai evcvrtov lJat;!! , AAA' Ii eu9uv'l lJat; c'5ev OTaIJaTti OUTe tc'5W. A16n, T6 noAuOT6xaOTOv Kai noAuouvgeTov apxaiov rrveuuc c'5tv elval c'5uvaT6v va yiv'l eUK6Awt; aVTlA'lm6v an6 TOut; 1Jr; tnalovTat; (KaT'lpTlO~tvOut;), ai c'5t q>lA6n~01 npoorrcSelal TWV . EAAJivwv q>lAoA6ywv c'5tv tnapKoOv. Atv elvm c'5uvaT6v n.x., q>lA6Aoyot;, IJIi yvwpi~wv ' AOTpovo~iav, va tmc'509ii eit; TI;V axoAiaolv Tiit; .. ' AAlJaytOT'lt;" TOO nToAe~aiou, il aK61J'l Kai TOO ..Tumicu» TOO nAaTwvot;. OUTW, napt~elvav ~tXPI or;~epov, c'5UOTUXG>t;, TeAeiwe;; ave~epeUV'lTa apKeTa tpya apxaiwv . EAAJivwv Kai Ii ooq>ia TWV nponoropov lJac; t~aKoAougei va elval o.YVWOTOC;, napa Tliv unap~lv ypamwv IJv'llJeiwv (onw<; onooeucvuerrn Koi cno TO . Opq>IKO). To yeyovo<; TOOTOelxc Koi uiov OKOlJn onouootorepov ouveneiov .. Evw oMoxoO eneorporeuenoov IJ08nIJOTlKOi Koi 00TPOV0t101~10 vo uexernoouv . AooupoacauxoVIOKO<;mvoKi~o<;oi ncnupouc Alvurmoxouc, ii xstuevo 'IV~IKO, nooc t~oKpi[3WOlv TWV yvwoewv TW\ o,)xoiwv OUTWVAowv, oMo Koi ~10 mv XpovoMynolv TWV ernreuYIJOTWVTWV (TWV oocv slxov ernruxei) Koi Tr;<; tv ytvel iOTOpio<;'TWV, 1300eloOTpovOIJIi<WVlJe80fiwv, Ii,",cie;; napec'5tx9rllJev aventq>uAclKT(o)e;; 60a uneOTr;pl~av ~tvOI ouyypaq>e', -..(c'51aTr;V xwpav ~ae;;), 6T1 c'5'lAac'5r;l3aPl3apa Kai ~aAloTa 1Jr; . EAA'lviKa q>OAa Ka7~Kouv Tr;V' EAAac'5a npo rou 1100n.X. KaioTI EAA'lVIKr; ioroplc ilpXI~e 1J6~lC; an6 TOO 876 n.X. Kai 1J6AIOTOKOTO rponov oAw<; nopMo~ov xni oVe~tlYnTOV, ~10 Tr;<; tlJq>ovioew<; tvo<; 8aUIJOTo<;, T6 onotov t~e~nAw8Tl elc T6v enouevov Koi T6v ueeenouevov aiwvo' ~16 TOO 80UIJOTO<; Tr;<; . IWVIKr;<; Kai Tfi<; nuaovocetou OOTPOVOIJIKfj<;oxoAfjc; Koi TWV lJeyoAwv Ooq>Wv. "vAa, Ta npo TOUTWV, tAoyio9t'loav un6 TWV ~tvwv c'5iigev tpeUV'lTWV, we;; ~0901 Kai ernereo9'l OTI Ii ooq>ia TeAeiwe;; ~aq>vIKa tveq>avio9'l T6v 70v aF:'va! Koi Mv elXov noptA8el nope uovov MKa rpin neplnou €TT'j, (6 xoocrmc yp' pel T6 1965) OTOV, uero TtlV oV6YVWOlV Tfic; palJl1lKfjC; poq>fje; B' , oi ~tvOI Kai na: IV aneq>aoloav va avayvwpioouv, 6T1 Ii . EAA'lVIK1j iOTopia apxi~el TouAclXIOTOV 400 tT'l npiv (15, 169), on ol MUK'lVaiol Kai oi KpiiTee;; l10av ..EAA'lvec; Kai OXI... ' ETPOOOKOI(15, 27, 37, 43, 52) Koi On TO vporrro xeiuevo Tfic; . EMnVIKfje; yAwoone; KoMmouv nepiooov 33 aiwvwv (14,493), bonY, nAl']v ('iowe;) Tfie; ~lvIKfje;, (Klve~IKfje;) Mv KaMmel KOIJIJio aMn yAwooo TOO K601J0U*3 . . Yn' OUTOC;,Aom6v, TOe; ouv8l']KO<; cmn~IWOOj.leV (ol "EMnvee;) vc eoeuvnoouev o.n e'iXOlJeV w<; KAnpovOlJiov uoc, o.n tl~lel<; Koi 1J6VOl Koi neoiooorepov ncvroc aMou ri~uvol1e8a vo ~lepeuvrioWl1ev Kal ac'5la~apTUpr;TWC; tc'5tx9'l~ev va Taq>ii eie;; Tr;V aq>avelav T6 . EAA'lvIK6v nveO~a Kai yevlKwTepov Ii . EAAac;, Ii np6 TOO 80u aiwvoe;;, AOYlo9tVTwv aK6~t'l !Cal aUTwv TWV . O~'lPIKWV tnwv, we;;c'5laAalJl3av6VTwv (neplex6VTwv) ~uSeu~aTa*4.

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veosn crro roc;; 6poooac;; (yuvalKac;; rr;c;; 6pOKnC;;) Kai erocn elc rnv ..AVTloaav, ro onuepivov xwpiov ral3aeo n;e;; I\tol3ou il slc rol\eil3nepa, rnv onusoivnv Aerrroxcpuov, napa rov "Oxuunov, onou tow2:ero 0 roepoc;; rou OKOjJn jJtXPI rG>v Xp6vwv TOO M. 'AAe~oviSpou, eptpU>v en' ourou Koi «~6ovov» E:K xunoolooou. "Onec ovaeptpel 0 Flcuoovlcc (X 7), orov I3paiSUTepov uer _eptp8noav ro ooro TOU elc T6 b.iov n;c;; nlepiae;;, nAnjJjJupioae;; 0 norcuoc I:T']e;;,0 onuepivoc; ZnAlavoc;;, «rrenovnoe TO l\eil3n8pa, errore t~nepavi08n Kai 0 TOepOC;; TOO 'OpeptWC;;. , S' .0 . OVOIJOKPlTOC; Kaj TO CC· OpqnKO», Mero~u TG>VtTG>V 527 Kai 514 n.X., apxe:1 etc TOC;;'A8T']vae;; a uioc roO nelOl(l. pcrou "lrmcpxoc. OUTOe;;ouvsxoornosv ernrpormv, i] onoto ovtAal3e ro epyov rr;', ouvxevroooeoc OAWVrG>v "OpqnKG>V,iSnAaiST']OAWV rG>v napaiSliSojJtvwv, jJtXPI rors, ono oroucroc elc orouo, iSla ueoou rG>v nkovcov, nveuucnxov iSnjJlOUPV11jJorwv rou ' Opeptwe;; Kai rG>v jJa8nrG>v rou, onouocuorepoc rG>v onolov uniip~e 6 Mouaaio.;5, 6 npwTOe; yvwOT6e; "EAAllY aarpov6~oe; 6 TI;e; anWTCI'Trle; apxaI6Tr1TO';. (Kai etc rnv rteoirrrootv aurT']v iSlaepeuyel roO xcoorm i] nxnoocooto roO NriAC;;- «Flpoocncporucol», T6jJoC;; A, oeAic;; 3) OTi oi novcpxrnor "EMl1vee;; eypaepov ro iSlavOl;jJaro rev Kai tnt AemG>v oovtocv). , EK rG>v noorccrcrccvrcv jJeAG>vrf)c;; tmrponfjc;; rournc, onwc;; ovaepE:pel 6 'Hp6i5oroc;; (VII 6), nro 0 "Ovoucxcrroc (560-490 n.X.) Kai Karo ncoov meovomro ot KtPKWl.jJ Kai Bpovrlvoc, nepi rG>v onotov ojJlAei 0 KMjJnc;; 0 ' AAe~aviSpeuc;; (I:rpwjJarelc I Keep. 21, 131, 3-5). '0 "Ovouoxorroc jJQAIOra eTxe uicv oueevnxomrc we;; oUAAoyeuc;;, iSlan noxoiorepov 0 nornp roO 'Innopxou, a neloiorparoe;;, elxev 0va8toel eic;; curov rnv OUYKE:VTPWOlV xol KaraypaepT']v Ka[ rG>v 'OjJI1PIKG>V E:nG>v. napa rouro, 0 iSli56oKaAoe;;roO nlvi56pou Aoooc 6 'EPjJIOVe:UC;;,«crnvoonos rov .'Ovoucxprrov, OTi slc rnv evepvouuevnv ouMoyT']v rG>v 'OpepIKG>Vnape:vtl3aAe Ka[ ueoucouc [iSIKOUC;; rou ortxouc, ol onolor cveeeoovro etc rnv Karo13u810lV KanOIWV vnoov nAnO[WV rfjc;; l\T']jJVOU. T600v i5t jJeyaAn onucotc ane:i56811 e[c;; Ti]V tv hOvw napejJl3OMjV, wore, onwc;; Myel 6 'Hp65oroc;; (VII 6), iSlO rccro Ka[ uovov 6 "Innooxoc E:~WPIOe: ov 'OVOjJaKPlrOV. T6 tv hOyw yeyov6c;; ernrpener vo exnunoouev r rov l3a8jJ6v aKPll3e[aC;; rG>v iSlaow8tVTwv 'Opeph<G>VKe:ljJtVWV, WC;; npoc mv navapxaiav jJopepT']v rev Kai we;; nooc ro oPXIK6v rov ne:plex6jJe:vov. 'H aKpil3ela cum, KaTo ro avwrtpw, iSuvarOl vo 8ewpfjrol rouAOXlorov aVOAOY0C;; ooc exeivnv rG>v n iSlaow8tVTwv 'OjJnpIKG>V tnG>v, we;; rrpoc rnv aPXIKtiV rov jJoPCPtiv, tneliSti eotveror

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EivOI t~ oMou Ji OIOAeKTOC; WV ' OPCP1KWV «AioA1KJi» Ilt untpnoMa T Ji oroneto nic; " ATT1Kr;C;»o laAE:KTOU,onWC; OKP1[3WC; oUIl[3aivel Kai rtpoxeuievou rrepl TWV . 0IlflP1KWV tnwv, onWC; OKP1[3WC; noene Kai VO T6 ovouevouev. e ~16Tl, T600v TO . 0IlTlP1KO, OOOV Ka( TO ' OPCP1KO, tpospxovrtn cno TJiV navapxaiav «' Axa"iKJiV» 010r AeKTOV, nic; onoloc KAOOOC; lVOI Ji AioA1Kt'r Ji np601l1~1C;M n;.C; , ATIlKr;C; OlaAE:KTOU e tytveTO KaTO TJiV neplouMoyJiv Ka( TJiV «crcvpcenv T600v TWV ' 0IlTlP1KWV, OOOV Kai TWV ' OPCP1KWV, no ' kovov Ka( 1l00Iara ' A9Tlvaiwv, onWC; nTO 6 ' OVOIlOKplTOC;. u ~l' OAWVourev 9tAollev vo cnoocenvtocuev mv t~r;c; 9tOlV: Nai uev ro ' OPCP1KO xeluevo elva I 1110ouyypacpri, cvovouevn etc T6v 60v n.X. aiwva, nAr;v OIlWC;:a') T6 neplq61lev6v TTlC;cvnororxet.elc TOC;iMac; TWVXp6vwv nic; B' XtAleTTlP(ooc; n.X. Ka( noxororeoov, onwc; 90 onooelx9r; Kai elc T6 rexeuroto KecpoAOIov oarpovolllKWC; Ka( [3') oKpl[3r; nooceocoiv - 010 VO Ilri elnouev ueroepcoiv - TWV ' OPCP1KWV "Yuvov, onwc; OUTOI onTlyytMoVTO KaTo TOUC;Xp6vouC; Tr;C; B' XtAleTTlP[ooc; n.X. Tnv oKp([3elav oMwC; re TWV ' OPCP1KWVil5ewv, TWV neplexolltvwv eic; TOUC; ""YllvOUC;» KUp(WC;,ucprupel tn(OI1C; KaTo rportov ovallCPlo[3riTTlTOV Ii T600v aUOTTlPo nuopio TOO ' OVOIlOKp(TOU, tnelori li9tATlOe vo npooaeon eic; TO vvnoio ' OPCP1KO llepiKOUC; iI51KOUC; TOU arixouc;. ~16Tl, T6 yeyov6c; TOOTOonoi5elKVuel OlIO nvc: a' ) OTl unf)pxov ol ouvollevol VO tAE:y~ouv rnv oKpi[3elav TnC; ouMoyf)e; , OPCPIKoi onooot, onwe; 6 Acooc Ka( [3') OTl 6 tv A6yw eAeYXoc; liMvaTo vo tmTeuX9n, npocpavwe; 1510nie; ouvxploeoc npoc oPX0l6Tepa Keilleva, TO onoto tXPTl011.lOnOloOVTo cno TOUe; usuunpevouc etc T6v ' OPCP10ll6v Kai TO onoto napeoiooVTo tic; aUTOUe;, KaTO ronouc, orro veveacetc yeveov. An6~&I~U; nou tVIOXU&1 Tilv nAI1PofPopiav TOO 'Ep~ov NTiAe; nou ovacptp911 oVWTtpW Kai KaTo Ti)v 6noiav oi • OpCPIKOi Kai Y&VIKWe; ol navoPxalol "EAAl1v&e; qxliV&Tal 6Tl typacpov tni A&mwv oavi~wv TOe; napaTI1Pilo&le; Kai TO ~lavoil~aTo TWV.) I" To c( OPfPIKO» Kai oi tv aUToie; <cuY~vOI». To i51aow9tVTa . OPCPIKOxeluevc, TO onoto elver vvoorc uno TI')V yevlKl')v enovuutov « ' OPCP1KO»,elver • a'} To "'ApyovaUTlKo,, tK 1384 arixwv' '[3' ) Oi <c" ~VOI'" ~I1Aa~i1 88 U~VOI Ti;e; . OpcpIKi;e; AaTp&iae; tK 1133 oTixwv' Y V') To <cJ\19IKO» t~ 768 ar[xwv, etc TO onolc 6 'Opcpeue; i51MoKei T6v 0eoMllaVTa nepi Tne; XPTlOI1l6TTlTOe; a( nie; IlUTlTlKr;e; o~(ae; e'iKool nOAuT(IlWV Ka( numoK AUT(IlWV Ai9wv Kai 0') To <c.Anoonao~ona» Kai TO <c.AvtK60Tall (Orphicorum fragmenta), TO onoic eTVOl: a') Flepucortol onwAe09tVTwv ' OPCP1KWVKellltvwv, i51QowgeloOl elc epyo'o.Mwv 'EMl')vwv Ka( [3') neplowgeloal tmypacpa(, etc TOe;onoioc cvooeoovrm

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n;c; rpa~~lIo,c; rpacpi;c; B', avavo~tVI1C; Kai ntpav TOO1200 n.X. I5lamaroOTal TOOTO:Eic; TOUC;. OPCPIKOUC; "Y~vouc; anaVTQTal tva nAi;80c; At~&wv Kai il5lw~aTla~(;lV n;c; MUKI1vaIKf\c; I5laAtKTou, lInwc; aUT11 anoKaAUnT&TQI &iC;n'lv rpa~~IKnV rpacpnv B' .. H V&VIKn &iC; -010, TOauxvOTaTa anaVTW~&VOVtni8&TOV nervie, T6 np6acpu~a - 11& (~u) Kai reee 6AAa. "OnlllC; AtY&1 6 tK TWV tP~'1V&UTWVn;c; rpa~~IKfjc; B' Ka8nvnn'lc; Chadwick (15, 162), ~ia At~IC;; noe avacptp&Tat &iC;Tac; mvaKil5ac; &IVal n At~lc; fa-va-ao-I, n 6noia 6~0Ia~1 noAu ~t TnV 'EAAnVIKnV At~lv ..favaaaollv» (l5u'iK6c;TOOavaaaa) Kai TnV 6noiav txpnal~noinoev 6 Palmer I5la va aTnpi~n TnV avun6araTOv 8&wpiav TOU lin n MUKnvall(n 8pnaK&ia tl5n~loupvn8n 151C1 TOOl5av&la~oO tK TWV8pnaK&IWV n;c; M&aOnOTa~iac;. Atv ~C; £vl5laq>tp&1 n 6nOIiIlC;TOOPalmer, tvl5lacptp&1 lI~wC; lITI n At~lc; 6vaaaa Kai 6va~ tnavaAa~paV&TClie:iC;TOUC; ~ia&lC; tK TWV 88 u~vwv, 15&IKvuouaa aacpwc; n'lv axtalv n;c; vAwaanc; n Tflc;' Opcpll(flC;1i.aTp&iu;;np6<; tK&ivnv n;c; AaTp&iac; KaTa n'lv B' XIAI&Tlav n.X. (Kat auv&nwc; op9wC; 6 Xaocml<; tmoTj~aiv&1 Kai 6AA11Vnapanoil1alv Kai ()IK6m~ov 51C1arpoCPnv. n6 u l;tvou 5ii8ev tPE:UYl1TOOKat auvvpacptwt;; TOO nCtA~&p, TWV apXaiwv . EAAI1VIKWV K&Ijltvwv).

49

nAI1Pexpopim, oxeTiKai nooc T6v 'Opq>ta Kai T6v 'Opq>loIJ6v, (6nwc; TOOMouoaiou «' Hpw Kai Atav6poc;» oi "YIJVOI TOO npoKAou Kai TOO KaAAllJOXOU Kai 1Je:PIKO lllla Ke:ilJt:va. TO onoia ovacptpoVTal Ae:mOJ,le:ptOTe:pOVKaTwTtpw. e:ic; TtlV apxflv TOO opxaiou Ke:IJ,ltVOUTWV 'OPCPIKWV.- tK6001C; Ae:lliliac; 1829. TwUlJnve:p. TrJv onoiav Kai XPIlOIIJOnOIOOIJe:V' Kai TO anoia napa8tTOIJe:V e:ic;TO OKtpalOV Kai ave:u ne:plKonwv KaTwTtpw). 'EVTaOea - ouvexi~el 6 Xaoo""c; - elvaq>ep6lJe9a ei61KWe; elc TOUe; "YIJVOUe; Kai lJelAIOTa etc eKeivouc;, tK TWV 6noiwv npoxurrrouv ai nAI1Poq>opim neot TWV OOTpOVOIJIKWVi6ewv Kai TWVyvooewv, ai 6noial emxocrouocv etc Tl;V S' XIAleTI1pi6a n.x.9. napaXAr;AwC; oIJWC; tXPl101lJOn01r;Snoav Kai tAr;q>9119av un' 6ljJIV Kai 6Aa TO oMa xwpia, TWV oMwv 'Opq>IKWV KellJtvwv, Tel 6noia oxeTi~oVTal np6c; rnv 'AOTPOVOuicv.

K.X.

9. Oi 'OpqllKoi ·Y.,aVOIelval tvreAWt; ovrlCJTolxol np6t; TOut; SPI')OK&UTIKOUt; B&6IKOut; OJ.lVout;TWV 'Iv6wv Ka! j.loAICJTa ovoAoyol np6t; TOut; oPxaIOTOTOUt;Rig-Veda. 'at; 6t 01 TeA&UTaiol OUTOIoneTtA&oav n'tv I1I'IVilv TWVOPxaloAOYIKWVKal Y&VIKWTepovTWVtmOTllj.lOVIKWV16ewv TWV opxalwv 'Iv6wv, KaS' 6j.1010VTp6nov 01 'OpqllKol OUVICJTOOV I1I'IVilv oVTAflocwt; TWV • EAAI')VIKWV OCJTPOVOj.llKWV 16&Wv. '~6.llou, " j.leyoAI') ouyytvela TWV 'OpqllKWV ·Yj.lVwv Kai TWV OJ.lVWV 11It; Rig-Veda 6CIKVU&1Kal n'tv KOlyflV KaTaywyflv: (fl j.l4llov n'tv tnl6paolv TWV navapxaiwv Alyalwv, TWV 'EAAflvwv tnt TWV 'Iv6wv. (BAtn& OXCTlKWt;Kal "Eioaywy"v" TOO T6j.1ou ..Aaol 11It; 'AvaToAf'jt;" Kal ..npo'iCJToplav.. T6j.1oU ..EJV\AI:", r" j.ltpot; 11It; 'EYKUKAonal6elat; TOO..HAIOY", 6nwt; Kal TOj51j5AtOV j.lOU,,' H ' AAI')SlyfI npo'iCJTopla" Kal ,,'lv6IKO" 41')j.I. raAavoO, tK6oou; TOO naVCmOTllj.llou 'A8I')vwv
(1854).

50

K E CDA A A ION

A'

TO
Atv nooxerror va tKTeeoOV

EYMnAN
MeA>napa uovov 60a ovacptpovTaI eie; n')v Kaeap6v

emornunv, slc TOe; iOtae; 6'lAa61i TeA>V OPCPIKeA>V, 6noiat 6uvavTai va OUYKpleOOV . ai
nooc TOe; KAaOOlKOe; ompovO~IKOe; ovnAlilJ.lele;10. Ala T6v Myov Ot aUT6v 6tv nspiAallr3ovOVTaI tVTaoea ai KOOlloyovlKai 61000KaAiai TeA>V 'OPCPIKeA>V, i 6noial ouva OtOVTat meveA>e;np6e; TOe; 0eOYOVIKOe; on6lJ.1ele; TWV, tK TeA>Vnolcv tOtxe'loav o rnv tni6paolv, Kupiwe; ai cptAOoocplKoampovOlllKai OVTtAnlJ.lele; TeA>V uerenerro . EM'lVIKeA>V XP6vwv, jJtxPIe; OK6jJTJ Kai TOO A' n.X. aieA>voc;.*

1. Oupav6~, CbUOI~. K6oIl0~. Eie; niv M~lv Oupovoc, 6nwe; npoxurrrer tK TOO neplexojJtvou TOO UIJVOU TOO Ouoovou ("YjJvoe; 4), oi . OpCPIKoi Otv vooOv jJ6VOV 6,TI onueoov KaAoOjJey ouoovov, Ii OUPOVIOV oeotpov, aM' tni nMov, o.n tijJeie; 6vojJo~ojJev ompIK6v xoouov. Ala TOOTOKai 6 Oupovoc KaAeiTal oupavloc; Kai Xe6VIOC; (4, 5), we; neplAalll30vwv Kai rnv \'1iv oK6jJ'l. T6 aUT6 iaxuel Kai nepi Tr;e; <!>uoew<;.. H <!>UOIe;, e; tniOT)C; ouvcveror tK TOOe«; w curnv ocplepwjJtvou ujJvou, Otv elval 610 TOUe; 'OpcpIKOUe; T6 ernornrov, T6 unonimov etc n')v OVTiA'llJ.liv jJae;' elvor T6 nov, T6 nepi tijJoe;, \'1i, e6Aaooa, aielip, oMo Kai ouocvoc <pUOIC; Xeovil1 T& Kal &ivaAll1. aie&pil1 (10, 14), oMo Kai oupavil1 (10, 2). I:uveneA>e;oi 6u6 OUTOI UjJVOl11ocpopoOv, KaT' ouotov, elc tva Koi T6 aUT6 oVTIKei(Ai 6A~1 onolll£l«; TWV . OPfPlKWVnAfJv TWV 'AOTPOVO~IKWV axoAla~ovTCIi eVTOe; WV T Kupiwe; K£lloItvWVTWV. OPfPlKWVnou napaTi8eVTai KaTwTtpw). (npoaoxfJl Ai eVT6c;napev8eof;Wf; napanoJlnai TOOXaoaRTJ6nwc; n.x. (4, 5, fll0, 14) evvooOv 6T16 npwToc; apI9~6c; avacptpel rOv aple~ov roO -Y~vou TOO' Opcptwe; Kai 0 6eun:poc; TOVOTixov TOO·Y~vou. T6 aUTO all~elC;'v£Tal Kai 6Tav oVQfPtpeTal ele; TO . Anoanaa~aTla 0 Xaaonlle;). 10. Eie; ou6tva 6AAov eK TWVopxaiwv Aawv ov£upiaKo~ev TOe;i6tae; TaUTae;TWV. OpfPlKWV,ovamuaao~tvae; KaTo TfJv B' XIAleTiav n.X. Elval, auvenwe;, aUTal Ka9apwe; . EAAIlvlKai Kai npwToTunol. 11. eo tAeve Kaveie; 6TI efP' 6aov npOKelTQI nepi 8PllaKeUTlKWV iJ~vwv, oneu8uvo~tvwv npOe;6uo «8eOTTJTae;" aAou~tvae; «Oupav6c;" Kai «<I)uale;", 6tv 8ci tnpene vo TauK Tiaw~v aUTOe;np6c; 6,TI 6vo~~o~v afJ~epov 610 TWVii5iwv OVO~TWV.. Ev TOUTOIe; 6~WC; '" l:vOTacnc; aUT" I5tv eUOTa8ei, ~h6T1i5tv unapxel ele; TOUe;. OpfPIKOUe; Y~voue; 0 i5laxw· pla~6c; aUTOOTOOei6oue; .. 0 fPUalK6c;OupaVoe; Kai fJ 8eOTIle; OupaVoe; n.x. aupnimouv, 51

