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Buunrvt Adminturation Library

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144

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E53p 1773

THE

PRINCIPLES

O

F

MECHANICS.

Explaining

and

Demonstrating

of

The

The

general

of

LAWS

MOTION,

Laws

of

Gravity,

Motion

Descending

**Centers of Gravity, 8cc. Strength and Stress of
**

Timber, Hydrostatics, and C O N T R U C T O N of MAS*

Bodies, Projectiles,

Mechanic Powers,

Pendulums,

I

CHINES.

A Work

very neceflary to be known, by all Gentlemen, and Others, that defire to have an Infight into the Works of Nature

and Art.

.

And

particularly to

extremely ufeful to all Sorts of Artificers ; Architects, Engineers, Shipwrights, Mill-

wrights,

Mechanical

Watchmakers, Way.

&c.

or

any

that

Work

in

a

The

THIRD EDITION,

Illuftrated with

Corrected.

Forty-three Copper-Plates.

Multaque per Trochleas^

et

**Tympana pondere magna
**

nifu.

Commovit, at que kvi fujiollit Macbina

LucRET.

Lib. IV.

LONDON,

Printed for

G. Robinson,

in Pater-nofter-Rovv.

MDCCLXXIII.

.

cloatbs to wear.ps were as eld. and mufi be continually mending their work by repeated trials.ipafs to work by. about the fame time architeclure was brought into Europe. we All their may Judge what fort of work they were likely to make.'ftines brought 30 thoufand chariots into the field againfi fo that chariots were in ufe loyoyears before Chrift. But afterwards we find an acccunt of feveral machines that were iK For we read in Genefis that flo-. Cr'H E •^ art of Mechanics it beifig the fi>Ji that men had it occajion to make ufe of. ' world. and kf degrees to make fome progrefs in the -. contrivances mufl be mere gueffing. than they wanted houfes to dwell in. For no fooner did mankind begin to people the earth. which was enough to give a begimmig to it and in this fiate it doubtlefs remained for a long timty without much improvement. as the days of Jacob. they would be content with very little theory .echa-^ nics. for a long feries of ages . till they got it to fuch a form as to And this is the firfi and make afhift to ferve for the ufe deftgned. through the length of time . or any fort cf tulation . lowejl fate of mechanics. and being unacquainted with numbers. jnanual arts began to take their rife. and iitenfils to till the ground. IVe likewife read that the Phil. But we meet with no coiifiderable inventions in the mechanical way. At their firfi fetting out. or if there had been any. and gained more experience. and being thus deftitute of proper habitations. and other conveniences of living. but fuch as they mufl invent firfi of nor any methods of working : with all thefe difadvantages.' THE PREFACE. their wants mujl immediately put them upon the Jludy of ir. Saul And And 1030 A 2 . with other nsceffarii's cf life . nor inall. is reafonable to Juppofe that took its be- ginning with man . to get them bread. even on the nfe. . ftniments to work with. the accounts of them are now loft. for we have nothing upon record for two or three thoufandyears forward. and was fludied in the carliefl ages cf the world. endeavottring to get that more by experience than r'ea-^ cal^ foning. and' they could but ill execute • what they badfo badly contrived . and having Jieither rule nor cor. Mediterranean. But at length as men found more leifure and opportunity.

made fails for Jhips. fubjeQ of mechanics. no tr. end the properties and afftSiions of both thefe. 2 we find rr.\ moft Jubtle geometer ai:d mechanic. which could in v:aik or run cf thtmfelves. In thts ft ate it continued till the 16 th centwy. but Arillotle. uho ftght of land. preface. for carpenters and jcimrs to work with. cf the potter's wheel. Dardalus aZ/'c. lived about z^o years before Chrill. It extends through heaven and earth.an to in Deuteronomy.ing men. And about 800 years before Chrift. -j. and made it a mofi comprebenfive fcience..fl a Jione of a prodigious weight . 1 o^jO years hffore ChT'A\. Jcrufalem. that Uzziah made for we lead rr. there being fcarce any things mere known about it. and planets.IV The Jails. tojhcct Corn mills were early invented. we read in Jeremiah xviii. are the laws. but there have been many fabulous repcrts concerningHe alfo made a fpkere which /cowed the moiions of' thefe engines. XV. engines that was a drew up the fhips of Hemade-. and then clock work waj in" vented. Ammon built long and tall flAfi witJf and tie Mediterranean. He that lentured to pafs (Ufa made feveral moving Jiatues. but cliitas was the firjl lift year of Chrifl 600. by help cf fails. . arrows and great ftcncs withal. And by their ftudy and indiiftry have prodigioufty enlarged. after. Chron. «'^'0 afterwards they became negletied for a long time. any-^ take the nether or the upper mtllftone to pledge yet water was mills not appHed to tnills before the ufd before the year ArClirift. its Not o>:e particle of matter but what ernes under For what elfe is there in the vifibU worlds but matter and motion .cd about ioo years beJoreQ\\r\[\.and invented lifed e^%o years -before fever al forts of tools.echanical writings behind him ecu'd fly that about. was one of the fit ft thiit writ But at this time the art' any methodical difcotufe of mechanics. engines invented by (uni. and learning met with proper encouragemeHt . which was the fitft Greek vfjfel the Jhip Argo was through the fea.ithout guided only by theftars. : he made a wooden pigeou Archimedes. yit tiis time feveral of the mojl eminent mathematicians began to conftdtr mechanics. who li. that it was not lawful for . another which fhewed the fame thing. to be on the towers and upon tie bulwarks. and every part of . beihg Chritt. Marcellus at the Jiegi of Syra- cuie and others that would cj. In thefe day! the liberal arts fiourifhed. moon. its bounds. nor wind Likezvife 5B0 yean before 1200. was contained in a very little ccmpafs. the whole univerfe. than the 6 mechanical powers. flat applied matlematics to mechanics. and about 1650 were the firft clocks made.ind aiiut (^o years en the lied Sea built . a great diJlamCy or elfe ftviral Ujjir fiones^ as alfo darts and to arrows . it is its fubjeil. find Pofidonius aficrwards tnade the fun. 6 To .

f But tJ. So -that all tificer mif work mechanically.^d then from thefe forces to invefii. pendent galleries... and rnagneti/m. .. IVithout mechanics. ..wtonian. and prfns whatever the cobler. air. as pr cues an aniinaU veffels. or-^U^ dry in • our ^f^^.. Fcir all . chanics. of philofophy confifls the w. and Ail which have been made fo plain. - ^^^O^y:•. But there are alfo certain forces belonging to the fmall. are either impelled towards one another. or cords This is a feience of fuch importance. cohirnvs.. wind. Alfo clocks. -hones. alfo caded anatomy.the dijlances and revolutions of the nical principles. other forts repel each other Upon generation. by which they. Upon thefe forces the cohefion. revolutions. and military affairs.dry. of the parts of an animal body . that without it we could hardly eat our bread. another. ". Jhjps. or not -work at all. ticles of different forts of bodies have different laws -.. vcrfe. Ar<hi-. water.":. or fortify a place. . ibeir periods. other grand works in buildijig. eli£iricity. the I'fe of the nerves. celejlial tires.. depend the principles of fermentation. whiljt thofe of and that by forces almcft infinitely various. Fcr the parparticles of matter. oiz-e the'r iri' And. joints. riots. founded the motions of the-. water-works.. waiiles. all engmes of liar. or only true phi<.V.vs part of me~ Upon mechanics are bodies. which we are fill ignorant of. bridges. .Vi-ML:\^ ' By mechanics we come to underficnd the motions.the difficulty ia~ this.v^. ' v Ta the art of mechanics is cwirg all fort^s^^ of ifijli^iuients ia work with.. or are repelled.?^•vV^tV._^king - down to . and from thefe •..". is o f.crld. fame of the pi^inci. andfo recede from each other. curious roofs and arches.-. as well as the motions of bodies upon the Thefe relate to the viftble bodies of the unifurface of the earth. are indebted i^ufh>is_ 'at:Jffr^m~~ike.hy in alfo. and all. The nature of elafticity.tculurCy navigation. putrefablicn. cha-^ and even the wheel barrow.. and fluidity of bodies depend. Ne. are deduced the motions of the planets.^ . nor b'fiege a town.•^s^V^.. is '^ iV:- :: - Upon mechanics lofof. a general cannot go toAnd the meanejt arwar..ibjM of all it elf. menls.by. the moon. \' as all manner of mufufll injlru. the forces of gravity are derived . mujchs. cretion in animal bodies j the motion of (he blood and fluids in anithtfe alfo . and the fca . . finall particles of fome bodies attract one . fohdity. to demon-.whatever hath artificial motion-^ vention and ufe to this art. fmce the.:v body to be nothing hut a mechanical engine. al gate the forces of nature. vegetation. The • preface.founded the. ^c. from. Jlate!y theatres. and cohere in regular figures. mills. phenomena all which is ^to be done upon mechaThus fro:n. forces thus known.r. comets. jacks. ftrate the other phenomena of moticns . carts and cjrriages. heavenly bodies.. mals. and dffolution of bodies digejtion and fe-. hujhar.

ts to depend fafiiion of the country.'lion contradiFtion.e^ and be fucceeded ly fame new fyjlem. refrac\ of light freezing by told. -^ . as being a matter. For he admits nothing but what he gains from experiments. : -:uicr the As if pbilofopby. But experiments. and finks into rentantic fyfiems cf pbilofopby. will fyflem. fome people as well as the flriaifl truth. aiid cried up as this without any fotmdation in the nature cfthihgs. and romances.: . lie the exciting fetifiliaii in the tnmbers l>y the ccmmar. by affuiTiing to know every thii. mnid .d cf the will . the nature of things depends upcn no fieady principles at I all. tohicb have nothing' And therefore mechanical beauty (that is.•<.. fucb ruin.' rrflctlio. and build cu: f. and accurate And from this foundation. For never a philofopher before Newton ever took the method that For wbilft their fyflems ere nothing but bypothefes. He on the ccntrary. ike emrffton. conjeHurcs. tn the fcience of mechanics.' • VI ttialsy The and the moving cf and infieiUon tion^ preface. or m.iznrd of error. and by himfelf alone. conhe did. fubje5i of itjelf : tiorwitb experimental pbilofopby. invented at pleafure. wil rwi en ad upon another. if the whole airy And yet it fcems. like all others before it. any further than concerns mechanics. he flops. by fome. thefe fcheming philcfopbers. But furely this is nothing but rambling in tb: dark. vanced..' is now. ylnd although archi tenure has a great dependance upon mechanics . thefe forces among the invifible' covered. If thcfe fcrcn could be fcund ottt. But in . it would open to us Uc. bctr. iv. this And where is deduced by ftrick mathematical reajoning. or on the fancies and caprice oj «. difficult to be dif and exand therefore make no part cf the Nor fhall I meddle with ajlroncmy. Jet out upon a quite different footing.g. proves to be nc(hing and And th. Contrary to all this. jlrenglb in due proportion) is all that I have any bufmefs to meddle uith here. that the Newtonian will grew old and cut of da. yet there are a great many precarious rules in this arty vrjented purely for ornament. whatrjer is further aJobfervations. pleafe men of firong imaginations and infinitum. and fay.n it is fabric tumbles down. thread does not carry him. finions.g weak judgments. thus ere£Ied. than. which will then bi as much But this objeSlipn is very fa'fly made. burning ly fire . ceits. rather content "With a little true knowledge. and the fake of beauty . run ibc h. a niw field for want of proper and imperceptible particles cf ceeding enfuing Treatife. to do with mechanics. all optrnlions in chemiflry. like religion. and proceeds no fvrthr \B ij net prettnding to be wife above what is turitten in nature. till their Babel but a heap cf endlefs confufion no wonder. It has been ignorantly objeded philofopby. are utterly unknown.

confined thematical part. Gon- . and others. nian p'. /y&t the LeibnitzV. And therefore I have firft of all laid down and demonflrated the general laws of motion. I have delivered all the fundamental principles both in theory and prailice. myf elf entirely to the maand is deduced from it. and the defcription of In each of thefe. fuppofe that from feveral caufes. and given up the Carte- fcheme much improved.The ill preface.Jirength. fally ufeful. Pratiical mechanics might be very much improved. Hence it evidently follows. that the Newtotions and experiments. the vibration of pendulums . and being once proved to be true. until the utter fubverfmi of all the laws of It is therefore a mere joke to talk ct anewphilofophy. or at mofi. center of gravity. things from caufes truly exijient. And to make it more univerrefinance of fiidds -. as a foundation for all the refi. and further advanced //^e but it can never be overthrown tioiwithfiand. but by obfervain true philofcphy. of beams of timber . philofophy may indeed : he improved. it niufi eterna'ly remain true. and motion ofproje£liles I have.-ilofophy. and what depends on it. thenyou have the principles of hydrcfiatics.!Jg the efforts of all the Bernouilli'. Green'j. is dii the nature of truth ^ the lufmefs of true phUofophy to derive and to enquire after thofe la-jjs on "juhich the Creator choofed to fcund the "joorld \ not thofe by lohi^h It is reafonahk to he might have done the fame. foundation is now firmly laid: the Newtonian . Then follows the Inws of gravity. for the fake of brevity . by the help only of the lowefi and eaftefi rules of algebra. if the fecrets of all trades were to lie open . and pneumatics . But the true caufe wdl always be that the fame iffeSl may arife. hydraulics. I have demonfirate d every thing geometrically . the preffure. as well as the trades themfelves. the -. but only a habit of working. and the fcveral machines ufed in And experimental philofophy would be each trad:. avoiding all operations by fluxions : fo that the reader need not be feared with the thoughts of any difficulty of that kind. which concerns manual arts or working by hand. BerkleyV. the powers of engines. ftom which it truly anda^ually does arife . thereby trade might borrow is no theory required here. It is not my dejign to treat at all en the lowejl part of meFor there chanics. machines. duly explained. fomething differing from each other. from another trade. the ethers have vo place And this can be known no way. The nature. andflrefs. being thus built upon this folid foundaticny mufl jiandfirm and unfjaken . the mechanical powers the defcent of bodies upon indinid planes. And even the it. And one many great helps in working. //^^ French themfelves have at fian lafi adopted Hutchinlbn'i. i^c. in the following book.f. had he fo pieafed. to be ac- quired by frequent practice. the defcent of bodies. in free fpace .

their eyes above this earth. not fo net rjfary for this end. not being able to lift .est as far as is necejfary to explain their lin^ ike defcription cf their minuter parts. reported of AlexandL": :hat he allowed 800 ta'. think nc thing ivsrth their ta-e. as it is in this . in fufrence. It is a trifling excufe for men of exalted ftation. or fuch a mavifefl difregard. but raking together the drcfs it afjords . And tures. if the general temper and dijprjimen had been the fame tn all ages. like the toad. it is no wonder if arts and Jciences flag . fome machines that may Jeem trrflir. often barbarous diverficns. who ought to protest and encourage both that. Jcnt age. iihether they fhall fl and crfall. for thd happinefs cf their f^'^cw crea' have the fatigue \ whilfl all the their labours : world reap the advantage of Scire volunt omnes. and mjl extreme cvarice of the pre. as the encouragement of thefe evidently tends to the benefit of mankind. already done. uho fhall die with the mofl earth in his paws. and Minrrva give place to Plutus.g. // is mercsedem folverc nemo. that may he worth otferviHg.ed to be fuch arts or fciences. ereatiires . and natural knowledge meet with nothing but contempt .t places in the 'fchrnvs.rhcps zchat I have given the cuts of many mere machires -. ' preface.itronize and prcteH it . under the peculiar care and fupcrintendency of the great .viii The Cotiafning ture. or a pump to di aw us zvater.ihich arc eoftly underfiocd of tbevifelves. in juch a ration as this. put in here and there to fill up vaca:. xi-here tmy be th:ught too much. to urge. Jlriving. or in n great firing. tion of A>jd indeed. be might be enabled . as it were. that they are unacquainted with For learning has always been ejieen. as they arts o. there is Jcmeih:ng curious in therr Jiruilure or thoticn.nd fciences can never flour ifh. The induflrious ftudents only /hew. and "Hill '. and the promct-ng of the public good . mcafure owing to the amlition. trifling. to Arjftoclc. The and duller part of mankind are entirely engaged in the furfuit cf filthy lucre.ces of procuring all fcrts of living fo that by his cwn particular experience. and ivherc public fpirit and E. f buve j^h^n an account cf their Jlrucmctions and tjfeils \ omitI trpf the r fader I be mad>l>. and where no Ma:cenas appears to p. pardon my inj>rting amo>g the rejl.ents a year to defray the expei.ng\\^ genercfity are jufl exThis decline of arts and fcitnces. and the prcfeffors of it or elfe -. J might have hut p-. and the brighter fort are wholly dtvUed to low. natural knowledge 'wants due encouragement. nothing can excufe fo grofs a negleSi. Juvei*. and where arts and fcicnccs hang. is 'Jiholly. In fuch momennus concerns as ihefe. I Inhere men. i'et even i)t thrf. I am in doult whether we had ever had any fuch thing as a mi 'I to grind us corn for bread.

diffident of the principles here delivered . by fw--Ving the book. and cannot mend. I had not only deferted my fubjeEl^ and all good method . and cry down my book. And tM the vuorld hath new fo few Ariftotles.ade fuch for completing fo ufeful a fcience. fioould ftart up. alterations ' and improvements for the abfolutely neceffary I cannot find that I my fubje£l. is khiiife thtrS ere no Alexanders. who know no better. becaufe not written crude notions. tK h why write of the natm-e nnd proper: ics of ihan. but alfo impofed upon my readers. as I thought neceffary Accordingly I have rr. no body of common fenfe would expeel that I fhould go contrary to that defign. and cenfors of other tmn's wrilmp. But as to the fate of this hook. abilities.bicb my few readers may receive from it for on the contrary. 1 have dene all I could to iuftruB them. for I know they zvill ftaiid the JlriSieft examination. where there is fo little encouragement for works of this nature. ar. If any fuch fet of critics. it is indifferent to ine what f-eNet that I am in the leafi ception it fhall meet with in the zvcrld. and lead them regularly through this nobU and iifeful fcience. has induced me to revife and correct it .* P. Nor tcould I be thought carelefs con- cerning the advantage^ '!s. fit only for books of Algebra and Fluxions . I am under no concern what judgment may be pajjcd it by the ignorant multitude. and making them pay dear for fuperfluicies . and not at all proper for an elementary Treatife.:: Tff^ enabled reafon P R E F A C E. ajfuming the privilege of being dictators ^o the public. I have made every thing in this ciftly furmount. upon . EMERSON. book as full thing and char as my own would permit me. But in a mercenary age. I would not have my after their readers be at all furprized at this a . by detraction. and to make fuch further additions thereto. and fluff my beck with calculations of difficult problems. that my more ingenious readers may find what they expeSi here and am in hopes. and are always fnarling at what Thefe fort of animals live they don't under- ftand. If I had done this. and the nature of the W. but what ihey will To effe£l wjMch. Tet Ifmcerely wifh. few trifling critics. that they will meet with no difficulties. S.d that to pleajc a Treatife pertinent to as to ine feemed of my readers. And as my proftffed defign was to write a book of Principles. have omitted any thing material in this benefit in this third edition. The kind reception the former editions of this book has met with from the publick.

W. & Varius. and laugh at their ignorance. Virgiliulque. THE . it fnr ejcape. will be to defpife their dull critici/ms.rn part. the only concern will give me. Men' moveat cimex Pantilius ? aut crucicr. probet hacc - HOR. E. would be more furprizin^ if any thing of value /bould /hid for wiluout being degraded and condemned by tbem. it tnv o. Msccnas. quod Vellicit abfentem Demetrius ? aut quod ineptus Fannus Hcrmogenis Iccdac Conviva Tigclli ? Plotius. Valgius.The thif : preface.

75 VII. the j crew. laws cf gravity. and its 45 59 and SECT. and direSiiott. IX. V. p\EFINiriONS. Axioms. III. dies^ I. the defcent of. the leaver. by their weights . :!• . 87 in all S E CT. or by any forces applied to them. 93 the principles of ii-j SECT. and the forces of necefjary to fujiain them. Page i. and pneumatics. The general laws of Tlfe motion. . ibid. heavy ho-^ n^i 2'! in free f pace y ''" SECT. and IV. The properties of fluids . The flrength of beams of timber their Jlrefs by fofitions and any weights ailing upon them. The properties of the mechanical powers . of the preffure beams of timber. The quantity. the balance. VI. hydraulics. their forces and acof Jbips. and the wedge. in curve fur faces and the motion of pendulums. of bodres upon inclined planes. The center of gravity properties. The defcent . SECT. the wheels the pulley. hydrojiatics.'o ~ SECT. tions X. The centers of percuffion^ cfcillation. The rejiftance j upon bodies the motion and pofition of their jails. Pofiulata. 6 TI.THE CONTENTS. 7. 144 SECT. gyration. of fluids. . VIII. SECT. SECT. and the motion of poje£liles. SECT. ^ — 30 SECT.

Explanation of the Ch ak At'TBR S. direiliti^. Explanation of terms. gines \ Xll. engines. contents. 166 SECT. Methods of communicatinj^^ and p.The SECT. XIII. 273 285 UJl of maehinti defer ibed in this hook. S. the cotangent.^2 MECHANICS. forces \ The defcription of compound machines or and the method of computing their powers cr with fame account of the advantages or difad185 vantages of their conflruUion. Sec. 2 to. Tan. Cotan. regulating any moiic^n. in the pretilice 0/ mechanu^. . SECT. the fecant. The poxifrs of fore ts ailing within the machine and prnperties ofccmpound eni and comern•\-'^\' ingfriilton.' ') { oc as. Kad. the fine. 161. the tangent. Cof. . radius. or in a given pi'dportion Perp. perpendicular. XI. the cofine.

equally accelerated or re^ Likewise if its motion be confidered in regard to foms other body at refl. it is called a uniform accekrative force. muves in. its Body : is If a it is body yields to a ftroke and recovers iic former figure again.( > ) MECHANICS. But if its motion be confidered with refpeft to otlier bodies alio in motion. or the right 8. 6. it is called it is equable motion. of the fame bignefs. M' 2. it is it is called it accelerated motion if it retarded motion. it is inelajlic. it is called an accelerative force : If conllantly and equally. is called an elaf- body If nor. If in- creafes tarded. Thus the denfity is laid to . Velocity is an affeftion of motion. is 7. velocities. Denfity of a body it. ' ECHJNICS is a fcience. 3. decreales. If it a£t 4. If it adl conftantly. the proportion. but for a moment it is called the force of -percujjion or impulfe. of the quantity of matter contained in to thequantity of matter in another body be double or triple. The velocity is laid to be greater or lefs. when the quantity of matter contained in the fame fpace is double or triple. Force is a power exerted on a body to move it. the mafs or quantity of matter. then it is relative motion. its velocity continually increafes. according as the body paflTes over a greater or lefs fpace in the fame time. which teaches the pro- portion of the forces. by which a body pafies over a certain fpace in a given time. it is called abfoltitc rMtion. or decreafes uniformly. Direction of motion line it the way the body tends.. and in general the actions of bodies upon one another. B ^an- . motions. DEFINITIONS. If equal times. Motion is a continual and fucccffive in a body moves through equal fpaces If \ change of place. 5.

when the weight of the fame bulk of matter is double or inp e. Gravity is that force v/hrrcwitb a body endeavours to dc1 his is called <ii//o/t/fe fccnd towards the center of the earth. II. rfix-ft. is called ihepower. 13. or per orm f me grca. both in reThis is called the gard to its velocity. ^lantily of motion. pullies. 1 moved among that treats themfclves. That body which communicates the motion that which receives 15. is that innate force of matter by which it rcni{» any change. And the axis of moiioiif is the fixed axis ic moves about. it. and quantity of matter. momentuvi of a body.to perfiirm fome particular motions. Center of gravity of a body is a certain point in it. 21. Machim is any mechanical Inftrument contrived bodies./5f^r<2C7.y- pofuion. is a fixed point about wliich the body is moved. ID. and by yielding are eafily 17. is the greater or Icfs weight of bodies of the lame magnitude or the proportion between thcfe weights.^. Ilyi'raulics is the art of raifing or conveying water by the a fcience that treats of the properties of the to move The mechanical help of tiVTjincs. Gnler <f motion of a body.-\o'X compounded fort of machines. powers are fimple machines. compoled cf levers. Afluidxs a reft. and rt' iaiivi graiiiy is the force it endeavours to defccnd witli in a fluid. 5/>(f<-/. orfuftain fome great wcighr.r. >*lren the !ody tends downwards in t'lec fp»cc . 14. gravity. Hjdrojlatics fluids. body whole parts yield to any irfiprefled force -. Enjne is a mechanic inftrument . 8.of bodies. upon which the body being freely ful'pendcd. 19. and the zc-eigbt. 13. by lomc tjit-chanira! writers. This is the largeft and r. when two or more forces afting againft one another. ifc. Pmujnatics air. is a fcience of the properties of 3. in order to move. or. and the body that moves it. lift.DEFINITIONS. it would reft in ar. bat deitrov one EquiUbritim is another's tffedts. none of them overcome the others. IFeight and po-iver when 6ppofed to one another. The fpecific gravity is laid to be double or triple^ . 9. fcrews. is o. is the motion a body has. wheels. fienify the body to be removed. yis irrrfi. and remain at 16. and endeavours to prcfervc its prclcnt ftatcof mo> tion or reit.

and afterwards make luch allowance as is proper. VERY reft. without weight or thicknels-. '3. .ri<£lnefs the force of gravity decreafes in afcending.inge that ftate. i2c.DEFINITIONS. The weight of any any which wejcan afcend. AXIOMS. is the furface of ths eanh. or the violence it fuffcrs by that force. yet differs infenfibly in fo fmall a fpaceas to one another. s r u L A r A. fome cXiernal force. and the wedge. the lever. from the earth's furface. taken as a perfedt fphere. wherec)f engines are made. and perpendicular to the horizon And they always tend perpendicular to the horizon by their weight. inclined 23. To which fome add the the pulley. whether of it or movmg uniformly till is com- pellcu to ch. body For is the fame in all places at or near infenfible at the difference heigiits to •. or 2 2. and the parts or matter. are the ballance. the wheel. bodies rubbing againft one another. Though in fi. 4. all bodies perfedlly fmooth and homogeneous. and inflexible.' upon as a plane. For this is true as to fenfe. becaufe the lines of their diredion meet only at the center of : we have any occafion to confider it. lines perfcvftly ftreight. For tho' bodies are defeftive in all thefe . which is the refinance any is able to make againft a force endeavouring to break it. plane. in a right line.may be looked it Though this is not ftridly true. Tiie contrary to this Isjlrength. cords extremely pliable . Strefs is the effeft of a force ailing againfl: a beam. 24. or the horizon. fubjedl to many imperfediions yet ine mull I'ei afide all thefe irregularities. or de: stroyed is any body. The in alteration of motion. 2. Mechanic powers. or ihe motion generated. . or of any p 1. in the reciprocal ratio of thefquares of the heights from the earth's center. Fritlion beam is tne refinance arifing from the parts of machints. is proportional to thr force apj-lied And The made in the direiStion of that right line in wliich the force B 2 3. fT^ H A T J_ a fmall part of the furface of the earth. and moving without fridion orrefiftance. \ye are to fuppofe all planes perfectly even and regular. till the theory is eftabhflied . any thing to break it. the Icrew. Heavy bodies defcend in lines parallel the earth. by 2. body preferves in its prefent (late.

14. or draws all points of the line of diredion equally. Every body will defcend to the lowcft place a can get to. all the intermediate parts of the rope are equally diftended. are equal. without any regard to For twice the matter will be their bulk. is If a body drawn or urged by a rope.AXIOMS. twice as heavy. Two equal If it forces afting againftone another in contrary di- rections dcftroy 10. If any force is applied to move or fuftain a means of a rope. the fame thing. the lame quantity of motion will an equal force dcftroy in the fame time. The in aftion and rc-aiflion between two bodies arc equal. tity . or receded from it with or with the fum of their mothe difference of their motions 15. 7.iven time . a body is aftcd on with two forces in contrary direcis the fame thing as if it were only adted on with the difference of thefe forces. tions . is proportional to the quanit of matter. It a it running rope go freely over fevcral puUies are equally llretched. their : tions. body. Any aftive force will fooner or more eafily overcome a it than a greater. and the other approached. If . £. 11. 13. and fo The vis inertia: of all bodies. 18. Whatever fuftains heavy body. one another's eJfcdts. 9. or kind. The niouon of the whole body is made up of the fum of the motions of all the parts. Whatever quantity of motion any force generates in a g. by 1-7.ime as the direiStion of that part of the rope next adjoining to che body. Tlic weights of all bodies in the lame place. and that in contrary dircclions. the direftion of that force is the f. 12. in any one lineof direftion. contrary directions. . the fame way in anv right motion will be the fame. and /}. whatever point of that line the force lenfcr refiftancc pufhes it is And is applied to. 6. acting in a contrary direftion. the contrary forces. figure. Tf two bodies be moving relative line. in direftion of the greater. are proportional to the cjuantitics of matter they contain . it. move contrary ways. If a body is kept in equilibrio . If a weight be drawn or pufhed by any power . and deftroy one another.. as if one bocJy ftood ftill. bears all the weight of 9. all the parts of 19. and thrice the matter thrice as heavy on. if they 16. 8.

in diredion of its length. The upper part of a fluid is by the lower SECT: . leaft preflcd.AXIOMS. part. The parts of a fluid will yield. the other end will thruft or a6t with a force. it is and recede towards that fuflained part where 21. 19. 20. If any forces be applied againft one end of a free lever or beam .

For the fpecific gravities are as the denfities. Therefore the matter is univerfally in the compound ratio of both. filiis is as by Def. Thrref ^re univcrfally. PRO y/ytf v. The quantities of matter are as the magnitudes and ffer. cf motion. 3. the quantity of motion is as tbifum of pro dubs of every particle cf matter multiplied by its nfpeQtvs velocity. it it manifert (by Ax.intities of matter are equal. r The quantities R O all P. Tlic magnitude the cube of the diameter. Cor. if the magnitudes be equal. the matter will be as the denfities. 2. quantities of matter in all bodies are in the complicate ratio cf their magnitudes and dcnfiiies. And if the qu. 5. I. general laivs o/ MOT O I I. all the In any fart of motion.fi: gravities. are in the complicate ratio cf the quantities of matter and tire velocities. are as the denand cubes of their like dimeifionsy in a fpbere. in moving bodies zilatez'er. FO R Cor. 77j^ I. the quantities of matter in fimilar bodies. by A. 40 that the quantities of motion will be as the quantities of matter. the motions will be as the velocities. For if the velocities are equal. N.x. And if the denfitics be equal.^^^ ^^^^^^^ [ 6 ] SECT. II. 4 For . the quantities of motion are in the compound ratio of the velocities and quantities of matter. the matter will be as the magnitudes. Cor.

Cor.) as the Prop. the fpace will be 'J heretore if neither be the velocity. the motion of the whole will be the lum of the motions of all th» parts. the force is as the motion. — velociiy generated in b. And if the time be given. will generate double the motion . a double quantity of torce. The fpace defcribed is as the force and time direSlyy and quantity of mailer reciprocally. ::z. is ^he motion generated by any momentary it. ei?^. and matter reciprocally. if the velocity be given. is as the fpace direSlly and velocity reciprocally. that is. Cor. force diredlly and . matter and velocity therefore the velocity is as the -. For by this 11. For it is evident. as the force that For if a certain quantify of force generates any motion. will be as the time of its moving. S*C Let HO L I U M. triple the motion. the fpace delcribtd will be greater or lefs. and a triple Jorce. 1. generates IV. PROP. and therefore as the time and torce dircdly. — lime of defcribing the fpace with the velocity v. — fpace defcribed by the body b. HI. and fo on.) the fpace is as the time and velocity. the fpace defcribed by any bod'y. that is (by Prop. Ifj III. the fpace will be as given. Then . force of tmpv. according as the velocity is greater or lefs .lfe aBing on the body b. s momentum cr quatuiiy of motion generated in h. GENERAL LA VV S. 7 For the quantity of motion of any particle is as that particle multiplied by its velocity: And as each particle of the fame body moves with equal velocity.Sea.. all uniform motions.:i3tier reciprocally. force. Alio (by Prop. m = V s t f b zz b:d] or quantity of matter to be moved. in the compound The time ratio of both the time and velocity. the /pace defer ibed is in the complicate ratio of the time and velocity. PROP.

therefore the mofame. ft oc— oc— cc-oc— V v in PROP. J c m o: Qi:. I. the tion generated motion generated is in the compound ratio of both the force and the time of afting. we fhall have m ct bv. upon And thence all the laws and proportions beall fuppofitions. and / ot '" By the help ot tliclc three general proportions. . and time.• GENERAL LAWS the three laft Props. is£q!:ally true it: refpcH to tbe mcticn Icji or a moving lody^ by a force aiiitig in a contrary direiJioM. For in -. this being its natural and And fince in all the feveral parts of time. may be readily and univcrUlly relolvcd lixpunging luch as arc not concerned in the quclhon . the motion cenerated will be proportional to the force that generates it. By Ax. and alio thofc that are in both terms of the proportion. 12. oc — f -7- J mt s s . the relation of the Ipaces. bv l>v cc — / w s f cc cc — tf <x IV tm cc s t — b sb in ex T— b b V f m cc -r cc — f a ^• sb oc b oc — s :. s <x tv. Thus we (hall get in : general. : Cor. i:ic. Then by longing to uniform motion. times. and rejefting all thole that arc given orconllant . In any motictt. velocities. is in the complicate ratio »f tbe force any given time. Cor. the genuine effect. V. may be found. dejlrcyed in This Prop. and has the fame efficacy force is the will alfo be as the time whence univerfally. genirated by a uniformly accelerating force: the tn:~ ticn generated in any time.

2. the fum of all the produ(5ts. The increafe or decrecfe of any velocity. 4. the fpace defcribed from the beginning of the motion. divided into 1/ the fpace thro* which a body is moved by atiy force^ he ati indefinite number of/mall equal parts . Cor. force in each part multiplied by the time ofpoffmg through it. I. is in the complicate ratio of the lafl velocity^ and the time wherein it is generated. i. And let c be the velocity generated at the end of the time i . and the quantity cf tnatter reciprocally. and if. Cor. in the times o. each of which call i. Yot (by this Frop.4 Prop /. And if there he taken the produSl of the accelerating Then. according to any certain law. is as the and lime direSlly. II. 4f And by . Cor. that is. For (by Prop. gr. VI. to M. firoyed in any time reciprocally. the accelcrative force a^s differently upon the body. by the fame force. and the velocity j . In any motion gemrated by a uniform accelerative force . the velocity generated in the fame body. compofuion.: Sea. 2. .me directly. 3. therefore the velocity is as the motion direcftly and the matter reciprocally. Ifay.) as the force and time direfSly. 3. 3. the fpaces defcribed in each given part of time. generated or de. and the matter reciprocally. 4 to t. For fiippofe the time divided into an infinite number of equal parts. C and . and the matter This follows from Cor. becaufe all effecfls are proportional P R O P.) the quantity of motion is as the matter and velocity . 2c.f. is alfo as FT. oF M O T I O N. As any uniform accelerative force X by the To the motion generated in that time (M) time of aEling : : {FT) So the fan of ail the produHs of each particular force and time : To the motion generated in this whole time. 3. will be as the time (j).willjbe refpecStivelyo. to the whole motion M generated . (by this Prop. by the variable force. then by Cor. 2. and let the times from the beginning be c. is as the force and t-. in each part. j the time of defcribing any part x by the therefore by force: motion generated in that time :: FxT. 2. force The velocity generated {or defrayed) in any time. of the laft Prop. to tc. to their caufes. III. i.

jf . tor here the Ipaccs delcribed in the Icvcral I'mall parts of &c. will be ic. . GENERAL LAWS therefore (ucn thcf-: fpaccs is will be o. dcfcnbed by theaccckrjtip^ And the . and the zc. is as {tc X /) velocity and If a body moves uniformly forward "with the velocify ncqnrrtd by a loiijorm ucceUrativcfc/rc! . tc. or both. Cor. 2f. . . will refolve all queftions relating to the times. II. m « Fty in uniformly accelerated motions. b. s :=: fpace defcribed by — time of defcribing the fpace the two laft propofuions together with Prop. =. But the fum of the arithmrtic projrcflion. Then and s a (v. S C H O L.. accekrative force ailing uniformly and equally on the m t body b. o. velocities. r. to / terms whole fum h tc x t' time. =! motion generated in b. tc fum ot the former Ipaces. into motion Since . force. number or terms is vrry tc where the . it-v^'Ul dcfcrtbe twice ibe fpsce in the fame or an equal time. . that it dtfcribed by the accelerative force.. and the / the whole time. cr preffure.but 2 a U is the laft velocity. idc. . but /c x tc / is to —x 2 is /. &c. any aSlive force therefore the adet^uale is an endeavour of putting a Iccly and immediate effeSt of an axi' hating force either motion. > JO and ihc 3f. V bv s — t VI ex. (X Ft. . as z to i Cor. 2. I . velocity generated in b by the force F. therefore the whole fpace time conjundlly. whence we have in general. h cc —. ^c . body. —— » or . Thus m a bv. V 3 cK /Fs Ft — o:—-ccv^--oc m b i & bvv OC /V OC —^ h Ftt OC t-. tc. forces. was tc —X 2 /. of all rhcfc the whole Ip. V body or quantity of matter.icc dclcribed by c. Let b — F =. s. or — X/. greac ^Iztiix/. &c.

Let the body be carried through AB. then. b^ Sec. whether the force in direftion AC be impreffed or not Therefore. the fpacc defcribed will be as the time and velocity. and therefore the velocity will be as the Ipace C 2 directly . the diagonal of the parallelogram ABDC. by Ax. if F ^ F ^ bvv s -. bv ybs II . in dire£lion AB. AC. Let the forces at A caufe the body to move uniformly along AB. be moved through the AD. I. and another fimilar force pafs oRing in direction AC. Then fince the force afting in direftion AC parallel to BD. Suppofe the line AC to move parallel to itfelf into the place BD. by both forces acting tagether. -would move it through the ff ace AC in the fame time: fpact I fay. : Otherwife. body are both equally Therefore when. II.^^C mull: be always in the moveable line AC. be given fuch quantities muft be left ouc PROP. let the body be arrived at d . VI. Sed. it will be found Ibmewhere in BD. it will be found fomewhere in the line CD . A VII. will not alter the velocity towards the line BD . therefore it will he as Ab: Id :: AB BD. 2. AC by an accelerative Then by Prop. V „ Whence. s ofMOTION. whilll A moves from A to C. bv t ^ bs tt m. fince both the line AC moves uniformly along AB. Case tTie lines I. 1. it is plain the body AdD is a right line Case force. m P m t ^ FIG. at the end of the time. in their proper ' dire^ions.. in the fame time. therefore it will be found in D the point of interfcdion i and by Ax. By the fame argument. therefore : Then fince this line and the moved towards BD. it will move in a right line from A to D. the body will. and the body A along AC. the body therefore will arrive at BD in the fame time. comes to the pofition bg. caufe the body to If any force a5iing on a body at through thefpace AB in any time.

Prop. AC. and in tkeje d:ric- the time and the quantity of matter dircdly as the Ipace delcribed.ihe body is givrn. AC is (qitlvahnt to the Jingle AD. 4. and AiD is- ftiU a right line for any fimilar forces. the velocity is as the timr. And if any nrx motion be imprejjcd en a bcdy A ^ . and in For by Cor. MADH line. AM -. AC. and alio faid. irj by an acccthe fame time that it would be carried through by botli forces afting together. Cor. and in the time /. nuiy be refo'. fronn wha: has been the body at J. V. when and time re vprocally. Cor. in the direSiicns tincsy AB. 3. diretl force The two oblique forces AB. alw. crt refptt^ iively proportional to the ticns.iys paralUi to iticlf'. it will Hill be. by draw- ing the diagonal of the paralUlcgram AD. y/R or /ifC be i . at the then lerarive force end of that time. That is. oblique forces Any jingle dircH force AD. i'd.. it will. the force ami Whence tlic time will be as the i^acc dircdUjr and VMic reciprocally. the force is being given Prop. body being agitated by two forces at once. AC. Cor. by Prop. 3. as it would do if the two forces were to ail ftparatily andfutcejftvely. BD : bd. the larrc boiiy aded on by the lame force will defcnbc fpaces wh ch are Now let the rime of defer. The forces.-IB : Jb y. whence AB And if you fiippoic the ipace to be as the »th power of the : : time. AD. V. it ilireiflly : : a : Ab \\ BD bd.IS y I G E N E R A (. 2. Case C. bing as the fquarcs of the times. Prop. AB.. 'xbich may be ccmpounded of tkefe two. L A VV S I. of the parallelogram but then the Ime ic defcnbes AGH^ will not be a right. 3. accelerated motion. i tt w bg or BD: is as i // :: ^B Ab. IV. AD . Ice it arrive at i^. the fame is true. I. moving towards^. r. will pcfs through the fame point. . having the by defcnbing any parallelogram whcfe diagonal is fame effeH j AD. and tlic fpacc as the Iquarc of the time. And .ved into the /wa wbofe quantities and directions are AB. therefore AdD is a right line. HI. Cor. be found in the point H. i : /" :: . t'. anJ let the line //Cmovc along wich th' body. Ccr. Butif thebody/1? be carried throughy/D by a uniform force. and Then. Alio by Cor. VI.

* body -ilreaJy in motion. a fling againfl one direSlions are all in cne plane 3. put therefore. If there he never fo many forces ailing againfi any point in and keep one another in equilibrio . B. and whcfe of the fame kind. CD. C another. ID be two forces. DI inftead of DC. to the Cor. keep one they may be all reduced to . DJ. DI is equal to its oppofite force A. Therefore by Ax. direSlions AB. at the point D. and And by the laft Prop. 1 1. as the three fides of rallel to their lines a triangle drawn pa- of direElion. PROP. thefe forces will be to each other refpeclively. drawn perpendicular to their lines of direRion.DCI or CDB S. OF is M O T I O N. a^ing amther in equilibrio *. And if ever fo many forces in different planes. Therefore the three forces A. Sea. I. on the fame fide. complete the parallelogram DICH : DH Cor. the force DC is equivalent to the two forces DII. 3. S. the forces DH.CHD or HD/or ADB. or in For fuch a triangle will any given angle to them. Jjet there be three forces viir. Hence the forces A. to its former direSiicn. draw AR to the middle of the right line thefe. BD. AC. I. and all the forces will ftill be in equilibrio. B. aUion of three. i 13 g. be fimilar to the former triangle* Cor. and manner A and B may be reduced to a fingie Cor. B. CI.CDI or CDA S. The three forces ABC will he to each other as the fines of the angles through which their re[pe£iive lines ef direviion do pafs. DI. and or C/ equal to its oppofite force B.. or even of two equal and oppnfue ones. and produce AD. refpe£}ively is the force does not alter its motion in lines parallel f If two forces as /IB.DCI or CD A.C are refpeBively as the three ftdes cf a triangle. Cor. 2 2. if HD. : : : sne plane. and AR. a£l in the . they may be all reduced For force force. and if they keep one another in equiiiirio. 2. when produced : For DI:CI: And CI:CD : : S. they are equivalent to the fingie in like DC. 4. C are refpedtively as DI. Let DC reprefent the force C. 5. compounded out of and AR its direSlion. againfl one point. AC. CD. BC. A. CI.

and the force . the one perprndivular. their proportions are one force be g:vrn. . Let the body C and the obrtade 0. and all be given but two. DB DB DB DB if the furface be perfectly Imooth and void of tenacity. an infinite num' cr of ways. The force will DB therefore having no eficft. 5. Vil. kind. holds true ofall forces whatever. the force C may be divided into other two. to . though the pofitions of them PROP. //. Hence had . aft againft l^ct tlic the point D j //. tKeri are rc- ductd to the force C. And if four forces aft. anions of fevtral forcet in one pLne. but if only one be given. occafioned by the prcfiure of B againft it by the force EB .li move the take away the obftacle O. and confequent]y the four forces /I. theic and if two may be found allbecivcn. the •. eigainjl another lady. with no other efFeft than what arilcs from the friftion of B againft that luriacc.from moving divide the force JB into the two forces uiD. the reft may be found.ftion AB. D • : otherwife not. AE . furface whereon Let the body B be afted on by the force AB in the dir. /. the other two may be found .. tui equal and oppoftle ones. /. and the obftacle O the parallel force w. by Cor. Prop. hinder tlie body P. whereby the body B aft« againil . ^' For and if B. I. the remain- ing force EB be the only one. -. S C II O Tliis Prop. which. ^ (. I'C be the forces //. by drawing any parallelogram DICH about the diagonal DC.. if three forces aft in one plane. Jfone bcdy aHs it IX. common /. will be nothing. for in the three forces. By C. inflantancoiis or continue whether of imor whether provided they be all of t!ie fame pulling. fcc'^ion of the ADB.14. thrulling. G E N E R A fo the r. IIIJI. And in general if there be any number of forces afting at D. body 5 in a direftion parallel to the furface. in the plane JDU. prclTin):^ •. be out ot the plane planes AHD. A. the red cannot be found . L A W ?. receives then the furface other parallel to the furface the perpendicular force EB. or EBy DB. by any kind offeree whatrjtr^ exerts that force in the dire£lion of a line perpendicuhr to the it aSis. and two be given. pulle or pcrculFion.

3. For if the angle ADD : Cor. angle city If a given hody B Jlrike nncther body C obliquely. the ABB Or the magnitude of the ttrokeis as the velociiy wherewith the body approaches the plane. therefore the velocity in diredion BE is the fame after as before the firoke. then in the two fimilar and equal triangles AEB. If a perfectly at B. But fince no bodies in nature are perfedly elaftic. a ceives that firoke in the direction JBD EB perpendicular to the furface DB. < be given. 4« JBD. ftroke For the motion imprefitd on the body that receives the is equal to the magnitude of the ftroke. Let AE. and ED -. And the fame motion by Ax. in the fame time they lofe it by the ftroke . 3. their figure. and that in diredion EB perpendicular F I G.^ relative velocity. ^5 againft the furface to it. locity For the magnitude of the ftroke is as the line B£. Cor. bcdy CB fleilion "Will be reflected from it^fo that the angle of rebe equal to the angle of incidence. the (Iroke will be greater in if the velocity AB be given. X. DBF Cor. And in any bodies whatever. DB. it "jjill e!^Jlic body A impinges on a hard or elafiic r. * OF M O T I O N. Qor.. is equal to the motion loft in the ttriking body. proportion to the velocity . or the vewherewith the bodies approach each other i that is.. and Itroke will be as JD. I. BE reprrfent the velocities before the ftroke. or S.- . If one given body impinges upon another given body . 4. the magnitude of the jiroke will be as the motion loft by tbeflriking body. For the motion at B parallel to the furface is not at all changed And becaufe the bodies are elaftic they recover by the ftroke.Scdl. BEDy < ABE is equal to EBD. at any the magnitude of the fir eke wU' be directly the veloand the body C reand the fine cf the angle of incidence . (zr AE) and BE the refpetftive velocities after the ftroke . as the . they are and therefore the fomething longiT of regaining their figure angle will be fomething more acute than ihe<ABG. Cor. 2. the magnitude of the jiroke will be as the relative velociiy between the bodies. if a body in motion firike agatnji another.

by impulfe or any fort of finite lorcc Kor when we confider that the parts of the body whatever. there be required fome time for the yielding parts to be moved through a certain fpace into this new pofition. but claftic bodies recede velocity they with the meet with. So that it is plain and the lefs the time. and the whole effeft imputed to the force only. A L L A-^^ S ^'"' 5' lofcs ^ Umc nonelafiic body Jlrikin/r anolherncndaflic body. upon this account the time is entirely let afide. the two bodies are adling upon each other with a certain accelerative force. pffffxgt i^c.i6 f I G E N E R o. j. that if one body . that this is an efFetft produced in time the greater the force . the fame in different bodies. on which they impinge. it aft more ftrongly upon the fmall part of the body upon which . and if. tor it a fmall body with a great velocity impinge upon another body . yet in mathcn-. confidcred as a certain quanthe Though is momentum dilVm^it body. by Jlriking. tity which will yield to the ftroke. A?fo. S C H O L. 6. which is the effeA of their natural impulie.atical ftriftnefs it is abfolutely impoffible that any motion can be generated in an inftant. city. Now duri-g this time. by realon of its great velo. a quite of force proportional to the motion it generates in the other body. the other re acls upon this in the dircQ'ttu By Ax. Ucttce alfo it follows. and if the time be infinitely fmall. non claftic bodies only llop. h. upon account of the very fmall time it is performed in. fo that it cannot be brought to any calculation . although the mot'ion generated by the impulfc of another body is confidifred as generated in an inftant. or quanti'y of motion in a moving thing from the force that generates it j yet when it ftrilcps another body and puts it into motion. aSs upon another^ Cor. which in that time generates that motion. it may with refpcdl to that other body.ijtic. are forced into a new fKjfiiion . of a line perpaidicklar to the furfact vibircon ihiy a£i. only p"or thf half as much luoticn as if the bodies W'-refcrfttily tl. which is impolTiblc. the force ought to be infinitclv great. which is therefore fuppoled to adt but for a mom-nt. 'Ihe quantity of motion in bodies has been proved to be as But the momentum or the velocity and quantity of tratter. and quantity of motion may be yet may have very different effrCis upon other bodies. But by reafon that this effedt is produced in fo fmall a time as to be utterly imperceptible.

the part ftruck will communicate the motion to the reft of the body. I. by this vigorous acthat body whilfl. Therefore. I O N. and in contrary diredions . o F M O T . fo that the fum of the motions will fiill remain the fame. gun will only jump a little againft him that difcharges it. bodies in any one line of direEiion. little or no motion is communicated to But if a great body with a fmall velocity the reft of the body. fame part. or motions towards the . the momentum of the bullet and piece are equal. and the . which it impinges. will. therefore (bv Ax. ttrike another body. be changed by any upon each other. and confequently their fum is the fame as before. Thefum of tie motions of any two towards the fame pcirt^ cannot bodies X. &c. 2. "iX: Here I efteem progrefTive motions. Case direftly. by reafon of the very tion. And if the bodies do not ftrike each other. Thus if a bullet be fhot out of a gun. and the whole body will be moved together.) are equal and contrary. yet ftiil. but the bullet will (hoot through a board. affirmative and regreffivc ones^ negative. and this aiftion and re-adion is the very force by which the new motions are generated in the bodies . or the bodies exert aniorg themfehes. than the force of cohefion of the parts of f then the part afted on. be ieparated from the reft fmall time of adting. repullion. Let two bodies move the fame way. are more proper to and great bodies with fmall velocity. 3. and ftrike one another' Now. I. fince adion and re adion arc equal and contrary. tl'iore will be induced an equal change in the motion of the bodies. attradion. fmall bodies with great velocity. i I 7 g. aSiion of the bat ever forces thefe anions are caitfed by. and if by reafon of its flow motion it does not aft fo vigoroudy as to exceed the force of cohefion. : PROP.) there will be produced equal changes towards contrary parts And therefore whatever quantity of motion is gained by the preceding body will be loft by the following one . but are fuppofed to ad any other way. fince adion and re-adlion (by Ax. as by prefliire. : D Case . to (hake or tear in pieces move the whole.Sect.

or directed the fame way . . in that line ot dircdion. "wkatever forces thefe bodies exert upon each cthir-^ Cor. and their fum the fame as before. And fince the bodies do not a£t upon each diredion parallel to the rtrikinj furface-. And thus a man may put feveral bodies into motion with his hands. fum of the motion of each. and the fame line of direSlion. As fuppcfe two equal non-elaflic bodies.) thry aft upon cjch other in a direction pcrpcndi' ular to the lurfacc in which they ftrikc i the adtion and rc-aflion in that dirciilion being equal and contrary j the fum of the motions. But in the fenfe of this Prop. And if the bodies adt upon one another by any other forces whatever. the tame way.e of dircftion whatever. then before meeting the motions is M+Al. iive. therefore And therefore univerfally the fum of the motions will remain the fame. to meet one another with equal velocities. th<rn fince IVop. efiimated in one regreffive motions negative.— GENERAL LAWS F [ C. then the quantity Ifyou reckon the motions in all direSJions to be affirma~ cf motion way be increafed or decrecfd an infinite number of mays. and always the fame way. which had no motion before . one line of dire^ion. becaufe they move contrary ways. Bui. taken the fame li-ay. confidcred in any one lir. they will both Jiop atid lofe Cor. And thereforcy The fum of the motions cf all the bodies in the wcrld. A)id therefore. 2 . and that in as many feveral directions as he let For M be their M M will. and the Cor. remains alu-ayy the fame. is eternally and invariably the fame . is the fum of the motions before they meet. which is o i and it is the fame after they meet. muft (by the remain the fame as before. flill (by Ax. and after their meeting. and 3. efleeming thefe mcttcns affirm n five which are progreffive. to ftrikc each other obliquely . there is induced no change of motion in that direction. 2. Case Suppofe the bodies lall H. 2all their motions. otl^cr in a 1 7 he fum of the motions of any fyflem or number of io.) the changes of motion wiil be equal and contrary. . it is o.iii r. in this fenfe motion can neither be increafed nor diminifjed. 6 PROP. in any tfieeniing contrary motions to he negative.

3. i^c. PROP. For if move uniformly with the fame velocity that line. now as there is no force continue in it as it to carry the body out of alter the motion of the body before . or moves uniformly forward. i. and there be equally imprefled. Likewife. a body be moving in any right line. they both line in any direflion. IX. F I 19 G. which wiih tnem fignifies only a felicitation to motion. the difference of the real velocities the fame way. of bodies moving in feveral direftions. the motions of any number it as before. being (by Cor. And according to this. Prop. The motions of bodies included themfelves .Se(ft. will ftill continue the and their motions among themfelves will be the fame. they find. that the force {ov vis viva) to overcome any number of fprmgs. fame whether that fpace be at reft. it will (by Ax. different ways) remain the fame. muft S Before C H O L. certain -.) remain the fame in both cafes. ftill •. that it is hard to know what they mean by it. fince the relative velocities of bodies. gravity. (that is. vis viva. concerning this vis viva they talk fo obfcurely. in a given fpace^ are the fame among whether that fpace is at refl^ or moves uniformly forward in a right line. So that the vis viva is the total eft'ed: of a body in motion. or their fum.) ftill continue to move in For the fame reafon. 3. whether that fpace be at reft. and as there is no force to in the right line-. both upon the body and the right any force And in conlequence of this.) as the relative velocities. or break whether it be a longer or fliorcer time in bending them. will always be as the body multiplied by the fquare of the ve\ locity. thty itrm a faculty of aBing. coHifions. or it and the bodies move uniformly forward all together. Therefore their mutual impulfes. o F M O T I O N. afting till its motion be all fpent. I end this fedlion. and aftions upon one another. XI. But they meafure its quantity by the number of fprings which a moving body can bend to the fame degree of tenfion. inch as prefTure. I. it may not be amifs to mention a This kind of force. . muft (by Ax. and diftinguifh it from the vis viorttia. called by the foreigners. D 2 Suppofe .

obfcure itfelf. going Prop. by a bo^'y meeting with a given refinance . this law of the vis this does not happen And fince it fails in fo many cafes. as the whole time of their adhng i apil confequently the rcfnlincc is And fince the rcfiftance is uniform. fpace paflcd over. "^oppofe any equal dilbnccs number of equal and fimilar fprinps [>laced at a. in a rigbt linc^ iamc of r.bcr of And upon ti.. will be as the iquarc whatever be the law of the rcfillancc of any \ I-'or. L A and. but.:y loft uniform. the vclo. and therefore the nun.. in the common mechanics. -. in this refpeiit. and in fuch cafes. the confervation of the vis viva can only take place when the bodies But as there are no bodies to be found arc perfectly elallic.. Likewife. This notion of the jiilz. and is io viva muft fail. .tnuci) the lei's tm^e has any fprinp. Ltib' believed that every particle of matter was endued with a living foul.. it ought to be weeded out. and not to pafs for a principle in mechanics. W 6.ll thofc Iprlngs then the body be moved in the number of fpringv break bttorc it Hop. Now it fecms to be a neceflary property of the "Jts viva. it appears. count ihcy meafure the force of a body in motion. by the iquarc So at bll the -jis viva fcems to be tlic total of the velocity. whence the fpace. which I'pacc is always as the fquare of tlie velocity. And this comes to the fame thing as tbc force and time togetlier. who vis viva was firft introduced by M. Oc. if bodies in motion impinge on one another. from the forefpring in the leveral parts of its tenfion.^ acfprinjis. that is as the Ipace directly and velocity reciprocally . r. in nature which arc fo. it muft whicli that its body will velocity : •. to adl agamd it (o dcltroy its motion And iliercforc the motion dellroycd by one firing wjU be as the time of its aiftiug v and by leveral fprings. will be as the time. this law will never hold good in the motion of bodies after impulfe . SECT. that the Iwiftcr the body moves. is as the (quare of t&c velocity.20 F I GENKR A G. eternally fail. tha^ But there are infinite cafes where the refinance is uniform. 1) .lit line agatr..

For the force of gravity will act equally on the body in any ftate whether of motion or reft. PROP. a force eqml Cor. F I e. and the matter reciprocally.[ 21 ] SECT. V. 3. then (by Ax 9. i. Tl^e II. the force of gravity 3. is XII. And therefore (by Ax. Prop. in free fpace. Therefore if a body is projedted direflly upwards or downwards. 10. and it is the fame thing as if the body was a£ted on by no force at all. as required to keep the a body in any uniform it fufpendedy or at is fufficieni And to if a body defcends uniformly. by Cor. But if a body be moved upwards with an accelerated -motion . 5. of falling bodies are as the times of their falling from vity. But by Ax. The velocities reft.) thefe two forces deftroy each other's effedts . therefore. its fame force that is hinder acceleration in defcending. XIII.). to keep requiJJte is motion^ direSlly upwards. PROP. laws cf gravity^ the defcent of heavy Bodies^ and the ?notioii of proje&iles. the velocity is as the force and time diredtiy. The fame quantity of force red. to its gravity were applied diredtly upwards . the force i . equal to the weight of it. the force to caufe that motion will be greater than its weight j and that in proportion to its acceleration {by Ax. uniformly afted on by gradownwards .) it would retain its uniform motion. If therefore of gravity that draws it down. the For by Populate which is body is its accelerating force is 4 . by Ax. with any degree of velocity it would for ever retain its velocity if it were not for -.

viff. 4. Cor. then the fptees defcribed by a falling body. or as 3. '" ciny lime-. -2 F I LAWSofGRAVITY. 7. gain equal velocitiet in equal times. For by Poftul. idc. Prop. an equal time ly Ax. If a body be projected upwards with the velocity it it ac- quired by motion. will defer: be twice that fpace in the time of us fall. in the fame time. wiil be as lie odd numbers.idc. the fpacc defcribed is as the time and But by the lalt Prop. defer ibed by falling bodies are as the fquares of the limes of their falling from refl. the fpaces defcribed will as rheir fquares i. f^ba lever vekcity a falling body gains he thrown direHly upivards. fdllinj. gravity is a uniformly accelerating force j by Prop. will. i. in any time. 4. ^11 bodies falling by I heir own weight. I. Icfe all its Hence alfo. of matter •. 5. 2. PROP. it will lofe as much Cor. 2. 3. Ccr. 6. 3. 16. 9.. . and canfcqucntly. the velocity will be Cor. Taking any equal parts of time. 9. Cor. 3. Thefpaces -f defcribed by falling bodies are alfo as the fquares is of the fallen. 4. the time is as the velocity velocity. 2. or in thefc equal parts of time the Ipaccs i. Ccr. in each Juccelfwe part of lime. // body moving with the velocity acquired hy falling through any fpace. And therefore. defcribed. 1. Bodies thrown upwards lofe equal velocities in equal times. will be as the differences of the fquares. c. 3. and therefore the fpace defcribed is as the fquare of the therefore time. 12. VI. And therefore . Cor. velocities or the velocity as the fquare root of the height Cor. For be in the times 1. r. if in it . By Cor. in the dif- ferences of the times. iJ. The fpaces XIV. j.. is as the quantity as the time.

but bccaufe bodies are a air. 7. Cor. but in an inverfe order . that the velocity acquired will alfo be as the height. ir. will be known by the foregoing propofitions and the contrary. by Cor. and 4. 2. F I \ 23 G. where there der the motion . Prop. 4. Thefe in a lecond -. and falls with a lefs velocity . will be fomething longer in del'cending than in afcending. v. (reckoning from the laft moment of the 1 herefore. and a body projefted upwards. LAWSoF GRAVITY. both in rijing anJfa'li>!g. c. By Cor. He7ice alfo all bodies from equal altitudes dffcend to the furface of the earth in equal times. If a body be projeSled upwards with the velocity it acit will. 1. with fame velocity undiminifhed. lull. or as tkefquares of the times of their afc ending. For in defcending bodies the fpaces defcended are the fquares of the laft velocities. is no refiilance to hin- little refifted by the defcended bodies will be a little longer in falling. of the laft Prop equal velocities will be gained eqnal times. or in given time will be equal. which being known. in the fame time. 4. but thefe errors are fo fmall. known by experiments. or . Cor. in the fame time. would defcribe twice the fpace of whole afcent. the velocities will be equal. the fpaces afcended will be equal to thofe defcended. propofitions are exacflly true. and will have the fame velocity at every point of the line dtfaibed. and the velocities acquired. and the wholes equal. the its If a body is projeHed upwards with any it velocity. 6. Cor. that in molt eaks ihey may lafely be neglcfted. 2*. quired in falling. And by Cor. S It is C HO L. and acquires a velocity which will carry it over 32-^ feet in a fecond . of time. it fell Cor. fince at the fcveral correfpondcnt poincs dcicent).Sed. 5. it may be computed (by Cor. the fpaces defcribed in any other times. will not afcend quite to the fame height . If the force by which a body is accelerated in falling was direftly as the height fallen from . 3. the fpaces dcfcribed in any For by Cor.fcend to the fame height from and defcribe equal fpaces in equal times. and confequently a body proj-fted upwards with the velocity it falls with. the of their afcent will be as the fquares of the velocities. heights If bodies be projeSled upwards with any velocities.. that a heavy body falls 16-1-V feet of time.

may be known. the forces PROP.hich th-v arc proThis being compared with Cor. DH\ which ere as the fquares cf the times they are dei'cribed in. it docs not affeift the motion in dircdion AD . LG. &c. &c.24 F 1 LAWS C. but generates a motion So that the body. Af-G the curve deand let AB. &:c. if the body were without gravity. by the of the ordinaies KF'-./A/. LG'-. AC. And therefore if or the fpacc dcicribcd diredly as the velocity. and the fpacts defer. o I GRAVITY. Sec. and defcribe the lines AB. and is aded upon by which neither ot a given quantity. Let AD •. and complete the parallelograms. they would in this ca. then by Ax. G. but between them -. BF. If a body le projcHcd either parallel direcJion. will delcend through the fpaces BF. Therefore the parts of the axis of the curve. the curve AFG is a parabola. &:c.) that is as the fquares of tlie lines. 6. to XV. and the law of its refinance will be found. iLe horizon. be all equal . BC. and BF. heights which are between velocities. But AB. . are refpcdivcly as the fquares And therefore. AM. Now fince gravity ads in lines perpendicular to the horizon. perpendicular to the horizon . inllead of being a: By C. CD. CG. forces being given. cr in any tilioue by its motion. /fF. from the Soiiccvcrfn. AC.-IG. meafured \ the conftitution of that body. i. CG. AD are equal to KF. AK. AL. AB. AD. {rom that relation being given.'e afccnd jefted. it would move on in the line JD . BC. equal to AK. CG. draw . 6cc. bodies were projected upwards. &c. Buc in the time of defcribing AB. CD. 7. . is to heights. which are as the velocities with v. AM. XIV. D. AL. &c. MIF. will at the fame points of time be at F. by the force of gravity. in equal times. 5. conic fedions. it •will. oof the And lation as thefc propofitions le. AH.-'. of the lail Prop. nor in ])roportion to the diflancc of the body from the top of the afthat thcfe bodies will then afcend to cenr. (by Prop. H. it calV to conclude that a force bodies prcjcdlcd upwards. defcribe a partLola. tlic fimple and duplicate rat. bed within that body. in dircdion AM. fcribed MH\ Or.vl us to the knowledge of the re- between the velocities and fpaccs dcfcnbct'. Whence if bodies are projcftrd wirh any velocities into a refilling medium. AC. DH. DH. AD^ the body. be the diret'lion of the motion.

Bb' perpendicular to AM. and the velocity AB At > At in the curve .. which parallel motion remains the lame as before. what- tver their elevations be.- ''. Prop.:eter belonging to * at point through of the principal latus reSlum + the to thai point. zz Ccr. in of direBion AD is a tangent (0 the curve in fig. a-bfciffet theparar. Sedl. The velocity at any point i of the curve is the fame that is t/. that is. Therefore AMot AI zz^ parameter PROP.) but in the fame time. then- AB its AO When the body comes to the motion is then parairel to the horizon. 3. . will he /AI (by Cor 3.= ' j^/lM^ AM or i^AM. Therefore it defcribes the fame parabola. Cor. u-hich is the fan. the body will defcend through an equal fpace DH. is the fccan: of the angle of elevation OAB. 7* And the the latus retJum to the point Ais Ak is or BF . equal io AO. : Cor. For if be the velocity and diredlion of tbeprojedtile. If the horizontal velocities ofprojeHiles be the fame. vertex G. I'lie line 2^ A. G with the velocity AO parallel to the horizon. by the fame force of gravity. AD or MR zz iDH or lAM .. 2. 11. as a body proj^dtcd from is the horizontal velocity. Cor. and G the vertex. 4. e. For then ' RF — ' AP'- . but the parameter = AM -. Ifct 1 be the fpace fallen through to acquire the velocity then the fpace yfD defcribed in the fame time •with that velocity in diredtion AV. For the horizontal velocity is the fan^eat 3II points of the AO curve . acquired by falling through er. / . I. XIV.. And olSiu: pvojeSliorty the parameter Juppojing AOP ^. therefore For I A in any point as yi. they will defer ibe the fame parabola. PROJECTILES. "The velocity of a proje5lile in any point of the curve ^ is as thefecant of the angle of its dire3io>i above the horizon.

or amplitude.nd ^JL=Y^.26 PIC. =! dcjccnt of a body by gravity in the fame time.. PROP." J ^ i i:' z'' . are as thefquares of the fines of elevation. If Then by 'i. '.rijoj!o. '• and thefquares of the velocities i or as tie verfed douFffd angles Jf elevatimi..' And therefore x or ?/. Tll>e XVI. LW)— ^ c cv — = " timeof dcfcribing •' y/r. — —1— JE is . S e'er.(rad. a. when the radius the right angled tfianglc JEF. And by Prop XIV.A. . horizontal dijlances of prcjenlons^ made with any 'cekciliis.J —— Al\iad ' .^£. and 2^/=:5. Whence '— .G bcithc vertex. and the carve. at any elevations. of projeffions. . \ of tV^f< (he elevation. •' coftne j D •' r r •' "iT . : :• . III. '-1— =: cf wcc as f vvJ... Therefore VE GP =z is f "^ii^f '- i$ orasi.. ' Therefore GP = ''— = —. fG£ ail equal. X :: s : — = FE. is And in trigonometry. Therefore x =. I : Ou:t: c AL::. !li — . arc as the fmts of the Atmbledanglts oj elevation^ and thefquares of the velocities J.' dnd thefquares of the veloci- For if. tO in". 2SC-=. \ — jtne •=.Aad by Prop. Nowthetim'esofdefcribing/^F. and conjuntlly.. Let V = / s meafured by the fpace \ through in time ". GP 4/ =i cCP =z 8/ i *'£. /: ing are (time) :.. PROJECTILES. fints-of the ties.'w' B. Hence f thf altitudes. t'L^VE): ''—— fquareof thetimcof dcfcribc cf VE. c of the elevation VAF. pajfes i velocity of the proje£lile it' X := yIE the horizontal difiance... ijfyr. v:(timej'i .

at the 45 degrees. time. Let h be the height of the perpendicular projeftion with the velocity v . velocity of the projeElile in A. S C O L. AV the direction of the proSA. E 2 or random. at elevations equally diftant above or below 45°. —f zz — 2/ zz a^ch — 2 Ah. — AE the oblique diftance. then will /& — — 4/" . AE be the inclined plane. 'the diftances XVII. of projections made on any inclined planes. areas the 7- and the fines of elevation.is Cor. velocities. elevation of 'The great eft random or horizontal projeSiion. and the the fquares of the velocities^ direSfly. IE perpendicular to the horizon . meajured by thefpaceit \ . II. AGE the let path of the projcclile. Time offlight -"'' . Let jectile. Altitude of the projeBion = — = 1!^ = ssh = i Bh. P RO J ECT I E S.2sjt. Cor. CP. ere in the complicate ratio of the fines of the angles which the lines of direction make with the plane and zenith. PROP. And the horizontal dijtances are equal. Whence Horizontal diftance =. c-fimofV/iS. vs X „ •— -. — — .Sea. and V =. and the coftnes fquared of the plane's elevation reciprocally. 2. . X Then . 'the times of fiighi of proje£iiles. For the time =. 3. . 27 FIG. z-fineofSdE. defcrihes in the times / s n fpace deferibed by a defending body in the fame — fine of VAE. cv J .

and zenith. r For the time is — ZX — cv =i SV — is fz as the fquare cf the time cf flight.. :: " 8- x{AE) :: z: AV c ll. . c. Space . -J : time i :: {AV) IL c : ^ = time of defcribing AB.v a . 1. and / u whence . Then by c\ f plane trigonometry. and the fquares of the coftnes of the planers elevation. 2B I I PROjECflLES. XIV. then G is the vertex of the parabola. direSily. above end belo'ju. 4. fquare of the time of c :: {VE)L- dcfcending through F£. z is Cor. "jation The times offlight are are as the velocilm andJims of eleabove the plane j and the cofims of the plant s elevation rtX. and c :x i\VE--. And Space/: time I by Prop. x or AE is as "—1-. But the times of def ribing AV. ciprocally. And the projeHicns are equal at elnations equally diflani from this line. Hence alfo the altitude For the altitude is —H. VE being equal. 3. cv :_ fc z=.. III. And by Prop. zz and the time —.. tuben the line cf direEl:on bfeBs the angle betvL'ttn the plan. in refpea of the plane AE. or _ zz i ccvv cvv fzz fc f —— — — — given quantity. The greate/i projeBion upon nn inclined plane. For \{ AP=. /ifzz Cor. The beightj above the planes. areas the fquares cf the the fquares of the fines of elevation above the plane.PE. zz Cor I. we have •'^'^^ XX zz sx xzz s L J r being . re•velccitiesy iiprocally. A For . And GP= tVE =— 4<: =:'JI^. as Cor.

holds true. moves at the rate of 324 yards in a fecond. PROJECTILES.. \id. 8. as before. 4/ Whence Length of the projeHion Height the pf'ofe^ion = :i: ££1^fzz i[£^. 1'^is Hp. fo that a ball fhot out of her. whether the proje5lions be made be inclined. JE the length of the projedion. upon a horizontal plane. the upper randoms. 'of ^— = 4fzz ZZ 7me And of flight =:7-=!i fz z^/^. JE is as ^^-^ and sc is greatefi: when s—c. If. And fupppofing the utmoft random of one of our greateftguns to be 5864 paces-. All this fuppofes that there is no refiftance of the medium.tt&. 5. or whether looth planes one inclined and the other horiaootal. or down is the planes Prop. ZZ ^it. then v 194 paces 324 yards. But it may be noted. or . And at equal diftances above and below sc is the fame. f i 29 c. For upon the fame plane. then ^£!^ Jzz whence v — z ^12. being more refifted. — — fcarce go fo far as the under randoms is . .=. SECT. therefore at and the greateft random fomething lefs elevation than 45 degrees. f — d. Cor. that by reafon of the air's refiftance. sc . S C HO L. Let h ::= herght of the perpendicular projedion then z^-Sl.

therefore by Ax. lance^ the leaver^ the III. but muft remain in equilibrio. will have the fame effeii in turning tie balance. t'i. thefe bodies cannot of themfelvcs raile one the other. another any otherwile than by means B. o^ center of motion C. . PROP. B. -. Suppofe then that any force applied at y^ puts the body^f into motion.vo XVIII. they move in a contrary direction j and jiCB is aright line. their momenta or motions will be equal. equally diflant . The properties of the mechajiical powers wheel^ \ the ba- the pulley^ the JcruCj and the wedge. applied at equal diflancis from the of motion C. then the fince the brachia of the beam CJ and CB are equal defcribed by thefe bodies will be equal. 9. B. Hence equal forces center A. Conarchrs yia. that reprefents the balance is Here /W line. fequently the velocities and quantities of matter of J. B.[ 30 ] SECT. and by means of the balance the body B . C. in which are the three points J. Bb. from the be fujpended they will be fuppofed to be a right Now the weights J. being And. cannot adl upon one of the balance AB. becaufc equal. whole fixed point is C. FIG. Cor. ABy which U ^^ ^^^ ^"^^ ^f ^ balance equal weightsare in equilibria. PROP.

