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DESIGN PROJECT NAME OF SUBJECT: ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE FOR HEAT ACTIVATED COOLING

SUBMITTED BY: ASSOC. PROF. ALPER YILDIRIM MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT 17 OCTOBER 2011

PREPARED BY: AYTAÇ ŞANLISOY STUDENT NO: 2011911608

4 THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CYCLE .......................................................................................... 8 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 2nd Law cycle performance .........................................................................................................CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ............................ 4 2.........................................................................................................................................1 2........................... 3 1................................2 2 RANKINE CYCLE ..............................................1 1................................. 6 REFERANCES .............................2 1st Law cycle performance ............................................................................ 3 ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE .. 5 3 4 ANALYSIS OF WORKING FLUID ............................................

by rejecting heat to a cooling medium such as a lake. which is basically a large heat exchanger. The boiler is basically a large heat exchanger where the heat originating from combustion gases. a river. where it expands isentropically and produces work by rotating the shaft connected to an electric generator or turbo-compressor.1 INTRODUCTION 1. Steam is condensed at constant pressure in the condenser. The difference between these two (the area enclosed by the cycle curve) is the net work produced during the cycle. or other sources is transferred to the water essentially at constant pressure. is often called the steam generator. we see that the area under process curve 2-3 represents the heat transferred to the water in the boiler and the area under the process curve 4-1 represents the heat rejected in the condenser. nuclear reactors. The superheated vapor at state 3 enters the turbine. İdeal rankine cycle is represented in figure 10-2.1 RANKINE CYCLE The Rankine Cycle is a thermodynamic cycle used to generate useful work and electricity in many power stations. Fluid enters the boiler as a compressed liquid at state 2 and leaves as a superheated vapor at state 3. The pressure and the temperature of steam drop during this process to the values at state 4. or the atmosphere. 1-2 Isentropic compression in a pump 2-3 Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler 3-4 Isentropic expansion in a turbine 4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection in a condenser Fluid enters the pump at state 1 as saturated liquid and is compressed isentropically to the operating pressure of the boiler. Remembering that the area under the process curve on a T-s diagram represents the heat transfer for internally reversible processes. At this state. completing the cycle. . Steam leaves the condenser as saturated liquid and enters the pump. engineering applications and is the real-world approach to the Carnot Cycle. steam is usually a saturated liquid–vapor mixture with a high quality. together with the section where the steam is superheated (the superheater). The boiler. The fluid temperature increases somewhat during this isentropic compression process due to a slight decrease in the specific volume of water. where steam enters the condenser.

Alternatively. such as solar ponds. One method to use thermal sources of renewable energy is the organic Rankine cycle (ORC).2 ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) uses an organic fluid such as n-pentane or toluene in place of water and steam. Generally in industry. Since a wide range of fluid choices exist. and this may have thermodynamic benefits. which typically operate at around 70–90°C The efficiency of the cycle is much lower as a result of the lower temperature range. but this can be worthwhile because of the lower cost involved in gathering heat at this lower temperature. In general. for example. waste heat from a process could be used to generate useful energy such as shaft work. electricity. from120°C to 370°C. ORCs have the advantage of operating with good relative efficiency over a wide range of temperatures. fluids can be used that have boiling points above water. This allows use of lower-temperature heat sources. Depending on the application. solar thermal and waste heat fall into this category for the purposes of power generation. 2 THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CYCLE . In recent years renewable energy sources such as solar. wind. which is relevant to steam power plants based on the Rankine cycle. which can utilize low-to-moderate grade heat. or cooling that can be used by another process. industrial low-grade waste heat accounts for more than 50 percent of heat generated.1. Resources including geothermal. This reduces the energy consumption of the overall system. and geothermal have played increasingly important roles in satisfying energy needs. heat is considered to be moderate-to low grade if its temperature is less than 370 °C.

