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On the Coin of 4le:cander


Greek Tut of tile Seventeen firfi Chapters of 4rrian's
Indian Hiflmy 1.
Abfira8 from the firfi Seventeen Chapters 15.
Yqgage of Greek and Englifo 25.
Periplas of tile SeD, Greek and Englifo 71.
On Mdmharus
Sequel to tile Periplt1.& of the Sea
Errors correRed
- 111.
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~ o o g l e
IF Patronage has a demand upon the gratitude of an author.
Friendthip has a claim of equal validity, which the ungenerous·
alone will refufe to ackn()wledge. But an uninterrupted friend-
(hip' of forty years continuance impofes obligations of fuperior
importance: it confiders advice on the one part, and attention on
the other, as reciprocal duties, and interchangeable according to.
the exigencies which may occur ..
I had concluded my Commentary on Ancient Commerce, I
bad relinqui1hed my purfuits conneCted with the (ubjeCt, and I
bad promifed to intrude no more upon the indulgence of the
public: but you have contlantly maintained, that the Commen-
tary .. without the Originals, was incomplete; and. that the Ori-
ginal in one inftance was either not procurable, or, if procured,.
that the value was inadequate to the price ..

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In deference therefore to your jUdgme.nt. I have proceeded to
the execution of your plan; and I fubmit the refult of my labour,
not without he1itation, to the tribunal of the Public. Profitable
it cannot be; and credit, if credit filould accrue, I filall confider
as derived from fuggeftions originating in the partiality of a
friend: but in no cafe filall the failure of my hopes dimini1h
the regard and efteem which I you for the fincerity of your
advice, or the of your attachment. Impre1fed with
thefe fentiments, I fubfcribe myfelf
Your faithful friend and fervant,
July 1, 1809.
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ALL the editions of the Peripl-us of the Erythr&n Sea are now
fo fcarce, that a nngle copy is feldom to be met with in the mod
exten1ive catalogues. This has been the principal inducement for
undertaking the following publication.
A objeCt was, to every clafs of readers to com ..
pare the contents of both the originals with the Commentary
atready publi1hed, and to judge whether the deduCtions were
correa, or the conclunons juftifiable.
To efFed: this purpofe, the tranl1ations are given in a ftyle of
language fuitable' to the narrative of a navigator and a merchant:
all embellilhment therefore. or curiofity of expreffion, are dif-
claimed. But if I have failed in giving the genuine fenfe of. the
originals, or in preferving the purity of· the Engllih idiom, it is
but loft labour after all.
The 'Verfion is not literal, neither (if executed according to its
intention) it be thought cllifufe. To comprefs is more de-
firable than to dilate; but circumlocution is preferable to ob ..
The language of the Peripl6s, more efpeciaUy, is fo abrupt and
that withQut the aid of infertioDs, in 'fome inftances, the
fentence would be incomplete; and in others,. \1n1effJ fome liberty
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of expreffion were allowed, perfpicuity would be utterly unat-
If I have perfuaded myfelf that I am better qualified for an
interpreter of thefe works than many others of fuperior talents
and acquirements, it does not arife from prefumption, but from
the contemplation of thefe fubje8:s for many years, and from the
po1feffion of materials. which few would have had the curiolity to
coned, and fewer ftill the· patience to arrange and prepare for

It was originally intended to give the text, Greek and Engli{b,
without farther remarks;· a few notes have been now added for
the purpofe of correCtion. and to fave the trouble of perpetual .
reference: but wherever inveftigation is requifite, recourfe muft
be had to the former work.
The Greek text of both the following works is that of Nicolas
Blancard; but in the Voyage of Nearchus it has been correCted
from the edition of Gronovius, (Leyden, 1704.) and moft of the
readings of his beft Florentine manufcript admitted into the text.
That manufcript was one of thofe' procured by Lorenzo de Me-
dicis, and it is
The Periplds has received but little correCtion finee its firft
publication by Gelenius at Bafie. 1533. The edition of Stuckius
(Geneva, 1577.) has large Scholia; but, in a geographical point
of view, of no great value. J i,'
The Oxford edition by Hudfon, 16g8, is moft accurately print-
ed; but the ftate of the text, where defedive, is rarely touched.
The few -marginal notes he has added are' nOt'of imptlttam:e, and
fame of them are erroneous; but without dJ8 in
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giving the text correCl:ly. and leaving the difficulties as they
Blancardts edition (Amfterdam, 1680, as appears by the Dedi-
cation) is profe1fedly from Stuckius; his fcholia, though learned,
add little to our geographical knowledge: and in his edition of
the. Hifi:ory and Indica of Arrian. which bears date 1668, he,
among other editors of the fame works, falls, fometimes not un-
juftly. under the fevere laih of Gronovius.
His edition of the Periplds I was obliged to adopt, becaufe I
could obtain no other to ufe as copy: neither did I know of its'
exifi:ence, till it was procured for me within thefe few months.
It is contained in a volume which comprifes the Tad:ics, the
treatife on Hunting, the Periphis of the Euxine Sea, and the
Commentary on Epiaetus. all by Arrian; and this of
the Sea, ufually bearing the name of Arrian, was af-
figned, with the others, to Arrian of w.hofe work it
certainly is not. I find thefe feveral traas bear diiFerent dates,
as 1680. 1681. 1683. and I conclude therefore, that the rarenefs
of this volume proceeds either from the interval between their
refpeC\ive publication; or that, when the traas were colleaed
into a pody, the impreffion was confined to a fmall number of
copies. This indeed is a mere conjed:ure; but I had never met
with this volume, w.hile the other is common in every cata-
The ftadium employed in the Voyage of Nearchus· is fuppofed
to be a ftadium of 51 French toifes, about 15 of which are equal
'ft.a. pUk .Roman, .. l6,· to a ",ile Engli.1h, 1 11 to.a degree.
t:"1 ,It,,1 ••. ,'
-.. .. of Sea is
mppofwl.tq. hc::a pf.which 10 are equaJ to a mile Roman.
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Fao M
7b MR. JOHN PRICE, principal Librarian of tke Bodleian. I am
indebted for accefi to this fingular Coin. and the 1mowledge of it,
BZijlence in the IYinchelfea colleElion; and with much gratitude
I ac1mowledge hill communication of the evidence on which ita au-
thenticity " l!ftablifAed, and hii obliging reaJinep in permitting it
to be engra-qed.
THE. Coin from which this Head of Alexander is engraved, forms part
of the Earl of Winchelfea's Collectioq, which was purchafed by Mr.
Charles Godwyn, Fellow of llalliol College, and by his will bequeathed to
the Univerfity of Oxford. It is apparently· the fame as Chauffantts
No. 5, mentipned errorieoufi.y as brafs, in the account of the former en-
graving. But it is a fUver diobolus, or third of a drachma, nearly the flze "
of an Englifh and ought to weigh twenty-two grains and one
• Publicola Cbautrard publlibed a French trarulation of Arriau in 1801, and gave a Table of Ales.-
Coins. At p. 140. he cites Haym, tom. ii. p. 18. IUld his Catalogue raUooiM!, p. t. adding,
fvoipc d4Iu c-. tlerrrier 011 ,., 'roIItIC poin' tie c:orII& Whether Haym's Catalogue dilFers &om his Tee
foro Britannico, I cannot fay; but in the latter he exprefsly mentiou8 the born. Iu Chautrard's plate
the horn is wrinkled like that of a ram, in Lord Winchelfea'l Coin"it. is plain. This raifes a doubt
either in regard to its identity or itl accuracy. But it feems intended for the fame, and CbaulFard
hears ample teftimony to the beauty of the wmk, and the 6deiity or the portrait; cUe rqriferate k
Wilabk portrait tie " PriJlU.
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fixth b, but has received an iniuiy, which reduces it to twenty grains and
an half. Its value is ten farthings and a third. Haym, in his Teforo
Britannico, tom. ii. p. 11. has copied the following defcription of it from
the catalogue of LOrd Winchelfea.
"This Coin, which is extremely rare
, is valuable on feveral accounts,
"but more particularly as exhibiting a genuine portrait of Alexander,
" which his Coins in general do not: for they.ufually reprefent a Jupiter,
" a Hercules with, or without d a beard, a Pallas
, &c. &c. but that the
cc head on this Coin is a portrait, there is little room to doubt. The
" Diadem and the Horn of Ammon the King, and his fiCtitious de-
" fcent from that Deity of the defert. Added to which, the fingular
" beauty of the workmanfhip is a chara8:eriftic of the agef, rarely equalled,
" and perhaps never excelled in any other fpecimen of the art '."
" The Lion on the reverfe is of the be fuperiority; it may reprefent
(C Fortitude or Power, but more probably relates to a dream of Philip's,
" recorded- by Plutarch, [and noticed by Tertullian] in which he is (aid
" to have feen the matrix of Olympias, (ealed with the figure of a Lion."
l\{r. Combe fuppofes that the Lion refers rather to Hercules, from whom
the Kings of Macedon derived their origin.
The prefent Engraving has been confided to an artift of and
has been fubmitted during the whole progrefs of the work to the judg-
ment of Mr. B. Weft, who has honoured it with his peculiar attention.
The opinion of a profeffional man, whofe talents have placed him (0 de.
fervedly at the head of the Britifh School, may be admitted as "decifive
upon queftions of more importance than the prefent, and his opinion is
" According to Mr. Combe.
C It is not found in the Briti.fh Mufeum, or in Dr. Hunter'1 eol1eaion.
• In Mr. Combe'l opinion the head of Hen:ules it IIfttCr repreCented _Ila a beanl on the coins of
• In fome of Le Brun'I Battles the portrait of Alexander it copied tiom this head of Pall ...
r Both M. CbaufI'anl, and Mr. Combe of the Britifh Mufeum, judp the coin to be of 1a&er date
than the age oC Alexander; but ooth unite in fuppo6Dg it to be a genuine portrait.
I This estraa c:onfiftl more properly of the CubftaDc:e than the wonU of HapD.
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er The Features of the face are not thofe which the ancient Greek ar-
" tifts gave to their Ideal b chara8ers of that Prince; but they are deci-
" dedly done from individual features, delineated from Life, or a Buft
" taken from Life ••.. They mark a portrait, and that portrait cannot
" be any other but Alexander, in the charaCler of young Ammon .•••
" As a work, I admire the mind of the artift who made the Coin, or
" formed the compontion, for. his innght into the harmony of nature .•.•
" It is almoft without example in its department· of art, both in the
" head, and in the Lion on the reverfe."
The teftimony of the hiftorians is uniform in afiigning a coun-
tenance of nngular beauty to Alexander, and it is highly probable that in
this Coin we have the peculiar traits which characterized this beauty, and
diftinguifhed it from that of every other perfon. Thefe feveral evidences
in favour of its originality are fanctioned by the concurrent fentiments of
Lord Winchelfea, Haym, Cbau1fard, Mr. Combe, and Mr. Weft, who all
unite in opinion, \hat it is a genuine refemblance of that Prince, whofe
name is infcribed on the reverfe.
• There is another Coin of .AlesBDder in Chauft'ard's plate. No. 1, which, if I underftand it ript,
is the ODe commented OD by Schla&er. De N umo Alesandri Magni: the chara&er is DOt very ditlimilar
from that of No. 5. BDd Schla&er al"erts it to be the work of Pyrg6teles, the OJily anitlwbo WIll aI-
lowed to engrave the refemblance of this Prince. But this a8'ertiOD is difputed by Chaull'arcl, and the
bead ha diadem or horn; the hair is loofe BDd wild.
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7r0lx4At1. IfiI T¥ ;""11.'14'1_' TO' T.
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Tofo, T' tXII"" WO,.,..,,,,, 'P0e""' TO ti».O T. 7rH.9-,09-4f
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If' , .,
f4II. ortlHr'" '" ... tJt.or'p.r 'S' or.
i,.,tp«,"r ;xMltU8-", or;; ,1-
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MlltI'lINT' ".ti,Nf', " • Vr;,. " fJet""" " lU&or
J.».", T". «.rlettU Jrro-
q>A)I,,1f '<if ':.r., 'Y'
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or •• ",..,. Ttliir",.,... 1.J"NZt8-",
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ARRIAN has himfelf confidered this
part . of his work as s digreffion a, and it
is in reality a colleCtion from the Mace-
donian and Greek writers, who had pre-
ceded him in recording all that was then
known of Indian manners, cuftoms, bil-
tory, and geography.
It contains likewife a variety of matter
purely mythologicill, relative to Hercu- .
les, and Bacchua or DionUfus, whofe ex-
iftence 'Or expeditions into India the au-
thor treata with little more refpe& than
they merit at the prefent hour; and the
report of which he regards as the b boaft
of the Macedonians, who fought to raife
their own fon of Ammon above all the
deified invaders of India who fprung from
the Jupiter of Greece.
Another invafion of India was attri ..
huted to Semil'lUDis and the Affyrians,
and one more to the Egyptians under
Sefofiris; but there is fo little hiftorical
foundation for either, that Sefoftris is not
noticed in the work before us: and
• T,wra X "... IF''' 'f'.i c,
know from a variety of authors, as well
as Arrian, that the Affyrians, Medes, and
Peruans, never paffed the Attock, but
called the conquefts, which extended only
to the weftem fide of that river, conquefia
. of India.
To omit relations of this fort, or para
them over with the Oighteft notice, will
relieve the reader from the contemplation
of fubje&s from which he can derive nei-
ther intereft 01' informl1tion. An abfiraa
therefore of thefe firft chapters has been
preferred, in which it is allowable to in-
fert nothing but what bears relation to
a knowledge of the country, or
what will elucidate the fubjea propofed,
that is, the Voyage of Nearchus.
I. We learn then, that the country
weft of the Indus, extending from that
river to the K6phas, is poffeffed by tho
Aftakeni and Affakeni, tribes not pro-
perly Indian; for neither is their COIQ.
plexion fo dark, neither are they in C per.
fonal form or cowage to the
b )( ... .. Jd, t .. l .. 1'" .,a c. 6.
c See 41.11.
Digitized by Google
Indians on the eaftern fide. They had
been fubdued, and were tributary to the
Affyrians, Medes, and Pernans; but they
refilled Alexander, and the Atrakeni had
defended Matraka their capital with great
bravery. Peukela was another fortrefs of
importance in the fame tra8, but nearer
to the Indus.
11. On the eaft of that river is the com-
mencement of India proper, the boundary
of which on the north is Taurus, on the
fouth the Ocean, and on the weft the In-
Taurus is that mountain which, rifing
from the Bay of Itrus in Cilicia, dextends
through the whole of Afia to the Eaftern
Ocean. In its courfe it atrumes various
names, as ParapiLmifus in BaCtria, Em6-
dus and Imaus in different parts of India.
The Macedonians called it Kaukafus, but
the real Kaukaf us is in Scythia, (between
the Euxine and the Cafpian Sea.]
Alexander went no farther towards the
eaft than the river Hyphafis, [and thus
far only we can fpeak with precifion:]
there are indeed fame writers who treat
of the Ganges, and its itfue into the O-
cean, and the great city of Palimbothra;
but their number is finall, [and their au-
thority not always to be depended on.]
• Accordiag to the orthography I have adopted
in the Commentary on Ancient Commerce, this
word ought to be written Kilikia; aDd ScJlh.ia,
Skuthia; but in names long fllllliliar to our ear and
eye, this feems fanciful and affeCted. In oriental
names liowever, which have feldom arrelled our
attention, the prefervation of the Greek orthogra-
phy is far preferable; for upon a very tranfient in-
fpeaion of Ptolemy'1 catalogues it will readily ap-
pear, that he bad not only obtKined a great num-
ber of native appellations in the remotell coun-
tries, but that, by adhering to his pronunciation,
we can frequently identify them with names at
prefent in elliilence. The rule d.erefore to guide
me in the prefent work will be, to. continue the
Greek pronunciation in the oriental appellations,
Ill. Erat6fthenes of is an au-
thor of better credit; he calculates c 13000
ftadia from the fourcea of the Indus to
the fea, and the oppofite boundary on
the eaft at f 16000; but in this he includes
a great promontory or Cherfonefe, pro-
jeding '3000 ftadia into the [Southern]
Such is the breadth of India from north
to fouth; but the length from weft to
eaR; is firft from. the Indus to Pa-
limbothiu, at 10000 ftadia, by the mea-
furement of. the royal road. and beyond
Palimbothra we cannot fpeak with cer-
tainty: but report fays, that it is another
10000 ftadia to the h Cape on the [Eaft-
em] Ocean.
Ctclfias fuppofes that India is equal to
all the reft of Afia; Oneaicritus eftimates
it at a third part; Nearchus Rates it as
requiring a journey of four months; Me-·
gifthenes converts its length into its
breadth, and fays it is 16000 ftadia where
{horteft: but from north to fouth, which
he calls ita length, he makes it I u300
The rivers of India are larger than any
other in Afia j but the moft magnificent
are the Indus' and the Ganges, k both
flowing with a greater body of water
but to avoid pving ofFence by the atreaation of
writing Skuthia, N earlthus, Arlthias or
Ius, for the correfpondent IlUIleII which are fi&miliar
to us in another funD.
. e 1625 miles.
, 2000 miles.
. I 815 miles. The great peninfala of Ava abd,
MalllCCL '
b This evidently proves that the ancients confi.
dered India heyond the Ganges as extending to
the Sea of China. The Cape is the Taurus of "Era-
I i787 miles.
k Thi. may be true of the Gauges, \)ut the In-
dus is greatI.t amplified.
Digitized by Google
than the Nile and the Danube, if they were
united. Nay, the Akesfnes alone, after
receiving the Hydafpes, Hydrabtes, and
Hy'phafis, is entitled to the tame preemi-
nence; for its breadth is 30 ftadia when
it joins the Indus: .and 'i! is probable that
there are many other rivers ftilllarger.
IV. Beyond the Hy'pbafis, which was
the limit of the conquefts of Alexander,
little can be faid with certainty: but Me-
afJ'erts, that the Ganges is much
larger than the Indus; for it is a vaft
ftream from its very fource I, and it re-
o ceives the KAinas m, the Erranabbas, and
the ltos-Soanus, as well as the S6nus, the
Sittokeftis D, and the Solomatis, all navi-
gable ftreams. Betides thefe alfo the Kon-
dOkhates, the Sambus, the Mag6n, the
• AgOrania, the O'malls, the P !Commen&- 0
fes, the ICak.oothis, and the And6matis
from the country of the Mandiadini, the
Amuftis from Katad60pa, the Oxtimagis
from Pbala, and the q which
has its con8uence at Mathai. In the opi-
nion of Megafthenes, none of thefe rivers
are lefs than the M&der: but the Gan-
ges itfelf is 100 ftadia broad where oar-
roweft; and in the fearon of inundation,
where the cop,ntry is Jevel, the oppofite
fhores are refpc?ffively invifible.