*

usvov: elc T6v K601J0v, rlJIllJav, Ttiv OUVTalrTl1OlV TOUTTlVOUpavoO Kai (J)UO€wt;; i5elKVuel t~ aMou, xapOKTTlPIOTIKWC;,T6 6n 60a 6.vacptpovTal eie;: T6v UIlVOV TOO Oupavou neplAallj3ovOVTat Ma Kai ale T6v UIJVOv T1ic; <J)uoewe;: 0 15laxwPI01l6e;: .. elc l5uo (5laKeKpllJtvac; svvotoc 6cpeiAeTOI elc T6 On ol . OPCPIKoi uno T6v opov «Oupovoc= vooOv KupiwC; T6 ueooc TOO K601l0U, T6 uoxoov tillW,V EUpIOK6Ile·VOV, «T6v llaKp6KOOIlOV», 6 onotoc euploxertn etc T6v oupovov, 6nwc; OKPIj3WC; Mvousv Kat onuepov tvw Ii <l>UOIC; elva I Kai iSlo TOUC;. OPCPIKOUC;, olltowC; nAIlT6 otov lilJWV Kai neplj3oMov lilloc; ueooc TOO K601l0U, . E~ aMou Kai aUT6c; ouroc 6 6p101l6C; TOO I:uIlnaVTOe;, 6 15ll56lJevoe;nap' ~fJwv onuepov, Exel rnv oPXtlv TOU tK TOO uuvou TOUTOUTr;e; <l>uoewe;, t.16n eie; T6v ortxov 10, 28 MyeTat: nOVTa au tOOl' TO nOVTa au yop IlOUVIl TOO& T&OX&IC;' TO noVTO au elocr, 1516n au Kai uovn KOTaoKeuo~ele;, napoyele; TO nOVTa. I:uvenG:!<;, nOOOtai nAIlPocpopiat rreol TWV il5ewv TWV 'OPCPIKWVem TOOI:ullnavTOe;, uno TnV onuepivnv EWOIOV Tr;C; M~ewe;, rtooxutrrouv tK TWV ullVWV TOO OupavoO (40u), Kai Tfie; ouoeoc (100u), ono KOIVOOgewpoulltvWV. (BMne 6AOKAtlpouc TOUC;"Yuvouc aUTwv TWV Kellltvwv, TWV«"Yllvwv TOO' ooeeoc» KaTwTtpw), 2.. H apxf\ TOO K6a~ou. KaTo TOUC;. OPCPIKOUC; unopxel opxn TOO K601l0U, T6 I:ullnav tyevvn9n elc Konolav XPOVIKtiv OTIYllnV. TOOTO0IlWC; E:Aaj3exwpav noo allvlllJOVeuTwv tTWV. OUTW, 6 Iltv ouocvoc xapaKTTlpi~eTOt we; np&opuytv&8AoC; (4,2), I5IlAai5r; we; T6 npwTov yewngeic;, r; M <l>UOIC; npwToytV&la we; (10,5), npwT6TOKOe;, navapxaia, (]AM Kai WC;naAai<paToc; (10,5), apxtyovoe;, nallnaAaia . . E~ aMou r; ytveOlC; otrm Mv npoeKM9n t~' evoc aMou npoOnop~avTOe; KOOIlIKOOyeyov6ToC;' i516n·eic; 10,10 MyeTol 1510rnv <l>UOIV,On elvoi onoTwp Kai, ' npoc tmj3ej3aiwolv tv ouvexelo, KaAeiTOt aUTonoTwp, we; t~ touTr;e; vevouevn, npaeA900oo, 3.. H aq)8apaia Kai 1i aiWVI6Tllf; TOO K6a~ou. Kai tvw T6 I:ullnav Exel opxr;v, tv TOUTOIC; XOVTOt ol . OPCPIKOi,6TI TOUTOelvm acp9apTOV, OKOTaAUTOVKat M ckovrov. ,AKoTaToj3AnToc; xni e iC;T6v oiwvo OKOllnTOe;,ccaitv OT&lptC; IJtpoc; K601l0U>> (4, 1) XopoKTTlpi~eTOt 6 Oupnvoc, aK61l1l M Koi ol5ollaOToc; (4,7), iSlO va TOVI09r;, on Mv KOToj3oMeTOt OUTe ono T6v ncocvovro TOO xoovou, OUTe ono KOlllliov aMnv MVOIlIV, 'OJ..loiwC; ol5ollaOToc; (10,3), Q<P8ITOC;(10,5) Kat OT&AI'IC; (10,8), I5IlAol5r; oKOToj3AIlToe; Koi oveu rexouc, o90vaTOe;, AOyt~eTol Koi n <l>UOIC;, tvw etc 10,9 MyeTOt, On elvoi ti uev <l>UOIC; TtAOC; Mwv TWV tv OUTi')npOYIlOTWV Kai OVTWV,n il5ia T6 0IlWC; - Koi uovn OUTn - Mv txel TtAOC;' ccOKOIVWVIlTOC;5t IlOUVl1 T&A&UTfjC;" (I5nl Aoi5r; Mv lleTtxel Tr;C; yevIKi')c; cp90poC;), 'EnovoAollj3oveTOt M 0 il5loC;XOPOKTTlPI01l6C; Tfic; aiWVI6TnTOC; Tnt; etc TO tnigeTOV ceOll5ill.· (10,21), I5nAol5r; ckovio. (Kai KaTo rnv 9&wpiav nou l51&TUnWO&V np(;)TOC; 0 MtAloOOC;, oUo Kai 0 napll&vil51lC;Kat 0 :&V0<P0VIlC; Kai ovtnTU~&V KaTomv 0 nAOTWV ce6KOOIlOC; tov 80 eiX& YCVVIl8&i, l51l1l10UPYIl8&i, on6 Konolav opxtiv, IJOlpatWC; Kai 80 ont8vll. OKE, o<poO nay TO Y&VVWIJ&VOV on08vi)oK&1 OvaYKaOTIKWC;.·), Iuv&nwc; <pav&pO &aval Ii tnil5paolC; TWV . OP<PIKWVtni TWV npOOWKpaTlKWV Kai TOO nAOTWVOC; Kat on6 Ttiv anollllv aUTtiv).
we; TOOTO lJapTUpEi T6 nEpIEx6IJEVOV TOO -YIJVOU Ka8' 6Anv TOU n'lv tKTaOIV, aUa Kai we; an06EIKVUOUV KaTa rpenov Alav tlJfPavf\ ai nEplKonai, KaTa Tae; 6nolae; OUTOe; fPaiVETal ccofPalpI'\66v tAIOo6IJEVOe; nEpl YQiav" (4, 3) Kal lJaAIOTa we; opoOpo' ccp61JP0u 6iVl'\olv 66EUWV" (4,4) .. Eni nAtov KaTa T6v -YlJvov TOOTOV, 6nwc; Kal cn'lIJEPOV AtYETal, 6oupav6e; Eival 6 T6noe; 6lalJov~ Tc';)V8£c';)v' OlKOI; 8Ec';)V lJaKOpWV (4,4). - AAAwOT£ 6tv tX£1 Ka~lliav tvvdtav tav Eival 6 Oupav6e; 8E6TJ1e; Kal TauToXP6vwe; OiKOe; 8Ec';)V.

52

4. T6 ~tV&eOC; TOO K6o~ou. MeT' om80vou oKplj3ohoyiac; 0 IJE:V OUpovoc 8ewpeiTat IJtpoc; TOO K6o,",ou (4,1), npocpavwc; 610 vo oVTl6IaOTaM; rtpoc TJiV riiv, n onolc OUVIOTOT6 aMo IJE:POC; aUTOO. 'H M aMn <DUOIC;, neplE:xouoa Kai TOV Oupuvov, WC;oupavil1 (10,2), Mv Aoyi4eral orteiooc, aM' onAwc; IJ£yiOTl1 (10,10). , 5 .. H CPUOIC; TOO K6o)Jou: QC;"p6C; rnv CPU01VOU, on06i60VTat slc T6 rLtlJnav T Mo xapaKTnplOIJOi. npWTOV, elver nupinvouv (10,26). ETvat ouvenoc nuptvn r'l «orcorootc TOU, oMKArlPOC;r'l <DUOIC; MlJner elver naVTauV1ic; (10,3) Kat o&Aaocp6poc; (10,6), oeoouco T6 cpwC;Kat TJiV AalJnp6rnra, Onwc; va eXTl AalJnpO, wpaia tvMIJOTa, OXI uovov rnv r'llJE:pav, ouvenelo TOO 6UOXUTOU cpwT6C; oMo Kai KaTo rnv vUKTa, WC; tvvuxil1 (10,6)' 616n 6 nupivoc OUTOC; crcuvcouoc TTlC; laXE:eTat Kat T6Te uno TOOoupovou, x 6 ocpoO r'l <DUOIC; lvor Kat oupavil1 (10,2). e LleuTepov, elver T6 rLtlJnav Kat r'l at6toc; ~wli (10,27). EiVat r'l 4wJiKat IJOA1OTa r'l oTeAetWToc;. AUTIi aUTl1 Ii ccunap~tC; TOO K60IJou •• &lval, KaTa TOUC; 'OPCPIKOUC;, cc~wli", &iC; rpenov WOT& K60IJOC; Kai ~wli va KaOi~aVTat ouvwvuIJa, , H M 4Wn ouvMe:Tal OppnKTwc; (OTe:VWC;) ooc T6 nuo, WC;TOUTOucoruoer n KOTO n ouvE:xelav nap08eOlC; TWV Mo xapaKTnplOIJWV: «nuplnvouc», ccailhoc; ~wli", XOPIC; Xomov elc T6 nOp TOU, T6 I:ulJnav 4ii T6 'i610V, WC;CAOV, oMo Kat napE:xel TJiV 4WnV - Onap~lv etc TO IJE:PTlTOU*'. 6 .. H 611~IOUPVIKti 6uva~lC; T1;C;<J)UO&WC;. 'Ecp' OOOVT6 I:ulJnav elver 610 TOUC;'OPCP1KOUC; evoc 4WV 6pyavlOIJ6c;, napE:Xwv elc TO lJE:pn TOU TnV 6UVaT6rnTa un6p~ewc;, TJiV 4wJiv, roOTO T6 'l610v elver Kai 6 vevvnroo OAWV,ooo unopXouv etc T6v K601J0v' elvm 6 nayy&vtTwp Oupovoc (4,1) Kal n naIJIJIiT&lpa CJ)UOtC; (10,1), Ii naVTwv naTlip, (Kat ouvxpovec) IJa;Tl1P (10,18). 'H yevenKn Kat 6nlJloupYIK!i MVaIJ1C; TOOI:UlJnaVTOC; Ka80pt4eTai tnaKplj3wc; etc T6v OIJVOVTiic; <Duoewc;. Lll6n cum a') OAa TO.KTt4er naVTa OU yap IJOUVl1 Tal5& T&UX&tC; (10,28), 13') KTt4el noM6, WC; (10, 2 Kal 10, 20), y') l5il5&t &iC; aUT a IJOpcpa;v, wc; nAaOT&tpa (10,20) Kal 6') KtVTl IV, WC; KtV110tcp6poc; (10,21). O I:uvenwc; elva I T6 I:ulJnav n 6Pxn CAWV. 'AM' elver Kat T6 TE:AOC; AWV' apxli O naVTWv, naVTWv T& T&A&UTIi (4,2) xapaKTnpt4eTai 6 Oupcvoc KOtVa; naVT&OtV T&A&UTIi (10,8-10) Myeral Kat 616 TnV <DUOIV.revvwVTat, tnollE:vwc; OAa tK wO I:UlJnaVTOC; Kat elc; aUT6 unopxouv, 8VnOKovTa M elc aUT6 Kat nOAIV nooouevouv. 7 .. H cCKoo~oKpaTopIKti .. ioxuC; TOO Iu~naVTOC;. 'H 6nIJIOUpYIKJi 6uva1J1C; TOO rLtlJnaVTOC; ouvencverm rnv E:K6nAWOIv Tiic; t~ouOIaOTIKiic; tOXUoc; TOU tnt TWV6nIJ10UpYTlIJOTWV TOU. OOTW T6 I:UlJnav E:IJCPaVt4eTal, C;Kuj3epvwv TO lJE:pn TOU, W onwc; OKPlj3WC;,8ewpoOIJev Kat 6voIJ640IJeV onueoov T6v "HAIOV «Kuj3epvnrnv" TWV K60IJWV, TOO nAlaKOO uoc OUOTnlJaTOC; Yn aUTnV OKPlj3WC; nV evvoiov 60u.. T pcvoc IJtv 6noKaAeiTai KOOIJOKpaTWp (4,3) n M <DU01C; naVTOKpaT&tpa (10,4). Kai. cxetvoc IJE:V, elver 6 qlUAOOOWVTO ncvro eic T6v OUp6V10V 86Aov Kat elc TJiV Yiiv, uno ncvrev neplj3aAAOlJevOC;, (oupavtoc; X06v16C; T& cpuAa~ naVTWV n&pt(3A110&iC;) [4.51. oMo Kat j3Mnwv TO rrcvrc, WC;navl5&pKa;C; (4.8)' Ji <DUOlC; M. WC; KUP&pVa;T&tpa, KpaVT&lpa (10.3 Kat 10.12) Kuj3epvo etc TJiV riiv. rnv 80-. Aaooav Kat T6v al8tpa (aiO&pil1, XOovil1 T& Kat &ivaAil1 IJ&l5touoa) (10.14). uno-

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TOe;, 616n tK TOO K&I~tVOU TWV «' APYOVOUTlKc'iIV"npoeurrrer, ()TI €Ivai yvwOToi e ie; OUTOUe;T6nOI 61a.cp6pwv yewypocplKWV nAOTWV,TouMXIOTOV tVT6<;: TOOMeoovelaKOO xwpou, cno n;e; Kunpou ~tXPI TWV «' HpaK.\eiwv IrnAWV" (OTixo<;:1249)' ra~16euouv 6t elc T6v xwpov oUT6v, cno TOO «un&ppop&iou Kacmiou t9vou~ .. (1081). n;c; xwpae; TWV IKUeWV (1078) Koi TOO KOUKOOOU (1051 )~txPI. n;e; Aiyumou Koi Tf}c; AIJ3ullC; (103, Kei~evov 'ApyovauTIKwv) 611A06,; etc neplox,;v nMTOUe; 15° (~OlpWV) nepinou elc T';V 6noiov eIvOI 6uvoT'; " cloenronolnoic Tfje; oMoyfie; n;e; O""ewc; TOO oupOVOU, we; tK TOOnporou Myou13• Ao~J3ovo~tvou 6' un' O""IV, OTI XPllOl~OnOIOOv TOUe; aOTtpae; elc rnv 66';Vlloiv TWV Koi etc rnv tKTi~llOlV Tfje; wpae; n;e; vUKT6e; (cc' ApYOVOUTIKO" 538-539, 1031), 6UVOTOI vo eewpfjTal w<;: anOMTWe; J3tJ301ov, On yvwpi~ouv T600v T';V noornv, Ooov Koi rnv 6euTtpav neolrrrexnv QAAoyfje; n;e; O""ewc; TOO ouocvou. TtAoe;, we; etAo~ev i6el (napaypocpo<;: 33). yvwpi~ouv Kai rnv ernotov KivnOIV TOO 'HAiou Kai TO tK rcurnc nooeoxouevo cpolv6~evo.*2 I:uvenwe; TO tnieera aioA6~opcpo~ Koi aAAoTplo~opcpo6iaITo~ aocpaAwC; auvMoVTOI np6e; rnv aMoy,;v n;c; 041eWe;;TOO ouocvoa, TfW 6cpelAo~tV1lv etc TOUe;;roetc noorouc ncpcvovrcc.

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t~o~Ol(l~e:TQl npoc o!300pav eni ni<; ent<paveiae; Tf)e; ortoioc unohoyiSOVTQl,

. E~ oMou, E:K TOO ouvouoouoti TWV Mo TOUTWVxwpiwv npokurrrer OK6j..111 ai 6 K 6euTepo<; vouoc Tne; <palVOj.1E:Vn<; KlVnoew<; nie; oupovlou ocolooc, KaTo T6v onoiov «oi TpoXlai TWVOOTE:PWV elvoi neplcptpelOl KUKhWVKa8E:TWVern TnV ournv 610j.1eTpOv Tf)e; oupoviou oqxnpoc». l116Tl Ii 610j.1eTpOe;earn 6nhOOTOI etc T6v o~ova rtepi TOV onotov Kai uovov elver 6uvat6v vo 8ewpnTOI neororceeouevoc 6 p6jJ!3oe;' neptooorepov M Kai E:naKpll3E:OTepOV 6nhOOTOl eie;1I 6 oKiimpov T - o~OVO TOO8p6vou Ylie; . ~uvenw<;, nMov Ii oocpwe; 61MoKeTOI Ii qxnvouevn xtvno«; Tf)c; oupoviou ooctpee. 16. Oi (lE:lqJav&it; QaTtp&t;. b.tv vtverm Ii nhr;pne; 610KplOle; TWVcorepov eie; oelcpoveie;, OJ.1<plcpovele; ocpoveie;. riveTol OIlWe; oocpr;e; uveio TWVoelcpovwv, oi 0Koi noloi 610xwpi~oVTOI TWV oMwv, IlOhlOTO M TWV 0IlCPlCPOVWV, XOpOKTnpt.:6IleVOl we; oporoi 61' Chne; nie; vUKT6e;, &VVUXIOI'5 (7, 11), lillAalili we; jJli aVaT&AJ~oVT&e; oulit liUOVT&e;'6. 17 .. H ~w6laK1i ~WVl1.. Yn6 TWV 'OPCPlKWVelVOI yvwOTr;'1i ~W610Kn ~wvn .. Avoeepertn eic T6v UIlVOV TWV OOTPWV, we; &macpa&ie; ~wval. b.E:V vlverm Myoe; nepi Illae; ~wvne;, we; tKcppo~6lle80 onueoov, 616n OUTn hoyi~eTOI we; 61XOTOlloulltvn uno Tne; tKhetnTlKf}e;. ElvOI M YVWOTn Ii E:KAetnTlKn, onwe; nooxurrrei E:KTOO 0IlVOU TOO' Hhiou (I3Mne rropovporpov 24), onou curn KOTovollo~eTol oljJoe; (8,7), cclip6jJoe;'" oi onoioi uncpxouv e ie; oUT6v' ,,&nOnT&UOUOIV aUT6v», onwe; AtY&1 6 ujJvoe;: &cpoPWjJ&jJOI &macpa&ie; ~wvae; (7,8) OOTE:pee;. Elva I npoecvec. on oi E:nOmeUOVTee; TOe; errrcecetc ~wvoe; oOTtpee; elva I ol TWV ~w6iwv' oi ~W610KOi coreoiouot. "On M rrocvuon ol . OPCPlKOiyvwpi~ouv Koi OVOIlO~OUVTOUTOUe;"~W610» (E:VTeO8ev M npolih8e Koi r; j.1tXPl To06e ovoucoto TWV we; ~w6[wv) ucprupelrm sie; T6 41 OV, E:KTWV6100w8E:VTWV . 0PCPlKWVanoOnOOIlOTWV, Karo TO onolov ..' OPCP&UC;;it l

15.. Yn6 TWV AiyunTiwv, oi m:pm6A101 aOTtp&e;, tn&llii) &IVal 6payoiKa9' c,).OV T6 tToe;, wvolAa~OVTO ccocp9apTol". . 16. n&pi TWV a&lcpavwv aortpwv 61A1A&i Kai 6 "OlAnpoc; (AalAj3avwv Ti)v nAnpocpopiav an6 TOUe; . OpcpIKOUe;). OUTW lila TnV M&yoAnv ..APKTOV, Ii 6noia &IVal IAtv OnlA&pOV alACPIcpavne; Ka-ra T6 lA&yaAUT&pOV IAtpoe; Tne;, nTO 61AWe; &lcpavne; np6 3.000 tTWV, AtY&1 6 "0a IAnpoe;, «otn lil' olAop6e; ton AO&TPWV wK&avoio (.<IAlae;» I: 489), lil6n, we; a&lcpaVne;, cc6tv AOU&Tal &ie; T6v wK&av6v» 6nwe; oi aIACPlcpav&ie; aortp&e; . . EVTa09a lilamoroOTal, 6T1 6 ..OlAnpoe; IA&Tacptp&1 &ie; Ta tnn TOU TOe;Aa"iKoe; aVTlAnljl&Ie;, nepi tmntliou Yiie;, n&plj3aAAolAtvne; un6 TOO WK&aVOO, ai 6noial Kai litv &IVal aornplJ(TOI, tov Ancp9ii un' OIjlIV on, we; tAtx9n, nTO yvwoT6e; T6T& &ie; TOUe; ..EAAnvae; 6 . ATAavTIK6e;, KaTtxwv oAnv n'!v np6e; liuolAae; TWV . HpaKA&iwv I:TnAwv tKTaOIV, tVT6e; TOO 6noiou Kai tcpaivovTo pu91~61A&VOI oi aortp&e; KaTa mv 6uolv TWV. Oi 1A&IAUn!Jtvol OIAWe;TOO' OPCPIOIAOO &IVal annAAaYlAtvOI auTi;e; Tiie; nAovne;, we; OuvoY&Tal oacpwe; an6 T6v aVTiorolXov, np6e; T6v IAVnIAOV&U9tvTa '0IAnpIK6v, oTixov TWV . ApyovaunKwv: ccoOTpa T& TnA&cpavf\ 60v&v poov . QK&avoio» (538)' 6nAa6n ccTOOOTpa, TO 6noia &IVal lAaKpQv, &ie; T6 p&OlAa TOO' QK!:avoO». /ltv ccAOUOVTal»ouv&nWe;, aAAo cc6uouv» oi aOTtp&e;, &ie; T6v np6c; liuOlAoe; K&ilA&vOV . ATAavTlK6v, KaTo TOUe; . OPCPIKOUe;. nOVTWe; Kai ailT6e; OUTOe; 6 6poe; ccliUOIe;», 61a TOO enetou 6nAouTai T6 enuetev TOO 6pi~OVTOe;, npotKUIjI&V aocpaAwe; an6 Ti)v tnonT&iav, Ti)V aio9nolv, TnV napaTnpnOIV TWV apxaiwv . EAAi)vwv tni Tiie; cpClIVOIA&VIKiie;&ioouo&we; TWV aOTtpwv &ie; T6v ' ATAavTlK6v, 6Tav, A6yw Ti;e; n&pIOTpoCPiie; Ti;e; oupaviou ocpaipae;, ecp9avov OUTOI &ie; T6v 6pi~OVTa Kai txoVOVTO 6UOVT&e;.

60

tK&ivoe; 6 epaKloc;, tv Til nepl y&wpyiae;, OU TnV anAwe; n~tpav Tile; O&A1iVl1e; TnV TOlav6& AtY&l AUOlT&A&iV, flKai av6Vl1TOV' aU' OTav TOlWo6& OXl1~aTIa8il Kai aUVTptXrt ~w"ioec; T& Kai TOIC; aaTpaaev", (T~E:r~l1, .. E(Jva Kai rif.lE:(JOI 1750). Eie;: aAAo (5t onustov roO onoonoouortou rourou OVOcptpoVTOl rpio tK rGlv Z:w~iwv, rc Tile;: nopStvou, . Y~poX6ou Koi 'IXSuwv: cc OPCP&UC;~a911~aTlKwc; naVTa napaK&A&u&Tal 6pdv' olov o&AnVl1e; Tp&XOUal1e; nepl nap9tvov, naVTa CPUT&U&lVnAn V uevov a~ntAwv ... 4l6'(; . Y6poX60v n&pmOA&UOVToc; ~n nA&u011C;· ToO aUToO 4l6C; tv "X9UOlV 6VTOC;, KaA6v ya~oue; noielv, Kai Ta Aoma ... 6~oiwC;" (T~tT~l1 ..Epya 130b). (ElvOl onoMrwe;: eoveoov Koi cno ro cnoonoouo ouro roO Tz:tT~Tl, on 6 . Hotoooc EXEI OVTIYP04JEITOUe;:'OPCPIKOUe;:), Eie;:TO /\,S'KO ovoeepero. tlJl..ltowe;: 6 I:Kopm6e;: Koi IJET' curou 6' Qpiwv: I:KOPnte, eete 6& Aday 6Jlwvu~oV &~~&Val flpWe; tlyAa6c; . Qpiwv OUK &KAu&v' Ii yap, OlW mKPiloLV T6T& yuia n&nap~tvuc; O~cp' 66uV110lV, ~dUoy OCPW'iTtpwy K&V &X&lV t9tA&OKt ~lV OaTPWV (488-491) ~TlAa~Ji I:KopniE, 6 oYA06e;:TlPWe;:Qpiwv ' Mv EioJiKOUE (Mv MtXEro) vc cxnc rnv 61..1wvuIJ6v oou AiSov' ~16n .., ilSEAE vo 0vJiKl'l cum elc olJCPortpoue;: TOUe;:OorEPIOIJOUe;:. Ele; oAAo tniOT)C; anOona0I..lOTIOVyiveTOI tl..ll..ltowe; I..Iveia TPIWV eloen ~w~laKwv OorEPIOI..IGlV,oAAo xoi roO "OCPEWe;:: piouC;, Taup&iouC;, 6CPlOC;,xaponoO T& K AtOVToc; (40, 503). Ouro, tK TGlV 12 Z:W~IOKGlV OorEPIOI..IGlV,oveUpiOKOI..IEVOVOCPEP0l..ltvoue;: roue errrn". riVErOl M Myoe;: Ei~IK6e;: rtepi Toupou, Koi /\tOVTOe;:, we;:So '(~WI..IEV Eie;:roe;: napaypocpouC; 66, 67,

