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GREETINGS AND GOODBYES IN SPANISH When traveling in a foreign country, if you want to converse with a person whom you

dont know at all, a formal approach is mandatory. It is considered quite a mistake to address someone informally if a strong friendship or relationship has not been established. Be sure to start and end your conversations correctly by using the appropriate greetings and goodbyes listed below. Formal Greetings and Goodbyes SPANISH / ENGLISH Hola / Hello. Buenos das. / Good morning Buenas tardes. / Good afternoon. Seor / Mr. Seora / Mrs. Seorita / Miss (Ms.) Cmo se llama Ud.? / Whats your name? Me llamo / My name is Mucho gusto en conocerle. / Im happy to meet you. Le presento a / Id like you to meet Cmo est Ud.? / How are you? Muy bien. / Very well. Bien. / All right. As as. / So-so. Adis. / Good-bye. Buenas noches. / Good night. Informal Greetings and Goodbyes SPANISH / ENGLISH Hola! / Hi. Cmo te llamas? / Whats your name? Me llamo / My name is Encantado(a). / Pleased to meet you. Te presento a / Id like you to meet Adis. / Bye. Cmo ests? / How are you? Bien. / Fine. Cmo te va? / Hows it going? Qu hay de nuevo? / Whats new? Nada en particular. / Nothing (much). Hasta muy pronto. / See you very soon. Hasta luego. / See you later. Luego te veo. Ill be seeing you. Hasta maana. / See you tomorrow.

The greeting encantado is an adjective and must agree in gender with the speaker. Use encantado if you are a man and encantada if you are a woman. As a sign of respect, older Spanish women are generally referred to and addressed as Seora, regardless of their marital status. When in doubt, use Seora. Seorita is reserved for younger, unmarried women.

Vocabulary of the Greetings and Goodbyes

English Good Morning Good Afternoon Good Evening Hello Whats your Name Its nice to meet you My name is Likewise How are you (Informal) How are you (Formal) Very Very Good bad Whats up Whats happening And you (Formal) See you later See you later (2) See you tomorrow We'll be seeing you Goodbye Spanish Buenos Dias Buenos Tardes Buenos Noches Hola Como se llama Mucho Gusto Me llamo Igualmente Como esta usted como estas Muy Muy bien mal Que tal Que pasa Y usted Hasta luego Hasta la vista Hasta maana Nos vemos adis


The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters and 2 ligatures[1] the same letters that are found in the Basic modern Latin alphabet:

Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters) a b c d e f G h i j k L m n o P q r s t u v w X y Z The alphabet A-Z Aa Ii Qq Yy Bb Jj Rr Zz Cc Kk Ss Dd Ll Tt Ee Mm Uu Ff Nn Vv Gg Oo Ww Hh Pp Xx

Vowels A E I Consonants B L V C D M N WX F P Y G Q Z H R J K ST O U

The Rhyming Alphabet The following letters rhyme with each other: sound A H J K sound B C D E G P T V e sound F L M N S X sound I Y O y sound Q U W R Z

NUMBERS IN ENGLISH Cardinal numbers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 oh, zero, nil, love, nought * One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Ordinal numbers --1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th First Second Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eighth

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1,000

Nine Ten Eleven Twelve Thirteen fourteen Fifteen Sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen Twenty twenty-one Thirty Forty Fifty Sixty Seventy Eighty Ninety a/one hundred a/one thousand

9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 30th

Ninth Tenth Eleventh Twelfth Thirteenth Fourteenth Fifteenth Sixteenth Seventeenth Eighteenth Nineteenth Twentieth twenty-first Thirtieth

1,000,000,000 a/one billion

CLASSROOM OBJECTS / OBJETOS DE LA CLASE Objet Alphabet Flag Eraser Calendar Tape Crayn Lamp Book Map Paper Wall Paintbrush Chalkboard Desk Clock Chair Chalk Spanish el alfabeto la bandera el borrador el calendario la cinta el crayn la lampara el libro el mapa el papel la pared el pincel el pizarrn el pupitre el reloj la silla la tiza Objet loudspeaker Pen calculator bulletin board Computer Stapler Pencil light (overhead) Table wastepaper basket Glue Floor Door Ruler pencil sharpener Scissors Window Spanish el altavoz el bolgrafo la calculadora la cartelera la computadora la grapadora el lpiz la luz la mesa la papelera el pegamento el piso la puerta la regla el sacapuntas las tijeras la ventana