I This is true. if ccmidered as entering the
plaiDS ef IDdia at Koopele or Gangotri but it has
a long courfe north er the Himmala 1IlOUIltaina, of
wlUcb Megafthenes oouId not be iuformecl.
.. It is .impolJible to aftigD all there rivers to
their modem reprefentativea; but it is a fubjea
worthy of eaquiry. aDd. u it can enly be prefe- the COWltry itfelf. aD objea _rthy of Iibe
Anatick Societ)' in Bengal. From the little iD-
formation IUtherto obtained. I can only CODjeaure
the Erranab6as, Ko.Sobus. aDd Sonus, are
'three ftream. UDited. wbic:b join the Ganges UDder
the name of Soaae at Dyuapoor j (or Ko&-Soanus
is poIJibly 0011 KoO-Soaau, the moUDtain So-
'The Indus likewiCe has its tributary'
ftreams; for the H ydrabtes receiving the
Hy'phafis at A'ftruble, the Saranges from
the diftria of the and the Neu-
drus from that of the r Attakeni,
all their waters into the Akesines at Kam-
biftholi. The Hydafpes alfo, after previ-
ouOy receiving the Sinarus, joins the fame
river at Arifple: and the Akesines itfelf.
ftill farther enlarged by the confluence
of the Tootapus, falls into the Indus in
the country of the • Malli: it is a mighty
ftream, and its name prevails over all the
rivers it 'receives.
On tlte weft of the Indus are the 1(6-
the Malantus, the Soaftus, the Gar-
rhoia, the Parenus, the Saparnus, and the
Soanus. 0 The Piienus and Sapamus are
the moft northern ftreamli, and, whero
they join the Indus, their mOllths are not
far diftant. 'The t receives the
Malantus, the Soaftus, and the U Gar-
rhoia, before it joins the Indus in the
Peukaliotis; and the So&nus, from the
mountainous traa of the Beffiuians, fall.
in without a partner. .
For the multitude and magnitude
of thefe rivers, I leave it, fays Arrian, for
others to affign the caufe; and as to what
I have faid on the fubjea, it is only the
• Sittokatis.
• Agul"lUlis.
, Kommina 6s.
'I Breane6 ..
r The Attakhi (u BOt a comaptictn) muA be a
dilFerent tribe from theAftakeni IIIld ALkeni
mentioued above.
I The pre¥ioce of Multan; for I_ it ea ...
6ve of • -'r:.¥. RI Hindoftan, Loriftan, &c. and
Mul or Mal are iutercbaageab1e. T.imoar writea
Hullub for Haleb. or Aleppo.
l Stin called The Cowe.
• The Gureus, ftiII called Gboar. Coloael Bey-
notd.'. Map "ill giye all cbefe riYerI OD the "eft,
aDd add to the number.
Digitized by Google
report of the beft accounts I have been
able to obtain. But Megafthenes men-
tions many other ftreams beyond the In-
dus and the Ganges, which take their
courfe mto the Ocean, fome to the eaft,
and fome in a fouthem direaion; reckon-
ing upon the whole fifty-eight that are
navigable: but Megifthenes himfelf faw
only a fmall part of India, though he
went farther than Alexander, or any of
his officers; for he reached the court of
Sandracotta, the fovereign of a moft ex-
tenfive empire, and of a monarch ftill
more powerful, who bore the name of
s P6rus. Meg!fthenes fays, that the po-
tentates of India neither Y invade other
nations, nor are expofed to invafion them-
VI. The rainy feafon of India is in the
fummer, when there is a fall of long con-
tinuance, not only on the mountains of
Parapamifus, Em6dus, and Imaus, but
. upon the plains which are inun-
dated to a great extent. This circum-
{lance was experienced by Alexander
when he was on the banks of the Ake-
sines; and to a fimilar caufe ocNt"ing in
the. mountains of Ethiopia, we may attri-
bute the increafe of the Nile in the fame
feaJon. The rivers of India likewife re-
femble the Nile in producing the croco-
dile and the hippop6tamus, as Onesicritus
The natives in the fouth refemble the
Ethiopians in the colour of their com-
plexion; their hair alfo is black, but not
J: Poor is IUl appellative, and not • proper
name; it 6gnifies Chief, Prince, or Rajah. Ales-
ander met with two; and another of the fame name,
probably at Ougein, fent an embatry to Auguftul.
'1 This il. vulgar error; true in. theory, but falfe
in prat'lice. The lawl of Menu gne lIhUIy precepts
for the promotion of conqueft. ,
• The N ecruea. Ethiopia, as a seneral title.
neither is their face flattened
like the Z Ethiopians: but in the north-
ern provinces their make and frame is
altogether funi1ar to that of the Egyp-
VII. Megafthenes reckons up an hun-
dred and eighteen provinces or nations in
India; but how he obtained this number is
not clear; for he vifited only a fmall part
of the country, and the intercourfe of
thefe feveraUy with each other is not
open. The whole body was formerly
vagrant, like the Scythian hordes: they
had neither cities or temples, they .were
clothed with the {kins of the animals which
they had taken in the chace: the bark of
trees ferved them for bread, and in their
language TaJa was the name of the tree.
The a fruit 'of this tree is fpherical, and
grows upon the head like dates on the
palm. Their animal food they ate raw
before Bacchus came into their country,
who civilized them, and introduced the
habits of life which are common to the
reft of the world.
VIII. Who this Deity was, or the
other who (ubdued India under the name
of Hercules, it is fruitlefs to enquire; but
to the latter .is attributed the difcovery of
the pearl, which he employed as an or-
nament for his daughter. The pearl in
later times was brought to Eurt\pe by
the merchants who traded with India,
and was purchafed with great avidity both
by the Greeks and Romans: its price waa
fixed at triple its weight in the pureft
comprehends all the black AfriClUls; but, when
ufed precifely, it defignutes Meroe only.
• See c. si. He fays they fed on the
and is bark: but, by tile defcription or the
fruit immediately, we may conclude be meaDI the
cocoa, the tree of which is a palm, as well .. tIMt
date tree of Egypt. '
Digitized by Google
!Old of India. -In the fiibery of it, there
is a fable of a king or queen ibell fiib, like
a queen of the bees: but to this [a finguJar
truth] is added, that the method of obtain-
ing the pearl was by futrering the fiib it-
felf to putrefy on the ibore.
IX. From Bacchus to Sandi-acotta the
Indiana reckon an hundred and fifty-three
kings, or fix thoufand forty-two years b:
but, befides Bacchus and Hercu1es, no fo-
reigner ever invaded their country except
Alexander. He indeed fubdued all as far
as he went; and be would have reduced
the whole empire, if his army would have
followed him; but fuch is the juftice of
the Indians, that they are never known'
to invade the tenitories of their neigh-
X. In India no monuments are ereaed
for the dead, but their virtues are confi-
dered as a fufficient memorial; and to be
celebrated in fong is 'the bed record of
their worth.
The number Qf their cities it is impof-
fible to afcertain; thofe which are con-
tiguous to rivers, or to the fea, are built
of wood, as the nine and the inundations
would render bricks ufelefs:
but thofe which are, built in loftier fitua-
. tions are of brick and clay. The largeft
city in India is Palimbothra, the capital
of Prafii, at the d confluence of bra-
nab6as and the The ErranabOaa
is the third in rank of the Indian rivers,
and larger than thofe of other countries ;
but upon joining the Gangel its name is
10ft. The length of Palimbothra, according
to Megafihenes, on both itl fides il eighty
ftadia, and its breadth fifteen. The ditch
which enclofes it is fa hundred feet wide,
and its depth forty-five. On the wall are
570 towers, and the gates are fixty-four.
lu India there are no Oaves; or if
there be, they are not Indian, but of a
difJerent race, like the Helots of
XI. Thc:whole body of natives is dif-
tributed into feven tribes or cafts. The
firft confifts of their inftru&rs, [the Bra-
mins,] the fmalleft in number, but the
higheft in revereuce and eftimation; for
they are fubjea to no bodily labour, and
contribute not to the public In
ibort, they are fubjea to no duty, but to
perform the facrifices for the common-
wealth; or even when private people
crifice, a Bramin muft attend; for with-
out a Bramin no facrifice can ,be accept-
able to the Gods. Augury is alfo wholly
confined to this caft; but thofe only of
the order who are denominated WISE,
are allowed to exercife the art.
augury is, chiefly concerned in predia-
ing the condition of the approaching
feafons, and in cafes of public concern:
but in private interefis augury is not al-
lowed; either becaufe trifling matters
are no objea, or becaufe the Bramins
will not coodefcend to individuals. If
a Bramin £ails thrice in his prediaions,
he is not punifhed, but condemned to
filence; and nothing can compel a man .
under this fentence to attempt a pre-
diaion. .
• Thirty-nine years to a reign. Guges; for the Emmab6u, c. iv, is coupled with
c The army of Porus was prepared for the in.... KoG:oinus and 8Ooaa, and the want. of ruins at
600 of a neighbouriog territory at the time Alel:- this junaion is no argument agaiDll it, if we con-
aoder attacked and defeated him. 6der it, as Arrian does, a city built of wood aDd
• .After all the difputes abOut. the 'te of this plaifter. PatDa is not. tweoty miles from thisjuac-
cit.y, I fubfcribe to Sir William JODft'. opinion, tion; and fome of our EngIifb gentlemen baYe
cIaaC it. ".. at the con8uence of Soane and. the ,found an old DUDe for it, refembliog
. Digitized by Google
The c Bramina are without clothes,
bafking in the fun during the winter;
and in fummer, when the heat is excef-
five, they lie plunged in water, or retire
to the fbade of the [Banian] trees. Thefe
are fo large that, according to Nearchua,
• their UDlbrage extends to five hundred
feet, and ten thoufand men can be c0-
vered by a fingle plant.
. Their food confifta of the fruits of the
feafon, but efpecially the fbark of a tree,
which is as fweet and nutritive as the
date of the palm.
!&. The fecond tribe confills of huf-
handmen, and this is far the moll nume-
rous; they have no concern with arms
or war, but tillage is their foIe employ-
ment; and their only burden is to pay
their taxes to the kings, where the go-
vernment is regal; or to the public cham-
ber, if they live under a commonwealth.
Neither are they dillurbed even in time
of g war; for their perfons and their lands
are facred, and two armies may be fight-
ing in their neighbourhood, while they
purfue the bufinefs of the plough, or the
labours of their harvell, unmolelled.
3. The third tribe compofed of herdf-
men and fhepherds; they live in the field,
and frequent neither cities or villages, but
roam over the country, and prefer the
mountains to' the plains. There is a tax
on their herds and flocks, and they are
hunters and fowlers at the fame time.
XII. 4. Artificers and traders are com-
preliended in the fourth olafs, and thefe
are all fubjea to a tax upon their gains,
except thofe who are employed in the fa-
e M.,pftheneI confounds the Bramint witll the
f Nut the bark, but the fruit.
. "I Twiee before it has been faid, that there i. no
'W1Ir or iDvBtioo iD India.
• be meaDI by tbiI, that there are DO
brication of anDS: thefe are paid by the
public; fhip-builden are of this caft:, and
the Jailors who an h employed aprm tle#
5. The fifth clafs contains the military;
they are numerous than any of the
others, except the hufbandmen, and their
condition of life is more free and happy.
Their profeffion is their foIe employment;
for they neither fabricate their arms, or
fumifh their horfes or drefs them, or pitch
their tents, or clean thek accoutrements,
or condua the elephants, or drive their
chariots: for all there offices are performed
by perfons 'allotted refpeaively to each.
But in time of war it is their duty to ferve;
and on the return of paee, they enjoy all
the comforts oflife,for their pay is fufficient
not only to fupport them at eafe, but to
maintain their family and their fervants.
6. In the fixth clafs are enumerated
thore who are called intendants or iover-
feers of the public weal; they vifit the ci-
ties, the villages, and the country in ge_
neral, and report to the king, where the
government is regal, or to the magif-
trates, where they live under a common-
wealth. It is facrilege to make a fa)fe
report; but in raa k lying is unknown in
1. The public counfellon of the realm
form the feventh clafs, whether the go-
vernment be regal or republican. They
are fewell in number, but are elleemed
for wifdom and jullice above all others ;
and from this order are feleaed all that
bear rule as governors of dillria. and ci-
ties; all the commanders, naval and mi-
other fort of fai:lon; which is a raa at the pref.
hour. '
1 Tbi. is the or BD office fer a cia&.
le Happy oation three cboufand yean Rgo! Col'
the,. lie DOW u readil,. u the rea of the world.
Digitized by Google
litary; all that prefide over the receipt or
expenditure of the revenue; and all that
fuperintend the 1 agriculture of the coun-
try. ,
Thefe are the feven tribe8 or cafta;
they are all preferved facred and diftina :
they cannot intermarry, they cannot pafa
from one tribe to another, arid no one is
allowed to exercife two crafts, or to prac-
tife an art appropriated to a different
[Thefe particulars are all eoUe8ed from
the authority of Megafthenea, and appear
the fame, with fome flight variatiol,l, in
" Strabo: but Megafthene8 feem8 to have
confounded the political inftitution8 with
• the religious and civil eftablifiunent8,
whereby he has made feven cla1fea out of
four, which are now well known to be
the Bramin8, or religious; the Kfhetria,
or civil and military j the Vayfhya, or
mechanics and artificers; and the 800-
draa, who are the fervant8 of all. But the
intermediate fhadea and diftinaiona of
thefe are branched into varieties without
end; and the grand diftinaion in India
at prefent is, between Choutres and Pa-
rias; thofe that have a caft, and thofe
that have none: and yet again the Pariaa
are fubdivided into fuperior and inferior
One circumftance indeed i8 common to
all, that a GymnOfophift (that is, a Jogee)
is a charaaer which may be a{fumed by
a man of any caft; becaufe it i. not a life
of eafe, but the moft wretched and mife-
rable that can be imi.gined.
XIII. The Indians purfue the common
I .According to AyeeD Aobari, the proportion
of the crop paid in lieu of tu. was fettled iumoally
by fuperioteodantl.
• The mlUlJler of buDtinc the elephant i. fiuni.
liar to eRr1 one: but tb8 whole lK:COuot is given
beafta of the chace, like the Greeks; but
their hunting of the m elephant is pecu-
liar, becaufe the animal itfelf is different
from all others. The lirA: operation is to
felea a place in the open and level coun-
try, expofed to the utmoft heat of the fun.
This they enclofe with a trench of extent
fufficlCnt for the encampnent of a large
anny. The trench is thirty feet deep, and
twenty-four wide; and the earth thrown
out of this is raifed on the brink of the
correfponding banks to ferve as a ,ram-
part. In this rampart, on the outfide of
the trench, the hunters form a fort of
cafemate, concealed, and provided with
loopholes, through which they can dif-
cover the approach of the animal to the
enclofure: within the trench, they place
three or four of the female elephants that
are the moft tame. The enclofure has
only one entrance, and that over a bridge
carried acrofs the trench, which is well
covered with earth and grafs, that it may
caufe no fufpicion to the wild animal 88
he advances. The hunters then withdraw
themfdvea into their cafemates,' where
they are completely concealed, and wait
for the approach of evening; for during
the day time the wild elephants never are
feen in the cultivated 4mda; but at night
they wander at large, and Collow the
mafter of the herd, as COWl follow the
bull. When therefore they approach the
enclofure, and hear the cry of the fe-
males, and are attraaed by the {cent,
they hurry towards ~ e place, and pare
along the fide of the rampart till they
come to the bridge, by which they enter
here, in order to fhew how much infonnation wu
colleaed by the Macedonians 00 this fubjeCt, and
how little ha. been added to it by the relatio.u of
modern travelllll'l.
Digitized by Google
'the enclofure. As' foon . as the hunten
-perceive this, fome inftantly break. down
the bridge, and others run to the neigh-
bouring villages, to report that the game
is in the toil. Upon this, they mount
their beft and tameft elephants, and haften
to the ·fpot. Here they paufe, before they
proceed to the attack of the captives,
and leave them unmolefted till they are
emaufted with thirft and hunger. After
·giving 'time for this, they repair the
bridge, and advance the tame elephants
'to the attack. The firft encounter is
iharp; but the wild ones, as previouQy
·oppretred with hunger, are naturally in-
ferior to their invaders. Then the hunt-
ers difnlGUnt, and faften cords round the
feet of the vanquifued; they likewife bring
forward the tame ones, and make them
ftrike their Bdverfaries till they fall down
from diftrefs. As foon as they are on the
:ground, the purfuers mount on their
·backs, and make an incifion round their
neeks with a fuarp inftrument; into this
incifion a cord is introduced, fo that the
head and neck are rendered immovable;
and this, hoWever violent the animal may
be, is fufficient to prevent the efFea of
his rage: for if he attempts to turn, the
wound is lacerated by means of the cord.
He is thus fixed in one pofture, and,
.giving up the conteft, fuffers himfelf to
be led wherever the tame ones eondua
XIV. Thofe that are caught young,
or thought unfit for ufe, are again let
loofe; but fuch as are ferviceable they
condua. to the villages, and fupply them
with green fodder in plenty. At firft they
are fullen, and refufe to eat; but the
hunters amufe them with fongs, and
drums) and muGe, and by degrees foothe
them to a better temper. The intelligent
gature of the elephant is above that of
'any other'animal, and [when.they have
'once become tame] their. affea.ion to
their keeper or rider is fuch, that if he
falls in battle, they have been known to
take up the body, and bring it home for
interment. They wi1llikewife defend him
by their own efforts if difmounted; and it
has been faid that fome, who from pro-
vocation have turned upon their riders
and Qain them, have aauaIly pined to
death, as if fenfible of grief, and penitent
for their offence. I have myfelf feen an
elephant beat a drum, and dance and
keep time to mufic. The drum he held
in his probofcis, and ftruck it alternately
on either knee; while others have-danced
in a circle round, lifting up and. bending.
their fore legs in turns, and obferving
the meafure according to the beating of
the druiD. Their rutting time is in fpring,
and their time of geftation from eleven
to eighteen months. The female never
has twins, but fuckles her young for
eight years. The duration of their life
is faid to be two hundred years, unlers
they perifu by violence or difeafe; and
the Indians have feveral remedies appro-
priated to their peculiar diforders.
XV. T ~ r s are another fpecies pecu-
liar to I ndia. They are as large as a
horfe, and an overmatch for an elephant.
Thofe which we fee in Europe are .Dot
tigers, but lynxes, and fpotted : [while the
royal tiger of India is ftriped.] Nearchus
fayl, he, faw the fldn of one,. but never
faw the animal alive. Neither did he fee
the ants, [that turn up the gold,] but
many {kins of, thefe alfo were brought
into the camp. Megafthenes fays, they
are as large as foxes, but he never faw
them; and therefore it is better to pUI
to another fubjea. For parrots are d e ~
fcribed likewife by Nearchus, and their
power of imitating the hwnan voice:
Digitized by Google
this, howe\rer thought ftrange fonnerly,
is now daily experienced in Europe.
Monlties are mentioned by the fame au-,
thor, who {peaks of fome as beautiful;
and ferpents, finely fpotted and very fwift,
one of which was killed by Python four
and twenty feet long: and the natives
faid, that there were fome larger. The
Greeks had no antidote for their bite, but,
the Indians are provided with one; and
fome that were pofrefred of the fecret
Alexander had always in attendance, and
the foldiers who were tit were ordered
to apply for relief at the king's tent. The
Indians have remedies alfp for other dif-'
eafes, but thefe are not many: 'and in ex-
traordinary cafes recourfe is had to the
XVI. The clothing in India confifts of
linen from trees, according to Nearchus;
(by which he means cotton;] the colour
of this linen is brighter than any other,
or e1fe the black complexion of the na-
tives makes it appear more white. Their
under gannent is a tunick of this mate-
rial, reaching to the middle of the leg,
and a cloak of the fame is thrown over
their {boulders. The better fort wear
earrings of ivory, and their beards are
dyed of different' colours; fome exceed-
ing white, others dark or purple, and
fome crimfon, or even green. All above
the loweft carry umbrellas, and wear fan-
dals of white leather, highly omamented.
The heels of thefe are of different colours,
and raifed to make them appear taller.
Their bows are the height of a man, and,
when they {boot, they reft one end of it
againft their foot, and draw the ftring
back with great" force: the length of
their arrow is four feet and an half, and
its force is fuch, that neither {bield or
breaftplate is a fufficient defence. In the
left hand they have an oblong target,
not fo wide as the body, but as ...
the wearer. Some are armed with jave-
lins inftead of bows, and all have a fabre"
[broad towards the hilt,] and four
and a half long. In clofe battle this is
wielded with both hands, in order to give
weight to the blow; but to this there i.
feldom recourfe, as they rarely engage
hand to hand.
The horfemen are armed with two ja-
velins, n {lender and tapering; and their
target is fmaller than that of the foot.
Their horfes have neither faddles, houf-
ings, or bridles, like thofe of the
or Gauls; but a ftrap of leather is faft-.
ened round the extremity of the jaw, with
a rowel of brafs or iron bent inwards,
and not very {harp: thofe who can afford
it have the rowel of ivory. The bit is a
{lender bar of iron, to which the bridle is
faftened; and, when they tighten the
rein, the bar and the rowel bring the
horfe under command: for the whole
bears upon him in fuch a manner that he
cannot but obey.
XVII. In perfon the Indians are {len-
der and tall, and aaive above all others.
Their beafts of burden [or for the faddle]
are camels, horfes,' and afres, and, for
thofe who can afford it, elephants. The
elephant is peculiar to kings; next in
rank is the chariot with four horfes; and
the l,1ft a camel: but to {ene on a fingle
horfe is not an honourable fervice. Their
women are chafte, and above temptation;
but if an elephant is offered as the price
of their favours, it is no di{bonour to ac-
cept it: for they deem a woman worthy
of fuch an offer exalted by the price.
Marriages are contra8ed without confi-
deration of money on either fide; but
thofe who have daughters marriageable
• cr • ."I., fpit-fa1hioaed.
Digitized by Google