(fig.) 2. Prop. 2c. 20.'- PROP- XIX. thac can any way be applied to move bodies.-:.-.' /^. Sea. 20. . the weight IV and to it at p. therefore P : therefore P x velocity of. apply a weight P to ad at the end of CP. that is : as the velocities of the weight and power. And let the leaver ff'^CP Then will the arches fVa. 10. Pb be moved into the pofition aCb. The leaver of the third fulcrum. The fourth kind is the bended leaver. or bar. Cor. 18. And fince they a£l in contrary dirediohs. be as the radii CIV. whether of metal or wood. In any fireight leaver y if the power P be to the weight W. as the C. neither of them can move the P other. infteadof thepowerP..^ 10. CP. '' power/) keep one another in equilibrio. CP : . The the firfl leavers of the fecond .- C thus will A s E II. 19. but they will remain in equilibrio. (fig. where the power P is be3.-. therefore the power P and weight IF viiW be in equilibrio. 19..'. 19. A leaver of the fecond kind is.:\ velocity of IF velocity of P -zzW X velocity of IF. (fig. apply Then by Cafe 1. and (by Cor. therefore by Ax.) kind is. 9. that where the fulcrum is between the weight and the power. 12.- . any inflexible beam..) the weight p and power P will have the lame cfl^ccl in turning the leaver about its center. •• "^.) is A leaver * - C A sz[^. Whence fince P IV ::• : CIV . There are four kinds of leavers 1.4 •\a^<^»-v. 10. . Confequently the momenta or mo-"' tions of P and IF arc equal. where the weight is betweenthe fulcrum and the power.CP. dicularly on the leaver) will be in cquilibrio. (fig. to the diflance of the difiance of the weight from the fulcrum the power and weight (a£!ing perpenpower from the fulcrum . 12.) tween the weight and the 4. A leaver of the firft kind is. ftaff. a weight equal and third kind may be reduced to make Cp=.liL • MECHANICAL POWERS. v. and inftead of the power/". Intheleaver of the firft kind ?^CP. &c.c\ 31 FIG.

then thty wtlL be in equi'" ' in^ 1. and Fig. or ari axis or whelter iht AH . re£lien. 14. C iuttains the difference of the weights. "^ perpendiculars to the axis Ab . and both together moveable about two eenters A. WCxS.P. 5. (V. Cor. and prejfure upon tbt is as the dijlance of the other tzoc. angle Or thty 'jti. then of thcfe three the pswir.therefore the preflure will bcH'P. »o. c. tcr of motion^ they vtjiU he in equilibria. E PC.J}. For if CP reprefcnt the weight //''. then C/K*will reprefent th<* power P. lie. In any fort of leaver JVCP. of its line Cor. C lulUins both the weights. . -.P-CE. DfrC—P X PC x S. and be always reciproeally as tbefe dif' leaver be fixed to the axis tances librio. and PCx S. if any force Ik applied. tffeoi in titnce Hence umverfally. it is the faaie thing whether rhcy aft at E and D. 3. 11' x IVCx S. is as the force X hy its di/kincefrsfB the cenip\ and bcf thejine c/t heangle of its direEiou. 4. andpcxer are ' in and a5i pcrpendicurur'y on the leaver^ cr in parallel direc- tions .W=DC. z^ MECHANICAL . or whatever form the leavers have . PROP. an'. and by Ax. . 20. 19. tltere he drawn lines to the cer>t*r C. and the of its diS. Or tte effectof dire £iion from the center of ntolion. fulcrum^ any cue of il. In the Jireight leaver "Uihen the weight equilibrio. j^^ 1 J 4. and therefore the preflvire is //<P-. and if the power and weight aB perpendicular to thefe lines.in ro. For the power and weight will be in equilibrio if they be fuppofed to aft at E and D. jg_ drawn to the center C or axis AB . eaeh ufeig^tii't . fall from the eenle tn ejuilibriCy S. Cor. weight.2. 2. And in Fig. Jf tKo bodies be in equilibrio en the Uaver>. if their quantities he reciprccally as the let perpendiculars to their fevcral lines cfdireStion.. PxPCxS. and in whatever direfltms the ' power and weigh: a3 en it •. if AH he « rigbf line. POWI- RS. is equal to the power multiplied hv its dijianee. 10. aitdfrom the ends P. B. reciprocally as its diftance fram the center.Q_ J _ ^''^' ^' ^" ci'y fort of leaver whether Jlrei^ht or bended^ and -xhetier moveable about afiitgUpoint C. 19.'l when its the zue:gl:t multiplied by its dijtance. or at P and IK Alio by trigonometry. Cor.to a leaver ^ itS' moving the leaver^ will be as that force multiplied by the dif- '. and < of direaisn.

) power P power W. Prop. be egtial to the fum of the like produ^s on the other fide the contrary. IFF. therefore F the . the weight W. Sea. and AC be drawn. P. Now fince (by Ax. are refpeClively as IFC. IVJ perpendicular to the ends r0ions. III. the forces on both fides are equal. IF. and in that diredion. 2. P. AC].CP :: (byCor. 7. multiplied by its dijlance from fum of the center of motion C. CA is the diameter of a ciicle paffing through the points A. PA. 2. CIV. Ooiing 22. PROP. by Ax. If a bended leaver in the directions XXI. any one is For fince the angles at as the dijlance of tie other two. whence CF:CS :: CJV-. of -. IV zve right .) the produds is as the whole forces . then fince the point A is acted on by two forces which are as CPand CB. and PIV. BC. two powers. will be refpeSlively as AB.iinji the fulcrum C. and both thefeare Thereequivalent to the fingle force AC (by Cor. WCP be kept in equilibrio by of the leaver CP. laft Prop. XX. P. PC. parallel to WA. n.) ibre the fulcrum C is adled on by the force AC. and the leaver remains at reft. and the force a£ling ag. Prop. which if they be equal. Draw CB. is. % AB ^ i then they will be in equilibria. and the preffure the That fulcrum Cfullains. Hence the power P. CF JVAP—CBP. MECHANIC POWERS. : Cor. the weight or power W. and in theje very di- PB. and if the lines of direction be produced till they meet Ifay the power in A-. or as AB and AF. let us fuppofe them both to aft at the point of interfeftion A. XIX. 33 FIG.. then the angle IFFCzz and the right angled triangles /FCFand 5CP are fimilar. 14.) it is the fame thing to what points of the lines of direftion PB. the forces P. 3. And For the force of each weight to move the leaver is as the weight and the fum multiplied by the diltance (by Cor. C. Whe applied . and if the \ If fever al weights he fufpended on a fir eight leaver the froduSis of each weight. and CB parallel to WA. on onefidi. PROP. I.

and S. thai as radius. BE ailing perpendicular to the leavers : AB. PROP. BE. the P. If AB. BA. XXII. BE. is Therefore the point B is aded on with three forces . and S. I fay. and is. and AE parallel to BF J hen And if thefc leavers keep one another in equilibrio.ABE. and the prefjure agctnfl the A. 19. are refpe^ively as AE. . and AB the rc-adion -oi the center A . tie prtfjure on the fulcrum C. force BF. all lend to one point For if not. and BE the re-adion of the leaver CD. j thefc forces arc as AE. the leaver would not remain in cquilibrio. Therefore. BC AC : and PfV. BF the force applied at B. For then as EAB Is a right-angled AB -.) the point // aifted on direiflion BE .AEB'. in EB perpendicular to BC and the leaver CD reand (by Ax. triangle radius. AB. therefore (by Prop. DC. 9. the lines of iireElion if the penuers Pir. AE. Cof. and thefe forces arc BE. ABD. CD he two leavers moveable about A and C. that is.ABD. and AB. are refpe£lively as radius. For afts in fince (by Prop. Cor. Uc. the therct'orc (he triangles AliC.) the leaver the diredion in direftion AB ads upon BC at B. in a given direHion BF. force center againjl DC in direilion EB. BE. . and S.ABD. If two forces BF.34 MECHANIC POWERS. PRO 2 5.ABD. Col. -. H'CP : arc fimilar lyC : Cl\ and :: CP angle and /tB . and AE is parallel to BF. 2. as S. VIII. bC :: Cor. /« any leaver JFCP. the force in dire^ion BF. UlT-CAP : . keep thefe leavers in equilibrio -The force endprejfure at A. IVP\ and of A. : and fame force a£ls upon the end B whtl/t the leaver AB of the leaver AB. a£is upon CD at B. P.c angle JVPC-IVAC-ACB. If BE be drawn per- pendicular to CB.

xxiir. through which 7'hereFor let . aBng perpendicular to the radii DA. the diftances CB. the Circle BM as a bafe. After a like the circle CKD^ provided the end D ^ 5. arch BD. MECHANIC POWERS. Cor. CBNE KD DB D AD BD K have equal velocities in any correfpondent places D. forethe points/).. and AB continued leaver CBNE. whilft the arch hath moved through an arch fore the end of the radius has moved. I. And will be equal to the arch defcribed by defcribed D BK byK.III. and will therefore keep each other in equilibrio. If AB. fo as to make but cne And if tbefe leaver. 35 n'Q. circle DBE. the leavers AB. BRM. will always keep thefe leavers in equilibria the epicycloid BNE be defcribed and the leaver CB D CKDF come into the pofuion AD. by equal forces aSltng at B. is defcribed by the pome then fince the epicycloid rolled upon the equal arch BK. with the generating . AB. thereD. BMG Cor. then the adting at will and therefore F 2 Cor. And the leaver BE CBE be compounded of the right line CB and the epicycloid then the . two leavers moveable about the centers A and C . K. PROP. Hence if one leaver AD move uniformly about the center A. tnoveabctit the centersC^A\ fothai the end of the leaver AD be always i. Therefore equal weights H. 9. AT. and epicycloid BNE be joined together in that very poftion.i the curveof the epicycloid DK\ Ifay^thct two equal and contrary forces at D and K. manner if be an epicycloid defcribed within by the generating circle BD. will keep one another in equilibrio in any pojition. equal to the arch BK. CBNE. as and AD. I . Whence the weight or forces to . . by Ax. and and DB E be defcribed with the radii BC. BE CKF For when AB is come arch BK =. BC and upon be if the circles KBM 24. have equal velocities fuftain one another. is the fame thing whether the leaver AB aB agai}iji the convex or concave fide of the leaver be always in the curve KD. KC. the other CKD the arch BD It will alfo move uniformly about its center C. 3. AD. Cor. leavers CBE and AB.B/l. Sedl. and CBE to CKDF. 2. applied to the circles DB and will have equal quantities of motion .

will at the fame time move along the epicycloid BO D or DKT. For the fixed point B in the too:h win ftill dcfcribe the epicycloid. 2c.(y MECTTANTC POWnilF. in all pcfiiions of the leaver If tJ. Cor.I he infinite. nill be Juflained at B.. 28. the pui >:i K lai. BK. will pals through BK.^ BK. CB. as before.iih equal velocilies and for<:rs The point D in the mean time line aSling vpdn the cydcidal tooth KD.. on which leaver (he cyc'. reof the leaver volve about the centers A. leavers AB. upon one anowas the adtion fuppofed to be continued . The ther.hy aUii^ tL e right lir. C HO for L. And if the part fgDdKf be cut aivay. Cor. if BD will pals through D. — S 2. BD. and the leavers AB. oj the leaver CB. or /. fo that the point B or AB move along the epityclcid BE or KDS. wliljl the point the cmtcr /7.iformly ab ut uni/c r. and the points it is D.e figure cf the toclh ef at the ei-d cf the leaiur AB. Alfo the epicycloid KDS. For the epicycloid D)CT* generated on DB. D K the arches BD.oidal tooth be placed. Ccr. of the cycloidal lootb. in •. If the two epicycloids BE. C. if on the convex fide. generated upon KB. the fnme thing) if BK l/f AH tb:n BE or KL'. And if tbi leavers AB.nd any equal cppc/ite forces will Jvjlain one another 2". . BK. to In like manner^ if B. : D and v.. C F 1 2t. or at fnnnne. BL with the generating circles BD.' BC be hifinilCt or figLtlinej^trpaidicubr to a (li'l-rcb is . uill move icith equal velocities. be made to revolve about their centers A. 'Jb^refore. and the epicycloid BE be defcribed as before.'l inozi: moves ur. if the tooth be to a£l on the concave fide of the Then if the leavers epicycloid. BK. fo tha( And if the the point B alivtys move in the epicycloid BE or KD. C. BO be defcribed upon BM. 4. CB. 5. will be olvocys equal: Ard equal jorces CKD. A'. ih. CD. the points revolve fo that the tooth move along the curve gg or nn and of the leavers AB. trah cf the extreme points cf the tooth be marked out upon the plane be given. BD a ri^hl perp:ndicu!cr BC. or whether en one or both. as at fgggge. crfncDdKf. K.F will be the com- njon (yJeid. and of the right line And the velocities cf K in the BD. when BK =. Then the point B or K. will defiribe the equal arches BDt BK. CB line are fuppofed only to acl below the AC. And therefore the fame thing. 6.n BE cr VK will D in be an epnyclcid generated by the tan- gent J)U revdving on the right line lircle BK.

K fi36 .

c .z6 Mec/uiiiics.\ fHi. 13 H 19 ^F^r— n r u Y\.c > B A 4 \f '-.I A E I V.

but on lin-' B wouid lonsjer act g. f . /^ are equal . 9. 25. 2. .'. P : iveighi If the rope have any fenjii^lethicknefs . and fuppofe the wheel and axel to turn once round . If the direSlion of the power it to a5i at or d. where the power atis . For let Ji? be the wheel. PROP. and have equal forces to move each other . to P.) will remain in equilibrio. then 3 cf dircSiion . And as tlieir radii are reciprocally as the weight and power. to velocity oi IF circumference of the wheel.wer ivbere the "ujcight clls. to diameter of the axis :: that Therefore the motions of P and is (by fuppofition) as IV. really hangs half the thicknefs of the rope. XIX. diBcrcnt epic\cloid and the equality ot 24. then the power and weight will EF be in equilibrio.7 i continued above ihr on ihf lame. Therefore drawing lines from the middle of the axis to the power and weight. and' the radius oi the axel the diltance of the weight. then if P : IV :\ CB : they will be in e^ut- libiio. power a£is . :: as : Cor. to circumference of ttie axis :: or as diameter of the wheel. to the line D CA be perpend: cuUvr CA. XIX. they will be in equi- For the weight beyond the axel. ME C a HAN /iC. by Cor.the diatneter of the rope : : : diameter of the wheel where the libria. P XXIV. at^dthe radius of the wheel will be the diftance of the power. ITI. and let is not a tangent to the wheel. 3°- be to the -joeight TV. fupfofe Cor. motion would hold no longer. And thus the wheel and axel is no more but a perpetual leaver. I C point t^ O . 1. ference of the axis. will appear otherwife. CD the axel . then if the power diameter of the axel -\. parallel •to the horizon . and therefore (by Ax. Prop. may be reduced to a leaver of the firft kind For the fulcrum will be in the middle of the axis CD. then it is plain the power P will have delcended a Ipace equal to the circumference of the wheel . will have rifen a height equal to the circumand the weight W Therefore. to the diameter of the mter of the axel wheel AB. WER no S. if ihep-. velocity of P. 2. &. For the wheel and axel This Prop. therefore (by Prop. Cor.Sea.) they will be in equilibrio. as ihediaIn thi wheel and axel. And the contrary.

kd. 4. Cor. D.-8 * ' ALECIIANIC POWERS. therefore Bd will be — Bk. and if the wheel BMbe the epicycloids Be. teeth of the ) NBD. whofe length is equal to the radius of the wheel: yj>:d any othir ejual force be appliedfor a power. to the diameier of the then the wheel is in equilihrio. And it is the fame thing if injlead of a wheel there be only fpokes fixed in the axis. will move equal arches BD. be alfo equidijtant. and Ci . And any points D. kd. kd. the points of tie teah B. with the generating drcle BN. thin if tie adin^ on the teeth at B. Zi' XXV. t.XXIIl. I the ends of ti. Cor.'/. Ad. therefore the working teeth cither once . Prop. But by the motion of the wh els BD.KD. fupfofc D always to be inthccpicyclodAD. one cr bclh lave teeth. at D. and afting on one another inD: And the Lime of //J. 5. KD. d. «illBD=fiA'. fet ting aftde the weight of the rope. The force of is the weight is increafed when cne or mere fpircs oj thfjope folded about the axel. wi. Per whi/ft the axel remains the fame. K. For thar. be to the ueight fV a^ing on the P teeth at . then AD and CKD may be confiilcred as two leavers rroving a^out . PROP. deferibed on thebtife KBM. 6. rough as then heels turn rcund. BK.-1 \ wheel at B . in/lead of the weight P. dD equal to Bk.e tteth of the whee. aug- ments chc diameter ot the It matters not how low the weight hangs. aftmg at c/. if there be never fo in ih-: many teeth 5. Pn p. axel. CK. they BE. i. as the diameter of the axel at A. KD. C. and fince Dd =: Ki. If the -wheel and axel. MBK he two NBD on the cyclcidal teeth times. ilways be curves of the epicycloids a<fl all tff. and tlefe d. CW. d. the reffianee of the weight remains the fame. 3. Bt.l all af? together. And will thus. XXllI. and confequently (by Cor.) the point d will be in the epii cycloid kd.fiances Bd. in eficd. and if B. BK in eqnal Draw the radii AD. kK : Then. d. Ifay. Let toothed wheels in the fame plane. and thtfe teeth all equidfiant . then . (s'c. "• fo'xer 3'- Car. Cor.Cor.

or they aft not at all. •we will. for ailing againfi the cycloidal teeth. And it is the fame thing tooth what part of tbe LO^ the tooth G ails againfi. Cor. irr. 3. BU both fides gether. with 25. {before they i>egin lo ether hath done work 6 . will by this motion defcribe the epi- Cor. 4.. D. at leafi one : '? toi th fhow. its teeth aSling upon the concave Jide of the cycloids \ or the wheel CB drive AB. epicycloid be placed at equal diflances B. L. 33- together. circum1 of tbcfe two wheels^ as at B. K.. which joins their centers And though the fide may be of any form . . And the more teeth that work toof the tooth alike. I fay. and thefpace KeDf be cut away . G. Cor. the convex fide of the cycloid a£iing agaijifl the teeth cf AB.vhcn only one tooth ads upon one. whilfl the track of the extreme points marked out as KeD.. becaufe the points B. and that there be a cmveni^ vt length. inftead cf the wheel the whet Is be A^D. the generating circle BD . made to if any fort cf tie points B. ties. locities of any p. fcribe the epicycloid BE or KD. it iS the fame thing will keep thefe wheels in equilibria. But the teeth ought not to a£l upon one another before they arrive at the line AC. KfD .. they will ilill be equal. it never lo many ad Cor. depth and thickntfs . .>ints a>e eq a! in the two wh<-< Is BD. Likewife. If the epicycloid BF be teeth defer ibed on the bafe KBH. ' 39 F r An as the veonce upon one another. will then the teeth of the wheel make the motion equal in the A two wheels. ferttices Hence equal weights or forces applud to th.d akaays begin before the working he teeth ougi. to make way for thofe of A. may be of any figure. then if one of thefe wheels is fupcf the tooth is pofed to drive the other.BK. MECHANIC POWERS. and a Sling one againji the other. cycloids as before. hinder the motion of the teeth of A. yet it is better to make them which willferve to make the wheels turn back%vards. Hence. or the infinitely fmall teeth of a tooth 's be placed at B and if move about fo that the given point B may de. t to be difpofed in fuih manner as not to trouble or hinder one another.Sedt. 2. LI. by thefe teeth running in the fpaces DfKe . and a portion of the . w' :ther the vhel AB drive the wheel CB. and the fame be d me for all the other teeth. being eqiiidifiant and of the fani'^ form and bignefs. the better . Alfo a part as pqr may be cut away on the back of every tooth. not to Where we may take as great a portion of the cycloid as and the fides BO. and all the working teeth will a£f together. the circumferences of thefe wheels will move with equal velociThis is evident. which a£l not.

p R ^6. be ts the weight combination of wheels wilh teeth. C. . ex cquo. multiplied into the prcduSi of the teeth in each pinion or fpindie^ is to the diameter cf the wheel A. D. /*' diam. Co. they be m equilibria. 2. E For the cords fupply the place of ^5^ ^ teeth. if the power as the prcduii of all the diameters of the axels. (B). yfy diam. In any combination cf wheels with teeth. ihicknffs given tbem. force on Therefore. o r. D. where the weight alls to the diameter of the wheel A. pinions. Cor. Power P weight IT :: product of the diameters B.librio. to the number of teeth in the fecand wheel (C . C. or E weight /Fat F . as the diameter of the axel P F alls. F. oswellasforjlrengtb.: diam. or to the P prcdtt^ of the diameters of all the wheels. if the per. to the product of all the diameters of the wheels. B. and and force on B ox C force on D :: diam. that they may more eafily di/engage tbetnfehes j^5. be to the weight Cor. C. I. where the power alts. . multiplied by the produli of the teeth in each. if the power be to the weight. the weight and power will be in equilibria. For the number of teeth in each wheel and pinion that aft againll one another^ are as the circumtercnccs or as the diameters of that wheel and pinion. E. wbire the pow^r alls. In a combination of wheels gring by cords. A^ they will be in equHibrio. Cor. XXVI. . B diam. F: to the produft of the diameters J. reckcnii. to the number in tte third wheel (£) andfo on till the laji . as the trundles Villi . XXIV. then they will be in cqu. £. eight fV. Force on B :: diam. The power P afling at // : : : For by Prop. and the ratio of jt the number of teeth in the fir axel. 40 F I MECHANIC POWERS. cf the wheels [that the f miens all againjt) . Jn ii JV. and cf the number of teeth in the fecand axel (D).g f^cm tie power..ier where the 'u. D : D : : : a 8. o. in a ratio compounded of the diameter of the axd F. And hence alfo. if the power frodtitl cf the diameters of all the axels. P be to the weight IV. 3.

in making their efcape. XIX. C. Cor. and the power at A.IIL MECHANIC POWERS. then that line will reprefent a leaver. and the power at A. come under the fame rules we refer you thitiier for but a far- work together. And if a rope go over feveral p'. ^t. or as the product of the diameters of the finions. 39. du3 S C HO L. A.. and facilitate the motion of the rope : But a moveable pulley doubles the force. ^t Cor. therefore (by Prop. then the power ivill be but half the weight. PROP. Wheels with oblique ther account thereof. reprefents the P %veight ads at C.) the power at P is half the weight IF. whofe blocks are all fixed . fn a combination of wheels. to the produif of the teeth in the wheels which aSI in them .SeA.s <^ F i c^ where the weight aSls. Hence all fixed pulleys are equivalent to leavers ef the firfi And they add no new force to the power. pulley j XXTIL 5$. In wheels whofe teeth ter before they teeth as they are related to the fcrew. they Ihould not encoun. and (in Fig. the center C being kept immove- fulcrum . If a power fufiain a weight by means of a rope going over a fixed then the poiver is equal to the weight. the number of revohilior. to the number of revolutions of Z^' ike wheel F the wheel A where is cs the pro- of the teeth in the pinions. becaufe line. in the fame time . and fincc BC is half ylB. G PROP. th power is neither increafed nor diminifhed.) the power is equal to the weight /^. 4. B. kind. But if the pulley be moveable together with the weight. . the -power aSts. therefore (by Prop. And (in Fig. 40. fo very inconfiderable.dleys. And becaufe BC:±CA. and the other end of the rope fixed .) the fixed point B is the fulcrum^ and the able. come to the line joining their centers . /q. the the rubbing is greater on that fide is but being paft the teeth flip eafily along that the fridlion one another.) where the pulley is fixed. . XIX. to the product of ihe diatiKtcrs of the wheels. For fuppofe a horizontal line j^B drawn through the center of the pulley C. but only ferve to change the direction. whilfi: the weight afls at B.

as the height of the fcrevut if the power one thread (reckoned according to the length of the crew) to tbi circumference defcribed by one revolution of the power j then they P f w^ll be in equilibria. power P. I. and they are in equilibrio. as that d:flance (of the teeth or threads) to the length defcribed by the librio. PROP. Car. Cor. Therefore the velocities of the power and weight are reciprocally as their quantities : Therefore their raotioas are equal. For (by Ax.'er drawn i . as i to the number of ropes pulling at the moveable block yl. PROP. leaf. all tl>e . In the cndlefs or perpetualfcrew ABt having csne wcrntf or tooth. as I to the number of aHing againjl that im- moveable block. And if a weight V/ aH at the lircimfirence of the wheel CD. Then if the power P be to tie weight Jl^.. Therefore the power is to the weight. length of the axis AB -. in one rrcolution .) are equally llrctclied -. the wheel lus moved the diftancc of one tooth. in dire^!cn of the circumference. v. whilft the power defcribes the circumference whole radius is PC. if the P be to the weight l-V\ as rope at the moveable block A number (f parti of the they will be in e^uilibrit. /. For the weight //^raifcsthe height of one thread. s. r. If you take the dijlance of two threads in the fcrew AB. XXVIII. then they are in equi- For in one revolution of P. A 2. DC with the weight Jf'. or the dijlance of two teeth in the wheel CD. 37. . Ccr. by cne rumtinr rcpe to the \ In a combination of pulltys all po-u. parts of the ropt m. c. and the weight //''is fuflaincd by the numand the rope ber ot ropes that ad againfl: the moveable block V or the power P ads with the torce of one or unit. o.42 r I MECHANIC POWERS. k. according to the ^5. which drives the teeth of the wheel CD. i8. be to the weight W. Hence the poivir is to the force by ivhich the itnmoveable block ropes B is drawn . 1)1 XXIX.

.ir./AA/a.Pl.

/^ r .riM^o/.^i..

pendicular to the tooth. then a fpindle of twice the diameter will require two worms. ft eftimated by the r. III. /ir4umverfcilly. lefs the diftances cf the threads is and the longer the handle the eajier any given weight tnoved. ^ LF AP : teeth in CD. if the wheel CD act upon another wheel with oblique teeth. ifn be the number of worms. 7. the lateral fcrce perpendicular to the wheel.if th. The plane.re be fever al w^rms cr fpira! leaves. G PROP. 4. &c. the force acling I he teeth. and cofine of the obliquity of the teeth. be radius Cor. Cor. 2. in the iliredions DE perpendicular to or in the Now if GD reprcient the force adting perit.Scdl. : G :: n y. ^'IB. and the direSi force in the plane of the wheel . DE. i. and that their axles are perpendicula'. force of the fcrew refembles the force that drives a body tip an inclined plane . e worm AB. 3. parallel to For let GlJ be the fide ot a tooth adrd on •. three worms. the force adting parallel to the bafe of the All things here laid down relating to the perpetual fcrew. DE is and GE the cofifie. Then DE. 43. do fuppofe that the axis of the worm fpindle lies in the plane of the wheel it works in. What is here demonflrated. are. . And perpendi. tooth ot CD (Fig. and plane of the wheel. If any worm fpindle contains one leaf or worm. and 'jueiglt are in rquilibrio.to each other. is 43 upon the axis Ccr.) but if GD the fine of the obliquity.le or fall of a . 5. 44. GE will be the forces adling GE. they cannot loft work without lols of power ..ne. S C H O L. 7 hen to the "ji-ei^^ht tig. G to :: as the radius of the axel EF X X numkr the po'-jver of ivorms in AB. Cor. (by Cor. For by Cor. ^q.) for a revolution of the 2 power P. Prop. if tie power P. as radius. and one of thnce the diameter. inflead of tl. to work mi the fame wheel and the power is b. and the teeth cf one or both alfo oblique. Prop. MECHANIC POWERS. but if they arc in oblique pofition. AP X Then XXVI. and the locigl. GE the axis of tiie wheel. Jn the common frew the is. will hold equally true. Vlll. then P numhtr of teeih in CD.t G hangs upon the axel EF. a part being proportional to the obliquity. the f. zvill be refpeSiively.ulcir to by reafon cf the obliqu'ty of the teeth.

VIII. DG. 45.\ 44 MECHANIC POWERS. the fame thing. is to the forte acJing againfl either fide. . Cor. in a direclion RFC be the hack cr bafe perpendicular to thut fide \ os the back of the vjcdge FG. or.(t angle n'' a toedgf inform cf an ifccf'es triibni if ibe power ading erpendicu'. be removed. EG. 3. Cor. the power is to the whole refinance againfi bclb is EG flies. or the poiver is to the both fides (in direilion parallel to FG) whole jorce againfl as the back FG.ar to the back IG.iinft the wedge in the directions AC. as the bafe FG. 1. SECT. as the back FG. VII. XXX. EG rel'pedi/cly. adts ag. to twice the DE. and thr aftioni of the impediment. Cli perpendicular to the fides F. will be the force adting in direction ED DG. is . For the force EG may be divided into the two ED.) Then fince (by this Prop. which of the fidis F. are as FG. The power a5iingperpendiailar to tie bafe. P R O I'.) EG is tiic rorcc adting in diredlion CB . 9.F. to the fum of the fides EF. (by Cor.) the power. thcT DC is the diAnd (by Prop. Prop.) the impediment to rection of the power. tqfier it Thejharper the wedge. i. to the force cr reftftance aiiini a_^ain/i either fide. 2. to the height ED H'heit in equilibrio. : cr per- pendicular to the axis the wedge height is DE . . FE. to either : Then the -wedge is in eqwltbrio.Fy EG . Prop. tie will divide ary thing or o^cercerm aty re/ijame. For draw tlie axis ED perpendicular to the bafe FG and CA. whc they are in eqiiilibrio. I. BC and therefore (by Cor. or the more acute its angle. in a direSfion parallel to tie bafe FG.

are fpeilively.[ 45 ] SECT... is fixed. he fulained upon an inclined pU»e ACy hy a FI G.. Prop. For half the relative weight of the cylinder is fuftained by the Other end of the rope which 2. IX.i or it is as the fine of the plants elevation. by Cmilar triangles. then the force of gravity tends perpendicular to the horizon. curve Jurfaces. (byand AB. If a cylinder he fujlained upcn an inclined plane. power. is. The relative weight of a body.. W. re- The weight. I the height CB. as the height direSily. Forthe fides of a triangle areas the fines of the oppofite angles. to make it run down an and length reciprocally. and the dircdlion of the poWer is parallel to DC. of the tlane's elevation.. by a power drawing one end cf a rope parallel to tie plane. The defcsnt cf bodies upon inclhied planes. Then 4^ the length ACy "] The weight of tl^ body. coftne and Cor. The power that ftijiains it. . 1. and the preffure againfl: the plane is (by Prop. or parallel to CB . CB. Cor. S C H O L. and i?i Alfa the motion of pendulums. Jf a heavy lody XXXI. as /fC. BD. And therefore their quantities are refpcdtively as the three lines 5D O. IV. 2. Draw perpendicular to AC. the fine the plane. and preffure en as radius. CD. power a£iing in a direSiion parallel to that plane. 3. BC — AC . whiljt the other end is fixed..) that Cor. VIII. as half the ^y^ height to the length of the plane. as J of the plane.) parallel toD5. And its prejfure againji the plane: I and the bafe ABy Are refpeitively. is inclined plane. PROP. This power is to the weight of the cylinder.

Cor. Hence the prejfure on the plane. by any given power /*. and re-aftion of the plane the weight perpendicular the power is perpendicular to CB. Therefore (by Cor 1. and you have your dcfirc. Prop. The weight of the body. are rejpe^ively. an inclined plane AC. as . PROP.) thcfc forces are as AB. and the prcllurc is perpendicular to AC. For the body to is fuftained by three . IVcight of the body IV. as radius. the power. The power that fiijlains it. PROP. \ | the height CB. the power. Are refpeBively as AB. of the plane AC. If (i heavy body XXXII. bv a power Palling in any given dire^ion li'P. AC. AD. For Will be refpeSively. whofc S 46. and the weight. To that the given weight //^may be raifcd through the length of the plane AC. the is gravity. CB. MakcyfC height BC is = t X BC. The prejjure againjl the plane. be let f*U And if perpendicular on IFP. 4^' 49- XXXIII. 46. If a heavy body TVbefuflained upon an inclined plane AC. and the length AC. If it C 11 O be required to find the pofition given. in the Irafl time pofTiblc. by a power Then.46 F I DESCENT O. afling in the dircftion DC. OP BODIES L. AB. Prefjure upon the plane. Vlll. forces. BED Power P. the Jim andco/im of the plane's elevation. J cf the plane. AB. DB. Then. tht bafe "J IV be fujlahied upon a£iing parallel to the horizon.

\. IV. For fince ON BD is INCLINED PLANES. iveight. where < D zz com- plement of D!VP. when they are in o- JD '^^^ '^9- equilibrio. And therefore if any two bodies be in equilibrio upon two inclined planes. their perpendicular velocities will be reciprocally as their quantities of matter. DvB. 2. Cor. cofne of the angle of traSlion CWP.Sea. arere- fpeSiively as the fine of the planes ehvation. another hanging freely. If a weight upon an inclined plane be in equilibrio ivitb Cor. For fP'r P Arwt and Whence m AEDv are : fimilar. then the weighty will have afcended a height zr //r. 3. and draw perpendicular to JE. Hence whether the line . above or deprejfed below the plane prjwers will full ain the weight line ij ofdireHion cf the power he elevated the angles oftr allien be equal. PROP. their perpendicular velocities will be reciprocally as their quantities of tnaJkr. ^ 47^ perpendicular to the dire(ftion of the power. to the plane weight. VIII. Cor. which is its perpendicular The figures afcerft .. let the weight at fF be made to defcend to A. The power P is leafl when the line of direction is parallel and infinite when perpendicular to it . ^o. and fFt.) thefe plane. and IVt is the perpendicular defcentof /F'. preffure on the forces will be refpcdively as BD. i. to the direftion of the jiB to the direftion of gravity. I. this Ar :: Dv AE : :: DB JB = : (by Prop. Dv to JB .) P :^. and Therefore (by Cor. andequal to the . the of the oppofite angles. and the cofine of the angle of direction of the power above the horizon. as are alfo the triangles JEB. eq^ual but thepreffure is greater when the of direilion runs below the plane. the power. . Cor. y^D. JB. when perpendicular to the horizon. The angle of traflion is power makes with the plane. fides are as the fines the angle that the direftion of the And in the triangle ABD. Prop. 5. andprejfure agalnft the plane. Cor. .

CD is as the fine olCBD or CAB.48 DESCENTofBODIES PROP.) the motion generated in the fame to CA. is The force wherewith a areas the laft velocities. I. PROP . VI. Therefore the fpaces defcribed on the plane and in the perpendicular. or as CD to CB. CI. which is to the force of gravity asCZ? But (by Prop V. art as the fquares of the timet. and (by Cor. Therefore the body is urged upon the plane. and in the fame body. Hence if j then in the time a body falls through tie he'tgbt CB . The [pace which a body defcribes in tJbe (defcendin^ clnied plane. d:fccnding alen^ the inclined plane. body endeavours to dcfcend upon an equal to the power that fuftains it . that is as CB to C/.) thcfc fpaccs arc double the fpaccs defcribed by the accelerating forces. 4. defcribed by a body mcving do'uin ary platein Cor. i. and (by prop. 111. by an uniformly accelerating force. is as the force. XXXI.Hl run ti rough thefpace CD- BD AC For thefe fpaces are as CA to C5. Ihe fpaces defcribed by a body defending c* any givtn plane. is to the Jpace from rtfi) d/fcribes upon dn inwhich a body falling ptrpenjicularlj^ to fame time. Thefpace is « given time. inclined plane.jthat is.) the fpaccs uniformly defcribed with the laJl velocities will be as thefe velocities. by fi- milar triangles. as CB to CD. Prop. be let fall perpendicular to Ccr. 3. For if CB be given. another body. And (Hy Prop. v. 2 . Cor. as the fine of the planers elevation. or as the forces. us length AC. as the height of the plane C8. as CB CA. o" Cor. that is (fince the body is given) the velocity is as the force. XXXIV. The velocity acquired upon an inclined plane^ is to the tt- Telocity acquired in the fame lime by fulling pcrpenduularly. time.) that power is to the weight of the body asC5 to CA.

XIV. down an inclined body acquires the fame velocity in defcending 51- CD.: SeaiV. H . the fame parabola will be defcnbed in both cafes. both projefted at the fame obliquity. For draw DB perpendicular to CD. inftead of the abfolute weight of the body. relative gravity PROP. demonftrated of falling bodies in Sed:. made it If the body be the fame time. CE. Hence therefore a body projefted on an inclined plane. PROP. AB Tlie time of defcendin^ through tinne of defcending through C£ being perpendicular to C5. be to the velocity of a projeftile in the air . XXXV. offalling through the perpendicular height plane DC. 2. is to 49 t I G. as the And on the plane.) ^CB :: BD y/CE Cor. and in all points will have the fame velocity in afcending as defcending. :: CD: CE. and to AC. to the abiolute gravity. then (by Cor. as the -length of the For DE. as by falling perpendicularly through the height of thai plane CE. Prop. lubftituting the relative weight upon the plane. and the bodies will dcfcend through CD. in regard to the motion of bodies upon an inclined plane . will afcend to the fame height on the plane. is a uniformly accelerative force by which bodies dcfcend down an inclined therefore whatever is . to the height CE. ON INCLINED PLANES. CD or the perpendicular C5 : (by Prop. plane. S Since the force C H O L. it to move hack again with the velocity acquired in defcending. II. the time ^j. A plane XXXVI. will defcribe a parabola. And if the velocity of projection upon the plane. The time of a bodys defcending through the plane CD. holds equally true. and in For will be uniformly retarded in afcending . CB in the fame time.

Cor. :: velocity in D velocity in CE CD. 2. ^'' ^Ct CE : CD : XIV. DB. therefore the velocities in D and E arc equal. PROP. DA of equal Cor. hen will CE be equal to DB. 5. D XXX DB dcfccnding through CE is the fame as falling through the diameter. 2.\ drawn from Ccr. are as the fquare roots of the heights. are tquai among itemfclvcs. B : And ac- quire equal increafes of velocity. to tie fame horizontal right what every are equal among tkemfeives. IV. is as the length nf the cord. on any plants // the velocities be equal at any tuo equal altitudes D. circle. EB. or cither point timis cf def ending through all the cords of a C cr B. in the fame lime as it will defend perpendicularly through the diameter CB. is the fame as falling through the diameter CB. Tl.. (Cor. E . Cor. rh. in B : velocity in : x^CB velocity in /) vrlocity in A :: CEy and I . A height. XXXI V. E :: and : Prop. 1 . to DB. For .igh CD will be equal to the time Draw CE parallel of defccnding perpendicularly through CB. xxxvn. I. But the time of in the fa-r. therefore (by Cor.The velocities acquired by defending dcxn any planes whatever. OF : BODIES li :: Prop.e time. Cor. in pcffmg through heights. 4. line. Hence the velocities acquired by heavy bodies falling fnm the fame height. rcfore the time of drfccndiog through any cord CD. 52. they will be equal at any other two equal altitudes yY.5^ Y I DESCENT c. circle tvhofe For the angle at is right.) the tune of uclccndinp thrc. and a body will defcend through the curds CE.. Prop. DB.) velocity Ilicretorc CE.) I. The velocity acquired h defending through any cerd CD. In a zcill diameter CB is perpendicular to the torizcn. Cor. wbetbtr body acquires the fame velocity in falling from any it fails perfenduularly^ or down an inclined plant- of equal height. a bedf defend through any cord CD or DB.

number of planes. then the curve line AKB will be divided into an infinite number lines . Prop. towards C perpendicular to the defcend through the curve furface BC.Sed. then (by Cor. E. they will be equaljn K and £. Prop. i£c. they v. 3. i^c. y^. 3d. K and E. and another Divide AC into an infinite number of equal parts. which may be taken for right an infinite if or the curve furface into at/. interfedting the which draw lines parallel to EC. 3. f i 51 g. at body defcend from A the points D. And the accelerative force in the circle being double to that in the cord .) be as the fines of the angles TGO. DB . will (by Cor.. i. l^herefore fince the motion begin<. TBO. If a body defcends freely along any curve furface.^CBxBF. and ac B and C. and another body defcends from the fame height in a perpendicular right line . or as DB. and that is as i/BF. And therefore the velocities will be equal in all correfpondent points / and D. though their lengths are nearly the For if BG. F. XXXI. 4th. curve i£c. 52. or as BT and TG. Prop. as in faliinothrough CP. TG at T'in the arch fame. and fo on. ^c. IV. or BCy that is nearly as two to one when the arch is very fmall. and likewife through the 2d. of parts. G and F.) is as ^CF. IK. Let a horizon AKB. to in 7. But a body will dejcend fooner through the fmall arch cf than through its cord TB. i. KG. PROP.ill alfo be equal in G and F. For draw and ON INCLINED PLANES. and being equal in K and E. . that Alio a body acquires the lame velocity through i)5 is as CD. and the time of defcription fhorter. Cor. after the defcent through IK . a circle. be two tangents. 5?. K. G. as FB.) a body acquires the fame velocity in defcending through CD. then the relative gravity and cord. XIV. their will be equal at all equal altitudes. then and (by Prop. CD = i/CBxCF. t^:ey will acquire equal velocities in defcending through the firft plane. G. joining Now XXXVL) H 2 Ccr. therefore the velocity will be greater in the arch. fuppofed to be equal in any correthe velocities be fpondent points as / and D. DF perpen dicular to CB. but this (by Cor. XXXVI. A'. in A. velocities XXXVIII. after the defcent through KG. is'c.

^2 ' ' DESCENTorBODIES ^" Cot. AB. mcvi-. eA. 4. equally deftroy veluLicics Cor. whether the curve AKB be in one plane perpendicular to the horizon. every particle ot the curve will be dcieribcd with the fame velocity. tudes. By Frop. the fpace dcfcribed time and velocity. of Cor. 2. Ibcreftre if a body he fufpended by a firing. XXXIX. will it in alccnding. . US by the linootK furface of a polifhcd body. For the forces that generated the motion in defcending. the velocities in . '^' or if it is aity cftiilating dcjcnbts any curie /IB in airy potifhedt and perU'fiy fmooth furfac. and let be. By Lor. And tic velocities will be equal at all ctjual alti- And the afcent and dejcatt will be in the fame lime. tvitl afcend to the fame height in afmlar and equal curve^ or even in any curve 'iihatever. PROP. For the lan^c tirng is efTccflrtl by the rtring of the pcndul jus body. and the time of dclcribing any fpace. I. and therefore in the fame time. is as the fpicc dirccfiy and velocity reciprucally. cr in feveral flams IK. whether afcending or defcending. 2. \ Tf:en if their vclociiies he equal at any one equal altitude tiey will be equal at all other equal altitudes. 3. This Prep. winding ai/tut in natwe of ofpiral. quires the Hence a body cfcillaling in any curve as if it line tvhtitever. Cor. two cf them» lih. and therefore they will lolc equal And if the curves are by afcending equal heights. is as the fquare root of ike height defcended. 111. is jaerpt-ndicubr to as the All.. if the turves are the fume. fimilar and equal. are in the fuJ/duplicate ratio of their lcng:bs. fimilar to each other. ac- fame velocity in the curve . KGf Uc. had fallen perpenJiarty point And ihertfcre the velocity in tularlyfrom the fame height. be fimilarly pofitrd -. Prop. ah. whtlfl an- otha body ojctnfis ir dtfrtndi in a rif^bt line. and by May forctd to AH -. and draw rb. is equally true. infinitely fnrjall Divide both curves into an equal number of parts. XXXVIIl. hC. KB. The limes of defcnt through t-xo fimilar parts cffimilar curves.And a body after its defctnt tfrrongh any curve. the curve.

2. lowejl -point.Sca. thetcfoie (by bl. and let Bb be one of them. are of the number of their vibra' reciprocally proportional to the fqtiares ttois. And fince by the nature of the cycloid. GDE are fimilar. then be. Hd. BLy het ADa circle. or . If a pendulum vibrates in a circle. as \/ab and \/AB. XXXVII. are as tbcfquare ro-ts of their lengths : Or the of their lengths as thefquar'S of the times of vibration. be the cycloid. is to the time of a bodfs fAHng perpendicularly through half the length of the per. Through //. b. in i IN CURVE SURFACES. caufe the figures are fimilar. 3.dulum. I vibration. fcribe the femi-circle AlLD : : MD NL : : .) the velocity in the cord. and 2A'/ Nn :: LI. Prop. Divide into innumerable fmall parts. and CD xDE—GD': Alfo the triangles i^L^V and ILP are fimilar. becaufe the curves arc fimilarly divided.1V. Prop. as the circumference of a circle to the diameter. XXXVIIf. 2. the whole time of defcribing ab whole time of defcribing AB :: is in the Came given ratio of s/ab \/AB. and in vibrating defcribe the arch Hah. draw i^/--* . Cor. B. 2. be the lengths of the pendulums . : : : Hmce if tivo pendulums defcribe fimilar arches. 5 5.yad s/ylD.) it acquires the fame velocity in the arch as in the cord . DG. and DE. is as the cord. For let hd. the times Ccr. Now fuppofe a body to defccnd from E through the inclinecJ plane ED. "The lengths of pendulums vibrating injimilar arches. the velocity in the is as the cord of the arch it defcribed in defending. FGD the generating Lee the body dcfi-cnd from //. and PL :: ^L LI. perpendicular to the axis FD.1^. be ARE ^ i c are fimilar. and (by Cor. the tangent in B is parallel to the arch CD. For (by Cor. Therefore the time or de- 54- fcribing be : to time of defcribing BC : BC ' K/^b ^/IB ^ab ^AB '• s/7b '• \/^iB :: v/</i \/^D. fincc this is a motion uniformly accelerated. in a given time. bycompofition. FD its axis. If a pendulum vibrates in a cycloid. is 5^ and B are as \/i^ and \/F. therefore Cg is ecjual and parallel to Bb.B. PROP. HD About the diameter AID deand from its center . Whence. alfo draw LP parallel to MD. draw HMh. The triangles CDG. the time of one vibration. GE. XL. it is aJ : AD :: bd: HD. that becaufe arb. Cor.

.which is the ac2.) the relative weight on For the dcfcent through HD is H GD cclerating force along . I. and vclocitic* 2. XXXVIIJ. " Whence locitica . reciprocally . or zCD Td^ or as BD FD .54 I r c.. in the fame time. I'top. by com: pofition it is. the length of the pcmJulum. 'xill always be as the whole arches . lEDt wirli the velocity acquired IX And f. Therefore ex cquo.. XXXVjl.D. And as the time ED whole time in HD MD femi-circumference MI. And (by Cor. therefore. will be as the length BD from the bcttom. or the tangent at B) rr> BD. VI. .) -. (. the time Therefore it will be. or time of one vibration :: diameter jV/Z) : circumference UD — ED : 2MLD. always the fame. -- Nn _ :r 2y/MD x MN : Nji . the vcgiven. and in any arch I ID. XXXI. yind in unequal arcbts the -jelociius generated. end the- farts defcribedy and tbofe to be defcribed. and (by Cor. And 2FD is (being the radius of curvature in D) . Cor. are ptrformed inequal times. the acceleratrje force at any pcirU B.ncc dcfcribc (by Cor. VIBRATION (^y ^°'''• or PENDULUMS. Again.) the times are as the fpaces direflly. and BD=iDG. as time in Cc : is : as the fpace time : in Bi> :t Cc in •2 BlxxrGg : :: CD GD : or s/CoVDE x :: y/CD : ^DE :r :: \/DN y/DM\ by fimilar triangles. as time ED in time in the arch lib MD :: arete : M!. Hifice all vibrations great and /mall.) ic would. as :: lime of defcribing 2 ED : : time in Cc :: —J- - : MD or i^MD . is equal to theAnd fince the time of defccnding through time of defcending through Db : and (by Prop. the is equal to the time n the ditime of defcending through Df^. Therefore.. in any two arches. is that is IS as GD FD . or as GD u r irn bccaufe FD as ND .r. by fjmi^ lar triangles. i-'rop. defcribed. . A-llo (by the nature of the cycloid) the the point tangent at 5 is parallel to GD. rr. the accelerating force being always as the «iillancc from the bottom. ameier FD. time ED time ^/MNx dm : in Bb :: : 2 y/j\W :: : Mi\ x : DN N/i^DM :: or 2NL Kn in MD : LI. HI. wherever is taken. in i'rop. the lime of in i:s fall. GD. therefore as the tine of t:nie irv tailing through half the length of the pendulum FD UDh. the velociticj it arc as the fqoare roots of the heights therefore will be. when the velocity is given. Prop.

vibrates once in a fecond . 3. 2. that at the jurface of the earth.iife BH—iDE. For the imies of vi raiiori «re . If the axis FD and fo point hngth of the pendulum VD he made double the and yJRf^. X 3. by the nature of the cycQ.Seft. therefore time of a body's falling through —-— — 3. Hence alfo it appears from experiments on pendulums. and thejquares Oj the times of vibration.1416 FD or lil-J inches. Ail this follows from the nature of the cycloid. Cor.p i c. IV. the H "Will defcrihe the cycloid lotll AHDha -. y/DTF^^^DW-.. re. f laced that the vertex (as DJ be at A and a. the velocity generated . Prop. XIV\) the fquare of the velocity in as B .. and DB = 2GD.. he t-xvo femi-cycloids equal to AHD. will be as tliefe force. ML. to the Cor. or ftorten". int And confequently (by Prop. and makesit return fooner. if ihe matter be given. time of defcenf in HD^ is the arcb 3.) 2 the fpace fallen through cne fecond will be-iiiii 2 feet. and the velocities generated. XIV. m For it is lum 39. FD. . the tiifie.ndulu?ns of the fame quantity of matter and any lengths. diff. of 1 6 Ti Englijh feet nearly.circumference MLD. And (by Cor. fcribed. Cor. Hence id ifp. found by obfervatinns vipon clocks. 55 generated every moment. 5.rcnt i trees of gravity. a heavy body is. and the time of its vi' half the bralion be 3. takes off fonnething from its al'ccnt. Prop. that is.ill dcfcer. 141 6 X ti''ns of falling through length of the pendulum. their lengths will a Yet pendulum vibrating f be as the forces of gravity.1416*— 193. as Cor. And confcquently the I'paces defcribcd.arV. that MD-ND.0913 in vibrating than a clock. 'Tbs time cf defcent in is as HB. V. cloid DF is given. Then the pen.n a tliven ratio to the times of delcent through half the knj^rh of the pendulums. 'The velocity of the pendulum in any point B. in any time. Cor.d through afpats one Jecond cf time.096 inches r: 16. is to the fc mi. or i.. is as s/'HBxBDk. 4. and or ^^'~!:'^^ Dh or DH'-DB' bec?. iulumVH vilratifig betwten the cycloidal cheeks ARV. and the parts continualJy de. 6. freely will be fomething longer becaufc the palate wheel of the clock ading againft ir. For (by Cor. arV. will be as the whole arches v and therefore llie parts to be delcnbed will alfo be as the wholes. locities VIBRATION OF PENDULUMS. that a pendu13 inches long. as the whole arches. t^e ailed oh h_.. MN. .

if it vcight . Ccr. u-hiih as the arch the fine TN times cf ail vibrations Will be equal. whether ^reat or lefs. and IT tangent to t!>e circle in T . that there are vacui:ics or empty 7. 72" =: arch TR : that is. vibrate xn the fame timt-. th. The tri72"dirc(5llv accelerates its motion in the circle TR. the force TT is as the arch to be defcribed TR. the quantity of matter were true ttiat there is an abbodies of the fame bulk muft be of equal.) the Ipicc dcUcnded is as the velocity and time. At. Then the force TZ will be rcrolvcd Of which 2"Z. VI. / -. arch TR therefore but (by fuj'polition) 'TZ TA . But the force does not at all change the motion of the body. that is. j the velocity and time being given.-ic force and fquare of ihc time. tR.. or PENDULUMS. Zrr are fimilar. Therefore they will dtfcend through half the lc:igrh r\ the pendulum in the fame time . be a^ed en in the fever al points is to T^ by a force tending perpendithe uniform force cf gravity : cular to the horizon. acling in direction AT. 8. the velocities generated in equal times. in dcfccnding bodies is as the force and time i and (by Prop.: TY:TN\ a. 7. PTatcd 5*3. be as the forces T2\ as the arches TR. Frc m the tmlion of pendulums it alfa follorv!. V. For from any point T draw TZ perpendicular to the horizon. be let fall together from : : : : TN the points T. into the two TT. Heme it alfo follows. is as For all is the weight of the body. 57' XLT. draw Zi" perpendicular to 72". is tj circle TR^.t Thtrcforc half the length is as t'. of the prnduliim. arc as the velocities that is. 2'Z. folute plenum. ic For us tuet^Lt.tain. PROP. whence ihc Icnjjth is as the force and fquare of the time of vibration. is as the force. V '^ pendulum AT ofdllates in a 7R.) fpaccs in bodiis. as the wholes to be dtfcribcd . equal velocities in the lame time 1 hcicforc (by Prop. and conl'equently would acquire.56 p 1 VIBRATION n. angles /ITN. and TZ-TA . which contrary to all experience. and let JT cxprels the uniform force of gravity. fince (by Cor. and fquare of thr time of d-Iccnding half its length . that in any cne placet theminntity of matter in any body is preport tonal to IS (tnain !ri"-m experience that whatever quantities of matter they cor. defcribed.Il t\. 7he and in the mean time . to be But the parts dcfcribcd at the beginning of the j moat tion. w. pendulums of equal lengt'-. Cor. the quantity of matter is as the force of gravity. Therefore if ^T. 7'Z the variable force at T .

will be deibribed in equal times and vanifh together .7. and the fmall arches of both will be defcribed in the fame time .'. only here we take twice the For AR is Jengthof the pendulum and half the circumference. nerated. And therefore the parts to be defcribcd.Scd. deicribtd. being every where as the velocities Chey ate dcfcribed with. 1. Hptcc if a pendulum vibrates by the force of gravity only^ the times of vibration. and therefore the parts which remain to be ^ . the vibrating body is fuppofed to be very fmall. 2. For the gravity at T being lefs than the ifocronal force.'::. that i5.. the body will be longer in defcnbing that arch. as will appear in the VI. . which cornea to the fame thing.. S C H O L. • . in very fmall different arches. the point to which the length of the pendulum is meafured. Eut lefs the time of vibration in larger arches. mil be very nearly equal. 57 at the beginning. Therefore the velocities geparts. are alio as the wholes. '•. Prop. and is called the center of ofcillation. Seftion. and the parts to be dcfcribed. is For a ratio in fmall arches the ratio of the arch to the cord tteady of equality. j^R together. is not in the middle or center of gravity of the body 9 but in another place. are always as the wholes. and the parts dclcribed with thefe velocities. is greater than the time in arches of a circle. . by Cor. the time of one vibration is to the time of a body's falling through tivice the length of th pendulum^ as half the circumference Cor. the radius of curvature of a cycloid.. c. Cor. % - I. IV. Cor. Hence alfo if of a circle to the diameter. the force TZ mujl — - x gnwity. as exprefled by Prop. whofe axis is 4. XXXIX. XL. 4. the two bodies ofcillating will arrive ac the perpendicujar Cor. VIBRATION OF PENDULUMS. 3. a pendulum vibrates in the fmall arch of a circle. Therefore the circle and cycloid coincide at i?. In thefe propofitions. and the fubfequent accelerations proportional to thele . Hesce that the vibralions^ in a <ird{ may be ifocrcnal be =. that is. But if it be of any determinate bignefs.AR. and is therefore confidered only as a point. tyc.

to lums. that if a pendulum vibrates feconds in aa it may be computed.-/. by the theory of minutes that the dock gains or penduthreads or revolutions or raifcd up. that tlir fame pcntlulum is longer in in a large arcli of a circle clian in a Imall one. And -. by vibrating in the arch. 'I'hen 3 t x CC—cc will be the feconds loft in 24 hours. and you put «=: number of threads of the fcrew con» tained in an inch. and c be the cord of <j. the cord of whofe half is C. that the bob \)Qit feconds. And if a pendulum vibrates fcconds in an arch za. down . and C be the length ot inches of the extremely Imall arch cord of any arch //-. SECT. It or PENDULUMS.58 y I VIBRATION n. loles in ^zitimc in it 24 hours.bf'j!. or of half the whole arch. Alfo if the bob of fuch a pendulum c^t be fcrewed up or down. . j^. that —i- «y will be the is number of to be let of the nut. vibrating has been proved. then 3 i CC will be the Icconds lofk in 14 hours by vibrating in the arch 2. Then follows.

the body will be fuftaincd by the points R.[ 59 . the center of gravity of a bcdy perpendicular and this perpendicular falls ivithin the bafe upon which the body refls. Of the center of gravity and its properties. to the horizon C A Let S E I. the body laill ft and 5 but if it falls without the bafe. moveable about R . and fuppofe the body to be fupported only upon the line RC. and therefore it will (land. be drawn from . perpendicuLir to the hod\ dw RC. S.). there will be nothing to fupport the body j therefore it mutt necefl'arily fall towards D. PROP. . and as this motion does not oppole the other. S. Case IT. 12. together with the line RC will endeavour to drfcend C be the center of gravity. I 55. Jf a line XLII. Alfo. Now take away DC. V. 3 Ccr. and remain at reft upon DC. the the body will be in equilibrio. then (by Ax. ihe bale riz)n. and fuppofe .] S E C T. And the fame is true of every two D -. the body and the line CS will endeavour to defcend from the pofuion CS towards but as thefe two motions oppofe each other. But if CD fall without the bafe. alfo the body C and line CS will endravour to defcend towards D likewile . it willfall down. 8 ) the body AB. whole body fufpended at the point C. for the fame reafon. falling within CD BEFG ^ ' °' 5»* from the pofuion RC towards D. then the line RC and the body at C will endeavour to defcend towards D . oppofite points R. then (by Def.

is reciprocally as the quantity of matter in it.m is cut by aline drawn from the center cfgravity pcrpendicuiar IV the horizon.ncd by any leaver or beam. C AB B. o K GRA V I T Y. 12. grr. if the perpenfall without^ dicular CD fall within the bafe \ but if will roll dovi-n. : : Cjr. the common center cf gravity of them all.vity. its place is at the p in: where the he. Cor. and the dyiance of either body from the common center of gravity. And the difctnt of a body miift be fjlimatcdby the dtfcint of its center of gravity. PROP. 3.. Let A. 19 the common center of gravity of all the rejl . the lefs the bafe. B be the centers of gravity of A and to be an inflexible right line. common center of gravity of two bodies A. and it . flands. is in the right line drawn from the center ofgravity of any one. the fi'mer the body wiUfland. that if the center of f^ravity of a bedr is fupportid. or leaver and -. the whole Utnceit fcllsws. 50. Prop. B thofe bodies (by def. and fuppofe C the fulcrum.i(a-j:urs to defcend with. XIX.. it. upon whiih a body the firther wiihtn it the center of gravity ties. I If there be never fo many bodies.6o r I C EN T E R G Cor. 4.) ^C" CB r.) will be in equilibrio. If a body be laid upon a plane GF. B. fo much the eafitr be moved 4. and it one end F grait dually raifed up. he fupportfi. And confcquently (by Cor. I. 2- All the grcvity of a is body.. Hence alfo the larger the bafe is. or thf force it en. Tl>e XLIII. AaI the ctntf (f%t"Vttj My /l:d if it be of the body mufl be efleemed the place of the body. is in the right line joining their centers cf gravity . the body wiUJlide down the plane. On Cor. and the contrary. or the it is to lefs the center of gravity falls cut of its place. . fuflains the and therefore whatever fuilains lie center of whole weight. colle£ied into tie center of gravity. divides . Then if C be the center of gravity of the bodies J. fufla. within 60. and the more diffitull to be remned. B A. Cor.

will P^ m Px f>+o ExE+rFxF—Ak xA—Bl xB. If any plane be vity C. reciprocally as that body to 6i divides this line into ihefum fig. Jlre!ght leaver D. 2. Cor. then will C : D :: DE : CE. Butbecaufe C is the center of gravity be of the bodies. ^ j ^ of all the rejl For'le: D cf the bodies. g. 62. or their difference. B. if on contrary fides . XX. &c. For the of its body muft be eftimated by the diftance center of gravity. is equally true for any plane whatever. £. therefore (By Prop. Prop.B^cC+RCx E+RC—fCx F—aL—RCx A —bC—RCxB. F. its difiance thefum of the produtis if they are cf each body multiplied by all on one fide . from that plane. Then (by Cor. B. AF. And on for mure bouies. E. Iffeveral bodies A.Sedt. CENTERofGRAVITY. be in equilibria upon a Cor. PROP. therefore we have dCxD + eCxE=fCxF fnDxD+oExE+rFx F—AkxJ—BlxB=RCxA+B+D+E+F. afid each body be mul- tiplied by the dijlance fum of its center of gravity from that plane . fuppofe the plane and the bodies to be put into any oblique pofuion. the theprcduSis on each fide are equal : Ax^C+BxbC-\-FxfC of dillance of a —DxdC+ExeC. This Prop. For Cor. be XLIV. B. F. D. I. . be another body. Th^s dC-\-KCy. thtn the fidcrum C is at the common center of gravity of all thofe bodies. two parts. Cor. and let C be the center of gravity. A.) -i-aCxA+bCxB. D. drawn perpetidicular to the horizon-. Draw lines perpendicular and parallel to the plane P^as in the fig. P^ 5. or dCx D+eCxE-'fCxF—aCxA—bCxB-\RCxD + E + F+A+B. and if any plane If there be feveral bodies. and let B and fo J be placed in C. of any tmmber of bodies drawn through the common center of graA. is equal to thefum of all the bodies multiplied by the difiance of iheir common center ofgravity from that plane. all the diftances will remain the fame as before.) the force of all th-^ bodies to move the plane about R. 2. V. XIX.

or RC^A+b^D + E-irt. Ccr. as And anycne of them center of gravity EC bei:g produced. f tbc place uhere If a. B.-i. Thefim of the forces cfa fyjlcm of bodies is the very fame^ OS if all the bodies were colle£led into tbetr common center of gravity.xC.. the J urns of the produ£ls on eaclftae are equal. CD. 6.r:. refl. and exerted tleir fever al forces there. AnJ therefore if feveral r. 3. B. -whcfc quantities and direilions are C. u. And to the center of the fame is true of any forces wbat:ver.-iil pafs through tie G of all the Since .• SA'xA+SB'xB + S^. For the fum ot" all the forces arc . true for the furfuce of a fpht. a given quan- And the bodies not all fame holds in one pLne. 63. 12 . circle be fyflem of bodies A. of a and any point iS be taken at pie jure in the . Bb. XLV. circumference . 13. defribed about the center of gravity G. H. I'. For draw SG.ei wll be forces ail in parallel di>e£lions. ^c. Then (by Kurl. C:=. 4.-ep one another in equilibria : I fay C is common center of gravity of all the points //. and the Cc. lie nee alfo the fum (or difference) of the produlls multiplied by its dijtancc the center of gravity. then tity. Ccr. :. If there he fveral forces in one plane.62 F I C E N T E R G. on which let fill the perpendiculars Aj. it atls. CB. E.. and all But (by Cor. with rega d gravity of thofe forces.o. aHing againfl one another in the point C. CEy the CF . of from any plane each particle of a body whatever^ is equal to the whole body mu!:iplifdb\ t>e diflance of its And if the plane pajs through center cf gravity from that plane. C .) the left are given quantities.) SA B :>CxC= xA+S6x + <(j'-\-GA--i'2 ^GxGaxA-\-iKj' + GB' — 26UxG/^x B + SC'^ Gax^—GbxB+GcX CO+TSGxGcxC. and if they k.iDxD+o£x£. D. 5. PRO ^4. to. Ccr. Cor. the fum of all thife equivalent to one fingle force \ and their ci^mm'^n center of gravity. C. o K G R A V I T V.

B. on the other. B. afted on by thefe forces then (by Cor. and the fum of the products RaxA+RdxE>=RbxB-{-KcxC—Rex : E\ and from the contrary PFhere any produii Ijtng the contrary -j:ay R^ muji be taken negative.f. Ca. Bb. 5. or 4CG. by Ax. number of points A. B. Aa. the cffedts. Then Now as the point any torce AC is divided into two Aa^ aC. XLVI. E. fum of the forces it 63 G. C is in equilibrio. 1 1. E. The fum of all the perpendiculars on one fide. And F. I. D. itieir center RN D . Cf. a. Since the lanje all CENTER EC will deftrov OF its GRAVITY. ii. B.) the effcft of the forces A and ading at a and d. B. liiredlicn. Bb.iaxi+BbXi—Ddxi+Ffxi. A C is the center of gravity of IfG be the center of gravity of A. fide of C. on the other — Cor. Cor. XLIV.. on one let fail the Upon EC fide. That is. the center of gravity of the bodies A. Bb^ Dd. (and alfo of all the bodies) Again it follows from the equilibrium of is in the line E'\ the forces. D. all the perpendicular forces Aa. are equal to if all 1 thole Dd. is the fame as if they both adicd at O. V. and kept tn equilibrlo . D. on one fideirfum Cd. the bjdy be fuppofed to be fufpended A. i^c. then EC— CGx Prop. i by Ax. D. by 2. Ff. E. on the other ftdi. C. A. &X. and if any plnneRhl be drawn from any point R : The fum of theforces on each fide are equal. Bb fum Dd. that fore if EC+aC—Cb + Cd-\-Cf. For fuppofe to be the plane. And the fum ot their diftances CE. F -. B. in the parallel direiti ns Aa. C. For £C= Cb + Cd+ Cf—Ca-CGx^+B + D + F. b. Prop. on the other fide of EC. Then ^\ncc. XLIV. A+DzuB+C-^E. d. D. And there- the body F- be fufpended at th: points E. C is their center of gravity. If a body be a£ied on by feveral forces A. '^ the forces are in equilibrio. Ff. Sea. aftirg againft and act againft ' in Ime of perpendiculars Ja. Ff. Cb. PROP. F.

Bb.divided into tiie two pa. and in difeHiom refptSlrcely parallAto the former to For. tE. by Ax. are out of this plane. all thefe are equal. at thrjr center of jjiravity which. an equal. may do . qB. fnrces ailing in the plane.C. contrary. If a body FGlIi be at reft whitjl it is ailid upon by fcViTal forces. the other perpendicular to i: And finc« t. becaufe is the center of gravity the lame as if And all they ad^-d -. as well asoi/. by tie famefirtes^ from any one point. For fince it is the lame thing whether any force y/ act. And therefore. and E. I.'es rr. then if the obtiquc i'orcepA h. cr in different planes ailing // wiUftii'l be in eqitiUbric. 6+ J . The fum of the ri-ciitn^tes en eachfide. 3. afting at ^. And as the parts perpendicular to this plane. m equilibrio. But where the points he. The ftims cf the ccntroryfcrces dii^cSUon m the line RN are equal. sD. at will A at F. therefor? (by Prop. RfxAa + Rs X Dd:=i RqxBb-i-RrxCc + Rtx Ee. we fuppofc it to afl at /? -.. are drawn j thin Ifay^ ^I Dd—Bb $f be fum of the perfendicular forces on each fide are equal. (jfc. /la-^+ Cc + Ee. ^^ tHrft of 5. RN q. one part and both afting in the lane. the forces parallel and perpendicular RN.ie.hen the direcf jrccs tions of any of the extraneous forces •. or ar p. of /f and Z).D-\-C-\-E. : m: different faults. in the fame plane. the rellar. is ilir fame point 0. f^-\-qbzzrc-k'sd-\^te. alfo kept one another in cquihfcrio ac firft. the body will be b6. either in the lame p!ui:e. whofe quantities and dinilicm a> e pA. J . •. And'OikiH tic contrary in-ay f) om R. a A. is o tlit F C R A V I T ^'.gks mufl be negct.. for the quantity of force. r. Ccr. they will do the fame dill. in tbi fame plane. yi-^Dz=. And v. rC. if XL! \'. and tie perpendiculars yia. C E NT E R y center of gravity. The rell follows from this Prop.) Raxy^+RdxD=R0x7r+D=K0xB + C-fL = I<l'xB + lic xC— RcxE. 9. In rclpcift to their plices. and the fame for the then the fum of all the forces pa mull be equal to thtf rcll fum of all the contrary for. 2. fc?f. bccaufc the body is unmoved. froni atiy p int R. cutting any line dreun in the body at p. C. the body is at reft. becaufe of the equilibrium . Cor. r. 2. they wrll •. And on thi! thcfc forces be equal. n. £. will remain the fame as before'. ail thcic be reduced to others. by Ax. kept one another in equilihrio at flrit. ^':d if a body be kept in eqttii.hio by feviral frees aSing and in different JireHions.'ic thefe remain the fame in quantity as before.

.r k 4i> .^ •^ ^ ^ ./ V.

r .

of gravity of an irregular plane figure. and the point of interfe£}ion is the center of gravity. and draw the plumb line ECF. 3. I.) whence the diftance of the center ofgravityfromtheplane. And if the diftance be in like manner found from the plane TV. 2. plane zz then the dijlance of Sum of all the dp' ^ cenier of gravity from from that —. all center of gravity of a fyjiem of bodies. V. p a fiy particle in its it. IFhen this does not happen in will be moved feme way or other. and draw another plumb line through E.+Cx(j§-. CxCc. then the fiim of the forces y^'x^^ % draw perpendiculars g to this plane. at E. 55^ moved Cor. by the firing AEB. C. Cc + ^X Bb+CxCc mu{i be = y^/^. at the diftances Aa. C. XIX. from the plane. < Let b be any . 3. Let G be the center of gravity. do CE NT E R F GRAV1T Y. XLIV.5 Sed. B. the correfpondent redangles will be negative. body. perpendicular to ST. the body in the fame point. B. the power of all the bodies fituated in G (by Prop. F 65 I the fame when applied to their or to any other point.^ an of the bodies be fituate on the other fide of the plane. b 62. the centei. be all reduced to that plane-. d its diftance a given plane :. Bb.) the forces of J. PROP.B + C . To find the xLvn. Bh. will be AxAa. A. ts ^i^«. K Cor. and their centers of gravity fall all planes. and from the bodies. Cor. Draw any plane ST. Prop. common center of gravity G. If feveral forces aSJing after any manner keep a body unand airy plane -what ever be drawn \ and the vagrant forces . Cor. are fa pendicidar forces on one equal to thofe on the other . Cc. BxBb.thatisG^ where if = ^^X^+BbxB + CcxC A-\. centers of gravity of the then (by Cor. Ja. To find Sufpend it Then [ufpendit by another point of the firing as D. the point G will be determined by making the parallelogram TG with the refpcdive diltances from thofe planes. to interfeSi CF . then all the fide. .