(11) and (12). which can help improve the overall cycle efficiency. In addition.ave+(h11-h8)/Troom. friction between surfaces and fluid pressure drop will also contribute to entropy generation inside each thermo-mechanical processes.2. the higher the exergy destruction in the power cycle. In addition. the higher the average oil heating temperature and the lower the average outdoor cooling air temperature. 1). Another important parameter is the enthalpy at . or the so called exergy destruction. This is because the temperature differences inside the boiler and power condenser are higher for given fluid boiling and condensing temperatures. The source of exergy destruction is attributable to entropy generation during a process such as heat transfer across finite temperature difference. Higher entropy generation for a particular process will lead to more exergy destruction.1 1st Law cycle performance Based on the state points defined in the cycle diagram (Fig. The 2nd law efficiency compares the efficiency of the current cycle to the efficiency of an internally reversible one such as Carnot cycle. it provides a fair comparison of efficiency between different cycles operating at different conditions.ave+(h6-h7)/ Tair. and unconstrained expansion and compression.ave ) Exergy destruction in combined cycle: Es = Ep+Ec (11) (12) (13) Larger temperature differences in both the according to Eqs. It does not evaluate the quality of the energy conversion process. the total exergy destruction rates of the cycle can be determined as follows: Exergy destruction in Power cycle: Ep= mp*T0*((h3-h4)/ Toil. the power cycle conversion efficiency is defined as: ηp = Wnet/ Qboi Wnet= Wexp-Wpump Wexp= mp(h4-h5s )ηexp Wpump= (mp(h2s-h1 ))/ηpump Qboi = mp(h4 _ h3) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) The cooling cycle COP is defined as: COPc = (Q eva)/ (Wcom) Wcom= mc(h9s-h8)/ηcom Wexp = Wcom Qeva =mc(h8-h11) (6) (7) (8) (9) The overall COP of combined cycle is: COPs= ηpCOPc (10) COPs= (Wnet/ Qboi)*(Q eva)/ (Wcom) COPs= ((mp*(h4-h5s )*ηexp -mp*(h2s-h1 )*)/ηpump)/ (mp*(h4 _ h3)))*( mc*(h8-h11))/ (mc*(h9s-h8)/ηcom) 2. which generate more entropy during the boiling and condensing processes. the exergy destruction rate based on steady state condition can be determined. After combining the exergy destruction rate in each component.2 2nd Law cycle performance The 1st law performance of the cycle deals with energy conversion quantities of the cycle. and thus lower 2nd law efficiency.ave) Exergy destruction in cooling cycle: Ec=mc*T0*((h9-h10)/Tair. By assuming each major component inside the combined cycle as a control volume and conducting the exergy balance around it. It provides insight to identify the sources of irreversibility.

the superheated apparatus is not needed. isentropic.ave/Toil.ave) (14) (15) Therefore the exergy destroyed inside the heat exchanger is: Edestroyed=Ehot-Ecold = Q*((1-T0/Th. For any given heat exchanger. In this case.II = COPc*(Tair.the power condenser inlet. which will reduce the required temperature difference for a given amount of heat load.ave) (17) Cooling cycle : ηc. Expressions of 2nd law efficiency for both the power and cooling cycles are given as.ave) Exergy recovered by the cold stream: Ecold=Q *(1-T0/Tc. the more exergy destruction occurs. isentropic and wet ones. the alternate approach may be realized by using micro channel technology to enhance heat transfer. higher indoor air temperatures (to be cooled) and lower outdoor air (cooling agent) temperatures would result in higher exergy destruction in the cooling cycle because of larger temperature differences in both the evaporator and cooling condenser. One is to increase the heat transfer area.ave )) (19) 3 ANALYSIS OF WORKING FLUID Basically. the exergy transfer can be described in the following: Exergy supplied by the hot stream: Ehot= Q*(1-T0/Th. Thus: ηp.ave/Troom. and thereby higher exergy destruction in the power cycle.ave). but significantly increase the heat transfer coefficient. scroll technology has been used to build the expander and compressor. (11). A compressor with lower isentropic efficiency would also increase the value of h9 (enthalpy at the cooling condenser inlet). infinite. As indicated in Eq. Those are dry. Similarly. thereby eliminating the influence of liquid droplets on the turbine blades.Q *(1-T0/Tc. the working fluid can be classified into three categories. and wet depending on the slope of the T–S curve (dT/dS) to be positive. It becomes impractical for portable applications where component size and weight significantly impact the overall design objectives. They can achieve both goals of reducing exergy destruction. thus leading to higher cycle exergy destruction. The working fluids of dry or isentropic type are more appropriate for ORC systems. and negative. it is desirable to keep the temperature difference to a minimum. such as dry. In order to reduce the amount of exergy destroyed. This is because dry or isentropic fluids are superheated after isentropic expansion. Two approaches can be used to achieve this goal.ave)) (16) This indicates the higher the temperature difference between the hot and cold streams. higher values of h6 (enthalpy at power condenser inlet) correspond to lower isentropic expansion efficiency.II =Wnet/Wrev=((h4-h5s)*ηexp-(h2s-h1)/ηpump)/(mp*(h4 _ h3)*1-(Tair. The first approach is achievable in stationary applications where size and weight are not an issue.ave-1) (18) The 2nd law efficiency of the power cycle can be determined by comparing the net work produced by the current power cycle with the reversible work produced by Carnot cycle. respectively. Power cycle: ηpII=ηp/(1-Tair. Their inherent high isentropic efficiency at their intrinsic pressure ratio minimizes the entropy generation during the expansion and compression processes. and minimizing size and weight. In addition. and effect of working fluids on system efficiency by equation of state and correlation based on experimental . Moreover. Attempts were made to examine various types of working fluids. The other is to keep or even reduce the heat transfer area.ave/Toil. Its value reflects the degree of entropy generation in the expansion process.