17. Eie;TOUe; aAaIOTaTOUe; P6voue; Kai Kupiwe; T~e; S· XIAleT11pi60e; .X. oi MeoonoTan x n ~IOI Aaoi, txpnol~onoinaav Tpeie; "6p6~oue; .. Ka80pi~oVTae; ~iav eupeiav ~c;,vnvTOOoupaveu, 'EI( TWV6p6~wv TOUTWV tvae; eupioKeTo nepi T6v ion~eplv6v (' Avou) neplAa~66 vwv 17 ciOTeplo~oUe;, tvw 01 6AAoi 6uo eupioKoVTO nepi TOUe;TpOniKOUe;TOOKapKivol (' EvAIA), KaTa TI'IVtKTaOIV TOO6noiou ton~eloOVTo 23 aOTeplo~oi Kai TOOAiV6Kepw (' Ea), txoVTOe; 12 aOTeplo~Oue;. 'Apv6Tepov npXlaav npo0610pi~oVTee; n'lv tT110iav KivnOIV TOO I')Aiou Koi tXPT)oIJ.lonoiouv, 61a n'lv tmofJJ.lavolv nic; nopeiac; TOU,WPIOJ.ltvoue;AaJ.lnpouC; aCJTtpa~, eUK6Awc;avayvwpl~o~voue;. KaT6n1v cOiploavn'lv ~w6IaKl'lv ~wvnv. TOOTO ~apTupoOv mvaKi6ee;, civay6~eval ciocpaAwe;eie; xp6voue; np6 Tfje; KaTaOTpOcp~e; T~e;Nlveuf (612 n.X), ai 6noial naplOToOv ~w6laK6v, we; eUpUTt\TnV ~wvnv nA"TOUe;200 (~lpWV) .. An6 nie; tno~e; TOO Ka~puoou (523 n.X.) 6 ~w6IaK6c; TWVt~cpavi~eTal 6lnpn~voc; eie; 12 ~W6la. 'EK TWVXpovoAovl'loewv TOUTWV KaTa T6v ciOTpov6~ov Taton, npoKumel 6n 6 ~w6laK6c; txel MeoonoTa~laKl'lv npotAeuolv, 610.TOO Koi Atyel: ..nptnel va anopphllw~ev n'lv 6TO nounv 6TI 6 ~w6IaK6c; ilTO Aiyumla~e; npoeA£uaewe;", tvw t~ 6AAou npoo8tTei (43181): "Ii avanTu~le; T~e; 'AOTpoAoyiac; tv MeoonoTa~ia mereneret Kai TI'IV tKei8ev npotAeuolV TOO ~w6IaKOO Kai TWV 12 ~w6iwv TOU, we; TO.t6avei08naav 01 - EAAnvee;". ..OIJWC;, nwc; npoKunTel t~ 60wv avecptp8noav nponyou~tvwe; 01 'OpCPIKoi tVVWPI~OV 6 T6v ~1d61aK6vKa! "p6 ~e; B' xlAl£Tiae; n.X. 6n1d061')noT£6t TouAaXIOTOV1000 nepinou tTTf np6 ~e; tnoxl'le; TOOKa~puoou. Ka8Wc;6t AtV£1 6 Pannekock, «6tv cpaiv£Tal 6TI 01 12 ciOT£PIO~ol TOO~w6IaKOO KaT£ixov £Ie; TOUe;BapuAwvloue; ~Iav £i6I1o'lv on~aoiav. Mia tv6£1~1e; uvaTai iowe; va eup£8fj ele; T6 yevov6e;, lin T6 tnoe; TOO..rKIAVKQ~e; .. T6 6noiov 6 n£pttxel noUa XOpaKT11PIOTIKav6e; I'IAlaKoO ~ueou, 61alpeiTai ele; 12 palllw6iae;, Ka8e t ~ia TWV6noildv aVTIOTolxei ele; tva TWV12 ~w6iwv, nAnv 6~we; Kal ~ 6laipeole; a0T116uvaTal va £ival ~Ia ~£Tav£v£OTtpa 6laipeole; (33, 32). (" AvaAunKwTepov pAtn£ Kai PIPAlov I.B. If:pQ~ ..8eol, Tacpol Kal Iocpoioo, (odie; 60), tK660£1e; re~T~6nouAou, . A8~val), . E~ dAAou, 1'1 6nolllle; KaTa n'lv 6noiav oi Aivumiol eioflyayov npwTol T6v ~w6laK6v, tOT'1piX8'1tni TOOyeyov6Toe;, 6n av£upt8naav eie; Tl'lv T£VTupi6a Kai T6 -Eove lSuo napaan',Of,ae;ourou, avay6~£val £iC;TOUC; EllTlVIOTII(OUe;XP6vouC;,~nAa61'1ell; TOUe; eTtneITa' . ~ TOU A' ail)vol; ".X. xp6vouc; .. Ev TOUTOII;,we; AtY£1 6 Taton (43-38), ..tnauof: va yiVf:TOI

61

Iuvenci>c; nposurrrer OK61lT') OTt Kai ai ovoucoku Ti;)V 6.OT~~Of.lWV18, T6.~ 6noia~ XPT')OllJonOloOIJe:v Ol'lIJe:pOV ~Ieev(;)c;. ov6.YOVTal eic TOU<; 'OPCPIKOU<; TOUAOXIOTOV XP6vouC;,

a~ftTl1alt,; nepl Aiyurrr&aKf'jt,; KaTOYWV"t,; OO~c.t6laKoO,tqf 6aov ane6elx8t1 nAtov, lm ai T napacm1aelt,; aUTOIlxouv 6ex8f\ Tit" tnl6paalv ano TOt,;, EAAI'IVIOTIKOt,; aVTlAftlllele;'" Kat tnlAtyel (43-43): "TO 12 ~W6la "aav dyvc.»OTaett,; TOUe;Aiyurrrtoue; np6 Tl\e; . EAAl'lvIOTIKi\e; nepl060u. - AU.,e; Te tnal5el5aloOTal nAtov 6T1 01 Alyurrriol txpl'lal~onolouv TO auOTl1~ TWV,,6eKo6f,)v .. ilyvWOTWVeit,; 6Aout,; TOUt,; AAout,;Aaoue;, 610 TWVonolwv ~Ia eupeia iOl1~d Plyft ~WVl'lTOOoupavoO, 611'1peiTO 36 - Kal6Xl12 -loa ~PI'I. 0161;Kavol, olonoiol "aav ele; iUAoTe ~v ~~OVW~VOI Aa~npol aOTtpet,;, dUoTe 6' il8pola~aTO ilOTtpwv, tKaAoOVTo 61'OVO~TWV oU6e~tav axtCJlv tXOVTW\i'npix; Titv . EAAl'lvIKc.»TOTl1V ovo~atav TWV~c.t6twv, iIAAQ Kal tv ytvel TWVilOTepla~v. OOTc.» n.x., tAtyOVTO ,,' OlPput,; TOO vereu-, ,,' OIPPut,; TOO150pp4", ",eeOc;6Iaax~c.»vToV oupavov", 0 6t npWToc;6tKavoc;, nou "TO oletploe;, tAtveTo ..4eanoTl1C;TOOlTOUC;", • H TeAeuTatc.»e; (1953) yevo~tVl'l el611Cft tpeuva uno TOONeugebaue, tnl TWV6eKavc.»v,l6e~ev 6n OUTOIt~lPavt~oVTal TOnpWTOVnept TOTO2100 n.X. , EXPl'lal~onOloOVTo tv auvexela tnt TWVxpovwv ItTl1 TOOA' (1300 n.X.) QUo Kat tnt Pa~a" TOO4' (1170 n.X.), euptaKoVTal 6t ilnelKovla~tvol tnt TWVKaAu~~oTwv AapvoKc.»v.Oi 6tKavoi elva I 6laTeTay~vol ele; 36 aTftAae; tK TWVonotc.»vK08e ~ta elxev nA4TOe;10° (~IpWV),aU' tn112, tv auvoAw aelpWv (~c.»VWv) ToO oupavoO .. H eupeia iOl1~Plyft ~wVl'lTWV 6eKovwv "TO AOlnov daxeTOC;npOe;Tflv ~w6IalCftv, tIP' 6aov ~QAIOTa" TeAeuTata lxell5oalv Titv tKAelmllCftv Kat nAoTOC; 5=+8°, tvw TOnAaToe;TOOlelpiou n.x. elva I 15=-40° nept1 nou (30, 47-48). 01 . Iv601 TtAoc; txpl'lal~onotouv e:16ot,;leAl'lvlaKoO ~w6IaKoO, ilaxtTOU np6e; TOV . HA&aKov~w6laKov KUKAov, 6lalpou~evov ele; 28 loa ~tpl'l, KaAou~eva NavaxoTpa. (43-156). luvenwt,;, auvayeTal TO au~ntpaa~a, 6T1 0 ~c.t6laKOc;elval . EAAI'IVIKOc; Ka8' oAoKAI'Iptav, Kal iivoyeTOI ele; TOUe;'OpcpIKOUe;xpovoue;. 18. 01 Alyurrriol wvo~a~ov Titv MeyoAl'lv - AplCTovKyft~l'Iv Boot,;,TOVBowTl1v napiOTavov 61' tvoe; KpoK06elAou Kal tvoe;innonoTo~ou neplmuaao~tvwv TOVKUKVOVwe;6v8pc.»nov txoVTa tlCTeTO~vout,; I5paxtovae; K.O.K, revIKWe;, nQAlv 6t KaTO TOV Taton (43-43) "TO au~oAa TO onota elaflx8l'laav tK Tfje; Bal5uAwvoe; 61aIPtpouv t~ oAoKAflpou TWVAiyumlaKWVou~l5oAc.»v,KaTonav 6~we; TWV6ac.»v tAtx81'1aav npoKumel 6TI TOau~l5oAa Kal TOovo~aTa TOOTa6tv "aav Ka86Aou eore Kal 8al5uAc.»vlaKi\e; poeAeuaeWC;, 6Xl ~ovov 610Tl avc'Jn YOYfC" ele; xpovoue; noAu npoyeveOTtpoue; Tl\e; Bal5uAc.»vlaKf'je; AaTpovo~iae; Kal . AOTPO. Aoylac;, aUa Kat 610Tl elval Ka8apWe; . EAAI'IVIKO, e;auv6eo~va w anoAuTc.»e; np6e; Tflv . EAAl'lvllCftv Mu80Aoytav Kat TOe;. EAAIlVIKOe; apa660ele; (34). n Ele;tnlppc.»alv (tvtaxUOIV) TOUTOU tpxeTal TOyeyovoe; 6T1eie;ou6tva TWVapxalwv Aawv aveuplaKO~V TO iaxOov' EAAl'lvlKOVovo~ToAoYIOv TWVaOTepla~Wv. OOTWn.x., we;npoKumel tK TOO' Eppa'iKOO K&I~VOU TOO PIPAlou TOO 'Iwp (9,9 Kal 38,31-32), oi . Eppaiol tKoAouv Titv MeyQAllv - ApICTOV,• At,; fI 'Aie;, TOV 'Qpiwva KeaiA, Kai TOe;nAela6ae; KI~c'J. , EK TWVTPIWV6~we; TOUTWV aOTepla~wv, 0 TOO. QpiwvoC; c'JvalPtpeTal Kat eie; Tc'J OPCPIKO . (pAtne ..1\18IKO"489), nou ~apTupei (nou an06elKvuel) Titv c'JpxaloTc'JTIlV tVTeAwe; . EA~ Kat Al'lvllCftv npotAeualv TOO ovo~aTOC; Kat TOOc'JOTepla~oOTOUTOU. (' EKTOe;6~wc; TWV avc.»TtpW 6lanlOTWa~wv TOO K. Xaac'Jnl'l, fl61'1yvc.»pi~o~ev afI~epov (1984), 6Tl 6Aal ai yvwoele; Kal 0 noAITla~oe; TWV. Aaauplwv, TWVBapuAwvlwv Kal TWV61.Awv I\awv Tl\e; MeaonoTa~ae;, npofjA80v ano Tflv tnl6paalv TWV lou~eplwv, 01 onolol "aav navapxalol KpfjTee; npoepxo~evol c'JnoTitv navxalav K.T.A.(p~tne Kal To~ov ..I\aol Ttle; . AvaToAtle;.. Tl\e; 'EYKulc:Aonal6etae; TOOccHI\IOY»Kal TO plpAia ~ou «To • EyKAI'I~ Ttle; 'EnlaTft~I'It,; .. npoac'JpTl1~a B, odie; 203 Kal «" H . AAIl81yft npO'iOTopla").

62

B' TAEINOMHIII

KAI CDYIII TQN AITEPQN

18. Oi ccoupavlol. Kai ccX86vlOl. aOT~p~c; (alaTTovTE:C;). OJ oorE:pec; elc TOUC; 'OPCPIKOUC;610xwpi~oVTOI eic; 6uo KOTTlVOpioC;:TOUC;oupcvtouc Koi TOUC;YTliVOUC;' oupavlol X80VlOI T& (7,9). EiC; TnV npernv OvnKOUV ol onAoveic; Koi ol nAovfiTar elc mv 6eUTE:pav KOTOTOOOOVTOIoi 610TToVTec; Koi ol I3OAi6ec;. "On 6E: oi X96vl01 &IVOI oi 610TToVTec; npoxurrrec a') E:KTOO XOpOKrnpIOj.lOO, KOTa T6v onolov OUTOI 610ypocpouvnupivouC; 6p6j.1ouC; MloK6nwc; (nupl~po~OI aiev aT&IP&iC; (7,9), oMa Kai 13') tK TOO On OVOj.la~OVTal noooen Ft&ponAaYKTOI (7,8) 61lA06n nAoVwj.leVOI E:VT6c; TOO 6tpoc;' Tfic; OTj.loocpaipaC;. 'Enel6n 6E: oU6oj.loO OUTe 0 r;AIOC;OUTe n oeMvn tmgeToAoyoOVTOI eic; TOUC;j.lOKPOTOTOUC; UIJVOUC;TWV, We; «nep6nAoYKTOI-, (TOOro M AtyeTol j.lOVOV 610 nvoc oortpaC;), ouvoyeTol On ocp' evoc j.lE:V Mv Aovi~eTol Ii OTj.l6ocpalpa, 0 anp, We; tKTelVOj.levoe;; j.ltXPI TOO IiAiou KO! Tfic;; oeAnvn.;, tnOj.ltVCl.)C;;M KO! j.lE:XPITWV «OUPOV!WV- oorE:P<Jv, ocp' tTtpoU M, On T6 «neponAOYKTOI- ovocptpeTOI j.lOVOV eic; TOUC;X90V!OUC;, TOUC;«YTlivouC;;corsooc. - AMwore, TO OTI Ii oTj.l6ocpOlpa Mv cp90velj.ltXPI KO! TWV «OupOv!WV- 0oreoev, ucorupetrci KO! tK TOO On KOTOTOUC;'OPCPIKOUC;unepovw TOO6tpoC;; E:upioxsrtn, wC; 90 i6wj.lev (nopoypocpOC;; 51-52), 0 oi9np, 0 onotoc Aovi~eTol 6arpwv, n&Aiou T& a&A'lval.,c;T& ~tpla~a (5, 2), (Uj.lVOC;; p6c; T6v Ai9tpa) xapoKT1lpl~On uevoc 6' tni nMov, wC; aarpocp&YY1'lc; (5,5). ruvenwc;, oi «Ft&ponAaYKTOIelvol uovov oj «X80VIOIIt aartp&c;' oi 6IoTTovTec;, Kal6j.1evOI MlaK6nwc; tVT6c; TOO OE:poe Kai ocpiVOVTec; «nuolvoc» ouooc eic; TOUC; «6p6j.1ouC;- TWV. 19. Oi nAavf)Tal, 'H 610KPIOIC;TWV ooreoov slc onAoveic; Kai nAovJiToc; noosumel tK TOO tm9tTou tma<pa&iC; (7,8), T6 onoiov 6i6eToi etc TOC;Mo ~WVOC;TOO ~W610KOO KUKAOU, we;; cpwnOj.ltvwv uno TG>Verrre nAOVIlTWV. Alon oMwore, j.l6VOV 01 emo nAovfiTal, 6IaVUOVTee;; TOC;TpOXI6e;;TWV tVT6e;; TOO ~W610KOO, Ka9loroOv TOUTac; uncoxrcc. opi~OVTee;; Koi TO nMTOe;; eKOorne;;, IOOV np6c;; 8 0 (uolpoc). "OnM npovucn oi tm6 nAavfiTQI VOOOyrOl elc 16 cctmacpaeic;» Ka! 6T1 oi 'OpcpiKOi 6XI uovov yvwpi~ouv Koi 610xwpi~ouv TOUC;oorepac; TOUTOUe;;, Mo Kai roue OVOj.lo~OUv ccnAoo vnroc-, npoxurrrsi oacpG>e;; TOO xwpiou TG>V'A P y 0 v 0 U T I'K G>v: cc'AYKaioc; T' tK t~oA&v nA&UpWVloc;, 6e; pa nop&iae; oupavlae; aarpwv t~al1, KuKAoue; T& nAaVnTac; (208-209)-, AIlAa6n: «Koi iiAgev 0 tK nAeupwvoe;;19 (Tfic; AiTWAioC;) 'AYKOioe;;, o onotoc tyvwpl~ev TOe;;oupavtouc KUKAIK6e;;nopeioc TG>Voorpwv, Kat TOUC;nAOVnTOe;;-. . Eni nMov, wC; ei60j.lev elc T6 reAeuraiov xwpiov, tK rwv IJvrWOveu9tVTwv eic;; rnv nopoypocpov 17, KarOVOIJO~eTOI tKei ~voe;; tK TG>V nAOVIlTG>V,0 ZeOe;;, we;; 6lorptXWV TOUe;;oOTepIOIJOUe;; . Y6poxoou xol 'IX9uwv .. E~ aM-ou nepleowSn aUTouOIoV cnoonooucnov, TO 41 OV, e ie;;ro onotov KaTOVOj.lO~eTOI Koi 0 ..APIlC;, XOPIC;e ie;;TOV T~tT~IlV ("Epya Ka; rll.Jepal 170b), 0 onotoc j.lOAloro TO npoAoyi~el we;; e~nc;: ... CC~&Ivwe; Kai aUYK&xu~tvwe;, tTl ~t Kai '4I&U~We;' Kai OUX wan&p 0 ~tyae; 'Op<p&Ue;

Tfic 'A~vovauTtId\c: tKoTpaT£iac;.

19 .. EK TWV nlvaKilSwv ~<: rpaj.lj.lllCi'l<: rpaqli't<: S' TWV Qveupegelo6)v ei«; n'lv nliAov, j.lia j.llKpQ QVaqltpel, On OJ.la<:tK 30 KwnllAaTwv WqI&IAe va j.I&Tapf\ &i<: n'lv nAeupwva, 1'1 iJnola &UpIOK&TO napa T6 MeooAoYYlov, Atv &ival Aomov aveu Ollj.laola<:, On 1'1 nAeupc;,v TWV . OPqlIKWV, QVaqltp&Tal Kai &iC; Ta«; mvaKilSa«; ~<: nuAou, Qvayoj.!tva<: QOqlaAc;,c; &i<: TO n&pi TO 1200 n.x., On&p anolS&IKVU&I, On npQYj.lQn Unf\pxe Kai TOT& 1'1 n6AI«;, tK Tf\C; onolac; KaT1\ysTo &tc;; TWV QOTpov6~wv TWV . 0PCPlKwV Xp6vwv, 6 . AYKaioc;, 0 onoioc; Kai j.I&Ttox£V

63

. EK TOO nMl80uc; TWV n~aVnTWV, wC; errrc, npoxurrrovroc tK TOO «errrceoetc», ouvcveror, on npoouerponvror etc TOUC;nEVTe oporouc 010 YUI-lVOOocpea~j.loO nxovnrcc, Kai OVOl-la~OVTOltnianc; n~aVtlTal, 6 ftAIOC; xui 1'1 aeAlivl1, onw<; OAAWOTe aUI-l~alVel OKOI-lIlKal eic; TOUC; POVOUC; A' XlAlernplOOe; n.X. tv . EM601, oMo Kai X TIle; etc Moue; TOUC;oPxaioue; ~aoue; Kal 1-l0~laTa xni eie; TOUe; cvcroxxouc. 'E~ aMou, tcp' ooov oi aMOl nevre n~avfiTOl elver oi 010 vuuvou uovov oq>ea~l-loO oporoi (' Epl-lfie;, . AcppoOiTIl, ..Apnc, Zeuc Kai Koovoc), rtpoxurrrei TO onuovrucov ouurtepoouo, on KaTO TOUe;onWTOTOUe;xPOvoue; Tfie; B' Xl~lernpiooe; n.X. elxev Mil vivet Ii rouncic TOO' Ewacp6pou Kai TOO' Eantpou etc eva xci I-l0VOVn~avlirnv, rnv . Acppoi5iTllv, on M TO 'iOlOV ouvesn Kai 010 TOV . Epl-lfiv. "OIJWe;, Ii E:ntOTIlIJOVIKr;

616aOKaA1KWc; T& Kai T&TaYlJtvwc; np6c; &UKpiv&laV, Kai T6 nAtov T&XV1KWTtpwc:;, Kai aAllec;,C; .. EK&ivoC; IJtv OUTW CPllo{'" napa8tTei M T6 cnoonccuo, TOO onolou 01Ou6 npWTOl ortxor elver ..npC;)TOV IJtv np6)TW E:vi 'U.lan cpaiVETal • Ap'lC;. lJi)vll 6' &iC; T' • APIlV E:ntTtAA&Tal". I:uvenwc;, eXOl-leV n~r1Poq>oplac;, tK TWV onoiov npoxurrrer, on TO onuepivd ovouorc TWV n~avllTwv avaYOVTal 6IJoiwe;, TouAaXIOTov, &ie; TOUe; . OpCPIKOUe; xp6voue; .

cum

KaTaKTIlOle;, we; Kai ndoal ai IJtXPI To06& E:KT&e&iOal, 6tv &iVal6uvaT6v va tYIV&V anoT6IJwe;. nptn&l Aom6v va &iVal T6 npo'i6v IJlde; clK61J1l naAaloTtpae; KAIlPOvolJiae;, clvaYOlJtvne; TouAaXloTov &ie; TOUe; T&A&UTaioue; aic;,vae; TI;e; r' XIAI&Tllpi60e; 20 n.X. fl Kai naAaI6T&poV.

20. Oi anAavE:ic;. <DaiveTOl on oi . OPCPlKOiOVOI-lO~OUV TOUe;on~aveie; on~wc; corspcc. i110Tl Otv crrovreror 6 oooc «on~aveie; » rooov eic TOVUI-lVOVoaov Kai ouOal-loO oMoO etc TO'OlaawetVTa Keil-leva.

20. "Onwe; AtY£1 6 Doig (18-12-13) xwpie; p£Paiwe; Kai TO avaql£p61J£va un' aUTOOVO £ival anoAUTWe;tl;nKplPWlJtva.Kai ouv£nwe; aAn9t;, £ie; n'lv Kivav £KTio9n tva IJtya aar£poexonetov tni paoIA£iae; TOOHuag - Ti (2650 n.X.) 6la n'lv tKTtA£OIV napaTnpnO£Wv TOO . HAiou, Tt;e;I£A1'Ivne; Kai TWVnAaVIlTwv .. OlJoiwe; aVaqltp£Tal ouv060e; TWVnAaVnTWV. EpIJOO, . Aqlp06iTne;, - Ap£we;, 416e; Kai Kp6vou, AapoOoa xwpav tni aUTOKpOTOpOe; Chauy Hsu (2513 - 2436 n.X.), 1'1 6noia, KaTo TOUe; £volJtvoue; onlJ£pov unoAOYIOIJOUe;, y 6tov vo tAaP£ xwpav TnV 28nv CII£ppouapiou TOO 2436 n.X. TtAoc; IJ£Tal;u TWV trwv 2255 Kai 2200 n.X., KaTo TnV paolA£iav TOOUU Shun - tytVOVTO napaTnp1'lo£le; 9to£we; TWVnevre nAavnTWV TOO . HAiou Kai Tt;e; I£Anvne; 610 T£TapToKuKAiou. Iuv£nwe; £ie; Tl'!v Kivav txouev lJiav avanTul;lv, napaTl'!pnolv, ouYXpovov neptnou Kai qlUOIKOOXI npoy£v£artpav Tt;e; . OpqllKt;e;, aqloO Twpa yvwpi~olJ£v, On oi . OPqllKOi, «oi "YIJVOI" TOO' Opqltwe;, avaqltpouv napaTflPnO£Ie; Kai ntpav TOO3.600 n.X. Eie;Tl'!v M£oonoTalJiav, ai apxal6T£pal napaTflPnO£Ie; TWVnAavnTWv, 6laow9£ioal tni ntvaKi6wv, XpovoAoyoOvTal KaTo 1000 necmeu tTfl ppa6uT£poV. OUTWlJia napaTnpnOIe; Tt;e; . Aqlpo6iTne; ('IOTOp) avoY£Tal £ie; TnV tnox1'lv TOO' AlJlOaVTOUKa, £pi T6 1650 n.X., ai n 6t v£wT£pal ai 6noial 6uvavTai vo AOYlo900v al;16Aoyoi a"6 tntarnlJovlKile; an61j1£we;, avaqltpovTOI 1J6AIe; ie; TOUe;H' Kai Z' n.X. aiwvae;, 6T£ apxi~£1 Kai 1'1 aKlJn Tile; IJ£Ttn£ITa £ TWV . OPqllKWV . EAAnviKile; . AOTpOvolJiae;£1e;TnV 'Iwviav Tile; . IOTopIKfje;nAtov n£pI660u. npOK£llJtvou nepi TWVAiyumiwv, 6nwe; AtY£1 6 Talon (43, 38), ai napaTnpr,O£Ie; TWV nAavnTwv OUlJqlWVWe; np6e; TO61aow9tvTa K£ilJ£va aVaqltpoVTal £ie; 9to£le; TWVnAaVnTWV tni TOOoupavoO' ccnAnvOIJWe; qlaiVOVTal VO tXOUV 6£X9t; ioxupov TnV tni6pa"lv Tt;e; . EAAnVlarlKile; aarpovolJiae; (4' aiwv n.X.), TnV 6noiav Kai ouv£Xi~ouv" .. H . Aqlp06iTfl 6vo1J0~£Tal ccaOTl'!p Tile; npwiae;", 6 Z£Ue; cc6AOlJnwv aOTl'!p", 6 !<p6voe; .cOpoe; TOOTaupou" Kai 6 ..Apne; cc'Epu9p6e; 'Opoe;" .. An6 KOIVOO01 nAavt;Tal :<aAoOVTal ccaartp£e;, oi errolor 6tv avanauoVTIll nore », {' Oe; np6c; rnv tni<5paolv TIle; . EAAllvIKfje; . AOTPOVOlJiae;ni Tc;WAiyumiwv, enovat AalJpovol-u:v 011 Ii n6AI<; . HAlounoAI<; Tfje;AiyunTou, tKTio91l KQTO Ttle; . EAAnV1KOe; napa6664