If two lints be drawn from two angles of a triangle. pace. G.— 66 r I CENTERofGRAVITY. middle of the oppofite fides. lay the center ofgravity vf the board upon the edge cf a prifm \ and lay the body upon it. x height of For the fegment cf afphere.arch : : radius : center of gravity from the center. to the I. 2/" ^x PROP. ^9- The centers of gravity of feveral planes and folds have bcCB determined to be as follows. the cone and pyramid. o. 8. their common center cf gravity will either bt at reft^ or move uniformly a right lifiCy Ca/t . anii prifm. the centers of gravity of the triangles ADB. IS 4 of the axis. 2. CDB J8C. The center of gravity of i right line. jiDC. to intcrfcct in 0. the diftance of the center of gravity from . the point of interfcftion is the cenTherefore the ditUncc of the center of gravity ter of gravity. as 4. Iji the vertex 9. parallelagram. till it be in equilibric upon the board. Then draw £G. circle. 3. the centers of gravity of dividing it into triangles. For the parabolic f diftance of : : from the vertex . the diftance of the center of gra-vity from the vertex is A of the axis. and F. H. let r the fegmsntv then the diftanceof the center of gravity from the fir — — vertex zx IS i — x. For the arcb cf a its \ arch : fine of T. In & paraboloid. /•//. 6Ji. is in the middle. In a Trapezium ABCD. If in XLVIIL two or more bodies move uniformly in any given direilions. the diftance of the center of gravity 6. as arch tancc of its center of gravity from the center. and remove it backer forwards. the center of gravity is found by Find £.radius dif5. 7. cylinder^ -. S C H O L. is 4 ot the axis. is -\ of the line bifeding the oppofite fide. 3. Cor. the center of gravity of the Trapezium. radius. cord :: 4. from the vertex. For the/(f"cr of a circle. T'o find the center of gravity of a flexible body : lay it upon J board ivtofe center cf gravity is known.

and DHKL a parallelogram. to or from right line. moves uniformly \ to which adding or fubtrading the uniform motion of that fpace the center of gravity will . the planes DdA. Let the paths of the bodies yf5. produce JB to d. EeB in Let one body be E rcfpedively. Then and the diftance increafes divides the diftance.iB^or and draw EP. will and DP be PE in PE : DP PL DPL or given. in regard to that fpace. V. AB^ HK are in a given ratio. Cafe i. therefore that center moves uniformly. A. •. and given by becaufe all K moves uniformly along the right line HK. the center of gravity. 69. Let be their center of gravity. Let one body ftand in a ftill. DLE DE. when one body is in D and £. and die other move diredly fince the center of gravity -. HK parallel to DL. and therefore the angle BHK\% the center of gravity pofition. and are given. But is to PL in the given ratio of BE to BK. f i fj c. therefore all the angles of the triangle to EDP a given ratio. Cafe I. that is. pofethe other body likevvifc to move in the fame right line. AB. and through DE draw the plane DdeE perpendicular to Bde.. Ee be {jerpendicular to de. then the body at will J and D D K2 by . when in £) and when in K and B. and K Fhcn DE is to . CE it NTER o F GRAV I T Y. Let the bodies rrove in one plane. and therefore the angle PDL. DL given in pofnion. if one of the bodies B moves from £ towards A. when the other is in were to move in </(?. in a given ratio Now fupuniformly. always in the right line the angles of the triangles DPL. DL. and any quantity of fpace to move along with it then fince the body is relatively at relt in this fpace. Now if be perpendicular to the plane and B. And all the angles in the triangle are are given. and KL parallel toJB. and make BP=:AD. 71^ Through Then edB. by fimilar triangles by the property of the center of gravity therefore is to in a given ratio. BE. and fince the < EDP given. planes.Sea. let the orher be in A and B And refpeftively. and confcquently the point is K HK given. Cafe ^. and draw HK. therefore the lines D/'. DE. : Therefore the point L is And by the nature of : Therefore DH = And D^: D/^ LK^ whence EB EK is : PB DA: LK. : : always in the line the center of gravity. {till move uniformly. in the diretflions Produce their lines of direition till they meet in D. and let Dd. H DP in the given ratio of the motion of the bodies is . And the demonflration is in the fame manner. DE be in different the path AB draw si plane Bde parallel to the path DE. -o.

the center of gravity would move uniformly aJong fomc right lini.68 F I CENTERofGRAVIT^V. bccaufe the common center of gravity of any two afling mutually.lid:: BK Ke :) Bk kE. BK moving in JB. and as action and rcadlion are equal. c. two may which before moved uniformly a right line . then the center of gravity is at reft in that fpace. Now. fince their diftanccs from their center of gravity are reciprocally as ihe bodies. Likcwilc Dd eE or Dd A'^ therefore I/b : lib : : — M : J/I : -. das net change center of grain ty of tiuo or more bodies. and the nature of dicular 10 HBK. as if they did not a6t at all upon one another . third thefe is The common center of gravity of two bodies. bE : Cafe 4. a right line . before the actions of the bodies upon one anoiher .HK\ through I IK ereft ttic plane lIKkb perpenThen by fimilar triangles. therefore the center of gravity will ftill remain at reft. by Cafe ad. if two bodies mutually a(fl upon one another. 71. or and then the center of gravity Likcwife the common center of gravity of three bodies and a fourth. The common its jtate XLIX. Suppofc any fpace in which the bodies arc inclofed. will move unilormly ia -. and therefore is at reft in this Ipace. of motion or refi. jib JjD:: {/IH -. by any anions of the bodies amor. And l:k is the path of the center of gravity of the bodies : : : Kk. and k!: is equal and parallel ro//^. PROP. DE. is at reft: and the aflions of all the bodies being the fum of the anions of every two. therefore the centcrofgravityofthe bodies 'moving in ABjpE) moves uniformly through the right line bk. and fo on. : : : -. it is evident the tenter of gravity of all the bodies remains the fame. or moves uniformly forward along wi:h ic C»r» . moves uniformly m ot the three will move uniformly. upon each other. the center of gravity. for be put into the place of their center of gravity. to move uniformly along with the center of gravity of the bodies. and a cither at reii. the bodies will approach or recede from that center by Ipaces which are in the fame ratio . And in a fyftem of feveral bodies.g tktm^ felveSy or by any forces tbey extrt upon one another.

Let the bodies. b . ox Aax^—BbxB. be moved in any diredion with any velocity ti. and the bodies move in contrary diredtions. Cor. bCa. the motion of each body in that diredion will be greater than before. Now let the fpace and bodies moving in it. CENTERofGRAVITY. BC AC :: be ac . BCb. motion 69 fig.CAa. I. Alfo fince Aa Bb :: AC : CB B A. move round the center of gravity Cat Then fince A B :: the places a. are fimilar. moved with the velocity of their common center of gravity. tions is now vA+vB or vxA-\-B. 2 . Therefore the motions oi A. Cor. is cf the motions of feveral bodies in any given direSfion. if it have any circular motion. or defcribe a parabola PROP. moved with the velocity of their center of gravity. its center of gravity vjill either ivhilji that . the motion of t4*ree bodies is the fame as the motion of common two of them.' 7»- circular motion. B. to : : : : : : : 72. ihe as the motion of all the bodies in the fame direction. therefore the triangles ACa.) the motion of the center of gravity is not altered. And fince the cohefion of the parts of the body retains the particles in one niafs. the common would move right line. in contrary direftions are equal. draw BCA. but through fome other point. V. it is manifcft. Therefore the fum of the moreft. together with the motion of the third '. . Thefum fame L. therefore Bb is parallel to Aa. For if every particle of the body retained the diftimSl firft impreffed on in a it . move in a right line. After the fame manner. Hence if a body he prcjeSled into free fpace^ if it have any this motion will be ferjcrmed uniformly about an axis paffing through the center of gravity. body revolves about an axis paffmg through the center of gravity. that is equal to the fum of the bodies x velocity of the center of gravity. And if a body be hurled into the air.Sedl. by the quantity of matter x velocity. Which it would be if the axis of circular motion did not pals through the center of gravity. center of gravity of the whole by the laft Prop. B. therefore (by this Prop. J. or their motion the fame way is o. and <bBc-=.

it the center of gravity is at the fulcrum. And univcrfally in any combination of thefe. : .) are reciprocally as their quantities and the diftance of the center of gravity from each. BD . AC. by fpaccs which are reciprocally as the bodies. PROP. to F . Cor.yo third-. of the ropes. is alfo at reft. and in the pulley or any combination of pulleys. ff the For continue the lines AC. If a heavy hody perpendicular body. or ef any fyflcm of bodies y mufi be ejlimated by the motion of the center of gravity. 73. the three. a right lint pajfng through the iuterfe^icn F. will always ke in the fame hori- zontal right line. then it is the fame thing whether the lines that fuftain the body. dicular velocities of the power and weight (by Cor. AB he fufpended by two ropes to the horizon.. ff two weights on any machine keep one another in equilibrio^ if they be any how raifed or moved by help ef the machine. or any machine whatever. For in the and therefore axel. LII. more bodies. will alfo pafs through the center of gravity C. In the wheel and neither afcends nor defccnds. all moved with (by what has been (hown) equal to the fumof ill the velocity of the center of gravity of 72. where the equilibrium continues the afcent and defcent of the power and weight being reciprocally as their quantities J the center of gravity neither afcends nordelccndf. CE that is NTER And lb for o F G RAV T I Y. aft at C and D. Prop. And the center of gravity of a body mujt be lakfn for the place of motion of any body. and therefore their center And upon any inclined plane. the weight and power approach or recede from each other. LI. the center of gravity of the weight and power. leaver. 4. PROP. being in the fame ratio. ' ' °' the three. The the body. the perpenof gravity is at reft. XXXIII. or BD .

) the centhereter of orraviiy muft be taken fbr the place of the body fore the center of gravity G will be in the line FG perpendicular to the horizon. I. L. th. dy will not be fujiaincd. for the body cannot be fupported except the center of gravity Cor. from thi inter feklion it horizon. the line FH be drawn perpendicular to the will prfs through the center of gravity G. and GFA.) the body will ylFB is fufpended j. b. interfeft in a point F below the body .. does not pafs through the center of gravity . And it is the fame thing if AC. If any body whatever. 7. tffeight. 2. GN be irawn parallel to AC. CENTERofGRAVITY. therefore it is the fame thing as if the body was fuftained by the two ropes BF. the Hnes LIII. ut C and B andfrom the points . or as ibe fines of C and D. or any beam loaded with a be -j^l AB. BD. is by the planes at B. CF. Hence. the prejfure upon the planes CD. CD. Prop.Sea V. C. B. but will move Cor. the body will not rejt till it fall in that line. . the weight of the uBing at FN. 3. 'of I he body. if lody. Cor. direiJions or as thef. FB) perpendicular to the horizon. GFB. and body in the perpendicular directions BF. defcend as low as it can get . . AB . then fince (by Ax. DB and FG. are all in one plane perpendi' (tilar to the horizon. CF. then the whole weight. EG. and (by Cor. the fame diredions . fupported by two planes C. . Cor. be drawn -perpendicular to thefe planes. BF. 71 fuppofe therefore that the body p j or at F. and the angles JFB. The lines AC. are refpe^ively as FG. the forces G be in the perpendicular GF. Cor. 2. and F. and conlequently (by Prop. CF. laft) Fll will pals through G the center of gravity of the whole For fince the body fuftained thcfe planes re-acl againfl: the weight. . in ^' at F. If the line diculars till the center of gravity fall in that line. as BC.es of the angles BFC^ FG drawn (from the irterfe^ion of the perpenFC. If the center of gravity fall not in the line FG.. EF and in ihtfe very BFG. GN. If EG be drawn parallel to CF. a Cor. PROP. are refpeclively as FG. and CFG.

o . at G the center of gravity. EO. aSiing in dire£Itons AH. Hence if any other force in/lead of the weight aJI at G. to cut it in P j are refpe£Jively as FP. and from F drawing FB\ then B A perpendicular 4o ily U Hence if the fofttion of one plane Jhe other plane.• G R A V I T V. and GF perpendtcvhr to the horizon . //. OF. The pefition of fofit ton of the body CB. then I fay the weight of the bcdy. S C H O L. EP. the ether plane AB may be found. PROP. "\'I1. of PROP. And produced if FGP whoje center of gravity is G. Vol. OF. which therefore. interfil in \ then if OP be drawn . XXIX. all the reft they adl two and two at different pomts 0.C. of the fmall Ircatife of Mechanics. and CD and if AH. GP which therefore. 5. be drawn parallel to AO^ PC . PC.at the lines Cor. EP. in . are as OP. Becaufe the the lines line OP is unmoved. Alfo the point P is fuftained by three forces in the direftions PO. in the direction OP and PO. Bf^ be drawn perpendicular to the hjrizon. two of them muft be given. S C H O L. laft Some proved. will i>e refptUively <u direilion GP J-P. CD be given and the and Us center of gravity G. OB . Cor. hefufiaintd by C. £P. O-V. publifncd the Cyclomathcfis. are as OP.. . If a heavy body three forces LIV. But if five if forces «db in one plane. EO. CD. and if EP. P. well as fomc others. iy which the hodyaill be fuppor ted by drawing CF perpevdiailar to CD. B I produced. OF. 72 » I CEN TE R G. are equal and contrary. OF. the point . in one plane. may be found. 75. fition people have objcftcd againft the truth of the two as Propofitions. OE. HD.B. the threefor ca A. B-. C. And thr forces and P. ^ "4. B-. then the forces at PtA. FP : of which that in diredion FP is the weight of the body. though demonHrably But this arifrs only from their own ignorance of fee principles. If one of the forces be given. is fuflained by three forces in dircdions OP. . They that have a mind n-iay this in in the very Propo- dcmonRrated five or fix different ways Prop.

. AD AD. and Itt C be the center of gravity.V. /C's. or olid f GBDII. the line pqffing through the cer. If I. bafe. Therefore all the GS's. be cut by any plane AGH. EBDF it be any prifmatic folid evened upon a -plane AD •. &c arc as AB. CI. F I 73 G. and to one another. refpe^ively equal to the furface or folid EBDh. Dd. then will all the lines furface or io\\6BDdb Cor. and let each particle be placed on Then fince the force of any particle to move the leaver cuts it. Prop. — — GBDH Cor. Alfo if a curve revolves about any right line drawn through of gravity : the furfaces generated either by a partial or ( total revolution^ on cpp'fitefides oj the line. AC. and par did to the axis of the folid. Cc. Let BDdb be the figure generated.Se&.&'f. (by 3. PROP. vity of the particles. AC. AD. by planes perpendicular to the horizon. ^c. the furface or folid generated. Therefore the fum of AB. and the fum of all. and height equal to the arch defcrihed by the center of gravity. is refpeSiively equal to the furface or folid.ter of grcjity of the bafe. I fnall not demonftrate this geometrically by meafuring. But GB. that (by thisProp. that is. at B. DII i^-c. AD. : EG. thefe lines.//D's. AC. ^^^ Since the arches Bb. or the be divided into an infinite number of equal parts. £D. I. and parallel to the axis And imagine AD to be a of the folid. where its plane leaver. AB.) -BDFE. AC. — therefore all if CI:=. CENTER of GRAVITY. r= whole furtace or folid BEFD.&c. fum of all And becaule C is the center of graall. Cor. that is. v)hofe bafe is the line or figure given. DH. HD. L For . AD. AD. Suppofe the periphery. or any plain fgure whether right- lined or curve-lined. and if ^g. IC. is I fay the furface. 2 its center - the arches Bb. ^c. C. If a line right or curve. is the BDHG. will be as AB. rz fum of as many times AC . CI. Cc.Cc.V. but to meciianicaJly by weighing them. cut off by this plane. Dd. revolve about an axis in the plane of the figure . ISc. is as that particle multiplied by its diftance from A. will be equal. whofe altitude is CI.) Therefore the forces of the equal particles D. On the bafe BCD erecfl the furface or folid BDFE. that as BG. are as the is radii. . (becaufe the parts of the bafe are civen) yfCxbafe. as the XIX. That is the whole furface or folid whole bafe x IC.

plied by the dillancc of ''' its be equal on b )th fides. For by Cor 2- Prop. SECT. 2. O. equal to the curve multiplied by the ati h dflcnbe-i at that dillance j and thcfe arches (being (iinilar) arc . XLIV. cjch furfue generated. .s thcfc dillances. Whence each lurface is as the curve multiplirc! by the diltancc is each part ot the curve multicenter o( gravity from this line.74 F I CENTERofGRAVITY. ot its center of gravity : and therefore they arc equal. mufl And by Cor.

r. perpendicular to the axisat S. and their moand thefe motions are as their . the motion generated in the -will fyftem. Of the ration. q. SC.andfince ^ : SP p+q+r=f oA . B. B. Whence p. B. r.. C will be aded on refpeftively with P^ . q. f. And fuppofe the force / divided into the parts ^. and if any force f can generate the abfolute motion m in a given time . the J. f : m : fxAxSA ^n^AxSA ^ s s ^^^. perpendicular to PS . LVI. SB^ SC — ' r. BxSB. C. /"• P. SP SP q. XIX. // the fame fore. confidered "withcut zveight.[ 75 ] SECT. a£l at - c.) the bodies J. Then ^j.. . Therefore. VL and gy~ dilation^ centers of percujfioii^ of PROP. Since the angular motion of the whole fyftem velocities of is the fame. adling feparately at P to move A. in the fame time^ revolving about the axis at S. Then (by Cor. B.^^ ^^ ^_ ^f^^.. the lorces r — SA^ SP ^ *. CxSC S'P SP SP p. C. 3. and to the line of diredtinn And 5/f.^e manner w'X L 2 ^SB. F r het then be any fyftem of bodies A. and moveable about an axis paffing through 6' . ^^p be JxSJ+ Bx SB AxS'J' + CySC + BxSB^'-i-CxSC' For fuppofe PS perpendicular to the axis at 5. r. C. SB. are as tions as generating forces AxSA. Prop. :/: force d2<^^ at Jji^^^p. SC. And : ^Zp-f2L4^^ s ading A. q. SJ. are as AxS£ BxSJ^' SP SP ' C>^S(? „hefumofthefe = . SB.

that is is as^ or '"^^ A X S. • For the motion generated thcfc rwo cafrs.inany force f.. dijfir>. no. generated. If you make SO = -———-L. and the ra- dius or dillance reciprocally. as there -u-'ould ht^ in a finglc body placed at P. doling at P. the angular of the fyftem and body will be . if all the hcdics be placed be tie fame as before.+ BxSB'+CxSC' ST^ For let P r: that body.+ BxSB-. '!X£><£Cj^^j..Hence there iiill be the fame angular iclociiy generated and 'j:iih the fame force. Th^cforcihe whole motion generated m the fyltem is ^ xw. therefore the angular velocity of /^. and whcCe quantity of matter is AxSA. ptrpendicuLir to PS^is a given time. A = ^d2Sld. there comes ouc SO = AxS/i. by Cor. Cor. given.t^..^^^^^. the molten generated in the fyflem.JL but the angular vcleciiy will be in den in O. C^c. (becaufe m is as the force/). will be JxSA^ + BxSB-^CxSC XOT-. Cor. or the furn v'ill of all the abfulute motions-. s and the abfolute velocityof ^^ is = "L^-.„3. C.) velocities fince/and SP are /'.nt. I.i. as to the quantity of motion. 2. andconfequently of the whole fyftem. 2.+ Cx^C' AxSA+BxSB+'CxSC" velotity of any fjfiem A.76 CENTER fnylix^n of OSCILLATION.C'JI. :- ^c.„j^. T+lJTc^y "" ^^ and if chefe be fuppofcd to be equal. s but the anoular velocity as the abfolvite velocity dirrclly.+. then (by Cor. 7. as '^" fx ^-^ — r^r— in the fyftem. Z?. The angular "' sPxl Ax!iA'+BxSB-+ Cx SC^' For the angular velocity of the whole fyftem « the fame as But the ablolutc motion of is of one of the bodies A.

Which as_—-— \ -----«Siff. perpendicular to SO. and draw ea perpendicular. Cor.XLW. is as By.5/j BxSg. wemalrhave/'zz 1 — cdT—^ u r Cor. ^2£2<d±£EM+Bj!£. and. gemrated ly a uniform. force. mgfuppofed equal. from the axis of motion.t^ vjbicb fir iking an immoveable obje. ^c. and de parallel to. are not all lituated in that plane.. Ch. and Aad to SA. EucW . the fyflem Jhall incline to. A AySA A A B and C to turn the fyftem about O.— CENTER OF OSCILLATION. and And the fyftem being ftopt at O.) Likewiic the forces of Cor. To find the center LVII. if SO = ^l^<lp:^2<^^^^ AxSf+BxSg-tCxSbti^c th. Draw SGO. of percttffion Through the cenrer of gravity G of the fyftem. PROP.— /fx. and in the plane. SGxA+B+C by For AxSA'-+BxSB'+ Cx SC'zizAx SG' + GA'—zS G x Gf+ Sy. fall on the contrary fide of S. TMor. And if the bodies. iVe.A. but reft as it zvere in equilibria. will be a motion uniformly acceUrattd. SO ^ ^-SA + B xSB^ + CxSC^(^c SCxA+B + C^c. XIX. Eg.. "Where note. — -jj hetoo. of a fyflem of bodies. The is diflance of the center of percuffon from the center of. gravity G. I'he angular metton of any fyft em. is J x Sfx^O (byvolves aboui S.l. JfGbe the center of gravity of a fyflem of bodies A. neither ^de. Prop.AxSf+BxSg-^-CxSh^A+B-^CxSC.+ CxShxSO-Cx: SO=o.oy one another •.SG'+GB'+zSGxC^+CxSG^CG'-i-iSCxGf'.'ieanother. y^^ Draw make SO. will B. Cor. any points/. draw lines perpendicular to it from the bjdies. /if. ad:=. therefore Jx^fxSO-AxSA--+BxSgxSO-BxSB. 5.x SA\. Then aA will be the diredion of A's motion. 4.\s the force of / to turn the fyftem about O. h. 2. -Ax Sfx ^0-Sa-Ax Sfx SO .^. And :i6ts at a in direftion ea. GO ^ Forhy Prop. — —-I—-. draw a plane perpendicular to the axis of motion in 5. the correfpondent redangles muft be negative.SgxSO-Bx^B\iniS CxShxSO-CxSC And fince theforcers 3. the diftance of the center of percuffion from the axis of motiom^ is. the body urge ihc pomr a forward. And the force that is as wherewith ^ea or AxSf.. C. wi'h a fnrc proportional to its matter and velocity or Ax^d. that I. •.S/i. as it relet yf. to be- riG.rv f dcft. or the poir. C. be the places of tbcfe bodies let O be the center of percufiion. diftance of the center of percufTion. on the cotU'.

^ ^^.^——. But by the property ef the quantity of motion againfi P is Ax SA x or AxSA^ _^ like .) 60 c^C' X //+ B+C . B.d therefore if the flam of the motion remain the fame^ in rejpeSl to tte and the djiance SG remain the fame . atlin:^ againfi O. . the fyficm. i. . hodifSy alfo if //. .^ X G^' 4-C X 6T. 3.9 //• -f-ouz: .'/x <7//' -f. as Ay^SAx. SGxA+B+C. or the wbelt fbock agairtfl P. Ar. . then . 2. is AxSA'+BxSB' + CxSC -^ the —^ — — .lanccs from G.. Cor. and the angular velocity tb'' fame. 1 . by the molicn is the fame as it ivould be at G fuppcfing ail the boFor the fum ef placed in G. or of the whole fyfiem. or an obftaclepLdd there.^ . t3e. For the tiireclion of is in the line O the fame thing which point of the line OT and therefore is 01 llrlkes an obftadc. in the fyfinn. 1 or OSCILLATION". SA. Cor. 'i as cd SP. againft an obfiacle tbere^ V SC is — X ^ X fum ASP. In a body or fyfiem of bodies. In r of the bodies. SGx/1+B+C . "^il^li-— SO . C agamfl P are BxBC* .-.andthereforcCOisrcdprocaUyasSG. OT "xiU be it the locus cf all the centers of percuffion. The percufion or quantity of tbeftroke at O.C -8 / » I CENTER G II. j . the motions of A. 'Johere denotes tbt . yJ+8 + C Hence . XLlVQ-zyxOy+flxC/ X 5/?' +C' X ^C=:^/ 4-/^ + + /< + 79 X 6'G' + /^xG/Y. . ofO.— or I'O + 2 and I J. Cnr. SG be given. b.+ Dx(lB' + Cx(. Cx SC'V — —SP refl > therefore the fum of all. CO will be given alfo. 4. and ttere- fore are reciprocally as SP. be the velocity of 0. SGx/l+B+C Hen e >C X (^O = the given quantity ^^^'^^''± J-'2^^' + ^^^^'.o . Cor. SB'-yCxSCS? 'i-elociiy _SG ^^ ~ sF^ SOxA+B+C the fame as V. IfOT be drawn perpendicular to SO. B. C.l being given quaniities. the dtjiance of O from G will of dies reimin the fame a' jo.xC. /. ^+BxSBx—+cxscx^=iSGxA+B-i-C motion of scr A+B + denotes tte (by this Prop."/'=:oi there-tore /^X. and their di. the center of percuffion .l .7 c T> r n n manner the motions of B. But (by Cor. ofillating about a center 5. a^ing dgainfl G. velocity of A being denoted by . r. For each of the bodies arc given. . flreke at any point P. the foock or if quantity of th. Cor.) but C. 7. v a. 5. Prop. .C\ Whence (by Cor. C. But by this Prop. and tbat ts reaprocal'y . its quantity of melton is leaver its For the Ax SA.

—— Sg ^ . and alfoyfc". by ' . of motion be at 5. their weight.ch apoi>'t.. VI. LVIII. generate in thefyfttm LVI. + . perpendicular to Sr. CJ. -S.d with the fame angular velccity as the whJe body. 50. 2. XLIV. draw j'GO. that the center of ofcillation percuflion. (if^. I • — Sex A s . draw Ja. b. uf the laft Prop. with the center of 6. of the center J dillance of olcillation Therefore the from the axis of mo- tion _ AxSA' + BxSB' + CxSC--Scc. . — . SGxyJ+B + C SGxA+B + C^c AxSA^+Ex^B^ + CxSC^S^c ^ ^^. s all is gularvelocity generated by . ubich a body biing placed. a-. lib. that is zz —SexJ+SnxB-\-S^xC — — — s . BxSB'-hCxSC\ Then (by Cor. >>iXB . the fame Car*-. SdxC $ IS > and tne whole an- j . ProD.) the angular Let the axis 81.SrO: But their fore their and every part of them.. lie on the contrary fide of 5'. and the it fyf- appears by is Gor. a nwhence u reduction by . . when And axis a. .) / t' < ^ — Se x^+SnxB + Sdx C-SgxA+B + C. ju them L n • — Sex/i+SnxB + SdxC 1 s Likewife the angular velocity which any particle p. Likewife I. Sea. B.. and let O be the center of ofciljacion. pe' pendicular to SO. Put szz/ixS^'velacty which yi. — or t 80'- ^ SGxSO vibrations. is L pxSO. C. B. Gg. Or. are performed alike. . C. (^c. fince all thefe quantities are the lame at all elevations of the . and from the bodies A. SG SG X SO But (by Prop. fituated in O. perpendicular to which draw the plane in which the cen|er of gravity G moves. will vibrate in the fame time. . therefore the point O is rightly found tem has fuch a point as is required. . draw the horizontal line Sr. 79 PROP. or fv.^^^ ^ ^^ ^^_ Ax Sa+Bx + Cx Sc ^c SO = ^ St? muft be negative. becaufe of the fimilar triangle SgG.. generates or in the fyftem. CENTER OF OSCILATION. To find ih the center of ofcilhtion of a lyflem of bodies. by its weight. thereangular velocities muft be every where equal. Cc. SO=%x — Sex A+S?txB+ SdxC —^ / ^—-.

^ . q. ''rm 5. T. And the rcafon why the center of ofcillation or percuflion is not jU. refpe^.Jrom the axis of motion^ SO -„ — of all the py. 2. c. and p. — I Ct. dils • ^'* axisofmclten. the center cf percujfion j 4 fr holds ciua!'y true fer the center oj ofcillation. B. le ihe of oJcHlaliou of each.8o * ' CENTER °' Ccr. be large. I fViall jufl take notice. r. length. iating at a great diftance from the axis of motion. of OSCILLATION. is becjufc the bu'v in v. b..u-s olc. G.n u will olcillatc in the lead time poflfible. f fpeni \' Inch a and bang up a figli / it at the given making titm loth vibrate. 4.t in lie center of gravijy.. 2. the axis of moiion.\m zzc •=. of their H.it ion of tb* lody. U^bat has been dnncnflrjtcd in Ih.—. this z. irrev'' ''.-. and ihiiu/cre the center iM '.ances troin S rcfpectivcly.iys in tlie center of gravity.frC yixSa + BxSl>-i-CxSc I'ur let a. be made equal to \f yG/lxyf+GB'xB+CC-xC ~ — -_ ^!^ — . thy may k:ep tim: ::^ctber. ^. // the hcdus //.. tr. ' Then by Prop. that if the diftancc of the axis of fufpenfion from the center of gravity SG. 'J leu If p te f!>!y for tick of a toJy.hji Prep. is ID^i^C . To find the center cf ofcillation of an ' point. _ dp/l+ e>fB+frC " SCxT+lT+c' j-ariicles be any in A. that Then tbf en^th of this pendulum is equal to the diflance of the center Cor. r. S C H O L.n. Cor. ani SGx 1+bTc = Saxyi+Sl^xB+ScxC. "' clB. ibe a. r. _ ^_ ^^ ^^^^^^ frC \ andfumyyl/ z=. C. . the ctr. Then will the dijlame of centers of ojciilation^ from the center of ofcillaticn from S. and i\. />.vc dijtames of their centers of gravity. fum -i '- the (enters if gruvily and the dijlancc bf the ctnur of ofcilbiion oj the bod).. . 60 = dpI^eqRy. anJ a.tcr of olciliation or percuflion is in or very near the center of gravity. In vcTV fmall bodies. C. thcin h. r.^. di'' &c.iCor.bracT. the body •„ . or any boc. effuf^ cnfion fnm the center of ofcill. 3. 60 = fumAv^+rumvv^+fumzzf xxa g^^ (om SGxA+B + C zzdr>J./.0.

r=:radius. it > ^ t. and in the plane of rfiade to turn about a center. SC be the neareft diftances of the bodies A. particle. motion that I. as calculated by Cor. 6. wiihout any circular motion. that is §» SO^ - ^ U Car.^ diftance of the center of gyration at 5. f . 4 the radius nearly. the 8i. • — 2 Sd f» R O LIX. dz=..^. i. In a plane of a circle. as .. fmall parallelogram. is 50= ^ ^ ^xAS'+BxSB^+CxSC^ A+B+C Let b zz quantity of matter in any body ABRCS. orfucb a point 0.f i g. . about an 6R. tff Draw the plane P^ perpendicular to the axis rotation SR . move parallel to itfelf. from the axit of mof'^m of all the ddp Cor. I- 3. is as follows.) the angular velocity generated in the fyftem by the force/. aSiing at a certain placCy will in the fame time generate the axis fame angular velocity in the fyjiem. and in the fyftem placed m 0. Then (by Cor. "Where the axis of motion is at the vertex. as that a given force. 'Tc find the center of gyration of a fyjlem of bodies. -%nd let SA. perpendicular to PS. as if the Kvhole Jyjiem was placed in 0. LVI. c'rrdiftance of the axis of motion from its center. if thefe velocities be made equal. CENTER OF OSCILLATION. from the axis of motion. B. and percufTion will be the fame. S-r. will b« CD J. In a triangle.Vr. — ^ ' / . Prop. we thall have SO^ = Ay^SA^+B^SB^^CxSC^ ^hB+C from the ^^^^^^ axis of ^ . is d +P. the axis ^ the axis of the figure. St But if ft be fo contrived as al. 4. In a right line. Pyramid and cone. tion. 2. "8 Zx. the 1. 2. and cylinder. 4 the axis * axis 5. SB. figure. Then the diftance of the certter of ofcrilation from the axis of motion. "^ from the axis SR . In a fphere. In the parabola. ^xSA'+BxSB'-i-CxSC' ^' will be and .— Sea. ways to . in diredtion P. and let the force/ adl at P.ap. p any its diftance from the axis of rotation SR : then the •Square of the diftance of the center of gyration. The diftancc of the centers of ofcillation and percuffion. of ofcillation. centers of gravity.

and the laft Prop. the center of gravity of and the axis of rotation be made to pafs tbrougb any its periphery. if part of the fyftcm before. of ijratttn For by this Prop. provided il be SR. Cor. Cor. Car. or OSCILLATION. along with the now wichout any alteration. 3. the angular -jelccily remaining the fame. The momentum or quantity of motion of the whole J^fthe center of gyration. The periphery of a circle (about the diameter) SO — radius The 4.) xSB'-\-CxSC' will be given. In a right line or fmall cylinder (revolving about the end) SO SO = 2. the point It is O at its proper diftance. motion. And therefore will move 11 cat-h part of the fyftem be coUcifled into its proper center of gyration. the fyftem point S in . atitng againft an objlacle at O fame as if all the bodies were placed in O. If a circle be defcribed from C. For the tuomeiUa or ^ua?uiti/s of mciioii art as the forces. CENTER 1. Cor. is tbt {em. the ceaic« of gyration of the whole wili continue the lame. 5. Prop. XLIV. in the following bodies will By be. a computation from Cor. -3. the ctnter of the lihole fyjUm '^ill continue the favu as iffore. For (by Cor. leng'h X x n/^T The plant of a cirdty or cylinder (revolving about the axu) = radius %/'. 4 S C H O L. the diftance of the center of the quantity gyationfrcm that point will always be the fame. is JxS/l^ -i- The diftance of the center of gyration from the axis of a mean proportional between the dtftanccs of the centers percuffion cf gravity and It follows from this from that axis. i. T\\cf>lani of a circle (about thediamctcr) SO — \ radius. 4. If any part of the fyftem be fuppofid to be plattd in ib^ ctnlir of f^yralioH of that particular part . 5. 6. 1. the diftance of the center of gyration from the axis of rotation.B 82 flc' 82. the lame degree of force which moved thi» reft.. the fame thing on whatever fide of the axis of rotatioB' or center of gyration be taken. (ifr. .

that in makes one nvolution about its center of gravity G. it PROP. the center of gravity G would ft. the center of gravity ivill move forivard afpace. from the pofition SCO. OSCILLATION. will be in the center And the body will revolve without any lateral force of gravity. will in an equal time acquire the fame agu6. Gfr. and the body. For by this means the center of motion S.Sea. Gg will reprefent the velocity of G. come into the pofuion Sgd. the other of percuffion \ and if a moving body E jlrike direSly againfl the point O. In a 82. if it And betauf. 3'. it is the fame thing as if all the matter was colieded into any one point in that periphery. M makes one revolution about 2 . 7. and in a very fmall time. equal to the circumference of a circle. the mogenerated in the body tion EF by the ftrokefloall befuch. G its coiter of_grjviiy.' — ( lar velocity. one the center offufpenfion. the 84. Gg are will their circumferences very fmall fimilar arches. body were adually to be pi icej ought either to be dilpoied of m the circumference or a circle.5. that is. inftead of revolving ab' ut S. and the lame diameter. Vibrating about SGO. diametrically oppofite.Oo. 5. XLIX. whofe radius is SG. Vr. equal and equi diftant from S. perpcndiLular to its plane. If the matter of any gyrating its in center of gyration. EF be any body at rejl in free /pace. Od. T herefore W rGo be drawn parallel to SgJ. would (by Cor. or elfe into two points 0. i Prop. or the body itlllf. and Oo the velocity of O about G. towards any fide. The furface of zfphere (about the diameter) SO = radius OF CENTER 83 p j q^ Xv/t. O. If LX. Now the arches Gg. the time that the body Let the body vibrate about the point . therefore when it comes into the pofuion were dil'engaged from the point 5 . whofe radius is SO. points S. And the plane f a circle of double the mater of this periphery. therefore be delcribcd in equal times . 11 move forward with the fame velocity Gg . Aglobe (revolving about the diameter) SO ir radius x v/-. radius x v/t cw? (about the axis) SO It the periphery of a circle revolve about an axis in the center. in the time that O. will be as the velocities of the points G. O.) revolve about G with the lamr angular motion as before.

) if a body lo revolving. I. 3. 5 is at reft. body EF. LVIII. will be —. — A — SG y. 1. about S at reft. But this is the motion accjuircd by revolving:.SG. Prop. the contrary. of Oor : vel.) luui Sp'xp -SOxSGx body EF. LVII. *tbe velocity Icfi in B hodw by the fir eke ^ will be - EF X body So For . G :: as the point O of the body EF.^^eive the fame an- gu!'r vel city. Let a body : fay.6y cO EF or J.1 For let — ^^ j^^^j . it will be (by about G velocity of G :: OG GS. both the progrcflive and circular motion will It is evident on be dcilroyed . receives the fame angular velocity about 5.„ q j^ . Prop.y. SO : SG. o F OSC LLA I r J O N. by A Cor. the abfolute velocity of the body EF {or of its center ofgravity G). the point S is at reft. 2. Cor.)-X/) ^-. 3. placed in O. tvlAch it receives by B impinging at SG SO p be any particle of the body EF. O about G + vel. and the body will be at reft.fo as to be perpendicular to the line of dire^lioij... But (by Cor. O abfolute vel. that if a moving body ftrike the body at reft in itorcd again the fame motion will be rcthe point O. wid be at reft for a moment.84- CENTER (. -. about S. and Sp its difThen (by Cor. the point S . the point G will advance forward a fpacc. (by I'rop. the circumtcrciice ot" a circle. G that is abfolute vel. Gi^c. fumofallthe5. with the fame force and is the fame as above defcribcd. by the ftroke. But vel. this For in this pofition. For at the beginning of the motion. Therefore fince the abfolute velocities of it follows that O and G are directly as their diftances from ^' . G OG + GS or OS GS. O. whence the body S0ySGxbr.. Itrikcs an immove- Now able objeft at O. whole radius is . vel. 1 y^t the begimiing of the tnolicn. as the body £f when ftruck in O. r I about (i . and alfo after every revolution cf the body.) as velocity of O compoficion. LVI. when the line SCO comes into its original pcfition. equal t^ i^. : Cor.) if a body tance from S. : : : And by : Prop.UB. And if V be the vc Si) then I Iccity which the body A would receive by the dire^flroke ofB Cor. ::.

will be the fame as if the whole body was placed in O. LVIII. by unwindif the ing the cprd JSBF. VI. c ' . the body about the point of iulpenfion S. Therefore the ways be as SO to SC given.. The point S is by fome called the fponhmeaus center ofretation becaufe the body (or fyftem of bodies) at the beginning of the motion. het LXI. BE be any body. PROP. C its center of gravity . is to the fpace defended in the Jame time.tbe dilfance O and the velocity of a Cor. Then body defend by a rotation round the axis BFS. or as SO to SC . the velocity generated by a body tailing freely. as SO to SC.Sea. by Prop. VI.) the fpaces defcribcd are in the fame ratio. DE. if about BFS as an axis. then J fay the fpace defended by the center of ofcillation. in refpeSi whirling body DE. (jfc. I. always in the 'ratio of 50 to SC. and iffrom the center C. moves as it were of its own accord. that is. X. and likewife (by Cor. Through the point of contadt S and the center of gravity C. then the velocity of O. velocities of SC CO. -. the fame as the motion of B before it. about the center S at reft. S'r. is CENTER S OF OSCILLATION. after the ftroke. and the in any times will albody deicending i that is.VM. L. its velocity generated at the beginning. is to the velocity of the whirling body DE. ^ jj 85 i For the Turn of the motions of all the bodies. is to the velocity of fmall arches Oo.rto the tenfion of the cord For . at the gular velocity of beoinning of the motion. i. and the ling freely. be defcribcd and to the center of fiifpenfion S. as Oo to Q. or without any compulfion. Prop. will be the fame as of a body falTherefore drawing Sco infinitely near SCO._ C H O L. line Now C fince the points radius' 5 and is are always la the horizontal SCO. a And if O be the be ivound. AS i as SO The weight of the body to CO. as SC to SO. is to the velocity of the center ot gravity C.). Then (by Prop. freely. by a body falling freely. 4. And therefore (by Prop.) the andraw the horizontal line SCO. the circle BFS cord JSBFS. But if a body was placed in 0. and the end fixed at A. Cc : the d^fcending body DE. .

7.ir'rop. L.85 r I CENTER c.lu go.H . or a cylinder. that is as the ^ibfolute gravity to the relative oravity upon the phne . and the ten4. fpace = fion of the ftrint. .. . in the circumference of a circle. 7. f 5. In the plane of a circle SBF. in the following bodies. = 4-. /IS = ^- IV. or if a ro nd bo y ir. I'rop. XIX. fpice defcribed by a body by rotation or whirlino. and tenfun of the thread SECT. 0. tenlion of the ftring zz o.it 6'. S C HO L.) of gravity. Tkis motion of the body DE by rotation. 2. fpace 4 5. '' Ofc. And m the rollinij. and by its friilon be hindered from jlidin^ : in any time. the fame as it it had teeth. \ freely without fnHiO'U <^^ '^C to SO. through the whole defcent. body. In a fphcre SBF.r. For in the the forces that gene. as SBF. Cor. SBi\ and the weight be in the center Cj fpace n — . tSe tore: acting/ at O will ycntrratc a mo:ion point O be Itt about 6'.. Then the Ipaces defcribed linder. and the tenlion of the ftring AS zr Ifl'^. fame ratio. If a circular body as BFS runs down an h'clincd plane^ thread /1SB unjolds . SBF. N\)w if the is to the prrflfurc at 5. as SO to the wc"'£. — -' . In the furface of a iphcre SBF. and confrqucntly he cnfion of the cord. is is formly accJerated. 5. ^5- ''°''y '''' ^""P '^'^^' *^' ^' '^'"" ^'"'•^ ^ " '^"^ center thcretorcCby Cor. ' S. and ^ or s.thout weight. And the tenficn of the cvrd a motior: uniahvays tbefamt. Fo'' ^^^ ^'^*^ OF OSCILLATION. the friftion fupplies the place of the cord.? . •=.ate their motions are b3th drcreafrd. is to the fpace defcribed by u bjuyjltdtng dnvn it defcribcs Cor. in the fjmc tine are. or furf^cc of a cy- Let If'' = weight of a body. fpace = 4-5. fpace z. In the circumference of a cirdc. tenlion of the llring := !- IV.S. but remains the DE fame as before. w. is ncirWtr incrcafcd nor dccrcaled. whilll the pr fTurt.ow i an inivhi'Ji the b fpjce clined plane. therefore the fpnces cicfcribcd wili remain in the fame ratio of SC to $0.. S falling freely. 1.

P B 86 .

s .

are refpeftively zi FH. ^e quantity and direSiion of the prejfure ofbsams by their weights '. therefore (by Cor. an Then the. the beam and weight muft Then be confidered as one body.DB. PROP. DC. Draw Dr perpendicular to BC. with FGH to the horizon.plane perpendicular to BF . e£l preffure •weight. DB.[ 87 ] SECT. i. and horizontal refpe^ively as CB. Cor. Cor.) the weight and forces at C and B. BD. Jf a learn LXII. and dr. 4 Bort . be draivn perpendicular whole Wright fujlaimd : and the line ACE.tw CD. Llll. of timber i VIII.efjurt at oottom. lying upon the ivall And if G be the center of gravity of the one end. Prop. pre£ure at the top. LlII. 87> of timher he fupported at C and B. and (by tor 3. And the preffures ut B in direilwns B^ FD.) the other end B mny be fuppoled to be fuftained by z. 2. ^r. Preffure at the top TLruJl or freffure at the bafe C IbH B \FB. J andin thefefeveraldireHionu are refpeSlively as If the beam fiipport any weight. di. and Dr. whofe center of gravity is G\ the end C is fupported by the plane BCE . and the forces neceffary to fuflain the?n. I. Produce FB towards ^ then B<^is the dirtolicn of the freffure at B. to CB. Ifay. at ho! turn. BH. Prop. FIG.FD. areasFB. and BFdrazvn and CF and The weight of the whole hody'\hH BH . and BF.

FllB and : : CUD ate fimilar. 6C the l>e I'C any learn. 2. FB.'A. And \ bccaufe ihe Clil) therefore the triangles ]:r to 67) : and the ligurc B//DI. vihcnce FIl: BH BIBD :: areas BD /JC and Pr. and if the end B luppoled to be lullained by a plane perpendicular to FB. in Jii c51:on /'/// ftrs bclds Irtte for any force injleaii rf gravity. PROP. '*°'" ^'" '^ ''"^ S S URC will oF B E A j M S. fi/'". chc body will not not be fupported at all. DB. And if it lean againfi the perpendicular and fupported tn tbiit poftiien.y iveight. G the centtr cf gravity of "iVall (. LXIV. LIU. Thertforc < — BD. aSifi^ GD. Bill- — dumctcr pals through ^. by Cor. ii'hoic. LIII.8S r 1 IMM: o. angles BCl-. Sg. be Then (by Cor. 3. LDF arc riglit ' upo:) the J!(:l) nil') Itandinci on t!ic lame arch <GZ)7/anvl < j at />> arc rl^llt. is equal to the prejfure againjl C. PROP. be fuftaimd at C. are rejpeilively us is kiltained by the plane AC . Prop. then "^ FGD Prcjure at the top C FD BD and in the fame dire^ioas. are as DF. be produced to i^ then B^is at the direJJion of the preffure at to the B. bearing ar. Prop.) the weight. : : Cor. And if per' 6 HGF . And the perpendicular preffure at B {FD) isejujl weight and the horizontal prejfure B {BD). and moveable about a point C . lultained by a plane perpendicular to FB. 1'hruji cr prejfure at the hot! cm B {FB. a circle defi ribfd /J. i. I . wbiljl the other end B lies upon the Will BE. DlirC. CF parallele and arid draw FB. perpendicular to the horizon j 'The whcle weight draw B/J. and prelTure at top If you fuppolc the end B is and bottom. If FB . For the end C Cor. or one bearing a weight. If a heavy beam. be drawn through the center ofgravity G. if LXIII.(imithe figure.

2. by Cor. arc as HF. whofe center of gravity is G. the body may be fuppofed to be fupported by two planes at 5. end C may be fiippofed to be fuftained by a plane perpendicular to FC. PROP. drawn perpendicular to the horizon. And in either cafe. or by a cord in direftion CF. are refpe£iively as BC. and 5. the preffure at B. in the line CF. HC. Prop.) the fince HC I. therefore ( by Cor. D. D. the weight in diredtion HG. CH. force at C. DC. P. Then For the end B Prop. XIX.Sea-. N Cor. and in this cafe there For BF will be perpendicular to BA. But if injlead B B is laid upon the horizontal plane of lying upon the inclined plane at B. and in thefe dire£iions. then the weight. B. CF. and CG. is parallel to BF. IhC j are refpe£lively as J and in thefe dire5lions. BCj g . If a heavy beam BC.efureatB Force aBing at C. and (by Cor. perpendicular to y^^. or by two ropes 5//. and parallel to is HF. being in a plane perpendicular to the horizon. confequently CF alio parallel to HF. VII. And iffrom any point F. FE be drawn parallel to AB j Ifayt The whole weight Prejfure at C HF HE Thruji or prejfure at B. G. is fuftained by the plane CB. B. of the line GF. be fupported upon two pojls BA. Cor. qq. GC. HC. Prop. PRESSURE and BF^ op BEAMS. C. the end AB. LIII. in diredions HB. are as BG^ BC. perpendicular to the horizon^ CH perpendicular to and CF be drawn . are refpeSlively as \EF. the prejfure at and C. DC. And if AB. LIII. . For the points A. LIl. C. B. and HE.) the forces at C. 1. produced. or Cor. LXV. Prop. g^. and be moveable about the points. EF. then The whole weight "J HF CF. are refpeftively as HF. the weight. BG . C. A. B. ^9 n. meet in any point H. CD . preflure at . and no lateral preffure. C.

muft be equal to the force Jain direction • L BC. the line of gravity (or plumb line pafling throiigh the center of gravity) always reprclents the abfolutc weight. D. : And S.DCs by the fame w:.£5C: < ABr : :: weight B force in dircaion BC CB i^ilfn^'".DCsXS. VI fl. By formed the the conftrudlion of tlicfe four laft propofitions.ABrxS. is?c. or by Thnre. and through to the horizon. DC to r. D drawing -a.-. Jffeveral beams AB. Produce S.mCBxS. ex equo.v of reafoninq.AlJC S. ClJy AD. C. pojis two The body then uhdher a body be fujlaimd by tiuo rofes BH. or by two planes perpaidiatbr to B/l.CDE S. HGF S C H O L. be joined together at B. < . tp perpendicular And iffeveral beans will be laid on the angles B. when the plumb line llGt fajjet through G. Then : Prop. there i> /nViw^/^ 0/ /rr.ABC ' S.DCs :: weight : force in diredion = ^X^^^s 6. to preferve the equilibrium. B C. iyc. S S.^*?-^.BCD S.CDpxS^Dp Ccr. that 75/^ > • is AHr BxS——6. CD. C. C.CBi S.ABixS. BCD ' which. the center of gravity cf the -whole «. ^ ^ C:D:: ~—'— i'. F. and moveable about the points A. weight 5 : weight D : : S. . eights ri. CD. 2.93 g ' PRESSUREoF BEAMS. i^c.CDE S.BCs' S. S.isCD — j whence . sm. D* ^i:.ABC S. be p!i:ced in a A. Or^ which is the fame thtn^. DCinterjtc! in tic plumb line pajfmg tbrcugh the center of gravity.iiiC'j — S. In which. rrprrfcnting ihe fcvcral forces. —— Then all the be kept in equUibrio by thefe weights. i-h: fujlained. 9*' vertical plane. BC. wbm /lli.) S. the points LXVI. PROP. being fixt. and the other fides the correlponding preflUrcs. B t> /^ : C : : ^^9 SABr : '^-SC^. CD : can only be at reft.DCs .EDt Therefore. gnd S.fo that the weight on any angle C may be as -—BCD —-.mCD (by Cor.EDt" S. Ccr. B. ABC =: CxS.

to a5i. And Dp or the force compounded of DC. And h. 2. or from it. CB and Cr refpe£iivdy. (sfc. as Ihe/ecaiit of the elevation of the line . elevation of C5 : fee. Ck Bhj h. C. the points A. D. upwards. Cor. /. IE — DE . k. r.9. -+- . . — Ag —Z AB^ C. >. or. Cor. /. Draiv Cp. CD. Vlf. VIII. by Cor. . F be fxt as before. that is. will be as eights are given.f CD : cof elevatiOn'of C5 :: fee. 4. DE. If the w:ights lie not on the angles B. there] ore if all the CD. BA. in DE. BC. For let then the pojitions of all Cm to Dp. Produce j . This evident by Cor. wiilbefuc- ceffively found. D. 3. fo thai Dzv may he equal to Cr. ^c. is C is then Cp is the diredion CB. CB. D. Cp . or at B. in the direSlions Cor. whether they aft towards the point C. XIX. and All the angles at B. by L-'rop. in dithe rection BC. 5.ht D.Sedt. And take the weight B g. Vm. befexible'or indexible cords or timbers. D. cud dravo fig. ii Dm parallel to DE. the force in direciion force in c'irettion the weight the wcio. elevation CD^ becatife the fecaftts are reciprocally as the cofifies. 5. will be the fime. EC above :: horizon. ^c. E. -{ hC. a'td the weights remain the fame. pD. alfo exprefs their weights. Prop. Ccr. thing. . b. Cor. cutting DE in x. and confequently the whole figure will remain the fame as before % end that whether the lilies AB. „ then B. will be the weights lying upon the refpe£tive angles. if the figure A. Prop. I. t^c. F6r. is'c. 91 'vox parallel to CD. BC is — BC — CD — CD . is . . and Dm. k. If the weights were mC. l^c. &c. CrB or i-Cm or sCD : S. the forces g i>i direSlions CB and CD^ are as rB. as Br to wx. and Cm or the force compounded of CD. ^ kD. rBC :: col". C. in dire£lion CB. Dp. And and the pofuion of two lines the rejt CB. Cziz h Ak. which is the fame F. And "Weight C is to the weight D. fdrte i^'direaidn CB-. D:=z k . This will eafily appear by the demonftration of the Prop. force in direffidn CD Cr ::. Vll. was turnea upf:de down. let let the places of their centers of gravity be at g. " l»i^£SSUREoFSfeAMS.. CD or DC be CD. 'The force or thruft at C. elevation CB : <. Then the weight C. the ratio of the forces at any angle C. B. it For will be the fame thing whether the weight at any angle 2 N . I.. then the weights on C and D to prcjerve the equilibrium. C. 2.

<J2 PRESSURE G. or direflly as the DABF cube of the lecant of the arch BA. the fame forces now do pull from it. OP BEAMS. will be reciprocally ai /fC. Then the force or weight at any place At to prclerve the equilibrium. the ftrctch^ ing forces will be as the weights of the cords. If be a fcmi-circle. Draw jIG perpendicular to Dl'. that if any cords of equal lengths be ftrctched to the fame degree of curvature. follows from Cor. Likewife it . r I J I. S ' C HO L. whofe diameter is DF. afts in direflion Cm or Cs. 52. fuppofcd before to thruft againft C. 5. And as the forces were angle C.

b. and imagine ^4a. to break the beam at AF. tfiem. ^ib. •• feifion cf any piece of timber in any place^ whofe a re£}angle. cohere together: the breaking the timber is nothing but overcoming this force. b. fuppofe lines i^c. placed horizontally. and f-parating the parts at a. ^be lateral firengtb is LXVII. 93 Let BD be any beam. Now (by Cor. Prop.[ ^ ] SECT. JL.i^c. -i_. i^c. c^c fo many btnded leavers whofe fulcrum is at A. And let JFG be the perpendicular ledion. XIX ) the power applied at to equal or overcome the refiftances at A. Ail that A^ A^ be . -. ^ or the whole ftrength of beam bccaufe will ^+^+^ + 3" A^ +%r-fi. PROP. and fixt at the Divide end BC. And let us fee what will be the fum of all the forces applied at ^to break the timber at A.. the forces appii d to at yf. Suppofe rrforce of cohcfion of any of the parts Aa^ ab^ be. F I G. depth /fF into an infinite number of equal parts at a. b. . And let any torce be applied at P in drawn direftion BP. . A^' /?£ A^' _i_. c. SlAc. .. 5^^ Jlrength of beams of timber in all poJitions\ and their jlrefs by any weights aSiing upon by a?ty forces applied to them. Therefore A<1 ' " tfee effcd of the is. then fince the ftrength of the timber is nothing but the force by which the parrs of the timber at «. Cy d. is dire^ly as the breadth andfquare of the depth. i. J_. as -i_. whofe number is AF or n parallel to FG. A^' A^' all ±. ^±. i ^ will be -ll. 2-'/i^ if that A^m given. as nn or AF. or VIII. ASC A^' is. &c. the through which. a. c..o jE-. HL. e. b. Uc.\ Now the brcadta FG . ^iL.

And in any pieces of timber. tor let yJDzzr. Math. fum of all the xv zz DEFG X. is to =* . Cor. I. -l lil a'. Then the force appH«d at at ^to ov^ overCdittt *'li be --^ . iMtTy tie Literal Jitcnfib is Cor. 2.+*./a Ic at tie cubes of the diameters. wbofe feUiens arc fucb Jigteres^ that (be corrrfpomimt ordfmrtrs. be — 1. is true of any honwgeneous But the ablolutc of matter they are of. +. Part V. j4^^ r come is i and the total fjtt^&ij^xo overrx.-i^t the cohcfion ot'all rh* paftJcks in the whotcfecTiori or — — X.Wi •1 — rK. If'ard's ftrength . being forced or t'nifled round tbt axii. 2S9. aod the ratio — r . S 93- C H O L.•+. the literal Jlrin^lh of any pieifS of i. then the circumfcrcDoe f(fr~ -^ ar. as the cube cf the Cor.9+ F I STRENGTH o. AND STRESS ' ' Qj. and ' the ftrength of the beamj thqre' •-. eire pro- portional. J^^ ^<^ incrcafcd in any proportion . snd the force applied '^fo the cohefion of all the parts. parallel ta the terizcn. ylnd in general. fbejlrengtb of cylindrical pieces. it isev evtry pan yla^ ab^idc. ahJ if the cohsfioti of a particle corhfi if. 4. nAt^xtG. will be iiitrtaird th anil therefore the abl'olutc lateral ftrength will be i ' 'j of . wbofe J'tffii>ns are fimilar figures. Lem. \Vhat is here bodies whatever • fiid Ibrt of timber. Cor.x Therefore. in the circumference ^yr.„. JO) r' >{ . j (jo^.is " fore the ftrength as r^ or AlP'. are as ibt eu^s of tbe/smitat/ides of (be fc^ions. 3. 3./> — . or as ibefeBions multiplied by -the depths. will be ' J!—X-^^. circumference of the fediua DEFCaCt jipzzic.'mber. becaule yf£l this force is given. or (^ afty fmilar pints cf timber. Guide. In fquare breadth or dtptb. the jlrengths are as the bnadihs andfi^uares cf the depths.

does in pares is this cafe For every part bear an equal ftretch. nearly.^AF'- J)tH. then finre every particle r. is EG\ and whofe fulcrum is at F. Therefore the ftrength of the tube thefe cylinders. and tie whole diameter of the tube to the one CD. is AF'~/JF' + '^At'x^E . and the flrren^ih of the inner folid cylinder. cylinder 2. drawn in ftrength of any beam. of the laft Pr-p. will be as the fedion of it. isCHK There- fore the ftrengrh of the tube FB : ftrength of the cylinder HD : xAE:CH\ But the feftion of the tube is dLsAF'—EG'— /1[^ — 2AE-—^AFxAE nearly.) the ftrength of the folid BF is AF'^. ftrength of the ring or. whofe diameter . llrength of the tube BF ftrength of the cylinder lAFxR' the area of the ring is lefs Let than AEGF AF : : : : HD : : RxCIP . then. of K to that ot CH .CH'-xCH :: ledtionor the tube X It its diameter iedion of the cylinder X its diameter :: feclion tube x diameter: feftion cylinder x diameter. Vlir. ex equo. to the JeSlionofthefoUd ccim. is. direc- 95 fig. ftrength of or AP ftrength of the cylinder i/D :: {AFxAE the tube FB : CHxCH" :: ^AFxaExHAF-. &c. when i\oh of its length. OF TIMBER. : Oth^rwifcy be difpofed into another ring. as thefetlion of the tube {excluding the hollow). Let the diameter of that circle be R.olid cylinder the diftVrence of the ftrength of or -%AF'xAE. nearly. And when the ring is fo far diminiflied as to become an enfre circle. the proportion of their ftrength will not difftr far from the proportion of their diameters. is E G\ and lefs than EF^\ and is nearly AG -1-4G/I' =zAF^^Mi\ that is AF'^—^AF^xAE nearly. ics ftrength will be as the diameter of the ring. Likewife the ftrength of the V. that is. or hollow cane that of afolid 9+. nj. And the ftrmgth tube ftrength ofaa equal circle :: AF R.. ABy to a tube..:/?': CHK Therefore. and the lum of all the equal co the whole. lever. that AFIGE. For (by Cor. PROP.Sedt. The lateralftrength of LXVIII.. ads at a lefs diftance from the fulcrum F. is diameter of the olid f cane. rope. its ftrength will of be le's in propomon . whofe fulcrum gre ater than is at G. Whence. and that is as the fedion.

the grca-cr power has any given force applied at P. 3. Cor. like Jiluat ion If two beams bear two •weightsfroportional to their lengths^ the Jlrejs upon each will he as ibef^uare of . nearly. and therefore as AB. its length. Hence thejlrengtb of different tubes are as their feSions. f^6 STRENGTHandSTRESS :: Fio. be the middle point. t overcome And therefore (he whole ftrcfs the c»'h( fion ot the wood at F. then bears half the weight C is asyfCx weight. And if two beams bear two weights reciprscal'y as thei^ lie. or the force atling at And if C be in any is as AC or half AB. lengths. For if C A therefore ihc ftrcfs at . P. For fiippofe FAF greater the power at > J 6. the greater force is applied at F to fcAlfo the greater the diilance AP^ para'c the parts of th. other fimilar fuuation in both beams.wood. therefore the ftrefs the weight. depends on both. . It is evident the to be a bended leaver. Ry.' A Cor 2 and in a . And becaule half is given . a leaver or beam. theflrefs where the weights equal in both. the flrefs in thefe plants. Cor. LXIX.CW F 1 AI'y. 'xill be as the lengths 0/ the beams. Jf two e({ual weights lie upon the middle of two beams^ or upon any other ftmilar places. PROP. and diameters. I. 94. tkeftrefs upon V "^ f°^^' ^' applied laterally anyplace is to direlily as the force and its diftance from iL at place. is m a Jimiiar fuuation. the fame thing will follow.CIUCIP :: ^f X «rc* ring : 67/ x area of the circle ClI. PROP. Cor.R' . 95..

or equally difpofed over the -whole length df the beam. AB cafi. thatis^CxC5. i will be the weight fupported upon part of the beam. the ftrefs at C. let reft at p . 5. AB of them. . f fay. C A Let and the leaver the S E I.. F 1 97 C. VIII.Sea. Case hetAB each— 1. XIX. then -f. ftrefs at be Confequently the whole C is X AC_AC+CB 2A3 . fupported at given weight either fufpended at any point C. and AB C is i^^. readion equal thereto. will CB' V AC ^AB AC. Prop. or equally dtfany . arifing (becaufe ^C is number ^''^. Thegreateflfirefs of a beam is in the middle. I. + 3 • ••^C^^C. preflure on B. Therefore (by the the ftrefs at laft Prop ) the ftrefs at o is dE2S£K. will be CB. Then its us AB reprefents the whole weight. and By and be any beam of a given length. And by the laft ftrefs at Prop. ftrefs C arifing will A and C.X BC^-CB' iAB — — whole weight between B and C. And by a 2AB from the like reafoning. the be 0+1+7. the C will be as the force adting at Ax diftance ^C. the •weight being either fufpended there. theftrefs of the beam in C.) the weight at y/.^ ^p_ AC x CB 2 Cor.arifine ^ AB at from the weight from the fum of at p. Then (by Cor. OF TIMBER. in either fufed through the vahok length of the beam AB A q-.zz II. the given weight be reprefen'ted by the given length of AB. O Cor. all Confequently the the weights between that is. PROP. be divided into an infinite number n of equal i it parts. is as the reSlangle ACxCB. Let LXX.

is equal to theflrefs at' C. and at C. 6. when fufpended at as Ap + AC to 2 AC.. fircfs at If a weight prefs equally on ly that preffure. For yJCxCB is the ftrels at C. beam at any point C. and (by Prop. is ACxCB. PROP. by the weight i lying at^.itd any other point C. And 2 is by the weight Ap atC ACxCBxAp. the ftrefs is c4- 1 + 2 . is to the flrefs ai C ifjufpcnded there :: as Ap to 2 AC. ApxCBzz ^xCB. is ACxCBxpCy to and the fornner is the latter. is as Ap x CB. If a weight prefs equally oh ail the parts cf Ap. C.. . Ihejlrefs of I he beam nt any feint p^hy a u. ly tbefimt II. theflrefs at any point C by that weight. Thcrtfore the wholf ftrels ai is ApxCB.fight afp'. the Itrcfs at C is ACy. by a iveight fufpended. 98 * ' STRENGTH andSTR "• to ESS ^'' y Cor. and by Cafe the llrcrs at C is — 2 Cor. Thejlrefs cf the there. Cor. Cor.CB . 4. is double the fircjs of the Weight prcffmg uniformly on all parts oj the beam. by the whole weight on all the points of pC. when the Jame 'xeight is uniformly difperfed on all the parts cf AC. . 2 But the ftrefs by the whole weight to at C.. :: For (by Cor. is double to theflrefs at C. . 2. laO) /pxCIi will llrcl's be the up. 7. there. ts to the- C theflrefs at C. Theftrtfs at p ly a weight at C. 5. by the fame weight at p. as J~^ z AC. AC : x CB ~ 'lE±J9xpCxCB. Cor. 3.. For by Calc I. ftrcis For the at C by all the weight on Ap. by a zveight fufpinded beam at the fame point C. all the parts cf pC. Theflrefs of a beam at any point C. is the Turn of C all the Ap X CB — Ap + Jp + + i Ap + z . 2. Cor.) the ftrcfs at C.

or equally diffufed over the whole lenj^th of the beams-. is DFxDF. Jf CD be a prominent beam.r^s. uniformly on all the parts between when the fame zoeight prejjei F and D. difperfed uniformly on LXXI. as in a wall . and fuftain the weight 1. 99» 100. rerpedtively . by any weight fiifpended at D. The Jlrefs at any point F. by the. and if a weight proportional to the length of the beam. is the fame as if was continued fufpended to the fame length beyond C. Hence the flrefs at F. will be as DF'-.Gect.) the ftrel's at F. ^c. or in any given filuation. and hearing two laeigbts upon them. Ivill be double the flrefs at the fame point F. And this is the fame as if the beam was turned upfide down. 1. For parts at let />. 2. and then the fulcrum C will be adted on with twice DC P the weight P. Then (by Prop. either in the middle. For the ftrefs now at C. Jf there be fuoo beams ftanding aflopc. and twice the weight P laid on the middle C. and an infinite nunnber of equal each bem. FD be divided into let q-.. be all the farts of the beam. will be IXO. VIIL OF T I M B E R F T 95 G. I. by the wcighis it F. 3.) the ftrefs at F by the weight DF. will be &€. this beam being fuppcrted at P both ends. : therefore the whole flrcfs at C o + i-}-2 + 3 FD — — FD' -• Cor.weight P. the fqiiare of the diflance from the extremity. 98. q. and the kfigths^ and the cofmes of elevation.. 2. &c. ixFp. is the fame as the ftrefs upon the middle of a beam of twice the length DC. the flrefs upon them will be dircSily as the weights. 'The flrefs at the end BC. ot as 0. LXIX. r. p. fixt horizontally at the end C. or FD\ Cor. ixFq. PROP. &'c. LXIX. O 2 For . PROP. LXXII. and a weight equal to at the end . For (by Prop. ivith twice the weight laid on its middle.

that cof.ts. Prop. the preffure at A will X be £L x JV. If the beams lie horizoTital.) the weight is to the prcfTurc 99loo. Jf any be. is. ftrefs will alfo be as their lengths. Cor. then the Cor. If the weights and length of the beams be the fame. upon ing the plane. elevation cof. tion direilly. AB AC. 5. as the length. I . lie this preffure or force xdidance be as ftrefs at that a is. as radius to the cof. 3.vn of timber be ailing laterally upon to fuppart ity LXXIII. 2..rV=^/5x radius. ary wd^bt. the if LXIX.l btam AB. the will be as the ccfine of elevation. XXXI. and AC. elevation. the fame in both. the weight. er feree. on the horizonr. 4. and the weigjjt. AB Cor. elevation af^ainft the its beam. But if the weights on the fame beams be as their lengthsy and AC. and therefore great rfl uhen tt Hrefs lies honzcnlal. '9' the sncliifd cne If the weights are equal. the weight lie upon C. then theflrffs is as thej'juare cf the length.) will then vary in PROP. the breadth multiplied by the fquare of the . ''^£^£3 AB /ris as the ftrefs at C. And the beam dope. Jf"' 97* For in the horizontal beam AB. o. cr prefure. or ACx . por 'by Cor i. is prcfTiirc as cof. and cof.) C. And will (by Prop. elevation. Cor. elevation. is will be equal upon both. 1.loo F I STRENGTHandSTRESS. XXXI. inJina'- bean if reciprccali. and the length of the univerallyy tbejlrefs upon any point tf afie fin i beam. and BC be perpendicular to AB : then the ftrefs. For thf Irngth x cof. Prop proportion to the cof. the ftrefs (by Cor. and Cor. or at any equal inclinations. is And as the re^angle of the fegmer. 1 Therefore the weight and this i* the force adlx hiTetore(by Prop. LXVIll ) the Hrefs : will be as length and this force-. end the -xeigbt be as the length.

LXVII. Therefore ^ of fetch a beam may away without any diminution of the ftrength. Bu! if a weight prefs uniformly on every part of AB. then CB uill be every EDB be cut will and CD be the diameter in any place C. CD But . inevcry to be prcportioy. then CB will be as CD''. and if be any diameter^ then will BC be as CD'. the weight or force X by the diftance it adls at. and all fe^ions are fimilar figures. and EDB a ri^^ht line. where as CD'. away. and therefore the curve is an el!ipf:s. and a weight at the other end B. CD be the diameter in ACxCB. If AEB fiifta:ni}]g be a prominent beam fixt at the end AE. then will CD^ be every where as But if it be bounded by two parallel planes. And if the fc£fions in all places he fimilar figures. VIII. and then EDB will be the Whence a third part of a beam may be thus cut common parabola. or infmilarfe5}ions.) the ft re fs is as fquarcof the depth. perpendicular horizcn. to the that place C. lOj. Cor. Cor. Cor. weight in any variable point C. force or preflure it therefore (he firength it. And if ACB be a right line. then BC will be as CD. or uniformly on all the And if all the feoiions be fimilar figures. be a cubic parabola. 102. ADB AB 104. And upon ought to be univerfally as thejlrefs But (by Prop. But if the beam be bounded by two parallel planes. perpendicular te the horizon. 4. AB he a beam fupported at both and ends. is true of jcveral different pieces of timber compared For every feveral piece of timber. Jf loi. as well as every part its is of the lame timber or beam. and if it bear a parts of it. 102.Sed. LXIX.al to the length multiplud by the it. the cube of the diameter. ixeighl or force c. and the feilions in all points as C. Cor. then BC'' will be evtiy where as CD\ and EDB a femi-cubical parabola. llrength proporto fiiftain. ought to have tioned to the weight.fuppo/tng a right line. Jnd the fame together. But if a weight be placed at any given point P. Ihre half a beam may be cut away without lofmg any ftrength. o F T I M B E R f loi i place. But if the beam be bounded by parallel planes. 3.otmg on or as thejlrefs in that place. g. perpendicular to the horizon. I . be fimilar. and A^and B^are two cubic parabolas. And therefore thefe mult be in an invariable ratio.) the ftrength is as the breadth x And (by Prop. 2. ought the depth. then will CD'' be every where as ACxCB.

and And for the laire realbn the weights will be equal. and the fame holds equally true of all fimi- when the plates arc only lar figures. S C H O L. weight on weight on ad : ac X weight on ad^ and weight on : AD : : : diL : AC on cd. tl't lorizcti. to if (he 104. as was proved And that the continuity of the plates will equally fup- port the weights in breadth. twice the weight will be fuppcrted . CA. perpendicular lien BC is as CD\ and yij^ and B^are tvoo common parabolas. CD. when only fupported by the fides AC. And conllquently the weights will ftiil be equal. are equal.it the timber is homogeneous and of the fame goodnels. ftone. therefore the weights will by the continuiry of be equal. ab (fmce the thicknefs is given) AB ACy. Cor. DC. in which cafe. two hollow circles. vill plates.102 1 1 S I^ut TR EN G T II AND S T R E SS o. the plates-. cd. abed. and ac. till i'trculnr pbles. ad. a. be two fquarcs. ABCD. be only fuppcrted at the ends ABy CD. And if pieces of timber or metal be cut into the 7 figures . iic. BD. All thefc things appear from the foregoing propofitions . BD. ac but — = -. wbelber great er little. draw the infcribed fquares fupported upon the four fides dc. AC ac AD : : therefore weight on AD - weight fupportfd by AB. beam be bounded by two parallel planes. For. and let them firfV. : And a circular plate is but very little weaker. : As To twice the length of the bar its breadth. but \l is here fuppofed th. cd. zndab. The fame is true effquare '^ „ ' For Ice AD. the length being as the Ccr. And what is here faid of pieces of timber. before. a'>. when ihe j^lares are Uipported by all four fides.:d thukncfsy and fuppcrted all round on tke edges. both circles is plain.. Hence. ca. holds equally true of any other folid bodies. 5. and ab. the weight a fquare plate will bear : To the weight which a bar of thefatne mutter and thicknefs will hear . 6. ad. otherwife a proper allowance muft be made for the defedt. ab. being of the fame matter ones. fuch as pieces of metal. thefc fquarcs AB. are Id. Then by this Prop. be "9'- Let AD. bd. or atiy ftmilar bear equal weights. bccaufe the ftrcngth of both fegmenis AB. fL.

