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4.1 CONSTANT-CURRENT SOURCES Circuits so far used voltage sources as the means of providing power, however, certain circuits is easier to analyze with current rather than with voltage. Unlike a voltage source, a constantcurrent source maintains the same current in its branch of the circuit regardless of how components are connected external to the source.

Figure 4.1: Constant-current source The direction of the current source arrow indicates the direction of current in the branch. The magnitude and the direction of current through a voltage source varies according to the size of the circuit resistances and how other voltage sources are connected in the circuit. For current sources, the voltage across the current source depends on how the other components are connected. 4.2 SOURCE CONVERSIONS If the internal resistance of a source is considered, the source, whether voltage or current, is easily converted to the other type.

Figure 4.2: Source Conversion – Equivalent voltage and current sources. 4.3 CURRENT SOURCES When several current sources are placed in parallel, the circuit may be simplified by replacing the current sources with a single current source. The magnitude and direction of this resultant source is determined by adding the currents in one direction and then subtracting the currents in the opposite direction. Example 4.1: Simplify the following circuit and determine the voltage V ab.

1

Solution: The voltage source in this circuit is converted to an equivalent current source as shown.5Ω)=–7.5V Example 4. since the magnitude of current in the downward direction is greater than the current in the upward direction. The equivalent current source. The voltage Vab=–(5A)(1.5Ω The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b) below.Solution: Since all of the current sources are in parallel. The equivalent current source will have a direction which is the same as both I 2 and I3. has a magnitude of I=2A+6A–3A=5A The circuit is further simplified by combining the resistors into a single value: RT= 6Ω||3Ω||6Ω = 1.2: Reduce the following circuit into a single current source and determine the current through the resistor RL. they can be replaced by a single current source. The current through RL is: IL = 80Ω 250mA= 200mA 80Ω + 20Ω 2 . as shown in figure (a) below. The resulting circuit may then be simpified to a single current source where ls= 200 mA+ 50 mA= 250mA and Rs = 400Ω||100Ω = 80 ΩΩ The simplified circuit is shown below.

5.4A→ IR2 = I1 – I2 = 1. Solution: Loop 1: I1(R1 + R2) – I2 (R2) = 6V – 4V I1(2Ω + 2Ω) – I2 (2Ω) = 6V – 4V 4I1 – 2I2 = 2V (1) Solving the simultaneous linear equations: 4I1 – 2I2 = 2V (1) – 2I1 + 6I2= 6V (2) IR1= 1.4A = –0. Branch-current analysis is awkward because the number of equations may be prohibitively large even for a relatively simple circuit. 3. 2.2A & I2 = 1.5 MESH (LOOP) ANALYSIS The previous section used Kirchhoff's laws to solve for current in each branch of a circuit. Using the assigned loop currents. The principal difference between mesh analysis and branch-current analysis is a need for only KVL around closed loops without the need for KCL. For a resistor which is common to two loops. the polarities of the voltage drop due to each loop current should be indicated on the appropriate side of the component. write the loop equations for each loop in the network. 4.2A→ Loop 2: I2(R2 + R3) – I1 (R2) = 2V + 4V I2(2Ω +4Ω) – I1 (2Ω) = 2V + 4V – 2I1 + 6I2= 6V (2) yields. Resistors which are common to two loops will have two voltage drops. The steps for mesh analysis are: 1.2A – 1. a CW direction will make later work simpler. indicate the voltage polarities across all resistors in the circuit. Branch currents are determined by algebraically combining the loop currents which are common to the branch.5: Find the current through each resistor. Applying KVL.4A IR3= 1. Arbitrarily assign a clockwise current to each interior closed loop in the network. A better approach to analyzing linear bilateral networks is called mesh (or loop) analysis. one due to each loop. Solve the resultant simultaneous linear equations. The assigned current may be in any direction.2A↑ 3 .4. I1= 1. This technique is similar to branch-current analysis but the number of linear equations is less. EXAMPLE 4.