the actual cause is . the reference state (S=0) is at T=Tref and P= Pref which is in fact a subcooled liquid state. the exponent n is suggested to be 0.38. (23) is shown. (2) denotes the integral from the reference state (Tref. The RHS in Eq.375 or 0. This implies the working fluid is in fact a wet type. A system has a better performance if the temperature difference between the heat source and the temperature of the working fluid in an evaporator is reduced due to its lower irreversibility. ethanol is a wet fluid. PH). we can find that not all the organic working fluids belong to dry or isentropic type.13] and the results predicted by Eq.data. In that respect. Pref) to state ref(Tref. Types of working fluids can be predicted by the above expression. respectively. and n < 0: a wet fluid. PH). The entropy of the saturated vapor (state 3) can be expressed as (20) where ∆HH. 1. This can be explained from Eq. PH) to state 22 (TH. DHHi and DHHii represent the enthalpies of vaporization at states i and ii. reasonably good agreement between thermodynamic data and predicted results by Eq. and PH denote the enthalpy of vaporization. where n may become negative as DHH is large enough. The thermodynamic relation of entropy S is described by (19) As shown in Fig. That is. (2) with respect to TH yields the following approximately (21) By exploitation of the Watson relation [11] between DHH and TH: (22) where TrHi (=THi/TC) and TrHii (=THii/TC) denote the reduced evaporating temperatures. (23). state ref (Tref. (23). Table 1 illustrates types of some working fluids from thermodynamic data [12. As seen in the table. and the evaporating pressure. PH). During the integration. n≈0: an isentropic fluid. n > 0: a dry fluid. (4) into Eq. respectively. For example. In addition to the above direct consequence. TH. then state 22 (TH. the evaporating temperature. Substituting Eq. (3) yields (23) where n (=dS/dTH) is the slope of saturated vapor curve on T–S diagram. the heat capacity of liquid CP is relatively independent of pressure and of the incompressibility of the liquid (δV=δT)P≈0. From Table 1. differentiating Eq. PH) to state 3 (TH.

related to the chemical structure of the working fluids. Effect of working fluids on organic Rankine cycle for waste heat recovery. 74th ed. Perry’s chemical engineering handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill. For working fluids such as water showing strong attraction among molecules (hydrogen bonds). Boca Raton: CRC Press. ammonia. [13] Lide DR. molecules having hydrogen bonds interactions like water. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics: ready-reference book of chemical and physical data.com/ http://en.org/wiki/Rankine_cycle [12] Perry RH. 7th ed. 1997.wikipedia. Hence. DHH is comparatively large. 4 REFERANCES http://rankinecycle. 1993. Energy 29 (2004) 1207–1217 . and ethanol give rise to large DHH and become wet types. Green DW.

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