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Edit by Joe Klingfus, Raith_USA Revised by Hongjun Zeng, UIC, June 2008

Ebeam lithography Version 3.0

Nanotechnology Core Facility (NCF) technical documentation

Edit by Joe Klingfus, Raith_USA Revised by Hongjun Zeng, UIC, June 2008

Ebeam lithography Version 3.0

0 Summary of exposure steps This document describes how to setup an exposure in a step-by-step manner. Most of these steps have to be done in the correct order. Only change the order if you know that it is possible to do so. For example, it is not possible to change the order of the Adjust UV and the Write Field Alignment procedures. Although, with enough practice and experience, it is possible to skip some steps depending on the type of exposure and the desired results. The best advice is to gain an understanding of each Module before deviating from the given outline. A common user is REQUIRED to talk with MAL staff on any operation beyond this guide. If the EBL logo file shows any irregular operation, the users access will be suspended for two weeks.

1 Start the system 1-1. Start the microscope control program on the Column PC (CPC). The RemCon32 program must be running in the background. 1-2. Start the Raith e_LiNE program on the Lithography PC (LPC). 1-3. Turn on N2 and select UNLOAD from LPC using Navigator Exchange (The second Stop light icon on toolbar) shown as follow

1-4. Turn on the HEPA filter. 1-5. It takes about 10 minutes for chamber vending. When the gap between the door and the chamber increases to about 2mm, it is a sign that the door can be dragged open. The door has a big mass, try to gently decelerate it at its end of moving out.

Nanotechnology Core Facility (NCF) technical documentation

Edit by Joe Klingfus, Raith_USA Revised by Hongjun Zeng, UIC, June 2008

Ebeam lithography Version 3.0

2 Load the sample 2-0. Turn on HEPA are shower before open the chamber 2-1. Mount sample:1). Scrape a marker at the lower left corner of each sample. 2). Try to make the bottom line of the sample parallel to the edge of the stage. 3). Use the plastic tweezers to avoid scratches on the Al sample holder 2-2. Select LOAD from LPC using Navigator Exchange and following the prompt instructions to finish the sample loading. 2-3. One minute after pump-on, turn HEPA and N2 off. It takes about 30 minutes for chamber pumping. 2-4. At the end of load procedure, check YES to reset the UV alignment: voltage=10KV, Aperture=30um, WD=10mm 2-5. Check YES to drive the stage to Home position. When the Home position and the successful loading information shows as follow input the name of the sample.

3 Start column 3-1.Turn on EHT from the CPC. (Right-click on text EHT in the lower right corner of screen and select EHT On.) 3-2. (Skip this step if 2-3 is performed) If not already entered at end of load procedure, use the Navigator Column to set acceleration voltage and choose an aperture. 3-3. In LPC, input W=10mm (UVW and absolute) in the tab DESTINATION of window Stage control and press START Nanotechnology Core Facility (NCF) technical documentation 3

Edit by Joe Klingfus, Raith_USA Revised by Hongjun Zeng, UIC, June 2008

Ebeam lithography Version 3.0

3-4. Set working distance in CPC as 10mm. 4 Adjust UVW window 4-1. Make sure beam blanker ON (ebeam OFFthis is a step for any movement). Move to the

destination sample position using Stage control in LPC. Option1: choose a saved location and press GO. This is a convenient way. Option2: input the coordinates 4-2. After the destination is located, select beam blanker OFF (ebeam ON).

4-3. In the CPC and tab DETECTOR, choose INLENS to see SEM image window. 4-4. Find lower left corner of sample using stage joystick control. 4-5. Set magnification > 600X in CPC. Find a permanent spot at the lower left corner of the sample, align the spot at the center of the crosshairs 4-6. Open Adjust UVW window in LPC. 4-7. Press ADJUST at the ORIGIN CORRECTION tab in the Adjust UVW window. 4-8. Select the ANGLE CORRECTION tab in the Adjust UVW window. 4-9. Press READ at the location of the spot to record the XY location of point 1. 4-10 Keeping the magnification, drive stage to lower right corner of the sample to find another spot, same as step 4-5. 4-11 READ this XY location as point 2. 4-12 Press ADJUST button to calculate transformation angle between XY and UV coordinates systems. (NOTE: the computer assumes +U direction along the vector from point 1 to point 2.) If exposing on un-patterned substrate skip to next section and go to 5 Write field alignment. The following steps apply to overlay or mix-andmatch exposures. UV coordinates displayed in the Coordinates window need to be linked to uv coordinates of GDSII design. 4-13 Set MAG to 3000X to avoid exposing critical areas. Keep same MAG for entire process. 4-14 Use DESTINATION index tab of Stage Control window to drive to coordinate where first mark is expected to be. 4-15 Center on mark with aide of image crosshairs. .

Nanotechnology Core Facility (NCF) technical documentation

Edit by Joe Klingfus, Raith_USA Revised by Hongjun Zeng, UIC, June 2008

Ebeam lithography Version 3.0

4-16 Shoot a spot to check the focus and leave a mark for future reference. 4-17 Switch to Local coordinate system. 4-18 Select 3-POINTS index tab of Adjust UVW. 4-19 Press READ button to capture XY coordinates of current stage position. Type in uv design coordinates of the first adjustment mark. 4-20 Check the box corresponding to point 1 to lock the XY and uv coordinate pairs. 4-21 Repeat same sequence for the 2 remaining points. (Locate mark with crosshair, Read XY, type uv, then click check-box.) 4-22 Calculate coordinate transformation by pressing ADJUST button. Stage now drives in the coordinate space defined by the marks that are on the sample.