PERSONAL INFORMATION 1. What's your name ? 2. Where do you are from? 3. Where do you live ? 4. What's your address ? 5. What's your telephone number ? 6. How old are you? 7. What's your nationality ? My name is .. I am from I live in .. My address is .. My telephone number is Im years old. I'm

10. What's your occupation ? I'm a .. Question information personal What is your name? My name is... Where are you from? I'm from... / I come from... / I was born in... Where do you live? I live in... How old are you? I'm 20 (years old). What is your home address? My address is... / I live in... What is your telephone number? My telephone number is... Are you single / married? No, I'm divorced. What is your passport number? My passport number is... You are of age. You are under age. Cul es tu nombre? Mi nombre es... De dnde eres? Soy de... / Vengo de... / Nac en... Dnde vives? Vivo en... Qu edad tienes? Tengo 20 (aos). Cul es tu direccin? Mi direccin es... / Vivo en... Cul es tu nmero de telfono? Mi nmero de telfono es... Eres soltero / casado? No, estoy divorciado. Cul es tu nmero de pasaporte? Mi nmero de pasaporte es... Eres mayor de edad. Eres menor de edad.

VOCABULARY OF PERSONAL INFORMATION Man Woman Boy Girl Baby Child Children Youth young man/woman old man/woman Mr. Mrs. Miss first name middle name middle initial Hombre Mujer muchacho, nio muchacha, nia Beb nio/a Nios Joven Joven viejo/a Seor Seora Seorita primer nombre segundo nombre postal code (GB), cdigo postal zip code (US) City Country telephone number Profession Occupation identification card Passport passport number Age sex, gender Male Female place of birth Nationality native town Ciudad Pas nmero de telfono Profesin Ocupacin documento de identidad Pasaporte nmero de pasaporte Edad sexo, gnero Masculino Femenino lugar de nacimiento Nacionalidad ciudad de origen estado civil Soltero Casado Separado Divorciado Viuda Viudo

country of residence pas de residencia

inicial del segundo marital status nombre Single Married Separated Divorced Widow Widower

last name, family Apellido name Address Street Number Floor Apartment domicilio, direccin Calle altura, nmero Piso Apartamento



Official Language(s)

Capital City

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English French






















































Mexico City























English Welsh


Cardiff (regional capital

The Indefinite Article A / AN Use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels), 'an' with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) Examples: A boy An apple A car An orange A house An opera NOTE: An before an h mute - an hour, an honour. A before u and eu when they sound like 'you': a european, a university, a unit The indefinite article is used: 1. to refer to something for the first time: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. Would you like a drink? I've finally got a good job. 2. to refer to a particular member of a group or class Examples:

with names of jobs: John is a doctor. Mary is training to be an engineer. He wants to be a dancer. with nationalities and religions: John is an Englishman. Kate is a Catholic. with musical instruments: Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived. (BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the violin.") with names of days: I was born on a Thursday


Articles in English are invariable. That is, they do not change according to the gender or number of the noun they refer to, e.g. the boy, the woman, the children 'The' is used:

1. to refer to something which has already been mentioned. Example: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk, and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose.

2. when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, even if it has not been mentioned before. Example: 'Where's the bathroom?' 'It's on the first floor.'

3. in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object: Examples: The man who wrote this book is famous. 'Which car did you scratch?' 'The red one. My house is the one with a blue door.'

4. to refer to objects we regard as unique: Examples: the sun, the moon, the world

Nouns In Spanish - unlike English - each noun is either masculine or feminine. Almost all nouns that end in o are masculine and almost all nouns that end in a are feminine. (But, notice that I said almost). In order to form the plural of nouns ending in o or a, an s is added. Examples: el nio (the boy) los nios (the boys) la nia (the girl) las nias (the girls) Nouns ending in dad, tad, tud, umbre, cin, sin are feminine. The plural is formed by adding "es" to nouns ending in a consonant, and "s" to those ending in a vowel Examples: la ciudad (the city) las ciudades (the cities) la facultad (the faculty) las facultades (the faculties) la actitud (the attitude) las actitudes (the attitudes) la legumbre (the vegetable) las legumbres (the vegetables) la nacin (the nation) las naciones (the nations) la televisin (the television) las televisiones (the televisions) There are some nouns that are masculine but end in "a." To form the plural we have to add "s" (Don't forget that the article "el" goes with masculine singular nouns and the article "los" goes with masculine plural nouns, so the plural of el mapa is los mapas.) Examples: el mapa (the map) el da (the day) el sistema (the system) el programa (the program) el telegrama (the telegram) el drama (the drama) el clima (the climate) el tema (the theme) el poema (the poem) el planeta (the planet) Nouns ending in "e" tend to be masculine. To form the plural of nouns ending in "e" an "s" is added. (Don't forget that the article: "el" goes with masculine singular

nouns and the article "los" goes with masculine plural nouns, so the plural of el parque is los parques.) el parque (the park) el caf (the cafe) el aire (the air) el nombre (the name) el cine (the movie theater) el viaje (the trip) el puente (the bridge) el carro (the car) el bosque (the forest) el arte (the art)