EXAMPLE 4. Solution: Loop 1: I1(R1 + R2) – I2 (R2) = –10V – 8V I1(2Ω + 3Ω) – I2 (3Ω) = –18V 5I1 – 3I2 = –18V (1) Loop 2: I2(R2 + R3) – I1 (R2) = 8V – 6V I2(3Ω +1Ω) – I1 (3Ω) = 2V – 3I1 + 4I2= 2V (2) Solving (1) & (2) yields: I1= –6A & I2= –4A IR2= 2A↑ IR3= 4A← IR1 = 1A↓ (KCL original circuit IR1= (2A + 4A)← – 5A← = 1A↓) 4 .6: Find the current through each resistor.

7: Find the current through each resistor.54mA↑ IR3= 2mA – 0.894mA & I2= 0.894A+0.106mA↑ (KCL from original circuit) IR4= 0. Solution: Loop 1: I1(6kΩ+R1+R2) – I2 (R2) = –12V – 10V I1(6kΩ+10kΩ+5kΩ) – I2(5kΩ) = –22V 21kI1 – 5kI2 = –22V (1) Loop 2: I2(R2+R4 + R5) – I1 (R2) = 8V +10V I2(5kΩ+12kΩ+4kΩ) – I1(5kΩ) = 18V –5kI1 + 21kI2= 18V (2) Solving (1) & (2) yields: I1= –0.644mA =1.894A← IR2= 0.644mA IR1 = 0.894mA = 1.644mA→ IR5= 0.EXAMPLE 4.644mA↓ 5 .

…. Solve the resulting simultaneous linear equations for the voltages (V 1. The steps used in solving a circuit using nodal analysis are: 1. …. This step. current and power) are easily determined. indicate the corresponding polarities of the voltage drops on all resistors. V3. Nodal analysis will apply KCL to determine the voltage at any node with respect to some arbitrary reference point in a network. V3. 6 . although not absolutely necessary. Convert each voltage source in the network to its equivalent current source. Arbitrarily assign a reference node within the circuit and indicate this node as ground. 3. With the exception of the reference node (ground). Vn).6 NODAL ANALYSIS Mesh analysis used KVL to solve loop currents in a network. 5. V2. V2. Once the potentials of all nodes are known other quantities (i. The reference node is usually located at the bottom of the circuit. 2..) 4. Arbitrarily assign a current direction to each branch in which there is no current source.e. there will be n simultaneous linear equations. 7. Using the assigned current directions. apply KCL at each of the nodes. Vn) to the remaining nodes in the circuit. (These voltages will all be with respect to the chosen reference.4. Rewrite each of the arbitrarily assigned currents in terms of the potential difference across a known resistance. 6. Arbitrarily assign voltages (V1. If a circuit has a total of (n + 1) nodes (including the reference node). makes further calculations easier to understand. although it may be located anywhere.

Solution: V1: Σ Iin = Σ Iout 200mA+ 50mA= I1 + I2 I1 = V1 20Ω I2 = V1 − V2 40Ω I3 = V2 30Ω V2 : Σ Iin = Σ Iout 200mA+ I2 = 50mA + I3 200mA+ 50mA= V1 V − V2 + 1 20Ω 40Ω 1 1 1 V1 250mA + = − V2 20 40 40 1 1 2 V1 + = 250mA − V2 40 40 40 1 3 V1 − V2 =250mA 40 40 200mA+ V V1 − V2 = 50mA+ 2 30Ω 40Ω -V1 1 1 + V2 + = 150mA 30 40 40 -V1 3 4 + V2 + = 150mA 120 120 40 -V1 7 + V2 =150mA 120 40 Solving these two simultaneous equations yields: V 1=4.333V Vab =–1.333V 7 .EXAMPLE 4.667V – 6V = –1.889V & V2=4.667V Thus.8: Determine the Vab. Va = V2 = 4.667V = Vab + 6V Vab = 4.