I. And if a fpring is to be made. and from the ends. and at G. So thejlrefs at b is at B. PROP. be difpofed to break together. o F T I M B E R. that 107. at the ends Hence. in proportion as the leaver BC is longer. AB and weight at the end.. a line AB he drawn perpendicular to the horizon.fimilar to the former. it AD. or only fupport itflf. EK . which is in the plane paffing through AF. Hence alfo. other in equilibria and the be . has a greater power to break the timber at B. is as BC. reckoning that the depth^. of any crooked beam ABDEF. the breadth multiplied by the fquare of the depth. Hiding the length LXXV. to find the length of another beam FG. For tion as the weight it A is a£ls not in direflion AB. that the ftrength in any part h. therefore the fame as if were applied Cor. H. Cor. is or the direction of the forces being drawn. the ftrefs at B will be as the perpendicular BC. loS. and keep one an. can juflfupport the weight P Since .Sea. A. may he pro- portional to the ftrefs there. This force therefore. the line BC perpendicular to AD . line AF. If a he Supported upon the end of a crooked piece of timber 'joeight j4BD. nothing. and from the angle B. but a force applied at C. PROP. Vlir. i. that willjujt break zvilh its own weight. 103 figures mentioned in the foregoing corollaries. 2. and then every part will bear a ftrefs proportional to its ftrength. mujt be as the perpendicular be. the ftrefs at any point. BC^ at D. its (hape ought to be as in Cor. LXXW. but in direc- at the point C. all the parts will f 1 c. W. F. or the ftrefs at B. A ^^r. 291. DI j at E. as the perpendicular upon AF. of a cylinder or prifm. if any two forces aSlingfrom or againjl one another. io8. and of the fame matter.

that willjujl break i-felf. Prop. the length required.. by its one and only one beam. And fincc beams are both fuppofcd to break with thcfe weights -. Hftice there TbenFGzzAExi + ii. in regard to two beams fnpfcrted at both ends and breaking in the middle. I. zz the wcieht of the will be. LXXI. FG. or juji fujlain Cor. beam /IB y^ C and o f /-'G. arc as tlic cubes ot the lengths. -. LXIX. Since the weights of fimilar folids of the fame matter. 2. 2. 3.r> fl^ beam GIL the Then is by Cor. I JO. the middle. 3. therefore the : flrcngth mud {:: be the : ftrcfs . Whence AB IfeJf^-P. 1. // the beam the length of FG break by its own weighty a beam of t'xice its FG. twice the length of FG. : OvFGxlV=AByfy+7F. LXXVI. that : is. In . 109. will likewife bold good. Prop. each of thrm being equal to the ftrcfs of a beam. by Cor.o4 f I S T R E N G T H AND it S TRE y/Z(' : S S o. >: And by Prop. : [if^+P./^4-/' the z/^'. And the refifianct of the beam will be as the fpace it is bent through nearly. uill alfo break by the other will. the ftrength of is i-'/i'. 'JV-\-t'x/lH 2 ^^ 2//5' IV AC- FH) : : AB' FG\ Whence ^fL^' = FG'xABx fV: lV-\-zP Cor. own weight or if one fujlain ttfeif. And the flrcfs at F as : ff^x FG. as at C. 1"he fame Prop. and ftippor ting •. PROP. is Cor. Prop. 3. 4. the ftrcfs at J is . For the flrefs is the fame in both of them. at both ends. and Cor. LXX. /K :: '07- loS — /G' : /. own weight. Jfa>ty weight be laid on the ^° '^ "^ ^ » '^'^ beam AB. by Cor. or any force applied beam will be bent through a fpace CD prcp:r- tional to the weight or force applied at C. Ccr. and lulpended in LXX. Prop LXVII.

^a.93 97 Tf^ .8 ^CD loa Tiy. y^'f. .

TVy. n^f. rJ .pa.

9 lb. 5. And therefore I think this law is fufficiently cftabliftied. I. at °' •'°9* 10. 2. and in all cafes are bent through ipaces nearly proportional to the weights or forces applied. 2. by at them ftretching. and by remaining fome time unbent. The adion of a fpring lying maybe compared upon to the lifting up a chain of weights. 6. or drainino. VIII. hairs. -. OF T I M B E R ^ I 105 ^ In order to find the law of refiftance of beams of timber or Tuch like bodies. and found the fpace through which they were bent. they all defcended through fpaces. that none of thefe bodies regained their firft figure.Scd. rcfpedtively. 5. with the weights 3. or that it I •wires. and It may be obferved. then the increafe was fomething great^'r. are obferved by experience to grow weaker by often bending. But at any time afpring. 3. a plane. either accurately or very nearly as the numbers i. I laid fucceflively on the middle of it C. will recover part of their llrength: and are fomething ftrongerin cold than in hot weather. 7. that they have the leaft refiftance when leaft bent. any of thefe bodies makes. for by this means a fpring may be contrived to pull at aii times with equal ftrength. 3. 4. by hanging weights and I found that the increafe of their lengths. bodies is of great ufe in meclianics. and other elaftic flexible bodies. in each of them. I took a piece of wood plained fquare. 3. was. of this property of fpringy. 1 tried the fame thing with fprings of metal. proportional to the weight fuf- pended. or to the lifting a cy- linder of timber out of the water endways. 6. as in the fufee of a watch or it may be made to draw in any proportion of ftrength.l experiments of this kind with. is proportional to the fpace through which it is bent. proportional to the weights hung at them : except when they were going to break. when the weights were taken off. The knowledge required. B. that the refiftance. And repeating the fame experiment 7. againft any weights laid upon them. and fupportiiig it at both ends A.2. and all fuch bodies obferve this law. alfo tried feverr. and b. and 8 pounds j and 1 found the middle point C to defcend through the Ipaces 1.them. : txerts a force proportional to the diftance it is ftretched to. except well tempered fprings j fo that And even fprings there are no natural bodies pcrfcdly elaftic. 6. P P R O Pv . 4.

find tit lateral Jlri-v'^th of any beam cf limbfr. in the Let breaks. whofe iranfverfe Jc£lion ts any fi^re whaifoi. When the beam breaks.ln. and exert Icfs force or refil>ance in (by the laft Prop. PROP. in regard to the is brachium IR.V lN=y R therefore the refiftance of a fibre at / = — d j and the rcfiftance of all the fibres in the parallelogram /w. place where it Draw Put /w. (["o LXXVII. And all the fum of the powers whole fcdion — fum of the __ d x In. I. but thofe nearer i? are Icls flretched. 111. LVII. i. When the beam breaks. feiflion Therefore the ftrcngih of die beam E. p.) the fum of all the of all the }fi=:grx icdlon ERG. at the ffiion ERG. Let g. For 7 . Then all zr^Xfum the (by Cor. as the axis of motion. the fibres at E are llretch to their full ftrength. and proportion to their diftance from EI-x JR . bended leaver. all — — xin. If there betaken RO — EL d . fjull be equai to fl: beam. their total Jlrenglb at and aSing there xvitb 0. ERG be the fcdion of cWc beam the ordinates AV. and parallel to the bale ER-d KG. And the fedlion vixln fum of — x/w= — X d d at ERG.'icr. d all and the power of the fibres in the parallelogram.) . then all the fibres cf the liccd Icing Jufpoftd to be cclUHcd in O. Cor. RG-l> The abfolutejlnngth of one fibre oj the uxci — i. it is done by the reparation of the Therefore !^E mull be cftecmed a parts of the wood at E. 112. in the r: y. Prop.io6 J I S TRENG T II and STRESS o. is =z ^^x ERG. be the dillanceof the center of gravity and percuflion from RG. tleirfiU Jlretigtb jlrengtb of tije -. infiniccly near each other. whofc fulcrum is at R.

as in the parallelogram. lateral fir engtb of a triangular beam •whefeheigbt^radius. g—^. For let AD = r. 4 being And in the triangle. whofe diameter marly. Coi-. Guide. and ver- tex of the triangle at D. the area — 2 . round its axis. wrefled. In the periphery of a circle {the beam being a hollow cane) g:z:\d. and verIn a triangle whofe bafe is at Id. c =— x fumof all the 1. gz=.id. And itsflrength—^d R. as in the parallelogram. 2 the fame as for the twifted cylinder.' =: — c x i' -j- 2' rr rr + 3' + 4' . 4 S C H O L. the ftrength rz \dy(. 2. in regard to the brachium total Ap — and the is power of all the fibres in the whole fee- don DEFG . circ. or x feftion ERG = RO x fedtion ERG . and f-=.^jr rz — r The refinance of a fibre at D is i. DEFG =. Sea. The Jlrength of a cylinder when twijled. 107 and fuch 3 point.bafezzcircumference of the cylinder. and ROzz~d. whence ROzrz^dz^^d nearly . . then ihe ftrength of the beam. and d =. is equal to the. Cor. Part V. 4. — rr "i!!. RO 1x2. Ap —. Ward'i Math. Lem. and the and the is refiftance of all all the fibres in pqr is — —— rr —X rr power of 'V . for For is not the fame in length as breadth. tex at parallel to the horizon. ^•. p'=z-ld. and ROzz-^^d. and p is —— r .d. therefore the ftrength is — __ 4 r. c. therefore i/" /^<? [e5ilon be a parallelogram. i^ii — In a circle ER. the texture of • wood does not agree fo well with timber as metal.. For fiipp^fe "?£^^ OF to be TIMBER j. at circ. or wrung 2 89. g^i\d. VilT. 2. and pzz^d. and E p— Xarea of the triangle.. P 2 all .\d^ is RO—'^d. the fibres in pqr. This Cor. 2. tor' n *— Mr X _•.

when applied length uays. the beam RO X abfolute ftrength —^y. joined to by a glutinous matter. fibres 1. Ccr. take I J or half its lengthily for half the weight of the Prop. then all the of the beam afting at O. RL = ^. I Put - its length DE. willjufl break the beam horizontal^. ElU dijiance of the center vf gravity oftbefeHion zz difiance of the center of percuffion of from ERG from R^ RG. For by Cor. to find its ^" Given the ivei^ht that will break a beam Kill break it how muck u-hen dravun in lUreSlion cf Ir. D. But if the in the middle beam be fuppo'rted at both ends. then the weight which d ant being applied at L. and . Let DR be the beam. laterally. all wood therefore wood is much more eafily fplit than brokcfi. or the weight that can break it. if there he taieit l£ . Hence.loS P J STRENGTHandSTRESS is compofcd of long (lender tubular fibres. when drawn m length. the f willjuji pull it af under. will be equal to the ftrength of and fince Jl\ applied at D. and weight f^zz d of the whole beam. lafl: \i RO- It. and gcthcr c. which is cafily feparaicd . d g p Then its — — weight applied at depth E. and the weight breaks it the upper fide. therefore by the nature of the leaver. therefore the abfolute ftrength zi — . d abfolute ftrength. it will be.gib.>j length. PROP. For then / =: rcfiftance at := ftrength Therefore . g and p mujl be meafiired from that breaks it. * ' LXXVlir. dire^ion of ERG ly zz weight that will break it when drawn . / x J^ zz. can break it in either . cafe. that can break it at ly zz.

will rebound they cannot do without the denting in of the parts. from experiments . may be extended in length. LXXIII.Sea. fupported at both ends. b\t% breadth. can bear no more. is evident as glafs in fmall threads.^ S C H O L. If a weight belaid upon the Jlreight heajn AB. and make the beam it will caufe a And that it will yield a little this fomething weaker laterally. .) its flrength. ef and when it breaks. fuch way. and Df . ji>^ .) that if feveral weights be laid fucceffively upon a horizontal beam AB. as -i . 5 hundreds. LXXVI. but little variation in the flrength. before it breaks . let fall upon a hard body. bears 315 lb. Let L be the length of any beam. it will bear. fupported at both ends. o t T I M B E R. 2 pound 5 that is above a ton and a quarter. LXXiX. Therefore put -2—i. 28351b. for the hardeft bodies. . when drawn in length. length direSlly cally. D/its depth* then (by Prop. Vlir. Now the parts at f. Here we all if it flaould vary -. along fuppofe that the fulcrum at R remains by the denting in of the parts at R^ fixt . for the greatcft weight. and balls of which glafs or wood. the infinitely fmall diflance ef is a given quantity. ilone 7 q^ jj. its bending or curvature will he nearly as the weight and and as the breadth and cube of the depth recipro- It is found (by Prop. the fpace CDB^ thro* which the point 2) dercends. and this curvature is as the are gradually feparated. /.will be as the weight it bears. and coniequently may be contrafted by a contrary force . p 109 j Therefore if a piece of oak. when it CD infinitely fmall angle eDf that is. time. an inch fquare and a foot long. which are contiguous at the beginning of the defcent. or the weight it will bear. as -i_. then CD is as the curvature at D. PROP. or i ton. If be fuppofed very fmall. is as —-2. At which till at lad the beam breaks.

very fmall. is faid of beams of timber equally ap- any folid bodies. 2. bxDp is as LIK is fFhat isfaid efftreight beams equally true of any beams^. tBe depth. S "What plicable is C H O L. Infimilar homogenous fireight bodies the curvature is as the u-cight dire^ly. For (by Cor. 3. fuppofe it a or v ADB circle. Cor. and the breadth and cube of the depth rc:iprocally. not aright line.i. AnJ it will be as L Cor. arifing from their own weight. is as the fquare of to the . 3. yet CD will ftill be of the lame quantity. or as 1—: by.) the deflexion from their true figure. 4..exion CD is as the -weight dire5?l)\ and depth reciprocaVy. adtcd on in a like manner as by weights. (. in this feftion. Tnjimilar bodies bending from aflreight line by their own iveight. For then Cor. •. l-'or when CD is nearer a parabola-. therefore -— — -L whence CD is Jltl is as the curvature C. and the d^jiiMm as ths. the curvature is given. and the deflexion is as the fquare cf the curvature Cor. There are fome bodies in which a very little bending may have a great efie*^. I. Ik the utmoft flrength cf beams. the original pofuionof the beam.:rge tclcfcopes. LL And if -^xZy' is Dp //C5. inregard to the incrcafe cr variation of curvature. fquare of the length dire£lly and the depth reciprocaly. STRENGTH and AND STRESS. or let its radius be R^ then 2R X CD— AD- IX. of the laft Prop. 5. and to the deflcilion. J_for the curvature when breaking fi^' for any other weight. or their hrciiklngpofiitcn. and cube of the depth reciprocally . is and very near a circle. "* C the correfpondcnt curvature. is reciprocally as the depth. but the dif.o P . Ccr. Df The bxDp quantity cf deflexion CD of any beam is as the weight 'ami tube of the length direilly. from tksir original pojilion. as in the glafies of l. that is as -.

and any bigger beam cannot fupport itfelf. and nothing more. fuppofing them made of the fame matter. Whence it follows. ill the fame proportion of parts. which is i'o much harder and ftronger than any hitherto known . in regard to magnitude. or any fuch thing as giants. or elfe that the proportion of the parts be lo much altered. And though this iir he the diamecer. Vaft columns and pyramids will break by their weight and tumbledown. neither can any buildings of vaft bignefs be made to ftand. For the ftrengch being as :he cube of the depth. which neither art nor nature can go beyond. And hence there is a certain limit. And the like holds in all machines. and not capable of performing any proper aftion. or puli up a large oak by the roots : nature will noc it is Thus impofiible that there can admit . krge ones too . be any animal fo big as to carry a caftle upon his back. but being burdened by their owa feveral parts will weight muft fall down. Likewife if any beam can make lo times its own weight. another beam of the fame timber. but alfo in natural ones.Se'a:. or any man fo ftrong as to remove amountain. or men of prodigious ftature. ai)d in all animal bodies. And being made fimilar. which will make the animal diftorted and of a monftrous figure. From the foregoing propofitions it follows. no other fimilar beam will do the fame. It is likewife impofiible for nature to produce animals of any vaft fize at pleafure. and any fomcthing more. to bear its own weight-. and. impofiible that mechanic engines can be increafed For when they arrive at a particular fize. and the Itrefs being as the matter and length. that the ftrefs may lefs beam will bear : far exceed the ftrength. they will noc be able to ftand or move. infenfible in fmall glafTcs. except fome fort of matter can be found to make the bones of. Hence it is to any bignefs. their break and fall afunder by their weight-. that if a certain beam of timber be able to fupport a given weight. no. may be taken fo great as to be able but jufi. And that of all fimilar beams there is but one that will fupport itfelf. that a beam may be taken fo large. not only in all machines and artificial flrudures. but muft fall to pieces by their great weight. fimilar to the former. when the glafles are fimilar. and the may produce fome fenfible error in fame may happen to them in grinding by much prefTure. VIII. and go to ruin. and of common matter. and the bones and mui'cles made thicker in proportion. but muft break by its own weigiu •. F T it I M B E R. is as the +th power of the depth it is plain the ftrefs increafes in a greater ratio than the ftrength.

muft break and fall down by their great weight. becaufe the internal parts will prefs upon one another by their weight and deflioy their fabric. admit of thcfe things. On And the contrary. whence its iitipofTiblc there can be ani*iraU of any Ibrt beyond a determinate b gnefs. than large animals . and upon thefe many problems may be refolved relating in feveral bodies. or And be more hurt than the lefs. at Icaft in regard to their weight. principles a great and particularly in arc hi ted u re . their limbs. but the greater will that fmall animals are jump farther. for their weioht. boughs. if there were any fuch. bccauic their weight is lupported by the water v but yet they cannot be incrcafcd to immcnfity. therefore a fmall animal will carry far more than its owa a great one cannot carry fo much as its weight. is when the fize of animals is diminifhed. ftronger.. whilft And hence it fnfler. its limbs will drop Off by their weight. Neither can any two unequal and fimilar machines refifl any violence alike.-nt ufe in feveral con- cerns of to the life. and an for larcre animals of animals^ ones Thus a cat may fall 2 or j ant from the top of a tower. will run perform any motion quicker. Neither could a tree of an ordinary fize be able to Hand if it was compolcd of the fame tender matter that fome plants conlift of. is more aflive. buc And hence likewife. fuch a tree cannot graw or Hand. Fifli may indeed be produced to a larger fizc than land animals. by falling break failing higher receive no damage. or in the fame proportion-. that there can be any trees of immenfe bignefs-. in the nature of things. their ftrcngth not dimifhed in the fame proportion as the weight. weight. whilfl lelTcr . nor fuch a plant if it were much bigger than common. tr'f. It is likewife impofTible. by which means they are both lighter and the farre is true their bones. to know no bounds as to the fmallnefs of animals. The and propofitions before laid down concerning the flrengtK ftrcfs of limber. leflcr plants can better fuftain themfelves than large ones can do. are alfoof excell.112" f 1 STRENGTH AND STRESS c. And that plants made of fuch fender matter may better fupport nature has made the trunks and branches of many themfelves of them hollow. and branches. for the Icfs the animal the greater And nature feem» the proportion of the llrength to the firefs. due proportion of ftrcngth according to . yards high and be no worfe. Thus it is impofilble there can be an oak a quarter of a mile high .

ng plane interfering the other plane in the top of the wall. whofe vertex is at the end. the beam will be ftronger when it is taken out of the middle. and if the be a right angled triangle. enumerate. and the backfide terminated by a flop. the diftance of the pins ought to be -i'44C— parts of the length of the cylinder. is equally ftrong throughout for fupporting its own weight. the ftrain is greater upon the nail neareft the hand or point where the power is applied. If a (lender cylinder is to be fupported by two pieces.Sea. "When fufpend a fmall leaver. both ends. 116. than on the upper fide. f J13 i to their particular pofitions and weights they are to bear. of which I ofTIMBER. if a wall faces the wind. fome c. to bear a weight on the other. is to be fpliced upon the end of a beam to be fupported at both ends. it will be ftronger when fpiiced on the unBut if the beam is der fide of a beam. if it be cut in the form of a wedge and p'accd with its parallel fides. fuch a beam fixt horizontal at one end. it will bear twice as much weight as when the ends only lie loofe or free upon the fupporters. and bearing a weight at the other.zon. a circle. VIII. If a beam has all its fides cut into the form of a concave parabola. Q^ If . or the forefide be perpendicular to the horizon. it is better to be convex on the backfide in nc. nailed to a body to remove it or by. fupported only at one end. and then the cylinder will endure the leaft bending or ftrain by its weights. or any regular polygon. If a beam is fupported at both ends. and the two ends reach over the props. that a beam fixt one end. it will be equally ftrong every where. that is 4 its length. By the fame principles. but if it b'' built of loofe materials. the pins equi-diftant from its ends. provided a piece of wood is driven hard (hall briefly in to fill up the hole. If a piece of timber is to be holed with a mortife hole. and be fixt down immoveable. iuch a wall will be equally ftrong in all its parts to refift the wind if the parts of the wall cohere ftrongly together . than And in a beam fupported at if it be taken out of either fide. it is If a piece ftronger when it fpliced on the upper is fide. at By the foregoing principles it alio follovvs. parallel to the hor. i^c. and no fconer break in one place than another. and bafe a fquare. it fedtion of form of a parabola. it is ftronger when the hole is taken out of the upper fide than the under one.

14. which is a paradox in mechanics. : . but will break with more than that weight. this is when the parts of the equally llroni^ throughout. but feveral other bodies. let is half the fubtangent. and fufpended at the And if fuch a pillar thick end in the air. to pieces in one part iboner than in another by its own be turned upfidc down. for a very little time.. In tire firft edition of this book I had inferted the ftrength of fome forts of wood. left any body computing the ftrength of a. and the part ABU' be tut away parallel to the bale. but when the parts cohere not together. that of a worfc fort muft ^ break beam. ftiould I that time. not only upon many different forts of wood. a AE be oreatcr wci"ht P. and but fuch a piece of wood fhould not in others not fo much practice be trufted for any length of time with above a third or For (ince this is the extreme a fourth part of that weight. fupported at both ends. of}". have coUrded from experiments. tb. Likewifc if there be a piilar eredlfd in form of the logarithmic curve. have made a great many more experiments. or any fluid boJf> form of a fcmi-cubical parabola^ wall. * STRENGT If a wall is it fl AND ST R ESS to fupport a ' "' ouylu to be built concave •.an the whole ABCEG.1. and Al—^ylC. or the par: will be Wronger than the whole. And upon the fame principles an infinite number of queftions of like kind may be refolved. it will be no fooner pulled alunder in one And the cafe is the fame part than another by its own weight. parabolic conoids are equally ftrong throughout. if {he Imall end be cut ^^''' beam in form of a triangular prifm. inch fquare. the aiTymptote being the axis. are equail*/ Ibongin all parts to refift the wind. weight which the beft wood will bear. for there are fome pieces that will carry fomething more. then a righc well togcthrr W. This is at a medium . the A piece of good oak. as I And fince overcharge it with too much weight. I gave the lead weight which the juft able to bear. llick Such walls will be plane ought to be its figure. a cylinder be added. and a yard long.nc or Ooping wh'>i? vertex bank of earth. in is at top of the but if the parts be ioofc. which are curious enough. All I (hall here add. the remaining beam DJCEF wid bear a whofe height Ladly. about 3^0 pounds ^r^r^/.. and of great ufc in the common affairs ot life. it cannot be crufhed weight. fuch as I had made experiments upon . and other bodies. in worft of them was all which. and inrteadof ir.. will bear ih the middle.. an refult of which I ft^all here fet down. is the (trength of feveral forts of timber. All fpircs of churchfS in the form of cones or pyraTiids. I'. and MAD—tAB.

that a large allowance ought to be made for the ftrength of wood. which has alfo found born a great weight for a Imall time. cially The Box. yew. OF T I M B E E R. VIII. 7 i . and fliould be two or three years old at leaft. birch. which muft needs very much impair its ftrength. flronger than that of the ones. plane Crabtree. and this often caufcs it to break where a knot is. thorn Red fir. elder. And for common ufe it is hardly poflihle or 20 times weaker. and Knots in wood weaken it very much. that a piece of timber. weight that others would is do. proportion of the ftrength of feveral forts of wood. and other bodies that I have tried. or 10 times weaker than ftreight. and branches. Befides. 1 Sea. afp. appletrce Beech. The wood frr^all of the boughs •. the crreat far is weaker than that of the body the wood of limbs. in different pieces of the a o-reat deal very fame tree. If wood happens to be i'appy it will be weaker upon that account. fuch as fir. and the heart of a found tree is ftrongeft of a!!. From all which it appea-s. is 16. will likewife decay looner.- j ' 61 7 . wife weaker when it is green. white Willow or Iron Brafs Bone Lead Fine free-ftone — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — faugh — — — — _ — — — _ __ — _ — — — — — — — fir 1 8. S J07 50 22 g^ i Ct2 jn . when left upon it for a far longer time. that tough wood crofs the grain. that there is of difference in ftrength. when timber lies long in a building. will appear in the following table. 8. fome pieces I have found would not bear hjlf tlie G. F i'5 J For I have found by experience. hazle Alder. cherrytree. is 7. as it often happens in fawing. and ftrongeft when thoroughly dried. it is apt to decay or be worm eaten. fuch as elm or afli. Alio when wood is crofs-grained. break with it. when applied to any ufe. tfoe- weaken it more or lefs. has broke with a far lefs Wood is I keweight. this will wood in the according as it runs more or lefs crofs have found by experience. hollin. oak Elm..ts. to find wood but it muft be fubjedt to fome of thefe things. plumbtree. I have by experience. afli Walnut. and wood that eafily fpl. 18. I the grain. And where it is defigned to continue for a long time.

will find them as different and various as I have done. was to then. . will bear near 3 fir. ton weight. &c. From what has been laid. as 1 found fomctimcs one fort to exceed in ftrength and lomc- limcs another. and perhaps quite different from mine. The The The fir would bear 84 '^'/hundred weight. A 1000 good hempen rope of an inch circumference. SECT.ji6 r STRENGTH AND STRESS. will bear at extremity. lift ^ the extreme weight. but not more. Hi. but none of fuppofes thefe bodies to be found and good throughout^ thefe fliould be put to bear more than a third or a fourth part of the weight. 2 A rod of good iron of an inch circumference. iron 6 I dd. cylindric rod of A drawn fir of an inch circumference. as the rcfult of a great many trials. 400 lb. good clean in length. ther add. if a fpear of fir or a rope. and a fpear of inches diameter. will bear about 7 ton. or a fpear All this of iron of d inches diameter. lb. cfpecially for any length of time. which I found to be pretty near of the fame ftrength. will bear at extremity. contented myfelf to fct down what I found from my own experience. rope zz dJ hundred weight. is this. there being a great difference even in the fame fort of wood i and I do not doubt but other people that fhall make experiments. ton weight. In this table I have put fevcral forts of wood into one clafj together.. juft according But I have to the goodnels or badnefs of the wood they ufe. without any regard What 1 ihall furto what other people have done or may do.

Ccr.uid is 7J0t propagated in right lines. and r. which lie neareft them. For any part of a fluid prefling aga'. that motion can be diredled than thcfe particles lie in a right line as to c. and that by the next to it. p. and fo on. and forms a new wave beyohd the holey which moves forward in a femi-crck whofe center is the hole. will defledt into other oblique directions. p . and that prtflure being farther continued. will urge the particles ». Therefore the preflure as foon as it is propagated to particles that lie out of right lines.nft the next is. and will there -^ fore be propagated in all directions. ai-. . begins to defleft towards one fide and th€ other. [ ^17 1 SECT. but equally all around in all manner of directions. and fo on . e^ Motion or prefure in af. from whence follows a lateral prefTure (equal to the.. Thus if a wave proceeds from C. If any part of a preffure propagated through a fluids heftopt I lo. g. PRO P. g.dircCl prcilurey into the places behind the obftacle. and a part gees through it expands itjelf. the nmaining part will defi(£i into the fpaces behind the ohflack. LXXX. The properties ofjluids^ the prmciples of hydrohydraulics^ and pneumatics^ PROP. no further But the particle c will urge the particles ^. s obliquely. flaticsy IX. hy an objlacle. And thcfe particles e. the hole A. Therefore the prefTure and motion is propagated obliquely ad infinitum. by which that j 18 If a force aft at a in direftion motion is conveyed to e. equally re^ ailed on by the next./ obliquely.

. 122.ii8 F 1 HYDROSTATICS. and the furface AB them. But fince there is no part higher than another. the IcITcr under F. BE in every place equal . and And thus the higher parts of the fluid thofe at F to afcend. 2. : Any fluid being difturhed. and therefore the heights AF. Cor. 121. furface is be at rejt zvhen placed in a horizontal fittiation. And therefore it cannot defcend in one placi: more than another. 7. there is no tendency in any one part to dcfcend. were further from C than the reft.) the . more than in another . will caufe the parts at E to dcfcend. and fpreading themfelves over the lower parts at F. the preffure of it on all the parts of the horizontal furface AB. P. For if any parts of the furface of the fluid A or B. 3. lie diflferent fluid APEF refl upon the fluid that divides at refl. hut to- C. ^°*'' '• wards a fixed point or center C . ill and let /IB of water or any fluid Suppofc the furface of the liquor to : tiie FE. but will continue level. when any part of the furface AB be higher than the reft. will of itf elf return to the fame or horizontal pofition. towards which their weights are direftcd till at laft they would be all equi-diftant from it. ABCD For Ccr. it will defcend to the fame level and fince FE is alfo level. •. and therefore the fluid will relt in an horizonfluid will at laft being fettled in this pofition. at E dcfcending. Hence alfo if a both the furface . levet. l"or let ABCB pofition be a vefl'J be be parallel to tiie horizon. they would continually flow down to the places nearer C. PRO JfuiJ can ij)i!y O. which are at the fame time afcending: the furface of the bccaufe the parts of the fluid are therefore (bv ax. continually defcend to Alio the greater prefTure under E and Then be reduced to a horizontal pofition AB. whofe center is V the fluid does not gravitate in parallel lines. Cor. will be equal. by their gravity. the lower places at F. then the fluid can only he at refl when its furface takes the form of a fpherical furface AB. cafily moveable among themfelves higher parts at E will. FE. 1:0. will if in a level or horizontal fttucticn. tal pofition. its LXXXI.

I.) as the prelfure in any place adls in it mufl: be the fame in all diredions. way 12-. IX. an equal flaie of compreffion. is Then equal . or any HtHce water commumcatmg ivttb two -place . And then the fluid would be at reft:. For (by Prop. Except fo far as tt is mall degree of tenacity moves thro\ or perhaps fome very f will rife to the fame level in hindered ly the fri^ion of the or cohejton. HYDROSTATICS. were in Cor. till the preflTure becomes equal. the preffure at any depth is as- the depth. and be equally comprefled in all direftions. is equal in every part of a plane drawn pa- Cor. 4. PROP. : and therefore the preflure in all the points £Fis equal Cor. 119 FIG. of therefore the weights (landing upon any equal parts of EF are equal alio. ^2%. Cor. the fluid would move that way. is LXXXII. In any fluid remarning at depth. a fluid preffes equally in all direSlions. '^he preffure rallel to the horizon. in every part of it. is PROP.Sea.. ccnveyed from one both places. Cor. A fluid being at refl. 3. places-. all direftions. lefs In any given place. each drop or particle of it. 2. LXXX. sqimlly preffed on all fides. parallel to the furface For let the plane £F be AB. . . fince the height of the fluid at all the points of £F. by the weight of the fluid above it. 4. . For if it one diredion than another.. and therefore is as its height.. channel it to another-. When a fluid is at reft. at the fame refl . For this preflure depends on the weight of the fuperincumbent fluid.

3 . or whether the fluid The continued upivards from the compreffed furface. preffire at L and F is as BL or . Case 124. DEF of . D. or creeps obliquely thro' crooked cavities and canals . Prop. and B L. uhatever be the figure of the containing vejjel. and to hertzon. at the preffures at HF And Cor. their bafes •willfuftain an equal quantity cf preffure cylinder of the fame bafe and height. C are equal. fame fluid. parts. Cor. 1:3. contained in upon the whole it. - II. the prejjure of the fluid upon the bafe. the fame quantity cf pr ffure at any given d-p. as a Cor. Let ABCD be a cylinder or prifm. is equal therefore the whole prcfTure upon the bafes AB or And thcretorc is as to ihe whole prefTure upon the bale CD. And therefore the preffure at L and F is the fame. Let the heights and or bafes of the vcffels ABC. LXXXIII. Then the at and C. ED. whether the furface prcffid be parallel furface . and whether thefe And hence vide or narrow. paffages are regular cr irregular^ If ABDCF be any veffi GC be perpendicular . . PROP. is to the horizon. tho' ftevr fo diflirent in their capacities be filled -xith any the . to thofe of the cylinder ABCD . into rifes perpendicularly a rectilinear dire^ion. the prrlfurc number of as the or inches. the • HFOK. 2. Case And I. If a fluid be at reft in any veffel. LXXXIl ) the prcfTure upon a given partot ihrrba!e. I containing a fluid the . no.20 HYDROSTATICS. K as HK. (as a fquarc Inch) as the is as the depth. whofe baft is parallel to the horizon . upon a given always the fame. is DE DE the bale and perpendicular height. i. and bafe is there- fore is bale and altitude ot the fluid..'h. and GHAB . or perpendicular^ or oblique . I. as an equal part of the bafe CD. 0. furface of the liquor and FL. thm fince be equal any part of the bafes DEF AB equally prcll. then (by Cor. If t-ivo veffels ABC. equal bafe arJ height. ts as the bafe and perpcndtcular altitude of the fluid . 125. as ED D. Cor. COD parallel to AB.

their height above their place of 128. Let the fluids join at C. ward. 121 Cor. it will rifs to the fame height in the other CD. equal to that of t^S. and that to heights reciprocally as the and be lufpended at the height B in the capillary tube AB. R -• . IX. communicate with one another by BC. tubes ftreight fome crooked. fome experimentally. to depths which are reciprocally as' the-diameters of the finks in it. CD Ce or AB :: denfity of AB denlity of CD. For if the fluid ftand at unequal heights. and take the perpcndicolar height of Then if ttie denfities of the fluids were equal they would fuftain one another at the equal heights AB. with their low ends turned in all direcPut thefe tions. but difl^crent fluids rile to diameters. The f^me holds for any other fluids. By Prop. its height muft be fo much greater as the denfity is lefsi that is. prcffure is every where dire5fed perpendicularly agaiad Therefore at it is direSled do-wnace of the vejjel. that connnunicate . and has its furface deprefled below the common furface. Likev/ife. infteadof afcending in a tube. K F upwards. meeting. that IS. tubes. HYDROSTATICS. Cor. If the tube two veffels AB. the prefTure in the it iz6. if water can rife I2Q. higher will be greater than in the lower. it rifes fomething above the level. CD. Take feveral. different heights. eC. the inner furf ne pre. and The truth of the foregoing propofitions But the height of the external furface of the water in them all. : : S C H O L. may be eafily proved open at both ends. and will fiend at equal heights in both . .Sedl. it will be fulpended at the fame height B. whatever be the figure or widenefs of the under part CD. whilft the part of the tube at 5 remains the fame. the water will rife up to into a veffel of water to any depth. 4. at LJidewcys. IX. 5. But quickfllver. iz^. and if any liquor be poured into one AB. will be reciprocally as their denfities or fpecifsc gravities. regular and irregular. aie fufliciently wide } this is to be underftood of fuch tubes as for in capillary tubes immerfed in a velTel of water. 6veffels to n^ove AB. If tzvo different fluids Juflain one another at refl in two 127. and cauTe towards the lower. Therefote that the preflure ot the other fluid may be the fame at C. AD will be a hi^rizontal line. And the afcent and fufpenfion of water is the very fame in vacuo. and at Cor. and of feveral fizes. CD. Ce.

but a body of greater denjity than the fluid jjillfifik to the bottom. Let the body is the body Case If the II. bodies whatever the heavieft will be the Hence bf dies placed in the force fluids loweft. body is more denfe. I . therefore the body will prefs the fluid under it. tubes come under no hydroftatic laws. EGF be immerfed in the fluid AD. If a homogeneous body be immerfed in a fluid of the fame denjity with iifelft it will remain at reft in any place and in any fofitioH . Jffever al fluids of different denfilies be mixt together in the fame veffel. the other apparent or relative. and the body will be at reft. and a body oflefs denflty will rife to the top. and thofe of a mean denflty to the middle. by this all bodies gravitate in their proper f^cesy and their weight taken . the heavieft will get to the lowefi place. the Abfolute one true and abfolute. PROP. Then fincc of the fame denfuy as the fluid. Therefore the weight of the body will overcome the preflure of But if the body be lighter. the prefigure againfl: the fluid un- derneath is greater than that of an equal quantity of the fluid. and the lightefi And in any to the top . have a t-jjcfold gravity. LXXXIV. the prcflTure of the fluid will overcome the weight of the body. Cor. gravity is forts of fluid with which bodies tend downward. and it will fink. juft as much as the fame quantity And therefore the prcfTure of the of the fluid put in its place. Case 130. 1 But the forces by which fluids arc fuQ>ended in capillary 29. and it will rife to the top. Therefore the prefTure of the body at F againft the fluid is eAnd qual to the prefTure of the fluid at F agamfi: the body. 2. FIG. Cor. therefore theie two prcflures will remain in equilibrio. body. tubes. I.122 HYDROSTATICS. together with that of the fluid above it. prcflfcs the fluid below as much as a column of the fluid of tlie fame depth. the fluid under it.

which this is done belong not to any laws of hydro- PROP. For there being more matter and gravity. or one that is heterogeneous. lofe and fufpended in it. the weight of an the laft Prop. or if it move in any diretlion^ and a line be dra'-ran conne^ing the center cf gravity and center of ma^nitnde of the body. Hence no body can be at refl within a fluid.Sea. if it be lighter or heavier it only fity as Far (by R2 . 4. ^ .g_ of the fluid. Hence an irregular body. is here faid of bodies of greater denfity finking in a For if a body be muft be underftood of fuch as are folid. S C HO L. HYDROSTATICS. Therefore. forces by {latics. By . for the whole Is heavy as may be experienced in vejfels full of liquor. Cqt. Bodies immerfed in a fluid LXXXV. 3. that part will lefs furface near the center of be lefs refifted th:n near the center of re- magnitude. and will be left behind. therefore the center of magnitude will be more tarded than the center of gravity. Relative gravity is the excefs of the gravity of the body above that c. or cavities be filled with the fluid. Likewife bodies of greater fpecific gravity being reduced to extremely fmall particles. but hindering one another's defcent. proper places heavy. it will then fink. remain in their proper places as if they were not Cor. But the What fluid. j- 123 i taken together compofe the weight of the whole. IX.) if the body £/^ be of the fame denthe fluid it lofes all its weight. But if the hollows hollow it may fwim in a fluid of lefs denfity. unlefs it be of the fame fpecific gravity as the fluid. and neither endeavours to afcend or defcend. kind of gravity fluids do not gravitate in their they do not preponderate. this that is. equal bulk of the fluid. defcending in a fluid. may then be fufpended in the fluid. the body will fo difpofe itfdf as to move in that line \ and that the center cf gravity will go foremofl and the center of magnitude bthmd.

or as their fpeaflc gravities. AH bodies and unequal .cnil or dcicencl with the di/Trrfnce of tKe weights of the body anii ihc lluiil j aud has liicrcforc loft the wci. if two bodies of unequal bulks be in equilibria in one fluid. and this isthe relative gravity of the body in the fluid. (Ut off by the plane of the furface of the fluid.. bilh before Cor.ht of as much of the IIukI. of ennalnkignitudi immffrd in a fluid loft equal bodies lofi weigbis prcpcritonal lo their bulks. 4. Cor. they will lofe their equilibrium in another fluid of diffe- rent dcnfity. For fluid body be at reft. S C H O L. and hence the body will tend upwards with the difference of thefe weights. the prefTure of the body upon the underneath. as big as the immerfed part of the folii. LXXXVI.:. the weight The weight of a f olid bod\ floating upon a fluid is equal to of a quantity of the fluid. Hence al/o. d after emcifion. it Icems to lofe more weight than it has. or cork PROP. ivfigtts. I. Since a body immerfed in a fluid lofes fo much weight as that of an equal quantity of the fluid. Cor. 2. only cnleavoiirs to af. But if the body is fpccifically lighter than the fluid. v fuchas fee in fcachersor fmuke in the air. by immerging C4U Cor. And we this is the relative levity of the body in the fluid in water. is jud the fame as the prcflTure of the fluid in if the the . ^ ' Ti:e fatid acquires the ivngbl tuhiib tie h:dy lefts.2+ HYDROSTATICS. J'or the fum ai of the weigtusot the lolid and i'uid is ihc fame. 3 The weights loji and the fame body in diff<ri:ut fluids urg as the d^njittes ef tie fluids. therefore it tends downwards only with the difference of thflc weights .

but becaufe the body is at reft. it. by which the weight of the fluid AFB. But the weight of the body tending from D is perpendicular to the horizon. -- D be the center CD For as C all is the center of gravity of the fluid AFB.) bc-cauie that prefTure fuftains the body. Therefore the fum of all the forces tendmg upwards to C. the center of gravity will be the lowejiy and defcend PROP. the immerfed part in each liquid will be reciprocally as their And therefore a body willfink deeper in a lighter fuidthan denfilics. For the dcnficy of the fluid : denfity of the body :. in a heavier. If a floating body LXXXVII. g. weight of the ether. laft) is fuftained. the line will be perpendicular to the horizon. or fwim upon different li- quids. AFBE. 2. ii. weight ("of the fluid equal to the immerred part. PROP. Therefore CD is perpendicular to the AFB or of the body AFBE (equal to D horizon. If the whole body be as heavy or heavier than water. j or fyflem of bodies. Cor. Ifih cific gravity of the body. If one and the fame body float. HYDROSTATICS. is equal and contrary to the fum of all the forces tending downwards from (by Ax. f J25 i And therefore the weight of the room of the immcrfcd part. and be immerfed in the foremoft. one IS equal to the body he homogeneous. point it by Prop. it is the center of the forces or weights of the parts of the water in fame tending downwards . and gravity of the whole body. the C is alfo the center of all the prefllires of the fluid underneath tending upwards. the weight or magnitude of the isjhole floating body is to the weight or mdgnitude of the part immerfed :: as the denfUy or fpecific gravity of thefluidis to the denjity or fpeCor. . and C the center of of gravity of the fluid AFB equal to the immerfed part of the body j then. Cor. I fay. I. or the weight) of the whule body : weight of the immerfed part.Sea IX. be at reft in a fluid.

being ijnmerfed in a fluid enclofed in prejjed on every fide. I. be enclofeJ in a veffd. then the air. and remain at reft. For the comprelTjon ading every way alike. fame comprised Jtaie. PROP. LXXXIX. the greater would move the fluid towards the Icfs comprcflrd part. by the weight of a column of air of the height . If air. Jn an inflexible prejfure in a veffel. andftrongly com- the body will retain its figure. will be in the fame ftate of comprclnon . can make no alteration in the motion of bodies.-reffion of the ambient fluid. and fuffer no And all its parts change from the com. whoje parts a vejfel. Cor. C. and then the till their comprclTion became every where equal equal preflures would ballance one another. and the comprefijon in the bottom of the velTcl can only exceed that ac the top. ccnr. a fluid will not fuftain a ftronger but will give way to any excejs of and be reduced to an equality of preffure. ct any claflic fluid ef fmall den/ity. 2. Cor. 7'be motion of any included bcdy as E. preffure on one fide than another.:il be in tbt any particle was Icfs prefled than another. LXXXVIII. Jf a fiuld^ confidired without weight. Hence am foft body as GUI. be fhut up in a clofe vefle\ every part of it will be in the fame comprejcd flaie. will remain at reft among themfelvts. will not be at all changed by the comprefficn of the fluid. 132. Cor.ot be con- denfed. For if prcfTure . PROP. and fironglyccmprejjedcnallftdes. or cf any number of bodies. 3.126 F I HYDROSTATICS. 130. at equal altitudes within the vefiel. eviry fart rxitbm tt <yi. And in the fame ccmpreffcd ftate as the fluid. For let ABCD be a vcflc! full of enclofed air. but will remain the fame as before.. moment of time.

^a. i^S. .^c JJ^ SS^~ XI- U ^B^iB F Z> WL.

j-" m r .^?.107 io8 Tiyi.

3.Sedl. by reafon it 2. ternal air. And when grows . or its elafticity is as its denfity. and capable of being condenfed condenfed or forced into a lefs Ipace. which is very inconfiderable. But the height oi the atmofphere is uncertain. (by Cor. is proportional to the force that comprcffes it. 2. elaftic. whofe height is the difference of the heights of the two places. or the force it exerts to unbend itfclf. is reciprocally as the comprefling force . 1. LXXXII. or body of air enclofing the earth. it is and rarified. upon every fquare inch. as a it non-elafiic fluid does by its weight or preffure. IX. Its properties are thefe. though a very fmall degree of weight. 3. And from hence the denfity of the air grows continually lefs. by rcafun ot winds. or the preffure of the height of the atmofphcrc. air is The an elaftic fluid. 1. weight of fuch a column of air Prop. and therefore muft be equal to it. Cor. For the difference is only the weight of a column of air. I. hot or cold weather. The air does the fame thing by ilsfpring. the higher it is above the furface of the earth. but in the weight of the whole atmofphere. which is fo fmall. For the fpring or elafticity of the air gainfl: is the force exerts a- the force of comprefiion. The air has fome. That the air is a heavy. If air be comprejfed in any vejfd by the preffure of the exits elaftic force is equal to the force and prefjure of the ex~ Cor. is confirmed by many experiments made for that purpofe. In like manner the comprejfion of the air is in any izvo places near the earth's furface very nearly the fame. that it hardly becomes fenfible. S C H O L. And therefore the compreirinri in every pare of the veflcl may be looked upon to be the fame. Bu at different times it differs.) ^ inlenfiblc in relped: of the external prcfTure. HYDROSTATICS. The weight of the atmofphere at the lurfa e of the earth. And the fpace any given quantity takes up. is at a medium about i4Tlb. its fpring. which comprefles it. ternal air. by the weight of the atmofphere or body of the air above. Cor. is 127 but the ^ j height of the vefTel AC. averd. i^c. compreffible body. All the air near the earth is in a comprefted ftate.

Take any piece of metal and tie it to a piece of the light boJy. PROP. fpecific gravity. tie.128 Y I HYDROSTATICS. Take a folid body of known which will fink in the fluid. By in air. A the fpecific gravity cf-t befluid./. he a fo'.id body heavier than xvaler. and decreafrd by cold. For a fluid. And putting the Cafe I Umc letters as in Then will C dziio. The Then will fpecific gravity cf the bady — D. C. 1 he wciyht of the atmofpherc is equal to the weight of water 1 I G. as in Calc I. prows continually more rare towards the top till it vanifhe?. weigh and then in water. the fpecific gravity of bodia. and E zz F— Then weight of the metal in water. •. X).e weight cf the body zz A.. arvi will lofe part of iis fpring by cold. The fpring or clafticity of the air ]% rncrrafcd by hear. and potting . A~—B the fpecific gravity of the body. D= —-C. firft Ipccific gravity — Thefpecific gravity of water. it exadly. Tor afolid body lighter than witcr. fo that if any quantity of air be enclofed in a vcfTc'. io that the compound may fink in water . &:c. Case If it I. C. =. or fome fluid whole and let you know The ahfolu'. Case II. yards high. the fptcifie gravity cf the light body. D = AC A-^-E —t . ^0 find XC. it will have a ^rca'cr fprin^ or prtfTurc when heated. Case — III. Or . 4. weight cf the compound in water. The weight in water.

: Sea. -=:. it muft be of water. you mercury. 129 fig. or fmall fragments of muft ufe a glafs or metal bucket. equally true. weights of equal quantities of matter. t^ it is of. abfolute weight of the body. whic'. : A+E— F A D In Cafe III. =. Or A—B A in the other rule. — required. fufpended by a horfe hair.-J^ C. Therefore in Cafe I.) it is And the rule is :: C: t). HYDROSTATICS. therefore A^^B :: C D. Z :^ fpecijic gravity of the fluid then Z = 1^'C.'fek in ihe following table . oblerving to And for bodies that balance its weight both in air and water. if the body and fluid be near the fame fpecific gravity. or what kind it is of. duft. Take and let a body that will fink in the fluid and alfo in water. C =. know what fort name of the Hence if a piece ef metal. B C = its weight in the fluid. or for powders. Find its fpecific gravity by the rule above. S Cor.ater is A f E or A-\-E F. the weight of an equal quantity of water is But (by Def u. and the 4teareji to it gives the My. IX. your work will be more exad:. and A— G zz weipht of as much of the fluid. A its weight in water. lofes the weight of as much water. and the Ipecific gravities b(^ing as the weights of equal cj^uantitics of the matter i therefore — — — yl—B Cor. •will diffolve in water. fince L) . whether be lighter or heavier than water. : : C : Z. F E (which is negative when E is greater than F) and the weight of But for A— : : A — — . it is evident (by Prop. fpcafic gi-avity cf water. . And in Cafe If. or any fort of matter is offered. I^XXXV. : A—G 1. A—B =z weight of as much water. weigh them in oil of turpentine inftead When the body is weighed in the fluid.) that a body weighed in water.) the fpecific gravities are as the B. Or thus &c. therefore G^^Z^Z). Note. weight of the light body in water. or a fine filk thread. A B bodies. therefore (as in Cafe I. an equal quantity of v. To demonftratc the rules.

Caft Brafs Steel 8.5275 ouncei — 0. inches C S. troy. nioy be found.J30 F 1 H Y D R O S T ATI water.^JfO Brals .8^4> 11. a is For a cubic inch of wnter wfighs 256 grains .CC0 3'S^7 3 l<^o Cryftal 2. the quotient ii the cubic contains.5787 ounces averdupoife . For the weight ot a cubic incli oi water is . troy. 3. — — — — — — Lead — — — Fine — — — Standard — — — Copper — — Copper Halfpence — — _— Fine _ _ _ _ _ — — — Iron — Pewter — — — — Tin — — — — — — Caft — Lead Ore — — Copper Ore — — Lapis Calaminaris — — — Load-ftone — — Crude Antimony — Diamond — — — — — White Lead — — — inand — — — • • is(>A^ l.092 ic'-536 Silver 9 000 8915 f^. and : D zz fpecifc grov. SOLIDS. C.iy nD : of the body by the fcUoiiing table. yfnd to find the fclid content of a [mall body henritr than fVcigh it in air and iiater. or Cor. put n and the contrary.000 6.200 5167 5 oco 4-950 4. utent in inches weight in ounces .720 Marble .lco 7. and the difference of the weights reduced to grainSy being divided by it 256 . and one being given finds the other. A TABLE Fine Gold Standard Gold Silver of thefpecifc gratuities of bodies. Ccr. averdupoile. &c. Hence alfo the folidity of a body bring knnvriy the voeight Thus. 2. or . : J hen as \ : foiid c. or 62 \ lb.5757 02. troy.850 7-644 7-4/1 Iron 7-3^0 7. averdupoilV. which cubic foot but 234 grams to an inch.5275 02. 0.340 11. or weighs 761b.

660 Glafs 2 650 2. 712 . 2. &c.063 Amber Brazil _ Wood Box Wood Common WATER Bees Wax Butter t> — »_ 1. Nitre Vitriol 1.4OO 1. — — — — 250 258 177 [50 1 1.210 1. Gum Coal Jet Coral Arabic .874 . — Marble — — Pebble Stone Coral — — — Jafper — — Rock — — — Pearl — — — Onyx-ftone — — Common Stone — — Glauber — — — — — — Oyfter — — Brick — _ — _ Earth — — — — — — — — — Alabafler — — — Horn _ _ _ Ivory — Brimftone — — _ _ _ Chalk — Borax — — — — — — Clay — — — Dry Bone — — — Humane Calculus — — Sand — — Cryftal IX.040 1.600 Flint .210 2.J70 2.092 2 Salt Cryftal Shells 000 j_^8^ . I-7I4 1.. 0^0 — — _ S 2 _ — i.510 2. 1.^ I 8-(0 _ J i 820 goo 717 ^793 ..2 'D . .p40 Loswood . . 2.327 J J.707 2.031 _ 1. H YDRO S — TATIC S. _ Opium Lignum Vit£e — _ _ — — — — _ — _ — — _ _ 20 .880 1. 1. Allutn . I. 00 Mahogany .oco nrr '955 .560 1.6^0 2.Sedl.^4. Ebony Pitch Rofin I.900 1. 131 ^jq 700 2 -700 2.500 2 253 2.250 1.

290 1-234 1.030 1.913 .613 .000 1. Ico Afli (dry) &c.030 1.760 .120 J- '54 of '•°33 1.Soi (dry) (dry) fallen — .993 '990 • Spirit Sp. — — — — — — — — Honey — — — of Nitre — — Aqua — Treacle — — — AquaRegia — — — of Urine — — Human Blood — — Sack — — — Urine — — — Milk — — — Sea Water — — Serum human Blood — Ale — — — Vinegar — Tar — — — — WATER Dftilled Waters — — Red Wine — — Linfced Oil — — Br.700 1550 l-'lfo Fortis ' Spirit i-S'S 1-300 1.810 .838 .913 .826 .874 .032 1-031 1. . Logwood _ — — — — — Yew — — Crabtree — — — Beech.indy — — — — — Oil Olive — — of Turpentine of Wine — — Oil of Turpentine — — — — — Common Air Quickfilver Od of Vitriol Oil of Tartar Spirit 14.927 .238 .866 . — — Walnut-tree — — Cedar — — — — — — Fir Cork — — — — — New Snow Oak (dry) IMunibtrce (dry) tlm (dry) _ — _ — .— 13= H YD R OST ATICS.700 .650 .932 .028 j.800 .580 .700 .o85 FLUIDS.908 - Fic. .rit — • .076 1015 I.0012 .

finenefs. center of percuffion. Cor. LVII. texture. placed parallel to the horizon. draw cbd. that is as cd x AbAnd the force to turn the plane about O. in the fame manner as gravity does. &c. &c.) ? is the T-r. 2. fuppofing the axis of with the furface of the fum is that point againft which a force being applied equal and contrary to the whole preffure. upon a plane parallel to the ho- rizon. and parallel to JF. is XCI. M — — of all — Ab cdx The 1 • fame as the center of percuffion. or cd x Ab x AO fum of them all muft be equal to o. is great difference. is cd X cd x Ab'. Then the preffure againft any fmall part cd. is the fame as the center of gravity of that plane. whether folid or fluid. by reafon of their different goodnefs. and fome green wood will fink in water. is as cd and the depth of the fluid. The center of preffure ji?. in alnioft Particularly in wood there all bodies. it will juft fuftam it. or upon any plane where the preffure is uniform.: Sea. Let AF be the furface of the water. I. is equal that of the fame plane. l'i. compadtnels. And fometimes by a greater degree of heat or cold. which affeft all bodies a little. IX.u -o t \tm n ^ u 7.e center it. Cor. PROP. q. and therefore (by Prop. as elm.. at the depth . drynefs. to The qiiantity of preffure upon any plane furface. is H YD ROS TA TI C S. being more or Jefs free from mixture. And the x bO. center of preffure. 133 i For there p In this table you have the mean fpecific gravities. For the preffure adls upon every part. fome difference in different pieces of the fame fort of body. Therefore AO fum of all cd X Ab' j r . of preffure of any plane fuflaining a fluid pr effing againji the fame as the motion to he at the interfe£fion of this plane fluid. for green wood is far heavier than dry wood. from whence there will arife a fenfible difference in different parcels uf the fame fort of matter. the center of preffure. fo as the body preffed on. draw AO. will incline to neither fide.

H

I

;

HYD

diplh where

I

R O

S

TATIC

is.

S,

&c.

is

FIG.

j o.

its center

of gravity

jind the fame

(rue of

<?»>•

nutnbtr of furfaccs t<ikcn together. For the whole prefTurc is as the

fum of

all

**and upon the whole figure placed
**

is

at the center

Ab x cd of gravity, it

the

Cor.

But (by //fiCxdiflance of the center of gravity troni //. And the lame cj. Prop. XLIV.) tliel'e products arc equal. may be proved for fcveral lurfaces, or the lurface of any folid, taking the center of gravity of alt thefc furfaces.

PROP.

2lo find the center

XCII.

of equilibrium of a body, or a f>flem of lodies, immerfed in a fluid.

The

immerfed

**center of equilibrium is the fame with refpefk to bodies in a fluid, as the center ot gravity is to bodies in
**

:

free fpace

It is a certain

point,

upon which

if

the body or boin

dies be fufpendcd,

67.

Letyf,5,

p,

C

**any pofition. be three bodies, or the quantities of matter
**

tliey wiil relt in

them

;

q, r their relarivc gravities in

the fluid

;

i

— abfolute

gravity.

Let /)./, qB, rC are the weights of J, B, C in the fluid. Then, by the fame realoningas be the center of equilibrium. in Prop. XLVII. ihc fum of the forces of //, 5, C is pAx^la

Then

G

forces or

— Gg x />./ + qB + rC, the fum of the when fituatcd in G. IFhoice Cg CcxrC^ ^^,^ ^.j^^^^ AaXpA+BbxqB + ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^.^ pJ + ^jB + >C

+

qB

y.

Bb

-\-

rCxCc

weights

=

libriumfrom ST, in ihe fluid. And if any body, as J, is lighter than the fluid ; then its relative gravity p will be negative. And if any body is fituated on the other fide of the plane, its diftance

from

it

**mull he taken negative.
**

If the body cr bodies be hcmogencous, the caiirr of the fame as the center of gravity.

equili-

Cor.

briitm

is

S

C H O

L.

The relative gravity is found thus. 1 ake the fpecific gravity of the fluid <rom that of the body, and divide the remainder by the fpecific gravity of the body. And thcfc fpecific gravities are had by Prop. XC.

PROP.

—

Sea. IX.

^

—

HYDROSTAT C

I

S,

&c.

135 FIG.

81.

PROP,

xciir.

If a fyftem of bodies ofciilate in a fiuU, without refifi-ance ; to find the length of an ijocronal fendulum Vibrating in vacuo.

Becaufe particles of different fpecific pravities, placed in any given point, will rtquire different times of vibrating in the fluid j therefore we mull find the point where a particle of infinite denfity

and

lofe

being placed, will vibrate in the fame time as the fyRcm For this particle will this will be the center of otcillation.

:

nothing of

its

weight

in

the fluid

;

its

relative gravity being

**the fame as the ablolute.
**

will be

Whence

the vibrations of this particle

Let ^, 5,

performed in the fame time as in vacuo. C be three bodies, or their quantities of matter

abfolute gravity. ^, q^ r their relative gravities in the fluid ; i Then pj, qB, rC are the weights of the bodies in the fluid.

—

j

Let

G

be the center of equilibrium

;

and

O

B,

;

the center of ofcil-

**zz yJx Syj' BxSB'-\-Cx SC. Then (by the lame reafoning, and conflruftion, as in Prop. LVIII.)
**

lation fought.

Put

s

+

the angular velocities whirh the bodies

rn fyftem

are,

— SeycpA ClI—

s

yf,

C

,

generate in the

, ,

,

SnxqB —-i—

s

—

,

——

s

SdxrC -

and the whole angu-

,

lar velocity

generated by them all, is

Se^pA+SnxgB + SdxrC^

Likewife the angular velocity which the particle P, fituated in Sr Sr ^ P — or But their vi0, generates in the fyflem, is

'

.

**brations are performed alike
**

rr.„a u mult be equal.

1

Tu That

•

is

— Sexp^ + Sn — qB + Sd x rC —^ — x i——

=

:

therefore their angular velocities

—

—=

SO'

-JL_.

SGxSO

s

-'

Whence 50

A

SO

(

x

by

—

**—Sexp- + 6nxqB + Sdx rC Se X pJ + Sn X oB + Sd X
**

SO

But

rC

Prop.

XCII.

)

=

Sg

therefore

**+Cx = ^_xSA: + B x SGxpA + qB-rrC
**

SBof the

fluid.

x pA

SC^

+

^^^

j

qB

f^

+ rC

^f ^^

ifocronal pendulum, out

Cor.

.

136

F

I

HYDROSTATICS,

Cor.

J

I .

&c.

p

zz q

O

1 ^

g

//fncc if the bodies

are homoger.ccus, then

nr

t

on

yJxS/r--\-BxSIi--\-CxSC'

p-KSGX/t+B^C

Car. i.

fluid, in

The fyjlertt makes an exceeding Jmall the fame time that a fiinple pendulum,

"jilraiion in

"uihofe

the

it

length

**JxS^' + BxSB'+CxSC ^ —
**

ance

is

—

—

,

)

makes a vtbratton

.,

.

.

in vacuo.

I'mall

**SG><py4-[-qB+rC For the velocity of the fyftcm being very
**

inconfiderable.

;

the refin-

Cor.

3.

Hence if

:

SA be

then

the length of a ftmple pendulum (A),vi-

**bra ting in a fluid
**

in vacuo.

SA

is

the length ef

an

ificronal pendulum

V

For

in a finp,le

body, ^

SO

—

— — — ^AxpA

1_

or

p

Cor. 4.

And

;

than the fluid

if p be negative, cr the pendulum fpecifica'y lighter the pendulum will turn upftde down, and vibrate

upwards

**in the fluid.
**

It-ill

And

^

the length of an ifocronal pendulum out

of the fluid.

be

—

P

,

as before.

S

C

H O

L.

The center of percLifTion is the fame in a fluid as out of it. For there is nothing concerned in that, but the quantities of matter and velocities ; both of which are the fame in the fluid,

as

out of the

f5uid.

The

laft

relative gravities^, q, r are

found by the Schol. of the

Prop.

PROP.

its velocity in arty

XCIV.

a:: J

**if a fluid runs thro' any tube, pipe, or canal,
**

iion in that place.

ah-ays

fills it ;

place Will be reciprocally as the area of the fec-

Sed. IX.

Let

/IB,

HYDRO

CD

S

TATIC

3,

6cc.

137

F I G. be two feflions at ^^and C ; and Ift the quan- 154. tity of thi fluid ABDC, in a very Imall time, be tranflated into Draw Pp, (^q perpendicular to /^B, the part abdc of the pipe. CD, or parallel to the motion of the fluid ; then Pp, i^q being indefinitely fmall, will be the velocities of the fluid at P and ^, or the fpaces defcribed in that fmall part of time. Then, abdc. becaufe the pipe is always full, the quantity ABDC Take from both, the part c.hDC, which is common ; and there remains ABba—CDdc, that is the feftion APBxPp=:fe&'-on

~

Ccr.

I

.

The quantity of moticn of the fluid

any fe^ion

'jjhofe bafe

CD

is

;

is

CD,

in the pipe AD, at equal to the motion of a cylinder of that fluid, and length the fame -with the pipe from the be'velocity

is

**ginning to that feolicny and
**

the quantity of motion at

that of the fluid at

CD.

Or

CD,

as the length of the pipe

to that

feaion CD.

For

is

fince the velocity in

A

is

as

—— APB

?

,

the motion of

ABba

as the

APB

fum

of

that

is

as

Pp

;

and the motion of the whole,

is

all

to the diameter

height

is

P^\s — P^l)<C§I)

**the Pp, or the length of the pipe, without any regard AB. The cylinder, whole bafe is C'i^, and
**

;

and

its

motion with velocity at C,

P^^^^P — =:

pe^

the length of the pipe, as before.

Cor. 2. If water is driven through the pipe force aSfing at P, and the length of the pipe

PR PR

by fame given

be given

;

the

quantity of water dif charged at i?, in a fecond, or fome given time., will be as the feSlion at R.

For if the force is given, the motion generated in a given time, will be given and this motion, being as the quantity of water x velocity at therefore the quantity forced through ; R, will be reciprocally as the velocity, or diredly as the feftion

-,

R

at

R, by

.

this

Prop.

Ccr. 3 The velocity and quantity of motion, is the fame very near in crooked tubes as in ftreight ones ; and in pipes divided into fever al

branches

one tube.

;

taking the feaion of all the branches

as the fe£licn of

T

PROP.

,-^8

V

1

IIY

DROST ATICS,

P R

&c.

G.

O

1'.

XCV.

*>

^

//;

o.ny pipe -duhofe fctlion is BCD., the ftrcfi or force to fplit auy part of the pipe at b, is cjual to half the prej^ure of the fluid upon tbi plane BD, draivn perpendicular to the curve in B, and

J

of the far.ic length as that part of the pipe.

**Let Ee be any fmall
**

the curve Ee.

**part of the furface
**

en perp. to

Draw Ln,

**draw EO perp. to BO, and er perp. to EN.
**

;

let OE reprclent the prefTure of a particle of the fluid^ The force OE may be dithen £Ox£'':=p!'eflure upon £f. of which O.V tends only to fplit vided into the two ON, ; is the force to fcparate the tube at //, but that in direction Therefore Ee is the ftrcfs at B. But the the parts at B.

And

NE

NE

ENx

triangles Err,

EO X Na.

tion

is

NE,

are fimilar, and Eey.ENzzEOy.erj or Therefore the part of the prefllire on Ee, in direcfrom whence the ftrefs at B arifes, is zi EOyNn^ that

EON

— to

D

arifing

Conl'equently the llrefs the prelTure upon the plane Nii. from the prciTure on BE is zz prciTurc on BN, and

BJ is := prefTure on BO. And the ftrefs by the prelfure on yfZ), is equal to the prefTure on OD. Alfo we fuppofe the iame forces aJling in the femi-circle BCD but thcfe ferve only to keep the forces, ading upot>

from the preflure on

at

:

BJD,

in equilibrio.

Cor. I. Theflrefs on any part of a pipe full of -water, is as the diameter of the pipe, and the pei pendicular height of the -a-ater above that place. Jnd confequently the tbicknefs of the metal ought to be

jtt

that ratio.

Cor. 2. In any concave furface, cajk, orveffel, generated by revolving round an axis, and Jailed with a fluid ; the jlrefs as to fplit ting is equal to half the prejjure upon the plane faffing through

its axis.

And

the flrefs on both fides at

£

and D, equal

to

ihe

**whole pre£ure on that plane.
**

Cor. 3. Hence the internal preffure on any length of the pipe, it fuffers as to fplit ting :: as 2x3-1416, to 1.

it fcllo-ivs,

is

to the ftrefs

Ccr. 4. Hence

Jure, upon any party to fplit

**that thcfirefs, arifmg from any pref' it longitudinally, trunfverfely^ or in
**

arrf

7

Sed.'IX.

any

HYDROSTATICS,

is

6cc.

139

i

**direSfion, is equal to the prejfurc
**

to the line

upon a plane, drawn perpendi- f

g.

adar

Jure on

BE

— prejfure on BN.

•,

of

dire£lio;i.

'Thus the Jlrefs arif.ng from the pref-

135.

Cor. 5.

And

if the pipe he flexible

;

it will,

l>y

the preffure, be

or ftich that the fe5lion is a circle. put into a cylindrical form be greater than AC, there will be a greater prefFor if And the greater fure in direflion Oy^than in direftion 05.

BD

*to

prelTurewill drive out the fides ^and C, till ^C become equal D be a circle. Befides, a circle. is more caSD; and

ABC

And if a pipe be not flexibic, pacious than any other fii^urc. yet the prelTure of the fluid will always endeavour to put ic

into a circular figure,

flexible^

And if an elaflic comprelfed fluid be and capable of being dijiended every way into a fphere, for the fame reafon.

Cor. 6.

incJofed in

;

a

veffel,

it

will form itfelf

PROP.

If a

clofe flexible

XCVI.

immerfed wholly or in part j^g, it, in any place O, is

tube

AB full of

;

air, be

in the

water

CDEF

AO,

the force to fplit

proportional to

its

height

from A.

is in

For the

air

comprefied at

A

equilibrio with the external

is in the fame comA, but the external preffure at B, is Icfs by and at any place O, the weight of the column of water AB the external prefl'ure is lefs than in A, by the weight of AO ; therefore the internal preffure atO exceeds the external, by the is at weight of the column of water AO. And the flrefs ac

preffure of the water.

At B and

O^ the air

prefied ftate as in

:

that excefs.

Cor.

I.

The flrefs

is

great eji at the top

BG, and

at

A is

nothing.

Cor. 2. If the tube be inflexible; the flrefs -will be according to the flate of the comprefled air within it. If the air within be the is as BO. If fame as the external air at B, then the flrefs at it be lef then the external air, the increafe of the flrefs will be

O

alfo as

BO

-,

**aSIing at the outflde.
**

is

If

->

it

be of very great denfity^

the increafe of flrefs at

as

T

AO.

For

,4o

*

1

H Y D R O ST A T C

I

S.

&c.

it is

**For the prcffurc within
**

76

'^''1"'^

is

uniform

;

but without,

as the

"f

''"^

water.

P R

The quantity of a

hottcm

O

P.

XCVII.

fluid flowing in any time through a hole in the

or fiJe of

n

vejfel,

always kept

fii'.l \

is

equal to a cylinder

ivhrj'e baje is the area of the hole, and its length the /pace a body will deflribc in that timt^ with the velocity acquired by falling

through

haf

the height of the liquor above the hole.

»37-

be a vcllcl of water, B the hoir, and ta'r;c And let the cylm.'crof wa'er A'Cfall of the water. the height weight through haU DB^ and it will by that fall, acby its qure fiich a motion, as to pals through D5 cr BC uniformly But (by Prop. in the fame time, by Cor. 3. Prop. XiV. LXXXIII. and Cor. 2.) the water m the orifice B is prcfTcd with the weight of a column of water, whole bafe is B and or BC; therefore this prelTute is equal to the weight height But cqu.il forces generate equal motions of" the cylinder BC. therefore the prefTure at B, will generate the fame motion in the fpouting water, as was generated by the weight of the cylmdcr Therefore in the time of falling through half of water BC. Z)5, a cylinder of water wi.l fpout out, whole length (or the

Let

ABB

BC—BD

BD

:

And in the fame Ipace pafled unifi^rmly over) is BC or BD. time repeated, another eqqal cylinder Z/C will flow out, anJ in

Therefore the length of the of time, a third, ifc. will be proportional to the time, and confequently the velocity of the water at B is uniform. Therefore in any time, the length of a cylinder of water fpouting our, will be equal to the length defcribed in. that time, w;th the velocity acquired by falling through half DB,

a third part

whole cylinder run out,

Cor.

tity

a>'.d

I. Hence in the time of falling through half DB, a qua*> rf the flu d runs out, equal to a cylinder whoft bafe :s the hole j length, the height of the fluid above the hole.

Cor. 2.

The

velocity in the hole

B

is

uniform, and

is

ejual ta

that a heavy body acquires by fallittg through half

DB.

Cor.

they will comprefs one another.:etal. fame velocity. ccn'. but meeting one another at the hole. time in area of the hole. feconds. diltance from the hole as BEGF. the big • nefs . 0. in the ratio ot about v/-2 to i. but near the edge of the hole. that the particles of the fluid don't always move right forward . this Prop. ter ot the hole converges from all fides towards the cenand all the particles endeavouring to goon in right lines. » Cor. H YDR OS T A T But at a I CS. and thus the fl:rcam will becontradfed at E. afcends the upper furface of the fiuid. often in fpiral lines. the fluid from the hole is accelerated outwards at EG . jog. all in feet. KG . And this comprcflion being every where directed to the axis of the fpouting cylinder. Ccr. 4.roMed into a Up di^uieter. 5. but mufl: do it gradually.. For the velocities of falling bodies are as the fquare roots of the heiohts. F i^r I e. It mufl: be obferved. the friftion of the tubes. it acquires a velocity nearly equal to that. will be depth of the veffel to the '"^feet. at fome By this lateral comprelTion. fpouting out at different depths. 6. arifing from the refifliance of the air. by s— 16 B— 6. t Then the quantity of water runnmg out in the time t. There are feveral irregularities in fpouting fluids. line.Sea. Hence if center of the hole. or iz^tF^IBTale gallons. and the velocity increafed in the fame ratio. For no body can inftantly change its courfc in an angle. Cor. &c. the particles nesr the fides of the hole are made to defcribe curve lines as HE. nearly to And if it fpout vertically. the parts of the fluid will endeavour to converge to a point.nade in a ibin plate of }. the ftrenr. IX. in fome cyrve fince the fluid J For BF . which a heavy body acquires by ailing the whole height of the Jlagnant fluid above the hole. fm all dijlance without the hole. downwards. fideways. ajuiits velocity increojed jo that if a fiuid Jpoul through a hole . The velocities of the fluid. F zz — tF^/TOsfeet. S C HO L. and by the direct comprefiion. fpouts out nearly with the upwards.} is . by which means the fluid will form itfelf into a fort of a conical figure. however. or in any direSlion. Cor. The fluid at the fame depth. are as the fquare roots of the depths.

\e time the lejjcl being fuppcfed to be always kept fulL For draw the parabola gob. o. v if its direftion b: a little Ini lined from the pcrpcndi. from the if -.1^2 f 1 . A jet dc'au fpouts higher.-ncc. rom the greater rcfiftance of I the height of a refervoir be 5 feet. rcfiftance of the air. will reprefent the quantity dif- charged by all the fedfiors rn. placed at the whole depth gi. a jet and the defcft will be as t'le fq.:are of fail more than in that tiic air. out of it. HYDROSTATICS. partly from the fri'lion. Ccr. .) that is 'by the nature of the parabola) as the ordinate ro . 12Q. XCVIII. is as \/^ . or the area of the parabola. then lince the velocity of tne fluid at any place r. or the area of the parallelogram /g^Z'/. 5. wliofe axis is gi. 98. PROP.by Cor. A fluid fpouts through a thin plate . and \Vc find by experi. a fluid never fpouts flops its motion. p'aced as low as the bale bi. or grow fnallcr. and (hapc of the velTel. and pirtly bccaufc the (Ircam dors not convcrj^e fo much. . the heights of the fluid. By experiments. but in fmall to the full height of the water above the hok heights falls fh )rt of it. the fame ratio -. Alfo // will reprefent the quantity difcharged at the depth or bafe hi. of the laft Prop. in ttt far. If a notch orf. will fall an inch fliort the hciaht of the refervoir. i^c. which are as the fquares of And al! bodies prcjedcd upwards. And the fum of all the lines hi or r.f.ity fgbi. ular liccaufe the water in the iippermoft part of the jet. But fmall jets proportion. falls down upon the lower part. is But the parabola to the parallelogram. and bafe /»/. as ' to i. by Ipaces. will be \ the quantity flcwng cut of an equal flo'n-ing ADE orifice. in farm of a parallelogram. fall (hort of thofe projedled in vacuo. will reprefent the quantity dlfchirged at all the places rn. or : t>t the bafe bi . it will not Ipout fo far. he cut cut of tbt quantity of waur the fiAi of a vejjel full of 'jjatcr. therefore ro will reprefent the quantity difcharged at the depth or fcclion rn. and ordinate ro . ncTs t'lriheft Sec. by fpatcs which arc iri -. or of the hole. Confequently the fum of all the ordinates r:. if ic fpout through a tube inftcad of a plate.