Here is a list of very common nouns that end in e but happen to be feminine: la calle (the street) la llave (the key) la tarde (the afternoon) la clase (the class) la noche (the night) la nube (the cloud) la leche (the milk) la gente (the people)

THE ADJECTIVES First of all, Spanish adjectives have a different placement in the sentence than English adjectives: In English, it's the pretty house, whereas in Spanish, it's the house pretty = la casa bonita. In Spanish the noun comes before the adjective. The Spanish adjectives must agree in gender and number with the nouns that they modify. This means that if the noun is feminine and singular the adjective has to be feminine and singular too. If the noun is feminine and plural the adjective has to be feminine and plural. Examples: La mesa vieja (the old table) Las mesas viejas (the old tables)

The same is true of masculine nouns. If the noun is masculine and singular the adjective has to be masculine and singular too. If the noun is masculine and plural the adjective has to be masculine and plural. Examples: El carro sucio (the dirty car) Los carros sucios (the dirty cars)

Most frequently used Spanish adjectives end in o (masculine) or a (feminine), according to the noun they modify. Examples: alto, alta (tall) barato, barata (cheap) ancho, ancha (wide) blanco, blanca (white) amarillo/a (yellow) bonito, bonita (pretty)

bueno, buena (good) delgado, delgada (thin) estrecho/a (narrow) fro, fra (cold) largo, larga (long) malo, mala (bad

caro, cara (expensive) (har rico, rica (rich) feo, fea (ugly) gordo, gorda (fat) limpio, limpia (clean) negro, negra (black)

corto, corta (short) sucio, sucia (dirty) viejo, vieja (old) hermoso/a (beautiful) loco, loca (crazy)

However, there are many adjectives that end in e and some that end in consonants. These are called neutral adjectives, because they don't change form with masculine or feminine nouns. To form their plurals you need to add an s to the ones ending in e and es to the ones ending in a consonant. Examples: elegante (elegant) excelente (excellent) fuerte (strong) grande (big) humilde (humble) importante (important) inteligente (intelligent) interesante (interesting) pobre (poor) triste (sad) verde (green) Spanish adjectives ending with consonants: popular (popular) azul (blue) fcil (easy) feliz (happy) gris (gray)

Note: There are many rules about Spanish adjectives and many exceptions to those rules. The above is the most general and easiest aproach to Spanish adjectives. You will learn more in the future, but if you learn the lesson here well, you'll rarely have problems WH QUESTIONS What ? - Qu? Cul? Cules? What else? - Qu ms? Which ? - Qu? Cul? Cules? How ? - Cmo? Cun? How else ? - De qu otra manera? When ? - Cundo? Where ? - Dnde? Adnde? Where else ? - Dnde ms? Why ? - Por qu? Para qu? Who ? - Quin? Quienes?

How often ? - Con qu frecuencia? How long ? - Cunto tiempo? Qu longitud? How long ago? - Hace cunto tiempo? How old ? - Qu edad? Cun viejo? How soon ? - Cun pronto? How big ? - Qu tamao? Cun grande? How far ? - A qu distancia? Cun lejos? How tall ? - Qu estatura? Cun alto? How deep ? - Qu profundidad? How early ? - Cun temprano?

Who else? - Quin ms? Whom ? - A quin? A quines? Whose ? - De quin? De quines? How much ? - Cunto/a? How many ? - Cuntos/as?

How late ? - Cun tarde? How heavy ? - Qu peso? Cun pesado? How thick ? - Qu espesor? Cun grueso? What time ? - Qu hora? A qu hora? What kind ? - Qu clase ? Qu tipo?

Which dog do you like better? [uich dogduiulaik beter?] Qu perro te gusta ms? Which country do you like better ? [uichkantri duiulaik beter?] Qu pas te gusta ms? Which of them? [uichofdem?] Cul de ellos/ellas?

