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St u f f I Sh o u l d K n o w (Pa g e 2 )

Complex Ions & Common Ligands Ligands polar molecules & anions Central Ions transition metals and Al3+ Examples usually twice the number of ligands as the charge on the central ion. Key Words: excess, concentrated Organic Chemistry & Functional Groups alkanes alkenes Cn H2n+2 Cn H2n alcohol aldehyde NH3 , H2 O, OH, CN, Cl Ag +, Cu 2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, etc. & Al3+ Ag(CN)2 , Cu(NH3 )4 2+, Ni(OH)4 2, Zn(NH3 )4 2+, Al(OH)6 3 alkynes Cn H2n2 ketone aromatics (benzene) C6 H6 ether Odd example: Fe3+ + SCN FeSCN2+ Reaction with Acid: Cu(NH3 )4 2+ + H+ Cu 2+ + NH4 +

nuclear chem alpha


4 2

He e

beta/electron
0 1

H S Spont.? + at all temps + + high temps low temps + no temps Note: S in J G & H in kJ Ksp & Solubility, s 1:1 Ksp = s 2 1:2 Ksp = 4s 3 1:3 Ksp = 27s 4 2:3 Ksp = 108s 5

carboxylic acid

ester

amine

amide

neutron
1 0

positron Substituted benzene: ortho = 1,2 meta = 1,3 para = 1,4 Electrochemical Cells anode cathode oxidation reduction + side side lower E higher E e leave e enter
0 +1

Lewis Acid & B ases s BF3 + NH3 BF3 NH3 acid anhydrides (oxides of nonmetals, CO2 ) basic anhydrides (oxides of metals, MgO) MgO + CO2 MgCO3 decomposition reactions: MgCO3 MgO + CO2 Strange Examples: P4 O10 + H2 O H3 PO4 Strange Ions: (nitride, N3) (hydride, H) Li + N2 Li3 N LiH + H2 O H2 + Li+ + OH Flame Test Colors Barium green Sodium yellow Copper blue (w/ green) Potassium lavender Strontium red Lithium red Calcium orange Quantum Numbers 1, 2, 3, n l 0 (n1) ml l +l ms +, l 0 = s, 1 = p, 2 = d, 3 = f

Bond Orders bond B.O. single 1 double 2 + triple 3 ++

SN & hybridization & shape Steric Number hybridization 1 s 2 sp 3 sp2 4 sp3 5 sp3 d 6 sp3 d2 IMFs London dipoledipole hydrogen bonding metallic ionic covalent network

basic shape linear planar tetrahedral bipyramidal octahedral

Writing Lewis Structures hint: use one valence electron to connect Fs or Cls then determine lone pairs (Ex: XeF4 ) ProductFavored (Spontaneous) Reactions

G < 0

E > 0

Keq > 1
VP

Properties Indicate Strength of Intermolecular Forces (IMFs)

nonpolar molecules, ex: CH4 , He polar molecules, ex: H2 S, SO2 HF, HO, HN, NH3 , H2 O amines and alcohols metals, Ag, Pb salts, NaCl, CaCO3 (Note: ates contain covalent bonds) C(graphite), C(diamond), SiO2 , WC, Si, SiC (Note: graphite = London, too)

IMF BP FP Hvap Hfus


IMF BP FP Hvap H fus

VP

Orders of Reactions & Graphs That Give Straight Lines 0 Order 1st Order 2nd Order [R] vs. Time ln[R] vs. Time 1/[R] vs. Time slope = -k slope = -k slope = k

Activity of Metals (Four Groups) Metals React with Groups I & II H2 O ex: Li + H2 O Li+ + OH + H2 Non-oxidizing Acid, ex: HCl all others Zn + 2HCl H2 + ZnCl2 Oxidizing Acid, HNO3 or H2 SO4 (conc.) Cu, Ag, Hg Cu + HNO3 NO2 + H2 O + Cu 2+ Au, Pt, Ir Aqua Regia (HNO3 + HCl)