This follows trom Cor. = \6l-. fhig. is to the quantity ivhicb ivotdd be difcbttrged through an equal hole laced as low as hi . or number cf feconds /. . 2. &c.f<:et. as the parabolic fegment rohi^ to the nStangk rnhi.Sea.i. D=gi. The quantity of f. Let s HYDROSTATICS. 6. This appears from the reafoning in this propofition. the quantity fio-juing out in any F= time F J G.q f Cor. is \ tF\/zDs. i. of the laft Prop. Cor. — the depth of the Jlit. -M3 Then area of the Jlit.uid difchcrged through the hole rtih:. IX.

kaving the ef gravity of as much of the fluid. PROP. If a body afcends in a fluid . 3. . Prop. retarded in PROP. is over and above the 'additional weight mentioned in Cor. This increafe of weight arijing from the refiflance. // ditninifhes the gravity of the fluid. SECT. 77je rcftj}a7icc X. is equal to that gained by the fluid. it will endeacenter move with its center of gravity foremcfi. behind. i. tlie gravity loll by the body. vour to For the and be lefs fide matter. 7/ <j heterogeneous body defcend in a fluid. fluids^ their forces and aSlions up07i bodies the 7?iotion of fjips^ atid pofilioTi of their fails. For the Cor. body defcending in a fluid. And refiftance is equal to the gravity loft by the body. becaufc adlion and re-aftion are equal and contrary.L 144 ] F I G. of . and will towards the center of gravity contains more more eafily make its way through the fluid j it. ly a quantity equal to the refiflance it meets liith. adds a quantity of weight to tiefluid. LXXXV. A XCIX. Cor. 2. Therefore the refiftance is equal to the gravity gained by the fluid. Cor. \. equal to the reft flame it meets With in falling.

If two bodies A. the rejlftmce as thefquare of its velocity. -. For the number of particles ftruck with the as the fquares of the diameters. I. velocities. then p:bb::q: and — P L.b^l-. is CI. the fquares of their. it If any iody moves through a fluid . and the denfities of the fluids. and 3\/?. velocity of the fluid which are ftruck in any time. with the fame velocity. are and the denfities of the fluids. of FLUIDS. sncet with the refiflances p and q . P VP v"? PROP. moving directly forward in a the fame is as the center of gravity. meets zviib. Therefore the whole refiftance is as the fquare of the velocity. after the fame U manner . 145 F Id. C.— Sea.X. Cor. Now the refiftance is equal upon all equal pans of the plane.By. fince ^ n A: velocity of B to have the fame refiftance q therefore vel. is refiftance is as the number of particles ftruck. Cor. vd. The center of refljiance of any plane fluid. B. is as the particles For the velocity of the body. and therefore the refiftance ads upon the plane.b ::J_: _L. fame velocity. and — ^ when they meet let with equal For h be the common velocity.= P velocity of A to have the refiftance ^ . and the But the number of with which one particle is ftruck. juft fuftain tlie refiftance. The rejiflances of fimilar bodies moving in any fluids^ are as the fquares of their diameters. their 'velocities will be as refiflances. to which if a contrary force be applied. The center of refiftance it ftiall that point. 2. RESISTANCE P R O P.

And for the fame reafon its \ if a globe. Cor. fuch as the wind. therefore the center of both tlie rcfiitance and gravity muft be the fame. or (fuppofing the fail 5. the magnitude oj the jail. IX. and the force of the force of one particle.. and the fquare of the fine of If'SA. In any body moving through c fluid . velocity 1.ty cf the fluid. moving in a fluids fide. that which m cfciLating . moves againfl the fluid. will be incrcalcd in the fame ratio. and wiih the fame force as gravity docs . and . is as the fquare of the velocity. will not balance one anocher. Q If a'non-tenacicus fluid. its OF FLUIDS. SIV. And the number of them (fuppofing the denfity to be given) as their velocity xCr/. which is retiion IV A as the fquare of the velocity. c. made to recede from that fide. in direifion fVS . . and the number Prop. velocityx^ ^^i'y^. the fquare of the fine of the angle of incidence./ given) as the X S . move againfl the fall S/1 or any plane furface. with a force. .j CII. -. it fljali urge tt in a diperpendicular to that furface. in any ratio * the fale. and perhaps defcribe a curve PROP. which will cau.146 r 1 RESISTANCE Ccr.c the body to iibratc or ofcillate in the fluid . the line of direHion I. is as the of them falling on SA. . ofcillates or turns round axis -. Increafe the denfity of the flui 1. Therefore the force of the fluid upon the fail SA. For if it do not.) the force of one particle is as its is incidence IVSA. and the dcnfi. fuffers a greater force is or refiflance and therefore the body driven from thr-t part. manner. 2. and deflcB to the other fide line in the fluid. y^C perpendicular to SA. till by degrees the fituation of thcfe two centers will fall into the line of their motion. the forces arifing from the ivcight and refift- ance. Draw WA. But (by Cor. Sec. Cor. and the magnitude of the and its evident the force of the fluid againft fail. fluid upon iiA. motion will tnfi through the center of re/ijlancey and center cf of gravity of the body.

ASB. fail SA. when pofuion is fuch. For let SD. S If the angle C H O -.: perpendicular to furface. and SB is as S. If a fluid with a given velocity gainji the fail move in direSlion M-^S. againfl any move ii perpendicular to its furface. a thin body move in a fitiid at the fame lazv j . fine of the diff. the fquare of the velocity. reft . RESISTANCE And if its of FLUIDS. '^ For then V/SB will be one continued ftreight line. tion with : j . the magnitude of the fail. its force to move the fail . angle of incidence : but to move it in thefnne direiJton with itfelf. AS.q. ^iv. . Then SD is the whole force afting at S. of the angles TVSA—ASBy may be the fine of the fum II. U 2 PROP. 147 r r o. DB be perprndicuhr to SA. S J. force polTible againft the its to the fluid will have the greateft move it in direction SB . the fail is aifted on by both the forces JVA. is fmply as the S. 4. to But the force of a given ftreant cf a fluid. body SA in the The force of aflu'd in fame dtreilion IVS direSIion . and denfity of the fluid. Cor. as S.Sea. which are equivalent to fVS. For by reafon of the tenacity of the fluid. incidence : all things elfe remaining the fame. 2. I.» any given direSUon SB. I. of H'SJy then S. 2. is as thefquare of the S. JP'SB. a- i+I. to move the fail or is (ceteris parihs).F/SA x by the S. S If the fluid C HO L. that the 4.WSA x \fine of twice tVSA. Cor. IX. as the fquare of the S. 3.q^ itfelf. PFSB be given fail. and SB the force in dTedion SB. of this.. by trigonometry. twice IVSA. And if ASB be the comp. L. And if IVSB be a right angle. . and Cor. as the fine of incidence. This follows from Cor. as (be cube • cf the fine of inciaence WSA. WS.X.SDB or ASB. in the diretUo. SB.IVS A KCoL tVSA\s as S. 1. holds in refpeii of the refifianceit meets tuith. be tenacious it will urge the body in the fame direcand with a force which is as the fine of incidence or univerfally. Cor. Cor. Prop.

IVSA-A. but only in dircdlion SA. to TFS. the body will be moved into the line 'ID . as before. the fluids will be reciprocally as the cof. PROP. to /IS. cm. and fince SD is the diredlion of its motion.i will be tan. Cor. o. way tL^o" the fiuid^ but only in the dire£iion of And if the body be obliged to move parallel to itfelf SD. WSA^ and in diredion SA. CSA tion SIF. J . Then whilft to T. 143. 3 If a very thin body SA be obliged to move parallel to itfdf.STD or irSJ. CSA to rad rad. If M^S the direilion of the •. will be as ST to SD . and of the body.WSA cof -!il_=: tan..I tliis cafe will always have the fame pofition to the direction of the fluid. . I . be placed in a very denfe fluids -luhicb moves in direclion IF6 . in a given direilion fluid. will be as the tan. produce IFS to T. in direcfity Draw AC and refiftance — coj. R o r. to S. And therefore the velocities of the fluid. lySA „7o ^ v IFSJ.: velocity in direction always parallel to SIF. And hence IVS in if the body SA continually turn round nn axis parallel to then the velocity of SA in direilion perpendicular . that is. radius u being ° = i. Then by reafon of the denperpendicular to SIF. of the fluid.148 f 1 RESISTANCE p of FLUIDS. and the body can make its little or vu length S/l. 2 . S. But the velocities of the point S in directions SJV. Its abfolute velocity in . and Draw DT parallel a part of the fluid moves from 5 Cor. as S. J fay the body will be fo \' moved in the that its abfolute velocity will be — / X velocity of the fuid.ASD Cor. in direiftion SA := X vel. For S. the point 5 will be found in D. r: For S. plain on hotbftdes. or as cof. SA arc as SC to SA. velocity of the fluid. the body will not bs able to move laterally. fluid.IVSA — 'S. ^ Jf a very thin and light body S/I. through a very denfe fluid at refl . aiid if it be drawn with a give.TDS or DSJ. Therefore vel. fFSAxvelocity of the fluid. is perpendicular to SD :z: the dire SJ ion of the body then the velocity of the body S.

IFSBF . SK. x t the of ll^SA. and let the body be the contrary motion DS or hWi. dire^ion SD. with egual velocities j and if is DK 145- DC a mea}% . rind if IFF be drawn parallel and equal to SD .Sedl. . CIV. tion of the fluid. If a phne furfdce S/i. And when greateft force the angle WSA fail is given. 149 FIG. Prop. Let CV. the fluid will it have the upon the is SA. with •velocity and xa*. VII. and then their relative motions will be the fame as before : and the fluid will have the two motions FIV. FSA—JSD. with the relative velocity FS. SDJnd if DE. X. be aBed upon by a fiuid moving with velocity and direiiion IFS. and FS drawn. DS be as the reffances thefhip has ahead and afide. may be 4 the fine of the angle FSD. or the relative mo- on it in refped of the moving body the angle FSA. in refpe£t ot For complete the parallelogram and the fluid move with FD the body tion SA at reft. RESISTANCE of FLUIDS. then the fluid aHs not at . all upon the contrary fide of it a^ii on the contrary fide of the body SA. PROP. S. I fay the fluid acts upon the plane in the angle FSA. greatert force move with the furface in diredlion SD. at reft. when the S. PROP. perpendicular to SA. angle ASD equal to 1-1. then the flttii S C H O L. in and therefore adts Cor. to move indiredion SD. If F falls And if in the line it fall oil SA. The difl\ fluid will . moving parallel to itfelf. fuppofing the tion of it. with the when it has fuch a pofition. Therefore (by Cor. body at reft . the body. SA bethe failof afljip. SDthepofilion of her keel . 2.) the mocompounded out of thefe is FS which is the abfolute mo. that the fine of the of the angles.

f tan. afide with vcl. in the fame [hip. fall on the fail SA of a Jhip. fijuare r. The a little here afllgned lee-way of a (hip is generally fomething more than is becaufc her hull and rigging wiil make her drive .e. and For let rad. anrad DE : : : DC DE' DE. DK . j. PROP. : DC' = DE x DK. ref. poftlion of the fail. : T hen :t SD DK = x DK or ^i x SD x DE t. diredly from the wind. DSC - ^^2iE£. her refiftance ahead with velocity SD with vcl. ahead with vd. RESISTANCE ^ '"^^^ proportional between ivay of thi Jhip nearly. Hence the tangatt of the leeivay. If the wind with a given velocity. lee DK . making little or no lee-way it will urge the fkip in . afidi. Draw . I. whichis asSWSA'-y. Rr^.. Therefore ex equo. — the leetz-ay. DSK = SD DC or y/DE i. direaionefthe keelSD. Prop. tan. is as the fquare root of the cotangrtn of the angle ASD.SD'' DE'. SD rel.ASD.150 FIG. 2. j :: : :: i . oftdey : Let rzz/lnp's refiflance ahead.with vel. ivhuh the fail Therefore if the tee-way be known for any makes with the keel. J . and DK the force produ :ing her : Uy refill. SD Cor.-. DSC.witb a force. afidc withvel. txSD. tan. S C H O L.S.X SD x DC' : : SD x DE DC\ : But tac : rcfiltances are as the forces : producing them. DE-. ASD •with thejame vein city. therefore SD DK: SD x DE Cor. Mreprefent the force of the wind The force SK is refolved into the forces 6D. Ref. DE:: DE: SD. of and FLUIDS.DP>. C. afide with vcl DC:: DE'-iDC'-. :: SD* x way. the direft force.p^ifs refiftanee Then R: r :: radius x cot an. and ref. in dire^icn IT'S. to the leeward. ahead with vel. and rcfift. DE then SC will be the For let upon the iS'Z) is 5/C perpendicular to fail.g^ CVI. it will be known Jcr all.. ref.

/iSD. Cor. and DG to SF . iuue of the fad.DS G S. I. RESISTANCE of FLUIDS. Thereas SC FIG.IVSA'' the fquT^e of the velocity of the wind.WSA x therefore the velocity in GD : = x/S. The force a51ing in dire£lion is DC perpendicular to the keel. GD are as SD to GD. 4. Cor. The force of the fail SA to turn the fhip about. Cor.ASD X cnf WSD. as SWSA' X cof. And if SDC be afcmicircle SC then the fit ce in an\ dire5fion SD of . and denfity. Cor. and magni- . as S. to SD. force afting upon the fail in diredion iSC. The velocity of the fljip in direSlion SD. and the velocity as \/SD.IFSA'.ASD.X cof ASD. For the fquare of the velocity of the fhip in any dire6i:ion. is as SJFSJx \/S. 2.ASD>^S. 151 perpendicular to S^. The velocity of the fliip to windward. JSD. 5. Cor. S. For draw SP perpendicular to WS.JSD X force in direftion SC -S. or fits equal) the force of t he wind velocity ef the upon the fail in XS.. is Cor. And (by Prop.:1 that diredlion-. Draw SC fore the force in direclion SDzzS. and the fquare of the velocity of the wind. i. is as S.JFSA X y/S. is as the cord SD . is as the refiftance in the water. .WSA. the keel. X. Let the angle defcribed on any given line IVSAbe given.SCD or JSD. and the velocities in diredions SD.) the But the forces in dirtd:ons 6'Cand SD are of the fine of IVSJ. or as radius i to the fine of.Sedl. or as radius i to S.ASD X wind. ^. 144. The being given. and :. X The force iji direHion SD will he univerfally as S I'VSA'' jaS. and CD to SD. of the fhip. This appears by Cor.DSG x S. fuppofing the fail placed in the head PROP. 6. ASD.is as the fquare CU. that is (by Cor 2) as S.

us force againjt (bat plane is equal to the weight of a £olumn of the fluid. and Prop. the fe£l:cn of it the Jlream. Cor. or the fpace it defcribes in ^dvelocity of the fccond. Let JZ116 I . weight of the cylinder— plane. s::vv : -^-=z height to gain the velocity v. and height Jl_ ^s or the height cf the water. And . XIV. Therefore the ^5= force of the fluid againft the 2i The force of aflream of water againfl any plane. 2 Morecvcr if any part of the water lie upon the plane j the force will be augmented ly the weight cf fo much water. to acits length t-xice the height def quire the velocity of the fluid. Then 2J— velocity Therefore (by Cor.— . 1/ a Jlream of any fluid as water. It follows from this Prop. o. Cor. Cor. Prop.) fallen in falling through s. and tended by a falling body. And the motion dellroycd in i fecond by the refiftance of the plane.-^ feet. Alfo-^l 2S B z=. whuje bafe . the height defccnded by a falling body in lecond. the cylinder 2S B. if flow tkrcugh a hole at the bctlorit of a rcfncir. is vxBv or •wB i which was alio the motion generated by the weight of body xby the is plane.52 r I RESISTANCE PROP. Cer. flows dire5lh a^ainfl any plane Jiirface . fluid. in the fame time. . or vvB . Now I the motion which the cylinder's weight will generate in is fecond. 2. one 5zzbafe of the cylinder or column of water. I. whofe bafe is the feUion of the ftream .y^ 2i =: twice that height. /^ss : generated by gravity i. is is equal to the -weight of a column of water. XCVIl. But equal forces in the fame lime generate or deitroy equal motions. equal to the refiftanctr of the plane. . the motion being as the And the force of the fluid againfl: the velocity. a cylinder of twice that height. of FLUIDS. zs x B -. CVII.

And for the fame reafon. the fum of as many radii. The denfity of water to that of air at a Sir Ifaac Lemma. in a fluid of the fame denfity . fimilar triangles CDF. alfo draw DFGR. in the fur face EDA. X. that is as BDycFf. as i to 2. fall upon the hafe I fay is to fum fum of all the perpendiculars BD. J.1416X2CD fum of all the BD's in the annulus Thereis as BDxhy its furface. aver. XXXI. or at a mean as 460 to i. \t If a cylinder moves uniformly forward. the DB. 3. For take Dt^ infinitely fmall. by FfrR.128 ale gallons. or between 446 and 478 to I . A 92 i cubic foot of water contains 6. Dnd. or FCxFf fore the fum of all the BD's in the annulus is exprefled by the area FfgG. Prop. a?e as their feci ions and the fquares of the velocities. as D. Therefore the fum of all the BD's in the hemifphere: is to the fum of as many radii :: as the fum of all the FfgG to the fum of all the FfrR :: that is as the trigiven) as or Ff. and EC. The furface of the fpherical annulus is 3. be cf its furface. X CVIII. Principia. or as i to 2. 4. Newton found the refillance of water to that of air (by the ofcillationsof apendulum) to be as 446 to i. it meets with a reftjtance equal to the . the of as many radii CD . Book II. See Schol. revolve about the radius all the points let CA. dfgr parallel to EC.i/^i6x2CDxnd. alio BD-CF is -FG. Ccr. S C H O L. and weighs lb. PROP. Cor. defcribe 147- an hemifphere perpendiculars and from db. By the and draw CH. DFxDd-CDxnd Z)^F that is . RESISTANCE of FLUIDS.Sedl. 7jd (becaufe 3. in direction of its axis. 141 6X2DF xDd OT 2. If the plane he alfo in motion . mufi he taken inftead of the abfolute vdociiy. mean is as 850 toi. the : And angle CJH: to the fquare CAHN. and complete the fquare CAHN-. If the quadrant EDA -. the relative velocity of the water againft the plane. "the forces cf different firearns of water againjt any phme. 153 FIG.

upon fuppofition that every particle of the fluid is driven direftly forward. All this is true. &c. motion of the particle Therefore the force D is only BD. wiiilft it moves forward. is as the fum of all the radii CD. . in the time that -. in reality. the radii Cd. LXXX. after it has moved uniformly forward. Then the motion CD (=. and in all manner of diredions CD. DB BD linder . it FIG. Qc. and take JFBCG equal to JSBF. in the time it defcribes its length.) diverges 148. Therefore if the quadrant AE be divided into an infinite number of equal parts. fince the force to generate any motion is reciprocally as the time the refiftance will be equal to the force that can generate its motion. as 2 to i. and communicates to them the fame velocity that it moves with. and to all the points D. Dd. reprefenting the motions of the particles in all dirciflions. force by which its own motion can be generated. and confequcntly the refiffance of a panicle at equal to this force) mufl be lefs than before in proportion of CD to BD. and drives them fuccelTivcly before it. It is evident that the cylinder. Cor^ . is but half the former refiftance. CD. and the direft •which is kfs than CD. in tie time dcfcribts 148. to the fum of all the correfponding fines BD . in dirc(5tion of its axis. drawn to every point of the furface of a fphere. Confequcntly. and from any one Z). with the fame velocity the cyBut flnce. Let JB be the cylinder moving from // towards C. and re-a£lion are equal. Therefore the refiftance the cylinder meets with now. Therefore the former refiftance. be drawn on EC..154- RESISTANCE the force wJjich can generate tixice its length. this to generate motion. fluid is not dirc(5tly forward. the motion penerated in the linder has. D It defcribes twice S its length. pufhcs againft the leveral parts of the fluid. from the feveral places through which it pafies. on all fides. but (by Prop. motion.C-A) is refolved into of which CB does not affed the cythe two motions CB. Cd. be drawn. the force that uniformly generated this motion. And let us firfl: fuppolc that the cylinder ylB. is equal to the uniform refinance the cylinder fuffcred And therefore the rcfiftance is equal to the in the mean time. jiy. the perp. that is (by the Lem. when all the particles are driven diredly forward . So that in equal times it moves equal quanticies of the fluid. "A* its of FLUIDS. the length of its axis has removed the cylinder of the fluid FBCG equal to itfclf /iSBb\ and has comAnd fince adion municated a motion to it equal to its own. to the refifkance when they diverge on all fides. d.

v = its is or the fpace defcribed in fccond. Cor. 'the refiftance of a cylinder . Prop. but in the latter cafe. RESISTANCE length of FLUIDS. with Cor. 155 n' Cor. in order to find the refifl:ance. Cor. its which its whole motion may be generated. 4. it appeais that the force of a cylinder of water againft a plane. the relative velocity in the fluid mull be taken. becaufe the fluid. of the fame bafe. Then its refifiance =. of the cylinder. city. For if the denfity of the fluid be increafed in any ratio refiftance will be increafed in the fame ratio. is double the refiftance an equal cylinder would meet with. weight of the cylinder B. in a fluid of the fame denftty. .Se<a. Cor. and its length equal to the height a body falls in vacuo. cannot then diverge in all directions. or the utmoft limit of its refiftance. and wtth the velocity acquired by falli}ig in vacuo. if the vefl"el be narrow. the refiftance will be increafed more or lei's. refiftance is to the force by If a cylinder moves uniformly forward in any fluid. is equal a cylinder of that fluid. Let velocity. 7. S C HO L. when we the water firft cafe the whole motion of deftroyed by the refiftance of the plane . which is the greaieft it can pofTibly have. i. B — bafe i of the cylinder. that it cannot diverge at all. but is obliged to move dire611y forward . moving in water with the fame velocity. i. Alfo by comparing the laft Cor. I. in the time of to the denfity moving twice its length . CVIl. the water diverges every way from the moving cy- confider. j— 16 -V feet. the to the weight of moving in any fluid. And this will not appear rtrange. of the fluid. gravity. X. And befides. For the force that generates moving is its twice its its motion. from a its height equal to its : it meets with a refifiance equal to weight. If a cylinder moves in direSiion of its axis. in the time of its. being confined by the veflel.. length (or of falling through once us length). the refiftance then will be double . that in the is X 2 linder. inftead of the abfolute velocity. If the cylinder move in a fluid inclofed in a vefl^el . By Cor. And if it be fo confined. to acquire its velo3. as the denjity of the fluid.

BDzzy. as to 2. -^ + + : : PROP. If a glebe inoi'e uyiiformly CIX. And fum is of all : fum of : the the hemifpliere. revolve about the radius CA. J Q g" But if the and clocs not partake of its direft motion. the refiftance would then be doubled . and CH perp. of FLUIDS.ivn. The fum Bb. Part V. as : . CD—r.1416 all :: .vx^i-m + 2 + 3 + 4. 149. in the time of defcribing I parts of its dia^ meter . fum of Let I fay the fum of all the 1 BD^ to as }na>iy CD'^. very nearly. Guide. that is as 2 to i. CB—x. : in the b a fe. f Bat the i fum of of all all the = . in the hemifphere . of is all the rr the rr to the : fum of all the^^. f And fum -f- the rrxxBb-=z -Ir*. as the denfity of the fluid. . ^^' ^^ '-"^ - rr. Let the globe move in the direftlon CA. ' RESISTANCE linc'er. 2^-\-y Alfo the fum of all the x^xBb—v \\ ^c. but was driven dircfliy forwater was ward with the motion of the cylinder . cor* r\ XI Therefore the fum of all the rr fum of all the yy. to the denfiiy of the globe. . in forward its refiflance is to the force by which a ccmpreffed infinite fluid its whole motion may be deftroyed or generated. in the annuUisin as 2cxxrr to zcxxyy rrx :yyx.. is as i r* .L r+— -Jr-^.v = cir« cumference of BC. putting 53= i. on the bafe fum of rrxxBb fum of rr—xxx^xBb the fum of rrxxBb fum rrxxBb — (um x'xBb. n'. 156 P . to DH. and thcfe two cafes would become the fame. and let GD I See /Fdrrf's Math. Or as Or as fum rrxxBb i'um yyxxBb. L E M M A. or as -1 to 7. not llifHrcd to diver<^e. and generate on the bafe^ is and on every point B of the lafe. DH. perpendiculars BD be drc. Then. Draw the tangent and BDG parallel to CA. 147. : c = 3. then 2 f. Jf the quadrant cti hemifphere the ADE .

: as 2 to Now the globe is to the circumfcribing and half of that force (which can deftroy cylinder. or 4 of its own diameter.of the fluid. is equal to the -weight cf a cylinder cf that fluid. as the fum of all DC\ to the all 'i the DB'. 3 aflu'. diredcion GD j^g. or of a cylinder of the fame diameter. and DC to DB fum of i. cf the fame dtametev. as the denfity.) h^refore the refiftance of the furfacs of the fphere. in direttion DC.meter of the globe and the the fluid. CVJil.on the bafe . the diameter of the globe. all cylinder as 2 to 3 . For let G. by it dfcend'mg ht is ivculd acquire by falling in vacuo. through as the dfl'erence bet-ween the denfity cf the fluids is to the denfity cf . I. will deftroy the globe's motion whilft it moves i of this length.-s/ . X. in the time of movincr whilft it 4 diameters. Prop. and ylnd if v—a. or the ff act : then its refftame is equal to the weight its of a cylinder of the fluid. RESISTANCE : of FLUIDS. cf the fame diameter . the motion of this it delcribes 2 diameters) will deftroy all its modefcribes 4 diameters. to the denfity of the cylmder or globe. whilft ti(|p. in dircflion GD that in is a ratio GD the to GH.-.~feet. and its length equal to half thchdght. 1 hen fince a globe is equal to a F D 4 cylinder .) half the refiftance of the cylinder. Cor. Cor. Prop. is to their force againft the convex furface .d . that is the refinance of the globe. then G// will be the force adting againft D.^. is but half the refiftance of the bafe. The' refiftance cfagkbe jnoving in any fluid. fig. By Cor.' 3.Sed. that is (by the Lem. Cor. The refiftance of a fphere- is bat- half the refiftance cf a cylinder. is to the . But (by Cor. 2. •• . CVIII. 157 GD in be the force of a particle of the fluid againft the bafe B. as DC to compounded of DB\ 1 here- fore the force of al! the particles of the fluid againft the bafe. Therefore if it szziS ^. a fpace that denfity 4 the di. D—its diameter vzzvelocity of a globe. be the denfities of the globe and the fluid . force againft D. to And this force GD as DC DB. length hs its refiftance is equal to the 3 •weight cf an equal glbbt cf the fluid. is to the force in direction the force againft B. 2. of the fame diameter D. to acquire the velocity of the globe. moves in i feccnd. . The great eft that "which is to velocity a globe can obtain. is to this force. And therefore the fame force thatdeftroys the cylinder's motion. through ivhich a bcdy falls in vacuo. Whence .

Two homogeneous globes. is loft. I4.158 FIG.' Therefore the weight of the ° : globe in the fluid is equal to the refiftance it cannot accelerate the globe. P I^ut (by Cor. Ds. : And the like tor any fucceeding correfpondent pans. And fo in dcfcrib- ing any fpaces. . LXXXV. weight of a cylinder of tiie fluid. whofe length ) D X Q . 2. whofe length is gl'>t)c D X— F IS And is (by Prop. which the particles of the fluid ftick together. . i. RESISTANCE = .) the weight of the globe in the fluid zz weight of a cylinder of the fluid. dcfcribe equal fpaces For the motion fpaces. through D is X i F G —— 's : =: weight of a cylinder of the fluid whofe length ° D x G—F /. tFie ] Therefore the weight of cylinder whofe height is \ D. by defcribing two fmall fpaces proportional to the diameters . 2. 5. and caufcsthem not to feparate eafily . and the cube of the diameter inverfely therefore the velocity loll is equal in both. Tenacity or is the force by which cohefion or the parts of the liquor. andlofe a given part of their motions. riwzini with equal velocities in a fluid 't lofe equal velocities in defcribing fpaces ^rsportional to their diameters. as the cube of the diameter dircdtly.0. inverfely that is diredtly as the velocity. medium . that is (becaufe the refiftance is as the fquare of the diameter. Cor. 8 C is H O L. in dcfcribing two very imall equal is as the refiftance and time . and the time as the diameter]. that is (becaufe the fpace given) as the fquare of the velocity directly and the velocity -. of FLUIDS. the motion loft: will always be as the firft motion . For the velocity loft in each. and the time reciprocally as the firft velocity. and this is the fame for all velocities. Fncrefiftance The of fluids i^cn . the refiftance is equal toMhe weight of the globe Cor. of three kinds. and the body inverfely-. will be as the refiftance and time direftly. 4. equal and homogeneous globes moving in a re/ifting in times that are reciprocally as the firji velocities. and confequently And hence if v =.) the refifl:ance of the globe moving with the height * the velocity acquired by falling in vacuo. Ay/ in the fiuid. Two icill.

they wjll increafe the refiftance a little. beyond which it cannot go. p j ^^ The dcrJiiyQx quantity of matter to be and this as the fquare of all fluids. becaufe the fluid has not liberty to diverge every way. as arifing fome bodies that may be reckoned in a middle And in fome of thefe the tenain many cafes far to exceed the refiftance from their denfity only. that is as the fquares of the velocities. tofc clay. The two former kinds are very fmall in except vifcid and glutinous ones . without any diverging. and it may by this means be increafed till it be near For all that a body can double . the refinance there delcribed is the very leaft the body can pofBut fince all fluids have feme fmall degree of fibly meet with.X. fo that it will always be between thefe limits. of FLUIDS. it will make pits or iinprefTions which are as the heights fallen. Prop. the comprefTion of the fluid ought to be fo too.Sta. 2. RESISTANCE removed . wax. to give way to the moving body Alfo if . do not Aide 3. and be let fall upon any foft fubftance. the with Schol. And the ftraiter the veflTcl. ic appears by experiments. does not recede ad infinitum. ing to a project le. But the refiftance it meets with will be increafed. the more is the refiftance increafed . do is to drive the fluid wholly before ir. fuch as ta!low. fnow. But thelc irregularities are not confidered in efteemed . veficl. the velocity. of the laft Prop and the greateft can never exceed the double of it. l£c. the furfacc . thefe cafes. and this will confiderably increafe the refiftance. and this is as the velocity. Alio when the velocity is very great-. to caufe the fluid to return with equal eafe behind the moving body . that if a hard body be fufpended at feveral heights. Likewife nails give way to a hammer in a Comparing this ratio which is as the fquare of the velocity. and when this does not happen. the relative body moves in a fluid inclofed in a velocity of the body in the fluid mufl: be a its true velocity. So that the leaft refiftance a globe can have is the fame as is laid down in Cor. where the parts of the fluid by one another. the foregoing theory. friftion and tenacity. the fluid cannot dilate itfelf upwards. but with a circular motion comes round to the places which the body Likewife when bodies move in a Ilagnant fluid near legtes. is 159 freely iiofi or attrition. For example. If the fluid in which the body moves be elaftic and fpring from the body the refiftance will be greater than if it was non-elaftic. It appears that in refiftance . For a fluid yieldthe refiftance is increafed upon that account. There (late are city between folids and fluids. and friction is fo great. and upon this account the And therefore foreooing theory regards only the lafl: kind. XIV".

RESISTANCE refiftance is of FLUIDS. it is nothing.ree : SECT. there is greac difference and variety in their nature and conftitution. the rcfiltance is in a velocity: and therefore thefe fort of bodes have both friction and tenacity. the fame for all def:. .s always contrary to the motion of the body. velocities: which argues a very Again. that tenacity a(5\. great mixt with ftones. with any velocity ance of fuch a body will be as the velocity. Icfs ratio than the fimple ratio of the cafe.i6o FIG. of a body flriking always a given number of particles of matter and therefore the refiftin a given time. i^p. And in different forts of bodies. bodies projefted into earth of tenacity. which is always the fame \ with this difference. "Tenaciiy may be compared to the force of gravity. and when the body is ac Attrition may be compared to the motion reft. the impreflions are found to be between the Therefore in this fimple and duplicate ratio of the velocities.

the J. for MB. to an. i^c. which bite one thus. of which be moved. BC. communicated from one wheel ABC. SECT. . G . flip not. F. all move one point another to the laft. &c. 3. by the teeth in the two wheels working to-gether. BC. CE. other DEF. G. to another 5. 2. FH. D. to B. to another AB^ by a perpetual or endlefs rope ABCD. The A : if necefiary. make knots on it.V 1 u. XL MetJoods of commimkating^ dlreBing^ ar. Motion is Or one revo. FH.d regulating any motion in the praSiice of mechanics. PROP. the rope r.152. To communicate motion from ex. Motion is communicated from one wheel or roller DC 151. B. going That once or oftner about them or if you will. are fixed. Motion may alfo be communicated from pinion at Ay and a ftreight ruler with teeth. CE. one or more beams or leavers. moveable about the centers yf. EF. lution of it anfwers to the motion of only 4. C. 5. Here if the point will be moved .jg^.j^o. D. ^c. by 1J4. . by a chain.' things. one iody to another^ or from one place to another. is by a rope or a leaver one thing tion from reaching between the two places. eafieft and fimplefl: method of communicating ma. by a j^^. Motion is communicated from one place to another. and channels in the wheels. E. o. PROP. one tooth in B. where the axis of' A having but one tooth M H A another. AB. MB.

3. t. off.^ motion is produced in the wheel DEF by mov/IBC uniformly. 12. and fixed to the wheel and the wheel beA. and pafTing over the tooth BE. 2b. A'. i^c. if it aft on the concave fide. as AB. jrfS 2. (jfc.. Here the adting tooth ylB ought to be made crooked as . On the bafe BF with the gencratmg circle BD. 4. t'lvely Ob. be made to move up and down with 3 Let either a uniform or accelerated motion. •. by a chain going over the end B._ AG. and a tooth to bend down perpendicular to the plane of the to catch the tooth wheel.i(^z PRODUCING MOTION. Then the part NdF being (7. be taken equjl. ^c.) Oc. The leaver AB may araw Oa. as a hammer . EN NF will give a uniform moti-jn to the leaver And you may fix as of motion C. equal parts and the curve Adbcd be drawn. aiictler. y I G. 16. draw the curve Nakd. refpec- And through the points 4 equal parts. 2. 23. Or elli: the plane of the vUicel BD at made J B muft be raifcd above the plane of BF. Alio a uniform motion is produced in wheels moving by cords. by the motion of the wheel BD. made of folid wood. ing the wheel : uni'brmly. Again. AB. if Ai. 4J. ^c.. through which from the center 0.S. which carries it. ^c. be taken equal to i. •. in the tooth AD. isc. and in. moves the other alfo 1 . CD tor one be. about the center many of thefe teeth to the A' The . moving unifornily about the center //. 2. will move the wheel BF uniformly about C. A uniform . j ^. Then the point B of the wheel /IB. defcribe the epicycloidal tooth BE. ^d. as -. PROP. of the tooth BE. ^c.. the part ing turned uniformly about. and make la. rated motion. 3.ng moved uniformly. The wheel 5F may be made to move uniformly about the center C. and direftly above !t. BE. either ttni- By kelp of one uniform motion given to produce ferm or accelerated. v\heel as you will. zh. Od. -. The accelerated motion is proper for lifting a given weight at the end B. and the tooth formThen the leaver will be moved with a uniformly acceleea. AE be a vvhfcl whole axis is parallel to the leaver. in the order equal i. that it touch not the end £. Take any arch A^4. I. and divide it into any number of cqcal parts at i. or for working a pump. •. after this manner. CXI. 9. .

^a-. .jff3.TlNE.

"^ i3-2 Qe jjm Tvm^. d .iea.z.

Likewile a bended leaver will change the diredion to any other diredion. ab. whofe axis 5.5j^ EF.' . DE. SedV. i^c. FG. &'c. Thus the direftion AB is changed fucceffively into the diredions EC. another with an accelerative motion j ^^g. d. iSc. 3. moved by the coggs of the 163. And on the edge of the wheel BD take 5i. CD. equal and equidiftant whofe vertices are at F . Make ///. by help of a f c. then turn the wheel EF. l£c. Xr. will move with an accelerative 1 EF DB motion. On the circle or wheel £F. a very fmall part. thus. right lines . &c. and 13. . and their bafcs meet at E. moving uniformly along GZ). Such parabolic teeth as thefe may be placed on a wheel. by making the lanthorn B. whofe axles are perpendicular to one another. The diredion inclined in any given angle. 4. 5. 3. 5. 7. and thefe will make the leaver rife and fall with an accelerated motion. the dircuiion of any motion. 3. to be may be changed. 57. 4. and thefe will give a uniform motion to the leaver. r is the figure of the tooih of the wheel EF. The direction may be changed by wheels. by the leaver 160. CXII. leaver 163 i The AB. &c. and wheel EF. times 5i. and make as many fuch teeth as you will . Y 2 wheel . which 3 5 7 being uniformly moved. I'hus the diredtion AB is changed into the diredion . working in the crown 162. To change 1. tzkt Ea. then turn EFtill of the Then i on the plane of the whctl EF. PRODUCING MOTION. equal to each other. till E fall on EF a . with a rope going over them. 7. comes to b . and mark tlic point 3 on the plane Likewife let E come to r. EF wheel D. PROP. The direftion of motion may be changed by the help of pulleys. on the plane of the wheel . Make the curves EFE all parabolas. be. firft 2. for the two ends have oppofue motions. is One wheel may move perpendicular to the horizon. The direftion of any motion may be changed. 7. mark the point E mark £ then the points 5. may alfo be moved thus. by the wheel C. to be extended as far as the fuppofe the plane of the wheel marks i. IF icg. 35. machine GFZ>. of the kind.

and tov/ards iV. weight is applied to the pinion L. ^ ''^ *''"^'" ^''''^o In both cafes the axles of the P R To jgr. in two wings perpendicular to D£. a tooth goes off i66. i tG . r. nP a pendulum v. and hold of a tooth of the horizontal the leaf h of another tooth. it draws the pallat H. Any motion fulpendrd at is AJi. but almoft the radius of the Whilft the penduwheel below. FIG. 2. and ah is pathe pins in one end are againft the fpaces in the other in the fame horirallel to the axis of the wheel f G. whilft the of the wheel Gh' goes and when another catches the pallat // off the pallat /. As the pening in the arch NM it dulum vibrates. 2..64 CHANGE //. moves LF. to keep the A whcrel with a ptndulum going. about the axis caul'es CDE to vibrate alio. and lb on alternately. off the the pendulum returns toorh. a tooth Now . As the pendulum vibrates. tr. 1 and 2.erpendicular to the cir- . 'A. and to . as C. two wheels mull be in one plane.e wing a catches hold of a tooth in the end F \ and when it returns. T hus the pins ad« ing .. make it regulale any motion^ or to uniform. mufl be paralplmc of the wheel A. by the help of a pendulum y/ ard vibrating. but net [. wlerl 1(5^. cumference. BE. lum P Vibrates in the arch MN. made uniform. The weight /carries the wheel /?. and fomething more forward. D. pendulum vibrates towards and R iV/. 3- A is pendulum may pole.. vibratabout the center of motion C.s going . of DIRECTION. "^^y ^^ ^°"^ ^y wheels with teeth. but inclined in an angle of about 45 degree?. or perpendicular to the coags. 2 pins in the rim F. 167. the rim G pins hefe pins are in the planes of the wheel . which i is parallel to the planes of the wheel i. in returning.otion BE. I lei to the Here t'le rungs at F. whofe alio parallel to the horizon. in i. and another catches the pallat 1 . So chat at every v:bration of the pendulum. or rather a double wheel. By wheel GF. but neither zontil or perpendicular plane.brating upon the axis (in]) D£. CXIII. abou: the axis BE. aX'S ¥G is be app'ied thus for the lame pura thick wheel. the ving b catihrs hold of a tooth in the end G. A uniform motion is effefled by the pendulum CP.P . it I. one or other of the palats. cauies the piece ABE this to vibrate along with it motion the leaf a catches about the axis of rr.. O P.. where they work.

And the axis may be in the center of gravity of the wheel. . qual force at different times.Sed. by reafon of its great refiftance in the air . For by its weight it conftantly goes on at the fame rate. By reaiun of its weight a little variation of force will not fenfibly alter its motion and its friftion. and makes the motion uniform. 5. None or the'e regulating wheels or flies add any new pover to the machine. : will help it it forward . or in different parts of a revolution. where the motion is iwifteft. keep the pendulum go. 1: it from accelerating. And ought to be the heavier. it will keep back. the flower it is defigned to move . the fwifctr And in ail cafes the center of motion muft be the motion is. Every fu&h regulating wheel ought to be fixed upon that axis. matter may be applied By thefe the force of the power.p j p^^ '' ^r ing. as well as perpendicular to it. placed parallel to the horizon. if it tends to move too faft. b. . round that axis by putting the wheel upon another axis fixed in the former at right angles to if. to which it is applied. I his bridles the rapidity of the motion of the machine. and thus the weight is taken off the firfl axis. And twa fuch wheels may 'le applied on oppofite fidcs. Any fwift motion may be moderated by a fly AB. XL REGULATING op MOTION. which would be loft. and is equally diltributed in all parts of the revolution. Such a wheel is of great ufe in fuch machines as aft with une- A : D . i-jq^ PROP. and every where equal. or move a contrary way. This fort of fly is uled in clocks. If the machine be large. but rather retard the motion by their fniSiaa and refiifance. and the rcfillance of the air will hinder If the machine flackens its motion. mov-eable about the axis CD. fteady motion is continued by applying the heavy 4. jgg] or the crois bar !)£ loaded with wheel ABC. to the machine j^g[ and E. and therefore it hinders the motion from accelerating beyond a certain degree. and the axis of the heavy wheel be perpendicular to the horizon . Or a cylinder of fome heavy two equal weights at being made to revolve about its axis. and the lighter. is kept in the whee'. by help of the weight ly. j6s ing alternately againlt the wings a. and is fo uleful in any motion that requires to flop. at / is a fpring to keep the axis and fly pretty fliff together. the heavy wheel may be made to roll on the ground. This is made of thin metal .

R. C. This is made ufc Another knot for tying ropes together._ jo^. . only one (or both) of . A running knot. By pulling at the ends returns the l"jme way back. This mull II. 10. it makes a This I'erves to hitch over any 193. A bo-Ji-lme A wale it knot. a the part bed comes through. This is the fimpleft of all . is drawn clofe. ma/hing knot for nets . As how ropes are made ufe of in feveral forts of machines. not io much to teach how to tye them. A draw knot. the knot will be loofed again. A thumb knot.i66 F I T Y I N G K N O T CXIV. through it. . of when any rope is often to be loofed. When rope 7 is put through a hole. here the end may be put through as oft as you will. and then drawn clofe. 5. the cannot flip.^ lyr. j_. To defcribe feveral forts of knots. this loop that will not thing. When as fig. or a knot for cawls of wigs. or water knot. and bd through c.-i. fo tnat knot is made with the three flrands of a rope. cnly the ends are to be put twice through the ring. be drawn clofe. as For the to (hew the form they appear in. This ferves alfo to join pieces of rope together.. 7. which in that was but once-. Aiwther kfiot. and is ufcd to is tye at the end of a rope. the end a. This is the fame as the 4th. A z'cry fmall knot. the rope is drawn through the loop b. method of tying them is beft learned from thofe that can tye it them together. barber's knot. and -. Afiper's knot. PROP. -g j-Q_ jgQ^ jg. and is to be drawn clofe. : A A 12. of each piece and the end of the other is to go. ufed to join pieces of ropes together. efpccially aboard of (hips to tye is proper for a mechanic to know Therefore I Ihall htvit defcribe feveral forts of knots. There is a thumb knot made at the end 8. when they are tycd. is This is 3. A Ho it jy2. ufed by taylors at the end of their thread./bedrawn. the fame as the laft i~. to hinder its opening out. Thus And the roptf ac runs through the loop d. S. 176. flip. A loop knot. z% a b c d e. 23. I. 2. them . to draw any thing clofe. then drawn clofe by pulling at a and b if the ends f. 177. By pulling at 6. i^c. and the knot is loolcd. already. Aringknot. ^. and the pare cd\% drawn clofe about a beam. to tye any thing to a p&ft . 9.

fig. . 'tis repre.Sea. fee the latter end of Sea. it is called crowning. VIII. fenced at S. 167 from flipping through. XI. SECT.p 1 q. may be applied to the fame ufe as this. By this means the knot is made bigger and ftronger. 193. Concerning the ftrength of ropes. If the three ftrands are wrought round jng. this TY knot keeps I it N G KN OT S. after the fame manner. hole. once or twice more. A thumb knot art. i.

. and iveight. B D . 3. in the compound ratio of . oj friSiion. to the diameter of that where pcwer is applied./ to B and B to In like manner. if the weight in the lecond be taken for the power in the third. as the as /f to 5 power in the lecond. XII. Off you may take PROP. all iis piirts. . A is to the lafl: to C. in the For let the compound machine be divided into all its fimple mechanic powers . CXV. . injiead of the teeth. and the number of teeth in the pinion of each axis. to whith it is equal (by Ax.) let that power in the i'econd machine be to the weight as B to C. then the firfl: power and this power be to the weight as C to Z) C •.'». if the pcwer and tvsigbt hep the main equilibrio. yon come at the weight. chine. Then ex equo. Cor. beginning at the power. to the number till of teeth in each wheel they work their diameters. A to B. PROP. and C weight Z).M»- SECT. Then the poiver it to the compound ratio of the power to the weight in every fimple machine^ of which the whole is compofcd. the firfl: power A . In any compounded machine. The pcwers and properties of compound engines of forces atiing 'within the inachi?ie . the power is to the weight . and in the fiilt let the power be to the weight Then confidermg the weight B in the firfl.s to the lecond weight C.E i63 ] . in the compound ratio of io and fo on thro' the whole. In any machine compofed of wheels . in the compound ratio of the duimeter of the axel where the weight is applied.

.2/)8.c.^^u. .^2^^ Tl7m.F ^o9 162 165 ..f.f.^.^.

'^ 1 ©= Fiyis./>.f j/fi • A .

that by their means the velocity of the weight may be diminifhed at pleafure. that if any weight is moved by help of a machine what is gained in power is lojl in time. And therefore it is a vain fancy for any one to think that he can move is •. or that with a given force any given refiftance may be overcome. the velocity of the weight will be to that of the power i as the power is to the weight. or even 1000 pounJs with thcthoufand part of the velocity. If the power and weight be in equilibria on any mai hine . The power and ufe of machines confifts only in this. when 1000 pounds weight is mavtrd. CXVI. Hence it follows. in the fame proportion will the weight be Qower than the power. that city the fame power can raife two pounds with the lame velocity. therefore if they be put into motion. and with the fame velocity as with a greater power. . But ftill there is no greater quantity of motion produced. -. For the advantage gained by the power is loft by the velocity. Mechanic inftruments being only the means whereby one body communicates motion to another and not defigned to produce a motion that had no exiltence before. Cor. w that the quantity of tnotion of the fo much diminijhcd thereby weight. nee they are in equilibrio. Cor. may not exceed the quantity of motion of the power. XII. Yet it may. If any power is able to raife a pound wiih a given veloit is impolTible by the help of any machine whatever. or mechanical inf. For in whatever proportion the power islefsthan the weight . one of them cannot of itfclf move the other . 169 FIG.rument . . than when I pound the 1000 pounds being proportionally Howcr.Sed. by help of a machine. will be equal For f] to that of the power : and therefore their velocities will be re- ciprocally as their quantities. POWERS PROP. Hence the motion of the weight is not at all increafed by only the velocity of the fight Muy engine. if they be put in motion. the momtntum or quantity of motion of the weight. : : Z Cor. be made to raife 2 pounds with half that velocity . of ENGINES. 2. a great weight with a little power. fo that a given weight may be moved with a given power . I.

Hence alfo it is plain. wheels be added. lefi velocity. the force Then F. AB —x B it /• will Now if the afting force be not be urged forward with force. therefore - ading confidered in all this t the machine. 7 ben And the force applied within to fame moved as if the -machifte : fuppofing B to move the machine. applied to move a heavy body by help of a machine. the help cf leavers. /Indif the power be given. is cr a lefs weight with a greater velo- But to do both. Now llippole the leaver AFB. and re-aftion chine will be is at B B. and the and let u? firft confidcr it as aflingout B being fixt. much. can prB. pare of the machine which is the leaver . of the machine. is the fulcrum . Let the abfolute force to move the madiine be force adting at A at be / •. that a given poivcr or quantity cf force. and exerts its force againfl fame external objecl B. the irachine. 1S2. PROP. will be jufl the at red. and B /iF And if more leavers. you may chnfe "whether you will move a greater weight with a city. . is i. is to be moved by if the power that moves it ails intinly within the inachine. than if that Nor not quite fp force was imviediately applied to the body itfelf. CD. and let capable to move JFB to be fixt. be i. for the re ad ion will be equal to/. Otherwife. Cr. the thing will ilill be the fame. the power at A. and a force applied at Ay Then the adion 1 . juft the fame as if the point F were fixt. moved But the torce now acling X 1 . as before. with the force being the fame as before. aod to make a the external force acting at 5. or any number of was to be moved. moveable about fo great. CXVII. utterly repugnant to the eternal laws of mture. by reajonof the fritliou and refijtance of the engine. C. wheels^ If any machine i£c. was For fuppofe firft.:uie no greater quantity cf motion in that body. and the objcQ B was to be be as eafily moved as the machine. it is plain the maat ^:^. as to a6l at F .lyo F 1 POWERS OF ENGINES. 3.

be given . power : that power 'may be found. and in moving in any medium. or the external objeft be moved. Therefore the abfolute force the moved this fig. by fuppoftng the machine at and the external obje5l B was to be removed. according to their roughnefs . But fince there no fuch thing as perfe6t fmoothnefs in bodies . fitting in the head of a boat. will not be moved at all. whether the machine. 7ial reft. thatisl^x/. tB X/. will be deftroyed by the contrary PROP. Among machines. machine is 171 with. '^'' is^x/-/or FB 1. Even ropes going over^pullies cannot be bended without fome force. and to require the fame abfolute force to move it. and fome very little. pull the ftern towards him by a rope . irregularities and other engines. To determine the friSlion. to move ar. down.Sedl.y body Cor. therefore in rubbing againft one another they meet with more or lefs friftion. that they friftion. is A. but tB = therefore/ :r: — gr X i. For it is the lame thing. whilft the other is at reft. and equal re-aclion. Cor. fuppofe all bodies perHide over one another without any and move freely without any refiftance. For the power adling only againft fome part of the machine. And the body being adled on by thele equal and contrary forces. is will be rcfifted according to the denfity of the medium. And any force that both begins and ends within does nothing at all to move it. fome have a great deal more friftion than others. and the machine is to be moved by an inter. But a car- Z 2 . Hence if the ahfolute external force. CXVIII. Thus if a man. will have no force at all to commumove it. If the power aSiing within the machine be it not nicated tofome external cbjeSi. POWERS ^^'-/^ of ENGINES. by that force. in mechanical The propofitions hitherto laid fedlly fmooth. the boat will not be moved at all out of its place. the machine. XII. Thus a pendulum has little or no friftion.. 2. as to the *power. but what arifes from the refiftance of the air. 1 or machine.

a greater velocity. | •. very fmooth or i the weight. its fndi jn is weight of it. a loailcG cart rcqiiirts the Itrcngth oF fcvcral horles to ground draw it along . they have. The fndion. their fridion. or hard upon foft. Soft wood upon hard. the greater a cubic piece of foft wood of eight 2. Wtod diy fier . as have been deduced from experiments made upon particular bodies which rules will require fome variation under different circumflances aicording to the judgment and experience of the arcilf. fteel running in brafs. mo(l in the ateits paribus. is In general. Polillicd fteel moving on fleel or pewter. as to the quantity of fridion they have. other foft wood upon fofc wood the friction is about 4 the weight. down fuch particular rules. And the fmoo:her they are. As to particular cafes pound weight. Ail tumpoundcd machines have a gieac deal of fri6lion. or I the weight. the weight : moving on copper or lead. makes the lead fric- tion of any. wet weather than in But iron flidcs ea- than wood in refiftance. Wood and all metals when oiled or greafed have nearly 1. but not in proportion to with except in very few . And there is great variety in Icvcral forts of boCiies. | the weight on brais 4 the weight. and twice as little as when unpolifhcd.172 i ^ FRICTION 3 carriage has a great deal OF ENGINES. : •. : i. and even in the fame bodies under different cirrumftances upon which arcounc (landing ruirs. and all or moft of this iorcc is owing to its friction. nidcs eaficr eafier than upon iron the in ground and dry weather. Metals of the fam. moving upon a fmooth plane of iott wood. of friction. the fridion is little about \ the lefs than halt the wfight. . Yet metals may be fo far p^lilhed as to increafe in fridion. the lefs fridion the fame friclion. 'Iron or Lead makes a great deal of wet weather. But if it be rough. Hi they confill ot more parts that rub againft one another. increafes with is it. Upon the fame fuppofition. by wh ch its it will be impoffible to give any All we can do is to lay quantity can be exacftly determined. For upon plain c. go 4 times eafier than when wet. the weight. alalfo greater The fridion fune proportion. In wood ading agjinft vvuoJ. Hard wood upon hard wood. at : the rate of three feet per Iccond . the lofter or rougher the bodies. and to mutli the more. Metals oiied make the fridion Icfs than when polifhed. or rathar i eafier. •. by the cohefion of their parts. greafe makes the motion twice as eafy. Wheel naves greaftd or tarr'J.e fort have more fridion than different lorts.

diredtiy tion. weight and velocity. than in large ones greater in refpeft to the quantity of the and that reciprocally -. the power will be decreafed thereby. is as aid (pu'ting -ynvclocity in tcet. the friftion on the axis is as the weight upon it. will be the tube very long. except the velocity be very great. cylinder. and pipe be divided into feveral lefler ones. by friftion. the temper of the weather. But the abfolute quantity of the fricllon in tubrs. \/» The fingle leaver makes no mechanic powers. the fulcrum or place of fupport be changed further from the weight . v/« or as \/«. where the body finks. differs according to their ftiffncls. In any wheel of a machine. as their diameters. But the fridion fluid. 51b. in fmall tubes. greater furface alio caufes fomething c. But if by the motion of the leaver in lifting. ceteris paribus. 8. in the fquare of the velocity weight of a column of the fluid. it is equal to the a fecond) A rope of is i ing it. running upon an axis . the force or difficulty ot bending a rope. 4. and n the fridlion. whofe numthe refifiance arifing from the friction will be increafed For the area of the fecftion of any one pipe. : whole bafe but half 5. whofe tenfion. 6. (Jc. with : •. it goes about. and height J: — And a in a globe it is 64 fo much. and its tenfion. In .er of the of the rope. will be as " —— T - » •. as s/n. the diameter of the axis. requires a force of lib. but. or puiiey. ^c. and therefore the friction in all of them. FRICTION A the fame of ENGINES. is as the fquare of the diameter and the diame. inch diameter. The refiftance of a plane moving through a fluid. But ber is if a n . 3. is but very fmall. Xir.Sedt. being as the circumference. This fore of friftion is but As to the refiftance fmall. will be __ ft . . Yet friftion may fomt times be increafed. by having too little furface to move on as upon clay. or weight drawgoing over a pulley 3 inches diameter . more trie- 173 j i few cafes. is the plane. to bend it. degree of flexibility. 7. of is The fridtion a fluid running through tube is as the velocity and diameter of the tube. _L. and the angular velocity. The friction arifing from the bending of ropes about machines. reciprocally.

fridion. and going articles. Tiic fiidlion of the pulley is very confiderable. to the circumference defcribed by one revolution of the power . the friflion is fo great. at equal to the power. q. weight or refinance . In the pulley. or r alter inipojfibility of a or fuch a motion as is to continue the fame for . at lead as twice the perpendicular height of a thread. and confider the velocity and the weight at the firfi: rubbinty and eftimate its quantity of fridfion. FRICTION 8. and the diapower oJ. fharp threads have more friction than ihofe with iquare threads. ever. as itferves to keep the weight in any given po10. over a fingle pulley will draw up only 141b. begin at the power. by every Cor. dition of 50 lb. as the bafe to to overcome any refiftance. its angular velocity.loolb. with a tackle of 5. will but draw up 5001b. fomething more is to be allowed for increafe of -. do the fame for it. with the admeter of the pulley inverfely. it. by fome of the forepart Then proceed to the next rubbing part. if it be able to This fricfion of the Icrew raife the weight. that it will fuf- tain the off. and by the wearing of the holes and axles. And From whence The power any pofition given. _1^. of is ENGINES.174 FIG. the friiftlon is at leaft it is as it retains any pofition driven into. fition. then fF upon the axis of the fingle pulley. To find the fridion of any engine. . 1. And fo on through the whole. In the wedge. fharp thread. The . And note. And endlefs fcrews have more <han either. when the power is taken therefore the friction is at lealt equal to the power. mufl. . be to the is of great ufe. perpetual moli'. that in the fcrew. q be two weights. to the weight . or only fuflain it. And 151b. And it is not increafed by the acceleration of but remains always the fame.Midion on the axis of the pulley is as the weight py. In the fcrew there is a great deal of friclion. Screws with a fquafe thread raife a weight with mere eafe than thofe with a the weight A . when the ftieaves rub againft the blocks . Thofe with 9. Jn the common weight in fcrew. will follow. the diameter of the axis dircdiy. if if/". and q the greater the weight and fV=.n Hence will appear the difficulty. . The power muft be the height 1 . new addition to the power. Therefore in the Icaft wedge.

which although any body once put into motion. For is impoHibk. So adjufted. any other given If the given ance. So that if : the . that when the weight and power are put in motion on the machine . wouH for ever retain that motion. than the weight or refiftance given then the thing is to be performed by the help of a machine made with leavers^ wheels. and moving freely without any refiftance.Seel. that is. except fome new adive force. or any external reminilhcd. 175 j ever. To a given power . FRICTION as this of ENGINES. without fome therefore it muft follow. or overcome any other force. its motion will gradually decay. But that cannot be from the body or machine i. The whole defign of thefe being to give fuch a velocity to the power in refpecft of the Weight . Xir. equal to all its refiftance. ncivvithftanding any refiftance tardincr force acting upon it. ufed to draw or raife heavy bodies. vi\\\\. For if machines are fo contrived. or be the caule of its own motion. when the power applied is •. For on this principle depends the mechanilm or contrivance ol mechanical engines. fJjaU overcome rejijtance. adds a new motion to it. PROP. that from the refiftance of the medium. laft. pullies. and the fridion of the parts of the machine upon one another. For I'uch a motion ought continually it undi- meets with. are certain. And at all. move a given weight i^itb contrive a proper machine that fiall cr with a given quantity offeree. and the machine is at reft.\\ is abfuid.. &c. cr at leafi as long as the materials -pill that compofe the p to return q. that the velocities of the agent and refiftant are reciprocally as their forces. that -. lels power is not able to overcome the given refiftwhen dirediy applied. is greater than the power. as that the momentum of the power may exceed the momentum of the weight. the velocity of the power may be at leaft ic) much greater than that of the weight . till at laft all the motion is deNor can th's be otherwile.felf for then the body would move itfelf. as the weight and fridion of the machine taken together. moving machine. ftroyed. CXIX. fcrews. the agent will juft fuftain the refiftant but with a greater degree of velocity will overcome it. no body or machine can move "Yet in fadl we degree of fVidtion and refiftance.

if it be capable of effcfting the thing defigned. water. much greater. which iliall be to that of the weight.176 Q all INVENTION that refiftance OF MACHINES. horles. fo that working together they may be able to give a velocity to the power. &c. 2. is the excefs of velocity in the power to overcome from the friflion or attrition of contiguous bodies. This done. than the weight and fridion taken together. For the fame quanof any fort will produce the lame efTccf. as you would have your engine work be lb . the lad Prop. as men. this proportion muft be able to raife the weight. more additions to the engine. can conveniently be had. maining. water. &c. as which commonly arifes The excels of the force rethe weights of bodies to be railed. If not. as they Hide by one another. fire. to increafe the vain to make power any further: for that would not only be a needlefs txpence. 3. or from fo great. will appear from the following rules. if that. and overcome the refiflance. you muft eltimate your quantity of friftion. tity is known . or a natural* power. iyc. as a Ipring. For if the a machine too power can raife the weight. as well in the pans of the machine. pulleys. l^c. forts may be applied in an equal quantity. And different of powers. and without much €Xpence. fafter. but the engine would lofe time in woiking. Having alTigned the proportion of yourpower and the weight to be railed: the next thing is toconfider how to combme leavers. it matters not what kind of power it is. or from the cohefion of bodies that are to be fcparated. as well as too little. I. Now how a machine may be contrived to perform this to the beft advantage. then wnd. after all thefc refinances are overcome. A fpring . wheels. it may be either a living power. it is fufficient for the end propofed. As to the power applied to work the engine. or an artificial power. much power. (bll in a greater proportion. For it is a fault to give murt not be made too great neither. fomething greater than in the proportion of the weight to the power. But the proportion of the velocity of the power and weight. (yc. a great variety of ways. and the engine perform its proper effcA in a convenient time. will produce an acceleration of motion proportional thereto. as in the refilling body. and if the velocity of the power b-? to that of by the weight. When the quantity of the power as to the effcft. weights. and And it is in •works well. is to the power then your machine will And note. The moft eafy power applied to a machine is weight. as wind.

gth turning a roller by the handle. but it never ads equally as a weight does . according to their Itrength. yet they recover part of their ftrength by lying unbent. A generally fpeaking. A a A horfe . and if he woiks 10 hours in a day. like a v/cight or a Ipring. requiije any repetition or renewing. Men may apply machine. but is ftronger when much bent. than one man ran 30 lb. But a aft. when managed with fkilland judgment. it may by a due application be made to produce any other motions we defire. If the weight of a man be 1401b. When thefe cannot be had. g. and anfwer his purpofe. than when but a little bent. a than 27 lb.p chines. we have recourfe to fome living power. provided the elbow of one of the handles be at right angles to that of the other. for he can but apply about half his weight. or the diftanceit is forced to. But Iprings grow weaker by often bending. may be applied with vaft advantage to the working of great engines. or cannot ferve our end. or if the weight be greater. Therefore thefe powers are the moft eafy and ufeful. which require to be wound up. ' INVENTION is of MACHINES. Men ufed to carrying.an may do 4 pare more work and for a little while aft with a force. they can moreeafily draw up 7olb. A horfe is. and that in proportipn to the degree of bending. or remaining long bent . And with a fly. fuch as porters. but an ingenious artificer can tell how to apply thefe powers to execute his defign. for there is fcarce any labour to be performed. . wind and water. can acl for a whole day againft a refiflance equal to jclb. A man of their ftrenaith feveral ways. fpring alfo a A g. he will raife a weight of 30' lb. others 200 or 2501b. or overcome a continual refiftance of 80 lb. horles. they cod nothing. and work a whole day when the rcfiltance is but 4olb. man may A As men. for a fmail time. or roller. If two men work at a windlefs. fome 1501b. at the height of his fhnulders. he can aft with no greater force m thrufting horizontally. or more. as ftrong as 5 - horfe will carry 240 or 2701b. in working a orlinary ftrer. is'c. For any conlhnt motion being given. will carry.Sed. nor greateft benefit to mankind. weight.' feet it in a fecond lefs . and of the Befides. he will raife fo much in proportion. The natural powers. XII. The due application of thefe has much abridged the labours of men . againft a refinance of 501b. or heavy wheel applied to it a m. 177 i convenient moving powe'r for feveral ma. 4. horizontally . man can draw about 70 or 8olb. to horfes. as men.

5. the common fcrew is moft proper. combination of fimple machines together. carrying each 100 lb. Though the leaver when fimple. but if by water. he can work but And in both cafes. If a weight is to be raifed but a very little way. The wedge cannot be combined with any other mechanical men . Every machine ought made of its as few parts.h puliies or with the wedge. to one. and abeam fixed to the axis to draw the wheel about by 7. is a leaver. As a to the make compound -. is very lerviceable. a horfe yet fuch a may draw in a round walk of iB feet diamewalk Qiould not be lefs than 25 or 30 feet diato be meter. wlien the line of direca little elevated above the horizon. he will draw better than if he carried And this is the weight a horfe is liippoled to be able to none. And three men in a ftcep hill. draw over a pulley out of a well.178 f J INVENTION A tion is OF MACHINES. will climb up falter than a hori'e with 300 lb. And it is needlefs to do a thing with many. when he draws fotne- thing above a horizontal pofition. The leaver alfo may be combined with the fcrew. 6. The fcrew is not welf combined with pullies but the perpetual fcrew combined with the wheel. The moft force a horfe can exert is. be very great. when their axles are perpendicular to the horizon . are of moft ufe and convenience. and the fame may be done by help of tne perpetual fcrew. which may be done with fewer parts. In a cart. or horl'es. for eight hours in a day at 2'^ miles an hour. and ihc power can draw 200 lb. to anl'wer purpofe-. but it any diforder. If he draw 2401b. can not raife a weight to any great height and in this ^afc is of little fervice . but not conveniently wi. not only be- repairing will be lefs. and thole as fimple as pofTible. Thus the fpokes of a great wheel are all leavers perpetually adding .x hours. the wheel and axle is a proper power. yet it is of great ufe when compounded with others. And 1000 lb. Though ter-. ealy. and blocks and pullies arc eafier ftill . aifls o. and not go quite fo tdft. The word way of applying the ftrength of a horfe. . horfe draws togrcatefl: advantage. is to make him carry or draw up hill. then it is beft to have their axles howill alio caule the expence of making and be lefs liable to rizontal. if he fi. But if the weight is to be raifed a great way. The wheel and axle iscombjned with great advantage with pullies. the leaver Or if the weight is the moft fimple. a horlc may draw againft his bread. carrits fome weight. Great wheels to be wrought by men or cattle. iSc. and ready machine.

its 179 . the number of teeth that play together in two wheels. power and il only performs effecl by percuffion f i c. snd that is as the fquaresof their diameters. and wheels. not to have any unnecelfary motions. ought to be prime to each other. VIII. of MACHINES. And he is by no means a perfefl: mechanic. the ftrength of every particular part of it muft be adjufted to the flirefs upon it. increafethe The diameters of the wheels and pullies ought to be A a 2 Isrge. For all luperfluous matter in any part of it. that does not only : adjuft the ftrength to the ftrefs. they by degrees wear themfelves into a propir figure. according to Se£b. To avoid friftion as much as poffible. Therefore in fquare beams the cubes of the diameters muft be made proportional to the ftrefs they bear. (fee the end of Secf. but for the diminifliing the fridion. that the whole machine may fail together. that the fame teeth meet as fcldom as poffible. The axles Oi wheels and puiiies muft be Io much ftronger. 9. that the fame teeth may not meet at every revolution. 8. The ftrength of ropes muft be according to their tenfion. VIII. as in clockwork . And in any combination of wheels and axles. butalfo contrive laft all the parts to equally well. fo that the ftrength of every p-irt be reciprocally as the velocity it has. XII. The ftrength of every part of the machine ought to be made proportional to the llrefs it is to bear. by their weight and motion. For when different teeth meet. io as to have the fame power.Sedt. The teeth of wheels. but to clog its motion. In wheels with teeth. make their ftrength d-iminifti gradually from the weight to the power. and the wheels themfelves. it may be divided into two or three more wheels and trundles. chanical INVENTION . is nothing but a dead weight upon the machine. for a multiplicity of parts. or point where thegreatcft ftrefs is. which ad with greater force. and perform the lame but this force cffrcf. increafed by engines. muft be proportionally ftronger. the machine ought . And let its ftrength diminifh proportionally from the fulcrum. Pullies may be combined with puUies. as they are to bear greater weighr. or wheels and pinions. to cai h end. Therefore ihey fliould be contrived.) And in general whatever parts a machine is compofed of. and fervcs for nothing. And therefore let every leaver be made fo much ftronger. And let no part be ftronger or bigger than is neceflTary for the ftrefs upon it not only for the ealc and well-going of the machine. take up too much room. and wheels with Therefore if any fingle wheel would be too large. as its length and the *\'eight it is to fupport is greater.-. . of percuffion may bt. or ufelefs parts friction.

confult Prop.y place little w'heels as J. machines with wheels. When the teeth of a wheel are much worn aw. 12. rub oiled or greaied. with fudden jerks. -.otion be required to produce a motion either unilorm or accelerated. And this And in lan"^ \vi!l '.ke. and if one uniform m. its friflion d'mini{htdl| bf ir. running upon an axis in its center. ^\11 the axles. CX. and all teeth where they work. endeavour have the motion uniform. where the motion is. t'lie terns or trundles. if it can be done. by turns. ends ought juft to fill their holes. Eut . and requires niore force. CXII.iv. rounds miy be mad.To prevent this. and enn'angcr breaking the teeth. B. to Prop. without grejt vioAnd the moving any part of the machine contrary vvavS lence.all -. and when the machine goes. contrive the power to move or adt alv. run on two may have rollers. L'kewife how to communicate And to change the direftion. in- lifad of being -fixed. FIG ^^^ ^^^ diametrrs of the arbors or fpindles they run or. CXI. CXIII. fit and fill lip the opens as l. new additional force to eSeft it. In a machine that moves always one way. and the power is forced to move firft one wav.. cords muft be as pliable as polTible. rends only to (hake the machine to In all pieces. which they will do. C. a body in motion cannot luddenly receive a contrary motion. and to (lop their motion. two centers.ake away almofi all the friclion of the teeth. : a little grcale upon ' it. it n^kes that wheel move irregularly about.T. one m'. Likewilc inl\ead of the teeth of wheels.. and for thjt end are and rubbed with tar or create the teeth of wheels aiull be made to and cut in the furm of epicycloids. All ropes as can be coiifidfiu with their Itrength. ' i8j. feme light mav be had from Prop. increafes the Irctioii. and Becaufe every new change of motion requires a then another. and all parts that in working rub upon one another. For this is better and eafier performed than when the motion is interrupted. lo When any motion is to be long continued . Some methods of doing this may be feen in Prop. muft be mull be made imooth If a joint is to go pretty flifFand fteady. The up''n axis <? fa'ufit*g it't6 of a wheel. Bcfides. and may caule the teeth nf two wheels to run ioul upon one another. and keep them to their proper figure.to turn about. B.i8o INVENTION '^''g^' of MACHINES. turning rund with igi. proper care fhculd be taken to dreis the teeth.ays one way. II. fee motion. the axes or fpindles ought not And their to fh. if they be too fhorr.