produce them in public, and the young
men who carry the prize in wreftling,
boxing, running, or any other manly ex-
ercife, have the right to cboofe their bride
out of the number.
The inhabitants of the plain country
are agriculturifts, and live upon the pro-
duce of the field. Thofe only who live
in the mountains are allowed to eat ani-
mal food, and this confifta of the beafts
they kill in the chace.
Thefe particulars relative to India I
have colleB:ed from Nearchua and Me-
gatThenes, as writers beft informed on the
fubjeB:, and moft worthy of credit: but
as it was not my objeC\ to give a detail of
Indian manners and cuftoms, but to de-
liver an 8CCOunt·of the voyage from the
Indus to Perfia, performed by the Mace-
donians, all that is here faid may be con- .
fidered as matter of digreffi.on.
[In the preceding Abftraa nothing has
been omitted which could contribute to
exemplify the. information relative to In-
dia obtained by the Macedonians. Their
account, like all firft attempts, is confef-
fedly imperrea, and in fome inftances not
accurate; but with the intelligence al-
ready brought, and daily brillging, from
India, which we' now poKefs, the curio-
lity of the reader will'be more gratified
by contemplating the acquifition of know-
ledge by the ancients, than difappointed
in obferving the imperfeaioos or inaccu-
racies of their report.] .
Digitized by Google
TA. llEPl