When [uen] When [uen]--------> Significa Cundo? La imagen inslita: When [uen] es Wendy el clebre personaje de Peter Pan. Una nia que viaja al pas de Nunca Jams volando y que curiosamente se encuentra con Which [uich]. Cuando est va corriendo enfadada porque los chicos se han redo de su nombre CuandoWhich[uich] ve a When[uen] se detiene y le pregunta:

When is your birthday? When? [uen itsiu berzdei? uen?] Cundo es tu cumpleaos? When are you coming to see me? When? [uen ariukaming uen?] Cuando vienes a verme? Cundo? When did you go? When? [uen dIdiugou? uen?] Cundo fuiste?

Why [uai] Why [uai]--------> Significa: Por qu? La imagen inslita: Why [uai] es lo que le contesta Wendy When [uen] a Which.

Why do you ask me that? [uai duiu askmidat?] Por qu me preguntas eso? Why are you angry? [uai ariu angri] Por qu ests enfadada? Why are you running? [uai ariu raning] Por qu corres?

Who[h] Who[h]--------------> Significa: Quin? Quines?

Pronunciacin: Es el nico interrogativo que no tiene sonido u. Es como una h aspirada (echando el aliento sobre un cristal) ms u. [h] [h]. Nota: No es j (con j fuerte de jamn). La imagen inslita: Which`[uich] contesta a When [uen] con las siguientes preguntas.

Who knows? [h nous]Quin sabe? Who is who? [h Is h] Quin es quin? Who is Peter? [h is piter] Quin es Peter?

Ambas acaban rindose, who, who, who [h, h, h]-Quin? Quin? Quin? We don't know who. [ui dontnou h]- No sabemos quin. Nos falta How [hau] que no est en este grupo de Wh-questions, pero que tambin resulta difcil de recordar. Suena hau. El sonido a mi me recuerda al saludo de un indio how.[hau] How[hau] How[hau]------> Significa Cmo? La imagen inslita: Un indio al que llamaremos how [hau] y que aparece en escena cuando Which y When se estn riendo who, who, who [h, h, h]. ndio How [hau] se queda extraado porque no sabe de qu se rien Which y When y les dice: I'm how. [am hau] Soy how. Despus les pregunta:

How are you? [hau ari] Cmo estis/estn? How do you spell your name?[hau dui sspeliur name? Cmo se deletrea tu nombre? How old are you? [hau oldari?]Cuntos aos tienes? Nota: Como ves, la traduccin no es siempre cmo.


Infinitive arise be beat become Begin bet bite bleed blow break bring build buy catch choose come cost creep cut deal do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find flee

Simple Past Arose was / were Beat became Began bet/betted Bit Bled Blew Broke brought Built Bought Caught Chose Came Cost Crept Cut Dealt Did Drew dreamt/dreamed Drank Drove Ate Fell Fed Felt Fought Found Fled

Past Participle arisen been beaten become begun bet/betted bitten bled blown broken brought built bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt done drawn dreamt/dreamed drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled

Spanish Surgir Ser Golpear Convertirse Comenzar Apostar Morder Sangrar Soplar Romper Traer Construir Comprar Atrapar Elegir Venir Costar Arrastrarse Cortar dar, repartir Hacer Dibujar Soar Beber Conducir Comer Caer Alimentar Sentir Pelear Encontrar Huir

fly forget forgive forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep kneel know lead learn leave lend let make mean meet pay put quit read ride ring rise run say see

Flew Forgot forgave forsook Froze Got Gave Went Ground Grew Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knelt Knew Led learnt/learned Left Lent Let Made Meant Met Paid Put quit/quitted Read Rode Rang Rose Ran Said Saw

flown forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen got given gone ground grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept knelt known led learnt/learned left lent let made meant met paid put quit/quitted read ridden rung risen run said seen

Volar Olvidar Perdonar Abandonar Congelar tener, obtener Dar Ir Moler Crecer Colgar Tener Or Esconderse Golpear tener, mantener herir, doler Guardar Arrodillarse Saber Encabezar Aprender Dejar Prestar Dejar Hacer Significar conocer, encontrar Pagar Poner Abandonar Leer montar, ir llamar por telfono Elevar Correr Decir Ver

sell send set sew shake shine shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slide sow speak spell spend spill split spoil spread stand steal sting stink strike swear sweep swim take teach tear tell think Throw Tread

Sold Sent Set Sewed Shook Shone Shot showed shrank/shrunk Shut Sang Sank Sat Slept Slid Sowed Spoke spelt/spelled Spent spilt/spilled Split spoilt/spoiled Spread Stood Stole Stung stank/stunk Struck Swore Swept Swam Took Taught Tore Told thought Threw Trode

sold sent set sewn/sewed shaken shone shot shown/showed shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid sown/sowed spoken spelt/spelled spent spilt/spilled split spoilt/spoiled spread stood stolen stung stunk struck sworn swept swum taken taught torn told thought thrown trodden/trod