When contrive you have but it a fmall quantity of water. INVENTION of MACHINES. XII. 12. 1. for the greater the machine the weaker it is. Then the velocity i. it is neceffary to meafure tlie velocity and iorce ot the water. is a ton Alfo 4 hogf- ':. machine they are more fcnlible . except in Ibength . becaufe the water will come flow. The greater the machine. or beam of wood. the area of the' hole. The relilUnce of the medium in fome machine^ has a. If water is to be conveyed through pipes to a great diftance. \n gjwt machines than.Se<a. := height of the v/ater . to be fuddenly . knailcri in all refpccts. Thus let J— 16 -L. efFeft. to have the greater velocity.. XCVU. But all thefe mechanical errors bear a kfs proI'enfible motion of the machine. becaufe a cubic foot is a hogfhead is about 8 {feet. In regard. drop in pieces of fticks. Prop.JlI^HB hundred 1. p : i8i i But when the nature of the thing requires that a motion communicated to a body.. 13. but iri a great. for the . chine. And its torce by Cor. But ir it flow through a hole in a refcrvoir or ftanding receptacle of water. and perform all us motions the better.!£ader it can conveniently. by Cur. 62 i and averd. 2S - weight . it will • . and oblerve how far they are carried in a fccond. n H of the quantity "" ' B or HB of water. [0 the fize of the machine. . . by a ludden julc let the force aft againft Ibme fpring.' For there will always be lome errors in the making.. 14. and its forcezzthe weight large as t. and the defcent be but fmall fo much larger pipes muft to fall as high as . cr 531 heads. l^c. obc almoft Therefore great machines will anlvver better than vanidi. and lefs able to refift any violence.12 lb. being nearly reciprocally 5s their diameters . or fuddenly ftopt to prevent any damage or violence to-the engine. as well as in the materials . And thefe pipes be ufed./f^/. Prop.— velocity of the fluid per fecond.^ made asis c. or =: . ^nd uith the fame 'J'hercfore in a fmall accuracy.the woik. i. or any given time. For engines that go by water. portion to the in little ones. let. all in B feet. ought no: to be made ftraiter in fome places than others . which may lupply the place of a fpring. 15.—\/2-5/^. 2. CVII. To get the velocity. and confequently more force upon the engine. and are equally well finilhed. and confequently in the working of the ma-. you mud you can.fuppofing they are made of the iame nutter. The velocity will be found from the depth of the hole beiow the furface. ' = lb. b.it.

the thicknefs mult be h. but ftoppmg the water. And in wooden pipes 2 inches. ppes of elm will lad 20 or 30 years in gradually in a curve the ground.aif an inch. "l^ipes.-rsp works. the eafier the pu.i82 J. and ftnking t. when air is lodged in them that the water can hardly pafs. is conveyed through pipes fliould ri't to higher plnces. for the fame reafon. with flanchcs ac the ends to fcrew them together.it the froft may nor reach them. 'Water (liouid not be driven through pipes faflcr then 4 feet ISor fliould per fccond. the be dilcbarged. that is. a- the water. in which is a cock at top to open upon oc- water the water into the . Nor fliould the pipe that brmgs pump be too ftrait. If the water runs till through the pipes. The thickncfs of any pipe muft be as the diameter of the bore. Iqueczcd through fmaller pipes : » -. INVENTION the b'. communicating with it in fevrral places. the nail hole muft be iett open. the bores of the pipes rtrait be mace upwads will for the ftraiter they are near the top. For a lead pipe of 6 inches bote. fliould be made of iron. if air be driven in at lirft along with the water. Going from 'he Ipring till you coire to the firft rifing of the ground.t them. Pipes fliould not turn off at an angle. J ^ the quantify of water conveyed through them. or a cock placed there to open occalionaliy. or elle the water muft be let out otherwi-c the tTo[\ will lpl. that is. at the highelt part. and all t. and alfo as thf depth from thf fpring.d to the h'ghell part. the air will be beyond the eminence . or die of wood .way is Icfs in narrow And too lefs in pump work. Sorretimes a fcnall leaden pipe is placed over the other. and 60 or 70 feet Iiigh. But they muft be laid fo deep.c paddles or . depends (Iraitefl: . dig it open till the pipe be laid hire then with a n^l driven into ii. batter up the bole again. make a ho'e in the top . rhe air will afrer.*-. The wider thefe are. and all the air will blow cut at the hole. or rather a little beyond. 16. it be oMjcli wire-drawn.he air will be dilcharged. and when the water comes. cafion. for that creates a refillance. for l<ad pipes will bulge But pipes next a out at every ftroke of liic engine and burlf. th.gncis of the bore ar the of MACHINES. with leid between. upon place. 1 2. Whrn any work is to be moved by the svatcr running under performed bv a warer whe:l it. When pipes are wind bound. but jet mufv be lead. Pipes ot condu(fl coming dircttly from an engine. where w^ter . it muft be difcharged rhuc. by reaibn ot the fridion of the tubes. Do the lame at every eminence.

when the power is a heavy body. XII.the velocity of the water . the ftrength of a fpring. is : i i. in communicating any niotion. T/jefe principles alfo are very ufeful. tiff. So that the utmoft motion which the wheel can generate. is when the paddles of the wheel move with 4. The preftiireof the atmofphere upon a fquare inch. -J- fuppofing the ablolute force of the water againft the paddles. fo that the weight may receive the greateft motion pofTible in a givm time. to the adjutage. feldom lo'e Icfs than ^ the computed quantity of water to be raifed. averd. when the power is feme immaterial adtive force. when the wheel ftands ftiU. Machines to raife water. whole weight is inconfi: : : : derable. where water works are concerned. fuch as that of an elaftic medium. that the radius of the axle (EF) may be to the radius of the wheel (JB) :: as 4 the power (P) ro the weight to be raifed {fVj or. and thofe before it are Itruck obliquely. to work all day.of that which the force of the water againit the paddles at reft. equal to . INVENTION The channel it of MACHINES. man with the beft water engine cannot raife above one hoglhead of water in a minute.the weight of the atmofphere. in 183 p j ^^ jn2. by means of the wheel and axle . in which cafe. jo feet high. would produce. or laddie boards. This is when the wheel is at the beft . 18. and the weight to be raifed. moves thing wider than the hole of doacs on every fide. but oftentimes far lefs is done. and necejfary to h known. When a weight is to be raifed with a given corporeal A ^q. at a is 14.7 lb. is but -^%. The beft contrived engine is fcarce 4 part better than the worft contiived engine. as to let paft the wheel. power. when they are equally well executed. It IS of no advantage to have a great number ot floats or paddles. the force upon the paddles is only . for thefe paft the perpendicular are refifted by' the back water. though well made. This only holds good. The weight of a column of water. ought to be fo adjufted. the velocity gained by the power in defcending muft be i the velocity which would be gained by gravity in the fame time. The greatell: effcft that fiich awheel can perform. medium. which comes to the lame thing. or no water pafs and when open a little that the water may fpread. little ought and fo to be fonne- clofe to the •.Sedl. A cubic .yards. to be i. as well as the weight but does not take place. 17. The radius of the wheel and axle.

2 ale gallon of water contains 2^2 inches. lb.I FIG.128 aic galUiis. and weighs i ^'.dd pounds averd. weighs i. contains -iV dd ale gallons . A SEC . averd. ai-erd. and d inches diameter. and contains and weighs An 10.i84- INVENTION A cubic 6. at 63 gallons the hogfhead. foot of water weighs 62 lb. tun of water ale meafure. or MACHINES.i tun averd. A cylinder of water a yard high.

I fhall therefore give the mechanical conftrucftion of feveral forts of machines. i^c. by any one. defer ipiion of compound machines or engineSy the : and forces method of computing their powers or 'with fome account of the advantages their confiruBion. SECT. 7Be XIII.F I G. two things required to make a good mechanic or firft is a good invention for contriving all the parts of a machine. The next is. and give him fome idea haw he may proceed in contriving a machine for any end propofed. fo this is principally to be attained by pradice. to be able to compute the power or force of it to know whether it can really perform the effect: expefted from it or not. by (hewing the conftrudion of feveral mechanic engines. is to give fome examples in practice. lie. to perform its motions and effeils in the mod fimple and eafy manner. and to compute their forces or effeSfs. cmd difadvantages of PROP. and a thorough acquaintance with machines of feveral kinds. fmiths. The foundation of both thefe has been already laid down in this book. nor how they arejomed together. or ftrengthIt is fufficient here to (hew the difpofition and naened. - defcribe feveral forts of engines. which will afTiIl the reader's invention. Of which I fhall only give a (hort explanation of the principal parts. What feems to be neceflary farther. ture of the principal joiners. The -. and computing their powers. members and is : eafily undcrftiood the reft belongs to carpenters. As there is great fkill and fagacity in contriving fit and proper ways to perform any motion. not troubling the reader with any defcription of their minuter parts. made for feveral different purpofes. B b To . There are engineer. 7*13 CXX.

and the other. the diameters. for the power . the produft i. and the produft of the teeth in all the wheels moved by them.ike the produ£l of all' the and the p>oduB of all the folloivers. t. leaders. trundle. Then multiply all thife numbers togeand fo on to the laft. in numbers. and the fol•. muftbe all numbered 5. in numbers . gives the proportion of the power to the weight. then the a firft When numner to the fecond. As to fimple machines. . they are eafily accounted for. and a pinion. find the force afling on the fourth. Or thus. there are always two wheels fixt upon one axis or ellc one wheel.i86 F I DESCRIPTIONoF To 1. and that ot" the power. machine is in motion. C. lower gives it. and find And putting the force it acls upon the third. will give the force of the machine. all the parts the fame running rope. in numbers . muft be numbered with the fum of all thefe it afts againft. ther. freely and without interruption. for for the weight the power. of each. which Of thefe two. Then call this force i. and computed. And if any rope aft againft feveral others. or barrel. this force i. And . fuppofe any machine divided 2. which drives fomc o'her forward. Otherwife thus. For compound machines Then begin at the into all the fimple ones that compofe it. power and call it i and by the properties of the mechanic powers. in numbers. Or inftead of the teeth take alike for the force. call ^hc follower. c. or by fome other wheel teeth. cotnptile their powers. their forces . which is afted on by the power. In a combination of wheels . if you meafure the velocity of the weight. •. the leaaer. it 4. call that wheel fupplies the place of a wheel. fuppofing the firft power When pullies are concerned in the machine. Here the leader receives the motion. that go and return about feveral of pullies. Then having either the number of the diameter. on the fame or axis. In wheel work. take the produft of the number of teeth in all the wheels that aft upon and drive others. for the weight. by the properties of the mechanic powers. find the force with which the firft fimple machine afts upon the fecond.

for the velocity of the weight. A handfpike and crow are leavers of the A Ex. are leavers the fecond kind. equal length from the center of motion. alio tongs. may be referred to the leaver of the firft kind. The bar AB bearing a weight C. is z balance. to cut. III. and inftruments with a fljarp point. IV. 188. and the produ^ of all the followers. Other things that are more complex and difficult. by help of the fwingtree AB . are leavers of The bones in animals. &c. And if COMPOUND ENGINES. windlefs. V. chop. pinchers. and the center of motion of the beam. VI. i£c. and a capjlain'm a fliip. hatchets. may be reduced to the wedge. Ex. for the velocity of the power . where the weight upon A: to the weight upon B :: is as BC : to AC. Ex. may be referred to the wheel and A axel. II. Example Scijfars. That they be as long .XIII. bore. i. 2. &c. the will be equal. to cut wood. fcijfarsy fwordsy bodkins. kind. The properties of a good balance are. hammer to draw a nail is a benaed leaver. B b 2 That the brachia or arms be exadly or 3. mult be referred to the general laws of motion. bread. to that of B :: BC : to AC. of the third kind. A is Likewife if two horfes draw the weight I. W. tools All edge cleave. as knives. the velocity of the 187 fig. pierce. where the brachia AC. may be referred to the leaver. &c. B 2. Take the produSi of all the leaders. flit. Ex. Knives fixe at one end. as And the flrength or force at A. weights in the two fcales D. this in the diredions 187. power or weight be required. be in ACB E one right line. may be referred to the leaver. firft ' I.Sed. 186. CB being equal. That the points of fufpenfion of the fcales. 5. and a crane to draw up goods out of a fliip or boat. . Ex.

i88 y I DESCRIPTIONoF 4. 2. If one brachium AC be longer than the other Cfi. 2. 1 2. . Many . 1 hat they be in cquiiibrio when em()ty. then will the conftant weight P be greater than JV. if DP or Di = CB. 2 3. of the beam be in. ^c. Tdat the fixt weight fliall P the being placed atD. weight in the fcalc E miifl hi greater than that in D. 4. will equi-ponderate with weights Thzftee'yordAB of- the center D as IVi fufpended at 5. be rightly adjuftcd to it: viz. i^c. trom one fcalr to the other will difcover the deceit j for the balance will be no longer in equilibrio. then fV=2P.CB :: weight in E weight in But changing the weights by the property o\ the leaver. Or CB Di :: P i Itone. (^c. 190. be refpedlively equal ifc. be fuccelTively placed at i. tion. 4. 4. the weight /^ to balance 3. B. If DP or D2 = 2CB. i^c. That there be as little long as pofTiblc with conven'. 2P. provided the weight P i pound. 2. 3 pounds. 2. if P is a pound. alfo if it. to make And then you will have a dtccitful balance. which being empty. an equilibrium. If the weight P placed at the beam AB to an equilibrium . 5. the center of mo6. 2 3. which are refpeftively. iW. That CB may be of any length. That the beam be flrait. and the upper edge in a line : : : : with the centers C. will 2. The properties 1. That it move eafily and freely on its center C. and there be taken the equal divifions D i. be equal to one another. 3. then /Fzz P. : : : : I 2. or loaded with unequal weights. where the di- vifions begin. : D Ex. For by the property of the that is ]eiverCPxP+CD x PzzCBx^f^y P IF. 3P. 5. fhall remain in rquilibrio. — Moreover as the numbers i. That the center of gravity friction as pofTible in the motion. be each Then if P CB. isic. or but very little bi-low. if //' be ftones. univerAnd CB PD fally. to P. that is to I. are thefe. i£c. 3. neceflary for a fteelyard to have. 2. make beam i in equilibrio. 3 4. iJ. VII. fo that C5 Di :: P if fVht pounds. reduces motion.ency. l^c. whofe fulcrum is C. then the a. But if CB be greater than Di. That the divifions D i. &c. 2 3> <3c. PDxP-CBxfV. 3. is nothing but a leaver. ^c. 1 2.S'. For AC -. then the weight P placed fucccfllvely at i. the divifions Z)i. Whence.

189. 150. for 2 of the feathers n. X. viir. -I And or 74. of GB. XIII. GH=7. FH-^. wheel. And the nearer an equality. the cheefe. the power at C. as to 3X Ex. Diameter of the whorle cd-zz^EabF zht band going about the twill.D. EcdF the band going about the whorle. the fafter fhe will do both. whole fulcrum is G if power to at F be at the force at is R • 4? therefore the 4- power i at C. whilft the thread trn is twined by thefe 2 revolutions of the feathers. COMPOUND ENGINES. confequently the difference of the revolutions which is i. to the prciTure is H. Then 1 leaver D E the is the fulcrum. A . And each fide is adjufted by the foregoing rules . and the whorle and feathers 6. are likewife graduated c. F. £. CD = in the . 5. There- EF= And fore there are 3 revolutions of the twill. carrying the wheel LK. the more the wheel takes up. to the prelTure at H. CE. DE-2. weight. Ex. Generally one fide is for fiiiall weights. CE. i9iLet EG be afpianin. fhe will twine none. And if the feathers make no revolutions. FG. the twill makes g. -.Se(ft. r 1S9 1 Miny fteelyards wh ch may be ufed on the under fide. is the quantity taken up by the twill. to ?. by tuining them upfide down. the more fhe twines. fhe will not take up at all. FG-6. by applying the hand at C. uid all the crooks hanging at it (except the moveable one for the weight) mufl go to the weight of the beam. The greater the difference of the revolutions of the twill and feathers. Therefore vvhilft the rim makes i revolution. {lone or Let AB H If C. The greater the proportion of the rim to the whorle and twill. G. FG are leavers moveable about S ihs the points . 18. Diameter of the rim Diameter of the twill ahzz^z. as 2 to 5. machine to raife a weight by the force of the runningwater IH. Let the diameter of the wheel LK be 10 . Alio the weight of the ftone or i R. FRzzi. Ex. the weight 5. Call tne power at then the force at is or F is 4. IX. be a cheefs prefs . 2 . and the ether for great ones. If chey make equal revolutions in the fame time. of DC. And in the leaver 1.. /'. by mean's of the floats F. as i to i X at or 3.

XIII. you will have the velocity of /^ to that of B. of /IE. I440 to 640000. reft: Ex. In the machine XI. to the weight IF. Therefore the power ac C. KI=i2 is IL—'-Af. . Ex. the wheel at to turn the wheel will be at C be I. ' 5X3 % When or as I to 18 . and two pullics P. the force afting will be 2^.igo 1 DESCRIPTION 1 . Or if the velocity of B was reforce at B. by means of Let the circumthe perpetual fcrew BE. to the weight fF. is as i to 30x2^ EG— E EG £ D or I to 75. which two threads of the perpetual fcrew E. to the as weight ^''. '• 1 Therefore the force of the water.at B to move the whtrel CD. In a mach'ne C£— FH—so. the motion will be leflTcned. whilfl the diftance BC. by help of the triangle JBEF.-. as 444 to i. jQ " . raifes the weight /^.compounded of wheels to raife a weight . be 1 inch. JB—i. in a ftrait the fame and in meafuring. FG:z in the wheels and nuts as follows. Diameter of Therefore if the power 5 feet. cr as i to 444 i. that the velocity of the floats at F. quired. then the weight ^^ will have the greatrft motiijn of afFor if any one thing be changed. will be again if the power at £ be . Ex. 193. whilft the remain the fame. is as i to the wheels and axles and weight are fo adjufted. * XII. the number of teeth 40. the fame thing whether CB line be is ftrait or crooked. to move the weight B then For then the power will be to the the ratio will be inverted. OF ^'\ " ^'^ 5'. the force at /i will be 3 4. the force at And if the power at ^o. the diftance of ference defcri bed by FB. let diameter of the barrel MN—i. weioht. CD=io. But if the power was at IV. you mull always take the ftrait line BC. . Then the power applied to ix lox 12X 12 to 5X40x50x641 . and the power C be 30 inches. is y the velocity of the water there . as i to that is 444. be i. Let the diameter ^ HG . it is Note. 12. as 5. whether the cent poffible. or the diameter of any wheel or axle. Let the power of the water againft the floats 3rhen the forct. of DA—i. the wheel EG. iqr^ ^ A machine to raife a weight the windlels CC.

and force D/i—2. = 42. and both together is equal to the force of . is ftretching JE is to be lifted by the 3 puUies C. : as I to 16. is 5. XVI. 19S. bACD is a running rope fixt at D. 42. in any given time. and if veiociiy of PF: velocity of P :: 4. then the force on AF^ FB is i the weight P afls againft GH. But HI. B a fixt 197. XV. there will be the greatcft motion generated in IFy i P. and then it is be 2.P PF. will be 1 2. That on JC I. 4-. q. is as i pull<=y. : Ex. whtn /F And m a combination of pullies. BE 4. to the weight^. may be fet'againft a wall. then ^F'will be the weight vvhichwill acquire the greatcft motion m a given time. the force at /F drawn by two ropes. and CD i. Therefore the power called a pair of Jheers. of Then the force Call the power at B. to the weight /F. D. be i. the force at power at be i. Whence the power at Z?. A i which C is fixt. DE~2. D j^^. -. Ex. Another machine with pullies. which was to raile fome other weight PV. be=2. Then if the And if the force at //.Sea. i. the other two If the leg AB I to 2X5 Of 10. . likewife is 1+2 Therefore the whole force acling at force CAz=4. if a given power at P was to be a weight or heavy body. will D.* + + to 4. or upheld by ropes.. S C H O L. If the weight XIV. Let the power at h pulling the rope hJ be i. if a weight P was to raife another weight fF. 1=4. as fig. C. BC and 'DC. In this machine. force £)Cz=4 . and the power at B to the weight ^. D. +4=7. IE. 39. And the weight ^^ oppofing yfC. Ex. and is therefore. as fig. GC. the ends Suppofe the power on FG. XIII. E. 196. HD. Then will AB be 2. A a fixt pulley •. is as be wanting. by that given power P. and BC 2. In a fingle pulley.zi6 and the power is to the weight. on at M—i. J Ex. of the feveral ropes are fixt at B. on HE IE. as i to 7. 8. COMPOUND ENGINES. E. radius CD 5. 3^. whence. drawn by one rope. 2 . — H ^ at 191 j HG where the rope goes.

Whence there the longer is JB. Therefore long oars have the difadvantage of lofing power. and CB perpendicular to BO. endeavours to turn the fli p round an axis at O. endeavours to turn the (hip round an axis paiLng through O. perpendicular to the fail . Therefore the force to rail'e her head is to the force to deprefs DB it. oars . Through C the center of gravity of the fail. in fo fmall a time. the point CBxBD. the contrary way.^2 D E S C R I P T I O N OF ylBC be one oar. fink it. and they will have but fmall force to adt againft the water with. and the force at C. as well as from the (low motion of the end C . which flie has by the Let this interfcd't the former plumb-line water in her motion. draw CD in O. and this is the force by which her head is deprefTed. fo is . Now the force DB. AS a fail. her motion. ading againft the water. Suppofe a plumbdrawn throus^h the center of "Mvitv of the feftion of the and another line BO. may much more power at J to move her forward. For if be too fhort. XVIII. afting at C. D fall before O. then the force at C. and this is the force that rail'es her head. as CBxBO if to Hence. or as BO to BD.. or CB x BD . and to pals through the center of prcfi'ure or refinance of the fliip. motion. as well as too long. 200. keep her l^eady. in direftion DB. wich a force which is equal to the abfolute force SD x by the diftance CB. fail to raife the fhip's head If i: if it be in 0. which is a difadvantage on the other fide. and then is the force generating her progrcffive BC is the force lifting the fhip upwards. and AS in the plane of the triangle C3D. is that which gives Let the power at y/ be i . and and let the pin B will by which the boat or the fliorter is moved. parallel to the horizon fhip and water line . Let DE be a hat rowed by Here tlie power ads at //. the motion of the boat will allow little time to ftrike. and to the axis or keel of the fhip. and that with the force 5Cxdil^ance BO. BC is. then the . be the fulcrum . it endeavours endeavours to the htighc or And . Ex. Let FR be a boat cr a Jloip. Likcwife the force BC. Yet the oars they be very fliort. it will be behind O. Then if DC be the force of the wind againft the fail AS. or BCxBO. in diredion EC.

There is another advantage m fmali ratio than that eafily of their heights. it fliould not be drawn in the horizontal direftion JB or CD-y but in the direction AD.XUL as COMPOUND ENGINES. may be nearly perpendicular to the horizon. but at the carriage. 193 of the fail JS contributes nothing to her progreffive motion . The advantage of high wheels is. XIX. may draw from anv part of it. that they pafs the rubs mod eafily. by fixing the limmers or traces as far below the axle as you will. efpecialiy on fand. and more eafily prefs down an obllacle. which will then be an equal advantage with low v. and Cthe center of the wheel. over.'heels. yiB the horizontal plane DB. flill CD to D5. more they pafs over them . as in the direcflion AD. wheels. the but then they are more apt to overturn. AC perpendicular. remains 200. they alfo make cattle draw too high . the fame ratio of the abfoiute to the progreffive force. they may be made to draw low. To make the refifiiance as fmall as can be. yet they take up a great deal of dirt. is - CO — And the difficulty of soin^ over rubs increafes in a o sireater o ^ Alio the higher the wheels. Yet if the wheels are high. Ex. and therefore require lefs draught. EF BD •. and they have alio lefs friiStion. &c. that they are better to turn with. a rub for the wheel CJD to pafs 201.cight. And for that reafon. running in brafs boxes in the wheel naves. go the eafieft. and alfo cut the roads lefs . lefs they fink. as is There Is a great deal of fri(5lion in all car- evident by the force required to draw them upon plain ground. To draw the cart with the lealt power over the rub BD. that when a wheel finks into a rut. which the clogs the carriage. that they eafily overturn . Narrow wheels A and narrow plates are a difadvantage . the fpokes (bearing then the greateft v. f i g. how much force is able to draw any carriage. But their difadvantage is. for they can apply their ftrength bell when they draw low and upward. Then the horizonparallel to /!B. axles of iron. experience can only inform us. which is the advantage of low wheels. waggon with 4 wheels is more advantageous than a cart with only 2 wheels. is a cart or carriage. For the power not pulling at the wheel. and fink lefs in the dirt. riages. OD as tal force required to pull the wheel over £> the rub BD.Sea. the broader the wheels. clay. C c The . The fpokes in the wheel ought to be a little inclined outwards .

— 194 ^ * DESCRIPTION The iinderfide of ought of the axle-tree. then the angle fFCF \s\\\ be the angle of incidence of the wind upon the fail. 4 DE alfo if the power at £ be BE —— i. draw GF in the fail perpendicular to £C. Hence if the ablolute force to move the waggon without. DExBC Or the power ^ is to that force. then the force acting at E will D '—. if inftead of teeth. Ex. cauies the wheels to be further afunder at top than at bottom in the i ur. which is an inconvenience. be It will DE 1 i the force within. Suppofe the within it. XXI. 202. Therefore the force of the wind to turn the fails about the axis Ell. XX. S\nce JFCh perpendicular to £C. and DE turns the at Let be the to the power yf be 1. . will be . Now fince the force of the wind to turn the fails is round. is as SJPCF. which carries the waggon. where the wheels run. by a power acting Which power turns the wheel /)£ by the fpokes JD^ yJD. 203. the wheel will work againft the lin pin. by which. the wheel carries EB by a chain going round thsm. EH. &c. You muft fuppofe the like wheels on the oppofite fide.x force the greateft. to move it. IFCF . Jl^C the direfcion of the wind parallel to the axis. the angle cof. the force at C. : that And . and facing the wind. as to Rd^i^. i the force by which the waggon can be moved. their common axis. in direction of the axis EH. becaufe the ends of the axle-tree are conical . wheel JC. waggon is moved. to be nearly in a right line if they flint much upward towards Yet this the ends. JBCD are the fiiils of a windmill. applied at /i. is as the cube of the fine of IVCF. li'ag^cn FG is moved forward. is as the fquare of the fine of the angle IFCFx by its cofine. as DExBC to DAxEB. And the force afting againft the mill. all alike inclined to. and turning about in the order ABCD. Therefore the power is at J. will be >1^ Ex. therefore when /FCF will be 54° 44'. be the fame thing.

the end G -. Eo. Therefore it will be more advantageous to make the angle of incidence /-FCF greater. Therefore it fignifies nothing where the bucket is placed. 203. En. as at And Ex. for the prefTure of the atmofpiiere reaches no farther. a common fucking pump .ents of the angles ought to be nearly as the diftances. raifes the water up the pump. till at kfc it flows through the pipe H. raifes the valve or clack F fhucs dov/n again. If a leak happens in the b:trrcl of the The weight pump btiow the bucket CD. EG. if the wind ilruck them in the fame angle when moving as when ac red. XXII. move them from and would always be fo. r to lie And therefore the will by that more lliarp means they to the wind. the weight of the atmofphere is taken otf the water unThen the preflure of the external air in derneath in the pump. ought to be twilied. the bucket CD deIcends. the wind frrikes them under a far Icfs angle-. it may ftrike them on the backfide. the air will get in and hinder the C c 2 work- . of water which the bucket lifts at each flroke is column of water. and lets the water afcend through it. when the handle L is railed. tans. 0. no water will afcend above it-. or this pump is ufelefs for raifing water. GB is is . But by reafon of the fwift motion of the fails. efpecially near the end G. Then whilft the end L is put put down. and fo much more Therefore at the f)laces w. but as the motion at the end G is fo fwift. and its diameter that of the bore of the pump at CD. the valve F opens. CD the 204. GKL the handle -. COMPOUND is engines. G. to that weight. whofc height is MH-. Therefore as GK to KL :: fo the power applied at L. Xlir. opens the valve E^ andafcends thro' the hole B into the body of the pump DB. and the preiTure of the water Ihuts the valve E. Therefore it muft be always within that diftance. whilft more afcends through B. If the bucket CD be more than 30 or 32 foot from thefurface of the water MA' in the pit. the pit or well iViA'.Sea. that of a as to the weight of water. fails ig^ to And this the mofi: advantageous pofuion of the reft . the fucker CD is raifed again. and not only fo. together with the So that at water above it. When the end L fucker or bucket CD. water is raifed into the pump. fig. where the bucket goes. and at G almoft to face avoid the back wind. fails fo it. fothat the water cannot return through B. bucket E. Again. and the and the water above the bucket being raifed. every ftroke of the handle. F two clacks opening upwards. the as it is further from E.

lucker. If above CD. I O N o? will it ^ pump it. aftiDg at . flat. which will make the pump go fo much the for common •. more water is raifed by the fame power . Ex. Of valves or clacks. then the force at E to turn the fcalcs is to CF or CB. Then the man in the fcale E For will over-balance the other fcale y/. — HM in yards : Then the diameter of the bore at D will be = \/-—o inches. 2o6. let EL be perpendicular to FB . The and mufl: alio exaiflly fill it. as the fame thing. the more freely the water afcends. : fome and they niuft all are To balance the weight of wa-. be in equilibrio with a weight A. In a fingle perfon will raifc hogftieads of water in an many pumps . as if E was fufpended a: L. otiiers are conical loft. and the cafier the pump works. and by that means thrufts. And when the perpendicular obftade G//hinders the fcale from going out .- . our the fcale E to the pofition BE. is to be furrounded vyith leafit exadly. ^^ ^ "^^^ fitting in the fcale E. Likewife the longer Ihoke the pump makes. BD. 8 inches. the. and move freely. CL £D againft D . be bad to. the height from the water h •.- And hour. the handle KL is commonly made heavy. ufe. and if he thruft againft the bt-am CB. it is not necefiary to drawand then a fmaller bore will ferve. XXIII. as cf iron. or piflon. a great quantity of water as 3 or 4 inches lighter. there being Icfs water made tf leather . and mutt move freely up and down in the ther to barrel. The bore of the pipe at B fhould" not be too ftrait . For it is to the contrary force at F. ED. with a knob at the end L. this is equivalent to the two forces £5. Suppofe LK^ 3 feet KG. the wider it is. and raife the weight. nc ter. Calculalton cf a common pump. only fome but then CD fhoold be placed low wiil be loft . D E working of the therefore S C R : I P T . and the center C is always kept fteady. very clofe. by the valves fhutting. with a in direftion in the fcale ftick or otherwife.q6 . come at to rtpair bucket. Yet the be the force acling For let fcale E will ftilt preponderate.

then no force adting again[t any part of the beam FB. its power to puHi up the fcale is the CB. 20. lyill be as BH. andthere it would reft. But if the fcale E was not moveable about B. AH H A • DF D . force to move the machine towards E. z%fe. CD is a machine with two wheels fixed to an axis DF. would move the body towards the contrary way. if B fails btyond H. is the fame as if the firing was fixed at B . in a direction parallel to the horizon HO. 5D tending to or from the center. the force to move the machine. XXV. the fopce would ftill DBxBE. as And DE. as if it were tied by the cord DE . deftroy one another.sga. Ex^. becaufe the firing goes below it. where the weight. could have any elTcA to deftroy the equ:l:briutn. There is a power at E endeavouring to draw the machine towards £. fupported only at the end C. then the machine could approach or recede. But if was greater than the diameter of thewheelj that is.xiir. Suppofe a man yf Handing upon the plank CB. tiU thedirection of the ftring ef fell upon the point of contact //. Therefore it would be in vain. to endeavour to make the body roll towards D. in order to keep himfelf and the plank from falling.'. Imagine the man and the plank to be one body . then the force drawing towards E. its fame CDxBE. . and pulling the end B towards him by the rope EB. with the given power £. • And down their difference DB X BE And if is the fcale. EB at does 197 fig. by their own weight. . Ex. The force £ and I). be this force is the abfolute force to thrufl. It would therefore be in vain for him to endeavour to fupport himfelf by that force . round 2o3. If the direction of the power DE be elevated above the horizon. and his polling does nothing. towards H.. by the cord EF. 205. going under the a:<is DF. the contrary way. which goes a cord GDFE. Inthe radius of the wheel. adling at the diftance pCwer to bring force acting at down the Icale E is CBxBE. DB to D were on th e other fide of C. And D. But the force £.. to the whole thrufting force D£. for both he and the plank mult fall down together towards B. tion and re-adticn in diredion Ex. take AB equal to the radius of the Then axle DF. or CB+CDxBE. XXIV. by pulling at the ftring. Then jthe is the fulcrum. nothing. at COMPOUND engines. then the acEB.

the higher is. The kite will gain Inch a pofition. or the lighter the kite. Or the machine may have a loofe tail at b. 210. the force urging forward the machine towards B. fine of the reprcfenc the Now if angle ACff^ or COD. And fne can never afcend lo high. flie will rife. keeps her head always towards the wind. will always be the fame at all altitudes. and DO perpendicular to the horizen I/O.againft her. Ex. being held by the flring ab is . EF Then if the force at F be i. and confcquently HCO. therefore the angle ACH. i . But the power at C draws back the machine with the force A . If JB is a machine of the machine. the higher fhe will rife. Call the power at C. that the lefs the angle HCO is made. as in the : kite. isi--'. 211. and CD the force pulling at the firing. direction ci" the force of the wind afling againft the lute is the jHBnd the force of the wind to keep her up. XXVI. moveable about the two fixed fulcrums E. Draw CO perpendicular Then OC to J5y/. £F(with a bullet F at the end) being always blown from tail the wind. heavier than water. tion IVC. to keep at the top of a running water.a thin de tyed to a ftone and funk to the bottom piece of lead to fink the end b. fixed at and B. "iven wei"ht of the kite. or which is the fame thing. but the whole muft board. is as the fquare of the y/W is 2Qn an artificial kite. b a be lighter than water. GI two leavers within direction DC. in the machine. After a like manner a machine as ah may be contrived. then the force at F to move the leaver moved by a power afting at C out DF. And hence it follows. till the angle of altitude CHO be equal to ydCII. that at the obftacle I i. by drawing the J -. cd an iron pin fixed at C. is ^ . As the direftion of the thread always pafies through C. DO Andlikewife the greater the wind ceteris paribus. out of the machine CH is Therefore if HI the power at ^ C be the force afting againft the obftacle at /. H. CO will be the force of the wind actThe ino. to be GI. that ///produced will pals through the center of gravity of its lurface at C. XXVII. ktpt up by the wind blowing in direcfiring JIBIH.198 ^'^^' DESCRIPTIONoF Ex.

If there had been three leavers. Hence.i ^DExGH . I. AD. then the force afting againft the teeth In IL. SR. EFxHI Note. will be this is not the force D FPy J-IT DE^GH^mUTl machine. EL. D. H. the force aeainft // is i-L. And GH. the wind blows on. ^ . the way the machine goes . but to tear her in pieces. and the whole is the force urging forward the machine. if the abfolute direft force to move the machine be I. Therefore . fails CDEF fo contrived that the D facing the wind from the wind may ccntradl. may expand. BABH timber. BO. which is able to move it. B. the force at L is alfo i. Ex. COMPOUND ENGINES. ^'^ "'"'^'" '^' power could only be FF V . trundle it. Ex. then the power i mufl be added to the force at /. BH. XIII. Let be the center of prefTure of the two fails C. And the trundle turns the wheel IL by R D let the fails) GD And . braces to upon any of the is The J. horizontal fails. as the angle as the greater. 2 12> DE. — power. fo much greater. the force at P be i. Suppofe the chariot to go againft the wind.EF X HI _—ii--— or EFycHI if Therefore theabfolute force urging forward the ma- *„ 211. RH.. . or to feparate the fulcrums E. But FT HI urging forward the machine. is. is a "Jijcoden bridge. turn the axis and in the cogs Therefore the chariot may move in any direftion. is ' ' 00 this force being i. is a rudder to iieer with. But the ftrength on any angle perpendicular AP. and thofe goinoThe fails are turned about by the Thefe fails 213. this ^"' '^ '^'' P°'''' '' ^ . from one another. the third had been directed towards K. ceteris paribus. the power applied at D. XXVIII. AB a failing chariof. XXIX. TIT fince DExGH 1^^ there i& then no force to be dedudled for drawing back the machine. AB. wind coming from any coaft. beams of ftrengthen the angles A. (that is the force of the wind a6ling againft the be i.Se6t. 199 ehine is DExGH . force . AC. is ftrefs angles.. and the power at .

it . But as it is very difficult to make pull equally without twifting. Ex. 'i Draw KH. upon . falling OH . 2 1 J XXX. And they all Avill be weaker the fibres fame realbn if they be rouble twifted. as to - '• 213. Therefore the abfolure force by which to the ftrain the rope is ftretched. and draw GEK. XXXI. Therefore if GD is grt-atcr than the radius OH+R^ the chariot will move forward againft the wind. D E which move the waggon. by its teeth moves E . as FH FG+FK or llrcls is or FG+GH. g. and the trundle C moves D. GH EF to FG. But then her motion will be fo much flower. backward. FK. The fails are fct at an angle of 43°. by the combination of tiie wheels. . Hence ropes the leaft twifted are ftrongefl: and bear the moft weight . if lefs. fo the force to turn them. cd. the particular (Irands running about in a fpiral manner.. on the fails. all as to FG. and the force in diredion of the axis. cd. the fo is ftrands. the pinion j4 moves B. to the correfpondent length of a ftrand. Let FH be the axis of the rope.200 r J D fore the as E at S C R I P T I O N is oi^ i <=• power D to the force at Z. 2. FG a chariot or waggon to fail againft the wind. S the fails of a windmill. in diredfion /7G'. will be equal. &c. Let JB be part of a rope. together wi:h the friflion in moving. it will ftand ftill. This waggon will always go againjl the wind. the angle CEH ov HFK parallel the obliquity of th. it is urged backward. make a rope hold together without Therefore it is necelTary. body of the chariot. or upon the twifted ropej as FE to FG and th« length of any part of the rope. As the fails go round. it. I. and the harder they are twifted the fooner they will break.(frands. the chariot And by the force at L which is GD. hen all the tenfion of the rope in direction the ftrands in direflion that is. therefore by this power OH. Ex.But if they be equal. provided you give the fails power enough. Oh or Now fince tlie maft is ftrained by the power to GD. to is to the ftrcfs on FG is . and the trundle fixt to the axle-tree carries round the wheels H. Let R be the force of the wind upon the is urged forward. and impofllble to for the ftill. 215. which has both teeth and cogs. HF. turning in the order i.

of water y/D. A rape 215. which in the other will all run out. And when the water is begun to flow. as F. which will hinder it from running. let the ether end J be immerled deep enough in the water. mercury put into the tube. then face of the water at fucking at E (whilft the end C is ftopt with the finger) will make the water flow. open at both ends. is 201 it have as much. thicker when twiftcd. and the water will return through BD. as to prevent the fibres from drawing out. XXXIII. Then flopping the end B. D DB . G. whilfl: the prelture of forces more water up the tube the atmofphere at and fo keeps it continually running as long as there is any water. and But if C is the end C continues lower than the furface at D. the preflure at C is greater than at and the prefllire of the . higher than D. than till the furface at be as low as E. then by applying the mouth to the end C. AB a tube JE a quantity of D d the . then the water will remain in the fyphon. the air will get in. the hole at E fnould be ftopt up. Xirr. To prevent which the end C may be immerfed into another veflel of water. and a fmall degree will not much impair its ftrength. But if atmofphere. confiiling of feveral ftrands. the air will infinuate itfelf into the end G^ between the water and the tube. If the fhorter end AB be immerfed 216. and 217. Ex. . pi c. the mercury will fink fo deep in the tube. Then opening the end B. when the finger is taken off. after it has done working. Or if the fyphon be very wide. lower than the furface at D. as long as that end is lower than the furIf there be a mouth-piece at E. which is the height DB exceed the prefllire of the 30 or 32 feet . COMPOUND ENGINES. till the height of about 8 CDLF a veflel of water inch diameter.Sedl. XXXII. Ex. the water v/ill return back into BD. JBC in a veflel D D : BD D D •. then it cannot be made to flow out at the end C . zfyphon or crane. it will continue to flow out at the end C. The realbn of its flowing Is this the perpendicular height of the column of water BC being greater than that of . and fucking till the water com^s. and C therefore the greater atmofphere being the fame at weight at C will make it flow out there-. or eUe the water will flow no longer. than when untwifted. If the ends of the fyphon be turned up. or if there be a hole in the fyphon higher than the furface at Z).

funlhiny. um. Rules for obfervation of the weather. XXXIV. th:y will fuftain one another. and likewife a Icale for the At the top of the tube above the mercury is a vacuweather. 5. In very hot weather the falling of the mercury foreftiews . B. weather 6. The falling of the mercury denotes foul weather. then the For the fpccific gravities of watT and mercury being i and 14. are two barometers. Now the atmofphere prelTing upon the furface of the mercury at C. windy. If the tube is generally 28. 6 "7. its bore | or f inch and communicating with liic diameter. When . which therefore will be higher or lower according to The height of the mercury in the weiglit of the atmofphere. in windy weather the mercury finks lowcft of all rifes faft after ftorms of wind. clofe C is open to the external air. by which the height of the mercury in the tube is known. the column of water /IB will be equal in weight with the column ot mercury AR. DESCRIPTION the water OF AR be 14 times the Ijeight of the mercury AE: and mercury will be at reft. 218. The rifing of the mercury prefages fair weather. thunder. the rifing prefages fnow. droughty weather: and In thick foggy in calm frofty weather it generally ftands high. it At other times. the rifing foretels froft foretels thaw. Jt ge2. 4. in rainy.. weather it often rii'es. Ex.ent is to fliew the weight of the atmoThis tube and velTcl with mercury. is a tube. the tube is placed a fcale of inches. The ufe of this inftrum. c. any air get into the tube it Ipoils the machine. and hung perpendicular. or fnowy weather. nerally falls or ftands low. fphere. and 3. Near the top of is put into a frame. 2iy. with mercury in it. . vedel C. Therefore the preflures at A being tqujl. it is good to drum a the fingers upon it. and ftands higheft in ferene. A. ed at top. keeps the mercury fufpended at the height d in the tube. and its variations. quickfilvcr ftick to the glafs. 29. or 30 inches. feldom more.202 P . and falling in frofty In continual froft. in making any obfervation. generally falls in fnowy weather. In winter. at leaft. little Left the with It riles 1.

Unfcttled motion of the mercury denotes unfetiled vteather. which motion will be fwifter as they ftand more aflant. In fair weather fallmg fall and low. When exped fettled fr-renity f i g. D Ex. or fair weather after its rffing. G. at ^. 12. is an open vefiTel. continuance of fair weather to follow. Then open the cock D. defcends after rain. ABE is an artificial fountain. feathers. exped a giS. and the water will fpout up to the For the air in 5. by the weight of the column of water AB \ and its prefTure on the water in C. if it COMPOUND ENGINES. one E may be made clofe by ftoppiiig the hole C. but always air ftrikes whilfl the arrow -. 7. The The greateft height of the alterations are greater •. 203 . before the foul weather be quite over. expe<fl broken fhowery weather.which will run down into B. Ex.XJir. is a dart or an arro'vo . XXXV. A . -. rifmg faft and high. a little But adant . 13.Sea. northerly parts. ID. 3 or 4 feathers are placed If the feathers nearly in planes pafling through the arrow. the mercury rifes after rain. B a clofe 219. F. and probably high vvinds. and with the feathers the arrow or reed. and the tube G near the bottom of B. the by which force the the Qant fides of the fcatb^rs D d 2 fails . fince they are not fet perfedlly ftrait. nearly. 11. and continuing 2 or 3 days before the rain comes. 9. Pour top of £. round. In foul weather. the C almoft to the top of the pipe F and ftop the water into hole C. when the arrow is in motion. the air could not flrike againft the AB 220. But the pipe leading to in C. Then pour water into A. were exadly in this plane. than the more foutherly a-nd there is little or no variation within the tropics. thefe vefTels The tube F reaches near all communicate by the tubes F. So there is generated a motion about the axis of the arrow . 8 When foul weather happens fooa after the fallinji of the mercury. and continuing lb 2 or o days. 'E is condenfed height of AB above D. cxpeft a great deal of wet. and will therefore make the water fpout to that height above the water moft be turned curve. This motion is like the motion of the feathers are turned moves forward. exped but little of it. mercury in is upon eafterly and in north-eafterly winds. is equal to the weight of that column . XXXVI.

XXXVII. Ex. Ex. taking finds the length of 20 to I. and the cavity they move in is And the center of mo-. Prop. DESCRIPTION fails or G. For what moved by a certain power placed in the mufcles. 221. Let 11^ tion is in the center of the fphcre or circle. An arrow will fly about 60 yards in a fccond. Every joint reprefenting the . CK Then if the weight IV be fufpended by the to BI'F. as at C. de weight of 28 that of cles lb. point K is moved towards D and the end B towards £. Ic is evident that are the bones but leavers. CO are two i?ones of an animal. it will continue in it afcend to the fame height in the pipe till it rifes EF. CB to CK to be in a greater proportion than Whence he infers the ilrength of thefe mufall to be fo great. The ftrength of the mufthe mufcle : . as to bear a llretch ui leaft of 5601b. which adt as fo many and moving them about the joints? I ropes.) computes the force of the mufcles to bend the arm at the elbow . crocked pipe. which will look neater. XXII. pulling at the bones. 220. The B is made of lead or iron. XXXVIII. and fays. the preffure at E will make it run out through the pipe EFG. and will therefore go foremoft in the air . and the feathered end y^ the hindmoll. y^B is a vefTel which keeps its liquor till filled to a certain El'G is a height . lets it all run out. And he in the weight of the arm. ftrensith of fion of the mufcle KD. head and axle of a windmill.204 P . Mutu Animalium. and draw CP. BC.: fP^: tenKD. the of the mufcle KD. This is fometill the furface of the fluid defcends as low as E. The joints of animaU are either fpherical or circular. moveable about the joint FK. and if filled hightrr. Part I. 22 2. The funnel EFG may be put in called Ttifitalus's ctip. it will be as CK PC . cles is furprizingly great. a ftrong young fellow can fultain at arms end a Borelli (in his Book. or crane open at both ends.^hter. perpendicular be a weight hanging at B. animal bodies are machines. by the ftrength P'or when the mufcle is contraftec. accordingly either fpherical or circular. timfs the handle of this cup. and above F. If water be poured into the vedel. about the immoveable center of motion C. turned round by the wind. But rifing above F. KD. as being li. by help of the mufcle KD. The bone BC is moved about the joint FK.

XIII. And therefore all by other tubes communicating therewith. deftined for the tubes which contain 222. let out or retain their ' contents as occafion requires . and it is notpoffible to tory walk in a right line. or the perpendicular from the center of gravity.manner by extending the foot and leg HB. make an the center of gravity hindmoft leg and foot 5 almoft to a right line. but in two lines one another. thefe motions of an animal body are fubjcd: to the general laws of mechanics. his tv'et. otherwife we the line of diredlion muft fall between our feet cannot Hand. and feet His two do not CO in their . pafs through Likewife when we itand upon our feet. the fulcrum or center of motion. Therefore a man walking has a libramotion from one fide to the other-. by reafon of the great flexure of the joints required to afcend. pkafant. and his feet and legs backward." and at the fame time bends a little the knee of his fore leg. till by thrurting his head and bodyforward. he pre^ fently prevents it. which then (land in a right line with one another. by taking up the hind-foot. will eafily be 223. walking. but by the bones of the legs and thighs. beyond the center of gravity and thus he gains a new ftation. And when And a man ftands firm upon his feer. running. but mult fall down towards the fide the center of -. till the center of gravity V falls beyond the fore-f "»ot B . But in going up hill is very laborious. and ancle. fluids of different forts. parallel to one right line. and thrufting forward the center of gravity beyond the foot Sy and then tranflating the foot B forward.Sea. COMPOUND ENGINES. : pleafure. After the fame. Ex. soo- What are all the veflels but f j q-. between them. accounted for. knee. Thus his hind leg is lengthened. he gains a third ftation. The motion of a »M«. and by bending the jointsof the hyp. as the bafe. XXXIX. and his fore-leg fhortened by this means his body is moved forward. and performed with little labour. And thus is walking continued at H •. Walking on plain ground is eafy. he cannot rile from his feat. gravity his legs lies on. Let us firft fuppofe a man fitting in a chair . i^c. and fuddenly tranflating it forward to 1'. ufe or motion of tne feveral parts of the machine ? And which by opening or fhutting certain valves. he firft extends his ifoceies triangle. the line of direftion. and then being ready to fall. lying then he is not fupported by the itrength of the mufcles. When a man ^dC endeavours to walk. or convey them to diftant places.

laborious than walking on plain ground. and have not above two feet on the ground at once. the animals would move backward. T ftrudure of their wings are fuch. So that at each rtep he has but one foot upon the other be up. parallel lines. and then the fore-foot at A. and the The by help of the wings F. good horfe will run half a mile in a minute. and carries it to H takes his leg . and one up. by extending backwards he thrufts forward his body and the center then taking up the foot C he moves it forward to of gravity Then he immediately takes up the forc-fooc B on the fams F. and then the next in order. Suppofe he firft has always 3 feec on the ground. more pofuion.206 F DESCRIPTION their fufFering OF O 22. When a ^f^/ (lands. he takes up two together. the line of gravity mufl: fall within And when he walks. and after that. all the feet on the other fide in the It they were to take up fame order. and all the intermediate time none. When he gallops. and fets them down one by one. to the foremofl. XLI. Animals with fix or more feet. and the two hind feet near at once . and to on. fide. then the next. A Ex. he the quadrilateral made by his 4 feet. walking always fets down one foot before the and therefore at tvery fttp he has both feet other be taken up But in running he never lets one down till upon the ground. diagonally oppofite. Before he does this. but not fo bad as afcendmg. When he trots. tail C. beginning at the lalf. for the fame reafon. and tranflates it forward . all on one fide . he takes up his feet one by one. up the hind foot C. only their weipiu is intirely lupported by the flrength of the mufclrs Alfo their feet go in two fince their joints arc always bent. 1 he walking of birds is not unlike that of men-. in a minute. good the ground. take up the hindmoft firft . that in ftrikmg . then F again. -. then he lakes up the hind foot D. and fets down two Together. XL. the foremoft firft. !2 D' JD is a bird flying in the air. footman will run 400 yards A man in : A Ex. 224. though iome animals flrike with the two fore feet nearly at once. •. I more ftrcfs from the weight of tlic body in that Delcernlmg down hill is.

-. but inclin'-d. he can eafily fteer himfelf upward by his tail. and being fufficiently elevated.. being not lefs th:in a moved When a bird is fixth part of the weight of the whole body. XIII. he moves his wings upwards. The mufcles. downwards. . they meet with no refiftance . back part K is higher than the fore part DFG. and light. they expand to their greateft breadth. as before. impels them.. which being contrafled.refiftance pofuble. and partly horizontally forward the part of the force tending upwards is deftroyed by the weight of the bird . The tail afts like the rudder of a ihip. being fomeching hollow on the unftriking G.Se(5l. and the bird. the horizontal force ferves to carry him forward. without ftriking. or beafts. are exceeding large. to fetch a new ftroke... becaufe its plane is horizontal. der fo that the thcfe planes are not then horizontal. or partly upwards.. F 207 I downward. to remedy of which. except only that It moves them upwards or downwards inftead of fideways . till his motion be almoft fpenr. The ftroke being over. he takes a large leap . his wings LH A parallel to the horizon. and turning theiredges upward. Their bodies are fpecifically lighter than mtsi Their bones and feathers are extremely porous. which impels him trary fide. they go with the edge DFG foremoft. The center gravity of a bird is fomethi. they cut through the air without any rcfiftance. and then he muft renew it by two or three more ftrokes of his wings. in a which is in an oblique direftion perpendicular to their planes diredlion. and become almoft two planes. fide. by which their wings are hollow. he puts his tail in the pofition or if he would fall. which are only like fo many leaps taken in the air.ig behind the v/ings . Whilft it is in the horizontal pofition LC. ground and intends to fly. For having acquired a fufiicient velocity. to another. : : When he has a mind to turn to the right or left. and the wings contraft and be»come hollow. bird can by fpreading his wings continue to move horizontally for fome time. But in moving the wings upward. he ftrikes to the con- ftrongly with the oppofite wing. he takes a fecond ftroke downwards. and when he begins to fall by his weight. If a bird wants to rife. he ftrikes them downwards with great force. the pofition LI. into. it keeps him fteady. When he alights. heexpands his wings and tail full againft the air. and the impulfe of the And fo from one ftroke air moves him forwards. that they may meet with all th. by which they are put into an and the refiftance of the air ading ftrongly oblique pofuion againft them by the ftroke. by keeping. upon the and ftretching his wings right from his body. COMPOUND ENGINES. And 225.

but the progrcfl"ive motion continued always forward.m partly forward and partly laterally. . and fo puttinc them in a proper pofition. For in a man they are not the 6oth part port fuch a weight. in flying. which then ads like the rudder of a ihip. /and K\ he turns the end G oblique to the water. in order to rife or fall in it. They can exert a very great force with their tail . : Some birds will fly looo yards Ex. and I'o make therr. but in a bird they arc of the reft of the mufcles of the body more than all the others put together. And thus he makes one ftroke after another. that in moving back to G.is before. Suppoie his tail in the pofition IG. to overcome the refiftance v/hich their bodies meet with in the water.fins £. he turns its obliquity the contrary way. in a minute. 22 e. . which being moved fwiftly through it in that pofuion.felvts lighter cr heavier than water. The oblique pofition of his tail is moftly owing to the clafticity of his ta 1. It is impofTibie that ever men can fly by the ftrength of their For their pedtoral mufcles arc vaftly too weak. 226 -^5 is afi/Jj fwimminrr.. by flriking ilrongly with it on that fide. wnich by bending. and turning it a little from an crcCt pofiitrrve to aft like . is put into that form by the refiftance of the water. which more forward. His tail will alio help him to rile and fall. moving from one fide to the other. and moves forward thereby as far as he pieafes. which he does by help of hif. and which is neceffary. The lateral moiion is corrected the next flroke the contrary way . which two feet. being about to move it fuccciTively to //. The fins of a fi(h is keep him upright. The diredt motion of a fi(h is by means of his tail BCD. fins and tail. which they can expand or contrad. XLII.2o8 FIG. which he performs thus. The mufcular force by which the tail is moved is very great. with a vibrating motion. and keeping it bent. and moves h. as he can with picalure. efpecially the belly. DESCRIPTION carries the center of gravity of they thruft out their head and neck. By help of the tail they alio turn to one fide. to fuparms. When his tail is arrived at /T. by inclining it obliquely. tion. A fifli is nearly of the fame fpecific gravity as water j and moft fifli have a bladder /. by expanding or contrafting them. which. the refiftance of the water atfts obiique ly againft his tail. His fins alfo help him to afcend or dcl'cend. without them he would fwim with his belly up for his center of gravity lies near his back. it may ftrike the water in the fame manner .

is a catch made of metal. power?. Birds fwim very eafily. /^B a machine to raife a weight. And this art conart of fwimming by praftice and induftry. . and require to have but a fmall part of their head Alfo they naturally ufe their legs in fwimming. The mechanifm of which being underftood. CD a roller turned by the handle E. body a and keep his mouth above water. Men cannot fwim naturally. he brings about his arms for a new little ftroke. Fifli can fwim but flow. and fo on alternately. Ex. Whilft his hands are ftriking. XLIII. water obliquely. velocities. without being fo particular in the calculation of their powers and forces. and require to be than water. the weight is raifed by the rope IKL. and readily move themfelves along with their web feet. To the roller is fixed the racket wheel F. fifts in ftriking alternately with the hands and feet in the water. will aftift the invention of the practical mechanic. fwim 70 or 80 yards in a minute 226. for breathing. thrufting the foles of his feet full againft the water. he gradually draws up his feet i and when the ftroke of his arms is over. where it falls into the teeth of the wheel F. After the fame manner may the motions. by mechanical principles. He muft keep his oblique.Sedl. Brutes can fwim naturally. for they are fpecifically lighter . moveable about H. Xlir. Men attain the ftriking has no relation to that of walking. in contriving a machine for any ufe. and properties of any machine be explained and accounted for. the refiftance of the water moves him partly upward. And the catch G. till the machine is ftoppcd. though they are fpecifically lighter For their heads are very large. As the roller is turned. tion. after the fame manner as they do when walking. and then the catch G falling in E c . by extending his legs. And their way of almoft all outof the water for breathing. 227. but inclined. and than water out. to COMPOUND ENGINES. and ftay it in any pofition. And while he ftrikes with his legs. he neither keeps the palms parallel nor perpendicuAnd his hands ftriking the lar to the horizon. and partly forward. and forked at the end G. being much lighter than wacer . he ftrikes with his (eet. yet fome of them p re. When he ftrikes with his hands. which Vilsfi oars will row him forward. Aides freely over the teeth of the GH wheel. but they foon tire. that he may more eafily eredl his head. I ftiall proceed to lay down a ftiort defcription of feveral other machines. 209 will one fide.

D C the counterpoife. 2IO F 1 DESCRIPTION in or it C. then B will remain in any given pofition. and going in the order abcdef. ftaples. of the runner ]K. raifes or lowers the beam CH. XLIV. 2. And there may be taken as many turns of is CD only a cylinder of wood. to //. through the holes b. keeps t!ie wheel fixed there. and to keep it at any pofition bf a ftrinj^ fixed at / and ^.30. When the piece AB is moved from //towards B. <? the weight the top-. can- Ex. Ex. another machine to ftay a weight in any pofition. befides moving Ex. And more or fewer holes: may be made in the piece IK. XLVIL reckoning the number of flrokes or via wheel moving about a fixed axis. the edge at / catches the tooth C. e. moveable about an axis at //. and /f pulled down. The plane of the piece a ADB machine for brations made. DH is FG are two back and forward. draw the cord G. this brings the tooth E to the edge K. upon which the rope about the cylinder. upon the neck of which axis goes a brafs fpring L. J^l is a machine to raife or deprefs the leaver (7/7. AB a piece of wood or metal. d. to guide the motion of the piece AB 8 wheeL . by die friction of the cylinder and rope. as occafion rcc^uires. 227. And when the piece AB is moved back from iJ. „. and Hiding along the edge^ moves the wheel about in direftion CD . cue away between I and K to receive the whetl. the edge at K Aiding down the tooth £. ADBFA for an till cndlels cordi. f.. which being put up or down. between the teeth. This is cut a channel for the rope to go in. C is a clock weight carrying the two wheels ^ /^ and B. as there is occafion for. then she catch a clock. that not turn back again with the weight. moves the is AlKB perpendicular to the plane of the wheel. 228. When rife to the weight down. Ex.. This may be ferviceable other ufes. XLV. to keep the wheel from (baking. F is a pulley. 2'. at pleafure. XLVL. If the weight B be lifted up.n. keeps the wheel from turning backwards.

having teeth in it. At E is another pulley. C.' every motiorv of JB back and forward. ABED a machine Ex.F. Ex. wMcfi aretirivc?!!" round by the threads of an endlels fcrew DF. centric arch of a wheel de. which brings another tooth before rib. the index the edge / . AFh 2. moving one circle within another. XLVIII. XIIL wheel from COMP fo that at U N t> E N G mE S. and reaching over.*' 2? ABE is a crane for hoifting goods up.. walks. to prevent overturning. in order to be lowered. £). A D •. This is per for large planes and be frequent in China. any point of the circle abc. /IBC reprefents a flat ring of brals . and upon a point at F. run on. turning in a collar at E. . By this mechanifm. for the rope to about the axis BC. the vertical pulley facilitates the motion in hoifting the rope to CDE moves afide. "-> a double whee?. one vertical.h of one tooth. fM I towards //. will {hew when the wheel has teeth be nuriibered. may be fee to a •'-^' ^ given point of the circlte ABF. AB mon the fails C. and one. or the axle-tree driven by the wind. arid nh a fmaller concentric ring lodged in a circular grove. which goes round the axis of At are two puUies. than in comchariots.Sea. champagne countries . turned within the larger. If the rope FBEI go about a pulley at /. i? is the rudder. the crane will lift twice the weight. and by his weight raifes the weight within which a man W. L. df the fOj3eand the horizontal one ferves for thi run on. and kept in the grove by three fmall plates of bra(?-yi. 2-i And if the the wheel is moved the b. and are faid to E e 2 Ex. by help of the rope FBEI'F. by help of 234. £ M made one revolution. XLIX. The wheels muft be fet at made longer. when the crane CDP2 and weight /Fare drawn weight Ex. and be fixed with its end at £. by the rope GH. trical to it. concen232. both fixed to the outward ring. a greater diftance. Sailing chariots are proz failing chariot. the wheel at F. Upon the inner ring is fixed aeon-' the edge of the inner one. by turning t^Tcrew DF. fixed to the outward ring. 5. horizontal.ead.

G the axle of a water wheel. wherein the inclined to the horizon. a MN M the place where may alfo adling as a fpring. carried cither by water. Ex. all thefe are of iron. A is the ham- about the point C. ^ * A hammer mer moveable in be made to ftrike thus . 3 yards. of the fucker. its work againft.\\t fuckers of pumps. beam of wood the hammer. is The The fails B tin. £. where the motion of the greateft part of air is fwiheft greater. LII. togeC carries the toothed ther with the pinion C. All the machine except the LM 2-17. the hammer fails upon the anvil D. D. Ex. J. /. this carries the wheel /IB muft be placed in the flrait part of the the fpit. As the wheel and axle goes about from F towards £. An H A W FG to plane. BC the axle. the pins F. placed at an angle of 54'^ degrees. E thruft down the end fi. The pcftles IK rife and fall alternately. 6 or 8 in rvumber. 7 engine to make a hammer Jlrike. moveable diameter. wheel chain or rope /•. And when the end B of the hammer. water wheel is within the houle. The D chimney. o-'S. the perpendicuout. i^c. of 6 leaves.2. . The ftnoak orrarified win"s or fails are air moving up the chimney at B-. or men or horfes. the floats. which turns 5 inches diameter. ^ oblique. as the II* crooked lantern EF goes about IK to . to give the greater force the courfe of the water down an inclined it ifllies lar height of the water. £a wooden wheel 4 or of 1 20 teeth. LI. lifting up the hammer as the axis goes round. K four coggs in the axis. 3 or 4 feet or 8 yards diameter. which being BE is zfmoak jack. LIII. and raife ihe end A goes off the pin. h. IK the axis or elbow for \. it ftrike upon the as the fire fails. when goes out of perpendicular . that it may fall on the anvil A. c. and that the force of this machine are of is fo may much greater.2 D E S C R I P T I O N OP Ex. Upon the axis is the lantern £F» peftle or chain whirh is turned by a great wheel. 236. are therefore moved about the axis of the wheel. about the axis OP. the hammer 9 or 4 hundred weight. and each gives one ftroke cf the Place pullus or it pump for one turn of the lantern for the chain rolls at a. which axis are the pins f. the water wheel. //5 is a horizontal wheel. ftrikes thefe fails.

H is the hearth or fire. forcing down the end of the bb. T are . Ex. a particular combination of pu Hies. men. Ex. a cog b forces down the end of the bellows B. is the weight to be raifed. ?nd fimplefl rollers for common ufe are fuch. the diredtion of the water. And when the cog ^ goes off. pofts 250. ABCD ereft. this pulls down the end and raifes the end Mof the leaver MN. and at the fame time raifes the bellows B. and H. the water wheel. and the weight /carpair of bellows A may be moved by water -. And thus the cogs a. As the wheel and axle turns round. H draw up any weight. to which the tackles are fixed. But the asCandZ). FG the axis of the wheel . a. . ter wheel. FG a chain going to the bellows B. beam ferving for a fpring. SP a piece of timber moveable about S and P. and make them blow in W DE N their turns. and makes it blow . lows B. 2j8. and moveable about the pins M. 9 and at 27. which motion raifes the bellows. the bellows 5 ceafe blowing. a ro/Z^r to a wheel with teeth. as 3olb. that at £ is 3 j D keep them C. . at T". a. OP a. fo -42 mull ^ll 244. lying over the piece of timber ^R.b alternately force down the bellows ^. CD a rod of iron going on the crooked axle-tree of the wheel DF a leaver moveable about E. H. and blowing alternately. 240. S. J. . B. and a cog a forces down the bellows yf. In thefe. dicular pofuion COMPOUND ENGINES. NI two rods of iron faflened to the bellows and to the leaver MN. the ends and Fof the leaver Z)F. thus .Sare ftays to power at J be i. 4 cogs of wood in the axis. A is z wa241 by the water at PF. and makes it blow . 7 a weight. 213 p . or three ihe handles.Sedl. LM. rife and fall . B are two bellows going by water. As the wheel goes about. (^c. but neither of them with a continual blafl . by the obliquity of the motion of the cranks ^^ Ex. If the S. which raifes the bellows A. XIII. i^c 4 cogs forcing down the end of the belbellows J. N. where the weight is placed. LV. j^B is LVI. which eafieft may be wrought by two 242. carried D ries them down again. LIV T.

30.. P ra'. it falls upon the head of the pile M. by men motion is diredted. When is raifed. the end E is pulled down by the rope EF. And when E is railed. mufl: the ladius of the axle be to the length of the handle. JV. and / opens. and the air is forced into the upper cavity. -^^^ * P^^"" ^^ fr/Uih's hllcuis. drawn up by the fevcral fmall DM. it will generate the greatell motion pofTibie in a given time when the diameters AHy Ef. whillt they are pulled by a ftrong rope ftretched. Ex. Old piles are drawn out. EF a brace and ropes for fevcral men to pull at. if you make. And the pipe P lies upon the hearth. ladder to go up. rope BCD going over the pulley C.. and weight //''are of If a given weight -. and blows through the pipe P. that fV will — \ . LVII. An tng\nt to drive piles. by which its The rammer is raifcd to the top.AB. y^ the rammer. For then the motion 5g_ be greater.fes another weight Ii\ on fuch a machine as fig. At /a weight The bellows is is laid upon the upper board to make it fail. as velocity of IV: velocity of -IP lolV.. 36 generated in P :: as the greatefl: motion will be . CL are three boards. or when if E1-' zz - Er the fame. —IV— — . the middle board BL AL. DN pulling at the ropes DA^. In the middle board is a valve 5 opening into the upper part. And has two tenants on the backfide to keep it in the groves. which railes the upper board. made in the upright puncheons G. all at once. which . leaft it fplit. than any one {[1. and in the lowed board is another valve T opening into the unThe pipe P communicates only with the upper cader part. H. the boards A and C delcend. And the weight / forces D DR the . the reit remaining And in fuch a machine as fig. by itnking gently upon their heads. LVIII. AI the pile. the end raifes the lower board CL\ this lliuts and the rope or chain the valve T and opens S. 246. DE fixed in the frame MK. 241?. and the valve S fhuts. Inch quantities. The rammer yl is bound at bottom with iron. 30. ] DESCRIPTION a OF ^. for man to work it. or EF) be altered. and then letting go. : Ex. 211p.Tre faft in the middle board. a leaver moveable about the axis GH. divides the internal fpace into two parts. vity. BL. by two iron pins.

And thus every wave makes . LMOI ?l great horizontal wheel. The and the power at N will always adt equally.. when C afcends. EG the chain of a pump. ^R O^ the 247.Sedl. AB. raife water. till the next wave raifes it again. in the end of the kaver EFC. and in the plane of the wheel ^R. or rather angular at the bottom C. the air ftill COMPOUND ENGINES. ^ a ftroke of the pump. a fmall wheel perpendicular to the horizon. which 248. XIII. If the number of waves be odd. And thus the bellows have a continual blaft. which is moveable about the center D EF the arch of a circle. And to hinder the rope from flipping back. Here muft only be folded about the axis BC . And the axis is made conical. JBP P the pevot or fpindle it waves of the great wheel.. which. . which draws up the water in the pump G. turns upon. and D a pinion upon the 249. from O towards /. 3 or 4 fpires of the rope for the axis could not hold fo DCE much rope as there is fometimes occafion for. BC the axis. whilft more air enters in at the p i g. to keep the rope from going any lower. and fo that a perpendicular to its plane may pafs through AB. Ex.. Ex. £ is a pinion FGy CC a toothed wheel. An engine to the axis. upon the fame axis. valve T . Whilft the great wheel is turned by the leaver T^/}. to driven about by men draw great weights. and placed under the edge of the great wheel : this wheel is moveable about the center C. the wave prelTcs down the wheel f^T?. then thefe ading by turns will keep the motion uniform. LX. AL axis is zjack to lift great weights. But when the deepcft part of the wave is part the wheel ^R. Lxr. valve S as before. 215 out of the pipe. is forced again through the 246. by help of the leavers AB. and raifes the end E. Ex. A. the wheel then nfes up into the hollow S. LIX. a man conftantly pulls at E to keep it light. BFG is a capjlabt. whofc plane is perpendicular to the horizon. and then the chain EG defcends. and another pump wheel and leaver be placed diametrically oppofite. whilft the capftain goes about. wheel SIR is placed there only to avoid friftion. on the other fide of the great wheel. adting at A.

that the lantern way. with the pinion with the weight. Lxir. 2 -. move the axis back towards A. £. AB the flitting mill. it comes about to the wheel F. and come axis AB. placed on the axis AB^ that the great wheel can only work one is turned by the of them at once. whilft the two weights with contrary momoving power afts always one iV. carries the fpur and //. with the cyand B. run M F A D A are 8 inches diameter . 5P the clipping mill. doled in a Itrong cafe AX. whilft leave the wheel. with the lantern G on the fame axis. moving in diredion ^IV. An tions engine to raife and let fall fucceflively. F will afcend and defcend will Then the great wheel moving now work upon iV. then there muft be a pin to faftcn either of them to the axis . the pinion E moves raifcs the rack AB^ and . After the water is paft the wheel E.2i6 F 2 . as alfo C and The cylinders linders yf and C. And thefe cylinders may be taken out and in. and you will again rife the bucket E. ' A mill for iron ivork. and fo on. D E S C R I P T I O N OF The whole is inThe handle GHI G. Then E being raifed. When a D D Ex. into teeth. with the cylinders B and D. whilft the other is loofe. bring thus fixt to the axis. C. bucket F whilft £ defcends. the buckets £. in direction XT. and -. and turn the raife the the fame way as before. N. and then the other. Which done. carries the wheels A^and K. the wheel GC. and B about 12. all of nnetal. o' working in the teeth of the rack AB. Fare two great water wheels. "When the cog wheel leaver LI. fo a great horizontal wheel. This may alfo be performed by placing the lanterns M. fo that firft one lantern. for flitting iron bars. weight is to be liked. axis the contrary way. 2 CO. And the cylinders yf and B are cut contrary ways about. And the wheel wheels with the lantern /. then turning the handle ///. move forward the defcends. but fo that the great wheel may work them both at once making them moveable about the axis AB. GH M GH F Mmay N to it. axis. Ex. and raifes the bucket E. two lanterns. LXIII. it turns the lantern M. the forkt end A\% put under the weight . The water wheel £. D others put and may be brought nearer to. alternately. CD the plate mill. goes on the axis FG on the backfide of the cafe. or farther from one .

Sea. Xlfl.

the axles run.

plane.

alio C,

**COM FOUND ENGINES,
**

ol'fcrews,

ar;

one another, by help

The

does

axles of

And

fo

M,

which fcrew up the fockecs where fig. 7, K lie all in one horizontal 251. G, H. But the cylinders J, B, and

N,

if a bar of iron be heated and made end put in between the cylinders C, D, whilft the mill is going; the motion Oi'' the cylinders draws ic through, on the other fiie, into a thin plate. Likewife a bar of iron, being heated and thinned at the end, and put in between the toothed cylinders A-) B ; it is drawn through on the other fide, and flit into fcveral pieces, or firings. And then if there be occafion, any of thefe firings may be pur through the plate mill with the fame heat, and made into plates.

;

D, lie one above For making the plates

another.

1

thin at the end, and that

OP^

Va

cog

fheers

is

the fheers for clipping bars of cold iron into lengths.

in

**the axis of the water wheel.
**

rteel,

OP

one

fide of

the

made of

and moveable about P.

The

plane

LPR

When the mill goes about, is perpendicular to the horizon. the cog V raifes the fide OP, which as it rifes clips the bar T^ All the engine, except the into two, by the edges SP, RP. water wheels £, F, is within the houfc.

Ex. LXIV.

AFC

is

^ windmill io frighten birds from corn or fruit.

made of wood.

The

fails

F,

Fa

This 252.

BC, 45 or 50 the end of the axis BC, and is pinned faft on, and the fails and axis turn round together; and the axis goes through the board AD, and is kept from flying out of the hole, by the piece B pinned faft. The whole machine is moveable about the perpendicular ftaffy^G, by which means the wind turns the mill about the axis AG, till the plane /iD lies diredlly from the wind and then the fails face it. At 5 is a fpring to knack as it goes about; and the like on the other fide.

inclined to the axis

foot long, and their planes degrees. The piece B goes

upon

;

Ex.

LXV.

An anemofcopey to (how the turnings of the wind. CD is a 253. weather cock of thin metal, fixt faft to the long perpendicular axis DF, which turns with the leaft wind upon the foot F, and goes through the top of the houfe RS. To this axis is fixe the pinion A, which works in the crown wheel B, of an equal number of teeth. The crown wheel is fixt on the axis PI, on the end of which the index NS is fixt. The axis PI goes ii through F f

2i8

f

,

DESCRIPTION

through

the wall

of

c.