IV". / I
""0"'0 .. T!f .'111 .. TOUTIII.
""'Mp" TM '{M, .nr"e,trIM 1" a.infJtr1 5
ipfr_ TM' S-fIJvI6-
, tI " " 'Y
trIfid' 'f'YIiI' tl4flfU"r. Htr., tI. I(fJI "1-
trlMr«# -leer .uN. OJJ"OI i, ,.;
Ta.UT. l"w.. •• IC!R 'W'1,mr. cvw,-
, " -. ,10-
tr1I'OJT'IOI. Te"'P"fXOI tI.
trtU Vi M.N.,IOI'fItJ, ,u.. c Hq>tu;lfId' T'
" 'A" 'A' ,
I(!}I 0 "'". If!II
,; 'A ".s-ou.{lIr. 5 'Atrlt.Ni-
'JI'lolfldpOr • T',",/Pll. 5 'W'Apxow,; KM-
, , , • I , 'A
"11. I(!JI 0 -w"l.tIUM; If!II e-
-xiu ,; 'A •• fJ6TlI, '<><P'»'M Xsc-
, , 'J •• . I \I .,. \
ht'lI. If!II T'f'4F0i7"1r IITOI '"'
- , T
D,».eUoI. .. Ex tI. rT0 ,. trY"
• The Greek text is that of Blancud'. editiOD,
1668. with the bell readinga of Gronoviua.
It Scbmei4er fuppores that tbet'e oftic:era, caned
rerembled the Trierarcba of Athens;
DOt CODIID&Ddera, but DIeD charged with the bUr-

XVIII. AMONG the multitude whieh
had followed the army of Alexander in
his progrefs to the eaft, the natives of
Phenicia, Cyprus, and Egypt, formed a
confiderable body. Out of thefe he fe-
leaed fuch as were ufed to the fea; and
as foon as the fleet was equipped, which
he had colleaed on the Hydafpes, he fent
them on board, either to labour at the
oar, or to affift in any other capacity
which the nature of the fervice might reJO
Befides thefe, there were Greeks from
the Eg&m froql Ionia, and the
Hellefpont, who were mariners [as well
as the Phenicians;] but the officers ap-
pointed to command [or to b fuperintend
the equipment of the veff'els] were all
men of rank in the army.
The Macedonians were
Leonnatus Euous.
Lysimacbus Ag8thocles.
Afklq,iod6rus Thnander.
ArchoD (oo of Cltnias.
Demooikus I Atheuau..
Arcbias Anaxidotus.
Opbellas SiUnus.
Timanthes LPantiadas.
There were all from PeIla.
den of fittiug out the public pIIiea. I tbiuk the,
were bollOI'8l')' commauden; aDd the expret1ioa
a. • Af'fhftAll/f Hl'ON .. ?. iD m, OpiDiOD. COIl-

Digitize"d by Google
i,I,' j" or 'Mlr-'II-M
, IN .,',
TA A/4' Tlf 'G1AeA'JTAlf A,ryeA'l-'" IC!I1
A il 0 AAe.:tll, If!}, A, eooS- "r
I • \." I
A .t;'e 11'" Et;' r, pa. or
1'" ;, 'AJ,.,ea.,IM, n'pd'i"l(.IlLr ;, '0-
er.d",e,). Eoed'A70, TE, T. ;,
Aa. ;, e' Mr rr EN.
n6.1\.,r P'" T. "E I 'f!iI
N'''''ex'd'ttr ;, 'E'JT' d" v Afla,J...or
T. ° A eO",,"Id, Xroll-<PfUor' n.u-
E-; r 'f Jp M:'& I(L. m 'fM,
- 'A, I 'A I ,
Kpa.TiA AI" 011-· rvr' 5 0" or ,-
T''JTATeM, A,'YeUos' H.iI na.mwzor N.-
JC.oi-ll, .l..t..,p'T"r I(!I'f Mu i,." z.wlAM.
Hi iio C 'I"rI/ " 'JTA,r A-
",d'OrEs. ',fM, d", Mr.;, \
S-i""d'os. AtIf,rrrrAlor. JI 'l'elM-
.6,. __ ,; KAe i". Kp 0 )..os , ,\t£-
1"111 ;.r r ",.
MA,JpG)""IJS, v A,-
JefM' If. T,,'Gr. Kurp'ld' d'f.
N, U\ r ',(1" a.T N 5 N.
S-.. J\w M' ).. '" T ••• ,
niefl"'lr ;, C BA-
'YfMw.; ;, 1 'aur; 'AA'-
ea. pM f.JS" JW '0 "., 1T0f
., , , '" -
A .... '7f'fl 'l 'UE' 411- 41" fJ It A
'G1A,1cs, EUA'Y0eM Koe"S-'os.
• a."fJ7".". 'Ae-
'A fJT/ M. To ;'0 "" Kt' •
., rf ft'" .-' ,
N'A ZO· .. ..,. (J Ell '?f . I'JI'
i.TPU,.u". enr If TaUrA ;"."trrll-'fT' 'A-
)..'fP,J'elf, Toir S-,07rr" 'Orro. Tt 'G14-
From Amphinolis were
Laomedon {on of L3rieh
N ch the I'eta } J' An rotlmus
A 01 nes le iftr s.
P iee
Pt m
om Ore is re
{j f { A lexaJlder,
ono 0 nte
From Eordea were .
} {on of {
rom Py na were
M roD rE . ha 1D8
Nlcarchldes J Slmlls
A Ius f S ? . A r6 ne
P llcefia& of leze A xander.
Pithou of Alc6mene fon of Critea
L nna S 0 gz lA Ipa •
Pantauchus of Alora Nicolalls
M Jea f B oia us.
Thefe were a11 Macedonians.
The Greeks were
M i05 f La 1fa 1 rO y'nt mi
Eumenes of Cardia I I Hieronymu8.
K . ob" 5 0 Cos P o .
Thoas of Magnefia MenodoTUs.
M nd of agl" 13
' n / udr' en
An ron of T 108 I Cabeleus.
Nikocl of SliP , cr 5.
1\ hap n 0 ala IS } tagoras.
Bagbas the Perfian J LPhamuches
he pIlot of A exan r's own fhip was
o IC us A pa .
The fecretary of the fleet was
ua 114 f riD, f of uc cn.
A nd the commander in chief was
N arc s C te, on f A drQ ImUS,.
who had b n rolled it" 0 A
phlpohs upon toe Strymon 10 Thrace;"
[ cit wh' h ili ha ak fr t
Athenians, aod repeopled with a colony
o is VI'n flab Ibm nt.
As foon as there a oint en h d
en place, an the fleet was ready to
f . ,A xa er cri ed 0 t G s
his couqtry, and to fucb others uthe
N rou out e . r iog f t Fl ut" M will be Dit! iD th l'
"'lthQut farthe. notice.
- ,.
"Te'OI '<iI nonJM'". 5
. " .,. """",-
AfdP'Tf'ry. I(!JI N"r'wl. I(!JI a.uT,,! T,,!
'.ox,,,,;' T; 'T/J,nn, 1:1OT"u.6i.
• -...:rr • , r.
#IV c.... ,_ • , ../
TII. CdP1'ATO' I{gf T,,! A""tr,,,. IS orr""
i",3;/o'" CTIt#rr"S" 5 is
--/4"" ·id.&-". 'AoyM'"s T. fI-II-
.. ",,0'; '<it i7rolmo. KaI ;'ei"'
TiJ..,,, il,/OTo.
. XIX. '.os I. sm" ih'ewro
if' Ke"T'foll ,.,." T4 $-«,-
T.p" Ti 'T/m,,,,, ;,'tlf n, 7r,e;
i",i).rwf. n.",,; J. if
;".) $-"T'f" I. HCPtU;"'Cd' 7r"PWo-
, '" ,.. " -
_ N ",
nNf&T"OY,.,.."'S· '!1 TIIS .).a-
t I III "
CP"rTM tJUIT,,! ""1". orrM'S
11 TitS'
X.a."'-'O,.,."IIS «-,.,.et. 0' ;ry" TitS
, ''''''. J' , .,
G""M' I(!II TCdV '7r".'Cd' TIIS
, , , .,
x.a.Aro,.,..'IIS' TIIS """IIT"S' 's O"'T""',%'-
.. \ ulfl' J( /J4;' ,
A'IIS. To,trl ,.,.,. tIJf "rT' a-c;_T'fOJl 'fII
• nfr"xTo -;,,, 7rfO'll"Ofw$-illT's
C ' ,
V1I'Dp-"OIfJI TOIl 'll'1A''''''''' fJ.. OS
.- , - ,..,
«PT"" tr"TPtll1l"fS T'fS TtWnfS "'.
i.".) • Ti 'AxWI'1I filOT""'; O#M
f;1'P.7r". ;J.1'A SUA; TiTO'.
"'HJ" .;s Ifi.t f'Vpul,j'S' ,.,.,;,-
-, ,.... , o. ..
"x)P-OI "".orro. fIVJI OIS' ".,..0 J __ v.,s TI
., ., K \ .'1'0. ." ,"
IIINTOS ""'"1«oy.. tlf 1UlJ1S' 0& ,.,.., trvn.-