Vender Enviar Fijar Coser Sacudir Brillar Disparar Mostrar Encoger Cerrar Cantar Hundir Sentarse Dormir Deslizar Sembrar Hablar Deletrear Gastar Derramar Partir Estropear Extenderse estar de pie Robar Picar Apestar Golpear Jurar Barrer Nadar Tomar Ensear Romper Decir Pensar Lanzar Pisar



Classroom Class Bag Blackboard board eraser Book Briefcase Chair (piece of) chalk Crayn Desk eraser (US) Folder Notebook Notepad Paper Aula Clase Bolso Pizarrn Borrador Libro portafolios, maletn Silla Tiza lpiz de cera, crayn Escritorio goma de borrar Carpeta Cuaderno Cuaderno Papel


aunt brother cousin daughter father granddaughter grandmother grandson mother nephew niece sister son stepdaughter stepmother stepson uncle

ESPANISH ta hermano primo hija padre nieta abuela nieto madre sobrino sobrina hermana hijo hijastra madrastra hijastro to

face = la cara/el rostro facial features she has a thin face an oval face a round face a cherubic face a sad face a serious face a smiling face Rasgos tiene la/una cara delgada una cara ovalada una cara redonda una cara angelical una cara triste una cara seria una cara sonriente

a happy face Frightened Surprised a smile a smirk a frown nose = la nariz a bulbous nose a hooked nose a big nose a turned-up/snub nose a pointed nose a flat nose/a pug nose a lopsided nose

una cara alegre asustado sorprendido una sonrisa una sonrisita el ceo fruncido

una nariz protuberante una nariz aguilea una nariz grande una nariz respingona una nariz puntiaguda una nariz chata una nariz ladeada/torcida

eyes = los ojos she has brown eyes tiene los ojos marrones


color avellana

he has beady eyes

tiene los ojos redondos y brillantes como cuentas un ojo morado ojos rojizos ojos sanguinolentos/injectados de sangre guiar el ojo pestaear/parpadear es bizca

a black eye red eyes bloodshot eyes to wink to blink she is cross-eyed

a squint she's blind he's blind in one eye to go blind crow's feet sunken eyes piggy eyes bulging eyes slit/slanting eyes a stye shifty eyes eyebrows = las cejas arched eyebrows

una bizquera, un estrabismo es ciega es tuerto quedarse ciego patas de gallo ojos hundidos ojitos redondos y brillantes ojos saltones ojos achinados un orzuelo ojos furtivos

cejas arqueadas

bushy eyebrows thick eyebrows to raise your eyebrows mouth Harelip chapped lips Buckteeth false teeth front teeth wisdom teeth to chatter (teeth)

cejas tupidas cejas pobladas arquear las cejas

labio leporino labios agrietados dientes de conejo/dientes salidos dentadura postiza paletas/dientes de adelante muelas del juicio castaetear

my teeth are chattering

me castaetean los dientes

hair = el pelo/cabello she has blond hair Auburn she has grey hair mousy hair long hair short hair shoulder-length hair curly hair wavy hair frizzy hair straight hair lank hair greasy hair Fine shiny hair Sideburns a wig Bald a bald patch he's balding build = complexin Thin plump (a nicer way of saying fat) delgado gordito tiene el pelo rubio castao rojizo es canosa, tiene el pelo canoso, tiene canas el pelo castao desvado el pelo largo el pelo corto el pelo hasta los hombros el pelo rizado el pelo ondulado el pelo crespo el pelo liso el pelo lacio el pelo graso/grasoso fino el pelo brillante patillas una peluca calvo una calva/una pelada se est quedando calvo

Slim Fat Strong Weak Short Tall a hunchback medium height medium build he's a large man General Terms handsome, good-looking, attractive pretty, good-looking, attractive, lovely hes quite a hunk Ugly Beautiful

esbelto gordo fuerte flojo bajo alto un jorobado de estatura media de talla media es un hombre corpulento

guapo guapa, bonita, linda, est buensimo fea/feo preciosa, bella guapsima, lindsima, hermosa,

Other notes He looks a bit ______ In Spanish "tiene pinta de ____" is very common for giving a general idea about the appearance. See examples on the right: He looks sad Note that when we say how something "seems" or "looks" (probably because we are not certain) we use parecer. a strong- looking man tiene pinta de delincuente: he looks like a criminal tiene pinta de extranjero he looks a bit foreign parece triste

un hombre de apariencia fuerte