Flepi TWV OnAOVWV yvwpii:;;ouv oi . OPCP1KOi,OTl e:TVOl010nUp0121, W<; npocurrrer eK TOO ernserou nUp6&VT&C; (7,5). ToOTo OMWOTe: Koi ovcusvouev, KOT6mv TWV OOWV tAtX81100V e:l<; T6v U~VOV Tn<; ouoeoc (Ke:CPOA010VA' § 5), · El; oMou tXe:l nopoTTjPl18ei ri oriAl311 (ro AOl-inuplo~o) TWV onAovwv - oi nAoVnTOl Mv oTiA130UV - OUTll M cvceeoeror e:l<; OUO oTixou<;, QUTW, Atye:T010l' OUTOU<; ~ap~apuyaic; oTiAr~OVT&C; (7, 11), tK TOO onoiou Koi OUVOye:T01, OTI KOt 6 oooc «OTiAI311», T6v onotov xpllOl~onOloOIle:v onuepov, e:TVOl . OpCP1Kn<; npoexeuecce .. E~ oMou XOPOKTllPti:;;OVTOl oi corepec w<; oVTauy&iC; (7, 5), ornvenpo; 0AoOVTe<;, onep 61l0tw<; ouoev o.Mo 011Aoi nopo T6 «OTtAl3oVTe:e;», · Ene: 101'}T6 «evrcuvetc» noonverror ouvosouevov cueocc uerc TOO «nupoevT&C;» etc T6v ourov orixov, ouvcveroi w<; Aiov m80v6v, OTl I'} OTtAI311- omv811prouoc tAoyii:;;e:ro oc oxe:Tli:;;olleVll npoc rnv nupivnv CPU01VTWV o.OTPWV, TtAoe;, ol . OPCP1KOteronoeerouv TOUe; corepoc, noxu 1l0KPOV me; vne;, e:ic:;TO OPIO TIle; oporornroc, oc nooxurrrer tK TWV' ApYOVOUTlKWV cCQOTpa T& TI")A60& cpavT6» (340), ol1Aoori: TO o.OTPOTO OPOTO, TO onolo e:UpiOKOVTOl etc uoxpuvnv cnoOT001V (<<TTjMoe») oMo KOt TI")A&cpavii (' ApYOVOUTlKO 529), . EK Tn<; Ml;ewe; «CPOVTO»,ol1Aool'} «OPOTO», TOO iotou XWptOU, rtpoxunrer ri tvoe:ll;le; em une8e:Tov TI'}'J unop~lv KOt Ill'} 6POTWV coreoov tK Tnc:; cnoorcoeoc. T6 OTl M rnv tVV010V rne; OIOKpioe:w<; rcurnc ne:plexel tVTo080 ri M~le; «CPOVTO» evioxuerc. OK61l11 neoiooorepov tK roO OTl nousevc oMoO Mv, cvoceperm w<; tni8e:rov TWV oateoc», nOVToTe: at ytVeTol XpnOle; tm8tTwv tX6VTWV OXt01V npoc rnv AOllnp6TTjTo TWV, onw<; «auy6~oVT&C;» 6OT&P&C;, «Aa~n&Til")" o&Arivl") K.O.K, 21 .. H . AOTpoAoyia ... Onwc; npOKUnT&1 tK TWV OTixwv «t~olpi6Iol n601")C; ~oipl")C; 01")~6VTOP&C; OVT&C;' 9VI")TWV 6v9pwnwv 9&il")v 61&nOVT&C; oTapn6v» (7, 6-7), KOTO TOU<; onoiouc «ol oorcoec opii:;;ouv T6 nerrrpcuevov, 0111l0ivOVTe:e; rnv uoipcv KOt pu8IJi~oVTe:e; TWV ov8pwnwv rnv ~wI'}V», . H . AOTpOAOytO eKoMlepvstro uno TWV . OPCP1KWV, · E~ o.Mou Koi T6 cnoonoouo neot TOO OOTpov61l0U . AYKOiou, nou e:'loollev etc ncocvooeov 5, KOTOMye:l we;t~ne;: «6i6&TO y6p T' t6VTa, TO T' eoeeuev' 6v9pwnoIOIV» (. ApYOVOUTlKO 208)' 011AoOn 0 . AYKOIOe; «ene:oioeTo etc rnv noPOTI'}Pllo1V TWV TPOX1WVrwv oOTepwv Koi TWV Klvl'}oewv TWV nAovllTwv; we; KOt sic rov K080P10IJ6v TGW KUKAWV Tn<; oupcviou ooolooc», 016Tl «OVe:i:;;nTe:lTO nop6VTO Koi TO lleMoVTO vo oUIJ1300v etc TOUe; ov8pwnou<;», I:uve:nwe; 0 . AYKOioe; nro OOTpoMyoe; - OOTPOVOIl0C:;. · AAM Koi Ii rreoucortn TOO 410u onocncouortou, ro onoiov nooereen e lc rnv nopoypocpov 17, 6VOcptpe:l OOTPOAOY1KOe;oVT1Al'}ljJele;, tcp' OOOV onovoosuer rnv «nAe:OOlv TWV nAoiwv, orov 0 Zsuc euptoxsro; etc TOV . Yopox60v Kai OUVIOTO rnv TtAeOlv Y0J.lwv, orov OIOTptXll ro Z;W010VTWV . 'X8Dwv», I:uve:nwe; elvol nMov r1 f3t130l0V OTl Ii .Aorpoxovto ove:mux811 e lc Tt'JV . 0PCP1KI'}V. EMMo nOAD npiv r1 tllCPa-

O&IC; 6.no TOV . AKTi!;, uiov TOO . HAiou, 0 onoioe; avaxwpftoae; ono n;v Pol)ov J.l&TtPll &ie; n;v AiyunTov KaTa navapxaiav tnoxitv, eneu tC5iC5a~&v Kai . AOTpOVoJ.liav &ie; TOUe; AiyuTOUe; onoioue; oi ~tvOI C5fj6&v tp&UVllTal Kal oxoAlaOTai ouV&XWe; tv&cpavl~ov xwpie; tVTpom'lv Kai we; l)1C5aoKoAoue; TOO ... Opcptwe;», 0 oupavoe;&ival I1&TaAAIKOv Kai Kal1nuAov KOUj3ouKAIOV cptpov onae;, tK TWV onoiwv C5laVllJ.laTWV (J.l& KAwaTC:ac;)Eival aVTJPTTJ~VOI (KP&lJaOlJtVOI) oi oOTtp&e;, we; Auxvial, (we; AciJ.ln&e;) OOpaTOI fI oj3&VVUJ.l&VOI 11'Iv l'IJ.ltpav Kai aVanTOJ.l&VOI naAIV KaTa n;v vUKTa (16, 20 Kai 19, &ioaywvn).

nrtouc), 21. KaTa TOUe; AiyunTioue;

65

V10SOOV oi OOTpoMYOl n'j<; MEOOnOTOlJio<;22. 'E~ aMou, OUVOYETOIaT! oi 'OPct>lKcii oOTpov61101 iloov ouyxp6vw<; Koi OOTpoMyoI, Ii M napOKOAOUSI'lOI<;, iC5iaTWV nAaVT]TWV ~Aiou Koi OC:Ar'}VT]<;,010 xovouc OOTpohoYIKOU<;, ouversxecev eic rnv KOAAIEPYflOV n'j<; KOSOpa<; . AOTPOV0l1io<;*3. Trtv 'AOTPOVOl1iov, OUOTTJPw<; vomu000I1EV11v, OVEupioKOIlEV Ei<; TOU<; . Opqn-. o KOU<; "vuvouc, oi onolot tOiOOOKOV, W<; etoovovnv Ei<; Tr;V IlU110lV, Tr;V «Oi\r')Se:lOV» tv ytvEI de; TOUe;uuour+vouc. nMv OIlOOe;, Ii «CAT'JSElO» OOT11,KOS' 600v aepopo etc rnv 'AOTPOVol1iov, ilTO T6 npo"i6v 0Xl uovov Illae; ouvsxouc nnoornonoeox; TOO OUpovoO cno xP6voue; rtcvupxolouc, oMo Koi Tii<; OlOtOS11T!Kii<; Koi OlElOQlIT!Kiie; (5UVOI1Ewt; TOO nve:UI10 Oe; TCv 'OpepIKWV. ilIa roOTO Kai 6 ul1vwMC; . OPCPEUC; nOKOAume:TOt etc TOUe; uuvouc Wt; «0 SEWPT]T!KOt;» Tnt; . Aorpovouicc Tnt; no' cpxotcc tKe:iv11e; tnoxiie; etc rnv onotcv unf}p~e: xni tOPOOEV.
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Kai ~IO OK6~11 OOIOa&IOTOC;on60&11;1C;Tnc; ~&viaTIlC; napaTIlPIlTlK6TI,ToC; Kai iKav6~WY , OpqllKWY ISla.va. oulla.j!ouv Kai va Ka90piaouv reeov A&nToTtlTac; evvoiac; Kai

69

26. Ai tKA&illl&U; TOO tiAiou. noM mwxai elvat ai nAIlPocpopiat nepi TG>V I'J~IOKG>V E:KAe:ilJ,le:wv. An~G><; Mye:Tal, OTt evw 0 OiOKOe;;TOO Jihiou elvat naVTOTe . Ka9ap6<; Kai eonouevoc t~ 6~OKAt'lPOU, eVtOTE, «0 KUKAIKO<;ouroc 6q>80AI..I6<;TOO KOO~OU» Oj3tWUTaI (Oj3I'JVe:I)Kat xcromv aVaM~ne:l, t~anoOTtMwv n6Alv Ta<; noxuTt~OU<; q>WTe:1Va<; TOU aKT1Va<; 27 (£U6l£, naol(patic;, K6oJ,loU T£ n£pi6poJ,lov oJ,lJ,la, ol3£VVUJ,l£VOVAciJ,lnov T£ KaAaic; aKTiOl <pa£lvaic;, (8,14-15). "Ouec, tov Mv yiVe:TOl A6yo<; nepi TOO ulrlou, TOO npOKaAOOvTO<; TO<; eKhe:ilJ,Ie:l<;TaUTa<;, elver ecveoov, OTl ol . Opq>IKOi Mv 9e:wpoOv T6 eorvouevov w<; unepq>uoIK6v. I1tv T6 eounvsuouv, we;; npoKohoUI1EVOV uno liatl16vwv Kai lipaK6VTWV . .0 ',010<;6 il~loc; Oj3tWUTal Kai ovaAoJ.lne:1. ~uve:nw<;, T6 q>Olv6~e:vov Aoyi~e:TOl eVTE~G><; q>UOlK6v28.

J.loAlara QV&U &i6IKWV 6PYovwv, allo TOe; onoiae; nyv6110av Kai npoo&no6l1OQv VO napancmeouv OiV&WT&POI tp&uvI1Tai. 27 .. H nf)Wr., uno TWV Ilvwv (Klvt~wv) aarpovoJ.lWV avaql&poJ.ltvl1 tKA&U~IIe; TOO "'Aiou &IVal TOO l:Toue; 2159 n.X. tov '" nAI1Poqlopia &IVal aKplPne; (3.89). Eie; T"'V M&OOnOTaJ.liav, mvaKi6&e; ovaqltpouoal ouor.,J.laTiKOe; napaTI1P",O&Ie; tKA&ilj.l&wV ovoyoVTal, KaTo TOV Taton, ele; TOUe; H' Kai Z' n.X. alwvae; (43-125) Kai Kafo TOV Abelli, '" oPxaloTtpa nAlaKn tKA&IIj.IIe;, n'lv onoiav nap&n'lPl1oav oi BapuAwvlol &lval '" Tfje; 1911e;MapTiou TOO l:Toue; 721 n.X. (1-13). TtA'oe;, &Ie; TO AlyunTiaKo K&iJ.l&va J.laTaiwe; OVa~l1n'1011 Kav&ie; n'lv J.lv&iav J.lIOe;l:OTW Kai J.l0VI1e; tKA&ilj.l&we;, we; AtY&1 6 Taton, (43-37) . . E~ flAAou, OVaqlOpIKWe; np6c; n'lv npoPPl1olV TWV tKA&ilj.l&wv, &Ie; T1'IVKivav, oVaqltp&Tal OTi t~&T&Atoe.,oav oi oarpov0J.l01 HI Kai Ho, we; un&u6uvol, 616T1 6tv KaTwp6woav vo npoi"6ouv n'lv l:KA&IIj.IIV TOO nAiou, TOO 2159 n.X. 6nwe; ovaqltp&1 oOlog, (18-13). Ele; T1'IV M&OOnOTaJ.liav, AtY&1 6 Abelli. "'" npopA&Ij.IIe; TWV ",AlaKwv tKA&ilj.l&wV Kai TWV n&pIOXWV opaT6TI1TOe; TWV ilTO oKaTop6wTOe;, 610TI ou6&ie; tYVWPI~& TO oxfjJ.la Kai TO J.lty&60e; Tfje; yfjc; Ii T1'IVnapoAAa~lv nie; I&Aflvl1e;. M6vov 6t OPYOT&poV J.lt T1'Iv p01'l6&lav Ti'je; npoI1Y!J&VI1e; r&wJ.I&Tpiae; Kai TplywvoJ.l&Tpiae; TWV . EAA1'Ivwv, ilTO 6uvaTOe; 0 unoAoYI0J.l0e; OUTOe;", . Eniol1e;, KaTo'Tov Coudere, '" 18&T1'Ie; n&pi060e; TOO uoopoU" o6lKaloAoyflTwe; tAoyia611 on6 TOO' J.I.X. alwvoe; Kai J.I&TOun6 TOO Halley, We; ovaKoAulj.lle; TWV XaA6aiwv, 610Tl ou6tv ypam6v o6l1y&i &Ie; J.liav TOlaUTI1V un06&olv, OVTI6tTwe; 6t nA&ioTOI Aoyol n&i60uv 6T1 TOV nyvoouv. Ai XaA6a'iKai mvaKi6&e; npopAtnouv tKA&ilj.l&le; O&AI1VlaKOe; Kupiwe;, &IVal 6t noAu m6avov, 6T1 rj npopA&lj.Iie; TWV aur., tarl1pi~&TO &Ie; T1'Iv onAi'jv napaT1'IPl10lV, T1'IV noAu anAouartpav TOO «Oopou'" KaTO.T1'Iv onoiav 5-6 o&AI1VlaKai tKA&ilj.l&le; OUV&xi~OVTal KaTO 61aA&iJ.lJ.lOTa 170 "'J.I&PWV, J.I&TO6t naptpxovTal 17 J.lfjV&e;QV&U tKA&ilj.l&wv. noAu Ppa6UT&pov, T6v t" Ii TOV B' n.X. alwva t~I1Kpipwoav Ii l:J.la60v oi XaA6aioi TOV «oopov'" . AVTl6tTWe; we; AtY&1 6 AlYlv1'ITI1e;, 0 0aAfje; &ie; n'lv . EAAQ6a «n6uv1'I611 VO npoetrm n'lv n&piqll1J.1ov l:KA&IIj.IIV TOO nAiou, Tfje; 29 MaTou TOO l:Toue; 585 n.X., ouv&n&ia Tfje; 6noiae; KaTtnaUO&v 6 Au60J.l1161K6e; noA&J.loe;, aVaJ.lqllOPl1n'1Twe; J.lt T1'IVp01'l6&lav TOO «odpou» (2-158). npoYJ.laTi KaTo TOV . Hp060TOV (A 74) «ouJ.lPoAfje; Y&VOJ.ltvl1e; OUV1'IV&IK&V WOT& Tfje; J.laXI1e;OUV&OTWol1e; T1'Iv nJ.ltpav t~anivl1e; vUKTa y&vto6al, T1'IV6t J.I&TaAAay1'lv TaUTI1V Ti'je; "'J.ltpae; 0aAfje; b MIAfloloe; rotew "'WOI npcenvepeuev l:o&o6al Oupov np06tJ.l&voe; tVlauTov TOOTOV, tv TW 6li Kai tytV&TO '" J.I&TapoAfl. Oi 6t Au60i T& Kai oi Mfj601 tn&i T& &i60v vUKTa aVTi nJ.ltPI1e; Y&VOJ.ltvl1v Tf\e; J.laXI1e;T& tnauoaVTo Kai J.lollov T& ton&uoav Kai aJ.lqlOT&pOI &ip1'lvl1v tauToiol y&vto6al", IuvaY&Tal tK TWV avwTtpw: a') 6TI 6 «acipoe; .. 6tv &ival QvaKoAulj.lle; BapuAwvlaKoxaA6a'jK1'I", P') 6TI ilTO YVWOTOe; &ie; T1'IV . EAAcl6a noAu tvwpie;, 611Aa6li an6 TWV apxwv TOO 6 n.X. ai. Kai y') 6T1, 61a va &ival T6T& YVWOTOe;, xwpie; va an06i6&Tal n QvaKoAulj.lie; TOU &Ie; T6v 0aAI1Ta, T6v npwTov tv Tfj iOTopia «tnioI1J.1ov" .. EAAl1va aOTpovoJ.l0V, nptn&1 va an&TtA&1 OUTOe;J.liav naAaloTtpav, . EAAI1VIK1'Iv 6J.1we;KAI1Povol.liav, '" 6noia ilTO T6 npo'jov 1.I10e; &ipoe; l.IaKPWV tml.l&Awv Kai OUOTl1l.1aTlKWVnapaTI1P1'lO&WV TWV tKA&io Ij.I&WV, avayol.ltvwv &Ie; apK&TOUe; TouAaXIOTov alwvae; rtperepov. (ouv&nWe; napaTI1PtiO&WV TWV . OPqlIKWV). 28. KaTO Tae; Aa'jKae; aVTlAtilj.l&le; TWV apxaiwv Aiyumiwv (l.Iia alll1 <m06&1~1e; TWV Ka6u' OT&Pl1lJtvwv yVWO&WV TWV AlyunTiwv) ai tiAlaKai tKA&ilj.l&le; wql&iAoVTO &Ie; TO I.IU61KOV

eo

70

, E~ aAAoo, tK TOO t",8tTOU «&Ul510C;", T6 onotov rroorccoeror Tr;e; We; avw ncpIKomie;, npOKlJnTCI, Aiav m8av6v, OTI '6tv ncoernonenoov IJtXPI T6TE em TOO nAlaKOO '6iOKOU, ai onovloc 6PWIJEVOI '610 YUlJvoO 6q>8aA1J00 IJcy6AOI KIlAi'6EC,.

wc,

B' 0 HAIOKENTPIIMOI 27.. 0 cCKOOl.loKpaTWp" i;Alo,; .. EK TWV OIJVWV . HAiou Kai . An6Mwvoc:, OUVOYCTOIon oi . Opq>IKoi t'6i'6aoKov T6v nAIOK€VTPIOIJ6v, av OXt, we; oKpll3we; T6v Opi~OIJEV OnIJEpOV, TouMXlaTOV KaTO TOc:,l3aOlKoe; TOU iMae;. il16T!: a') . YnoPXouv, KaT' opxnv, oi xapaKTIlPIOlJoi TOO TlAiou, KOOIJOKPOTOPOC; (8, 11) Kai l5&On6TOU TOO K60IJOU (8, 16), oi onoior Oq>OIPOOV ono rnv yr;v T6 npoVOIJIOV nic, TiYETlKnc, 8tOEWC, Tile; tv TW K601Jw. 13') '0 npOTEAEUTaio<; ortxoc TOO OIJVOUTOO 'An6Mwvoc, '6laoaq>il;EI nsoioooTEPOV TnV TlVETlKnV 8tOlv TOO TiAiou, Ka8' OOOVMYEl, OTI OUTOC,eXEI TnV oq>payi'6o '610 Tnc, onoloc «tTunw9rl" 6 K6oIJ0e;' ccnavT6c; tX&U; K6oIJoU o(l)Pl1yil5a TUm.,TlV" (34, 26). '0 tv Myw aTixoc, evvoet, npoq>ovwc" OTI 6 K6.o1J0c,«tytVf:.TO» uno TOO TlAiou KOi, ouvenoc Tl '61'6ooKOlJtVIl iMo, KOOIJOYOVIKne;q>UOEWC"ElvOI OTI 0 K601J0c, nponA8EV tK TOO TlAiou. "Ouoc Tl KOOIJOYOVIKnOOTIl ccopxli" OUVEnOYETOI Koi mv npwToPXIKTlV 8tolV TOO nAtOU EtC, T6v K601J0V, rnv onotov aMWaTE nopeXOUV Eic, aUT6v OXI uovov TO tnt8ETo ccKOOIJOKPOTWP" at cc'6eonOTIlc," , oMo xci TO K Mov nepIEXOlJeVOv TWV '6uo 0IJVWV, etc TOUC, onolouc cvoeeooueeo. 28.. 0 ",AIO'; CCeAK&Il> T6v K6ol.lov. "OAWe; i'6loiTepov smornuovixov tV'610q>tpov nopouOIol;cl 0 aTixoc" K6oIJoU T6v tvapIJ6vlov l5p6lJoV tAKWV (8, 9). ilIOTl, T6 pnlJa cceAKw" clxe TnV all IJOOtOV rnv 6noiov TOO ono'6i'6olJev Koi onueoov, , T600v elc TO 'Opq>IKO, oaov Koi eic TO 'OIJIlPIKO KeilJevo. "08EV E'iIJe80 nVOYKaOlJeVOI vc C5ex8wIJEV, OTI oi 'Opq>IKoi OIJIAOOVneot e~EWe; TOO nAiou, OOKOUlJtvnC, tni TOO ccC5p61J0u TOO KOOIJOU". 'AM' cceA~Ic,TOO C5polJou" C5tv eXEI «ouutov cnoAUTWC,ewOIov, tq>' OOOV, onwc, E'i'60IJCV, «C5polJoc," tMYETo Tl tKAElnTlKli· 'H eA~Ic, OlJwc, tni TOO «l5p6IJou TOO K601Jou" AaIJ130vEI tWOIOAOYIK6v nEplexOIJEVOV, tov Koi uovov (tq>' ooov) 6 KOOIJOC, eAKeTOI uno TOOTiAiou KOttov 0 KOOIJOC, Kat 0XI o T;AIOC,- C5lovull rnv TPOXIOV rournv. 'AMo Kat Tl OUVTOKTlKli nAOKli Kat epunvelo TOO ortxou TOOro OKPII3WC, yel, OTI 0 KOOIJOC, 5IOTptxel rnv tKAE:InTlKliv .. O<pClAOM C IJEV 08cv vc C5ex8wlJev, on: a') 0 T;AIO<;vosiror oxlvnroc Koi 0 KOOIJOC, IVOUlJeVOe;em Tr;c, tKAEInTlKr;c, Kat K 13') 0 T;AIOC,eAKel T6v KOOIJOV KaTO TnV KiVIlOlV TOUTIlV. I:uvenwe;, oi 'Opq>IKoi nopexouv Kat TnV t~liYIlOlV Tfie; KIVlioEWC" C51'660KOUV C5t, q>UOIKnV olrlcv Tfic, Klvlioewc, TOO KOOIJOU, TnV eA~IV TOO liAiou, rpetc KOt nMov XIAIETTlPiC5ac, piv olJlMan rtepi TOUTIlC, 0 NeUTWV T6 1687 IJ.X. (tnolJtvwc;, n npoo8tTOIJ&V nlJ&iC; Kai TOO np6 aUTOO i1I1IJOKpiTOU (pAtn& ' EpIJoV NTiAC; ccnpOOWKpaTlKOi .., ap8pov i1111J6KpIToC; Kai "~way. i1. naooa «T6 • EyKAI1IJa Tiic;; • EmOTTU.lllC;;", o&AiC;; 136 Koi t<p&~flc;). T6 o'6laooq>IlTOV 01lIJEiov TOO orixou e1VOI 6 «KOOIJOe;". 'Ev roUTOIC, T6 on npoTOOOETOI eic, T6v ortxov 6 XOPOKTIlPI0f.lOe; "XpuooAuPI1C;" T;AIOC,6 onotoc ovoq>t.peTOI eic, TOe; tnoxoe; TnC, vfic, we; tMX81l xoi 80 '(C5WIJ'EV' onoooq>TWtl;eTOI v

wc,

wc,

wc,

Tepac:; ..6.n6",,,. T6 6noiov enertaero tvaVTiov TOO geoO TOU !iAiou ..PO" .. 0 PO tv TtAel KaTtf,}aM& TO 9TJpiOV Kai 0 iiAIOC; oneKaAunn:To, (16-20) .. Qe; Atyel Kai 6 AiYIVliT'1e;, noxAoi Tiiiv Aaiiiv Kai I-ItXPI aTIl-iepov OKOI-I'1, npOe; tKqlOPlOl-l6v TOO tmngel-ltvou lipclKOVTOe;, npoKClAouv "_cyav e6pu~ov 61C~qlWvc:;,v Kat Kp6TWV. (2, 151-19, EioaywY!i).