LM,

againft

the

wall

is

placed the circle

NE^fV,

^

SN

i hen if the with the points ot the compa.s round it. time the index vane CD be kt to the noi'.h, and at tlie lame 1 lien however the fixi on the axis 7^/, to point at iV. wind varies, it will tutn the vane C/), and pinion y/; and /4

lo that th',' index will with the index ; always he dircdcd to the oppofitc point of the compuls to the or to the fame as the wind is in. vane ;

turns the wheel

B

N

DC

Ex.

"^

)-i.

'

I.XVI.

DEF

is

a

**rag-pump,' or chmn-pump.
**

/,

EF

the

barrel,

CD

AB

the roller.

the handle.

GH an entilcfs

chain, to which are fixt Icvcral leafide that afcends.

ther buckets /,

hollow on the upper

and rubbiOi.

The ufe of this is to cieanfe foul waters from dirt The roller is ribbed to hinder the chsin from

**flippms, in working. the chain through the
**

difchargcs

it

When

pump,

the roller

is

turned,

is

it

draws up

with whatever

in

**the water, and
**

a wheel like

at the top.

Inftead of the roller

CD,

a trundle

may be

uled, called the rag wheel.

Ex. LXVII.

ZS^.

•

D by G, £, F, and the crofs pieces L, L-, i, i, &'c. are pullies or rollers. AlN, A/N" wooden beaters, turning upon an axis pafTing through Whilft the axis IK turns about, the end i> Aides along JV, N. ftrikes againft the and falling off, the part the pulley i trough at O, O. The lantern F carries the cogcloth in the wheel P, and the cranks ^, .^; which work the pumps 7", T, by help of the leavers i^S, moveable about <;. The trundle G carries the cog-wheels V and H^, and fF carries the trundle X,

horfes.

;

-,

A

dyer's

xhe great wheel carried about and fuller's mill. together with This turns the trundles B, C, Then E turns the cog wiicel H, with the axis IK,

J

M

that grinds the indigo in the veffel cdi The ends »;, m, &c. of flows to the vefTel Z. from whence it run in pieces of timber going crofs the mill, and all the axles, fattened to one another and to the walls of the boufe.

with the pirton

T

Ex. LXVIII.

256.

A

that

machine

to

a large pipe or

**empty (landing waters. This is no more than fyphon ABC, being extremely clofe and tight
**

in.

no

air

can get ^

If

Sta.tlU.

If the poo!

COMPOUND

of

w/ater

ENGINES.

hill

219

;

DE

is

to be

emptied over the

DHG

f

i

g.

let the pipe be placed

with

its

mouth

y/ within the water

DE,

2^6.

the water FG, if the pipe ht very and C, and fill the pipe with water by the cock B at the top. Then flopping the cock B very and the water will flow thi-ough the pipe dole, open J and C into FG, which may run over at F, at a fmall height from above C, and go away. Note, the end C muft always be lower than J, and the mull not exceed 1 1 yards ; for height of the top B above water will not flow. If the pipe be very ftra't, if it do, the need not be immeri'ed in the water; but it large it the rnd C muft ; or elle the air will infinuate itfelf into the pipe at C, and

and the mouth

C

within

large.

Then

flop

up

;

A

DE

DE

hinder the flux of the water.

Ex. LXIX.

EFGH is a coal ghm. E the cog-wheel feet diameter, 257, this carries the trundle F, near 2 ftet diameter, and 72 cogs and 12 rounds, together with the roll G, 4 feet diameter. The axis /JB runs upon the kevyis the ftart 20 feet long. There are two crofs trees IK, at the top, through flock C. which the axis AB goes. Thefe crols trees are fupported by four polls KL at the four corners. When the coals are to be drawn up out of the pit, two horfes are yoaked at H, and go round in the path O^D, and draw the wheel about. And whilft the loaded corf N, is drawn up to the top of the fhaft M, by the rope going round the roll ; the empty one at the other end of the rope, is defcending to the bottom. And the loaded corf iV" being taken off, and an empty one put on, the horfes are turned, and made tio draw the contrary way about,: till the other corf comes to the top loaded and fo as one

:

n

AH

:

corf afcends, the other defcends alternately. corf of coals weighs about 5 hundred weight, and contains about 4f bufhcls.

A

A

pit

is

40

or

weighs about

50 fathom deep. 3 hundred weight.

And 50 fathom

of the rope

Ex.

LXX.

JBC the barrel round which 258. wound. KL the main wheel of 60 teeth. TV the worm wheel of about 30 teeth cut obliquely. Z-Mthe pinion of 15 or 16. the worm or endlcfs fcrew, on which are two threads or worms going round, and making an angle with the

worm jack

the cord

A

^

for turning a fpir.

is

F

f 2

axis

,

220

F

I

DF.

axis of

SCRIPTIONoF

A' the flud,

G.

60 or 75 degrees.

Z

**the loop of the the morion
**

S,

worm

258.

fpindle.

P

a heavy wheel or Hy to

DG

**the (Iruck wheel fixt to the axis frame, to nail it to a board, which the
**

;

makd FD.

i";

uii'foi-:Ti.

ro

a wall

D going through it HI £T, to wind op the weight when down. R arc upon The axis fixt piillics, V moveable pullies with the weiijht. the barrel /IC, and this axis b-\ng hollow, both ET is fixt in is fixe it and the barrel turn round upon the axis FD, which

the end

S feveral holes in he nailed agninft the handle, g"ing

the axis

but cannot turn way, by reafon of a catch nailed to the end y^B^ the contrary which lays hold of the crofs bars in the wheel LK. The weight, by means of the cord ^^R, carries about the barrel ylB, which by means of the catch, carries the wheel AX, which carries the nut LMand wheel N, which carries the worm carries the axis FD O vvith the fly P. Alfo the wheel which carries the cord or chain that goes with the wheel DG, about the fpit head (a wheel like DG) which turns the fpit. The more pullies at R and F, the longer the jack will go ; but then the weight muft be greater. The catch lies between the end /IB of the barrel and the wheel KL, and is thus defcrlbed ff the barrel, « the main dr a tumbler moving eafy on the center pin c, faftcned fpindle b a coihr of iron, turnto an iron plate, nailed to the barrel from this proceeds the tongue in<y a little llifFon the fpindle h, pairing through the hole c in the tumbler: r the catch of Now whilft the barrel with the catch is turned the tumbler. about, in the order efg, upon the axis « ; the collar is drawn about by the tongue I;c, which tongue adling backwards, turns the tumbler about the center a, anddeprefles the carch r. But the barrel being turned the contrary way, the tongue then afts towards d ; this deprefles the end d, and raifes the catch r, which then takes the crofs bars of the main wheel, and flops the barrel. This catch would alfo ferve for a clock, and is better than a fpring catch, becaufe it makes no noile in winding up. Note, the jack need not be placed fo, that the axis FD be For it parallel to the fpit; but any way it can conveniently. is no matter whether the chain croffes or not.

to the wheel 7\L, turning in the order BiTyf;

LM

:

:

:

-,

Ex. LXXI.

259.

DAF iht

oak

;

bydrofiatical bellcnvs.

the fides

**AB, EF, two flat boards of AEy BF, of leather, joined very clofe to the top
**

and

Secf>.

Xlir.

COMPOUND ENGINES.

nails.

221

f

i

**and bottom, with llrong
**

piece of brals, in the top

If a

CD

Or

a pipe fcrewed into the

g.

at

C

DC, he

if

259-

will r^ife a great he Itands upon the board weight laid upon the board A8. AB, he may eafily blow himfelf up, by blowing fbrongly into If water be poured in atZ), till the bellows and the pipe DC.

in at

man blows

the pipe

pipe be

full,

the prclTure

upon

AB

within, will

litt

as

much

weight upon the top AB, as is equal to a whofe bafe is AB and height CD.

cylinder of water,

Ex. LXXII.

the water-toheel 260.. a water-mill for grinding corn. ihe cog-wheel, \yith 48 cogs. 16 feet diameter, £C its axis.

is

ADM

A

D

O

A/, A'^ xht Jlona 6 or 9 rounds LI its axis. The lower ftone iV is the Iyer, being fixt immoveable upon beams of wood ; and the upper Hone is the runner, and is faftened to the fpindle LI, by a piece of iron called the rind, fixt in the lower fide of the ftone, to go fquare upon the fpindle ; between which and the ftone, there is room The left for the corn to fall through upon the lower ftone. fpindle goes through the lower ftone, and is made fo tight with a wooden bujh, as to turn round in it eafily. The upper ftone, with

a trundle, with

;

7 feet diameter.

the fpindle LI,

is

fupported

called

**on the end
**

the bridge

.

/,

upon

a horizontal

beam

of

wood FE,

the end

F

being

fixt,

and the end £ lying upon the beam HG, fixt at G, called the is fupported by the lifting-tree brayer or bearer. The end HK, by help of a wedge at K. By this means, the upper ftone may be raifcd or lowered. For if KH be raifed with the leaver Kk, the end E, the axis LI, with the ftone M, and the piece GH are all raifed, and may b^ fixed there by the wedge K. Thus the ftones may be ittx. as near or far off as you will. The lower ftone is broader than the upper ftone, and is feathered, or cut into fmall channels, to convey the flour out ; and is cnclofed with boards all around as ab, clefe to the lower ftone, and above the edge of the under one, to keep the meal

H

through one fide of the boards is a hole called the through which the meal runs out into a trough. The furfaces of the mili-ftones are not flat, but conical; the upper one an inch hollow, the under one fwells up 4 of aa io the two ftones are wider about the middle, and come inch rearer and nearer towards the ouifide ; which gives room for the corn to go in, as far as 4 of the radius, where it begins to

in.

And

mill-eye,

:

be ground.

The upper

ftone has a dancing motion

up and down.

222

^

''

DESCRIPTION

at the mill-eye.

OF

down, by the fpringing of the bridge, which helps to grind The flour, as loon as made, is thrown to the outthe coin. fide, by the CTculacion of the ftone and the air, and driven ovit

The

**quantity of flour ground,
**

for bread corn.

S,

is

nearly as

the velocity and weight of the ftone.

**Th? flme ought
**

which

falling

not to

**go round above once
**

1 he corn

the Jhce

axi':.

in a fee ;nd,

is

put into the hopper

LM

**TV, runs into the hole at the top of tlir which, as is made with 6 or 8 angles
**

;

ftone

it

down into M. The

turns about,

[hakes the end

T of

the fhoe, and keeps the corn alA-ays run-

The axis may be taken off. is the dining down. reftion of the water, which a6l:ing againft the floats R, carries about the water-wheel A, and cog-wheel D, which cog-wheel that carries the lantern or trundle O, and the upper ftone

LM

P^

M

grinds the corn.

Sometimes one water wheel A, carries 2 pair of ftones, and then 2 cog-wheels as D, are put into the axis BC, which carry two trundles with the flones. Otherwife the cog-wheel D carries a trundle 0, and fpur-wheel; which fpur-wheel carries z lanterns with th? flones, one lantern on each fide the wheel. carries another lantern Or fometimes, the fame cog-wheel and cog-wheel, whofe axis is parallel to the horizon ; and this cog-wheel carries another lantern with the flones. And the trundle is fuch, as to make the blue Hones, or tho.e that grind wheat flour, go near twice as fwiit as the grey flones do. la theie cales, when one pair of flones is to (land flill, there is either a loofe rung to be taken out of its lantern, or elfe the bridge EF is Ihifted towards H. till the lantern O be clear of D.

D

The

**dianneter of the water-wheel
**

it

A muft

**not be too large
**

for

;

for then

will

move

too flow

;

nor too

little,

then

it

will

want power.

floats,

When a mill is in perfeftion, the velocity of the wings, or hands R, upon the water-whtel muft be ^ the velocity of the ftream. The higher fall the water has, the lefs of it will ferve to In an underfhot mill, where the water comes carry the mill. the wheel, it is brought by a narrow channel called underneath

the mill race.

The

water

is

kept up

in

the mill

dam, aid

let

out by when the mill is and the penftock or let down by help of a leaver. The penftock being is r'ifed railed opens a pafTage to the water, lo or 12 inches wide,

i\ic penftock,

to

go

:

through which it flows to the wheel. And when the mill is ta ftop, the penftock is let down, and the orifice ftopt. When the water comes underneath the wheel, it is called an underjhot mill. But if it comes over the wheel (as in fig. 282.)

I

it

Sea Xlir.

it is

COMPOUND ENGINES.

»ii//.

223

called an ovcrjal or DverJJjot

than an undcrlhot mill ; but there is make them. The water is an overral n.iil, by a trough ; which is turned afute, to throvv the water oiF the wheel, when the mill does not go. i>rec:Ji mill is that where the water is delivered into boxes, at about the height ot the axis of the wheel, and moves the

places to

This requires lefs watf r p j g. not convenience in all 260. brought to the wheel of

A

wheel by

its

weight.

This requires more water than

either of

the 01 her forts.

good overfal mill will grind 2 4- or 3 bufhels of corn in hour ; and in that time requires 100 hoglheads of water, an having 10 or 12 feet fall.

Ex.

y^B

is

A

LXXIir.

catch vermin, made of boards. a piece 261. fufpended over the bar JL, by the leaver DE, moveof wood able about D ; and the thread FE, tied to the Itarc CK. ImB a piece of flat wood, moveable about /w, and lying on the bottom, whofe end B comes through a hole in the fide, in which is a catch to take hold of the end of the ftart, when the "When the vermin go into the trap, they tread trap is fet. upon the board ImB.^ on which a bait is laid, which puts down the end B, and the ftart CK flies up. This gives liberty to

a trap to

GH

K

DE to rife up j then the piece of wood GH falls down, and knocks them on the head. If two pieces of board were nailed on the ends G, H; to reach below the piece of wood GH, the trap would take the vermin alive. y^BE is another trap, the end B is wire ; and the end 262. Aides up and down in two groves in the fides. When the trap is fer, the end A is (ulpended by the thread CD, tied to the rod DI, n-oveable about 0, theenti / being held by the crooked end of the wire IS, moveable about R, the end RS going within the trap. A bait is put on the end at S, and the end E of the trap being open, the vermin goes in and pulls at the bait S, this pulls the catch / from off the end of the leaver 7D, which lets the end yf fall down, and the vermin is taken.

the rod

^

Ex. LXXIV.

An

fc?f .

JLLI is

in

ing

engine for moving (everalfaws for the fawing of ftones, 26^. a fquare frame, perpendicular to the horizon, movdiredion LL, in gutters made in the fixed beams JM,

little

€B

f

and running upon

wheels,

IL two

**rods of iron fixed
**

at

ovcs the frame towards A'lB. F never falls in the way of cd. and little wheels may be applied at the points of the triThe angle [IIK. the water will turn into vapour by the heat. go into it. on the circumference DC. Q and L. acrofs to one another. the fr^me may be moved by the two pieces ah. 264. S. op two hands of iron to thele arc fixed the laws S. and moves the frame and 1 hen fl adling againll G. The pirts /•' and G ought to be made the hands o/> defcend. and will blow out at the mouth with great violence . BC is an index hung by the (therm) hanging over the center of a circle. IIIKis a triangle fixrci to the 269. Ex. back ao-ain. yl windmill. This is a hollow globe of brafs. By this means the index BC turns about. Inllcad of the triangle HIK.i of the engine. H Ex. AHO the upper room. the angle K adts againfl: the piece F. to take away the fridtion againit F and G. rr. fire. which The firing AB twifts and untwifts is divided into equal parts. the under one. will be condenfed and water will Then if it be fet on the be about half full. and continue fo till the air in it which was till it •. D E at r S C R I P T I O N OF running along thefe rods . 5. As the wheel and triangle go ^bout from towards /. Take it by the handle B.224 J. 265. axis of a great wheel. 266. and cd on G. So that ab may only ad: on F. fo the laws are moved back and forward. turns round. as long as th' wheel As thefe faws work by the motio. if the power is ftrong enough. curve . water is fpent. HOZ AB the axle-tree^ going quite through the mill. firing JB. and fhews the degrees of drought or moifture. . by the moifture or drynefs of the air. is a JBD hygrofcope. very fmall hole at the mouth. When / is gone off. LXXVI. with only a -^ 'S an eolipile. the point B Ex. S-TVW the fails covered . and G in that of cd. going through the axis. F being So that only in the plane of rt:''s motion. cogetiicr with the faws 5. and the rarified. and work more faws. nor G in the way of ab. axle of the wheel may be made ti carry more triangles. the point /acting againllthe p ece G. and fet it on a fire till it is heated . then plunge it in cold water. moves it forward . cd. LXXV. LXXVII.

upon which boards arr. by a iquare taken away Putting locket. c . and going fig. XF. // : fgbi a cord with a ftone /. bridge and X. ^R.to the top. and ftones. and turns upon a The trundle Kb' and axis Gt may be hard ffone fixed at A'^. XIII. fixed at the end x . The lower ftjne is fixed immoveable upon ftrong beams. r. going about the p:n< gh. and the upper ftore IK. of about 4R cogs. moves the fpout nearer or further from the axi-. is fupported by the beams cd. and the other end / tied to the leaver km moveable about k. And the end m being put exattly the fame apparatus as before.. 225 obliquely to the wind. is broader than the upper. and 066. trundle. ^. fur it fixes on the lower part at /. the bridge. J. the fails 5. vvirh COMPOUND canvafs. which carries the lantern Et\ of 8 or 9 rounds. CD the cog-wheel. a. 1 he fpindle /A' is fixed to the upper Itone /A'. or one fide of them. leavers whole centers of motion are Z. which a fmall dillance. which bridge SIR. according to the wind. covered-. which raifes ZT.\^. down raiies the end/ of the leaver /t?. LM the lo-iver ftone. fixed in the unThe upper Itone "nly turns about. fupporting the axis or fpind'e GN. and thus the flones are fet at any diitance. draws the girth clofe to the cog-wheel.ll. with the axis NG. sbaut in tiie breadth 2. or perhaps only a half of And or flower. ZT the lifting tree (landing uprght : ah^ f/.ecc of ir^m cailtd the rind. makes the corn run out: rs a firing going about the pin s. with W And the axle carries two only one pair is to grind. V. the trundle EF and axis Gt is taken out from the other : xyl is girth of pliable wood. 'T. its whole weight refts upon the bridge ^/^. and in falter Io makes the corn run when the wind is them. covered order STP IF^ tlicir length about 6 yards. which runs along the fljce or fpout r into the hole t. And when -i down. P is the hopper into wh:ch the corn is pur.placed round TX. a.'/ : mill is going. for a balance. and der fi^e of the ftone. The corn is drawn . are only pirt of great. which being turned about. and the top runs in the e ige of the beam w. and by this means the mot on of the mill is ftopc at plcafure /)j is a ladder going into the higher part of the m. and the flour fluking the fpout r as it goes about. The axis Gt is Iquare. wedged up at The c. G g In . pair of ftones at once. and io falls between the ftones where it is ground. by means of a rope going about the axis AB^ when the . IK the upper Jione or runner-. •. and this raifes the the upper at away flour from flying conveyed through tbe tunnel no down into a cheft. fee ENGINES. r.ulesZ'. and its axis GiV. Towards the end B of the placed another cog-wheel. to ccmfine the is . by a p. ^\t covered.Se6l. W two oppofite axle-tree is fails T.

which is turned wind by a man. wooden ring for its bafc. by help of the leaver or beam 2. for when ih? the £C. i is the mill houle. upwards. The pifton C muft not be above 50 feet from the water in the well. The pifton C moft move clacks or valves opfching freely up ar-:d down in the barrel. fame time the valve a (huts. 7 In . the barfd. the roof is the furface thofe of there is a wall plate of wood upon the top of the of a cone this a channel is cut quite round. ihe handle P is put down. at rifes handled is raifed. and forces the water. Ex. upon the roUrrs. opens c. x% another force pump. At the fame time the valve a opens. is put down. 2''8.^" round to the wind. through the pipe BG. d two hanule moveable about D. and the water barrel. that has been raifed. LXXVIII. This pump ^^' i force pump. And the bucket muft always be within 30 feet of the water. and exactly fiil it. move>a. The roof has a •. : brafs rollers. This pump is clofe at the top rt. it raii'cs from H. the pifton C prcfTing upon the water. or a lifting pump. In the moved round about 3 is to mill. and thefmall rod of iron plays through a hole made tight i'. fee Ex.eceffary.(l: up the Iteps 4. No hole or leak muft be fuffcred below the pifton or bucket for air will get in. and opens a. in winch are feveral wall in tn mills built •. c Valves opening upward. and fpoil the working of the pump.the pillon down -. And when the bucket A'' is drawn up again. Concerning the pofition and fofce of the before. But in ilone. into the barrel. which is not abiblutely r. and fcrewed clofe between pieces of bra's. the water is forced This pump is the fame as a liftalong the pipe i^/v as before. the valves a.226 t) F S C R I P T I O N OF of wood. through the upper part. TV defctnds. it lifts up the bucket N. that no air 'J'ls made dole by circular pieces of leather cut to fie oet in. on a tampin or perpendicular port. fails. only there is added the valve c. M •. hnd cocfe into the But wh^n / LM . 267. EC. c fliut. and b opms. the whole body of the rr. the wooden a roller to ho. ing pump. C the piflon fixed to the rod DP adts by'prelnng . Ihuts the valve «/. And wlien P and lets in more water from is railed. \. only the upper part turns . opens the valve d. 2(. This pump afts by forcing upwards for when with leatlier. and forces the water in the barrel NS along the pipe ^^R.ill turns . which and the roof is cafily exadlly His into this channel by iielp ot a rope and winnlafs. and lets more water pafs into the bucket A"^. A'' the bucket.hc ablc about E. the preflirre flvats the vjIvc h. b.

: Ex.in different fluids of which points mufl be taken aallandards to comthe bcit forts pare others with. to hinder its flying quite •. the wider it is.„.. COMPOUND ftrait . Thefe at V-. divifions will fhevv the degrees of heat or cold.. pump 227 In thefe pumps the bore at Hor M. fpirituous liquors. XXII. Thefe -. meafure the degrees of heat. -. with quickfilver or fliot when made of a due weight.„„. and fit exadly into a hole of the lame fliape. and the tube cools. or fhew the fame degrees of healt and cold except they be made to do fo by graduating/ them both alike by oblervation. And thefe divifions noted to which it finks . B is 270. AB a hydrometer. Then as the top of the fpirit rifes or falls. For it finks deepeft in the lightcll liquor and the lightelt liquids are the bell.Sea. to meafure the denfities of liquors. the is AB a thermometer. This G"g 2 . which rarifies the air and fpirit . and therefore two thermometers will not go together. The ball and part of the neck is filled with fpirit of wine tinged red with cochineal i and the end A is fealed hermetically in the doing of which. be too for then the will work llower. that dil'charges the water. by trials. the end of the tube A. that at T" being made of two pieces of flat leather. are heated. is called 3. Ex. has liberty to rife and fall in the tube. to — _ a glafs ball with a long neck . ENGINES. Nor fhould the pipe BG or <^R. IV are made conical. the farter the 268. For the calculation of a pump. and the point to which it finks in the furface be marked. This ball and tube is cnclofed in a frame. There are feveral Torts of valves ufed in pump work as T. and difcharge lefs water in a minute. And therefore the fpirit expanding and contrading by heat and cold.. 5.„. or of any indented ficlack. LXXX. the fpirit and included air. This is a hollow ball of glafs. . partly filled and hermetically fealed at the top y/. divifions are arbitrary. water afcends. XIIL rifes. At the bottom of the valve is put a pin acrols it. The fmall tube AB is divided into equal parts. or require more force to work it. . and there is a vacuum made in the top of the tube. and graduated at equal diftances. 1% W.. and its goodnefs. Then if the hydrometer be immerged in any fluid. it fliews the denfity of it. which is divided into degrees. fhould not be too ftrait. fo that when the end A is fealed. the I'pirit contracts. fee Ex. through which the water p i g. out of the hole. efpecially 269. gure. LXXIX. " •--0 AB.

DESCRIPTIONoF This is commonly put in the fame cafe with the barometer. This is a cylinder turning is twilUd a pipe. d fevefloats tf. and take away the fyringe. of the fame fpirit."^o in warm weather. the comprefTion of the air at C will force the water up the tube 5/-/. Cork well. a. AB running AS. cloth being placed behind. and it half full of water. /•'. will fhsw all. put a tube HI very clofe. | •. take it a. This cylinder is placed higher at one end D. c. ral iloats fixed to the cyhnder. and therefore is not lo true. . Then as foon a. Sir. than at the other. Any of thcfe fountains placed in the fun-fhine. and with a fyringe injecl the air at y/. "D/l tal.cr poured in at A. LXXXI. CpD t^ Arcbimedes\ axis --xater fcreiv. Rut this fort is aftciflcd with the prefllire of the auDofphcfe. There are other forts of thermomctc-s. till the vclfel be about half full.pq running fpiral ways from end to end. the colours of the rainbow . . CD is a ball with a long neck open at the eiui D. Ex. when the air in C isranfied by heat. an') pot with the cpcn end into the veflVl D. i. But an artificial fountain fill i.228 FIG. If the cocks be opened and wa. Then blow ftrongly in at //. till the air in the bo'tle be condenfed . fig. 7 hen llup the cock F. About this cylinder there And its ufe is is to fcrew a river up the water from in direftion the lower end to the higher. upon the CD. 'I'lie (oi) of the tube CE is air. the divifions being bucket D. and a little bail of cork may be kept fufpended at the top of the ft re A am 73. the upper b. . and AE mefol- dercd clofe at A. Ex. near the bonom which vefTci is half full or more. EF the furface of the water. two cocks. then the water will fpout out at // to 3 great heignt. the degrees ot culd.s you open at z/. is AB a a ftrong clofe vffTel of an nrtifcinl fountain. fhcw the dcgrrc of heat or when it aftends. a black. and fpout up to the height i) . ftrong bottle G . the cock at A. and through the cork. LXXXII. 218.s moft eafily made thus . or rather fcvcral pipes no. and as the m uked. partly filled with tinged fpirit of wine. till ic be fufficiently condenfcd within the vefieU Then Hop the cock. 372. 7-JI. to reach near the bottom of the vefifcl. it preffcs the fpirit down into the oint E delcends. 270.ce the cylinder flands in an inclined pofition. pipe reaching near the boitom ot the veflcl.

but it requires more force. that every pare of the print may take an equal imprefllon . on the table at//. to fqueeze the water out.. are. COMPOUND ENGINES.XIII. two wooden rollTs. Alfo the more the cylinder leans. Thefe rollers run in per one BE. by wedges. and copipe. of about 12 or 16 inches diameter. together with the plate and paper j and the paper is printed. and after it has laid about a day or two. d. or fet fuVther from one another. but to a lefs height. and dilchargfd at the top into the veflcl G. When the prefs ufed. c. the paper muft be thoroughly wetted in a trough . b are fet out of the water. Jnftead of the cylinder is to be turned by the handle at D. is made of the ftones of peaches and apricots. Ex. LM the frame. and rubbing it with the fort ot ink proper for it. is NO a (helf to lay the paper is upon. and laying on the plate. and draws the table through between the rollers. h. FG^ 273. conveyed through thcfc pipes. and laying it upon the paper bottom. p j c. d within it. it carefully upand turning the handle CAB. LXXXIII. the upper roller folded round with flannel. DE. ink made ufe of for printing copper-plates. fpread upon the table HIK^ wher? the plate is to lie. HIK is a flat table or plank. the more water is raifcd. 229 and the under ones <. running upon the ends of two ftrong iron axles. for copper-plate printing. and turns So that the water ^72. it is then to be pafled through a fcrew prefs. and Aiding freely upon the tramc. and •.. adts only upon the under ones f. is fixed the handle BAG. Note. d. and a paper bottom. the bones of (heeps feet This and ivory. a ipiral channel may be cut round the The clofer thele fpiral tubes vered clofe with plates of lead. all burnt this is called Francfort black. brafs lockets. and are fixed in them. that go quite To the axis of the upthrough them. R. there is no occafion for the floats abed. iic for printing. It AB is a llanaing waAnd then the ter. and then it is Take the printing paper.Sed. /I. water taken into the fpiral tubes at the low end. The then . AL is a rolling prefs. then warming the plate well over a charcoal fire. and muft run very true upon their axles. to prevent the indenting of the plank . cylinder. and may be brought nearer. going in between the rollers. in the frame at P. is by the revolution* of the cylinder. By this motion the about the cylinder in the order «. that has been well boiled . the motion of the roller DE turns the roller FG. the more water it carries. mud be well ground with nut oil.

and arc kept is a leaden pipe. i. or edubiion pipe. called the injebiion pipe. 45 is the regulator. ferve to fee is the pieces/). into the cylinder CC. this is fixed on the axis 34 coming through the boiler. hi is a horizontal rod of iron. The claw rp goes through the flit in the beam yJ/I. 11 : the claw rg goes over the piece ^/. and 8 or 9 fret F \\\t fire-place long . called the The claw si cloven at /-. P the p!jtc7i fuliained by the chain LP. the water is boiled to rail'e a over ckfc with lead fteam. it is turned up horizontal. 274. the engine houfe. i y^. DESCRIPTIONoF then it is fit ^ for ufe. in the end of the piece yg. through which the claws a. in which is a flit. LL \i z great beam or leaver.e linder. and throat pipe £. about 24 feet long. which communicates with the cylinder. on which axis is fixed the horizontal piece >J'3. is xyedl a piece of iron. being a plate withm the boiler. N at the end. LXXXIV. ihe -working beaitif with two knobs to keep it in its place. called the finking pipe. and near 2 feet broad. and has a valve opening upwards .230 „ . The boiler is of iron. 40 inches diameter. are feverai holes in the beam /JA. this caj-ries away the . moveable about the axis be. and is turned up at the end within the cymoving about the axis de. bell ink is faid to be brought from ^--. there by the pin q going between them. / the inJcbficN cock. pafTes the end ot /&/. or more. ivye. and back again. t. iind between the two parts. ballanced by a weight. as the piere^/ is moved back and forward. the fniffing claik. and covered 6 or 8 inches diameter. with fevcral claws. The end g to which is fixed iron rod^. called the fpcintur'. which opens and fhuts the hole of communication 2. to keep it in. CC a hollow cylinder of iron. In fome engines a pipe goes from it to convey the fteam out of the houfe. lying goes through a flit. in this. to let out the air in the cylinder. moveable about the : joint h. 2 feet deep at lead. as occafion requires. at the defcent of the pifton. BE the boiler 12 feet diameter. A Am DDD tl. the injedion cock/ opens and ftiuts. and is kept there by the two pins c. higher or lower.v. by the hole 2. fo that moving h back and forward. moves the plate 45 over the hole 2. and on the end is a knob Icrewed on. pcbrg a piece of iron with feverai claws called the eff.)' pafs. carrying cold water from the cijlern 5. and opening outwards. ^7^' Holland. . But the Ex. The/rf f«g-/«f to raife water. G is a leaden pipe. and Ic lies through the end wall l^ of moves round the center a. in a fixed frame. that by ftiifting the pins. going from the cyl nder to the hot -uell 11. upon an iron axis. under ground .

they ftand in a platf. upwards. then the fteam is let into the cylinder. there 7. The cock/ being open. or injedion pipe. out of the houfe. /. are two pins. with cocks. and goes into the fteam pipe 2^Z. A'A' a pipe carrying water from the ciftern S. from this a wire comes through a the puppet clack i fmall hole. 23X the water thrown in by the cold water pipe. and being wrought by the leaver LL. 7.. 6 is the firft floor. Confequently the weight of pet clack ^ -. through a pipe.XIII. to clean or mend it. This pump is dole ac the top R. /a cock opening to any wdenefs. in the end of the beam CL. lying on each fide the great leaver LL . for a man to go into the boiler. When the fteam in the boiler is too lirong. and two valves opening . which lets that end of the beam LC rife up . COMPOUND ENGINES. it brings water out of a pit. the [pears which work in wooden pumps within the pit. which may be opened. . this raifes the working beam AA. when there is too much. Al a hole xo Jet it out. 8. thefe pins ferve to flop the beam. for one cock will give fleam. to 274. The cylinder is fupported by Itrong beams as 6. condenfes the hot rarified fteam. moves the eff prg. 2^Z the Jieam pipe going from the clack. which is known by opening the cocks i. and hinder the pifton commg too low in the cylinder. fupply it with water. it is known when there is water enough ia the boiler. with a bucket and clack. the pit where water is to be raifed. PTF a force pump. going from the? hot well to the boiler. going through the engine houfe At 0. one reaching a little under the llirface of the water in the boiler. to which is is m fixed a thread going over a pulley. and defcending in fmall drops. /. by a cock opening at pleafure. into the cylinder. 7 the upper floor. into the ciftern S. By opening thele cocks. till the fteam is ftrong enough . / is the Jeediag pipe. fixed to two timbers. X. to cover the pirton to a good depth. is thrown up againft the pifton. /are two gnge pipes. which draws lb. and the other water. which moves gf. X. When the engine is to be fet to work. with a fmall weight at it the weight on the clack vi is about a pound for every fquare inch. by which it is conveyed away . and fhuts the hole 2. into the hot-well H. and opens the co'd water cock/: at the fame time is moved the wye xy!. by moving the fpanner h^ by hand . the other a little (hort of it. and makes a vacuum under the pifton. it lifts up the puptn. the water in the boiler muft be made to boil fo long. T-hen the hole 2 is opened. which ftrike againft two fprings of wood. fiecfl. the cold water rufliing into the cylinder. f i g. otherwifr the boiler would burft. that the water may run in a due quantity .

nnd fhiits 2. is it never than common -jV ftronger or weaker would force the water out of the feeding pipe. Likewife if water to be railed from a great cepth at one lift. As the end LC dcfccnds. which opens/. fhut and open alternaiely means of condcnfing and rarifying the fleam by turns.i up and down.hich works the pumps X. the pifton begins to defcend. and delivered into troughs within the pit. and carried away by At the fame time. is and raifes warer into the cidcrn S. which takes off" the prcfTure of the atmofphere . within the cylinder. diameter of the pumps within the pit. feveral lengths are joined •. confifting of thus.\ys/h. -work. the leaver or beam LL con(lan. A elaftic force within the boiler air. The vacuum is fuch. The that -. X. But its fpears or rod. that about 81b.ly moves up and down . which raifes the other end L^.^ defcends by the weight of the fpears A'.<!. plug A/l delccnds. v. the of water in this engine. and the end Z. the motion of the beam LL drifts or levels. and opens the hole 2. is about 8 or 9 and the bores of the pumps where the fpears A". The to receive the water. each piece has a flud a. is are tjken out. which therefore is 15 times rarer than common air. fliould be made wide at therop . if ftronger.^. This . ani chc wye. by which motion. •. This engme will make or in fome engines. and by this the cock/. prcfTjng upon the pifton. placing cillerns ing inches . and the cold water cock kept clofc (hut. and the barrels are in danger of burfting. while the end up. but or 14 ftrokes in a minute. work in the pumps. the pumps will be in danger of burfttherefore it is better to make 2 or 3 lifts. the pins w. more time is required to make a ftroke. they are firmly fixt together. and hole 2. . •. thefafter (he will work. 292. _ . fnuts the cold water cock /. So by the motion of the beam A. and the fteam gotrs into the cylinder. and and the fiuds of one being which are made to fit a hole i put clofe into the holes of the other. prefles upon every fquare inch of the pifton. and moving the cff. When LC is the engine to ceafe working. X. and the end LC afcends as before. for if they be Itrair. -. p'gf.232 J. will make 13340 cubic inches cf fteam . : works the pump FRF. and makes a 6 foot ftroke 13 cubic inch larger the boiler is. D E S C R I P T I O N o K Q of the atmofphere. and the iron collar g drove upon them to the middle d. the water is drawn up by the pumps. brings down the end LC.. the workins. . not above 61b. X. There is never made a perfcdl vacuum in the cylinder for as foon as the elaftic force of the fteam within is fufficiently diminiflied.

and confumes about 30 bufliels ^^ ^'^' ^^ ' upon the horizontal piece 0. by a 6 foot ftroke. which is performed thus-. will deliver 23^ of coals in 12 hours. and f = v/ 11:^2^. H h ^ .Sea. as the beam afcends. And when the beam i^^defcends. ». to the height of 60 fathom.. A calculation of the cylinder and pumps of the fire engine.274^ her of hogfheads of water in an hour. XIII. In fome engines there is a different contrivance to open and 293. Find the ale gallons to be drawn at i ftroke. and fhurs the regulator. Then p = ^5— ^ fuppofing the preflure of the atmofphere on an inch of the pifton. to hinder from going too far on each fide. of the injeftion pipe K. If it be required to make an engine to draw any given num. 274. and turns the axis AB^ and the weight C defcending towards 5. great beam and openmg the cold water cock . fhut the regulator. f if = . 1 • • r c zz cylinders diameter. for opening and fliutting the injection cork i inflead of the pieces rg. the end E ftrikes a fmart blow on the pin Z. opens or (huts the cock/. /. throws the end D of the wye againft L. — p •=. and opens the regulator: the fpanner PQ Aiding 300 Iiogfheads of water in an hour. inftead of 7. which is eafily found from the number of ftrokes being given. and then the efF falls. / fphere to be pounds i . Likewife. which moves PO. to make any number of ftrokes in a minute. gf of the cff" (fig.) fome engines have quadrants of 2 wheels H.. Ex. -. There is it a cord ron. held by a chain fixt to the and this catch holds the efF from falling back.)v/^^= ^UfjA. This engine COMPOUND ENGINES. fixt at r. a pin in it puts down the end 4. pump s diameter. to be 7 lb And Then Note. till the rifing of the beam pulls the catch up by the chain. and the weight C falling towards £. which moving one the other. and the top of the wye 0. it raifes GP)^ turns the wye cfrCED/^. you fuppofe thepreffure of the atmoand inftead of a 6 foot ftroke to make zz an r feet ftroke then p \/ -. with teeth. about the axis AB . Let g number of ale gallons to be drawn at i flroke. In fome engines there is a catch. and drives the fork FL towards L \ which draws the fpanner PO towards Z.x 5^. from/ fathom deep.

from the ends of which. This axis moves in fockets about leavers FG. b opening upwards. For when FK is put down. and another at the fide of the pipe into the cheft NM. being two ftrong rods cf iron. fd^ mn. and chains at them . pi are two • on the axis HI. In fome engines there are two arches. and b. 5 inches diameter.' 234 *'^' DESCRIPTION Ex. q . p. the other from the pump to the valve s of the copper pot. and at undepthe copper pot CO. the firft going to the valve a . from this cavity. or elfe a long leather one. I. D. which are fcrewed bard down. the chain fg pulls arches of iron •. 1 heft? boards l(?rve for irwdlcs tg ftand upon. the fhanks t)f thepiftons. At R and i^ are fcrews. is carried. Thefe cavities are made of hollow pieces of brafs fcrewcd faft together. LK are fixt. fo that the pipe may be turned in any direftion by the man that holds it. H. And when it up again. to help to work the engine. to which the iron. T opcDS one paflage and (huts the other. CO a large copper air vr£el 9 inches diameter. through which are two pafTages. and foldcred clofe into the top of it. at JF. mp four iron and /. FK. as there is occafion. Iq. like hg. : down chain th pulls way the chains Iq^ wp raife and deprrfs the pifton mn. as alfo from t q. And the fame FK is raifed. HI zn nan axis. fg. to draw water out of a well or river. there is another cavity^. There are wards into the copper pot CO. the and for men two boards are fufpended. which being flexible. The caAnd direAly above this cavity vity 27f leads to the pump E. having each a clack a. Xx a leather pipe to be fcrewed on the end S. the like cavities belonging to the pump D. E are iv/o pumps /IB is the ivaler engine to quench fire.. of LXXXV. PR is the conduit pipe reaching near the bottom of the veflel CO. ht. to the two pumps E. At / chains fixt at /. and ac m. tp^ fixt near the erd / of ihe axis. Ihis vcfTcl ftands upon a ftrong plate kw. GL two wooden handles fixt to the leavers to fixt work them by. t thefe chains work and m are fcrews to fcrew the chains tight the pumps. the rod of the pifton fd. opening upE. communicating with the pump And above the cavity y is placed the valve r. D. gb. Z is & cock. by turning the handle ce. into rooms and entries. 5 or 6 inches above the bottom ST is a brafs pipe coming through the end of the cheft NAJ. ^7^. it divides into two cavities going of the cheft at S. Tia . one along the pipe ST. And at F a copper pipe muft be fcrewed on. g . This cock.

in fome there is nO chain work. the bow. ancient ftafi"atid enfign. and the end x put But if water is to be fetched. muft be ttioved up and down by men ) by which means water is drawn into the pumps E. when the pifton pump by D. &c. in otiiers lengthengines. A B C ' the hull. Up the pipt PR^. This is the nobleft machine that ever was invented. the valve l> fhuts. 2 1 the . f ig. fo that there is And the air confined at top of the vefTel at will prefs the water a continual ftream. the E the Fthe ftern. through the valve r. G the poop-lantern. there is another pipe as PR.j Sedl. When the en. and thefe two pipes may play both at once. for the conveniency of turning to either fide. the water is forced by turns into the veflel CO. drawn along the cavity ZTIV. r. ways . which cannot return for the Ihuttingof the valve The veflel -. and the whole machine moveable on wlieels. Hh H the rudder. and through the fide of the engine. The fore ax!c. and into the pot CO. if there is occafion. coming through the copper pot. which runs through the holes T. through the valve ^ into the pump E . Then turning the cock ceZ to open the proper communication j the handles FK. poured into the chelt M. tlie end of one is fcrewcd up. ?n?i rifes again. And if not. COMPOUND CO ENGINES. tree turning on a bolt in the middle. In fome engines. And the like for the other Since the pifton of one pUmp goes down whilft the other goes up. XIII. that it would require a whole volume to dsfcribe it. 276. it muft be into the water. thefe two pumps . C being condenfed. GL.Tine is to play if it is by the water in a river. the forccaftle. but only pins for the piftons to move upon. D main deck.27 t. will force the Ex. and the water is forced into the cavityj. It is fo A Jhip. But there are a great many forms of thefe In fome the leaver lies crofs over. LXXXVI. D. the water is of the pipe PR. and confifts of fo many parts. and when m?i is deprefled. 23 and two pumps are inclofed in a chefl yf^V. the pipe Xx muft be I'crcwed on at S. Some of the principal pans are thefe. and out For the pifton mn being raifed. and forced into the veffel CO. it the fpace. into the body of the engine N. compounded. and make it flow with be compreflied into half water to 30 feet high. C If the water in always water going in.

AB 30 feet. Main-top fail-halliards. 2. Length . CD the greatclt breadth 20 feet.tacks. P'ore-bunt-lincs. Main-tupla 1-icctch-lincs. EC 10 feet. cop-gallant nnalls. JeE the (tern and part of the keel. For the rudder be put about to any fide will act the water (as the Ihip moves along) violently againft ir. 7. and drive the ftern the contrary way. 8. i^c. fr her head the fame way. 1 hen the following table (hows the length of every ordinate. flirowds.ay have the greateft force to move a (hip forward. with the has the greateft force to turn the (h^p. K v'f van^s. to which the 276. 6.-//>. as the rudder. that will move through the water with the leaft po(rible refiltance. Main l-'ore- lifts. y> the niizeii-maft. braces. 4. and of making more or lefs way through the water . fhip wich a fair bnflc A wind will tail 8 or 10 miles an hour.236 F I DESCRIPTIONoF / ihe bowfprir. Mizen bowlines. it the rudder is fet to an angle of 54 \ deg. it mult be fo placed between the point of the wind and the (hip's way. 5. 3. of the angle it makes with the (hip's way. When keel. and fetting them in a proper pofitinn to the wind. JV' top-mads. Y the crane-line. that the tan. of the Moll of thefe ropes are for hoifting the fails. lines. Hiip in dirtcton of that perpendicular. I (hall here give the conftruction of the fore part of a veflTJ. Becaufe the figure of a fhip is the raufe of h^r going well or ill. i^:. A' the fore-maft. L the main-malh i cable is fixt. Fore-(op lai! clew- i^ yards. 3. or horizontal fcdion of the water and the hull of a (hip. Let Ld/lcC be the --juater line. For the wind always and urges the ads per^-endicuiarly upon the plane of any fail -. That any one fail m. and make her anfwer the helm. of the angle it makes with the wine. the help of the rudi'cr //. or i. C. P tails Main-top-lail-fheets. 2. And the like for the fails. 9. Xmain-top-maft back-flay. And by . feet trom S\ by which the curve AlC is determined. as bc^ taken at the diitance . 'I he fore. rhe j-'ck. if ilie is made to kec-p any direction required. rell A'-y main-ftay. (lays. may be twice the tan. Z the anchor. 1 V /F the pendant.

Sedt. XUL COMPOUND ENGINES. length .

and be built very thin below. . and a foot high. and therefore (he muft not be too ihort from the inidfh'p to the ftern . moves the racks G. it will be proper to produce JB a as little further. and turn the fide JC. but makes an angle of about 76 degrees : to avoid this. quick as pofTible. that the curve at C. than any other fliip of the (ame length. fomething lefs than the part of the curve at C may be in a parallelilm with JB^ as it ought.238 J. ihc dead work. and alfo to avoid As to rowling. C. (liU retain- ^^'^ prcfcnted by the curve y^fC. AT zn air pump. lefTening gradually Likewife fhc mud draw confidcrably more to the (tern-poft. breadth. D two brafs cylinders. For it is a matter of great moment. flic muft be made pretty deep in the hold. or upper part of the (hip.odcl. But though the form here given is the moft proper for failing faft . that may be left to the fancy of the builder. FF a handle going upon the axis of the wheel or lantern £. ''^. Yet privateers and fliips of war made to purfue the enemy. or elle to and efcape from one of fuperior force. 1 he form of the curve is truly rc- be altered at pleafure. upon othtrr accounts. at C. the water ought to come freely and dircdtly to the rudder . either to have it in our* the 2 or ^ lall in the table. or contrived to anfwer fuch conve- That niences as may be wanted. a (hip may fteer well. to come up with a (hip we are able to take. that power fly. / -. within teeth. having two valves at the bottom two piflons working in the cylinders^ alfo opening upwards. and towards the ftern (he mull rile well. Ex. To carry a good fail. yet perhaps ic may not be fo commodious as the common form. and ot a difFcrent form. /. it will be f junci to move faftcr through the water. 2 or 3 inches diameter. which by the holpillars /. /. the broadefl part is not perpendicular to the ordinate BC. low /. becaufe C is the broadeft part. But it mud be obferved. ought to be built as near this form as they can conveniently. and depth. 2'^y. D E And '"S ' S C R I P T I O N o F Q 501. thus the rtquifites may general conllruftion. LXXXVII. having two valves opening upwards. the receiver of glafs. water abaft than afore. which wheel by the and by them the piftons. Jf any fhip carpenter thinks fit to build a fliip according to this n-. /. round in a curve. G jiB a table or pUte fupported by the the cylinders or pumps. as for the llowage of goods. H . ijc. Or elfe make perpendicular ordmates.

brafs 239 moo..vat the fame time that the left hand being raifed. a crank turned by the handle F. the air pafTes out of the r-ctiver H. covered with a brafs plate oiled leather at L*. confequently. An abfolute vacuum can never be perfedly made. being a glals tube (landing in the bucket of mercury s. // a receiver open at top. is to be drawn out of the receiver H. raifing the right hand f.. into 277. This ferves to lift any thing up by the h -ok J. ftands the receiver plate.pump As /^ a receiver open at top. and upon 'hat the receiver H. throu. and through the hollow brals P^. And the rarity of the air within the receiver. fo tight as to let no air in. v/hich is known by the graduated frame. he cock be- ing open. There are feveral forts of glaffes made ufe of tor the air 279. the leader or fword going over the pin /. and feends. in air into the pipe no. by the pumps C. with the cylinders by means of a hollow brafs pipe P^. communicates p j q. Jowpipeof COMPOUND ENGINES. the air is at length drawn out of the receiver H. draws the air from the receiver. with a plate and collar of wet leathers K^ through which goes the Qip wire G/. and the air paffes through the valve at /.Sed. a wet placed over the plate. which pillars are fcrewed into the table aB of the air pump. When leather Then raifed. h the fwan's neck nci. Whiill: the crank /f is is F NN of rifing. The handle is lately made to turn alwavs oneway . fcrewed down upon the pillars 5C. the into tne cylinder D. through the valve into the cylinder So that by the motion of the handle FF up and down. and then the CQcku . through the valve Then the right hmu F put down. valve at the bottom of the cylinder Ihuts. and fo into the receiver. it raifes it the frde 5 of the wheel. no •moreair can be drawa D C our. rrs a mercurial gage. (hrufts down the fame fide S the wheel E. For when the fpring of the air is fo weak. and the air exhaufted by the pump. thus yf 278. and 280. the piftoii t of the barrel is the air is D which rakes off the weight of the atmolphere . as not to be able to lift up the valves at the bottom of the cylinders. and communiK a cock under the table JB to let cating with the pipe no. which the fwan's neck paffes. MP is a transierrrr. is known by the height of the mercury in the tube rs. in the wheel E. XIII. on which a hollow tube going through the 1 O a cock to' open !hut the palTage. M iV is NP ')r a plate and learner. called the fwan's neck. through uoP. when the crank deSo the racks are alternately raifed and deprcffed as the crank goes about. D. and kept down by the crofs piece £F. when there is orcafion.

the wheels go the fame way with it. and the water is forced through the pipe R. OF PIC. P. crank being a foot from the axis. move the leavers MN. this moves the trundle // 4^ feet diameter. by help of a wedge going through both. fo that the great wheel CD works 16 pumps. There are alio four torcers placed at the ends M. great wheel will go at any depth of water and as the tide turns. When is pulled down. to which belong other trunks and pipes. the vacuum remaining in M. /// its iron IK a quadruple crank of caft iron 6 inches fquare. R four hollow pipes. with infinite others of like Ex. London-bridge ivaler-works. into which 4 valves open. P four force pumps of caft iron.1 pipe communicating with the trunk S. piftons or rods. the valve fhuts. (7 a fpur wheel fixed which wheel '^ to the axis /IR. £ 26 floats i foot broad.^. in is raifed with the pifton the end the pump P. the receiver and pipe may be taken away from 280. to which the pumps are clofe fixed. by which means the water is drawn out of the ridever through the pipe i-^. M N NP NP the . 240 DESCRIPTION L fort. moving on centers in a frame of wood. O. and along the pipe T into the town. and when fcends. NP. thefe pipes are clofe clofe fixed to the lower part of the pumps forcwed to the hollow iron trunk S. 7 inches diameter. 3 feet from the ends which leavers are 24 feet long. which by the fwords L. and working in four more pumps. 281. £. 44 cogs of iron . There is alfo a machine made of cog-wheels and trunThe dles. and 20 rounds . it carries round the fpur wheel G. through the trunk S. which carries the trundle //with the cranks IK. contrived to raife the great wheel as the tide rifes. And when iV rifes up again by the motion of the cranks. At B the other end of the axis. there is placed exadly the fame work as at A. 8 feet diameter. which caufes L. and fixed '^o the 4 leavers A/A'. LXXXVIIl. wrought by four Thefe pumps are 7 or 8 inches diameter. but ftand ftill at high and low water. R..S. O a hollow trunk of caft iron. cranks. and the axis 3 feet. Mof the leavers M. -. AB the axisof the water-wheel CD\ is 20 feet diameter. The crank is faflened to the axis at /. N. and 19 feet long. cock being (hut. . into the pump P . and to the water. . As the great wheel is carried about by the tide. each axis. L four iron fpcars belonging to the the crank to turn. tlie air pump. 7' . a receiver clofe at the top . through which the water is forced to any height. having valves opening upward. j^a fucking pipe going inR.

B the drum or barrel on which the great rope is wound. As barrel in diredfion abed. the great wheel goes 6 times round in a This engine is laid to rail'e 30 or 40 thoufand hogfminute. a. there are two inclined planes. up to the top and over the pulley ^. 2" the ram that then down to the follower. to receive the handle 6 of the ram T. crooked leaver moveable about 2.'hrei . and the bar KI afcends. from falling too i^%. and more wap j ^^^ through the. XIII. the end £ being made heavier by a . b. to unlock the barrel C. C a lels barrel on which the rope L is wound. to be taken up by the tongs fV. the . When the tide is ftrongeft. Ihaft D . The pile engine for LXXXIX. and going up through the guides at R. and I'omc always forcing {hrouoh R. and ram I i 2^ are drawn up. cranks ftand every way. by which means it locks the barrel B to the great wheel KI iht forcing bar going into the hoUovif axis of the great A. the roller at the end G being prcfied with the great rope. which with the end prelTes down the bar KI. rope fixed at^^. going through the cog-wheel a lea 'er the barre}. D. Weft miyijler-bridge. weight . and lets the bolt F defcend.it the horfes froni falling when the ram is difcharged. d timbers lor horfes to D X T H draw at. When the rope Hflackens. MO. the great rope //is wound about til! the B . GK a. At the infide of the guides at R. c. At the bottom of the follower is a flit. £/ is i. the horlcs go round. thrufts down the end of the leaver at F. where it is fixed. The ule of this is to hinder the follower The barrels BC are moveable about the barrel great axis D. and that in the purnp opens. the end being heavier. 241 fhiics. drives the piles. PY the guides between which the ram falls. this is to prevc.pipe i^ into the pun^p P. going through the great fhafc this lifts up the bolt F.Sea. and the follower S. where they are faftened together. The cog-wheel and moveable about E are fixed together into by the bolt F. forces the end K againft the catch at A'. Z a. moveable about the center. htads of-water in a day. there is always water nfing in feme of the punips . carrying the weight A'. the great rope going round the b:irrel B. torgs . in which is fixed the tongs fF".. * Ex. fixed to the great fliafc the great cog-wheel 283. S. and hinders the bar AT from afcending. a trundle and fly turned by A the cog-v. T. over the pulley P. the valve in S ler rilts COMPOUND ENGINES. thefpting 7 forces the end A from the catch. And as the 23i. S the follower. this rclts upon the leaver EL XTa great leaver moveable about 3.

XC.rr B to the wheel J. But the rim or out edge KK is at a fmall diftance from the ends of the leaves. handle is put to turn it by. The frame ordtr BCAD. Then the follower 5 taking hold or the rope Z. and the r. the end 5 of the tongs tikes hold of the hamuli 6.Mis the fucking pipe. the follower ^del'cends by its wcigiit. with the bolt /•. the circle of iron EF. and unlocks tlie barrel B. which turning sbjut the axis. put an iron axis and fixed there. and the end 5 of the tong. is a thin ring of wood failening the leaves all together and the rin^s are put two circles on the other fide. 284. CD an iron crofs fixed . abed . AB. and is another wooden tube communicating The axis turns upon two concave with the infideof the cafe. being a tube fixed upon the cafe. To thefe are 12 leaves /. On this fide or flat of the cafe. and dcprcilis thi end ciown the bar /v/. which thnifts down the end J'' I of the leaver £7. i. like and alfo upon the iron circle EF. t II it conies to the ram T. and lets the ram fall down. i.'. raitVs the end o( the leaver X}\ which thuiiU A'. On thcle of blanketing to go clofc to the cafe. and the horfcs f :11 going about. a:id i'o is eafily conveyed to any place dtiired. llips over ihe handle Then the rope // flacker s. opens the end 5. whilfl: new air afccnds along the .im T is taken up as before. I. and the handle turned about in the Th. and lets the bar rile. there is a hole left againft the holes i. foG is as to communicate with the cavities. OF G tongs come between ends 4 4 together. and the weight E raifes the bf>lc P\ and locks the b. /. fide of the figure. i which reach no nearer the center than the iron circle. i. tot* is is fixed. through which the air palTcs into the cavities between the leaves. DESCRIPTION the inrlined planes. and on the further end a This v/heel :s enclofed in a cafe. whiih Iwims upon the water . /. the other flat is cloli?. and the fpring 7 6 of the rim. the handle being on the back Ikle. being fixed. which Iqucez'ng the T 1 Ex.motion of the leaves moves the air very fwiftly to the outfide. which being confined by the rim.p r I v. /. All this machine is placed upon a boat. pieces of metal fixed to the cafe. GH Si blav:ing wheel. rhe blowing pipe. is forced in a tangent along the tube G . by the holes i. are holes. tori. which juft touches the edges of all the leaves.cs the end K from oft" the catch at top of the bar Id. to let the air through . There is the fame crofs and iron circle on the other 5s Through the center of both fides but without any hole.

nr If the pipe difis. Ex. for if it be removed 10 any JF a AD cemented higher place. i. at leaft for a fmall time. a little warmed to drive out fome of the air . :4B an artificial . into the cavity B. of the pipe Note. if the end FO be flopped with the finger. 286. frcdi air niay prefcnely be injeded into the room. will make This may be made ulc of the water rife fenfibly in the tube. zni p g. water barometer. frefh air. being taken off. through the holes i. a very fmall dccreafe in the air's gravity. LM Ex. and the water may be made to Hand at any point B. bafons at FO. runs through the pipe OF And the fountain being turned. and communicate with the Gr if the tube perfed abroad. is a fmall tube open at both ends. and fpour out at to give it liberty. Then the bottle being in the neck of the bottle CE.XUL COMPOUxND LM ENGIx^JES. if may foon be thrown out through the tube G. and G with any cLfe room. the defcend through 67//. heat. be continued to the place where any foul . the fountain ftands on the end J. The waE.. This is a very fenfible barometer . and fpout out at I as before. XCII. that it is a thermometer as well as a barometer. will water -. through the blowing pipe G. by fucking or blowing at A. turning the fotintnin like an hour glafs upon the end B. while the jet /i is playing. I i 2 Ex. B two cavities /f and fountain to play with either end up. . and 284. the jet willceafe playing which KB.right. GHI znd CDE two curve tubes open at both end«. and then vent which. it will play a-frelh as often as you will. will retain the fame degree of -. pour water in at O. Then it is fet u. KB two open pipes. But it is fubjecSt to this inconvenience. The air palFing up the p. into the cavities between the leaves . the water will defcend through the pipe CDE.pe ter falling down upon the hafon EK. p^Oes through the hole in the frame. which goes mto the bottle as it cools. XCI. the 1 o preIcaft alteration of heat railing the water in the tube. it muft be encloied in a veffcl of fand the air included in the bottle. and fo may be made to play or ftop at pleafure. it will begin again -. And fo bcini> turned. 245 j the fucking pipe LM. to find the level of places. fo thrown out of the wheel.Sca. fixed to the 28)- K and When Then 0. the endv^ is immerged in water tinged with cochineal.

che fridtion of the pipes will diminidi its velocity. provided be large enough to fupply it v/ich water. but to turn oft' gradually in a curve as DIO. and the jet will not rite fo high. or elfe it will not I'poutfo high.ghefl:.nzontal place. the higlier the jet will go.:d upon the end of the pipe. The greated jets never rife 300 feet highj for the velocity is fo great. which conveys water from the refervoir. the jet will only rile to 5 feet thus. The diameters of pipi. If a refrrvoir be 50 fcec high. Pipes of conduft ought not to be made with elbows. JG of the pipe of conuuftbc ndtr the furface of the water KH.fible . the jet \v.244 DESCRIPTION Ex. by the refidance of the air. kqi. A jet never rifcs to the full height of the refervoir. And ia thefe cafes the jet will rife to th? greated height it ran have. fpounn. be 3 mches. and the larger the adjutage. at lead. And the deftd: FG is as the fquare of the height of the refervoir OG But fmallcr jets fall diort more than in tliat proportion. or adjutage.il feem to rife out of the water KU. ter is dilfjpated into fmall drops. but the bed f)rtfor a thin plate wicli a hole in it.iter flows. the pipe of conduit mud be 6 inches. •.10 cial fountains. which is better. li:' a ball . XCIII. that the wathe pipe of conduft -. being a fmall hole la a (hin h. or if the adjutage be an inch. And if you would have the velocity in the pipe of conduct to be the fame ai ail heights of th.. then che fquare of the diameter of the pipe of conduilt mud be as the cube of the diameter of the aijuta^e. refervoir. The adjutage Is fometimes madecohical. the horizontal heiglit of the wahcighr of the jet. In general the diameter of the adjutage ought to be nearly as the iquare root of the height of the refervoir. the jet OF wants the fpace /'G of the height of the refervoir. of 287. 01' the jet of water. If the height be 5 feet i inch. fpo'Jting hi. (iA. O the cotk. being more retarded by the rcfidance of the air. and be inv. as in many artifiter in the refervoir. is The bore of the fidiutise ousht to incrcafe wicn ihe height of the rclervoir^. /ID the rcfcrvoir v/here the water i* of cornluift.. 11 If tiie pait 1..sof conduft ou^ht at lead to be 5 or 6 times the diameters of the adjutage. through whii h the \v. and the adjutage half an inch the pipe of conduft fliould. whi' h defcends again in the dreams I'E and /•"//. that the triiSlion may not increafc toomuch . When water is carried a great way through pipes.^ op thruuf^h ADOF\% ajet d'eau. CDJO the pipe OF the buried the hole 0.

DE to CExBF. H. it will be fufpended ^ j q by the pillar of water. Then £beirg put down to C. the pin is put into the th. II. IV is by degrees- Ex. LE. kt perpendicular going through -. and this drives the trunHJc B with the upper ifone P. the pins G. KL is the upper 9oor. Ex. in is to be raifed. going into the axis D of the great wh ei . in E. The center of gravity of IG and AC is about the pins the weight to be in B .d falling into the fho. under the ieavt-r . which turns thr great wheel C. And the pin G being put into the firft hole /. LO is a flit the leaver CD. E the 5 the lanthern of 7 rounds. whr^re it is gruund. the weight raifed up. /G. weghed . then the end C being raifed to E. 288. . F. / the traces to which As the horfe goi^s about in the one or two horfcs are yoa'<ed. its u(e is to raife a great 295^ weight. for weighing vaft weights. and then the pin H'k put into the fecond hole K. 1 hus the leaver and pins being When the weight IV on the hook and chain at the end D H thus fhitted from hole to hole. A G the two m. . XCV. and play there without falling. and the end f raifed. and moveable JGE MB and C. he draws the arm H. XIII.£. into which goes it. ///. C the /pur wheel having 294.. as ABy. and the end C being put down. and in between the ftone<.r arm 8 feet long. path 123. The whole is withift^a houfe. Ex. the pin G is put into the fecond hole /. runs thra')gh a h )le at top of the (lone F.Sed. COMPOUND ENGINES. -. pieces. AB a lifting fiock. H. J H Ex. KK two fets which there moves of holes . 2S7. the corn is put into the hopper A. XCVI. AC a crols bar lupporting the end C. ABC is 72 cogs Jlioe. it is hung of the leaver. ai. H a leaver i. compound Jieelyard. Here the power F is to the weiyh.U-Jio>ies. and of CA' and the hook DN. /' the counter poife moveaule along the graduated The machine is hung upon the no(/ks at L. a horfe mill to grind corn tie hopper. which grinds the CTn . two fixed CK two leavers moveable about B and E. ha. 245 a ball of cork or light wood be laid at F. the other end with the weight is raifed. leaver EG.rd hole K. XCIV.