... I/tl.... Il .. ,,'
1x01lTfS' S"IITO,,, ..-n'" "1'A
oi _oyom Ifit SUM _Ntr""''''''
• The Maoedooian infantry.
• The c-pniou, or 'ET-¥o., were a choice
bod1 of canlr7, at the bead of which the king a1-
augurs prefcribed; to Neptune, Amphi-
trite, and the Nereids; to the Ocean, to
the river" Hydafpes, from which he fet
out j to the Akesines, which receives the
Hydafpesj and to the Indus, into which
both thefe rivers fall. Games were like-
wife celebrated both for the exhibition
of mental talents and bodily agility j and
the facrifices were diftributed to the re-
fpe&ive divifions of the anny.
XIX. ,\Vhen every thing W3a now ar-
ranged for his departure, Criterus was
direered to take the command of a body
of infantry, and proceed on the eaftem
fide of the river; whiie HepMftion 1hould
condu8: a much larger force, both horfe
and foot, with two hundred elephants,
on the weft. With the king were the
Hypafpifta, all the archers, and the
ftyled e Companions, amounting an
together to eight thoufand. Cri.terus and
HepMftion were to advance and attend
the motions of the flc;et j and at the fame
time Philip, who had been appointed Sa-
trap of the province, was difpa.tched to
the 'Akesines with a fufficient force.
At this period Alexander was at the
head of 120,000 men, comprehending
thofe he had originally brought out, and
thofe who had joined under the officers
he had fent into Greece to colle8: troops j
befides whicll, he had a variety of native
bodies, feverally armed according to the
faihion of their country,
Digitized by Google
f The biflory of' the ex-
pedition of Aleunder i. written in the Attic dia-
leCt; the Illdian hiflory in the Ionic.
. • • AgathafChidel diftinguifbee the fea of
Erytbr"s, Md the Erythran or Red fea: the dif-
,",aion it perhaps Dot juft; for the whole enfiem
, The fleet, with the king on board, now
fell down the Hydafpes towards the con-
fluence of that river with the Akesines;
it con6fted of eight hundred vetrels, in-
cluding gallies, tranfports, and, other
barks for the conveyance of horfes and
provi60ns. But all that occurred in this
navigation has been already fpecified in'
my fonner f hiftory. What oations he
fubdued, what danger he incurred in
ftonning a fort of the Malli, the wound
he received, the bravery of Peuceftas and
in defending him when fallen,
are all circumftances which need not be
repeated. The prefent account will be
appropriated to Nearchus, from the time
of his leaving the Indus, till his arrival
in the gulph of Per6a, by fome called
the fea of Erythrasg.
XX. Nearchus himfelf has left us an
account of thefe tranfa8ions, in which
he informs us, that Alexander had a moft'
,earneft defire of exploring the patrage ,by
fea from India to the Per6an gulph; but
that he was under great anxiety left the
attempt tbould expofe thofe who em-
barked in the expedition to great ha-
zards from the length of the voyage, the
defert coafts that might occur, the want
of harbours, or the different nature of
the winds in the Indian ocean. If any
reverfe (bould happen in fucll an atteRlpt,
ocean acquired the title of Red, becaufe the 'BD-
ciental approached it by means of the Red fea, tbat
is, the of Arabia; but the mytbology of a
king Erythras is ufuallY. or coQ{\qt1y, applied &I)
iulph of Peru ..
Digitized by Google
,#U IV I • '"
T.', f-U'YUo..lln, ''''"1'''1'''''''' TJf'
WM'" ,imJxJ", 'A»4.
n" ;"',9u,.,J", TM "",-
.:'t ,., ",.,.
""1'1'111""'4 '7r'J\."fUr.· I(!JI ..,.,. TtIII' f'I
",'i Alf Ted' t;OJ\.., t;'J\.-
J\.''''',tIII, TO lii""" T¥
, .,. ..c "'J I t_ " ,
,.,.I'IDtJf ewrllf If we.II7r'., ""fIII'" .".".,,.,.-
".,09-«4.. Af.yH 0
... "A'" 1\ .,
"Ol'lllo.TtI.f TO' ''lTI'I4 seo-
. xecfifT'ITtI.f iftry,,09-tI.f TM t;0Mt· Alf 11
_»'11 ICif _»'11 if &O'IT", T¥f "..,
¥" i9-,J\.o'IT"f mp ; «',,0-
, \\' t !tL IV , I ,
Tllf tI' tIIIf TJff ""''If Jf.AT'X0l""'lIf·
T';f I, _».. _».. ;""""""'"4. TIT.
" '" , t I ..-..,
"., ewrO'l tI' T"IIT!' lJ'Jrot;""" ft7rH' IT',
.,a iy': T" u"Ji"o,.,.«4 ifm-
..., , (. , , , ... ...
f1'407t1.f Tit t;W, I(fII ff T. "".. TII JIII
fu,..".""",.,.''''''' ) f;up,';'fDtJ TOI ,.,;"s TU
"At T¥f a-.9-ptJrllf, If TI ;,,) n"
nlea-,et. ,; fJ)..fArrOf T' 0
I I ".It ""
TtIIIT1If WO'ITC4", I(gf TO frY" 11" "7r0f"
. AA,!",leO'l I. J\.G-y'fl
11 Tbe ellpreffioD ill intimating that it 11'81
pnfejJltIII only, and Dot (rrr,,) the real faB, the
true feel"n, of his mind. ThoCe who kDOW the
IN DU S. sg
he thought it would be a blot upon all
the great aCtions he had atchieved, and
'annihilate the charaeter of good fortune
which had hitherto attended him in every
thing he had attempted. Still the deftre
of atchieving fomething new and extra-
ordinary prevailed; but he had much
doubt about the pf9pe-r perfon to be fe-
le8:ed for the accompli{hment of his de-
The firft point was to fecure the confi-
dence of thofe who were to embark by
the nomination of an experienced com-
mander; for if this were not done, they
might apprehend their lives were to
be idly thrown away upon a fervice where
the danger was evident, [and the attempt
. For this purpofe therefore Alexander
confulted Nearchus about the proper per-
fon to conduet fuch 8,n Several
occurred to his recoIIe8:ion; but fuch and
fuch, he faid, would frame excufes, be-
caufe they were unwilling to incur the
hazard; fome, for want of fpirit, were
unfit for the fervice; and others, beeaufe
they thought of nothing but returning
home. In {hort, there was fome obftacle
or other to the appointment of every one
that he had nanled.
In this difficulty, fay; Nearchu8, I of-
fered DIy own fervices to the king, and told
him, that " I would undertake the com,.
" mand; and that, if it pleafed God, I
" would conduet both the men and fleet
" in farety to the Perfian gulpb, provided
" I {hould find the fea navigable, and the
" undertaking pra8:icable by the power
"of man."
Alexander h profefTed that he was un-
perpetual CODtmft of PJord, to (r"..,) deed,
in Greek, will re-.uii1y fee that :".., is here im-
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willing to expo{e anyone of his friends
to a fervice of fuch danger and diftrefs:
but, when Nearchus ftill perfevered in hi.
offer, and urged the acceptance of his
propofal, Alexander was delighted with
his alacrity, and infiantly appointed him
to the command.
This appointment had the full efFea.
it was intended to produce; for the [offi-
cers,] feamen, and foldiers, who were
deftined for the expedition, now fet their
minds at eafe: confcious as they were,
that Alexander would not have mimed a
man fo dear to him as Nearchus, .unlefs
there were a reafonable profpea of fue-
cefs in the undertaking.
Under this impreffion, the fleet was
equipped not only with what was necef-
fary, but with fplendour and decoration.
The attention of the Trierarchs was di-
reCl:ed to procure the beft men,. and the
fulleft compleruents; and the backward-
.nefs of thofe, who had been moft unwil-
ling to embark, was now converted into
confidence, and pleafing hopes of a fa-
vourable iffue of the voyage.
A prefage no lefs gratifying arore from
the undertaking of Alexaixler himfelf to
navigate the two branches of the Indus
to the fea; upon which occafion he ad-
vanced into the oct".an, and facrificed to
Neptune, and all tho deities of the ele-
ment; the fea itfelf alia was honoured
with. his munificence. In filOrt, nothing
was wanting to confinn them in the idea,
that the unparalleled fortune of their fo-
vereign fupplied him with courage at-
tempt, and means to accomplith, all [that
was poiIible to man.]
XXI. In the Indian ocean there is a
regular wind which fets upon the coaft:
during the whole fummer fea{on; and,
while that prevails, there is no navigation
[to the weftward.] It was in this feafoa
Digitized by Google
IN DU 5.··
1 The day named for tJ.e change of the S. W.
monfoon is the fifteenth of September; the moon
in that month is called St. Anthony's moon, and
cbe full of that moon is the precife day in common
acceptation. N earclms failed the lira of OCtober,
and he might therefore fay, (';( ,,"",,,. iXI»",49.,)
IU j«m GI tile 1IIOI!f_ IliIU Aujlled. But he found
by experience that the contrary moWOOD doee DOt
that Alexander had reached the delta of
the Indus; but, upon the ichange of this·
wind, the voyage commenced, in the ar-
chonlhip of on the twen- of k Bo6dromion, as the Athenians
reckon, and in the eleventh year ·of Alex-
ander's reign, according to the compu-
tation of the Macedonians, and the pe0-
ple of Afia.
Before he embarked, Nearchus had fa-
cri6ced Jupiter dle Preferver, and per-
formed tJ1e games ufual upon juch occa-
fions. He then went on board, and, tak-
ing his departure, he dropped down the
Indus to a large canal or cut, where he
remained for two days: the place is nam-
ed Stoora; about a hundred ftadia from
his former anchorage. On the third day
he fell down thirty ftadia lower to Kau- .
mara, another cut, and here the water
was brackilh; for the fea comes up as .
far as this upon the tide of flood, and
even upon the ebb the falt water is ftiU
mingled with the frelh. Their next pro-
grefs was only twenty ftadia, to Koreeftis,
and, upon quitting this, they were foon
forced to come to an anchor again, for
tJley perceived a bar at the mouth of
the river, and a great 1 furf without, beat-
ing with much noife and violence on the
Ihore, and the Ihore itfelf was broken.
The foil, however, of the bar, when the
tide left it, was foft; and, taking advan-
tage of this, they cut a channel through
become bed till towards the iniddle of November.
• k Tbe twentieth of Boedromion in that
anfwen to the fira of <>aober, Si6 before Chrla,
according to Uther and Dodwell. See the Com-
I The wind lying OD the fuore, and caufing a
furf, is a proof that OD this day tbe wiDd was run
&om the S. W. and the monfooD Dot fettled.
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• Literally, j,.,., lite lea; which, in regard to
the poUtioa of tbi. harbour, ill S. W. from which it
I ND us.
it for five ftadia, fo that when the tide
rofe again, and fined it, they carried the
fleet through it into the open fea: and
then failing round' the coaft for an hun-
dred and fifty fiadia, they reached the
harbour of Krokela. Here they came to Crntchey bay.
an anchor near a fandy ifiet, and re- or CaraDgee •
mained here the following day.
Adjoining fo Kr6kela is the country of
Arabies, an Indian tribe, men_oiled in
the fonner hiftory j they take their name
from the river Arabia, which divides their
country on the weft from the ()titlr.
Upon leaving Krokela, they followed
the coaft with a mountain called Eirus Cape }Ionze.
on their right, and a low ifiand, almoft
level with the fea, on the left hand. This
ifiand, correfponding with the (bore on
the main, fonns a narrow channel j
through thia they patTed, and anchored
in a good harbour, which is 1heltered by
an ifiand called The harbour CbilneJ.
here was fo fafe, that Nearchus honoured
it with the name of Alexander. The
ifiand lies ofl'it at the dinanee of two
ftadia j the country round is called San-
While lying here, the wind came on fo
violently from the m fouth weft, that it
was thought unadvifable to move. Near-
chus therefore brought his (hips' com-
panies on (bore, and fonned a camp,
which he fortified with a rampart of ftone
as a defence againft the natives, if they
thould be difpofed to hoftility. But his
diftrefs was great; for he was confined
here four and twenty days. The people
had only brackilh water to drink, and
the only fupply they could find were
oyfters, cockles, and a fort of (bell-fifil
i. evident that the S. W. moafooa ftill prevailed tiU
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0 53
called which greatly exceed in
fize all that are found in our feas [the
Upon the cefTation of the·wind
from the fouth weft, the fleet once more
fet fail, and proceeded fixty ftadia, when
they anchored on a Candy {hore, under the
lee of a defert ifiand called Dome; but
·here they found no water: at the dif·
tance, however, of twenty ftadia, fome
was °difcovered that was excellent. When
they left this place the following morn-
ing, othey continued their courfe the whole
day; and, after a of three hun-
dred ftadia, reached Saranga in the even-
ing: ohere they rode at anchoro upon the
open ihore, and found water at the dif •
tance of eight ftadia from the coaft.
Their next an{:horage was at S8cala, Oft
an open and defert {hore; and, weighing
from palfed between two
ifiets fo near, that' their oars bndhed the
rocks 0 on eacH fide, and at laft reached
Morontobarbara, after a cOurfe of tliree
hundred ftadia. This is a -fine
well {heltered from . all large and
deep, but witli a narrow entrance. In the
langUage of the natives it iinpliei the
harbour of women, becaufe [aCCording to
the tradition of the place] a :queen was
the firft 0 fovereign of the country. In
their pairage, be6des the -danger of the
rocD, they had' encountered a n fevere
gale, . and a vet'y' violent cUrrent, and
thought they had perfermed wonders in
the dangers that fUJTOunded
them. 0
, The following morning they left Mo-
rontobarbara, and proceeded with an
idand on their left, which iheltered them
from fouth weft; and which ran along
• is iDftaoce of cbe preqIeDc:e of the S. W. moOrooo liD.
Digitized by Google
fo parallel to the coaft, that it feemed ra-
ther an artificial cut than an ann of the
fea. Both fides of this channel were well
wooded, and the trees flood extremely
thick; ita extent was feventy ftadia. Dur-
ing the moming they cleared the ifiand,
but the patrage was narrow, and full of
ihoala, and they had moved upon the ebb
of the tide. The diftance from this ftrait
to the river A'rabis is an hundred and
twenty ftadia, which they reached the
fame day. The harbour at the mouth of
this 0 river i. large and ""good, but the The Som-
water is not drinkable on account of ita -1'
intermixture with the fea. At the diC-
tance, however, of forty ftadia, they found
a pool or well, from whente they ob-
tained a fupply, and brought it down" to
the fleet. Not far from the harbour mea
a defert ifiand to a con6derable heiP4
in the neighbourhood of which oyftera,
and BOt of all forts, may be procured.
The river is the boundary between the
countrY of the Arabies and Orite J and
the Arabies are the laft of the Ind.iaa
tribes towards the weft.
XXIII. From the mouth of the A',..
bis, the fleet coaaed the territory of the
Orite till it reached Paga1a, after a courfe
of two hundred ftadia. This was 00 bar·
boor, but an open road, where there was
good holding indeed for the anchQn, bat
the ground was foul and ihoaUy; and the
men were not permitted to land, except a
few to procure. water. The next morn-
ing, as foon as it was day, they weigh-
ed, and flood OB for four hundred and
• ~ 1 i. tJae modem UIIHI uf tbe toft. The real DalDe oC ~ riTel' hu been obtaiDecl bl
CctloQeJ Re,8oIda.
Digitized by Google
o It I T M.
, This is the !aft iDAance or di1befa &om the
wiad; ud, u the jeama1 is here broupt 10 the
• eveath or No_her. the monfooo, we may COD-
'elude, ... now hed. From the tOlIowinJ fta&ioa
at KObIa they failed {.:.c-J with • fteadJ wind
'iD their l'ayour.
thirty ftadia, till they reached Ubana in
the evening: this again was nothing bet ..
ter road, with foul and brokeD
ground, where they were obliged to an-
chor, as before, without landing. In this
day's courfe they experienced a. P fevere
gale fetting on the ihore, in which two of
the ga11ies, and one of the trapfportt,
were loft; but, as they foundered near
the (hore, the men efca.ped by fwimming.
Here they ftaid no longer than till mid-
night, and then proceeded two hundred
ftadia to q K6kala. This was no harbour,
the (hips rode at anchor on an open
ihore; but it was become abfolutely ne-.
ceffiuy to laud the men, as they had fuf-
feted much from the weather and COD-
finement on board, and were in great.
need of refreihment.
Nearchus theretOre landed his whoa
force, and fortified a' camp on (hore to
pre\'ent a furprize from the natives. Re-
lief, however, was at band; for in this
camp they joined by Leonnams.
whom Alexander had left in comnwxl
of the country, and who had defeated
the Orttle and their allies in a great bat-
de, in which he had killed fix thoufand,
with all their commanders; and loft of
his own force only fifteen bone, and a
finaU proportion of infantry: but one of
the flain was Apollophanes, fatrap of Ga-
drafia. This viaory, and the crown of
gold beftowed upon Leonnatus, I have
, For P6pla, Kihana, and KObIa, mere opeD
roadI, it cannot he espeited that repre{eatatiY ..
ftIould be t'ound: ItDt three IWIleII occur in C0m-
modore KobiDfon'. chart between the & ......... 1
[Arabi.] and the TomiraIt which _,
jerab, and Kiuplah.