71

uno roO ic5iou ullvwc500 KOTwrtpw Kai ro art, eueuc OJ.ltOWC;, eic; TOV snousvov orlxov OKOhou8ei 0 noooo.oorouoc wpoTp6cpoC; (8, 10) i']AIOC;, OOTlYt;1 t;ic; TO OUI.mE;ooouc, OTt WC;«KOOIlOC;»c5UVOTOI a 8e:wpn8n, «or opxTiv, Ti vii .. H anoljJI<; ourn v evroxuerm OnllaVTtKWC; tK roO oe:oolltvou, OTt ouoalloO etc rc ... OpcptKO» ovacptpe:rOl KivnOle; rou i]hiou rrepi rnv yr;v. 'Ev rouroic, ro ye:yov6C; OTt otv vlvero: oacpi]c; uveio rr;c; KIVi]Oe:WC; wv nxovnr rwv ne:pi rov i']hIOV, 60nyei elc ro re:hlKov ouuneooouo xcrc ro onotov ol 'OPCPIKOi oocpahwc; uev 8e:wpoOv rov i']hlOV WC; KtvrpOV Klvi]oewc; Kai 1l00lora xni E:h~eWC; roO KOOIlOU, otv npoxwpoOv o~WC; eic; rnv OhOKA~PWOlV roO ~hloKevrplKoO ouOTTU.laTOC;, OloooKovrec; oocpwC; rnv KIVnOIV rwv nl\ov'lrwv ne pIE; OLJTOO'eq>8ooov rponov TtVO IltxPI rr;c; ovrlMljJe:wc; Kai roO Ka80pi01l00 rr;c; yr;C;, we; nxovnrou, uno TI;V onueoivnv E:wOIav rr;e; M~e:wc;. napa rcurc, Mv yvwpi<;OIle:V ecv Ii evvoro «KOOIlOe;» tveixe: Kai rore, WC;ouveI3n eic; roue; usrenerro xPOVOUC;tv . EMool, Kai rnv nepleKTtK1']v onuootov rou ouV6hOU rwv nhOVnrWV, tK TllC; onotcc npor;h8e:v Ii xonouronoouuevn IltxPI OTlIle:POV E:KcppaOle; «lihloKe:vrpIKov ouornuo roO KOOIlOU». Kai roOTO 0IlWC; cotvero: noxu m8ov6v, ~l6Tl 6Aol oX&~6v oi uercnerre «apxaiol>' aarpovo~lKOi 6pOl &Uptoxovrm, T6 npC;)Tov, etc TOUe; . OpcplKOUC;. 'Eov, ouvenoc, etc rev opov «KO01l0e;», nvvoouv rroovuon roue nhav1']rae;, e:iC;ro ouvoxov rev, rore i] lihloKevrplK1'] iota nopouorccercr 0Xl uovov WhOKAnPwlltvn, KOTO ro E:va oKthoe; rnc, onhao1'] Karo rnv Kivn01V rov nhaVnrWV nepi rev T]hlOV, oMo nopouoiozercr nh1']pnc; Kai KaTo T6 ~&UT&POV oKtAoc; aUT1;C;, ~IlAa~';, we; np6c; T';V KiVllOlV Tf'le; yf'le; nept T6v a~ovo rnc, ~lO T';V 6noiov, tKT6e; TWV il~1l A&XetVTwv, yiV&Tal ~&~O~lKWT&pOe; A6yoe; &ie; TO n&pi rf'le; (K&cpoAalov OT' (6ov). 29 ... HAIOC;, 6 ~wr;c;, KIVr;O&WC; Kai tv&Pv&iac;. Mero rr;e; iMac; TOO «KOO~OKpOropOe;» i]hiou ouvoecrci Kai i] op81'] ovrihnljJle; neol rr;c; oxtoe:wC; rou, WC;npoc TI;V <;wi]v, TI;V xlvnotv xci rnv evepvercv. EiC; rov T]hlOV 6cpeiheral i] <;wr;, MyerOl oacpwe; eic rev UIlVOV rou ' Hxiou, onou oirroc cnoxcxetrc. «~wf'le; cpwe; (8, 18), CP&ptoj3loe;29 Kai Kopm~Oe;» (8, 12), oMo xoi elc rev UIlVOV rou ' An6Mwvoe;, onou ro tni8e:ra, ol rtpoooroorouoi «onepuetoc Kai Op6TplOe;" (34, 3), onhoOV, OTI Ii c5uvOTornc;rr;e; ap60ewc; Kai rr;e; onopdc rr;c; yr;e; naptxovTOI uno roO i]hiou, e:iC;rov ortolov 6cpeihovTOI ai I3poxai. T1']v ioiav onuootov nepltxel Kai 0 nap61l010C; xapaKrnpl01l6c; rou we; «cvplou» (34, 5), tcp' aoov QUvarOl vo 8e:WPIl8r; we; pU81l1orr;c; rfic tv veve. aypOTlKr;C; <;wr;c;.

60T1ip

'E~ aMou, 6 T]hlOC;e:IVOl Ii nllvTi eveovelcc, 6 cptpwv ro cpwc;, «cpwocp6poc;" (8, 12 Kai 34, 5), 6.Mo xni ro 6.PXIK6v ornov cvorrruooet 6 Ullvw06C;, XpnOlllonolwv wC; napooe:1Ylla rnv neolrrrooiv rwv 6.vtllwv, ol onotoi Mov v' 6.nooic5wvrOl etc rov T]hlOV' civt~wv oupiy~ae' itVTa (34,35). ~uvaTOl M vc he:x8r;, OTt Ii iota cum e:TVOl'(owe; tK rwv crtouocroreocv 'OPCPIKWV, tcp' aODV ro CPUOIKO veve. tv
ocwouevc npoohalll36.vouv ouro 01' aUTOUe; utov Kai 1l00IOTa Kai eviotcv, KOT' 6.pxr;v, CPUOlK1']V t~r;YIlOtV, WC;6cpeiMIleva eic; rov T]hIOV.

6p81']v

29. 'H tniKA'lole; TOO' HAiou ci9avan: Z&O (8, 13), &ival OUOx&nol-ltv'l np6e; n')v ~i6wpov, Tl'lv ~W06WT&lpaV, tvtpY&lav aUToO. dl6n, f(aTa T6 390v 'OpQ)lf(6v cinoanaol-lanov "Z&Ue; yap t6WK&, ~wa T' tytvv'lO&v' .Kai ZHN' aUT6v KaAtouolV, Kai dlA T' 1'16', 6n 61'1 61a TOOTOV 6navTa TtnKTal, (&Ie; 6t nan')p OUTOe; avTwv, 9'lPwV T& !5POTWV n T&), tl; ou Kai 6 "Aloe; - ' An6AAwv cinOKaA&iTal Z&Ue;,ciAM Kai apxl'l T& T&A&un')l-ItAouoa, naVTo9aAlie; (34, 15-16).

72

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TA EK TOY HAIOY <DAINOMENA

30. AIOXUTOV q,wC;, AUKQUytC;, AUK6q,wC;. T6 610XUTOV CPWC; oupovou, TOO T6 OUpaVlOV q)(-;)C;;8,2) 6cpe:tAe:TOIetc T6v nAIOV' elver oUT6 TOOTOT61'}AIOK6v cpwC;. ( ·AAM Kat I'} Jiwc;, T6 AUKOUytC; Ko9wC; Kat I'} VU~ 6cpe:tAOvrOl e:iC;T6v nAIOV' «6&~lt IJ&V Y&VtTWP noOc;;, &UWVUIJ& VUKT6C;;» (8,4), Mye:l 6 ulJvwMC;. · EK TOO artxOU TOUTOU nooxurrrei OK6IJTJ on xoi oi . OPCPIKOtnpOOOVOTOAt(;OVTO, I3Mnovre:c; npoc l3oppCiv30. Tnv nMpTJ OIJWC;ne:plypocpJiv Kat otnoxovncnv TOO AUKOUYOOC;Kat TOO AUK6cpWTOC; e:UptOKOIJe:V elc T6v UIJVOV TOO . An6Mwvoc;, onou Mye:TOI 610 T6v nAIOV: «616n ou I3Mne:lC; oUT6v T6v cnepcvrov Kat Ko90p6v oi9tpa 6A6KATJPov, Ko9wc; Kat rnv yr;v Qvw9e:v, oM' OK6j..1TJ Kat j..ItXPI Te:OOOpwV wpWV, nptv Te:Ae:IWOTJ nptv OPXtOTJ il I'} VU~, Ko9' OV xp6vov ernxooret OKPO YOAJivn, ore OU euploxeom uno TOC;ptl;oc; TOO OK6TOUC; Koi (tKe:i9e:v) 6pCic; (TO ncvrc), tK TWV KOTWoMo Kat t~ouOlol;e:lC; TWV nspcTWV OAOU TOO K60IJou»' (T6v6& OU yap A&UOO&lC;; T6v an&iplTOV ai9tpa nevro, yaiav T' ... un&p9&v Kai 61' alJoAyoO VUKT6C;; tv nouxillOlV un' ... 6pq>VIlC;; pi~ac;; vtp9& 6t6opKac;;, tX&lC;; 6t Ta n&ipaTa K6oIJoU navrec-) (34, 11-15). · EK Tr;c; ne:pIKonr;c; TOUTT]C; poxurrrouv TO t~r;c;: Eic; TO eoivouevo TOO AUKOUYOOC; n KOi TOO AUK6cpWTOC;AOj..ll3ovouv IJtpoc; 6 T)AIOC;,aMo Kat 6 oi9Jip' (<<616n I3Mne:lC; rov cleeoo») .. 0 oi9Jip, we; 9tAOIJe:V 'i6e:1 (ncccvoccoc 52) e:UpiOKe:TOI etc T6v xwpOV Kat ouvroro TO aVWTe:po OTPWIJOTOTr;C; oruooeclcoc. I:uve:nwc; Mye:TOI tVTOO90, on cnorretrcn 6 oi9l'}p, 610 va Ml30uv xwpov T6 AUKOUytC; Kat T6 AUK6cpwc;.. AMo Kat etc T6v UIJVOV Tr;C; VUKT6C; avocptpe:TOI 6 p6AOC; Tr;C; crucoectccc elc TO qxnvoIJe:VO TOOTO. Lll6n I'} VU~ anOKOAe:iTOI «naiKT&lpa 61WYIJaOlV n&pOq>OiTOlC;;» (3,9), 6TJA061'} «I'} vu~ nOlYVI6tl;e:1 e ie; TO evroc TOO ceooc vivouevo KUVTJYI1Ta». Elvrn 6t npocpovte;, OTt TO tv A6yw noivvro Koi KUVTJYl')j..IOTO slvct oi 6106oXIKOt IJe:T0I30cere ono TOO oxonouc Tr;C; VUKT6e; eic T6 cpwC;Tr;C; f]j..Itpoc; Kat cvrtorooeo 610 TOO AUK6cpWTOC;Kat TOO AUKOUyOOC;. 13') To qxnvouevo 6cpe:tAOVTOIe:ie; T6 f]AIOK6v cpwe;. I:uve:nwc; f] Jiwc; Mv tXe:1 i6101repov un60TooIV. y') '1610Z;ouoov onpcotcv npOoAoIJl3ovouv at M~e:le; «6( alJoAyoO VUKT6C;;», oi onotoi cnovrouevor Kat e ic; T6v ..OIJTJPOV, aMo Koi e ie; TOUC; uerenerrc ouyypocpe:iC;

30. Oi . OpCPIKoiyvwpi~ouv T6v 136p&IOV n6Aov TOOoupavoO (napoypacpoc; 46), 66noioc; l.uiAIOTaanoKaA&iTal «naoiyvwoTOC;». M&Tal;u TWVtTWV 1000 Kai 2000 n.X. ou6&iC; Aa~np6c; aOTlip tOlon~aiv&1 T6v n6Aov, 6 6t nAnoltOT&pOC; aOTlip np6c; aUT6v, an6 TOO1000-1400 n.X. &lval 6 13UMi. . EK TOO6&6c~tvou. On 6vo~0~ouv T6v 130ppdv «6PKTOV»(-«apKTwolC; n&pQT&OOIV-». . ApyovaunKo 1071) 6nAoOTal. On txpnol~onoiouv npocpavwc; 610 T6v npooavoToAIOIJ6v TWVT6v OOTtpa a UMi ft. T6 0I6aVWT&PO, Tliv ouv6toudav T6v 13 UMI Kai 0 UMi ypa~~l'Iv l:ve&V Kai tK&ie&v nie; 6noiae; &UpiOK&TO6 n6Aoc; Kae' OAllYn'tv B' XIAI&TI1pi6a n.X. (EiKWV 4). . El; 6AAou tKciAouv T6v V6TOV«~&an~l3piav», we;npOKUnT&1tK TOOnpoo610plo~oO ueon~l3plv6v ritpa (ee ApyovauTlKo" 1130), tJl.,Ao Kai «V6TOV", 616n u~voe; N6TOU avt~ou, anoKaA&iTal 6 81 oe; u~VOC;.TO 6t 6uo 6AAa Kupla an~&ia, «avaToAliv" - an' avaToAinc; tCPOVI1 ApyovaunKo 1052) - Kaj «6uolv" we; &i60~&v &ie; napano~"",v 16) . (. ..Onwe; 6t AtY&1 6 Abelli (1-22), ot CJ)OiVIK&e;, ~dAAov oi Baj3uAwvlol, txpnol~onojouv r; IJ&Tal;u TWVtTwv 1000 Kaj 500 n.X. Tliv MIKpQV - APKTOV6( tva aKplj3toT&POV npooaVQToAIOIJ6v,wv6lJQ~oV 6' QuTliv Kuv6ooupav. np6 TOO 1500 n.X. npooaVQToAi~oVTo 610 n;e; M&y6AI1e;- APKTOU,Ii 6noia 6tv rlTO 6uvaT6v vo napQoxn &i~1i ~6vov noAll xov6pllo'lv
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h&1 n'lv apxl'lv TTlt;eK TOO. Opq)to~oO. ElvOllSt VVIolOT6v, n 6 nu90V6pot; elStx91l ioxupQv 6 T1'!v tnilSpaolv TWV . OpqllKWv ilS&wv, aK6~1l Koi &it; Tl'Iv lSllSoOKOAiOV TOU n&pi TWV apI9~wv, Colt; WV~6vwv ccciAIl9wvnPQV~OTlKon'lTIolV".OUTIol&it; TO . API9~IlTIKO 9&oAovouT ~&va TOO . lo~~Aixou (36ov anoonoo~aTlo"', AtV&TOI n'lv E:AAA OJ\OMEI\EIAN npoonV6p&uov oi nu9ay6p&lol KaTQKOAou900VT&t;. Opcp&i (40, 493), tvw t~ 6AAou, Colt; np6c; n'lv ap~oviov "oi TOUe;aple~oue; lSl&oc;,enT6 480v anoonOO~OTlov txov wt; t~ilt;: ccTuvl1(ou) lS' tooi nan'lp, Kai 1-1I1TtPOt; avAd6v &ilSOC; al T&l(tWV (TtKVIolV) Ttpev 6v90e;, tv eilSeolv K &ilSot; unapxwv, Kai II'Uxl'l, Kai nveO~a, Kai apl-lovin, Koi apI9~6t; .. (40.500). nepi Tilt; tmlSp6oewt; TauTne; TOO . Opqllo~oO eit; Tat; nu9avopeioue; ilStae; 6~IAoOv Koi apxaiol OUVvPQqI&ie;,Cole; . Hp6lSoTOC;B, 81) Kai 6 nAOuTapxoc; (Iu~n60Iov 11,3). (BAtne Kai revua'lv 6 ( Eioavwv1'Iv TOO nop6VTOt; ~1~Aiou). 76

Movev xalJllAOTepoue;; r;xoue;;, ~IlAOOV T1;V KQ80~OV TOO I'}Aiou nooc T6v iOllIJEPlV6v Kai rnv ~IOVUOlV TOO 8epoue;;. 'H KpOOOle;;T1ie;;KaTWTOTlle;;xop~fie;;, tAEu8tpae;;, ~IlAoi rnv aq>I~IV TOO I'}Aiou E ie;;T1;V q>8lvonwplvl'}v tonueotcv .. AM' aUTIl ono~i~EI ilxov TOO aUTOO UljJOUe;; npoc tKEivov TOO tl3MlJou ~laOTl'}lJaTOe;; rr;e;; «ueonc». METOq>Ep6IJEVOI elc TI'}V xop~l'}v rournv, ~IlAOOIJEV TI'}V K080~ov TOO I'}Aiou Eie;;T6 v6TlOV tilJloq>aiplOV Kai ~laVUOVTEe;; TO ~laOTtilJaTa KaTO rnv aUTI']V eopcv, ~IlAa~ti cno TOO tl366lJou rrooc T6 npWTOV, ~laVUOIJEV T6 q>8Iv6nwpov, tVW,TtAoe;;, I'} KPOOcic rr;e;; «ueonc» xop~fie;; tAEu8tpoe;; ~IlAoi rnv aq>I~IV TOO I'}Aiou sic T6 XElIJEPlV6v I'}AIOOTOOlOV. '0 veoc tTtioloe;; KUKAOe;;80 opxiOIl Kai nCAlv ~10 rr;e;; cvoxoouoeec Tfie;; «unornc» xop~fie;; tAEu8tpoe;;. 'H ~la~oxl'} TWV xop~wv vlverci OUTW nOVTOTE -etc ~IOKOOIJOV», ~IlAa~ti KaTo TO~IV, I'} M «ueon» , cvnnooocrreuouoo Mo 61J0iae;; enoxoe;;, tap Kai q>8Iv6nwpov, «~laxwpiZ;EI» TOe;; Mo aMae;;, aKpWe;; OVTI8tTwe;;, TOO 8tpoue;; Tfie;; «VEOTIle;;» Kai TOO XEIIJWVOe;;Tfie;; «uncrnc». 33.. H 61apK&IQ TWV tnoxwv. '0 OTixoe;; cc~i~ac; X&I~WYOC; 9tp&6C; T' Ieov a~cpoTtpolaIV» (34, 21), xoro T6v 6noiov 1'1 r;AIOe;;ccnpoat~I~&)) (Eie;; T6 tTOe;;) tK TOO XEIIJWVOe;;Kai TOO 8tpoue;; '[OOV (lJeVEeOe;;) t~ OIJq>OTtpwV)) elvoi UljJiOTIle;;'OIlucotoc ~16Tl 6 UIJVw(56e;;, 6IJtAWV nept Tfie;; i06TIlTOe;; TWV tnoxwv TOUTWV, napeXEI Kai rnv noornv ~uvOT6TIlTa XpovoAov1'1oEwe;; TWV UIJVWV, oc 80 'i~WIJEV (Eie;; nooovoccov 65). 'EVTa08a tV~laq>tpEI KaT' opxnv tTEPOV Z;nTll uo , OXI IJIKpOTtpoe;; 'Qe;; VVWOT6v, ai WPOI TOO erouc elvo. nOVTOTe: aVIOOI, tlJq>aviZ;ETOl ~' we;; unxpoTepa, OUIJq>WVwe;;nooc T6v v61J0V TWV tlJl3a~wv, exelvn n tnoxn, I'} onoio OVTIOTOIXEi Eie;; T6 aq>I'}AIOV Tfie;; Vllivlle;; TpOxIOe;;.. H t~ioWOle;; Tfie;; ~lapKe:iae;; TWV enoXWV aVO Mo. tlJq>avlZ;OlJeVIl K08E 5.000 eTIl neolnou, npaVlJaTOnOIEiTQI etc TOe;; t~OlpETlKOe;; neomrcoe«; KaTO TOe;;onolcc: Q') OUlJnimEI 6 a~wv TWV oljJi~wv IJETa rr;e;; ianlJEplvfie;; VpalJlJiie;;, 6TE T6 8tpoe;; (0) iOOOTOl rtpoc T6 q>8lv6nwpov (<1» Kai 6 XEIIJWV (X) ioourtn rrpoc T6 tap (E). elvoi M X = E >0 = <1>.orov T6 aq>I'}AIOV(A) euoloxerur npoe;; T6 V. tvw Ti aVl06TIle;; OVTlOTpeq>ETal. orov TOOTOKe:iTOl npoc T6 V' 13') 0 aUT6e;; a~wv oujmirrret IJETO Tiie;; VpalJlJiie;; TWV rponev, 6TE E = 0> <1> = ii E = 0 < <1>= X Ka8' 600v T6 A EupioKETQI rrpoc rnv 8EplVnV ii rrtv Xe:IIJEPIVtiV roormv xrn V') 6 tv Mvw a~wv ~IXOTOIJEi TOUe;; Mo tK TWV TEOOOpwV 6p80vcovkov TOlJtWV Tiie;; tKAElnTlKfie;;, 6TE t~IOOOVTOl ai tnoxai evoc 1J6vo Z;EUVOUe; xnl 1J0AlOTa Kal E = <1>, v ~IXOTOIJWVTOIoi TOIlEie; XEII.lWVOe;Kai 8tpoue;, ii 0 = X. eov a ~IXaZ;WVTOl oi Mo aMOI TOIlEie; (rX· 2). ruve:nwe;, 0 we; avw ortxoc aVaq>tPETOI Eie; TI'}V TEAEuTOiav rcurnv rreplrrnooiv, rr;e; i06TIlTOe; 8tpoue; Kai XElllwVOe;. rUvEnWe; OUVOVOVTal TO t~iie; oUllnEpoollaTa: a' ) Oi 'Opq>IKOi. 0q>00 Muvn81l0av vc ~lamOTWOOUV TnV i06T1lTa 8tpoue; - xeiIlWVoe;. Ka8' 61l0l0V rponov 80 KaTwp8woav vc t~aKpll3woou" xni rnv rouroxpovoc tllq>aVIZ;olltVllV oVl06T1lTa35 ecpoc - q>8lvonwpou T600v we; np6e; aMIlAa (E ><1». 600v Kai we; np6e; TOe; cvooeoouevoc we; lone enoxoc, ollAaol'} OTl E>0 = X ><1>. tu6Tl, aMwe; ecv 6AOl ai tnoxai tAoviZ;oVTO we; '[001, T6TE Mv 80 e:lXE Mvov t'l iOlalrepo uveto Tf)C; i06T1lTOC; TWV 000 Kai 1l0i\IOTQ Kai exelvov, nou 1l6VOl iloav T6Te: eic TI;V npaVI1aTlK6T1lTO 'lOOl nooc aMr;Aae;. 13) 'EnEl~r; I'} ~Iaq>opo IlETa~U TWV cvtoov, tv VtVEI. tnoxwv Mv um:p!3aiv£1 TOC; 5 I'}uepoc , aUTIl M olallolpoZ;ETOl aviowe; IlETa~U TWV. ouuncootvouev, on npener vc tyvwpl2;;ov Kai vc nouvcvro vc tKTEAOOV TOe; Aiav AWTEmAtnrouc; £ Ie;

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37 .. 0 OPOI; CCnoTlv&ulJE:VOI;" anavTOTal uovov &il; aUT6 T6 'OP<PIK6v onClOnaOIJOT\OV XPIlOllJonOIOulJ&VOI;tVTaOOa aVTi TOOUnpOOV&UIJ&VOC;", KAIV61JE:VOI;, 61lAa6ri 6uvaTai VO A&Xan 6T1T6 CCnOTlV&U~&VOI;" &ival A£~II; niv 6noiav 6tv IJ&T&XEIf' _ETO6 Aa61;,aAA' avfjK& &il; n;v aUOTl1Pwl; OOTPOVOlJlKriV oj:'oAoyiav TWV 'OP<PIKWVXpt'ivwv, 38. Ttl ' OIJTJPIKtI:nTJ,aVTIKaTolITpi~oVTa TOI;Aa'iK6£;YVWC&IC,'u6a!AoO ova<ptpouv KelT'! i , m;pi Tile: ~laIPOpae: T(;_ KAij.laroe: eic; roue; ~lacp6pou~ r6noue; rile; Yfil;, onwc yiveTal &ic; TO 'OpqIlKO. -

79

yTjc;, cv\M Kai 6vOIl0Z;OUV rcuroc, WC;TlIleiC; onuepov, Ot onoloi nap' OIhwv i: KAnoovounoouev xni TOC;tnwvulliac; TWV Z;wvwv. 36. «' opei)>>, «KEKAI~tvrJ» Kai «napciAAnAoc;» acpalpa. MeYOAUT€POV onuootov Kal ono TOC;Z;wvac; Aall!3ovel Ii rtoorooic "illJtaoc; Cil;wv 1i&Aiou Tptn&Tal nOTlV£UIJ£VOe;", etc T6 tv Myw cnoonooucnov. ill6TI e ic rnv noorooiv TaUTTlv neplKAeieTOI OMKArlPOV T6 Z;liTTllla TWV !3aOlKwv ouietov TtlC; oupoviou occtooc, WC; 6p8fic;, KeKAllltlll1C; Kai napaMI'jAou. npoYllaTt, etc ronouc Tf)c; «tlJnupou" l,WVT]C;,0 hAloc; Kai oi corepsc, KOTO rnv nusonotcv TWVKiIll10IV, 61aypocpouv TPOXIOC; a8tTouc; h oxeoov Ka8tTouc; npoc K TOV opil,ovTa (6p81'] ocpaIpa), tvw Ii nAaYI6TT]C;TWV tv Myw TPOXIWVaU~aVgl gic TOUC;<C1J£olW£ie;" ronouc TWV euxocrov l,wvwv (KEKAI1l8V'l orpcloo) Koi, Ko9' OOOV nAT]Olol,ollev TOUC;noxouc, eic; TOC;«4JUXPOe;"l,wvae;, oi TpoXlai OUTOI relvouv vo KaTaOTOOv napaMT]AOI np6e; T6v opil,ovm (napaMT]AOe; ocpaTpa). . AMa, rouro aKpl!3we; 61MoKel Kai Ii we; avw noorcoic, KaTO rnv onoiov «0 ueooc aE;wv reo I']Aiou !3aivel KAIV6Ilevoe;". ill6TI we; ouvcveror tK rwv ouucoozouevov, «a~ova" tKOAOUV ol 'OPCPIKoi, ndocv tv ytvel eu8eTav, wPlolltvT]e; apxf)e;' tv ncoxeureve 6£ «aE;wv TOO liAiou" elver Ii orrnxn aKTie; Ii tKnOpeuolltlll1 cno rev 6cp9aAIlov np6e; TOV hAIOV, Ii anoia we; Kai onueoov, opil,el uero TOOOPIl,OVTiou tmnt60u TO 04J0e;aUTOO. '0 «1J&00e; a~wv" elver oovsoov, OTt cvceeoeror etc rnv orrnxnv cxrtvo rnv 6leu8uvol-ltlll1V npoc T6v ueooupovouvro hAIOV' 616Tt cum xui 1-l611l1, aMWOTe, noptxel TI'jV KAiolV Tlie; lil-lepT]oiae; TpOxIOe; TOU we; rtpoq T6 ernneoov TOOOpiZ;OVTOe;, nepi Tf)e; onoinc Kai olllAeT T6 crtooncouonov 19. LuvenWe; T6 «6 1J&00e; a~wv TOO t'!Aiou (3aiv£1 KAIV61J£voe;", 6T]AWV T6 04J0e; TOO I']Aiou KOTa TI']V usooupovnoiv TOU, avw8ev TWV 6lacp6pwv ronov, orurolver KOT' ouolov, TI'jV nxcvromrc TWV liAlaKwv cxrtvov, Ilt OUVOPTT]OIV TOO nMTOUe; TWV ronov Tfie; Yfie;, aMo xci Ilt OUVOPTT]OIV Tfie; wpae; TOO E:TOUe;,rtpoxeuievou nepi TOO aUTOO T6nou39 TOIOUTOU e'i60ue; AemOAOYT]lltvae; aOTpOVOI-lIKOe; cpcmonoe«; Kai t']TtOAOYT]n usvo ouurreooouorc, Mv euotoxouev eic ouosvo aMov TWV apxaiwv Aawv. (Kai ()IJWe; aUTae; Tae; Ol1lJaYTIKae;, Tae; IJOVa6IKae; nAl1pocpopiae; TWV "YlJvwv T&V . OpcpIK&V, Tae; tiyv6110av oi 61acpopol KaTa KalpOUe; ~tVOI epeuvrrrot 61a va IJ£IWOOUV T1iv a~iav Kai Tt'!V un£poxi)v T&V ' EAAi)vwv Kai va npo(3aAouv Tae; 6vunapKTOUe; KaTaKTi)o£le; Kai 6IamOTwO£Ie; aAAwv 6fj9£v naAaIOT&pWV Aa&v). 37. Ai OlpEIC;TOO oupavoO ouvapTi)oEI TWVtnoxwv .. Enavepx61-leVOl elc roc nporooetc nevre n6Aov 6PIJ6~£Ie; (34,16-17) Kai «navrn n6Aov Klpva(" (34, 19), 6uvol-le8a vo Ka80piowIlev T6v tE;fie; 6laxwploll6v. 'AIlCP6Tepal, we; e'i60I-lev, MvavTOI v' avacptpwVTal elc roc 6lacp6poue; 04Jele; rnc ocpaipae; (noxou) Tf)e; yTje;. 'Ev TOUTOle;0IlWe; tE; Ioou ouvoeovrm np6e; roc tnoxae; Kai at 610CPOPOI 04Jele; Tf)e; ocpaipae; TOO ouoovon .. Enel61'j Mete; rnv noernv ncomOLY, TO tv ouvexelo Aey6l-leva, we; np6e; Tt']V ern Tfie; tKAetnTtKf)e; KivT]OIV TOO liAiou, eiKOVIZ;Ol-ltIll1V 610 Tf)e; 6Ia60XIKf)e; xoouoecc TWV xop6wv Tf)e; Aupae;, eveoepovro, elc ecnvouevo TOO oupcvou, 6uvolle8a vc ouurtspcvouev, OTt Ii E:KcppaOle; «npooaPIJ6~£Ie; nooav ocpaipav" cvccepero: eic Tae; 6lacp6poue; 04Jel<; Tf)e; ouoovtou ooctooc. ToOTo evroxusror nepiooorepov, tK TOOOTt 6 ul-lvwMe; npoxetuevou rtepi TWV ec.vouevov tni Tf)e; YT]ivT]e;ocpaipae;, TWVouoxsnouevov rrpoc Tae; tnoxoe; Kai Tae; Z;wvae;, XPT]oIIlOnOleI, tv ouvexelo, T6 «navro n6Aov npOOIJI-

39. Oi apxaiol Aiyunnol tnion:uov, On T6 IJtv 8tpoe;, Onwe; 6 N&iAoe;, OUTWnAnIJIJUpiZ;&1Kai 6 oupav6c; Kai .; "';AlaK'; AtIJPoe;", t~&pXolJtvn Tiie; KoiTne; rne;, nAnoloZ;&1,""v AiyunTov, T6v 6t X&IIJ(;iva onwe; anooupOVTal TO u6aTa TOOnOTaIJOO,cmOOUp&Tal Kai .; AtIJPoe; TOO';Aiou, anOlJaKpUVOlJtvn Tiie; AiyunTou' 610 TOOTO, 6v X&IIJ(;iva";6 ",Aloe; &upiT OK&Tal xalJnAcl &ie; T6v 6piZ;oVTa. 80

YVU&Ie;». TtAO<; TO elc Tr;V npOTlVOUlJtVTlv noocvoccov Aex8tVTa rtepi Tll<; nxcYlOTTJTO<; TWV r;AlaKWV OKTiVWVKai n;<; lJeTa!30An<; TOO U4JOU<;TOOr;Aiou lJapTUpOOV, OTl oi . OPCPlKOi yvwpi~ouv oacpw<; TO<; 61acpopou<; 04Jel<; Tn<; oupovlou oeotocc. ouvcornoer TWV tnoxwv, 610 ronouc TOO aUTOO nAaTOU<; (napoypacpo<; 14).