AB engine to raife a great weight. A boh gin. and at the lame time raifes the end /. movina on the axes L and M. y^P the water-wheel a -. together with the end F D working. each mortar will hold about 20 lb. armed with iron at the bottom . DH.2\b F I D E S C R I P T I O N OF C. Gil. b. one cranl< as C pulls down of the b-am FI. D. and 4 or 5 inches broad. the mortars m. in thtfe pcftils are pins fixed E toanfwerthe pins a. 10 feet long. IIK two beanr. B its axis. m. two pieces of fide the wheel. falling Ex. XCVII. by the water C and D When the water-wheel goes about. the pins their pins. for raifing water. H. &c. Ex. are wooden mortars. in m . and the end K to alcend. the crank C begins to afcend. whilfl: the other goes down. which lift them up as the rol- vi. K two arches with chains fixed to them. 11^. timber movino about on the cranks C and /). XCVIII. are timbers through which the pcftils work. or cogs fixed in either roller. XCIX.. and beat the ingredients to a into the as thefe rollers. on each EF. a. and Icrve JK. and dcprcfTjng the end K. which draws the water up in is raifing In the mean time the other crank the pump O. the rollers take up th. O^. the water-courfe. Ex. the end H. A guiipowder-mill. And cogs are placed on all fides the circumference of the there will be always fome peftiis rifing. lers turn LN to keep them direil:. AB i large water-whpcl carried two cranks. -^ crane or pofition. able at the joints /-'. h. a. i^c. the end / begins to deSo that one beam goes up icend. pafte. to which they are fixed. 10 or 12 pins. m. pedils fall. RPS fpur-wheel carrying the two drums C. and the rollers CF. 208. upon two pins. a. I. TV are wrought. lying contrary ways. peftiis pellils fall by and when thefc pins go off. upon the axis. and others in a regular order. into which the round. 10 or 12 peftils. of parte. and there is always one pump the bar Ef. 296. When by motion of the wheel. CD a fpurwheel . and keep it in any a double wheel tor a man to walk in . equally on all fides. and alio moveII. b goes about. ^c. as the mill b. 297. The materials being put into the mortars m. by means of which the pumps O.

together with CD. K its axis 15 or 20 feet long. G. and the end of the catch /// Aides freely over the teeth of the wheel F . C. I. and E is moved by CD. running in the ftocks G. flops the thrufting the rod againft the catch. and this deprefies the end down the piece NM. and 2 feet long. and is moveable about the pins M. and on the foot Z. G are three wheels alfo fixed p j ^ upon one axis. are in a pit. hinders the wheel from turning back. oppofue fides of the axis. fixed to tv/o chains that go over the arches O. the The wheel (. running in the frame FFFF./f the cog-wheel. 6 cranks . C a trundle 3 feet diameter. the leaver PO is to be raifcd higher. of which G is of wood. lofeetdia. OP. . £. PST z ftrino. if But you pull at the (fring T. D. by the tiller E . piece of timber fixed to the ring at M. the catch IH ading againft the teeth of F. PD. walking in the ring 1234. two cranks of iron on D. and draws which ring being drawn clofe againft the wheel G.Sed. ami out of the teeth ^IR of the wheel F. reachin. draw about the with the cog-wheel. the cranks D. this falls in between the a half ring of iron. 5 its axis. at the ftring TS. ^.299. meter. When the h-jrles. iV. i 2 3 4 the path in which the The wheel horfes go round. two rods of wood or iron. F When the great wheel JBgoes round. going upon the edge of the wooden wheel G. //. An engine for drazving wntcr. and the motion being flopped. F. -. in which is a teeth of the wheel F. I two rods of iron. But left it defcend too faft. raifes ON motion. moveable about R and P and turning round on the cranks D. two beams moving upon an axis in the frame SSSS. reaching from the beams to the cranks.. or regulates it at pleafure. H. and to two piftons that work in the pumps x. VXTV the' rope going about the axis of the great wheel to raile the NM ^R weight.y. it raifes the leaver it PO. COMPOUND ENGINES. this turns the trundle C. torope FXfV riU'es the weight /7''. D. and to the leaver PN-. Ex. and fo keeps the weight //^fufpended. E the tiller to which the horfes are yoaked . catch IH. and A. and trundle C are in a pit . gether with Fand G . together with the ring KLM. and lets the weight ^^dtfcend. a grove. ^qg HI \% a catch moving on the pin /. the furtace of the earth. by pulling of the leaver. to the able about the center 0. KLM 247 wheel upon the fame axis.D drives £. fix-d to the leaver at P. the axis K under ground D ^R RD -. XIII. The leaver PI^ is movea wooden rod.

but may be fet nearer or furdrum of ther from the axis. 22.248 F I DESCRIPTION -. whilft 0/and the p:(ton defends in Thus whilll one pilton goes up. the other goes the pump X. OF G. and the other end i^. going on the fquare end of the drum of D 30 or 32 teeth . But as the wheel yl goes is piiiled down. with tli. upon the fpindles of thefe whorles are put the bobbings. 2 feet diameter. this is The reel confifls of 4 long pieces of wood. are whorles. of 33 or 34 teeth. 3 of which are fixed in the cog wheel D. of i foot and 6 or S inches diameter. by help of the pins i. a fpur-whecl.e for worked.ng 6 or 7 inches . the end of the beam P In the mean rod Ix . 'he bobbing with the wcrfted on it at c. and 4 feet broad. the odicr crank railcs the rod DR. they . 1. ^R. The whorles mav be taken out of the fnecks at plealurc. is not fixed in the cog-wheel. with the thread or worfted. pifton goes RD round the axis. and draws the water out of the pump x. Th: fe whorles run in iron fockcts at the botto-n of the frame. timber fhould be put between every two working beams. the bobl^'ng at b. and thel'e will move three or and v/ork three or four pumps. D and raifcs the other end O. at equal diftances Ex.9. and i^/ riles up. for the axles to run in. 3. and they are kept in thel'e fnecks by a The bobbings feather put acrofs the flit through two holes. 12 rounds. diameter of the who le where the belt runs. carried by the cog-wheel B . one may have three or four cranks. locrjied. The fpindle and whorle is reprefented at a. PD down into the pump_)'. carried round by the leathern belt IKLIH. with the rod / defcends-. 22. and are alio fixed to one another by crofs bars going through the axis the fourth long piece of wood which compofes the of the reel reel. CI. 6. pulls down cranks D. The length ct the whorle and fpindle is 10 or II nches. or 8 3 feet diameter. 6 or 7 feet long. OP. 3C0. rounds. and draws about. But beams of four beams I'^R.1. fixed to the upper fide of the bottom pare of the frame. with the end R of the time. thefe a. beam. diameter of the bobbing at top it inch at the fmallell part * of an inch . down. and thf rod being drawn down. and there is always one pump difcharging water. a fixed frame 6 or 7 feet long. fixed to the reel E. and the -. length of the bobb. the rod water out of the pump^-. 2i. Inllead of two cranks. thefe rounds are fixed into the barrel G. axis of the cog-wheel. and are kepr in their pljces bv the fnecks 3. ^c. and Fa MNOP . . about an inch . /^EL a twijling mill to make thread or- B a cog-wheel C the 4.

ii to the number of fpindles. turned. and may be taken off one after another. the threads being put through the wires 4. i£c. COMPOUND ENGINES. the fewer rungs ic muft have. 6 When the hanks as many as there are bobbings. XIII. 5.. Alfo in the horizontal beam ^R. are of fufHcient bigncfs. the breadth from A to being 9 or 10 feet. which drives the drum F. and then one fide of the reel will fall in. without breaking. and the vvhorles and bobbings very fwiftly about. -.f^g -qq. out of its focket . making will not come to be wound tapering on the bobbroadeft at the low end. and fixt to the reel. are two wire^ fixed in it. carries the co^-wheel B about. The lower part of the frame V K k MN . by and the help of a wheel. focket. otherwife freely off the bobbing?. 2 -. i. 6 are two hanks upon the reel. and others of more or fewer rungs put on. The double bings. from the bobbing inch. 5 inches. The number the diimeter of the vvhorle about half in 6i fnecks. they muft be taken off tha reel.he trameMA'^is drove back. moves them. 249 they ufe for thread are reprefenced zzd . £?<:. are the fame number of wires. as occafton requires. for woriled is 4 feet. which is done by pulling out the pms i. '. and make the hanks 6. may be taken otT. <i. and the hanks flackt. with a How motion. as c then the then put within the belt IKL under the fnecks 2. as at it yarn. 11. the number of wires are eau. by lifting the end V of the axis. by means of a wedge S. is turned round by the axis of the cog-wheel B. and C carries So about the fpur-wheel and the reel. and fj kept at The trundle C a greater diftance from the roller G. they are put upon the fpindles. for the thread to run through. wires in the upper part of the frame. for the thread to run are through from the bobbings.out of its D -. as defcribed in the figure. 5. fide to the reel. 2. which refting handle A being on the whorles 2. and the barrel G j the barrel G moves the belt in dircftion IKL about the fratie MN. by lifting the end T". thefe threads will be wrapt about the reel.Sedl. 5. to dired: the thread to the reel. When the thread or worfted is wound upon the bobbings. that is 40 or 50 in alh 4. f. the drum C. of the axis of the keel. by ftretching. eh a piece of lead which p j g_ goes upon the top of the fpindie to keep down the bobbing -. fpindles. and the finer the The circumference of thread. 5. n are rollers for tlie edge of the belt to move ovrr. In the mean time. ^c. and bobbmgs on one of the engine is 20 or 24. When the belt grows Hack 6. is it The frame work confilts of perpendicular beams fixt in others lying horizontal. 4 inches \ for thread is 5 the reel DE feet.

in which the bottom part of the in the upper. G the feccnd wheel of 60 the third wheel of 56 teeth. / the balance wheel of 30 teeth. which as the wheel goes round. P. and teeth. On the axis qr is fixt two fi:ces wx aid the end r of that ax s. AEKF /IE the ftriking part. of 6 or 7 inches circumference and on thefe barrels.2 50 !trt DESCRIPTION confifts of at •. one place. moveable round about within the wheels. thrult back the end 5 of the hammer O. which is cut away in 3Q2. the wheel D. cut out of boards. and pinned faft on. In the lower (which is broader than pieces of wood between. The work F H the balance. fpindle of the whorles move The pare OP. and thefe arbors are fixt in the barrels P. and when it goes off the pin. the hanimer O ftrike againft the bell N. and about a liand's breudtli dillancc one above the other. ihr' lifter and on g . and the racket wheels ^fixt to the barrel. 1 he ends R. b its pinpn of wheel oi 78 C the hoop wheel of 48 teeth. to let the end 2 of the daeiit fall in. the therm firings Tt are wound. of FIG. c its pinion of 6 8 leaves the warning wheel of 48 teeth. which comes throu^^h the lore plate. Ex.p upon its rim. The following is a common 8 days clock. MN^ two elliptical pieces. Likewile At\\tgreat of 7 leaves . put the Ifter 10. there is a pin which ftops againll the end x of the armtj:. teeth. contained between 2 brafs plates is as follows . clocks are almoft as various as the faces of thofe that make them. and the detent 1 2. and fixt thereto by 4 perpendicular pieces or All the reft will be plaiti from the figure. its its . pinion i K . the fpring 7 makes •. and its pin:on d of leaves .v. F come thro* the face of the clock. 8 is The . A7^' is the moving part . but are kept from turning back. D 6 leaves . R. the fif/l or great wheel of 96 teeth . the winch or handle 11. B iht pin wheel oi 48 teeth. J03- ClI. E the fy. in which are the wires. of the arbcrs oi the wheels A. The weights are wound up by help of In the rim of the wheel 5 are S pins. the fnccks are fixt. ihe other) are the lockets.. The different forms and conftrudions of is a clock. its pinion g of 8 leaves pinion h oi ^ leaves-. is an elliptical piece like the under ones. e its pinion of 6 leaves. with 3C0. pillars of wood. that carry the wheels about. 1 '1*^ wheel C ha> a hu<. which go round tviopullies with the Thefe two barrels are weights. In the rim of 203. by the catih S and nsjpring. On the axi^ op is fixt the two pieces vs. and hinders thi wheels turning about.

fo that if the pendulum moves. The double wheel Xl" is carried by V. wheel /aft. under fide of 8. it muit move the rod KL. and pinned there. and then a pin put in to keep it there the pinion of Z. and through a hole in the face is put the hollow focket of the feco>id pointer 12. and turns upon a pin fixt on the back of the plate. by leaving out the wheels V. and is driven by the wheel z. is put 20 teeth. Xm. The arbor being hollow. and upper fide of 9. upon this p i g. will force the . and putting upon the axis of A infl:ead of V . are poiifhed planes . And if the minute pointer be thrult about. its COMPOUND ENGINES. and likewife / with the hour pointer. and the minute pointer W^ upon the end of s. Z T n . their ends •. -. and the count wheel is divided into parts of unequal lengths. This part may be made more fimple. the wheel z being thrull: down to bend the fpring. The dial wheel/ ot 48 teeth. Now the fpring / l<eeps the wheel z pretty tight upon the axis of G. then ihs come through it. is put the wheel z of 502. arbor between the face and fore plate. The arbor of the wheel A goes through the back plate upon it. The wheel Z of 40 teeth turns upon a fixt pin or axis. (howing hours and minutes. has 8 teeth. The pendulum hangs on the fixt pirce of brafs A/. this fpring /. and the koiir hand k is put upon the fquare end of /. And the face is alfo divided into two circles. and under the wheel is put with the concave fide upward. the brafs fpring with its hollow /f^Y/ upon the arbor or focket of 2. fo that a K ::i k 2 the palJat 8. 251 arbor of the wheel G comes through (he face . by a button at top. oq?. and drives the wheel/ and the hour hand. fo that G will carry it about along with it. 9 of the balance K. according to the flrokes the clock is to flrike at every hour part of this wheel is reprefented at s. and a flat piece of brafs goes into the Jork L. and tooth Hiding along the under fide of The pallats are fo formed. it will force about the wheel z. X. A flender fpring is put on with this wheel to keep it tight. having a fqiiare hole in it. 1 he arbor of the balance wheel / comes through the fore plate. T - along with it. 8. almoft to the face. behind the plate is put the wheel 1^ (or pnion of report) of 28 teeth. and balance K face being put on. that the where the teeth of the made floping. and a thin piece of brafs going into a Hit at M. to lit the (houlder of the arbor of G. and alfo Z.Sedl. called the p'nion cf report. and this fhows the feconds by a fmall circle divided into 60 parts. but it muft be put on the contrary way. The wheel has alio 28 teeth.

and by the oblique figure the end of raifcs the end of the detent higher. with tlie mi. and the rell to and the pin wheel caufes the hammer to'ftrike fo . becaufe the teeth between the notclies are made longer and longer in the count wheel j and it turns round the . wh'ch drives /. m raifes -. and in its return to the left. till the pin in the rim ftops at the end x. the wlieel i-' drives 6". If . 3 Q2. and then the deitent z falls into the vacancy in the hoop. which lifts up the piece 3. General rules in all clocks. -. and the pendulum made to vibrate. the lificr 10. and lb on alternately . which fuffers the wheel i). In the ftriking part. the -uix wheel raifes s C moves the detent 2. once in 12 hours. about. the pin wheel being divided by the pinion of the hoop wheel. are mark: in the wheel Q^_ C put together. keeps the pendulum in and the wheel /goes round in a minute. mark . whic-h continues fo till the next hour. motion As the wheel G goes round it ca'rics about z. But as the wheel 2 goes further about. and locks cy. the pin the fvs .252 j! i DESCRIPTION Tlic work the wheel is of ^. the quotient Ihews the number of pins in the pin wheel. then whilfl: the pendulum vibrates to the right. a tooth flips ofl" tiie fvallat 9. Then the minute pointer is put on and the hour pointer the fame And the wheels 2.hts hanging upon the wheels /-/. which drives //. The wei<i. and ialfo out of the notch of the count weel. a tooth flips off the paihu 8. will force it to the right. often. the arbor of 2. till the end s falls into a notch of the count wheel. then on the right another goes off 9. the lifter lO falls down off the pin. and likcwilc in and pinion d.. wbicli hinders the motion. which drives / once round in 12 hours. together "with the end 2 of the detent being raifed above the hoop. the balance A' to the left hand .v. and arm the piece 3 raifcs the detent i 2. I'hen the wheel it turns round. 2 drives Z. •. turn round work . and the weight caufing the teeth to a6b againlt the pallats of the balance. Z. and then (be ftrikes as before the wheel C goes round every ftroke of the clock but fne ftrikes i more every fucceeding hour. mark to way on the arbor of /". and a tooth Aiding along the upptr liile of the pallnt 9. Whilft the wheel 2 goes round. F . / are fct to one another accordinc/ to their marks.. together with the piece D and latch 3. by fctcing the tecih together that J3 and in the pinion f. that the piece 10 is raifed again. nute pointer once round in an hour-.

in this cafe the If G turns round once in an hour and fhews minutes . . .p i If 78 be divided by the number of pins. are fet ^dmvn thus. '- 202.'" ' o 5) 60 (12 times. As if the pinion be 5 -and' the wheel 60. if. Any wheel and the pinion it drives. the wheals drive the pinions-.aaorher. From the great wheel to the balance. multiplied by In the . the is the pinion that «ion on the fame axis. moving pare. In the former way. /-' former quickens. .e .Sedt. muft be 12. the pinions drive the' v/heels'.q^^ The hoop wheel divided by the pinion of the warning wheel. then the produfl of the two quorients muft H I be 60. will have the fame motion with another wheel and pinion. it is Bt •do'wn thus.-pinion that works \h. number on the left hand of any wheefl and the number over it is the piIn the latter way the feveral fraffionai quanties reprelent the quotient.the. tlie but to the dial wheel. mvift be equal to the train. then the quotient of /divided by the pinion 'of Z. then the quotient of G divided by the pinion of H.. . when their quotients are equal. the train is the number of beats the which is 3600. if (he beats feconds •clock makes m an hour balance wheel mud: have 30 teeth. 12. (he <3UotietTt fhews the revolutions that the pin wheel mati. Or ihus-^'-r-= ' ifz tiojieSo The teeth of . - 4 ) -36 ( ^ times ' ' -•vrn 6) g^ 80 (10 times 54 (^9 times -. the latter lellens the motion. : divided by the pinion of /. muft be a whole number.' feveralWheels and pinions that work ' *' " •' I'--' ' -' irf .'-I -. COMPOUND ENGINES. Any wheel being divided by. and that multithe quotient of plied by twice tte teeth in /. multiplied by the quotiem of Z divided by s. And if {he beats lecbnds. the count wheel. •' ''• ' " ' If alfo G (liows the hours. 5) 40 (8 limes Or thus JLx^^X ilx it 4865 drives .es for one revolution of o.. XIII. . ' 111.on. ihews how manytums thafpiftien hath to one turri^f the wheel.

or where they a£f. ort. you may divide it into two or more quotients. range to (p. their diaAnd the diameters mult be as the number of teeth in each. from the center S and let the ading fide of the tooth range (not to x. the outfide pf the circle delcribed with the radius xu The inconvenience of any of thele conftrudions. and alfo thevvorking fide of the tooth XfA. are here formed afier the common way From the center but there is another way of forming them. that the in and can hardly find room to balance wheel. Or perhaps it may anfwer the end as well. A The longer the arms K8. and to make but fmall vibrations . pallats are too thick. and for more exadtnefs. and to fit the notches exaftly without fhakinjr. ^p each But the conftru(5t. but to the midmeter mult be meafurcd. And the ends of the pallats ay. muft range a little — : Then the teeth of the the right Iiand of the center 6.G. but) to y plane ay. clock goes exafter as the perdulum is longer.S.254 r DESCRIPTION equal. and ie. any motion you may ufe one wheel and one pinion. and h. The pallats 8. to dcf ribe a. and iu And any tooth. Si . cut in one In a wheel and pinion that work in one another. and the bob pretty heavy. to play between two cycloidal cheeks . provided they all give Therefore when a number is too big to be motion. which refcmbles the fliape of a bay leaf. del'cribe two fmall arches a(i. LVllI. Sy\. all the fame or a wiieel of 90 a piwheel of 45 docs a pinion of 5 nion of 10. the eafier the clock goes. The excellency of clock work. inches. . OF c 302 I Thus a wheel of 36 drives a pinion of 4. — |- xf*. XL. XdLI. and ^f. the fame wheel. 9. equal to 4 al and let the ends ay. is. muft all range to x the center of the balance wheel. till it makes its e/cape off the angle « or ^i.on will be better thus From the center t del'cribe tiie arches a/3. not to dle of the tooth. ^Q. will have no cffcft in mc'ving the penduKup ^ but lies dead. confifts in forming the teeth truly. of motion 6. balance wheel will fall alternately on the fides «. or Ss. Kg. or . and to play freely the teeth muft be cue into tiie forai of cycloids. as a . take 9t. Thefefmall lines or planes o^S. whilft it adls againft a(i. and Si.and the In elfc feveral •. . See the theory length of a fccond pendulum is ^9 of pcHdulums in Prop. the extremity. fall be- tween the teeth of thje Ex.and'thcn in moving olong the to it forces the pendulum to the right or left. or wheels a^d fcvcral pinions.

d. and the other end s lying upon the plate AI. thele parts are defcnbed at a. c. b. i •. The ends of the arbor are hardened Heel. for this fcrews through C. a the pinion on its arbor. in the part F. rs is a fpring. and then th'e fcrews are lockt there. 255 F I cm. and hinders the wheels from dtfcendinu fiwer. of different Ihape and bignefs . as it goes about th'S goes upon th. 5 is a brafs wheel of 96 teeth. and T he end of this Aider turns round in a collar in the end G. and pointed . O. are twofcrrw ins. and thefe fcrews are let to a proper dilfance. and to the fides of the groove. Ex. which may be taken off the arbor and othf'rs put on . to keep c and the wheel b raft on.h nut fcrews upon the end of the pin. i. its end a rrlts upon the plate AI. and this arbor runs between the checks LM. and fitting clofely 'o the edges of the plate. and may be fixt by turning the nut 2 with the key 9. 304- JBC is a cutt'Hg engine to cut the teeth of clock wheels. by fcrewing them in or out by help of a key py going on Iquare upon the end. i. c a hollow piece which goes on the fame axis . this is to caufe it to move trueiy along the groove whc n forced forward or backward. by the nuts O. There are a great number of thcfe cutting wheels. b the cutting wheel going upon the arbor which is oftagonal. which fcrew through LM.Sea. and the nut d Icrews on the end of the arbor. through which cheeks there goes 2 fcrews. turns up perpendicular which gorsfqiiare into this part.e arbor of the pinion D. whiv. AC an iron plate zf tcec long. which are joined by the crofs bars A'^ and P . by help of the key p. whole edge is nothing but a file to cut the teeth. points . fixt with one end to the under-fide of the crofs-bar iV. thefc move between the cheeks LL. to this is fixt tne part F hy a pin /f. LLMM. and likfwife to the upper and under fide of the plate . carryt-ng the pinion Z) of 2 leaves . by the fcrew at / and its handle . AIM. and go with their : •. with holes to receive the points of the arbor . and through a round hole in F . f is the cutting wheel. this is mide of fevcr^l places of iron a groove in the end C fixe to one another with Icrews. and ? or 4 inches broad EE G i/lider. Aiding along another plate fixt 4 or 5 inches lower. G. io that the part F can turn about the krew pin K. and this fpring raifes the part when the notch is cue tu is a fcrew pin going through the bar P. thefe cheeks and their machiiiery turn round on the axis LM.XUL COMPOUND ENGINES. and fits it exaiSlly. having the fides marked that are put to each other.

to be cut there fix it by the handle F . then take hold of the handle 5. an inch in diameter ^ and this axle goes through the two plates JI. and fcrewed faft. from one point to another. arbor ei proper for the wheel m. 360. by turning the two nuts. and turn the wheel t\\\ z falls into fome point of the circle . 76.<^/2. with the flioulder h againtt the top of that axis. 1 put on above £^. and pull it down. T is the winch to turn the wheel B 2 \s the handle to pull down the machinery near a . till the edge of / lie juft over the edge of the wheel w. 90. is to be divided into. thel'e pins points into 1\ which has two holes to receive them F I c. which being put on. There ivy is are fcveral arbors ci. but is reprel'ented at R. the plate. juft to fit the part^f. being put -.]•. Thefc fcrew pins. EE . m is the wheel to be cut into teeth . and may be fixt any way by the two fcrev/s. there are 24 concentric circles. and. nuts. 365. IS to divide a revolution into any number of equal parts.Sy 54. as a center in the end w. there fcrew it faft with the fcrew x. the edge of this plate. 204. 62. they are then Then fcrewed hard down with the nut k going on the end e. 52. The ufe of thefe 70. j is moveable back and forward. each di- M H vided by points into a certain number of equal parts. 64... is To An which to be cut. 2: is a fteel point. 256 D E S C R I P T I O N OF . there being a flit in it. moveable index . containing the fame number of parts. it turns about a nail. 88.. and the piece / above it.. which alio fcrcw ^'^'^ lockc 10 L. all turn round together in the holes in F. as appears at R and then the wheel m and the parts k. and fcrewed faft. 366. 80. through the axis ^. 92. then holdufe this machine. 72. 118. and drive the machinery with the wheel / towards ^. there is a hole made in the center. and checks.. to keep it faft. 48. viz. if the wheel // be turned round. 96. upon the pins. then the nut n is fcrewed upon the end /. ac- cordmg ci is to thefc different circles. c. H I ing . till/ falls againft the edge of . 78. and both the wheel and its axle turn about together v Near the lower plate cannot be Teen.v . which moves along the circumference of any circle you require. turn the handle and fcrew /. 84. to let the bottom of the fcrew X pafs through as it moves. moving the index wy till the fteel point 2 fall in the circle. the wheel . plate is fixt to a hollow brais axle i^ 1 his inches diameter. being a brafs circular plate 15 or 16 is the dividing piate. it carries about with it the wheel > in. Then putting on the cutting wheel/ proper for the work. 58. 60. Loofen the fcrew . xoo. for fitting different wheels m. an arbor going through the hollow axle . 68.

and turn the machine as before. PG. As if you want 21 teeth. then you muft fet z to every 2d. and there fcrew faft the pin /f.on with a key.'-on cafe-hardened. then draw down 5. and hinThen let go 5. -. EH axles.Sea. This done. and this the workman muft do by hand. Ikipping the reft. and it the quotient be 2.«. f i g.uft proceed. and then turn the cutting frame about A' as an axi?. XIII. i£c. L 1 the . take fuch a circle as can be divided by your number. till you have made another cut deep enough. but you muft firft eafe the fcrew /<". and then your wheel is cue into i^s proper the to be cutanfwers to none of the circles. ing COMPOUND ENGINES. and the fpring r^ ders it from going further. and proceed as before. tdke the circle 84. ^Htwo ^Qr. which are fquare. 3d. A crown wheel may be cut the fame way but then the center of the wheel/ mult be brought over the edge of the wheel Alio oblique teeth may be cut in a to be cut. is a glazier's vice. turning one another. lo that you muft fet 2 to every 4th tooth only. till 2 has gone thro' all the points of diviHon in the circle. After the teeth are cut with this engine. and this drives Z) with the cutter/. AX. as to leave a fpace equal to the thicknefs of the lead . and of the thicknefs of a pane of glals . they are ftill to be wrought into their proper form. the better to draw the lead through. which are fciewed faft. thefe wheels are fixed to the axles. and fixed on each fide to the frame with fcrews thefe are cut with an opening where the two'wheels meet. it there with one hand. till 2 fall in the next point of divifion . wheel after the fame manner . D -. 4th point. 3. till the cutter/ have a proper degree of obliquity. with files fuitable for the bufincls . l£c. Whtn number of teeth. CIV. ML. not being above -^V of an inch diftant acrofs their edges are feveral nicks cut. cafe-hardened. the pin tn (properly fet) ftopsat the plate yfC. 237 the other-. 4. fo that between running the frame C. pull about the wheel //. two pinions of 12 leaves'each. this motion cuts a notch in the edge of . for in drawing window lead. by the nut 2. and fet fo near the wheels. . J. railcs up the wheels. and 904. turn the winch T with which carries about B. (£c. and kept faft there bythenu's P. two wheels of i. which divided by 21 gives 4 . •. E. and run very near one another. and when it is deep enough. and there fixed. and going upon the ends of the axles. B two cheeks of iron. And thus you m. and fo cut It.'^. number of teeth wanted Ex. F. jl inch broad.

it will be better tife 7 inches in the length. and fharpen one end a little with a knife. -.mill for grinding corn. and big enough to go through to repair the engine. and put then turning the handle /. Inltead of one you may ufe two of thefe fpiral leaves. to run away . it has a fpindle wh ch aoes through a plank. folid The aibor and its leaf may be cut altogether out of the trunk of a tree . . E the two mill-ftones. made of ftone or brick.25? prcicnted ^ at D E S C R is I P T I O N OF the wheels and the checks there is left a hole. and confequently it can only run down the declivity of the . afcending in an angle of about 35 degrees . the lead to be drawn is firfl: cafl in moulds. into pieces a foot long. turns round upon a pivot row. and at the top £. The frame KLML ishe!d together by crols bars going throutih and a cover is put over the machine the fides and ftrcwed on to keep out duftj and it is fcrewed fait down to a bench. to . -^C a water. P at the bottom . or elfe the leaf may be made of pieces of boards. yl the hopper and arch to let ihoe. is When ufed. to enclofe the arbor and its leaf-. it into the hole between the wheels the lead wdl be drawn through. lindrical piece of wood. which are to be let every where into holes made in the body of the arbor. . about two feet diameter is a leaf or wing of wood. and whofe infide is walled as near as poffible. which the : fcrt w nails it LL. GHIKLMN -leaf-. Take one with a gutter on each fide. fo as they may ftand perpendicular to its furface j and all fet in a fpiral. of the form defigncd. whofe breadth is about the radius of this runs fpiral-wife round the arbor from bottom the arbor to top. by N. i^is the trough than brings the water . its top is reprcfented by the circle ^T^. CV. f?o6. of the form re(hapeof the lead when cut through. Ex. it muft every where (land upright on the I'urface of the arbor. and is fixed to the upper miU-ftone D. without either trundle or this is a cyi?C is the arbor. nailed to fcveral iuppjrters of wood. of thcle pieces. that for every 10 inches in the circumference of the axis. jiift to fuff^r the leaf to turn round without touching i fo that no water can efcape between the leaf and the wall-. you mufb But at the top G. or axis of the null cog-wheel. which turns round with it . fo that the arbor has little or no ^R^T is a hollow cylinder. friftion. efpecially if ihcy be narThis arbor and its Ipiral leaf. RIVS is an the water out at the bottom. And the f[)iral is made on this confidcration . jD.

whofe-ce^iier 7?. fo as to furface almofl: perpendiculilf td-^ ti. will than any other.. With the radius BR defcnbe the arch DBd. through the mill-ftone falls D. for the parts near B .i jq&« to go. and the height BS. tus return BS. of 90 degrees DS. Ex.]] DB •. that the height yfr. -. CVI. And the F opened. the ilrc-am. the water its upon GHIK. then the arch DBd will equally fupport the wall DGgd in all parts: but then the materials made ufeof about the places a. are the principal cafes in which a circle is ferviceable. which fliall fuftainitfelf. conftrudion may be performed thus. for making an arrh ftand in equilibrio. terials cannot well be procured for this purpofe. as let the fuperincumbent part AT be built of-hi^av^it? materials. the corn is When I'pouc the mill beino- put into the hopper at J. AR. becau!e an arch that can fuftain itfeU. 16. and grinds. But as madrawn. 7 parts. and all 307. than an arch that canbut only by the cohefiOn of the mortar. perpendicular to SBR : and the arch parts. Make the la. which runs down the (hoe. through the points A. The fault of this arch is. Bd being each 45. Another equilibrial arch is from the catenary. Then ABF will be an arch which will fupport the wall AGgf in equilibrio. the foDowtlig muft be A way n. DGgd in equ librio in all its and Bd be made each 60 degrees. -This is DBF a femicircle. 7?Feach 1 59 defcribe the catenary ABF. and the right line GSg drawn . Sed. in i(>y place oFthe fetant of the arch BA. but in fomething lefs proportion And the right line GSg bein"^ in the parts towards /f and D. L 1 2 of . and by the Itone force turns the axis BG the oblique leaf about. And if BR confifl: of 100 parts. the arr/b of a bridge. s T>. a. 25^ j to rife fafter. that by reafon fupport the wall If the arches DBd iha. •. ought to And thefe be only about half the weight of thole at B and D. In any place of the arch. make BS. eafiJy fuftain itielf. B. Xril.309. the corn. in the form erf the (iurve But as this torm is not comrftodious for a bridge. and F. DBFh more arch /f. Such an arch will be ftronger the parts of it in equiiibno. in every point of it. COMP OUN D have its is ENGI N E S.ay be ufed. Draw the right line GSg. the tST. is not fuftain an additional Weight. will nearly terminate the top of the wall. which will caufe It to run upwards towar. than at £ i in proportion of the cube of the fecant of tWe arch BA. 30*?. 100 equal parts BR. and with it - D. and vertex '^ 5 and the wall ATta muft be as the cu'-e fo built.

eafiiy be done by two or three perfons holding value . through which the curve BA isto be drawn . Fg parallel to RS. AR of any lengths at pleafure. through all the points of divifion. Then the curve FBCA arch. ^5. fo pier BD .e too high. as TC.26o TIG.' the pier BD as is fault this arch has. draw JG' perpendicular to G6'. the lieight BS. draw the right Ijne GS parallel to the horizon. . in lines drawn through thefe points parallel to SR . The only that the water way is diminiflied by the arches. there is too much weight of w^ll upon ir» which will endanger the finking the piers. Then upon each number of feet of thele lines. and to the affymtote GS. Divide SG. draw the logarithmic curve ylB: which may be done thus . lee off from SG' downwards the you find in the following table. refpedlively. will be the arch required. then C will be in the Do the fame for the fide Sg. and as many points of divifion as you have.feet. fet thefe from the rcfpeftivc points in SG downwards. and the curve /'/'is drawn the fame way . is. /^is each equal to 30 feet . equal parts or 30 feet . ^i?. draw lines parallel to Make 5i?. Sg into 30 3i. Draw AG. Another arch of equilibration is this make SB. o f . SR. BR. divide SG into any number of equal parts. as fC. between thefe. The curve is eafily drawn through thefe points. and many how many fupernumcrary all piers there will be. find fo many mean proportionals between SB and GA . 2 10. by help of a How held to every three points or rather to four or five points . of 00. D E S C R I P X I ON . and thefe will give fo many points. at once .y^?. which may it.iifes the bridi. placed with a tower upon it. except the foundation be very good . and it likcwife r. i' I (hall now fliew to defcribe an arch clear of thefe in- conveniencies. drawn through all thele points C. II.

XIII. in o I 2 4 _5 6 7 8 9 lO . COMPOUND value ot- ENGINES. £6r J value of ST feet.Sea.

pounds arc laid out in building a fingle bridge.) for the form of an arch . Another conftruflion. A circle. the ocfcription of the curve here given. is very eafy by the foregoing table. the contrary. fliaken.ity. they will find it the ilrongeft arch poffible And where many to be made. like Weftminfter bridge. their thicknefs may be j. ilie arch here dcfcribrd. reaching out on each fide into the water. fenced with fterlings for their fecu. jr. according to the firmnefs of the ground they are to They mult be confidcrably broader than the bridge. all -. of a true curvature. the arch will break. fun s : only in cutting the (lones. here But as that may made the height BS to be be reckoned too weak for an . i'. I only arch of 60 feet wide. or any other curve. will (land firm and un(land good as long as the materials the arch is made of. fo long as the piers. to fit the arch exaftly in all places-. (hall pleafe to make u!c of this curve here conflrufted (fig. every where a quantity of prcfiiire proportional to its ftrcngth. or i the width of the arch. but muff vail: a weight the mortar happen except -. in never give way. is very eafily defcribtd. it is true. which has nothing elfe to butt againft-. by taking proper dimenfions tice. and that may be one realbn for making ufeof it but lurely. otherwife the pier or buttrefs will yield to the prclfure of the arch. in different places. perly adapted to the weight liiftaincd. it is . 311. to fuftain the oblique prelTore of the arch. where the curvature is not pro- A is not capable of kiflaintime give way. but this is eafily manr-ged with a oblerving that every little care. which are its bafes. circle. being built with At the bottom they muft lliarp edges to divide the ftream. require different curvaturts. will laft. people have contented tlicmfclves with Inftead of not knowing that diffrrent prcfcircular arches coiiftrudling that. and will . for fupporting fo great a And it very furprizing that no body has attempted weight. but by virtue of its figure. 3 i feet.262 DESCRIPTION ' OF If any architrds or buiklc rs of churches or bridges. where the 'J'herefore I have height above the arches is 8 or 10 feet. joint muft be perpendicular to the curve in that point. and fall to ing lo to be fo ftrong as to keep it toruin . As to the piers. which does not anfwer in a circle where the curvature is ail alike. (land on. it is thoul'and certainly worth the pains to leek after the form of an arch. luftaining On cerher. which (hall be the ftrongeft po(rible. i. In the former conftrudion. a"ainU the arch. for ihefe given dimenfions. The outermoft be well pier muft be built far backwards. and can If there be any difnculty in the praccreate no d" fficulty at all.

and fet it from B in the line BE.sed. new table tor conftrucfling 263 F I the arch of a ftrono- G. Having drawn the line EBH through the top B of the arch parallel to the bafe AF. i any length. b-- 3'i- ing 7 feet. in this I fet them off fron the line BEE^ which is a tangent to the top of the arch at B- The conftrudlion is thus. of the table. here o-iven a compound engines. The value ot TABLE. 2. and from R to 1. Then from col. In the former I let off all the points of the curve from the line J'G . and then a curve drawn regularly through them all. . and draw the line LI. all the ocherdimeniions remaining the fame. And thus all the other points of the arch mud be found. take tie corr-fpondent length of LC. take from the table coi. and fet it from L to C. This arch rifes from the pier at an angle of 70° 20'. calculated upon the fame principles as the former. bridge. gives the form of the arch. then C is a point in the curve. xirr. as to Z-. in the line LI .

by hooked round it. and fixed to the brafs pulley Round this pulley goes the rope MSR. as they are in the former. G a the end F. or by bloctts and puliies. is isc. cich ot iron. . 'i'he PH about 3 or 4 inches. chains iiilpcnded ac a hook. 5 are placed in the top of the machi'^e. which raifes the end D. DESCRIPTION and fufpcndcd is OP iron . Tncfc wheels and trundles are iron. /'' a leaden weiglit iixcd ac hundred weight. to the axis 3 . J" ^^'^ frame.r one faftened to a crofs beam ZX-. as NO. and pinion Laftly. at D. and the waggon . Ihe end D rail'es the fteelyard Eh\ vvith the chains A.<3jr is fixrd The beam CD and fleelyard EF. which ferve to guide them. CS is a chain hanging at C. the trundles contain 1 1 teeth. on. move round . about 10 or 12 4 cliains put round the \va[?/j. turning the wheels. When any waggon to •. is another faft in the ground. this is moved along moveable KNL a fcafrold to walk the graduated beam W-'. and a man upon the Icaffuid AX. and then there is but one wheel and pinion. but in this cafe. of the leaver CD. ///•" 312. that it may not be pulled up. above ZX. and not perpendicular. where beiny. which frame is tied together with feat y! arc to '. inftead of which In feme engines the beam CD is wanting there are two blocks and pullies. and likewile ftren^then the frame they move in. f. at pleafure. i ro or 1 20 teeth. the lower is hooked to the piece and the \ rope goes from the top block.:. 2. the wheels The rope R is wound about the wooden axle 3. being turned by the handle B. the 4 chains A are and a rnan turns the handle B\ which. beabout 6c. inches diameter. which puHs down the end C. fixed to an iron wheel or fly.on. in fome machi: er> that likewife want the beam CD .• M veral braces.264 P . winds the rope about the axis 3.2. tiie upp. DH Ex. the wheel of 11. P/1 fcvcral moveable about the center P feet. the axis of the wheels are parallel to the fide of the machine. move between the cheeks KZ and NX. turned round. VO. by the iron hook DII. moves the wc'ght G till it be in equilibrio . At the end of the axle oppofite ing 5 or 6 handle to be ufed upon occafion. be weighed. and the divilions of the beam iTitw ho v much the waggon is above 60 hundred weight. whofe weight is about i weight of | of a hundred weight. whofe end is fixS. ed to thr crofs bar '^'^ of the frame ^^JTthe wheels and axles 1. the whtels and axles i. . they raifc the beam EFy cither by a rope going from it. The frame to B.

arms length. /. arc the keys on which the fingers are laid. P^. F. mits it when open. £. 3 when put down -. and In the under fide of the under board. going through the keys to guide them . and . or cover piled ot two boards . but what goes through the valves. moving on Mm or . againft which the keys on this alfo are feveral wires. to the very clofe. HRK HHH MM. this bar. fquare gutters. arc fcveral channels made. there are as plealure. of fuch a a. and the under one III. as to reach from the valve to the key. with leather or there are likewife cut ieveral broad. at The number of thefe is the fame as the number of chejl. this is IKKK the wind under air a fquare box. and one at the end of another . coming almoft . on which the keys are put . except a hole which is commonly at the fore end next HK. continued lo far. z. Now ral the keys are I ways. enclofed into valves or puffs which open into the wind cheft . When this flap or valve is fliut. or regijlers. fall as a center. and the keys move up and down upon is another bar. One and wire that opens of thefe valves with the fpring that fhuts it. Thefe channels are covered over parchment. Jliders And to fit thefe channels. i^c. fixed clofe to the under board. as is the number of ftups in the organ . V. C. as occafion requires.. thefe rollers lie horizontally one above another. 3'3- IIIH the founJ hard. or channels. feve- defcribe. and made air tight. on the left hand. / . s. and may be placed in any part of it. in which are ftuck as many wire pins 2. running in direction LL. is reprefented apart. /. Sea. a.Xm COMPOUxVD ENGINES. upon which a Thefe channels are called partiticns. there joined very dofe. and on this bar a lift is faftcned. many wooden . as fhall made now to communicate with the valves J. which is far thicker than the upper one. Each of thefe is made of fcveral planks laid edge-ways together. it keeps out the air. all the way. &€. Ex. a. i£c. edge IlK. the pivots /. CVill. and adOn the upper fide of the under board. lying crofs the former. it. when the organ plays. and thefe may be drawn in or out. along the fide of the partitions. this is com\'i a large organ the tipper board. V are the all and are it. fo that no can get out. valve or puff is placed. I'Sc. ning the whole length Ifops in the organ. /. Thefe keys lie over the horizontal bar of wood W. but net fo deep as to reach lie in them run- thefe direclion LN. to hinder the knocking of the keys againft it. 265 F IG. are the key rollers. s. B.

which depreffes t'. are fet upright fo many rows of pi^es . of w.e end 9 of the leaver 8 9. which thrufls up the end X of the leaver. tdkecji them from'-faltirtg. the leaver third 6. through the holes b. worm fpring faflencd to the kt-y. and but a fcwof the key. x)\ xy. raifes the end 5. to keep the end 5 of the key down. w /'. horizontally. which turns the roller s about. from the far ends of the keys. 'along with the arm cf artd the end /.3 holes /?>. i. ilic inht wires fixed to c. the valves leaver. being moveable about a joint at e. Now any handle//! being drawn our. From the end 9. d the Key wires. arc flendcr leavers moveable upon the centers i. and pafs through the holes which and afe fatt- ened to the leaver ke. cf. d. and goiny through the . 5X are wires goinf. I have only drawn one of fhefe in the fcheme. arms />. which are fixed horizontally ke. cf. . R are the rollers to move the Aiders. ke ate leavers alfo fixed in the rollers. z tnunpst pipe of metal. others. The' pipes pals t'hroogh holes made:ift boat^is/fliced "above the U^jie'f'board. on the further fide. 9. to the valves F.. lie le. A key way of opening a leaver H.. X T Tht . yV. and to the valves/'. in thefe le by hrlp of the aras rollers. d. l/. D. by the wire 5. b arms fixed fixed to the likcwifc to the key rollers. of the So that putting leavers. are the handles.266 I DESCRIPTION •. other wires reaching from the ends v. C. and pulls down the wire. and this. which pulls down the wire w.V this depreflcs the end^ of -. with the arm <7. Upon all the fcveral rows of hol--:s which ap[>ear Ort-the-top of the upper board. Now putting down the end a 6 of the raifes the end 8. Another method of opening the valves is this. if likewife thrurts in the Aider . by the wire d. down the key. a. as foon as the key there mult be a is let go. E it pulls down the arm b. /. the arm -. to avoid confufion. is At the end of the 7. movmg upon the center This with there is the key makes a compound wire goes to the valve. R. which oprns the valve . which pulls down the wire yF. i> and to the keys C. D. pulls the end ^'towai-ds which turns Rk about. is . In this con- flruiftion. Of leavers fixed to the key rollers f the arms rt. / pulls out the fli'der /^. which . yF. 5^. is 2 fluU pipe nf "wood. and to the bar JV. Z a flute pipe of metal. is (hut by the fpring. to the ends x of the leavers. Now putting ilown the end of any of the keys C. /.^. t^c. in the bottom cf the wind chcft. opens the valve y. D. and opms the valve. /-. And when' / is thruft in. E.

and a tube leading to it. there will be a conftant blaft through the portvent. or elfe fo many MM. which muft be two at Icjift. bi^it npne to return. B. the weight of the upper board 'T. R. D. foot) continually defcending. fo that no wind can get to the pipe. in the upper and under boards . &c. There is alio a hole in this ynder board. q. and the communication is ftopt. or 89. qT.. and through ib that any pipes. cheft after . /. as there are difi^erent Hops upon the organ. will then communicate with the partition . the corn- pais of 5 oftaves. with flats and (liarps . and the air enters through the valve r . i^ always defcending. ^c. ^- ^' But when the Aider is thruft in. &c. and their wires. R.bored through the upper board. Xin. and when the handle is let go. they work alternately. s. holes are . rollers. &c. All the bellows are conftruded. fince. m. there is a v^Jve which opens towards the -portvent . by the face of the inftrument ftanding upon 36. F. a continual blaft. And there are as between the Aiders /. inro the partition below placed upon theie holes. there is but one pair of bellows. leavers xy. which. confiits of •. drives the air through the portvent to the iound board. Aiders. pipes are COMPOUND made to ENGINES. the under board. which confifts of and fo has J boards. at leaft. on the right hand . as there are keys J. which futfers the air to go up the portverbt. raifcs the lame manner. the upper board T". q the handles. which cannot be exprefled in it muft be obferved. &c. Likewife there are as many handles /. after Now the handle O being put down. communicates with the wind cheft. As many partitions LL. C. And in the tube leading to the portvent. But the fcheme could not contain them all. ^y are the ieHows. to every fquai-e.are tube 24. as there are in the found board fo many valves F. through the Aider. -. And there are generally 6i reaching from G to G. And as one pair of bellows. In chamber organs. the under boarji opening inwards. and that is jufl: as many keys. the wings. All the inner work is hid from fight. called the conz^yii^g tube. &c. by its valve. 267 ' The this When manner. rifing upvyards. moving upon the fixt axes 7m. In this there a valve r . : communicate with the wind any flider y^ is drawn our. which is a fqu. many Mm 2 this . in nature of a fmith's bellows ot thefe bellows. 0. /. /. (which carries g or 41b. the holes in the Aider do nqt ftand againft the holes. Aiders/. rollers. and is ioletted into the under fide of the wind chell at 2. that. Each is two boards is fixt immoveable. and the faqie number of handles and rollers. s. from which a tube leads to xht fortvcnt.Se(Sl.

the mouths of large fquare wooden pipes are ftopt wiih ftopt Metal pipes have a little ear on each fide of valves of leather. as the flute (lop />'. up tl e ponvent into the Then drawing out any handle. D. a fifth. Ihcre arc many flops in fome organs. the other handle Ois put down during this time. i£c. LN ' The fmalieft pipes are made others have reeds. and fliutting the valve r. trumpet. I think. p. the lead (Jc. (lute. (btcaofe the communication is flopt. thefe are fome of them.268 this DESCRlPTIONoF rows of pipes plictd between LN. Whatever note any open pipe Ibunds. and the leaft partitions . wind cheft. in the fet ZiV. refpedively. and the air enters thro' Ir> the fame-manner. noble inflirument is to be played upon. fome have mouths fwell the notes When this . Therefore putting down the key Z). it will found an eighth. as foon as the keys C. will Jt will -. but generally loor 12 on each hand . &c. cremona. be foreign to my defign. and a leilcr third. It is known from undoubted experiments. diapafon. And other And towards ^ ^" of fome of the (lops. if I give a {hort account of the method of tuning organs. and if the ftring be flopt lucand I. cornet. voxhumana. and the long ones are pipes is foft. put down the handle O of the bellows. and all the pipes in the let ready to play. tearce. frcnch horn. when the mouth is flopt it will ibund an odave lower: and a pipe cf twice its capacity 314. *> 7 of it be made to ceflivcly at 7". being let go. s. any other pipe. a fourth. the greateft being on tlie outfide. i^ -1. into the pipe X^ and makes it fourtd. vibrate. But no pipe in any other fet Pi^ will ipeak. Now- . q. But I mull firft premi'e fomething concernmg the fcaleof mufic. this railts the upper board T. defcendng. the mouth. . fifteenth. Pipes are made either of wood or metal . a greater third. E. by bending it a little in or out. ar. like flutes. drives the air through the other valve. it. and a contrivance to fcheme. bafToon. by laying the finger upon it. found an odave lower. p(0 the middle of the organ. w!>en its key is put down. •. opens the correfpondent valve w^'. will found. the board T" of the firfl:. are put dovfrrt. Short pipes are open.d Then that handle caufes the air to enter in at the valve r. or harpficords. pipes are placed. or of tin and lead. till its (lider/is drawn out by the correfponding handle /. nor. The found of wooden and leacten of tin. are this draws out the fli 'er fg. to tune them. principal. that if AL be a ftring of a mufical inftrument. twelfth.

\ An. we fhall flill be no better. and than the firfl . Therefore if JL be put i. ^c.' counted a whole octave . or greater thirds make an odave . that no fcale. Confequently if the firing is i. and this being 6 times repeated to make up an odave. \. 269 between the fourth and fifth is acNow p j q. whereof the greater is A.5314 inflead of . Cords :. then we fhould have | '-5 * zz j^. and -i of this third. therefore we Ihall have 4 — t. Nowto contrive a fcale to anfwer as near as pofTible all the requifites. be (that is'T* is " =p'' = one of fo. = will be found. or of thirds or fifths. COMPOUND ENGINES. The third. Tiie firfl is far too little.XIII. to ^-iT or i AL. or fifths. and the latter as much too big. and the fourth differ by half a. can be perfedly exad. or half notes. that are to found a note one above the other. ^c. oilave. Am. we fhall have as it would be if this note was exadl. as the difference . °^ tV for the difference of the firings. and p r= t). would found 2 notes higher a note higher . In the former cafe we get '4 ^or the length of the firing.5-. fo neither will any number of thirds. tone. idc. that Therefore 4 of any firing. If leffer • we . After the fame way. will Then thefe firings /iL. will found difference would be ~ of this fecond. but that produdl is kfs. make one or more odaves.4933 i and therefore I is too fmall. &c.-. a greater third 4. . A7' :=. if we take the difference between the and leffer third for a whole tone (-1— i. Ao. note the greater third. being fo many mean proportionals between i -and. made up of thefe notes. and a fifth 7 hall notes. try by half notes. of which there ought to be twelve in the odave. 7 odaves. and ~ too great And 6 of thefe notes do not exaftiy make up an for a tone. &c.~^ ' ziz ^. as fet down in the following table. but this will be found to be too great. Ao. in the latter and TT or -rl for the length of half a note. An.metrical proportionals. |x|-XvX4x~Xv=:f.. A leffer third contains 3.). fourths. being but . An. And 13 geo. found all the half notes in the odave. An. therefore -rV is too fourth fmall for a note. or any combinations of them. would found 3 notes higher than the firfl. and"^ 't h But never a hence we may conclude. As none of thefe notes or half notes will make up an octave . But H if this was thefe fo.Sea. Let JL. being . we fhall get -j'^ of the firing for a whole note. Am. and 11 3 fourths fhould make 5 odaves 5 and 12 fifths. a fourth 5. Therefore 4 leffsr thirds. . whereof there are 6 to make up the 014. gradually afcending.

3'4- .1^0 F 1 DESCRfPTlON cords. OP C.

Upon the firft octave being rightly tuned. and even fpoiling the mufic. which inftead better than a difcord .:e. and then lowering it a fmall matter. yet it would not at all mend thofe of the thirds. ..it is plain that the notes ought no remedy for not to be tuned by perfecfl fifths. but what is worfe than the difeale. for the upper note will always And fince one muft be the hundredth part of a note too high. and alter them all a little. And after you have thus gone through the oflave. and kave this is others iiTiperfeift . which flatter off. by firft: tuning it perfeft.ne to be taken. much more would they be offended at. when they come naturally in the v/ay. tothetuningthis inflrument. opght. thirds Ihould be taken as flat as they may.Se<fl. would be cramping. there will at laft be an error of tsI or \ of is very difcoverable in a fifth. it. for in all the rert. Moft people in tuning. But mufick ought to befo that no fifth notes. whence he fet a n. which they call : bearing notes. And leffcr the greater third. For if there is but one in an oftave. will be no fince the error in thei'e beari^ig notes. and will be turned into difcords. li of a note. : Some. take fome of the fifths perfeft. and yet there As hinder the fcale from being abfoluteiy perfeft . XIII. according to your judgment. to make the upper note a very litde than a perfeft fifth .one third fhould happen to be bettered. And if any . Now if thcfe people be fo nice as to diftinguifh t!o part of a And alnote. wil! is COMPOUND ENGINES. The method therel\. if two of them. ways to avoid taking the fifths upon thefe notes. is very great. Thnle that tune by thirds.is t of a note. till the but this judgment is to be attained principally laft dofs agree by pradlice. And if this method could cure in any mealure. is. f i c. its error . as (harp as the ear will bear. but not fo much as to offend the ear. all the reft d pend..to fall on any of thefe bearing of being a perfect concord. t. middle of the inftrument.'ke 12 fifths. \ or tJ. and both alike. it is certain that others 'iwill be made as much worfe. there is nothing to do but to take the eights And you ought to begin to tune about the above and below. 21 4. zji mony. and therefore one ought to be very exaft in it . which are far greater. for the attended with great inconvenience fet. the errors of the fifths . before he can come at the lame note again. if you begin a new. that a piece of mufic could not be tranfpofcd upon any key at pleafure. ought to take the upper note of : find the lalt note either too high or too low. whatever need there might be for it but muft be tied down to a very few. And another difad vantage would arife.

as there More examples of fince their conftruftion ples as thefe already defcribed. think the fcale above dcfcribed. far from anfwering extremely hard to Therefore upon the whole. by multiplication manner of ufe in mufic. the confideration of abllraft numbers . and every where the fame. we can do. for it regards only this.272 F 1 D E Some that S C R I r T I O N 7 C. is to make them as little as poflible. have invented quarter notes play . and degenerate But this fchcme feems to be built only upon into difcords. of any other machine. and ufe depend upon the fame princiAnd if the reader does but the powers and forces of thefe before thoroughly underlland mentioned. have fuch an effed upon either ftrings or pipes. forces. But world. and t'. or motions.ot but the end propofed. xr. to avoid the badnefs of the cords which fall in fome which makes the mufic places. though never fo compounded. A N . cannot be fenfible. which a thing of no Others. like not the cquibarmonic or ifolcKic ftak. that the very alteration of the weather. in 24 hours time. and is. it would be an Therefore I think it needlefs to produce any more. a Icale above dclcribcd. ^c. tJ. others will be milcrably bad. thac if fome cords may be taken perfed. but what end can femi-tones. will the conflru(5tions of engines might here be is fuch an infinite variety in the added. I canr. bcfides. efpecially. to be the bell for pradlicc. this anfwer ? it is very eafy to fhew. would compere of fcvcral forts of tones and as ^. as to caufe There are impera greater difl^crence than this amounts to. endlefs tafk to defcribe all the kinds of them. others more fiiDple. or do much hurt to the mufic. if. by heat or cold. For fo fmall an error as -too of a note in a fifth. which we cannot quite take away j all fedlions in every thing. he cannot be at a lofs to find out the powers. -. to. And I will venture to fay. is how to make k veral fradlional quantities refolve themfelves into . tJ. drought or moifture.

I 273 ) A N Alphabetical O F T H E INDEX Terms ufed in Mechanics. 253. a machine for raifing weights. oftraElion. Balance. Fi^. Fig. a machine for fhewing the point of the wind. Arm. Fig. an artificial river. that projefts horizontally from fome part of round. -" J IR PUMP. N n Baro- . is the angle an inclined plane makes with the horizon. Fig. Amplitude. O' Ajutage^ the fpout for a jet d'eau in a fountain. the diftance a ball is fhot to. or Axis. Arbor. B. 277. a machine. Aqueduct. 185. the angle which the direction of a power makes with an inclined plane. 188. or tube to convey water. See a is the angle which the line of diredion of power makes with the leaver it afts upon. the line or fpindle about ef. a machine to weigh bodies in . an inftrument to meafure the weight of liquors. a hollow wall building. fixed upon a cylinder for its axis. ef. Axle. Fig. 185. to iupport any Areometer. a machine to draw the air out of a glafs. fly Balance wheelf the or pendulum of a watch. Arch. which a wheel turns Axis in peritrochio. confifting of a wheel. Anemofcope. Angle of application. made of a circular form. A. any piece of timber or metal. the axle or fpindle of a wheel. of inclination. one of the mechanic powers.

h a precipice. Bridge. is the axle. works. or of water. which. 248. any horizonral b(*aT. Brads. Bevil. nails having no broad heads. Block. or violent fall of water in a river. a machine to fhcw the weight of the air or atmoSee Fig. Brace. llrait pieces of timber or metal. fall on board a Fig. for driving piles. ihc loot of a pillar.. other wall to fupporc C. either by mortife and tenant. Bolls. about which Barrel of the rope goes. To Builer. An oblique angle. Catch. that run crofs from one part f a machine to another. ancJ through which the ropes go. Bea>. a weather-glafs. of a pump. large iron pins. ii?c. a long piece of timber. Beak. a wooden inft-ument. J. cramping Brackets. of wood. Batten. hooks or lays hold of fome other part to ftop it. fome fmall part of a machine . that Btitments. Big. Barometer. Beetle. to ftiay them from moving any way. that angle. to lean backward. the cheeks of the carriage of a mortar. Capftand. Ibip. pieces of wood in which the fheevers nr piillics run. to hoift the mafls. B'lfil. a lump Blocks. a CataraSi. thro* highrockSjCaufing the water to fall with a great noifc and force. a large piece of timber lying acrofs any place. a piece of timber fixed obliquely into others. is to fupport fomething.274 EXPLANATION : of TERMS. 218. B. is the hollow partof the pump where thcpifton Barrs. a ivhcel. 42.tail n^.. thofe fupports Bttttrefs. ( B^ft. alio Itays fet under a flielf to fupiron to Iby A port it. on which the feet of arches Ifand. the edge of a tool is ground to. timber work . any angle that is not right. or mallet. the crooked end ot a piece of iron.t. dove. to hold any thing faft. in its motion. Bauk. a piece of tmiber three or four inches broad. Iphcrc. ^ Bond. the fame as baromctfr Barofcope. or cyliddncal body. ii^c. Cafcade. a piece of ftrong wall that Hands on the outfide of anit. and an inch thick. the fartening fcveral pieces of timber together. Center . a machine raife any weight.

Chain pump. will reft in any pofition. anfwering to one an- other in pofition and ufe. to double back the end of a nail. Clench nails. Crane. T. where the teeth are parallel to the axis. where the teeth ftand perpendicular to the plane of the wheel. Chaps. 185. a as a center. Long teeth. a pendulum to meafure time. and ftand on the under fide Corbel. the point of a vibrating body that gives the greateft ftroke. a pin about which. This is called raif- a flying capftand. the wooden teeth of a great wheel. Claws. the (haft or trunk of a pillar. Center pin. the point upon it of TERMS. Clafp. a machine for hoifting goods out of a (hip. of magnitude. a. or ftone. Cog-wheel. when the edges of two pieces of boards are joined together. N n z Crank. a piece of timbei. 254. Fig. The middle. a. to be placed on the ground. a point equidiftant from the oppofite extremes of a body. a flap. 185. Column. and is moved round upon an pump Fig. nails that may be clinched. goes about any thing. axle. • > of percujjion. fet of the rim.. or for ing timber or ftone. a fort of Clafp nails. •. two Tides of a machine which take hold of any thing. Chronofcope. CD. fo as the grain of one may lie crofs the grain of the flop a fluid other. To rivet. near the top. l6%. the point about tf gravity. having feveral buckets fixed to an endlefs cham. to difcharge the weight. 233. little heads to fink into the wood. in which it turns round. a fmall capftand with three claws. moveable from one plane to another. flender crooked pieces of metal in a machme. which a body being fiifpended. Fig. thofe with buckle to faften any thing. Clack. which ferve to move or hold any thing. under another piece. Collar. Cogs. Contrate-wheel. a body moves. or flop it by turning. a fort of valve which is flat. a. Clampt. Cheeks. a brafs fpout to let a fluid run out. two upright pans of a machine. To Clcrxh or clinch. 275 which a body moves. . Cral^. a large wheel made of Fig. like a board ferving to from running out. which goes through it. a ring of metal that Fig. that it may not draw out again. a wheel in a clock. timber. Cock.EXPLANATION Center of motion.

being broader ac the end. Dove-tailing. a chain with the ends joined together. Crank. that part of an iron axis which is turned fquare with III-ig. Drum. letting one piece of timber into ar(Other. a window in the roof of a hou!e. Dog nails. or of a hollow arched tower. which may be turned about for ever.which being lifted up.276 EXPLANATION of TERMS. a hole in fome part of a machine. Endlefs chain. in a clock or watch. Ftg. or lump of timber. Dormer. A cupola. i^S an elbow. a horizontal beam fixed acrofs another. a great beam lyirg crofs a houfe. in form of a drum. EF. hollow gljbe of metal. iSc. Eye. Ctipclo. Denfity. 193. a ^c. the iantcrn or trundle. leavers. with a tail. Fig. filled with water. D. is th:it next the balance. its teeth (land in the upper fide of the rim. keeping one another ac reft. by iifing it with the hands. Eolipyle. 264. 266. A kimmcr. Crou. Engine. and not in the edge. a timber head. of weight. through which apy Eq^uilibrium. i£c. Drum head. a round vaulted roof or tower. . and pot the heat and vapour rufhcs out at a fmall hole. Crofstiee. 166. of two or more bodies. are thofe fl:ops». joint in form. F. fcrews. the equality thing is put.\ a ftrong fquare bar of iron. Dormant. Dome. in the fire with a great noife. to remove heavy timber. hC form of a hcmifphere. a fcrew working in the teeth of a wheel . } Detents. Fig. of a dove's it may Edging. a is a greater or lefs quantity of matter contained in given fpace. forked at the end. nails ufed for fattening hinges. which is carried by a great wheel. Fig. by which any part of a machine is wrought. the outfide or border. that not draw out again. the clock ftrikes and falling down. in a bowl turned upfidc down. (he Hops. . a mechanical inftrument compofcd of wheels. E. Endlefs fcrew. Crown-wheel.

the weight of bodies. the weight of a body in a fluid. or on an clined plane. . a channel cue in wood or ftone. part of it. Gudgeons. the fet perpendicular on the edge of a water-wheel. H. a whirllrg rouiid. or what holds together. £ mqkes Frame. Gain. pieces of wood on the outfide of a wheel. that part in a clock. Free. Hand fpike. any thing that acts upon a body ti put it in motion. wards. on which the rudder hangs. in moving any thing. Headi the top part of any thing. the foot or forefide of a machine. at dilcharges water by preffing it upForce pump. Gin. by is this one body weighs more or lefs than anin- —— — other of the fame bulk. a pump. Hesu.::-:i. Fulcrum^ that which fupports a leaver in moving any heavy body» G. it . the eyrs in the flern of a (hip. an index or pointer. boards 236. by which the water drives the wheel about. Ferril. 169. Hand. 'that regulates the motion. ©<:. 1 he center pins of an axle. Fellies. the refinance that bodies another. a machine to raife great weights. Specific. 257. the levelling flioulder of a joift or other timber. or of Fang^ feme fmall piece of metal like a long tooth. clear of all all the reft impediment. Fcrce.. relative. Gyration.D. that by mo ion moves fome other part. Groove. flac hoop. B.i— -. and unifpqDi i^|-. id8. Fig.EXPLANATION F. the oucwork of any machine."268. op TERM?*^ feme principal its ^f Faci. have by rubbing againft one Fritlion. 170. which make the rim.-': Fly. a fort of Floats. Crav'iy.'2 07. F/|-. a wooden leaver to be ufcd with the hand. the part of an inftrument to take hold on with the hand. Handle. Fig.

I. a circular ring to put about any thing. 3 nefs of the air. floor together. Joint. the pipe of a fountain. Tin inftrument for meafuring the moifture and dryFig. To ife. L. to catch hold on. an engine to lift up a loaded cart. K}ieey a crooked or angular branch of timber. Latchy that which faftens a door. or window pofts. where one part is fixed into another. Fig. i^c. 269. Jet d' eau. 287. to heave up. to keep it faft. Hydrojlatics. with a honk or turn of a rope. to bind the fweeps together. in a houfe. Lantern. Hinge. the edge of fome cloth turned down and fcwed. To Hitch. Hook pins. Alfo an engine to roaft meat. that part which is moved by the cogs of a great wheel. Hygrometer. 265. K.278 EXPLANATION H of TERMS. a chain pump. Jack pump. or the roof of ahoufe. taper iron pins w. or raile by force. 266. Fig. any blow or force wherewith one body flrikes or im- pels another. fill wrought dff. or little turn upon a rope. Hoop. and properties of fluids. prefTures. Impetus. door ports. Hygrofcope. The drum. Hydraulics. ftones in the top of an arch. Fig. an inflrument for finding the fpeci fie gravity of bodies. a fcience teaching the weights. the place it. motions. 258. Lfc. a fnarle. A /neck. Jaums. Kenk. or hoijl. b/ which they arc They Icrve to pin the frame of a roof or ftruck out again. Kiys. thofe pieces of timber framed into the dormant. i^c. Jack. which fpouts up water into the air. afling againft the fpindles or rounds. 249. of fluids. an inftrumcnt to mealure the denfity Fig. or moves about Joifts. Hydrojlatical balance. ts^c. Hem. See Fig. Leavtry . an iron joint on which a door turns. that it cannot run.th a hook head. Hydrometer. the art of making engines for water works. and on which the boards of the floor are laid. EF.

.

EXPLANATION

op

TERMS*

:

279

one

Leaver, or lever, a bar of iron or wood to raife a weight of the mechanic powers. Fig. 185. c, c, c. Leaves, the teeth of a pinion. Ledge, a flat border or plain, adjoining to a thing.

Level, an inftrument to place any thing horizontal. Linch pin, a pin that keeps a wheel from coming off Lip, a thin eage turned hollow.

its

axle-

Loop, a piece of metal having a hole in the end, which goes noofe in a rope that will flip. over fomething,

A

M.

Machine, a mechanical infl:rument for moving bodies. Mechanics, a fcience that teaches the principles of motion, and conltriicStion of engines, to move great weights. Mechanic powers, 2iXQ thefefix; the balance, leaver, wheel, pulley, fcrew, and wedge and according to fome, the inclined plane. Mitre, an angle of 45 degrees, or half a right one. And half mitre, is a quarter of a right angle. Momentum, quantity of motion ; or the force or power a body in motion has to move another. Mortife, a fquare hole cut in a piece of ftuff, to receive the

:

tennant.

Motion,

is

the fucceffive change of place of a

body

;

or

its paflT^

ing from one place to another.

Moving force, any active force or power that moves a body. Mouth, the part or parts of a machine, that take hold of anything. The entrance into any cavity.

N..

Nave, or Naff, the block

in the middle of a wheel. Neck, a part near the end, cut fmall. Notch, a dent, nick, or flit made in any thing. A«/, the pinion of a wheel. Fig. iS 5. JB. fmall piece of metal going upon the end of a fcrew naiL

A

O.

OfciUatiofu,

the vibration or Twinging of a pendulum..

P.

Paddles, a fort of oars.

The

laddie boards

**on the edge of a
**

Pedcfial,

water-wheel.

.%

EXPLANATION

Pedejlal, the bafe or

of

TERMS.

bottom of

a pillar.

Peers, or Piers, a Ibrt of bucta-ncs, tor fupport and flrength. Peg, a pin to go into a holr.

Penduluiu, a weight hung by a (Iring or wire, Twinging back and forward, to meafure time. Poijiock, the fluicc or door, that opens or (huts the pafTaj^e of

tiie

water to

a

water-wheel.

falls

Percuffion, the (Iriking of one body againft another. Pejl'tl, a long piece of wood or metal, which rifcs up and down as;a:n to ixat or bruile lomt-ihing.

PevetSj or^Pivsi:, the ends ot thr fpmdle of the wheel the clock or any machine, which play

in

a

m

Pevet ho.'es, the holes in whch the ends ot a fpindle or axle of F/g. 185, <•,/. a wheel turn. a ftake poin'cd with iron, .to drive into the ground. Picket, Pillar, a perpendicular column fopportingone end of ;m arch, C^c. Pillion, a little wheel at one end of the fpindle, coriiiting but Fig. 185, /JB. of a few leaves or tcth.

round pirce ot wood moving up and down within the body of a pump, to draw up the watt-r. Plate, i. piece of timber, on which fnme heavy work is framed,

Pijloii,

a

as wall plate,

£?f

A

flat pie; e

ot

metal.

**Pneumatics, a fcience teaching the properties of the air.
**

ftaff', or flendcr piece of wood. perpendicular or upright Seam 0, wood. Pcft, a Poiver, the force applied to an engine to raife any weight.

Pole, a long

Or

any force affing upon a body to move it. To PrajeSl, to jet out or hang over. Projectiles, balls or any heavy body thrown into the air. Prop, a ftay or fupport for any thing, to be.ir it up. Pulley, a fmrll wheel v;ith a channel in the edge of it, moving to receive a about an axis fixed in a block; the channe One of the mechanic p \'ers. rope that goes over it. Ftg. 204. PuDip, an engine to raife water.

<;

**Punchins, Ihort pieces of timber, placed upright to fupport
**

v«

fome

.

tight.

R.

Rag-wheel, the barre! or wheel in a chain pump. piece? of wood joined into other.- ; thofe pieces into which the canneis of doors, (jjc. are fittedRammtr, an inftmrnent for driving ftones or piles into the sirourid, cr brat^ng the ^nrth.

Rails, fmall

Random, the diftance to which a

ball

is

(hot.

Range,

EXPLANATION

To To

of

TERMS.

281

Range, the direction a ball is (hot in, from a piece of ordnance. Range, to run itrait, or diredlly in a line. Reeve, to pafs a rope through any hole. Return, the fide that turns off from any piece of ftreight work. Ribs, (lender pieces of timber, ferving for ftrength and fupport. Rigleis, little flat, thin, iquare pieces of wood.

Rim, the circular part or outfide of a wheel. Rivet, to batter down the end of a nail, that it draw not out again. Red, a long flender piece of wood or metal. RolL or roller, an engine turned by a handle, to raife weights,

To

'.J

Fig. 243Rounds, the (laves or fpindles in a lantern, againft which the teeth of a great wheel work. Ftg. 266, c, c. The fteps in a ladder, (£c.

ftrait piece of wood. Rungs, fpindles or rounds. Fig, 266, c, c. Runner, a flat circular ring, between the nave and linpin of a wheel. Alfo a fort of rope on board a (hip, to hoift with.

Ruler, a thin

S.

Sails,

large pieces of canvafs,

by which

fize.

(hips,

windmills, i^c.

**are carried, by help of the wind.
**

Scantlin, ItufF cut to a

proper

The tap with the thread Screw, one of the mechanic powers. is the male/crew, the hollow that receives it, is the /-"/tiale /crew.

Scribing,

drawing an irregular line upon one piece of fl:uff, paof another, with a pair of compaflTes opened to a due diftance ; an;i carried along the fide Then the wood in the firft piece being cut away, of it. thefe two pieces will fit each other.

rallel to the irregular fide

To Seaze, to bind or faflien a rope, &c. Shaft or /hank, any lotig part of an inftrument, efpecially that is held with the hands. Sheers, two poles fet up an end floping, and tird together at top ; and fccured by a rope from falling. Their ufe is to

raife

any weight by help of a block and tackle at top.

**Sheevers, pullies, the little wheels that run in blocks,
**

,

by

a rope

goi>

g over them.

a board,

i^c.

fixt

Skelf,

horizontally.

reft,

timber or metal, cut thicker than the in order to fupport fomething. Shrouds, the ledges on the ed^c of a guttered wheel.

Shoulder,

a part of

O

o

Sills,

282

Silts,

EXPLANATION

into

fsHs, or groutidji/s, pieces which others are tixed

of

TERMS.

lie

**af timber that
**

Sole trees.

on the ground*

Siphon^ a crooked glals lube, for

**drawing off liquors. Fig. 216. pieces of timber hid as a foundation and fupport for SLepers,
**

others that are to

lie

upon them.

a rope fpliced with an eye at either end,

Slings, thefc arc

made of

fome heavy thing, which is to be hoiftcd. Snatch block, a great block with a Ihecvcr in it, and a notch cut through one of the cheeks of it ; to i.itch the rope into

to

go over

a cafk or

the pulley, for readinefs. a hollow piece of metal, in which any thing moves. Sole, the bottom ot the gutter or channel, in a guttered wheel.

Socket,

Sold tree, the

into

lowed piece of timber which lies flat on the ground, which the upper works are framed. The groundfcl.

lort

Spanip burtcn, a

Specific gravity,

of tackle to hoift goods, like Fig. 197.

**Spear, a long pointed iron, or piece of timber.
**

is that whereby one body weighs more or lefa than another of the fame magrnitude. Spike, a pouitv^d iron, or piece of wood. Fig. 185. ef. Spindle, the axle of awheel. Spires, the turns of a rope about a cylinder or roller. To Splice, to join two ropes together by working the ftrands into one another. Spokes, pieces of wood running from the center of a wheel t» the circumference, like rays. Spring, an inflrument made of fteej, that being bent, it con-

tinually exerts a great force, that

ir

may unbend

itlelf

agiin.

Springing plates are fomeiimts made of brafs. Spur, a fort of prop, fet afl >pe to chruft. Spurs, long wooden teeth {landing in the edge of a large timber wheel. Fig. 192, a, a, a. Spur wheel, a wooden wheel where the teeth ftand in the edge of the rim. Fig. 192. CD. Staff, a ftick or fmall piece of wood. Slat'cs, a part of mechanics, teaching the motions and properties of heavy bodies. Stay, a piece of timber, or other thing fixed as a prop or fupport to fome heavy body. Steelyard, an initrument to weigh bodies, confiding of a long

Stock,

beam and a moveable weight. Fig. 190. the wooden part of a thing, an j into which

it is

fixt.

Siopple or ftopper, a plug, that tits into .» hole. Stops, any fmall pieces in a moving machine, that ferve to flop

the motion.

8

Strain,

EXPLANATION

Strain,

of

TERMS.

a

v/eighc or

283

**the ftrefs or violence any thing fuffcrs by force a6ling againft it.
**

carriage wheels.

**Stroaks or Jlraiks, the iron
**

Stud, a knob, or

Stuff,

little

going round the circumference of

button^

**A folid piece of metal fixt to a plate.
**

work upon.

any wood

that joiners

Swivel, a metal ring that turns about any way. crane. Fig. 216. Syphon, the fame as fiphon.

A

Syringe, an inftrument for injeding liquors into any place.

Tackles, blocks with pullies

and ropes

in

them, to heave up

197. "Tenon, the fquare end of a piece of wood, made to fit into a mortife hole. Thermometer, 9 an inftrument to fliew the degrees of heat and

Thermofcope,

goods.

Fig. 196,

S

cold.

Fig. 270.

ridge that goes windino^ round a fcrew. the aftion againft a body to pufti it forward. Thruft, Tight, ftifF, clofe. Tongue, a thin fiender piece of metal in a machine.

Thread, the

fpiral

Tool, an inftrument to

work

with.

Tooth, the indented part on the edge of a wheel that moves fome other wheel. Or what fcrves to cut, or take hold on.

Tranfoju, an overthwart

beam

in

a building.

Triangle, an engine ftanding on

three legs, to raife weights

with.

Fig. 195.

is

Trundle, the part which

carried about

wooden wheel.

The

lantern or

drum.

rolls

Fig. 266.

**by the teeth of a EF.
**

axis,

**Trunk, a hollow tube or box. Tumbler, a part in a m.achine that and plays back and forward.
**

Tmnlirel, a roller, or cylindrical

about upon an

beam of wood.

on an

is

Tympanum,

a kind of wheel placed

or rounds inftead of teeth, and

carried

wooden

wheel.

A

trundle or drum.

**and has ftaves about by a great Fig. 266. EF.
**

axle,

V.

Valve, a piece of wood, &ff. fo fitted into a hole, that

and

lets a fluid pal's

through one way

;

and

fliucs

is

it the other. Fig. 268. F. IV. the water follows the pifton.

A finking valve,

it opens and flops that where it

A

forcing

valve

when

is

driven through before

it.

O

o 2

Vane,

284.

EXPLANATION

Fane, a

fail,

of

TERMS.

Velocity,

or fan ; generally to fhow the point of the wind. an afFcdion of motion, and is that by which a body Swiftncfs, or paflVs over a certain fpace in a given time.

celerity.

Vibration, the

moving

or Twinging of a

**pendulum back and
**

it

forward.

Vis inertia, a property of body,

by which

refifts

any im-

prcffed force, and endeavours to continue in the fam'e ftate.

W.

Wallower, a trundle upon a horizontal axis. Fig. 257, F. Waterpoife, an inftrument to try the ftrength of liquors. hydrometer. IFeb, tlie thin broad part of an inftrument, as the web of a key, ^c. One of the mechanic JVedge, an inftrument to cleave wood. powers. JVtigbt, the tendency of bodies downward. The matter raifed

A

IVkeel, a

by an engine. machine confifting of an axis and a circular rim, with teeth in it, and then it is called a toothed wheel.

Smooth, a wheel without teeth, turned by a rope. One of the axle, a machine to raife weights.

Wheel and

me-

chanic powers, Fig. 30. Winch, an inftrument with a crooked handle, to turn any thing

about with. Winder, a winch or handle to wind about.

On board a (hip, Windlafs, a machine to raife great weights. It is an horizontal roller, hoift the anchor. it ferves to

turned round by handlpikes. Windmill, a mill to grind corn, moved by the wind. Fig. 266. Wing, a thin broad part that covers fomething, or hangs over Alio what helps to give due motion to any thing, as a part of a fail, &c. in a wster wheel Worm, a fpiral thread running round a cylinder, forming a fort of fcrew.

it.

the hands

-,

A L

I

S

T

LIST

OF

THE

Principal Machines defcribed in

this

Book.

**AIR Pump, Arch
**

Axis

in

Fig. 277.

Artificial fountains,

to 311. 307, 308 Fig. 271, 285, 286, 287. peritrochio, Fig. 30.

for bridges. Fig.

—

Barometer, Fig. 218. Bellows, Fig. 246. by water. Fig. 241, 242. Blowing wheel, Fig. 284. Boats, Fig. 199, 200. Bobgin, Fig. 296. Carts, Fig. 201, 202.

.

;

Cheefe-prefs, Fig. 189.

Clock, Fig. 302, 303. Coal-gin, Fig. 250, 257. Crab, or capftan, Fig. 248. Crane, Fig. 192, 193.

**compound, 298. Cutting engine. Fig. 304. Endlefs fcrew. Fig. 43, 193.
**

Engine

to

make

a

hammer

fire.

ftrike. Fig.

236.

**Fig. 275. for iron works. Fig. 236, 237. to Qiew the wind. Fig. 253.
**

to

for

at

quench

drawing water. Fig. 299. London-bridge, Fig. 281.

Eolipile, Fig. 264.

**Fire engine for coal-pits, Fig. 274, 293.
**

Glazier's vice. Fig. 305.

Gun powder mill, Fig. 297. Horfe-mill, Fig. 294. Hydrometer, Fig. 269. Hydroftatic bellows. Fig. 259. Hygrol'cope, Fig. 265.

Jack for roafting meat. Fig. 194, 258.

for raifing weights, Fjg. 249.

Lifting

Fig. Fig. compound. Scales. 227. Fig. 267. Fig. 188. Water-fcrew. 306. Walk mill. Fig. FINIS. 300. Wind-mill. 244. 190. Fig. 213. 252. 282. Fig. Fig. 214. ' Rag-pump. Fig. 313. RoUing-preis. 301. 234. Fig. Rollers. Sawing engine. 266. 283. 245. Fig. 242. OF MACHINES. 254. Fig. Fig. 216. Fig. 263. Sliting mill. 3cc.LIST Organ. 261. Fig. 37. . Twifting-mill. Steel-yard. Waggons. Lifting (lock. Moufe-traps. 276. 260. 203. Tantalus' cup Thermometer. 312. 204. Fig. 238. 295. 270. Syphons. 255. Ship. 262. 230. Smoak-jack. Fig. Fig. 251. Pumps. Sailing chariot. 239. 288. 235. 272. Screw. Fig. 273. 195. Fig. Fig. Weighing engine. Fig. 256. Triangle and table. fmall. Fig. 243. Fig. fwitteft. 26S. Pile engines. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Spinning-wheel. 191. Pulleys and tackles. Fig. Fig. 42. Water-mills. 247.

= . dtk the power of all. lines \<j. jor their weights. dele and in thefe Page 23._ \d read Page 2. Page 107. 3. /»r . line 14. 20. line z..ERRATA. Ibid. Page 12. for whence >-fa</ where. Page 87. line direftions. line 22. line 25. for are the fquares. ^r. read are as the fquares. read any weights.

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