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li"p4TIAIT;' tnJI"'If'AlteOi Te
XXIV. 'E • .9-i,1t 0piUI.9-evr,,, b-).,.,
-p«i.' 'Cif J .. i" r,,74-
o,el-"r,.". reo". "XI'pJf-
;". TOiUleor O."f.14 '<iI
)J,.".." ir1 TiM"
, T4 JI T4 T;;
;, n.""..
_ ''r w ,.,.,
ptJt.K' If!R ,our" M"reotl"lrAl'""'" 11 • .,.
;.&J.I"'rttri.. TI. 1tiI "''''P",TI"4rT,,,
" , \. " ..... 00-_ t ,
r"'P'" T.' tUY.4N,. W ""..0-
" '" ,. .L. A'
f""'X)If"'0I re"' Till" ry-
X4f" Jf • ., r",-xj"". ,wy,&or, IMf
«.Urjtr. rl'lnlf""'TM,."r,., Te
, ,., I "'a' • 'l:
auT •. ,.". .. ". ru.,Jor.' 'f""" "" 'r..4-
, \" " .... i#
...,,10.. Kt14 NI4fXor "" VlrllfUI-
0rT"", Tt ".;, '1r"'f",TIT"'"Y,MrIl" swr.TiIt,
, \ '" I ,.,
T"'" 11'" ,It"" 411cPA1XfW'1' ",hWI ."."
;"" T4 ir ;'-'
tiur;, i!.",iU&tI4. ' AS T;'
J " A\ J ,,,,
MrxPt r"X't14 .."tUrOf"'«t. tJ6W,.,.",XOI
r Thil circumftance aWord. a probability that
the whole fleet W8I drawn on fhore, and not es-
pofed to the duger of riding at anchor iD an open
OR IT &.
already mentioned in my former hiftory.
Leonnatus likewife brought a of
corn, which Alexander had provided for
the fleet, fufficient for ten days' expendi-
ture. And here Nearchua took the op-
portunity of repairing fuch r veff'els as bad
fuflCred in the voyage; at the fame thne
difcharging fevera1 of his men who had
fhnmk. from their duty, and receiving'
othe.,. from LeonnAtus in exchange, who
were fitter for the fenice •
XXIV. [With a full complement, and
a fre{h fupply of provifions,] and with a
fleady wind • in .his favour, Nearchua
weighed from Kakala, and, after Il courfe
of five hundred ftadia, reached a winter
torrellt called which formed a
harbour at ita mouth. The COUDtry iJ'l the
neighbourhood was low and mafthy, and
the cabins of the natives fmall alld fufl"o-
cating; but, upon the approach of the
. fleet, they colleaed in a body. and form-
ed upon the thore, to prevent the ftran-
gers from landing. They were armed with
lances, . ftoutl'y made, and nine feet long i .
not pointed with iron, but hardened in
the fire, and very Iharp •. Their nnmber
might be about fix hundred.
Upon obferving the oppofition intend-
ed, Nearchus formed his fleet out of reach "
of their javelins, but ffilf within com-
mand of his archers; for the javelirw were
heavy, ard adapted rather for clofe fight-
ing, than for annoY'Dce' at a difiance.
• If we allow ten days for tbefe it bl'iJJP..
the journal to the twenty-firft of' November: after
which date, all navigators agree that the monfoon
i. completely fteady.
Digitized by Google
OR IT .£. ORIT&.
, 31
pS, tN ;r T' .,."'. Aa foon as be was ready for the charge,
., JI'" ..../, I he feleB:ed fucb of his men as were mod
Allf'or TAl' t;pCTIAlTAI' otr" auTO. T. atuve and lighted atmed, and the mod
Jt.J4>O'rCTOI 5 ->..w.,u,0I, expert fwimmers, to off from tI)e
T. ,;e, Itu,fU",t;CTOI, Mllr Jf {hips at a ftgnal. The firA: man who
,8-1114 Jt.,AM. .0 touched the ground with his feet was to
I T./ • t / halt in his place, and be looked to as the
TC'Y"" In "", tnrMr T.r
point uppn !Vhicb the, line was to be
!",or t;_ i, iIlCTI, 'Il'eotrp.'''''' TO' formed; and from this point no one was
'Jrtt.pM«.n" ,,; ;fI'o,",,,· p.,,1I to advance upon the till the line'
'Il'p,r was completed 'to three in file: But as
... . foon as this ,was e&eaed, they were 'to .
tI or!:. • _ .. _ C '(bout, and advance with their utmotl
TOT. tI' tie''''' ""., ".'1114, fpeed to the The whole was exe-
TtJI,f. ., Ap.«. tI ip;4?fhw ,MirW of w) cuted with precifion j the men feleaed
TtTtUt,u," ;". TM' ";,, ir ri, 'Il'OIl-' 'for the fervice fprung tTom the filipa, and ,
TO', Ifit 0f',.,r, IfiI ·it;.,.,.o 'i, fwam vigorouily towards the filo,re j' ,they "
-/Uf'. Kat 4>tI.AA'Yfc ;Jt.' 1l'0IfJ- took' their pofition, formed line, and
tr4,.".,,,, leOfUfl ;".,r'fI'CII am" Tf ci.A«.-' then rWhed upon the enemy With the cry
_. • I , •• ,_ .. of AIaJa, the filout of war. In the mean
EIIua.Ai!, 01 "'" -: ',"":. time the people on board joined in the
,T' tlATO clamour; they pfied their bows, they dif.
""""",iM" $iAl«. +Iovro .r Tllr charged their tengines, and had the
0; /. ,"," T. TM' t"aaion to find that they reached the
WAM' ;Jt.1l'AA'Y'vr,r, Jt.«4 enemy.
IfiI 1l'eOr T;"'TOflU,u,TiM" T.1fiI The natives were not proof again!'
_" t:J.... t:J. _ .... ! ,.!\'.. • tucb an ad"ault:' the fiplendour of the ar-
T .wAM" plM, 01«. "., "IU-
" to , mour, the rapidity of the movements, the
.,--- execution of tl:e artillery. upon their ill
Tpt!llll'imr icyJVJ'lIf1'l. Kat";,,... -v armed ranks, foon determined the contetl
.o!htitrJf.WIII, of If IfiI iuJ. to their difadvantage. Many fell in their
" , flo h -!I". and
". ... IITIII4· It;I tll 01 I(JII .'."..,011 Ig 1, many were Ul&.en PDlOners, ,
Gt''''. "HfI'CII If .: iuJrrK T'" T. tome few efcaped to the mountains.
Jui.r, TU rcit When the prifonen were brought in,
,., 0...' tI ,,_.t they were obfetved to be coVered with .
oruxcr Tiir 7J ".,
hair upon their bodies, and their nailI
Cftr", ;Af.yOIlTO, 5 T_ were like the claws of wild, bealls; thefe
' /)! I
'XJ>J "- 1'wrOlfl'1 Jt.CT'e'Y. ferved them inftead of knives to divide their '
C,09-I114, IfiI TM" E,t$AiM, wc fi{h, and other fubftanccs; ·or even wood
I This is a fingular iuftance of ancient artillefJ fame RI that of CaptaiD Cook'. great pDI upon
bejug employed OD board a OUp: the eIFe€& is the the New Zealandera.
-- '
Digitized by Google