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nOAU neplWplOlJtVQl elver ai nAT")pocpopiQl, TO<; onotcc 6uvoIJe8a va OVTAr;OWuev tK TOO noM IJIKPOO - 1J0AI<;6w6eKaOTixou - tWOTOU (9) UIJVOUTOO ocplepwuevou ei<; rnv I:eAriVTlv .. Ev TOUTOl<; lJeplKai t~ aUTwv elver OPKOUVTW<;tv61acptPOUOQl. 38 .. H AaJ,lnp6T11e; TOO ClOTtpoe; Tile; VUKT6e; •. Eov 0 f)AlO<; slvm 0 OOTr;p n;<; lil-itpa<;, r; oeAr;VTl elvot 0 AalJnpo<; OOTr;p n;<; VUKTO<;' CC&uaar&poe;» (9,3). Elvm ouvenoc Ii oeAriVll OOTr;p, w<; ot aMOl, 61acptpouoa TOUTWV, IJOVOVw<; rrooc .rnv AalJnpOTr}Ta .. E~ aMou, w<; 0 KaT' t~oxr;v corno Tn<; VUKTo<;, elvrn VUKT0!310<; tvvuxill (9,3) Kaj 1J00lOTa Kat ccl5al5ouxoe;» (9,3) Tn<; VUKTo<;, KaTauyo~ouoa 610 TOO CPWTO<; TTJ<;, W<; cccpa&oq»6poe;" (9,1), CCaUvTlT&lpall (9,5) Kaj ccKaTauyaar&lpa" (9,6), aUa Kai we; ccAalJn&Till" (9,9) Kaj AOlJnOUOa (9,12). Elval M TOOT}r; AalJnpOTTJ<;nc, c;)ore ~tv 6UVaTQl VO OUYKQl8n npo<; TO cpwe;TWVcoreoov, Kai 61' aUTO xoi r .KaAeiTQl ccaarapXIle;;" (9,10), tKeiVll npoKaAei M 610 TOO CPWTO<; TT}<;Tr;V ortoxpu4JlV TWV 0IJU6POTtpwv OOTtpwV Kai ernrpenei Tr;V napouoiav KaTO KonOlOV rponov ouvooeloc aUTn<;, IJOVOVTWV AalJnpoTtpwv' ccKaAoie;; aarpolOI ppuouoa» (9,7). AI' aUTOUe;; TOUe; A6youe;; &iValKai 1') l56~a Tile;; vUKT6e;;' ccVUKT6e;; yaAlJa» (9,9). a 39. Ai cpaO&Ie; Tile; a&AtiV11e; .. H oeAriVll 61aTptxel Mo oTMla CPOOEWV: Tn<; ccau~oUOIle;;» Kai Tn<; cccp8IVOUOlle;;II' aU~OlJtvll Kai A&lnolJtYll, 8ilAue;; T£ Kai apOIlV (9,4). nOIT}TlKn Meia TO 6uo rouro OTMla xapaKTT}pi~OVTQl w<; olacpopeTlKOO vevouc, 010 vc tmOT}IJav8ei OUTW T6 OTl tvw r; au~ouoa oexnvn cc!3Mnell) OTa8epwC; npoc OVaTOAO<;, Ii cp8ivouoa cc!3Mnel», tK OlalJtTpou OVTI8tTwe;, npoc OUOIJOe;. 1\6yw Tf}<; nooouovnc TT}<;e lc rnv ocoveiov Kai w<; tpXOlJtVT} tK Tne; coovetcc"
40. KOTa T6v apxoiov AiyunTloK6v A06v, Onwe; 6 iiAloc;, OOTW Koi 1'l o&A1'lvn KIV&iTOItni AtlJj3ou, oi I5t cpao&le; Tne; 6cp&iAoVTOI &ie; Tl'IV tnie&olv xoipou, 6 6noloe; tm15IWK&1 va Tl'IV KOTO~pox9ion' Ko9' &KOOTOVI!i)vo, OUTOe; npoKoA&1 Tl'IV KOTOKPl'lI!VIOiv Tne; &ie; T6v nOTO1!6v, Onou 00111 j3081JIoiwe; Oj3tVVUTOI. T&AIKWe; OIJWe; OW2;£TOI un6 TOO un&l!f3oiVOVToe; 1'lAiou (16, 21/19. Eioaywyi) . . 0 nanupoc; Carlsberg 9 n&plypacp&1 I!t90150v npool5lOPIOl!oO TWVcpao&wv Tfte; o&Ai)vne; 1'l 6noio I5tv cpaiV&TOI va txn I5&X9n Tl'IV tnil5poolv Tfte; . EAAnVlaTIKi)e; tmaTi)l!ne;. nAi)v 6 ......<;, QV KCli<pClivCTClI "v6~ v &~ 6PXalOTtpWV 15&l5ol-ltvwv, typacpnl-l6AIe; T61441J.X. (43. n ...

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TOUTn<;, KOTel rnv apxliv TOO IJnv6<; 6VOlJa~e:TOl cctiepo<poinc;» (9,9). 'KOAe:iTOl cclJlivn» (9,2) (>TOVe:UpiOKe:TOIelc Tliv apxliv ii T6 TtAO<; TWVcpaoe:~v TI1<;,xol, npoc aVTliSloOTOMv, Atye:TQI «oon (<<veo») l·lI'wn (9,3) etc rnv apxr;v TOO IJnVOe;44.'EK TOO oxlilJOToe; TOO IJnViOKOU erneeroxovetrcr ccTallp6KcpwC;;» (9,2), iSnAoiSli IJnV[OKO<;, anoAtiYwv elc cCKtpaTa» 6~ta, ~e; TOO TOUpOU. 'Ene:liSli Ii «lJlivn» Mv onoxourrrst iSla TOO cpWT6<; Tn<; TOUe;oorepcc, XOpOKTnpi~e:TOl ~<; cCQOTpOXiTWV»(' ApyoVOUTlKO515). 'Ev TOi<; 'Aovovcurucolc 6IJo[w<; cveuotoseror Ii ernovuulc ccnAti0ouoa ~.II'1Vll» (1114), iSlO Tii<; orrotoc iSnAOOTOlIi novoexnvoc. I:uve:nw<; npoxurrret OTI, tK TWV xonourorroiouuevev onueoov eic; TJiV aOTpOvOl1lKliv 6pOAOytOV Oe:AnVIQKWVopwv, Ii ccoul;ouoo» Koi ccq>8ivouoo» oeAtlVT) , oi «unvloxoc» KOt «xepcrc», ~<; KOt Ii «vee» oe:Ativn, e:iOlix8noov T6 npwTov cno TOU<; 'OPCPIKOU<;ii KOt '[ow<;, ncxcuoreoov, KOTO TOU<;npooPCPIKOU<;xpovouc. 40. Kiv110LC; Tile; oeA';Vl1e;· ..OAW<; tiSlOlTtpW<; tViSlOcptpouoo elver Ii ertovuJ.lia n;<; oe:Arivne;, we; «tAIKOl>p61J0u» Kai 0XI «KUKAOiSp6J.lou»:«tAIKOl>p61J&, navoooe KOUPll» (9,10). npOKume:1 tK TOUTI1<; TI oi 'OPCPIKOiensruxov, iSlOTWVoncrO rouuevov Ae:mwv ncoomonoeev, VO t;OKPII3~OOUV, OTIIi ocxnvn Mv iSlaVUE;1 K08E: J.liiva tva KUKAOV KA€IOT6v Kai OTI T6 OUVOAOVTWV tVT6<; erouc 15IOTP€XOlJtvwv TPOXIWV, OUVIOTOOV(cnorexouv) tAIKOe:liSii YPOJ.lPi'lV,ocrtccvucn oupl3oiVe:t'2. Eic T6 un' ap181J. 9 cnoonooucnov Mye:TOl: cc6<pp' tv 1J1lviTptnll, on&p iiAloC;; &iC;;eviaurov» (13M"e: apxoiov xeluevov KOTWTtpw Kai ueroeocoivj OnAao!'J CCOla vo OIE;U8uve:TOl, iSlapKOOVTO<; OO J.lnv6<;, onw<; aKpl13we; 6 rjAIOe; iSlapKOOVTO~TOO T tTOU<;». I:uve:nw<; nooxurrrer tK TOUTOU, W<; AtaV meovov, OTl Kai tv 'EMoiSl, onwe; Kai e:k; rnv 'Ivoiav, Ii ernoic KivnOI<; TOOliAiou' Kai at 8tO€I<; aUTOOtni Tiie; eKAe:tnTlKii<; iSlapKOOVTO<; TaCt, ouc WpiZ;OVTO h TWV 8toe:wv Tiie; oe:AIivnc, onAao!'J KQTOuev TO<;novoexnvouc, ~<; CK OlaJ.ltTpou aVTi8e:TOI, KOHl M TOUe; TgpOYWVIOI-lOUe;, ~<; OlacptpouoOI KOT' 6p6liv ywviav (I3Mne: KOt ncoonouncc 26 Kai 17).

41 .. H q>UOIK'; KOTQOTOOIe; Tfie; oeA';Vl1e; Koi it tn' OUTile; ~w';. 'E6v tK TWV upvwv ouMv npoxurrrei, ~<; npoc rnv rpuoucnv KOToOTaOlv Tii<; oe:Arlvne;, OJ..lWe; T6 un' llpl6p. 9 onoonooucnov TWV 'Opq>IKWV Ocpe:lAOJ..le:VOV T6v np6KAov, Mye:l elc rc t~fjC;: «Mriaaro l)' dUIlV vacav an&iparov, r1VT&a&Ar;vllv aOavarol KA"'~ouOIV, tmx06vloi l>t T& IJtiVllv' ii noAM oupe' eX&I, noAAa OOT&a, noAAa IJtAaOpa». (Ek; TilJOIOV 4 P 283, 11 KOtl31l3AIOypocpio<;40, 470). ~nAaiSli ccone:lpy6oen M (uiov) oMllv yfjv, cveu nspcrov, (oectpucnv), rnv 6noiav oi 680vaTOI ovouo~ouv oe:Arivnv, oi 0' ov8pwnol riie; yiie;, plivnv' Ii 6noia tX€1 nOAM oon, noM6<; noAe:l<;, noM6<; KOTOIKio<;».

41. 'EK Tt;f; "1l1')vnf;" wVOllOo8n ll1')v Koi T6 XpovIK6v 6100rnll0 Tt;f; OUV06IKt;e; n£p1660u Tt;f; o£1.I'Jvnf;· T6 OUT6 ouvtPn Koi nop' AivunTiolf;' 1'1 1.tl;lf;, Tl'Jv 6noiov txpnoillonoiouv 610 T6v Ilt;VO, npoI'JPX£To tK TOO OUIlP61.ou, 6n£p t0I'Jllolv£ Tl'Jv o£1.I'Jvnv.
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82

'EK TOUTWVnpOKUmOUV TO t~fle; oUI.mepOoIJOTO: a') 'H oexnvn 6tv elver 610nupoe;, onwe; oi elMOI oorecec, elV Koi onw<; ei60uev oUYKoToMyeTollJeTo~u TOUTWV.'OlJolo~el np6e; T1;VYflv' ouvenec Mv elvm Koi oUT6(j)WTOe; . . 13 'H tm(j)ovelo T11e; .) hoyi~eTOI oVOAoyoe; Tfle; Yl1iVlle;· '16101Ttpwe; tv6lo(j)tpouoo elvcn Ii uveto TWV tn' oUTfle; ooeov. Av Mv l'J6uvOTO VO TO i6wOl43 KOTWPSWOOV OIJWe;VA 6oowOI IJlov oO(j)fl Koi 6p8l'lv tplJl1Veiov TOO 610(j)opeTiKOO (j)WTIOIJOO TWV lJepwv TOO 6ioKOU TI1e;, we; 6(j)eiAolJtvou eie; T6 ovoyhu(j)ov Tfle; oehl1vloKfle; ern(j)Oveioe;, nou 611IJIOupyel OKIOe;en' auTfle;· y') 'H oeMVIl xcrorxelrnr ouvenec n ~wn Mv unopxel uovov eie; rnv Yflv' Kai 6') 'A(j)oO n oeAr).VIl, elV Kai 61J010~OUoa np6e; rnv Yflv, ouvxoroxeveroi lJeTa~U TWV dorpciv, KaT' tntKTOOlV 6uvoIJeSo vo unoeeoouev, on oi 'Op(j)IKoi tSewpouv we; ooroov Koi rnv Yflv. 42. Ai tml5paa&lC; Ti;c; a&A';vllC;· ~UO ncoooropiouo: Tfle; oexnvnc, xapaKTI1PI~OlJtVlle; w<; (j)&p&lCopnou lCai quAinnou (9,5) 6elKvuouV on oi 'Op(j)IKoi ouveaxtn~ov T1;V o\iomu~lv Tfl<; I3hoarnoew<;, oMo Koi yevlKwTepov tK611hci>oele; ncccmoouuevoc etc TO €1J1310 OVTO, np6e; TOe; tni TOUTWVOOKOUlJtVO<;tm6poOEIe;Tfl<; oeMVIle;· TOOTOelMWarE, w<; ei60IJev (napayp. 17), tm13e130100TOIKoi uno TOO T~tT~11 (" Epya Koi nlJtpOl 175 a), KOTOT6v onolov: «6 "Opoeuc, etc TO nepi yewpyioe;, Myel, on 0Xl uovov TnV WPIOlJtVI1V nlJtpov (Tfle; nhIKioe;) Tfle; oehriVlle; npene: vo SewpWIJEV we; enw(j)ehfl ii ovw(j)eAli, oM' em nMov, nepcv Tfle; nhlKioe; ouTfle;, Mov vo hOIJ130VOVTOI n' 041IV TO l;w6la Koi oi corecec, u evroc TWV 6noiwv KIVelTaI n oeMJVT'»>.npooStTEI 6t 6 Tl;tTl;I'JC; etc T6 'i610v (410v) onoanoolJonov: «6 'Op(j)euc; napoyytMel oho vo yiVWVTOIIJETOlJaSl'JlJanKfle; oKpll3eioe;' OOTW, Tfle; oexnvnc TpexouO!'Je; nepi TnV napStvov, 6UVOIJESa vo (j)UTeUWlJeV TO novro nhi}v TWV OlJnt}.wv». Tthoc; Myel OK61J1'J: 6&, we; CPIlOIV . Opcp&Ue;, Tij QTIl a«Ei V&iTal Ii tmalCaI6&ICOTn, (nlJtpo Tfle; nAIKioe; Tflc; oehriVlle;) lCai 610 TOOTO Tij T& TO~n Tne; (jAne; tOTiv oilC&ia, lCai Tn TOO lCapnoO yU~Vc;,O&1 TWV n&pllCapniwv» (I3Mne ueroooooiv).
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43, fJ.tv eival 6uvaT6v l3el3aiwe;vo unoOTTlpi~ll Kaveie;, OTi oi 'OpqllKoi txpllol~onoiouv TOUe;qlaKOUe;,un6 TI'Iv oll~eplvt'lv TWV~Opql';v, we; ~toa 6nTlKO.. Ev TOUTOIe; o~we; eie; TO AI91Ka AtyovTal Ta t~r;e; 61a Tt'lV KpUOTaAAov: «Aol3e eie; xeipae; Ai90v tK KpUOTaAAou Ao~novTa Kat 6Iauyr; .., 'MA' o~we;, oTav l3el3aiwe;OUTOC; (Te9r;) KaTtvaVTl TOOAo~noVTOC; ",Aiou, nopaUTa tKTIVOOOel ~IKpav oKTiva unepQvw 6a6wv, t'I 6noia (ciKTiC;),OTav 9i~1l ~llpav Kai Amapav OAllV, 90 6leyeip1l Kanv6v, tnetTa 6t 6Aiyov nOp Kai ~eTa TOOTO qlA6ya ~eyciAllv' aUT';v apa (Tt'lv qlA6ya) oi naAaloi KaAoOolv «iep6v nup' KpuoTaAAov qlat90vTa 61auyta AQ~eo xepoiv Adav, .., aUTix' untp 6af6wv 6AiYllV ciKTiva Tavuooel r; 6' liTe KapaqlaAtllC; re 9iYll Kai niovoe; OAlle;, Kanv6v, tnelTa 6t nup 6Aiyov, ~eTo 6t qlA6ya noAAJiv opoel. T';V 6' apa qIOoi naAalyevtec; iep6v nOp.. (<<AI9IKO"OTixol 170-171, 178-182) .. 0~oiwc; Kai 610 T6v laomv neplYpQqleTal (AI9IKO 271), lITI OU~nf:plqltpeTal lInw .. '; Kp(toTaAAO~*5 . AAACt ~Iava tOTlaOI1 Ii KpuoTaAAoc; analTeiTal VO t:Xll qlaKOel6te; oxr;~a, 6nwo6i)noTe. IuvenWf;, £ilJe9a r'JvaYKOOlJtvol vo 6exSwlJev, OTI OXI 1J6vov tyvwp~ov, ciAAQKai tXPllOIuonoiouv TO" i616TllTae; qlOKOel6iOivKPUOTQAAwv, OK61J'lKoi oi noAu naAOl6TepOI TWV. OpqllKWV ..EAAllvee;' oi «naAaloyevte .... TiOiv. OPqlIKWV.Kai So OUlJqlwvl'loouv oOqlaAwe;~a~i ~OU, Kai oi nAtov 6uomOToi Kai opvllTai TWVtmOTTlIJOVIKiOiv yvwoewv TiOivnavapxaiwv KaToiKwv Tfje; . EAAo6oe;, OTi KQveie; aAAoe; opxaioe; Aa6e; 6tv eixe napo~oiae; yvwoe Ie; , onwe; ai avaqlep6IJevai eie; TO Kei~eva TiOiv. 0PqlIKWV. *5. AUT6 o~we; 6tv elval oA1l9te;, 616T16 laome; elval Ai90e; «ci6Iaqlavt'l.... Koi ouveniOie; 61' aAAov Ai90v 6lacpavi'! 90 ovtqlepov ciPXIKW" TO «AI9IKci» lOWe;Tono~IOv, 6 6noioe; 6AAa~e npoqlavwe; lIvo~a on6 KonOIOV o~aStaraTov civTlypaqltO.

83

"08ev rtpoxurrrei, On Ii rnonc rou . EMTlVIKOO AaoO IJ€XPI onueoov, w<; nooc roc E:mi5p6oel<; rr;<; OeArlvn<; tni rr;<; I3haon;oewc; Kai IJOAIOTa we; nooc T1;V UAOTOIlTlOlV tv wpa veoc oehlivnc; ti novoexnvou. slvm lJia OK6IJTl 'OP<PlKi'j<; nooexeuoeec KhTlPovOlJia. *6

*0, TauToxp6vw~ 61lw~ tK TWVavwTtpw an06&IKVU&Tal, 6T1OXI1l6vov 6 "Ollnpo~ &iX& J\a~&1q>pOO&I~ n&pIKOnO~ an6 TOU~'Opq>IKOU~,6nw~ aV&q>tp8n &i~ TOnpOnYOUIl&Va Kai TZ;tT~n "J\u K6q>pwv" - Kai TO avaq>&p61l&va OX&T1KW~ AnoonaollaTla" TWV'Opq>IKWV&i~ ,,' TY1V "r&VIKt;V EioaywYt;v", aHo Kai 6 'Hoio6o~, 6nw~ q>aiV&Tal an6 TO~ OUOTOO&I~ TOO . Hoio6ou np6~ TOU~ r&Wpyou~ &i~ T6 ce'Epya Kai . Hloltpal" 6A6KAnpov n&pinou T6 K&iuevov T6 &iX& AO~&1an6 TOU~ 'OpqJlKOU~ (pAtn& Kai Kap6Aou It;TA, ,," AnavTa 'Hol66ou" (a&Ai6&~ 380-640), tK6001~ 1899, ceZwypciq>&IO~ 1~Alo8i)Kn", KwvoTavTlvounoAu;). ~
84

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Eic, rnv vliv elver aq>te:pwj..ltvoc, 6 260(,; uuvoc «n;c, rlic,». 'AMo. KOt 6 tv ouveXe:io TOUTOU, 270c" «Tlic, MllTp6c, TWV 8e:wv» , ouotoc elc rnv vliv cvcosoeror. "On cst Ii MliTllP OUTll e:TVOlIi j..lliTllP-VIi MVe:TOl oocpwc, tv OUTWTOUTWTW Uj..lvw: «r; KOTtX&lC; K6oIJc)lo IJtoov 8p6vov, OUV&K&V alm; vaiav tX&IC;» (27, 5-6) 611Ao6r'r «OU, Ii 6noio KOTtXe:IC,T6v 8p6vov TOO K60j..lOU, T6v eupioxouevov etc T6 usoov OUTOO,tK TOO6noiou Ii i6io KOTtXe:IC,KOtrnv vf1v». 'E~ a'JJ...ou OJ..lw<; KOttv TWOUV6AW TOU 8e:wpouj..le:voc, 6 Uj..lvoc,OUTO<;6",ot, oocpwc, 610.TOOneorexouevou TOU,OTIo.VOcptpe:TOI e i<; rnv vliv.