5 Focusing 5-1. Beam blanker ON . Move back to the lower left corner and find particles around the scratch.

Make a good focus by moving the CPC mouse and pressing its middle button. 5-2. With left button of the CPC mouse, zoom in the image window with fine tuning the focus until the magnification reaches 20kX. 5-3. Click on the Dot icon on the CPC window using the left mouse button to burn a dot. The system will automatically stop the exposing. 5-4. If you can not burn a visible contamination dot, press the same icon with middle mouse button and make a 1 minute exposing. Press the icon again to stop. 5-5. Adjust focus, brightness and contrast for the best image of the contamination dot. Finely adjust the focus and then burn the dots until you can get a round dot with diameter less than 40nm.

6 Write field alignment Select either CASE A or CASE B below depending on type of exposure. CASE A for unpatterned (i.e., bare) sample. This will align WF to the movement of the stage. 6A1. In CPC, move a reference particle to the center of the window. 6A2. Set Magnification and Write field size using the Microscope Control window. Write field size=100m, Maginifcation=1000X. 6A3. Select FILE >> NEW POSITIONLIST from main menu.

Nanotechnology Core Facility (NCF) technical documentation

Edit by Joe Klingfus, Raith_USA Revised by Hongjun Zeng, UIC, June 2008

Ebeam lithography Version 3.0

6A4. Open Scan Manager window, Select Align Write Field Procedures \ Manual\ 100 m WFManual ALWF 25m marks. 6A5. Drag and Drop defined Align WF procedure onto the NEW POSITIONLIST, right click and select SCAN to perform the write field alignment. 6A6. Hold [Ctrl]+left-mouse-button to identify the mark each time it is scanned. 6A7. Repeat step 6A3-6A6 with sequentially smaller marks (5m and 1m). The correction value can be checked at c:\e_LiNe\Protocol\Protocol.html. For optimal stitching, final scan size should be 1% of Write field size. (1 for 100 WF.) CASE B for patterned sample (i.e., for overlay or mix-and-match exposure). This will align the WF to marks that are on the sample. 6B1. Perform manual (coarse) WF alignment. Expose GDSII with only layer 63 and appropriate Working Area (as described below in #8 Exposure step.) 6B2. Perform automatic WF alignment using mark detection. Expose GDSII with only layer 61. Open the ALIGN.PLS Positionlist (in folder DATA) to verify linescans and threshold algorithm for proper mark recognition. 6B3. Check Protocol file for convergence of parameters. Repeat last step as many times as required to increase accuracy.

7 Exposure 7-1. Beam blanker ON and Drive to Faraday cup using Stage Control in LPC. Center the cup in the CPC window. Maximally zoom in to ensure beam within confines of hole. Be certain to change only MAG and do not disturb beam focus, alignment or stigmation settings. 7-2. Measure beam current using Current measurement. 7-3. Open the pattern file you are going to write from GDSII Database. 7-3. Drag and Drop the GDSII file into a NEW POSITIONLIST, and save this positionlist file as another name for your future reference. Right click the dropped item and select PROPERTIES. 7-4. In the Exposure Properties window, use Layer tool to select correct layers to expose. 7-5. Use Working Area tool to select pre-defined area of file to expose. 7-6. Type in UV coordinates corresponding to center of the first WF.

Nanotechnology Core Facility (NCF) technical documentation

Edit by Joe Klingfus, Raith_USA Revised by Hongjun Zeng, UIC, June 2008

Ebeam lithography Version 3.0

7-7. Press CALCULATOR button to set up dosage according to the measured beam current. Make sure there is no red warning on the bottom of area, line and dots setting. The step sizes of area, line are 20nm and 10nm, respectively, which are the unchangeable references for calculating dwell time and dose. The dots exposing requires a 0.1pAs dose and the dwell time is calculated from it. Click OK to confirm. For reasonable results, the beam speed should not exceed 10 mm per second. (5 mm is good, 1 mm for best results.) 7-8. Set does factor. 7-9. Click TIMES button to perform time estimation. 7-10 Click OK to confirm the exposing parameters. 7-11 Select FILTER >> MATRIX COPY from main menu for array exposing. You can set the array geometry and the dose variable. 7-12 Select all positions you want to expose in the positionlist, right click the mouse and check SCAN, then the ebeam exposure will start and stop automatically. When exposing is done, all blue spots in front of the exposed items will become green.

8 Unload the sample 9-1. Turn EHT off and beam blanker on. 9-2. Follow step 1-3 and 1-5 to unload the sample. 9-3. When unload is finished, return the sample holder to the system as soon as possible. 9-4. Follow step 2-2 to 2-5 to finish the loading process. The chamber must be left with vacuum status.

9 Logout 9-1. Exit control program Raith e_LiNE on the LPC and logout from Windows. 9-2. Make sure the beam blanker is ON and EHT is OFF on the CPC. Exit control program and check YES at the following popup window:

Nanotechnology Core Facility (NCF) technical documentation

Edit by Joe Klingfus, Raith_USA Revised by Hongjun Zeng, UIC, June 2008

Ebeam lithography Version 3.0

9-3. Check No at the following window:

9-4. Leave the Windows and the EM Server on. EM sever monitors the system status for the reference of system maintenance. 9-5. Sign off the log book.

Nanotechnology Core Facility (NCF) technical documentation