• See .this c:imunftaDce difcul"e11 iD the Vo,.
of Nearehua, p. H1.
.1I "n..,.. . .mIen is fo po6tive, that I C8,IUlOt get
rid of it. Schmeider the error to Aman ;
- acufes Nean:hua, and CO'*-DI me for mak-
of the fofter fort. Their only infuumentA
be6dea were of {lone, for iron they had
none. Their clothing confitled of the
1kina of bealls, or the larger kind of fifh,
when thick enough for the purpofe.
XXV. At the the vetrels.were
all drawn on (bore, and thofe that had
fuftered in the vayage were repaired. Five
daya were employed in thia on
the 6xtb the tleet weighed, and proceeded
three fladia to MAlana, which
bounds the territory of the Orite. Of
thia tn"be thofe who live inland are armed
and habited after the Indian fafhion; but
their langu&8e, manners, and cufioma are
cliil"erent. At M&lana the courfe of the:::'
navigation amounted to ftadia; that
ia, 1600 along the coaft of the Arabiea,
and 1000 &leng that of the Orite: &Ild.
Co far the countr.r is confidered as India.
'During thia paft"age from the Indua,
archua notices the 11 variation of the {ha..
dow'; for he faya, that upon {landing out
to fea, at a confiderable diftanoe fouth
from the ooaft, the fi1adowa rio lohger feU
to the north, but to the fouth; and that
at noon they lI: fjLw no 'fhadow at all. The
confteUationa alfq, which with us appear
elevated con6Urably, were fome ef them
altogether invifible; while others barely
fhowed themfelvea above the horizon, fet.- .
ting and ri6ng again almoft immediately, .
inftead of exhibiting a conftant light. I •
iDg him pmtaker in the ai'ertiOD. I requeft the
reader to eumine the precediDg Darrative, and
judge, whether N earchus at anyone time did or
could ftand out toCea fo far u to veri(,
Digitized by Google
., In the word tbe geographer may ob-
feI'Y6 the are that might be derived &om preferv-
iDg the original foand of Greek elements.
would be pronounced Suana; and the aauaJ lIBDle
at prefeDt is At-Souan. How man)" onentailllDla
pUgbt be refc;ued from obfcurity by t.bia fimple
p...aice. CBDDOt be determiued; but J IIlways
pt the nece6ity of ClCIIDplying with modem ufap,
this account Nearchua feema to fay n0-
thing but what is rational; for at
m Egypt, when the fun arrives at thtl
ftUnmer folftice, there is a well (hewn,
which is without a filadow at noon: and
in the fame feafon at Mtroe the fame
phenomenon is univerfal. So that it is
reafonable to imagine that the fame cir-
cumfrance takes place in the fouthern
part of India, or more efpeciallyon the
ocean, which is more fouthem frill. But
of this fufDcient.
XXVI. Weftward of the Orttle, the
Gadrofians poKefa the country inland.
In pafiing this traa with his army, Alex-
ander experienced greater difttefa than
any which he fuftered iD the whoJe
courfe of his expedition. But the account
of this has been given in my former
On the coaft they are Dot Gadrofians,
but [fo called from living
almoft wholly uponfifo:] and. along their
territory the Beet, after weighing late in
the evening, accompillhed a courfe of
fix hundred fiadia to Bagafira. Here there
was a fafe port, and a village, fixty ftadia
inland, called Z Pasira; and the natives
in order to a.aid the charge of atreaation and fin-
a Ba Gafi,. is evidently aa Arabic ClCIIDpound
of Gafira, Gezira, which fipifies an iGand •. and
likewife a peninfula, cape. or promontory. The
cape here is ftill called Arrbabab, Arrhubab u.t
AralIa retaining a memorial of the ArabiW the
a.uoining diftri&.
Digitized by Google
• The beft FloJeDtiDe MS. reads
for and for KIIr'."'. The firA
is certainly not a preferable readiDgj the fecoDd
-1 be indifferent.
of the neighbourhood Weigh-
ing from hence at an el!-rly hour the next
morning, they doubled a cape which pro- CRpe AI'-
jeaed far out into the fea, bluff' and lofty; rhabah.
when they came to an anchor in an open
road, as a furf beat violently on the coaft.
Here they remained all that day" and, by
finking pits upon the ibore, obtained wa- '
ter in abundance, but it. bad. The
day following, after a courfe ohwo hun-
dred ftadia, they reached 1C01ta. From
Kolta, fix hundred fiadia brought them
to Ka1ama; it was a village with a few
palm trees about it, but their fruit was
not ripe:. and off' {hore, at the difiance of
. one hundred ftadia, lay an iOand called
The inhabitants, however, were hofpi-
they brought down filh and lheep;
but the very mutton was filhy, like the
fleib of rea fowl, and the ibeep were fed
upon fifh: for grafs there was none in
the country.
The following day they advanced only
two hundred ftadia, anchoring in an open
road of the name of Karbia, where there
was a yi11age called Kufa, thirty fiadia
from the lhore., They here found a few
• boats, the property. apparently of mi-
ferable fifuennen; but .the owners did not
appear, for they had fled upon fight of the
. fleet anchoring.
Search was here made.for bread corn,
but none found j and the people were in
diftrefa, having nearly confumed. all they
had [received from Leoonatua.] A few
• Tbia i. the lira notice or any fort or velfel on
the coaft, and it ia immediately b1 a
Digitized by Google
. \
AOr Toy /A-b / /A-" f T
na,r, if.r,. dnr''1I',,",o,. Korf 7r'f''1I'Attr
rra, " '" ,,,. 1,,0
i,,"a.T'o, t;a,J,lIf 4'1'"X)JfTa" if TOr "'011-
1 "
TOil Ta, "I fA" "A • K
" J T 'If / 1/ /
lIUITOJ' 'I', 1(rJ.I tU.,'''r ""'0" Mo-
. ¥ T .
.. a.p 0'10 '1'1 T. tfA"
" Cl.. to' ,. \ ..
XXVII. E'J" (Jf 1(rJ.I 'I'Y'fU'I' TII
'GlA Af-y ia.f Dr. 'I'''' ,,,
TO",.", O'Ofl4, '1''11'-
't;"f 'TI 'If am /A-E
I. 4".'0 it"ir, Xa.-
An »"0' 0'10 G/A-"
at .. \' / , /,
Ef Tt n, TO' IfAA'1I'O' TO' Ex.
Jf 'IV" i7r ",r )..':"11
;".1a.".'lIr ",;, ""Vn/UJTa" ir
Be£. 0' , ,a.)u "Ev If
I .• ' 1./ ""
'""""", t;fI4'lIf ,va, ...,,011'1-
"Er '11'0 i.",., , K
11 _, , (" J ,
.1' T'f "'I1r'f fWPP ''1''1 t7r,qN"",."", 1(rJ.I
" " CL:'11I I
a,».. 'J ....,.. r.I'I a,Vr.l
• a,
tT, ,,':"/A-Yf'"' ;"")..f"wro. 'Emw.9·a, 7rFO'
J{" Tt Jo; pa" 'a. rlnr
J I CL.. 1\\ ,,, 11
DV ?ra..rtr v'l/f,f.t/(J'a,r "'f",om:t.t'. E,-
9-E'I f I .,11 a,J,
Tfr , If A"/f'-"orra,' '<it af
,i.r '4OY 4A ,.'
-pIP' ,vX.T4f if KMtpa.,7a,
As",," a.q>' "0, tJif
A, ... Nfw.4JT'f. a,).."'f
" 'N.,_ T "
''f '," ?rAO WTO 'I' pa.
b .... efert , un-
difcovered, has no name till one is given to it by
who t it fi Se der re rs it re

g s th feize and, rryl the n
board, proceeded to double a promon- PoS"em Paf-
to wh pro ted h red fen
fifty fiadia into the fea,: which having
ac mpli d, t anc red fee
harbour, where they found water, and
m itan wh were {be n •
place was c led ofarna.
XVI At far as ore
pilot of the name of Hudnikes [or thQ
H aki fro plac f th nam
the (loafi.] This man -promife to con-
d Cl: the fleet to Karmania; and in·fa8:
th avi n fr Mo ate gul
of Perfia was b better -known, and lefs
d rou 'han hat y h alre
patred. From' Mofarna they failed at
m fev hun a fifty fiadi
the road of Balbmus; and thence four hun ...
d fiad' 0 , a ge re
found palm trees and a cultivated gar-
de In ga we myr" w
the fearnen wreathed lOto chap eta or
th . head Tb' was the firft
of c ture, nd inh tantB ere
quite fo ravage as thofe -they had feen
be m h ce tw hun, I fta
brought them to Dendrbbofa, where they Darao..
rod at a or; d, w hing
midnight, reached the port of K6phas, Guadelf
aft ace four und ita
Here 6{bcrmen were found, who had
fm and etc boa 10 • ch
C 'en red fifty ia the
time, becaufe a pilot 11'88 on board, who knew that
land eze duri e Dig
, \ -, , ,
".Wfte-. K«4 IUtl'lf'tUf IN UTtJ&
;e,rror 0 'EJA"'IIII' ,o/Uf)
i:trJr,p ;, UJ'lIIIe
"0.. 0.. ,. I
J\O"'r DJ" '5 .,.;;r,., I14Td/II''P 01 (T1t.tI/Ir-
,- ... , .. IT.
TO"fr T'If' 'Y'f'. T....,. tI. 'GIoNJ T' ", ..
1..1"""" u9-iIIpO,. n'e) 11 'GIP*'-
A\.. '"'' ' • I
.,.". TV).."" l&p."r, 'r Ku-
i,ll., ;r '''T4IUt/''lIf t;,Jillr J,U/lrNMrlI.,-
nr - aloy,tU.Or .,., .tf'lfU' If!R ptA.-
, A-'..· .. ·, , .,
XI". UfO. "'" er tllYJWe.lIII. ",,,,,,or,
" ,
ICl&Tl& "". T. flmrJO, ",.o"mo. Er-
.9-,,1, 1.'1l.1I'NWrMT.r t;.Jillr 1171""0-
d TbilI maDDer of rowiDg i. ruD praaifed in
Av .. &c:. but it bed reprefented by the
of aNew z.aIand canoe, in Cook'. fecond VG,..
'J'be of tbe OIU' it there IIWl'e like a fpade
d oars were not faftened to the rowlock.,
aa in Greek veffels, [hut held in the
hand,] fo th.t tJley feemed to dig the
water rather than row, and to tofs it up
aa a labourer throws up earth with a
fpacle. This harbour afforded good wa·
ter in plenty. Weighing again, however,
in the eel/ming, proceeded eight
hundred ftadia to Kuidza, where the {bore Kbudar
was defert and {boal." Here they anchor- Guttar.
ed in an open road, and took their f meal
on bOard Nithout landing; but neceffity
compelled them to proceed: they ad-
vanced therefore to a fmall town, built
upon a riGng ground. Here [from fome ap-
pearances] Nearchua judged that agricul ..
tore was not wholly unknown. The
duce he determined to appropriate, and for
that purpofe confulted Archiaa how to ef-
rea it. This Archias was a man of confi-
detation among the Macedonians; he waa
of the fon of AnaxidotU8, and had
failed with a command under the admi-
ral. Nearchua told him he was deter-
tnined to feize the place by furprife, be-
caufe he was perfuaded the natives would
not, without fon:e, confent to afford them
a fupply; and that to take the place by
force require the delay of a G"'ge;
that immediate relief muft be had, for
they had no bread com left: and that
thet:e had been a harvefl in the eountry
was from the ftubble, which flOOd
thick within fight from the ihore. Ar-
. chiaa joined with his commander in opi-
nion; and it was iiIimediately· refolved
that the fleet lhould be made ready fer
failing under Archiaa, and that Nearcbua,
with a Gngle {hip, {bould remain, and ap-