A' 0 rHINOl: KOl:MOl:
43 .. H vii V&VV';TWP Tpo<p6c; Kal <p8opeuc; TWV err' aUTIlC; OVTWV. KOT' apxliv, OAW<;6' aVTlOTOtXWC, poc rnv CPUOIV, nopovp. 9), ti vii ovouccercr n ( j..llilllP TWV 8vllTWV o.v8pwnwv (26,1), tcp' OOOV t~ oUTIi<; evevvnsn T6 vevc«; TWV 8vllTWV (wc, ernonc Koi TWV a80Vo.TwV): «tK oto 6' o8avoTwv T& vtvoe; 8VnTWV T' tAoX&u8n" (27,7). 'AMo. KOt «nav6WT&lpa» (26,2), we; 6woaoa TO nOYTa, oK6IJn 6t Kai «plo8ptm&lpa» (27,13), tcp' OOOVOUVTllPe:i rnv ~wtiv. KOAoOv M oumv «nAoUTo66nv», 616n xopi~e:1 etc TOU<; 8VllTOU<; 6wpo tK nOVTOtWV KOAWV «ot 6' 6Aplo66nv KaAtouolV, rmvrokev ova8wv 8VnTOie; on 6wpa xapi~n» (27,9-10) noptxouoo slc OUTOU<;roc KOTOMtiAOU<; rporpcc «8vnToiol TpOcpOe; naptxouoa npoonv&ie;" (27,6) Koi roeeouoo bAo TO.OVTQ, ncvrpoooc (26,2) Koi rpoeoc novrev (27-1). revv(;)oo TO T60a &1611«Kapnwv», 6"'OIO~&1 np6e; T1;V tv w6iol A&xw, ccr; Aoxiole; w6iol KU&Ie; Kapn6v nOAU&16fi» (26,5), cptpouoo M TOU<; xopnouc TOUC,xopi~e:1 o.cp86vou<;, 610PKOUOWVTWV wpoiwv tnoxwv ccq>e:ptKapnOe;, KaAaie; wpnOI ppuouoa» (26,3). Tpeoouoo, noocvsr rnv ou~nolv TWV tj..l!3iwv OVTWV (ro cvorrruooe I), 016 Koi 6VOj..l0.~e:TOI cau~18aAIie;» (26,3). nAi]v 0c

we,

85

IJW<;;,IJET6 rnv aKIJi)v TWV, MT)YEj TO nOVTO eic; T6 TtAOC; OUTWV, We; "T£A£o(pOpoe;» (26,2) xni TO OCPaVi4El W<;; «noVToAtn:lpo» (26-2), 44 .. H Yil, ccaiwvlov tlSpavov» TOO «Oeavcnou KOOIJOU». 'E6v OJ..lWC; TO EIJ131aovro EXOUV nEplWplOIJE:V1lV ~wi)v, TOUV(']VTiov, T600v (Onw<;;) r, cpUOIe;(napaypacpo<;; 3) OUTW(ooov) Kai 1')VIi ncoouever a iwviw<;;, «KOe' 0 illl)i'l» (26,6), ruVlOTO M T6 SEIJE:AIOVTOO xoouou, o onotoc JJET' auni<;; Mv Svi)oKEr «tl)povov cieovclTou K601l0U» (26,4). 'E~ 6AAou T6 «tl)povov» Koi 6 ccciecivOTOC; K601l0C;» Koeopil;&TOl l)lci TOO OTixou, etc T6v 6noiov AtY&TOl, OTl OT'lPiZ;OVTOl &iC; Ti}V vflv oiwviwC;, (oeovciTWC;), oi no'rouol Koi oi eciAooOOl: «eot nOTofJoi KPOTtOVTOl ci&t KOt nCioo eciAoooa» (27,8), rUvEnw<;; b «aSavaTtx; K601J0e;», TOO onotou il vii CInOTE;1I.E;1 (elvoi) T6 «Elipavov», elvoi KaT' apx1')v ai SaAOooOl Kai oi norouot. KOT' E:nE:KTaOlVliUvovrci VO VOT)SoOV IlET' OUTWV w<;; «aSavOTOl» 01 nOlKiAOl llaKp613101 OXT)1l0nOlloi Tf]<;; tmcpoveio<;; TT)<;;,01 onotoi ouvcrrorexouv T6v oPl46vriOV Kai Ko8ETOV lila IlEAlOIJOV ournc. rUVEnw<;;, TOOOV6 «cscvcroc» K601l0<;;Tf]<;;YTJIVT)<;; erneovetoc, ooov Kai oA6KAT)poe Ii «o'll)i'l Yil», tni Tilc; 6noiac; tl)pcil;&TOl OlJTOC;, &ival Iltp'l Tilc; OA'lc;ccO'll)iou» <J)U O&WC; TOO oiwviou , oUllnovToe; (napoyp, 3).

B' OJ\OKJ\HPQJ:IJ: THJ: HJ\IOKENTPIKHJ:

14EAJ:

, H nepi a~ova ncororooen Til<;;vrl<;;, nou OUVlOTOT6 lieuTepov OKtAO<;;ni<;; 1')AlOKevTplKr;<;; iMa<;;, ouvoveror E:lllltOW<;; IlE:V aAM oacpw<;;E:KTWV xwpiwv TWV UIlVWV, TWV ovccecouevev etc roc cnouevoc ncpovporpouc (45-47), nepi Tr;<;;TOUT6TTJTO<;; TOO a~ovo<;; nepIOTpOcpr;<;;Tr;<;;VIi<;;nooc T6v a~ova TOOouoovou. luaTunoOTOI bllW<;; aUTT) «ni euStw<;; elc T6 un' aplS. 2 cnooncouonov, em TOO onoiou cvceepero, Ii nopovp. 48. 45. . H Yil elval T6 KtvTPOV Tile; oupcviou ocpaipae;. 'Q<;; ei60llev (nopayp. 13-15) 6 UllvwM<;; tKollve T1')V npWTT)VVU~IVTr;<;;tnwvullia<;; Tr;<;;yf]<;; w<;; «ep6vOU» TOO ouoovon eic TOU<;;uuvouc Tr;e; cpuoew<;; xoi TWV aOTpwv, onou Ti)V uev CPUOlV tKOAel «&oepovc)v» (10,24), TOU<;;i' corspoc «n&plepoviouC; l KUKA6&VTOC;» (7,4). ..Hen, orreueuvouevoc npoc T1')VIlT)TE: - yr;v Myel: «il KOTtX&lC; K601l0l0 pa ueeov ep6vov, OUV&K&V aUTi} yoiov tX&LC;» (27, 5-6)' 6T)A. «KaTE:xel<;;T6v usoov Opovov TOO K601l0U, Koi we; tK TOUTOU Kai E:~OUOla~el<;;Tr;<;;VIi<;;». Kcro TnV noorcoiv mUTTjV, 1')Yii (9p6voe;) xelrtn d<;; ro IlE:OOV(KE:vrpOV) TOO K601Jou. 'Enellii) li' tK TWVcvooepouevov KaTWTE:pWxwpiwv (noocvo. 47) npoxurrrer, OTl w<;;ccK601l0C;» voetroi E:vTa09a T6 OUVOAOVTWV aOTE:pWV TOO oupcvou, E:mKUpOOTOIT6 ouunepcouo (I3Mne noocvo. 11), on i) VIi Aoyi2;;eTal w<;; KaTE:XOUOaT6 KE:vrpov Tii<;; oupaviou ceotccc. 46 .. H TaUT6TI')e; TWV o~6vwv Tile; Yiie; Kai TOO oupcvou. Flepi TOOa~oVO<;; eororooonc Tii<;;oupoviou o<paipa<;; 6 UllvwM<;; 'EKalJve naAlv T6v npwTov uncnn vlYIJ6v elc T6v UIlVOV Tii<;;cpuoew<;; (I3Mhe ncpovo. 13), anoKaAwv aUT1')vccOK'lmOOXov» (10,25). -Hl)'ll)looaq>il;&l OTl T6 ccoKilmpov» TOOTO ciVi}K&l etc Ti)V yilv, norouuevcc Ti}V cinooTpoq>i}V: «oK'lmOOx& KA&lVoio n6Aou» (27,4). KaTa T6v ortxov TOOTOV, acpoO T6 oxrirrrpov Tr;<;; VIi<;; elVOI T6 CCTOO naOlYvWOTOU n6AOU »44 ,
44, TI;v 6.KIV110iov TOO noAIKOO 6.artpoe; AtY&TOI un6 TWV ~tvwv E:i6IKWV &~I'JKpil3w0& npwTOe; 6 &K TWV IIVWV 6.arpov61J0e; rloO-li"J. T6v KZ' (270v) oiwvo n.X, ' AHa Koi Ii 610niarwole; OUTI'J &IVOI nopoTliPI'JOIe; TWV 'OPCPIKWV 6.ocpa).we;, 6.cpoO Koi np6 TOO 5,000 n.X, 0nwe; eci i6wlJ&v KOTWTtpw, &IXOV KOTOnAI')KTIKae; aarpovolJlKcie; YVWO&Ie;,

on

86

I5tv e:IVOI~uvaT6v va elva I al\Ao cno T6v a~ova TT)e;. OJ..lCale;, npoKumel we; tK n~v oTiXCalV (26, 8-9) TWV avacpePOj..ltVCalVKaTCalTtpc.> (nopovp. 47), 0 n6AOe; OUTOe; elvoi 6 evae; TWV n6ACalvT1;e;oupcvtou ocpaipae;, ~nAa~Ji 6 ~6peI0e;. ·08ev, tK TOO ouvouoouou j..IeTa TWV A£X8tVTCalV (nooovo. 45), nooxurrrer T6 tVlaiov ouunsocOIJO, OTI V1i eupioKeTOI etc T6 KtVTPOV n;e; oupoviou oeolooc Kai 6 a~CalVTT)e; rreporourm elc T6v oupcviov nosov, I:uvenwe;, 6 a~CalVn;e; V1ie; elver Koi 6 a~CalV TOO oupnvou. 47 .. H nept TOV d~ova Tile;; yile;; n&pIOTpoqn'l TOO oupavoO •. Qe; el~ouev, (noocvo. 12 Kai 15) «0 oupavo~ tAtaoeTal nept yaiav» (4, 3) Kai oi aOTtpee; elvm «ol KuKAoeVTec; nept TOV 8povov» (7,4). "H~n 6 ulJvCalMC;Myel eie; T6v UIJVOVn;e; V1ie;:cenepi TJiV Koa~oc; noAulSailSaAoc; QOTPWV elAeiTal cpuael aevaw Kal peu~aol lSelvoic;" (26, 8-9), ~nAa~1'j neol TI'jV 6noiov yfjv, 6 nxouoloc nenOIKlAlJtVoc.: K601J0e; TWV aOTPCalV rreoioroeeenn. I:uvenwc;: 0') 6 «K6oIJ0e;», TOO enoiou Ii vii KOT€:xel T6v «8p6vov», tv TW «lJtoo» OUTOO elvoi 6 K601J0e; TWV oorpov, Koi 13') acpoO Ii neororpoon TWV OOTtpc.>VKoi TOOoucovou eveoverrcu neot rnv yfjv, T6Te 6 o~wv nepIOTpOcpfje; nptnet vo elvoi 0 o~wv Tfje; V1ie; 6 KOTQArlYWVeic; T6v noxov .. AM' tv roiourn neourrooer 6 cvcceoouevoc, we; ccnaoiyvwOToC; n6Aoc;", eival 6 oupcvioc Kat OXI 6 YJiIVOC;,6 orrotoc Mv nTO ~uvOT6v, we; Koi onuepov, vc e1VOl vvooroc TOle; nccnv . . E~ OAAOU T6 cpuoel a&VllW Kai p&u~aol li&IVoiC;, ouvoror v' onoi508fj, KaT' tWOIOV, we; t~fje;: 0 xoouo; TWV OOTPWVnepIOTptcpeTOI osvcoc, OKOAou8wv TOe; 8aulJoOTOC; TPOXIOC;Tfje; nepIOTpOcpIKfje; Klvl'joewe; (c<peUj.laOI i5elvole;"), 48.. H Yil n&plOTptq')&TQl eie; Xpovov Ieov npoe; TOV Xpovov nepi OTpoqnlC; TOO oupcvou- Ii aCTplKtl t1JJtpa. . Eq>' OOOV, we; tAeX81l (no pcvo. 34), 1510 TOOooou «n6AOe;» tw60uv oi . Opq>IKCi, ouvxoovoc, T60cv TOOq>OIPIKOV OXtl IJO OOOVKoi rnv rreoiorooonv Tfje; vr;e;, Mv 80 txpetol;eTo 'iowe; j.leyoAuTt, pa i5leuKpivnOle;' 6 15' tlJlJt:OOC; rponoc, T6v onolov i]KoAou8tiooj.lev OVWTtpW (rrcpovo. 45-47), wOTe tK n;c; unop~ewe; Q~OVOe;eie; Ti]V yfiv vc ouvcveroi il nepim-poq>rl Tile; nspl TOOTOV,Mv nTO cnoootmroc. ntpov OIJWC;mi TWV OUG TOUTWVi5ei5oj.ltvwv unaPXel ooq>tie; il i5lOlunwole; Tne; nepIOTpoq>f\c; nle; yf]c; eic; T6 urr opI8j.l. 2 cnooncoucnov, T6 i5laow8tv uno TOO Euoefiiou (EuQyy£AIKO, nooavocupoc; 13, 12). ToOTo nooeorcror ono T6v 'loui5aTov neomcrnrucov <plAOOOq>OV 'AP1OT0f3oUAOV, 6 onoloc ovceepero: Koi tv Tf] n. Lllo8nKTl(A' MaK'o[3aiwv: Q' 10)' i'}TOM OUTOe;OUj.l130UAOC; i51i560KOAOC; Koi svoc TWV nTOAelJoiwv (11-9), KOla naOOV m8ov6TTlTO TOO E', TOO . Emq>ClVOOe;,3aOlAeUOOVTOe; l KOla TO tTll 204-181 n.X. 45). Oi orixol 24-26 TOOtv .\6ycu cnooncouorlou txouv we; t~f]c: IlSplC; yap env OOTPOIO nopelnc, lCai oq)aipne; Kivnj..l' a~q)i x86va we; neprTtAA&1 ICUl<AOT&Pi}e;, tv law TC KaTll oq)tTepov KvwliaKa. LlIlAoi5ti, KOTOAt~IV:

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45. Oi . 10ui5aiol TWV . AAc~avi5plvwv xpovwv tOcoav cie; KUKAo<popiov nOn'II.lOTO, we; TO TOO 'APIOTOl3ouAou, cie; TO onolo avcllCiyvuov oTixoue; tK TWV 'OP<PIKWV KCll.ltvwv I.lCTa ii5IKWv TWV, anol3AtnovTCe; cic; TO va i5ci(ouv, c>n oi apxaiol 'OP<PIKOi entcreuov cie; evo 0cov, 6 onoioe; i5tv ilTO 6AAoe; cil.l1'l 6 Ococ; rloxl3t Tlie; naAolde; AIOOnKTlc;· AuvoTal va OCWPTl0i) nAtoll we; J3tI3010V, C>TIoi . OP<PIKOi, t15tXOVTO tva Kai I.l0V(;V 0cov Koi ti5ii5aOKOV, c>n oi noAuWVUI.lOI 6coi Koi OcaLVai lOU AaoO iloav oi tKi5TlAwoCle;, ii5iwC; tv Ti) <pUOCI, TOU tv6c; Kai uevou 0&00. n&pi TOUTOU 61.llAci oo<pwe; Kai 6 npoKAoe;, napoetTwv l.laAIOTa uaKP6v an6onaolla Tile; . OP<PIKile; 616aOKaAioe;, tK 42 oTixwv, tv TW i:pyw TOU EiC;TiI.lOIOV m.{lTWVOC; (2, 95, 34, 49). BAtnc Kai 40, 456-458. (KAI OMQI 01 NEQTEPOI IOYAAIOI AP-

87

«816Tl tYVWPI~€V (i'iTO €i~r'II.1(a>v)rnv nopelov TOO oarpou Koi n;V Ki"'10IV n;c; (OUpaviou) oq>aipae; nepi mv VIi V, Ka9we; aUTIl (Ii vii), oroovvuxn ouoo, neoioroeq>E:TaIKai j.lOAIOTa Kai tv ioW', Xp6vw n€pi T6v i~IK6v me; a~ova». TOIOUTOTp6nwe;, tK noVTWV TWV aVWTE:PWOUVOVOVTOIoaq>we; TO t~fie; ouunepoouoro ~IO rnv Vliv Kai rnv ouooviov oootcov: a') ri VIi E:UpiOK€TOI tv TW KE:VTPWTfie; oupcviou oeotocc (napovpaq>oe; 45), 13') E:lVOI 0q>aIPIKr')46(napovp. 34 Kai 48). V') eXE:1a~ova nepi T6v onoiov rteoiorpeeeror (rmpovp. 48). is') 0 ¥Tilvoe; a~wv tnE:KTeiVE:TOI j.ltXPI TOO oupcvlou n6AOU (nopcvo. 46). E:') nepi T6v a~ova TOOTOV evspvelror Ii n€plOTpOcpn niC: ouoovtou oeolooc (napayp. 47) Kai e;') Ii neororpoen vfie; Kai oupcvon E:lvOI i06xpovoe;' aorplKIi nuepo (noocvo. 48) Kai ~') Ii nepiorooon evepvetrcr 1300el q>UOIKWVV6j.lWV (ncpcvp. 47) . . AMo TOOTa OUVIOTOOVOKepOlWj.ltvov (OAOKAIlPWj.lE:Vov) T6 iSE:UT€POVoKtAoe; Tfje; nAloKeVTplKfie; iMae;, iSllAaiSli n;v nepl KOIV6v a~ova, i06Xpovov neororpoenv ¥fie;

NOYNTAI THN AJ\H8EIAN AYTHN, OTI npOTOI 01 OPCI>IKOI IXON 614A::EI THN MONOE 8E'I'AN, IEXYPIZOMENOI "'EY60E OTI npOTOI AYTOI, 0110Y6AI01 6"HAA6H, ynEETHPI::AN TA nEPI MONOeE'I'U KAI EniETEYEAN EIE TON MONOeE'I'EMON) anoep£uyoVT£1; va napa6£x900v Kai Al1olJovoOVT£e;,6n, 6Tav oi . Opepll(oi t6i6aoKov n'Jv Mov09£fav, oi 'lou6aiol 6tv un~pxov we; J\a6c; KaTa TO 3.oo0Kai nAtov n.X. 46. n£pi T6 1700 n.X. £ie; n'Jv Klvav, WI; npoKunT£1 tK 6laow9£lowv an£IKovio£wv, napiOTaTo 0 K6aIJOe;61' aplJaTOI;, TOOeneteu TO KUPIOVOWlJaanOTtA£1 '" vii, '" enete £iX£ oxiilJa T£TpaYWVIKOV, 'Jv 6t oK£n"'v aUTOO0 OTpoyyuAoe; oupavol; .. H ~ n£pl£KuKAoOn TO uno T£OoapWV OUYKOIVWvouowv9aAaoowv .. EK TWVavaep£polJtvwv avwTtpw nept TWV avrlMII'£wv TWV KIVt~WV, KaTa TO 1700 n.X. 610 n'Jv 1J0pcp",vKai TO oxiilJa TOOK6aIJOU, an06£IKvu£Tal lin Kai TO 1700 n.X. Kai oi Klvt~ol £ixov aoaep£il; Kai Ka9uOT£Pl1lJtvae; ovnA"'II'£11; 610 n'Jv 1J0pcp",vTOOKOOIJOU ouv£nwe;, 01 10xupl01J0i TWVV£WTtpwv tp£uKai VI1TWVnou avaeptpoVTal £11;Tal; un0Ol1IJ£IC;'O£11; Kai 36, n£pi aOTpOVOlJlKWV 27 rvwo£wv TWVKlvt~wv ana TO2700 n.X. £ival TOoAlywT£pov aOT"'pIKTOIKai OnonTaKaTaOK£UOOlJaTa .TWVV£WTtpWV. Eie; TOUe;M£OOnOTalJioue;Tiil; tnoXiiI; Ti'jl; Nmnoup (EOUlJtPIOI), WI; AtY£1 o Dreyer (19, £Ioaywy",), '" Yii tAoyi~To, WI; 6poe; 610TPI1TOV, tni TOOenotou tOTl1pi~£TO o oupavol;. Bpa6uT£poV, £11;n'Jv BatsuAwva, 1'1 Yil t9£wp£iTO WI; tmnAtouoa TWVU60TWV TOO,wK£avoO (16, 17 Kai 17, 3). nap' Aiyumiole; '" IJtv Yii £ival n£6101; tAaeppwl; KOIAI1, n£plKuKAoUlJtVI1 uno TWVU60TWVnOTaIJOO,TOOenoteu 0 N£iAoe; anoT£A£i 61aKA06wo1V, TO 6t oUlJnav tX£1 oXiilJa op9oywviou napaAAI1M:mnt60u KI~WTiou (16, 20 /49). . Eni TOO nOTQIJOO TOUTOU0 "Aloe; tKlv£ITo tni AtlJtsou KaTo n'Jv VUKTa Kai tK Till; 5uo£WI;, 610 TOOtsoppa, tep9av£v £ie; n'Jv avaToA",v (24, 78).. MAo Kai £Ie; n'Jv . EAA06a, KaTOn'Jv Aa"jK",vaVTiAl1l1'lv,'" Yii !'iTOtnin£6oe; n£plp,aAAolJtvl1 uno TOOWK£avoO, WI; npoxurrrer tK TWV . OIJI1PIKWV tnwv (20). KaTO T"'V . HOI65£IOv e£oyoviav '" tnin£5oe; yii 5laxwpi~1 £11; 6uo TO oepalplKOV oUlJnav (40, 96). r£vIK&lc;, 6uvaTai VO A£X9il, lin 61.0101 apxaiol Aaoi 9£wpoOv n'Jv yi'jv tnin£60v, OTI1PI~OlJtvI1Vtni eruxou Ii tni TOO06aTol;, tni TOOenotou Kain£pl£tsoAA£TO (16, 16-17). (. EKTol; TWV . OpepIKWV). KaT' t~aip£olv anaVTaTal lJia 16ta n£pi IJ£T£WPOUYill; £Ie; TOUI; ·lopaI1AiTae;. Ele; TO tsltsAiOVTOO 'Iwts (K£ep.26, 7) AtY£Tal ,'EKT£ivwv tsoptav tn' ou6tv, KP£IJO~WV Yilv tni ou6evoe;». 6tv eival YVWOTOV OOT£netoc £ival 0 ouyypaep£UI; TOOtsltsAiou TOUTOU, UT£ O noiol; 0 xpovoe; Tiil; ouyypaepiil; aUTOO Av Kai unoAoyi~£Tal lin tYpQepl1KaTOTOUI;XPO.• voul; T~I; BatsuAwvla~1; alXlJaAwoiae; (586-538 n.X.), tv TOUTOII;rnereuercr, en TOtsltsAiov TOU 'Iw~ anTlx£i naAaloTtpae; napa66a£11; (KQi epUOIKO tni6paolv . OpeplKWV 616aoKaAlwv Kai nAI1Poepoplwv, aepoOlInwe; an06£IKvu£Tal ana TO K£ilJ£va TWV'c' YIJVwv», nco napa9tTOIJ£V 01 . OpeplKoi tyvwPI~OV nOVTa TaOTa, 611Aa6", lin '" Yii !'iTO oepaipa, TOUAaXIOTov 2.000 XPovla npo TWVavaep£polJtvwv £11;TO PltsAiov aUTO TOO ·IWts). 88

Kai oupcvon, rnv onoiov t6i6aoKov 01 . OpquKoi 3000 nepmou tTTl npoToO flo KontpvlKCK; i610nol'l9i; Kai napouolaOll WC;i6lKac; TOU, E1C; I'Iv tnOXtlv TOU, T Tac; . OpcplKi;c; npoEAEuOEWC; 60~aoiac; TWV nu9ayopEiwv Kai TOO . ApiOTapXOU (I3Mns Kai oc' Anoortooucnov», 36). EivOI M xapaKTllPlarlKOv, on o . Aplar6130uAor;, sir; TOn~ATlTOOr n.X. a iwvor; , 6tv napouoiaoE Tac; Aa~npac; TauTac; 616aol:<aAiac; TWV . OPCPIKWV i6lKaC; wc; TOU, aMa Tac; avtq»EpE oaq»Wc;We;aVQyo~tvac; Eic; TOV Mouoaiov, aUTtlKOOV ~a9'lTtlV TOO . Opq»twe;, TOOTOV6t Kai anOTEAEi ccEi6tl~ova», i6plv (YVWOT'lV) Ti;e; . AOTpovo~iae;.
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Eir; TOAsx9tVTa tv opxi; TOOfj. KsepaAaiou,ovaepoplKWr;rtpoc rnv OMTlYOPIKliv onucotov TWV6voIJoTWVTWV9swv, nap' , OpepIKOTr;, i5UvaTalvo npoare9il rope On aUTO! Myovrse; cc"Hpa», swoouv n')V or~oocpO!pav TIle; ytje;. "Hpa = a lip. TouTO npoxurrrer tK TOO160u uuveu, 010 TOOonoiou 0 IJUOUIJSVOe; rnv 'OpeplKliv sir; oA1i9slav tOIMoKSTO, KaT' opxliv, rnv oMTlyopiav TaU1T)V Kai ouyxp6vwr; On i']TO yvwar6v wr; npoc T6v OTIJOOepOlPIK6v osoc. , E~ aMou, 0 150e; O~Voe;, TOOAi9tpor;, cvcceoero dr; T6 «ororxetov», c;,)r; eAeyov, T6 onotov tns~sTsivSTO Kai ntpav Tilr; t~' ocooc cruooeolocc. 13 00 oTixor; (16, 8), KaTo T6v onolov oi ouprvuoi TWVcepkov PSUIJOTWVepsi0) 6 AOVTaI ir; TOUr;nvaYIJOUr;TOOotpor;, nEpiolC; poi2;olOI Tlvaooo~tVTl KaTa XEO~a, s tv ouvoucouo np6r; T6v xapaK1T)pl01J6v avt~wv TPOept (16, 4) 6TlAoOv,on tOi6sTO uno TWV ' OpeplKWV op9n epunvelo TWVovtlJWV, wr; uercxivnceov TWVospiwv Ii lJa~wv. ToOTo t~ aMou OTlAOOTOI sir; rnv noorooiv aupae; 9V'lTOie; naptxouKai oa (16,3), aM' em nMov Kai sir; TOUr;UIJVOUr; OOBoptou cveuou (800v), TOO T Zeoupou (810v) Kai TOON6TOU (820v), onou, nhJiv Tllr; nsplypaepi;r; TWVIJSTaKIVIiOSWVTOOotpor;, naptxoVTOI Kai TO OUV06E;UOVTO €KaarOV aVSIJOVIJETSWpoAoYIKOeoivouevo. yO) TtAor;, 0 €TSpOr; xapaKTTlPl01J6r;6~l3pwv ~tlT'lP (16, 4) uopruoet mv op9nv ernonc eounvelov TWV 'OpeplKWV, KaTo rnv onolcv 0 OTIJOOepOlpIKOr; 6Jip STVOI O epUOlK6vepvoornorov Tllr; I3poxi;r; «ol, KQTOncoexrocnv, oAwv TWV xuT TOKPTlIJVI~OlJtvwv u6polJsTswpwv. ToOTo, t~ aMou MYSTOIKai sir; T6v 206v O~vov, TWVNsepsAwv, npo0610pl~0lJtvwv wr; nEpiwv vEcpEAwv (21,1) Kai 6~I3POT6KWV (21,2). 50. . 0 ClT~oo<palpIK6c; alip Kai Ii ~CA)Ii. 'EK TOOxapaK1T)plOIJOO ljJUXOTPOepor; (16,3), oM6 Kai tK Tilr; nspIKoni;r; naVToytvE9AE' xwpie; yap ot9Ev ou6tv oAwe; 2;wi;e;CPUOIV tyvw (16, 4-5), Ii anoia KQTO M~IV onuolver «ou tytwTlO€<;TO noVTO c510n av€u 000 ouMv anoAuTwr; (tK TWVtlJl3iwv OVTWV)YVWPIOt t nOTE, rnv unap~lv n;r; ~wftr;», nooxurrrei on oi 'OpeplKoi 61MoKOUVmv rrocrruoxrKnV onuootov Tftr; cruoooctocc 610 rnv ~wliv Kai yvwpi~ouv, on aVSU TOOotpor; StvOI MuvQTor; Ii unap~lr; nconc ~wi;r;. fj.lO TOOTO Kai sir; TOUr;arixour; KOIVWvEie; yap onaol KEKpa~tV'l ntpl OE~VW.nQVTWVyap KpaTtEle; ~OUVI1navreo01 T' QVaOOEle;(16, 6-7) 61MoKSTOIon o OTIJOOepOlpIKOr; SUpiOKSTOlonaVTaxoO 6liP Kai KOIVWVOOV IJST' OUTOO ncvro (ooo eupioxovror sir; rnv tmep6vslav n;r; viir;l. Xaple; 0' de; Tliv anaVTaXOOnapouoiav TaUTT)V TOOceooc t~aoepaAi~STQlIi ~wli' Koi c5IQ TOVAoyov aUTOVKoi ovo~a~eTOl ccKupiapxoe; nQVTWV». &1. (f)uau; TOU ai9tpoc;. . 0 ai9lip 6noKaAsTTOleir; T6v ortxov 5, 4, TOO 89