VR1 = 8.EXAMPLE 4.808V VR3 = V2=7.8467V V2= VR4 + 18V VR4 = 7.654V & V2=7.154V 8 .8467V =0.9: Determine the voltage across each resistor.8467V Thus. Solution: V1: Σ Iin = Σ Iout 2 A= I1 + I2 I1 = V1 5Ω I2 = V1 − V2 3Ω I3 = V2 : Σ Iin = Σ Iout 3A+ I2 = I3 + I4 V2 4Ω I4 = V2 6Ω 2A= V1 V1 .8467V – 18V = –10.654V – 7.654V VR2 = V1 – V2 = 8.V2 + 5 Ω 3Ω 1 1 V V1 + − 2 = 2A 5 3 3 5 V2 3 V1 + − =2A 15 15 3 8 V V1 − 2 = 2A 15 3 V -V V V 3A+ 1 2 = 2 + 2 3 4 6 −1 1 1 1 V1 + + + V2 = 3A 3 4 6 3 3 2 −1 4 V1 + + + V = 3A 12 12 12 2 3 −1 9 V1 + V2 = 3A 12 3 3 −1 V1 + V2 = 3A 3 4 Solving these two simultaneous equations yields: V 1=8.

Solution: V1: Σ Iin = Σ Iout 1A+ IR2 = IR1 + 6A IR1 = V1 3Ω IR2 = V2 − V1 5Ω V2 : Σ Iin = Σ Iout IR3 = 2 A+ 1A+ IR2 IR3 = -V2 4Ω 1A+ V2 − V1 V1 = + 6A 5Ω 3Ω 1 1 V − V1 − + 2 = 5 5 3 5 5 V2 3 5 − V1 − = + 15 15 5 .V2 V − V1 = 2 A+ 1A+ 2 4Ω 5Ω V1 1 1 − V2 + = 3 4 5 5 V1 4 5 − V2 + =3 20 20 5 V1 9 =3 − V2 20 5 2 V V1 + 2 =5 15 5 Solving these two simultaneous equations yields: V 1=–14.EXAMPLE 4.0 – (–14.0V 9 .10: Determine the voltage across each resistor. VR1 = V1 = –14.25V VR3 = V2=–13.0V Thus.25V & V2=-13.25V) =1.25V VR2 = V2 – V1 = –13.

EXAMPLE 4.476V = 10+VR1 → VR1 =–10.508V – (–0.476V & V2=2.984V VR4= V2=2.476V VR2 = V1 = –0.508V Thus.508V 10 .476V VR3 = V2 – V1 =2.476V) = 2.11: Determine the voltage across each resistor and the current through R 1. V1 =–0.V 2mA+ 1 + 2 1 = 3mA+ 1 5kΩ 4kΩ 3kΩ 1 1 −1 1 V1 − − + V2 =1mA 5kΩ 4kΩ 3kΩ 4kΩ 1 1 1 1 -V1 + + + V2 = 1mA 5kΩ 4kΩ 3kΩ 4kΩ 15 20 12 1 -V1 + + + V2 = 1mA 60kΩ 60kΩ 60kΩ 4kΩ 47 1 -V1 + V2 = 1mA 60kΩ 4kΩ 2mA= V2 − V1 V + 2 4kΩ 2kΩ 1 − V1 1 + V2 + = 2mA 4kΩ 2kΩ 4kΩ − V1 2 1 + V2 + = 2mA 4kΩ 4kΩ 4kΩ − V1 3 + V2 =2mA 4kΩ 4kΩ Solving these two simultaneous equations yields: V 1=–0. V2 : Σ Iin = Σ Iout 2mA= IR3 + IR4 Solution: V1: Σ Iin = Σ Iout 2mA+ IR1+ IR3 = 3mA+ IR2 -V1 5kΩ V1 3kΩ V2 − V1 4kΩ V2 2kΩ IR1 = IR2 = IR3 = IR4 = V -V V .

476V 5kΩ 10V 10V 0 10V . 476V IR1 = 5kΩ = 2. 476V = = IR1 5kΩ 5kΩ 10V .( -0.( V1) 10.476) IR1 = 5kΩ 10. 095mA ↑ IR1 11 .V1=–0.

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