sic OUT6v r,qne:pwjJtvou UjJVOUK601l0U oTolxeiov npiOTov47 QUa Koi OUC'ITOTlK6v uepoc TWV OOTPWV,n;e; oeAnvne; Koi TOOnAiou (OOTpWV r,eAiou Te oeAnvoinc:: Te IltplOlJa (5,2). ruvenwe;, t8ewpelTo we; T6 npwTov Koi KUPIOV«KOOjJIK6vOTOIXf:lov», ntpov TWVreoocpcv nupoc, yr;e;, 0c50T<X;Koi otpoe;, TO onolo Koi uno TWV. OPCPIKWV E:Aoyil;oVTO ouoicx; w<; OUOTOTIKO TOOK60jJou «OTOlxeio»48. "Onoc jJO}.IOTO Ilae; nAI1ooeooet 0 'OAullmMwpoe;, (~Mne eie; nMTWVOe; «<Dolc5pov" unOIlVr'wOTO), oi OPCPIKOi,c5ex6llevol TO TtOOOPO KOOjJOYOVIKO ororxelc, OUveOXE:TlZ,ovTOOTOnpoc TO TtOOOPO onuelo TOO opil;oVTOe; Koi Kupiwe; T6 nOp nooc TnV OVOTOAnV,TI'lY yfiv nooc TnV MOIV, T6 uc5wp npoc T6v ~oppav Koi T6v eeoc npoc T6v v6rov (4C, 510). !ltv uncoxouv ouoc nxelovec (nsproooteoon nAl1PocpoPIOI m:ptn;c BOElUTSPOC onuoooc Tr;e; TOIOUTTle; VTlOTOlXnoeWe;. O 'Qe; e'ic5ollev (napovp. 5), T6 ~ujJnov tXOPOKTl1Ptl;E.TOuno TWV 'Opcpll<WV we; «nuplnvouv- (10, 26) Koi ern nMov, we; i] «oi610e; ~wr,» (10,27). K08' 0jJOIOV rponov, onwe; 80 TO cveuevouev, Koi i] «npwTolfArl'> TOU, 6 ai8itp, 8cwpeiTai we; tlJneplKAeiouoa Tae; 6uo rcurcc 8clJcAlw6ele; i616T11TOe;.npoYlJan, xapaKTl1pi~cTal 6 ai81\p we; nupinvoue; (5, 3), aAM Kai we; omv8itp naol1e; ~wiie; (nilollv ~WOiOIV tvauo}Ja f5,3]). 52. etau; Koi EKTaalC; TOU aietpoC; ... Onoc ouvt!3l1 Koi Ko8' b'\oue; TOUe; uersnerro xp6voue; Ti']e; 0PX0I6TTlTOe;, OTe 0 oi8i]p t,\oyil;eTo we; KOTO'\Of.ll3ovwv TO OVWTepo OTPWjJOTO TOOotpoe; Koi T6v uneprepov TOUTWVxsiuevov XwpOV, eTOI I(oi oi 'OPCPIKOi, nl1yri TWV i~ewv TOUTWV,t8ewpouv TOV ai8tpa uqllCpavr; (5,4), oMa Koi oloKexulltvov cncvroxou sic T6 ~(;Ilnav. ToCTo c5IMcKel 0 OTIX0C;:, OTO K T6v onoiov 6 oi8np 130OTol;elT6 acp80PTOVxci OtWVIOVKpOTOe; OOLlloe; (TO~ullncv), T TOO onoiou T6 80'\WT6v emorevcouc (6 ouocvoc) elva! novu LJlV:-,Mv (~16e; u\IIllJtAa6pov E:xWV KpOTOe; aitv aTclptt:; [5, 1J). Tnv crrcvrcxou nupouoiov TOO oi8tpoe; tv TW Xwpw oveupioxouev oK6jJl1 KOtek; TO 'ApyOVOUTlKO, bnou MyeTOl. .. ..OTC {)t 6 iiAlOe;, 6100Xi~wv T6v antpavTov ai8tpa ... » Huoc 6' 'HtAloe;, 6.nciplToV ni8tpa TtlJVWV [305 D· TE;'\0e;, 0 oi8i]p crtoxcxurrre: TnV nocouoiov TOU, q>WTll;6jJevoe;uno TWVOOTtpwV, (aOTcpocpcyyl\C;) (5, 5) o\A' ernonc -:pwTil;wv Koi 6 'ic5loc;c510TOO ot'\06<:; TOU we; oeAaoql6poc; (5, 5). Elvol 6UOKO'\OVvo Aex8r; lJeT0 l3eI30l6TTlToe;,OTl oi 'OPCPIKOitw60uv tVTo080, 010 TOO «oesaoeoooc», TO noo' nllWV 6pll;olJevov Koi tlJCj>mll;ojJevov, np6Yl1oT1, etc TO 6VWTepo OTtJOOCPOlPIKOTPWIJOTO O ccivouevov TOO osxcoc, c516TI«ocxoc» wvoI16l;elO, yevlKwTepov, T6 cpwc: 'Ev TOUTOIe;ojJwe;, 1'1 cnounc OTl nooxerrrn nepi TOO oexooc tVloxueTOI tK TWV t';i']e; Mywv: 0') M6vov 0 oiSnp KOi, we; 86 cveuevouev, ri Cj>UCIe; Cj>tpOUVTO ernserov «oeAOOql6poC;", nousevc 6MoO M,! ouvcvrcrcn 6 oooc ours eie; TOUe;corepoc. ours etc TnV osxnvnv. 6'\A' cure nposeuievou xci ncot TOO cpwTelVOTOTOU 6K61111 nAiou. 13') 'AM6 Kai 6 XOPOKTl1PI01l6C; nuptnvouc « ai8l\p" '\011136vel ouvxexpurevnv

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Ol . OPCPIKOi onnu8uvov TOUe; AaTpeUTlKOUe; TWV UIJVOUe; np6e; TOe; 6UVOlJele; n;e; cpuoeWe;, tv ytvel, ai ortokn E:8eWpOOVTO, We; cpaiVeTal, E:KcppOOele;TOO tv6e; eeoa, elc T6v 6noiov ernoreuov .. 0 naYK601J10e; v61J0e;, 6 onotoc 6leim: TO nOVTa Kai T6v onolovo IJtv Aa6<; tiyv6el, E:KeivOI 6t E:6i6aOKOV rrooc TOU<;IJUOUlJtVOU<; etc Ttiv oM8elav59, euMywe; E:TlIJQTOun' aUTWv i6IGlTE:pwe;, onw<; cvoceoenn Kai eie; T6 uno TOO np6KAOU (Eie; nMTWVoc; «' AAKII3IMIlV» unouv. 1) 6laow8tv cnooncouoTlOV ccnapelipoc; 6 v6j.10C; TOO 416C;, QC; fP110lV . OPfPeuc;». 'EVTe08ev Kai 1'1 OCPltpWOle; TOO 640u OIJVOU np6e; T6v v61.l0V, E:K TOO onoiou OVTAOOl.leV TO<; nAtipele; ooetoc 616aOKaAiae; TWV. 59 .. H naYKoa",16T1'lC; TOO N6",ou. KaT' opxtiv 6IaKT'JPUOOel 6 ulJvw66C;. OTl 6 cpUOIK6e;v6IJoc; elvci naYK60f,uoe;, ioxuwv elc T6v oupcvov Kai rnv Vliv: ccKaAtw ... oupavlov N6j.1ov, OOTp08tTllv, ofPpayilia lilKail'lv n6VTOU T' eivaAiou Kai vt\C;» (64, 1-3). 611Aa6ti: «KaAw T6v OUPOVIOVv61J0v. 6 onotoc E:Tal;18E:TT)oeTOUe; omE:pae; (Kai 6 onotoc onoTeAei). Ttiv 6p8tiv Kai oPlJ6~ouoav ocppayi6a Kai n;c; uypCie; 8aMool1e; Kai n;e; (~IlPQe;) Vlie;»· ruvenwe;. KaTo T6 xwpiov. 6 vouoc: a') 6ltnel T6v ouoovov, E:V TW OUV6AW TOU, we; ccOUpdvloc;», elver 6t. ei6lKwreoov, 6 «oOTp08tTI'IC;» TOO oucovoa. T6 ccQOTp08tTllC;" MVQTGl VO ovacptpSTGl. T600v elc Ttiv Ta~18tTT)OlV TWV corsocv elc OmSpIOIJOUe;. OOOV Kai eic; T6v 6laxwpl01J6v TOUTWV etc ei61l omtpwv (napoypacpo<; 18-20). 'Erti nMov MVaTGl vo eneKTa8fi 6 npo0610p101J6e; OUTOe; elc rnv oUYKp6TT)OlV TOO omplKOO K601J0U, wms vc unoPXI1 T6 oounov (napoypacpoe; 10) xoi vo EXl1 rnv 1J0PCPtiv,rnv 6noiav nspievpourev 6 ulJvw66e; elc TOUe; OIJVOUe; TOO oupovou, cpuoewe; Kai TWV ampwv (KecpoAala A'. B'. ri. 13') '0 v61.l0<; ertexrelverm Kai etc T6 ETE:POV uepoc TOO K601J0u. elc rnv Vliv.

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59, 'Oe; AtY£1 6 Droyer (19, EioaywY1'l) «oi -EAA.,v£e; liA£u8£pw8.,aav TWV~u8oAoYIKWV 6ol;aolwv KOi npoo£ntl8.,oav vtI £upouv TOUe; 6~oue;, neu 61tnouv Ttl CPUOIKtI v cpalv6~£va, av£u 11\e;nap£~JSoAf\e; un£pcpUOIKWV6VTWV, ToOTo tntTuxov 61t1Tf\e; tA£u9£piae; Tf\e; OKtljl£Wc; TWV, Tf\e; 6noiae; tOT£POOVTO oi 'AvaToAIKoi Aaoi .., T6 tntTuxov 6t ciPK£TtI tvwpie; 6.,Aabil cin6 TOUe;'OpcpIKOUe;xp6voue;.

98

OIOTI anOTEAEI n;V ocppoyioo naVTOC;O,TI Unap)(EI, TOOOVEiC; rnv ~l1pav, yiiv, 'Ooov Kai EiC; TOV uyp6v nOVTOV, . H napouaia aOTll TOO VOIlOU EiC; rnv yiiv xapaKTl1pi~ETal tiM; «6IKaia» , 0l1Aa61'1tllnptnOuOQ Kai open, aM' tni nMov Kai TOlaUTIl, wOTe va t~aacpaAi~ETal Kai elc TOV vl'!IVOV KOOJ,JOV Ta~IC;, Onwc; aKplj3wc; tTa~leEn;en 0 n oupav6c;,

60. . 0 YOJ.loc; t~oCJqKlAi~£1 n;Y OTo8£po11lTO unllp~£wc; £ic; TOY KOOJ.lOV. 'E~ aMou «0 VOIl0C; OlaacpaAi~EI Kai OlaTllPEI rnv oroeepornrc Kai a ocpclAElav, clMcl Kai TO cl6IQOOAEUTOVKai aOTallaTllTOV (Tt;C; AEIToupyiac;) Tt;c; CPUOEWC;»«cpUO&W~ T6 ptpalOV oKAlvtc; oaTaoiaaTov 0&1 11lPOOVTa» (64, 3-4), LuvEnWc;, 6 KOOlloc; unaPXEI anauOTwc;, t~aocpaAi~ETQI M r; OTaeEp6T1lC; auTOO, aMo Kai T6 onaptYKAITOV (T6 nkeviov) tVT6C; aUTOO, XOPIC; etc n;v cl610Mlrnov AEITOupyiav TOO CPUOIKOO vouou. 61. Oi tni J.ltpouC; YOJ.lOI: '0 vouoc EIVQI E:vac;, aM' tKOI1AwVETal elc T6v xoouov Kai KaTlOXUEI en' aUTOO 010 j..IEPIKWTtpwV v6 j..IWV oi 6nOl01 Oltnouv Ta tni , j..ItpoUC; CPQlV6j..1Eva. TOOTO MYSTal EiC; TOUC;OTixou<; «0&1 11lpoOVTa V6",0IOIV, 01OIV avw8&v cptpwv Iltyav oupav6v aUT6c; OO&U&I, Kal cp86vov OU OIKalov pol~ou Tp6nov aUT6c; tAauv&l» (64, 4-6)' (OIlAaOn tnaTuVXOV&Tal n aTa8&p611lC; Kal n OlaT1\PllolC; TOO K60J,lOU un6 TOO VOJ,lOU, ccJ,ltow (tnl J,ltpoUC;) V6J,lWV nOVTOT&, 010 TWV onolwv OUToc; KaT&u8uv&1 avw8&v, (01' Un&pTtpac; OUVOJ,l&WC; pocpavwc;) Kai Olaoxi2;sl T6v j..Ityav oupovov, T6v onolov Ml1ysl ncvron TS KaTo T600v TtA&IOV rpenov, npoxwpwv 6Pj..ll1T1KWC;, WaT& Otv nptn&I, Otv &ivalop86v, Ii Mv OUVOj..lSeava T6v 2;nASUWj..ISV KaTOT6v uj..IvwMv - (Ii j..IaMov Otv OuvoJ,l&8a, otv &iJ,l&8a iKavoL vc TOV epeuvnoouev. vc T6v aVEUpWj..lSV, 016T1 T600v oouAAllmoc; Kai onp60lTOe;, acp8aOTOe; &ival). ("Iow<; si<; T6 onuetov aUT6 TOO "Yj..IVOU ej..lcpavi2;sTQI Kai r; nocrn YVWOTl') i5laTunwol<; TOO 'AYVWOTIKIOJ..loO.fltv anOKASiETQI OJ..lW<; vo emonuotverca 1510Tt;c; eKcppaosw<; aUTt;c; «Kai Kai cpe6vov ou i5iKQlov poi2;ou rp6nov ouroc eAaUVEI» H AA YNAMIA KAI H EIAOnOIH.ll.l TOY ANepOnOY, OTI AEN AYNATAI NA .lYMABH OI\HN THN ENNOlAN, THN MOPCDHN KAI THN EKT MIN THI: AHMIOYPrlAI:, TOY lYMnANTOl, Kai ouvenoc Mv noene. vc uororonovri, j..It eoeuvoc tni rnc; i5llj..lloupyiac; Kai roO j..IUOTI1PiouroO LUj..InaVTOC;,i516rl orsoetror aurt;c; Tt;c; iKav6rllroc;. (!3Mm: Kai !31!3Aiov 'Iwav.fl. naooCi «T6 "EyKAllj..la Tt;c; 'Ernornunc», oSAii5EC; 186-194). LUVEXi2;sl M 0 uj..IvwMC; nsot.rou rp6nou tKi5IlAWOEWC; Kai AElroupyiac; rwv tni j..IEpoUC;vouov, r600v etc rov rouse rov PloAoYIKWV cpalVOJ,ltvwv, OOOVKoi EiC; roue TOJ,l&ie; Tile; l\oYIKile; Kai Tile; . H8IKile;, (nepl rwv ortoiov KaTWrtpw), Mywv on ncvro rc cpQlv6j..1svo,CPUOlKO, !310AOYlKO, ;eIKO KAn., i51tnOVTQlj..IEVuno usprr Kwrtpwv vouev, OUTOI OJ,lWe; UYKPOTOOV Kai ouvanoT&AoOv O TOV eva Kai uevov naYK6oJ,lIOV v6 J,lov, 'AM' r; roiaurn ouoxeno«; Koi evonomoic rov tni uepouc V6j..1WV elvm Koi 6 oxonoc sie;; rev ortolov xcrcretver Kai r; 0llj..le:PlVl') Koouoxovto, we;; 'Ernorrum OAM Koi we; Me:TacpuolI<l') <DIAooocpio, (j..IaTaiwe;;tmi51wKouoO vo oUAM!31l Koi vc epunvsuon rnv i5m.iloupyiav, noooeere tyw, 0 ypocpwv). 62. Oi ~loAoVIKOt VO"OI. 'Ern TOUTWV, errexreivouevoc, Mye:l 6 uj..lvwMe;;: "be; Kai 8vIlToiolv pU)TilC; TtAoc; £o8A6v £y&ip&I .. oUT6C; yop IlOOVOe; ~wwv oillKO KpaTUV&I» (64, 7-8)' i51lAOi5l')«OUTOe;; 6 vouoc) tmcptpsl TO rsxoc e:ie;;rnv ( 2;wr;v TWVavepwnwv, i5lon OUTOe;; ai uovoc i510TIlPe:1 K TOnllMAlOv Tne;;2;wf)e;; WV2;wvT TWV OVTWV». Luvsnwc;;. pu81Ji2;OVTQIuno TOO vouou, j..Itow TWV tni uepouc vouov (<<OIOIV vo~OIOlV»), Oha TO cpalv611eva Tf}<;;«~won<;;» UAlle;;,onwe;; oUj..I!3aive:lxni lilO rnv «V€KpaV» TOlOO:rnV' OllhaO!,] iOXOe:l01' 6MKhllPOV TO ernornrov.
99_

63 .. H J\OYIKi) Kai 1').: H8IKi). TtAOI;, 6 u~vwMI; ncoceerei 0 naYKO01l101; vouoc. unEloepXETol elc rnv ~OYIKtiv ouveneiov Koi rnv tiSIKtiV oUYKp6TTJOIV TGlv ovepwnwv ccYVW~OIC;6p8oTa11l01 ouvwv, a6Itl(p8opoe; ael, noAUnelpOe;, apAamwc; ndOI OUVOIKWV TOle; VO~l~OIC;, av6~OIC; 6t <ptpwv KOK6T'lTO poP£lovlI [64, 9-11]. Lll1~ol>ti, ccl>ltnEI (<<olO1vV61l0101VII) rnv l>IOTlJnWOlVTGlV 6p6Glv uovov OUAAOY10Ilci>v oi TWVOAov600TWV l>O~oOlWV,oul>Elliov ernroenov norc (oAAo K Koi Ilti entl>Ex6IlEVOe; 6 'il>IOe;), cp6opov Ii l>loOTPOq>tiv, ouunoolorcroi M IlETQ~U novrov eKEivwv nou nOAITEuOVTOI Koi ouurrecieepovrcr vouluoc (evvoei i\OYIKWe;), xwpic; va npoKoAfI Eic; aUTOUe; Kalllliav I3MI3TJv ft va anoTehfJ ai' curouc Kiv6uvov evGl entq>tpEll3apEiov rnv cvrcnoecow TOOKaKOOale TOUe;cvououc, ol6Tl c;,c; noAun£lpoc; (novrovvoornc). TOUe;l>laKpivEIII*'. 64 .. H 1')AIKia TOO veuou. Llla VO TOVIOSi'),on 6 vouoc elver oq>' ev6e; ncvcpxoioc, 6q>' erepou M 'iOXUOEoq>' OTOUl>IEIlOPq>w6116 K601l0e; Kai il>iwe; 6 vmvoc, EiC; rnv uopqntv, nou tXEI Kai onuepov, l>TJAal>tiIlETO T6 cpuOIK6v qxnvouevov TOO KaTaKAUOIlOO TOO 'Qyuyou, 6 UIlVwMe; onOKaAei T6v vouov "Qyuyiov» (64,10). np6Yllan, KaTO TOe; 'EAATJVIKae; nnoocooeic eytvoVTO Mo KaTOKAUOIlOi: 6 coXat6TEpOe; em 'Qyuyou Kai 6 lleTOYEvtOTEpOe;, 6 TOOLlEuKaA(Jwvoc;, ern KpavaoO. '0 TOO LlEUKaAiwvoe;, we; yvwOT6v, ouunirrret KaS' DAa npoc rnv neprvoconv TOO KaTOKAUOIlOO TOO NGlE. 0 npOl1YOUIlEVOe;, TOO 'Qyuyou onOTEAEi, oocpaAWe; rnv 6.vallV11olv svoc cnereoou napEA66VTOe;, orov eMlll3avov OK61l11xwpav ai IlEYOAat KOOlllKOi OVaOTaTWOEIC; at l>laTOpaxai Ti')e; l>lallopq>WOEWC;TOO DAOUxwpOU TOO K Aiyoiou, ai OKOAOu6r;oaoat T6v xorcnovnouov Ti')e; AiV11il>oe;. Ol oPxaiol ..EAAl1VEC;xnl EiC;TOUe;IlETtnElTO TWV . OPCPIKWV xoovouc txapoKTIiPI<;OVwe; 'QyUYIOV nay o.n OVEcptPETO Eic;. 0IlVIl1l0VEUTOUe; xp6vouc;. "06EV, eic rnv nponvouuevnv rreotrrrooiv, 6 vouoc KaAEiTal .. ' QYUYIOe;»010 VO TOVI06i') Ii ioxue; aUTOO cno TWV XP6vwv Ti')e; enE~6oUOl1e; anOKaTaOTOOEWC; Ti')C; «cpUOIKi')e;

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*'. Ta oQvacp£p6(J£vaavwTtpw £ie; T6v "Y(JVOVTOON6(Jou (64) TOO' Opcptwe; (OTixoe; 4-6, 7-8 I(ai 9-11) Kai Ta 6noia oX£Ti~ovTal (Jt Tl'lv cc~loAoYIKftV», cTftv c AOYIKtlv»Kai n'lv ccft91KI'IV»un6oTaolv, (Jopcpl'lvKai t~tAI~IV TOOaT6(Jou (TOOav9pwnou) anoT£AoOv t(Jcpavwe;Tftv ~aolv Kai TI'IV acp£Tnpiav TOO (J£Ttn£ITa cpalvo(Jtvou Tne; av£u nocnvcuuevou £ie; Tl'!v . IOTopiav Tne; av9pwn6TnTOe; nv£u(JaTiKne; avaTao£We; TWV apxaiwv . EAAl'lvwv oocpwv, 0nwe; anO~£IKVu£Tal cin6 Tae;~1~aoKaAiae;Kai Tae;9£wpiae; TWVnpOOWKpaTlKWV CPUOIKWV Kai cplAooocpwv Kai TWVciKOAou9noavTwv TOUTOUe; IWKpclTn, nAaTwva, . APIOToTtAnv Kai 1.01neue apxaioue; oocpoue;, acpoO £ie; TOUe;tAaxiaToue; aUTOUe;OTixoue; TOO"Yuvou TOON6uou n£PIAa(J~aVOVTCII £pIAnnTlKWe; oAal ai 9£wpial Kai ai CPIAooocplKaiKai n£pi Cl>uo£we; n ciVTlAI'!",£Ie; TWV. Kupiwe; o(Jwe; tmon(Jaiv£Tal Kai Tovi~£Tal i~laITtpwe; H AAIAIEIITOI KAI AIQNIA AAH0EIA, KaTa Tl'!v 6noiav, ccoTav'6 Qv6pwnoe; oU(Jneplcptp£TQI vO(Ji(Jwe; (~a6i~£I (Jt Tl'!v AOYIKftV)- ccrNQMAII OP00TATHII IYNQN» (~tv KIV~UV£U£I va unOaTn Ka(J(Jiav ~Aa~nv ~n(Jiav) - ccABAAnTQI nAIl IYNOIKQN TOil NOMIMOII» - tvw civTl9tTwe; oTav tKTptn£Tal oTav tYKaTaA£inn Kai anoxwpi~£Tal Tl'lv AOYIKftV, 9a unoaTn ~ap£iae; KupWa£Ie;, (J£yaAnv ~n(Jiav - ccANOMQNAE Cl>EPQN KAKOTHTA BAPEIAN» oTixoe; 9-11) Kai napaypacpoe; avwTtpw 61, 62 Kai 63 £ie; T6 K£i(J£vov TOOXaoann. Kai anO~£IKvu£Tal TOOTO Kai £ie; rnv tnoxl'lv (Jae;~UOTUXWe;, A6yw Tne;tKTponne; Kai TWVciv9pwnwv Kai TWVtp£uvwv TTie; maTl'I(Jne;, TWVtmoTn(JOVWV, £ie; n£ploxae; Kai xwpoue; £UPIOKO(Jtvoue;ntpav TWV t ~uvaToTftTwv Tne;AOYIKne; ai Tne;iKav6TnTOe;TOOav9pwnou Kai ai 6noial ~tv ~uvavTal va K tp£uvn900v ~Ia Tne;~uva(J£we; TOOvoO TOU,va cinoKTl'loouv rteprcoorepcc YVWO£Ie;, xwpie; va unoAoyi~ouv Tae; ouvenetcc nou ciVTI(J£Twni~£1 enuepov '" civ9pwn6Tne;, KIV~Uv£uouoa va aUToKaTaoTpacpn (Ja~i (Jt Tl'!v u~p6Y£lov ocpaipav, niv ynv, tni Tne;6noiae; ~n 6 Qv9pwnoe; napaAoYI~6(J£voe;, (6 nupnvlK6c; Kai 6 ~IOAOYIK6C; Kiv~uvoe;) Kai (Jt 9AI~£p6v anoTtA£opo, acpoO~tv AOYIK£u£Tal Kai unepepovet Tae;KOIVWVIKOe; aVaaTaTWO£Ie;Kai rnv avapxiav nou euvrcpeeccuv TI'IVtnoxl'lv (Jae;.(BAtn£ Kai ·Iwav. A. naaod ccT6tYKAn(Ja Tne;ernorn(Jne;»,odie; 180 Kai tcp£~ne;)·

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100

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