• a.ot-1 fix o'dock.
, I.i .. ,... It fupper, diet CIiled agaiil in _

Digitize"d by Google
pAr" ".,,,. W) S-... ply to the natives on fuore f9r leave to
&" .,. f11tA,Qf' ;". vi6t their city. ,
XXVIII. He approached therefore
XXVIII. new"'lIw, 11 with his fingle ibip in a friendly manner,
.,«. <1>""""". fv,. i" and the people came out of the place with
fIIo)urw. T. i, "e"';"ow" .".711" prefents in their hands, bf cakes, dates,
(¥-rei' t,(..n, 1';, 11;- and baked 6th. Even this was a teft of
civilization, for thefe were' the firft they
GSpZrel flUrWr" it" had yet feen 00 the coaft, who' applied
7rlf6IftM. W'Y., any cookery to their food. The prefenta
1';»' <1>0"'..,.'. '0 /. TAW. Nearchus received with the appearanc:e
,.,J, u,u""'" JI".,a.«I 'S-iN.. I. of pleafure, and requefted the favour of
a. I _a , , • t' ., being permitted to fee their city. To thi8
Jlfltl"AOTtJIf ,.", f.i111)u'· III tI' """ 'li1"1',)..- they made no objeC\i.on 'j but he, the mo-
.9-.. 'Of 11 ,r .. "" fJJ¥A.9-,. 160 meot he bad entered, ordered two of hit
\ IV ,t
' I' bo rdth dth
",.., T6I' TIlr;.,"6I' ""TrxJf' -"lA..", ,.", ..,. wmen to gua e gate, an en
AVr'er If fWl''' IJo IfiI T¥ mounting the wall with two others and
• ., '" _ , " his interpreter, he made the fignaI to
.P,.",,"""f, W' TO T"XOf TII 1'..",., .JfA- Archias, which had agreed upon •
.9-_ •• T::_ tif4) TO' 0niJ' The"fignal was nofooner made than un-
1'0,,,....1, "1"";'«1, ... JI derftood; when Archias ordered the fuipa
1TVf"tUJ.7. 'liIO';'" n T.7.'Y".;.II'. 'Jt1O.- now under weigh to fall back towards
the ihore, and the peo' ple to plunge I·Oto
'f".r tII TII "I,,,,,.ill. oi M"".tIO"r, "fill-
, "l" ,,. , 'I: the fea on the inftant. The natives ran
,,,]N, T. ".,1& T4IXIIf T4&f "4&f, IC!II 'r;.'- to arms, aftonithed at what they faw;
.,,161. 'f t1' 0; when Nearchus ordered hie mterpreter
Nt/y'rr'f Tiir 'to proclaim that no injury wu iateod-
'of >la '0 t.,. "eel, b ha th .. n. _11
... ,. T. tnrA4& eJfll.. ., 'efUI.wr • ut t t ey mW1. u.a.aver up _
.v. "lIP IJo'«I"'; the bread corn in their potreftion. They
.. , , • n. ,. " , ,. declared they had none, and ftiII ,conti- ,
"'e.T'!'. H fT6I. 'J'N.w" rxJI' ,.", fJJo-
Of "oued to approach the ,!all, where the
)U,O .. la "'«1 r<fJW" If#! ;",.,.
bowmen were placed; but the bowmen
.pOtT"IIh, defended themfelves by the advantage or
., C ,Il' , ... 11t' , N'
tltUTltf .. TIlr;.IIT«I .. • ri' Tor '''eXII., their po'ition, and [Archias likewi1e was
if inr.pA!'1t '.or at hand.] Ymding therefore pppofitiOlt'
T. ;J" IfiI Ocr" WfItI iu1ecWo- vain, and fearing Ieaft their city be
I,tlh,ro,u..,. d1pIfTl 7rtA". Tfrr, I. faeked as well as taken, and them1Clve.
;1,,,70 T¥ "... fTir" n., carried off into (Iavery, they entreated
.,. .,. ,., • I " Nearchus to take what corn they IwI.
", ",WOW" M.'"" cW.Y"'. ,." • ..oN,
'.A_A'IIQ,' ,.' If' \ and depart without farther injury to their
•• !Ut P-YV"f.'''. N,Cl('XOf TII'''''' city. Upon this Nearchaa ordered Ar-
'AfXi". ",AM. "'4r "":>.Ar. <:hias to occupy the gates the acI-
IfiI ".T" cWr4r -rHxor
5 fI1J,..- joining walla, while he Cent proper. ,...,.
Digitized by Google
pIe with the inhabitants to fee that they
delivered up their ftores without fraud.
When the ftores were 'opened, a great
quantity was found of a pafte compofed
of fi{h baked and fklted, but of wheat ,and
barley the fupply was v«;ry fcant:y; for
the cuftom of the coUntry is to, confider
fi{h as the ftafF of life, and bread as an
article of luxury. All that was difcover-
ed however was delivered up' by' the inha-
bitants, and Nearchus, contenting bimfe1f
with what he found, abftained from far-
ther injury, and ordered the fleet otT to a
cape called Bageia, which is facred to the
XXIX. From Bageia the fleet weighed
'at midnight, 'and advanced 1000 fuulia to
TA.lmena, a fafe harbour; 8Ild from thence
400 iladia farther to a deferted Tiz'
city, where they found a wen funk, and TidgeP
fome wild palm trees; from thefe they
cut off the head {boot hvhich is called the
Cabbage] and ate it in place of for
of bread they had none left. Famine
began now to threaten, and they ,were
forced to proceed for the fonowing day
and night without anchoring, and ftopped
at laft Qn a defert {bore.
, Here Neal"fhus was obliged to anchor
without futTering the men to land, fearing
that, if they {et foot on {hore, they would
not return on board. From hence 750
ftadia carried them to where the TancabaDca.
{hore was low with {hallow cuts: then'
800 ftadia to Troea, where there were a
&w wretched villages, whioh the inhabi-
tants had deferted; but dates and a {mall
I TfOi'lr1l it " dubioUl readinc iQ all tbe MSS. fometim. wriueo T*OIVU, aac:l b1 Gronovius 'Icoiv .. ,
Digitized by Google
, , 1\" ", I
c&ur0, Il', fl'tr" .Ai""
'l! I • A\ I , I
It!I1 ,.,-..Ni. .. ,r .x ...,.,omJUM'· It!I1
.. ,., • '
1'lI'Ter. OfI'tItf >pr"" xcr.T .... -
_ •. T{r,.AJ' T. ;fI'lT'OPT ••
ok. I. ,,,, t;jills Tflcr.-
.... 'lIr TilAMllfI". ¥I xcr..9-'e""lOPT«4 ir
A _, I 0/ n. •• ..!ll ,,, n.
"""tMlWp",· DJer. ,o,--,r TIV'S ""JeAJ-
.,0. I. ni, T.
_'I'''' ¥I n" ill., T. ;).IJI,uovr,r
''''')'''0'. t;Jillr
"K)JJ« T. ;U,T", if .... )",.,fI'"" TO t9-ror
"., • o.. . , , I
l;t.., YfIIt""""". Tilo».ci. "",XII,
TiI",.g.6mr ".;, iJ""",,,",,,,,,. "0e-
""lOPT«4 11 ofJ Tile

,. ., , \., , s, ,
", f7r, ... ci,)Aer. fIS""'e"
,.".' 4'Yxupi"". TiI«fJ. ... )..¥ ".;,
w",,' TiI)"lo"r
. /ftlJ,o, "we''', oWo, Jl .;
, fl'1T10JTtIIf, ( u,,,."" "'e ¥I x).."tlo"tItf )
'O)J'Y" tiur;, «.NwoPT,r
'ratr 'O)J'YOIrr• TillI.oi&
',w, &I, ... o,,,.,.tItf. Ifit 'fwPffTtItf
w) :r' 11
4,"t.rr,r amow, 0, It Ifit
lixTrJiJ, ;.".. TiI .... .;"PTtIIf. "wy,&or
• "J. _ _ .. t.' ' "I'V Y
.r tItJO , ..... 'alr ".er. tJUJ'I'"". n}..a-,
JUlr. J\: am. ;x T 4>""XA/,.
T 4>),,010, i./nr'e ";.0.. 'En.
11 .9-J.N.wcrer. IfiI w ...
".er. "u. fife" woJJnrlTtItf,
., , ,. "n. l:I_
'e"""" TO TilMfI ,t;" DJer. Il'
of corn was found. Seve,n, ca-
were lik.ewife difcovered, wh,ich the
natives had not driven off: thefe they
killed and ate. Setting fail again in
morning, they reached Dagastra, a refi-
dence of fome ftraggling natives, where a cape.
they obtained nothing, and were necem-
tated to proceed all night and the -fol-
''towing day, tiU at the evd of 'noo ftadia
they arrived at the limit of the territory
of the Ikhthu6phagi under the extremity
of diftrefs. Yet even here they were not
able to land, but were forced to ride at
anchor on an open for there was a
furl of great which beat upon a
cape projeCting far out from the main. Cape
The whole navigation along this coaft
of the Ikhthu6phagi W88 fomtwhat more
than «10,000 ftadia, throughout which,
88 their name implies, the natives have
little elfe to fupport life but filh; and yet,
notwithftanding this, few of them are
fifhemaen or have boats, or' underftand
6lhery 88 an art.. But their fupply is ob-
tained by obferving the tide of ebb, when
they ftretch out nets two ftadia in len,sth
upon the lhore, and wait the retreat of
the water., Thefe nets are fonned out of
the bark of the [Cocoa] Palm Tree, for
they fpin the bark like flax. As the tide
ebbs, where the lhore is left dry, there
are no filh; but in many places the water
a The ftadia enumerated are l1000, and omiffionl may weU.mUe up the nQlllbel' ten tboufand.
ftadia .
10000 at 16 to a mile Englifb _ 625.
10000 at 15 to a mile Romaa 666.
10000 at 8 to a mile Roman _1tSO.
real estent of the c:oaft = 486.
See Voyage of N earcbus p. tBB. fec:cmd edit.
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th are q tities
6th, fmall indeed for the moft part, but
fo lar Th mall d th of
fofter kind they eat raw, .. they take
th ou th te The ge
hard they dry in the fun and, when d ,
red eth to powder em ,w c
th knead up . loa, or -ix u
a hquid form like fruinenty. Their verr
ca lik • fe fed' dri Gib r
they have neither grafs or pafture. Crabs,
(J ra, oth fileD are oun
plentY. Salt is a natural produCtion of the
fo and h oy fup ea th
with oil.
e generality of tlus tribe mbablt a
c try' hou tree: • tho oy J
d\1Ce of the field, live entirely on 6a. :
f few 'fe a all nti f gJ
which is rather a luxury thao their ordi-
o diet r th dail ood th.
houfes of the better fort are framed of
t bon f \\1 es on lh
dlefe they ufe in4Vo.a4 of timber and the
_ or .. COJuauOD }II:u-
pJe have nly th re of fm" r
bones [piled up] for an habitation.
{X. bal re nd i the
dian] ocean, of a much larger bulk than
,,"', of hmei fOr
• TO Ill'. The palI"age IS undoubtedly corrupt,
an rre8 is be th8I Dfebfe but I
dare DO Y the .real tzue.
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I(f/I iIMtpu-
"'''4 ;"., ply",. "'w". "FllIr Ti ... ,
I Tl .f" ..u .lfl ."m, fl The pri-
mitive fenfe of ... .s."w is ay.... or ac:c:ident; that
it, every occurrence or circumftance which origiD-
atet fiom aaother perfon or and of which
_ outfelYel are the objeCt. Hence eYerf
ion on the mind, .u {aft'eriDp, all the pdioDs, ate
thofe in the Mediterranean. For Near-
chus relates, that, as the fleet paffed.
Kuidza, the water was feen thrown up to Kbudar
a great height, as if it had been raifed GutDr.
like Il water fpout; and that, upon this
ftrange appearance, they were alarmedl
and enquired of the native pilots what
might be the caufe of this. occurrence.
.They receivt".d for anfwer, that it proceed-
ed from whales fporting ih the water, and
blowing it up from their noftrlls. Tbe
feamen bowever were fo aftonifhedj that
the oars dropt from tbeir bands. Near-
chus immediately ran up through tbe
fleet with bis own fhip, and, as he paft"ed,
direaed the commanders to form a lino
with their head towards the monfter., as
if they were going to engage; at the
fame tiine ordering the people w
the fhout of War with all their force, to
exert their ftrength to the utmoft, and to
da1h the waves violently with their oars :
upon this they recovered from their alarm,
and advanced upon the figna! as if going
into an aanal engagement. And now
at the Dloment when they were clofe to
the enemy, the clamour of the Crews was
carried to its higheft pitch, the trUmpets
founded the charge, and the dafbing of
the oars refounded on every fide: upon
this the monfters feen ahead plunged
into the deep as if frightened by the at-
tack, and rifing again aftern, continued
to blow as magnificently as befote. The
danger will paft, the fuen fhouted
...&¥-r.. The..s.,.. in tbia ... 1iIie is die
.. cnfed by the blowq of the 11' .... ; and if
we obtain the true iD this inftaDce, it will a·
plaiD alll1lClf clifpated tat iD the followq chap-
It 91 8ehmlider, eS optimo.
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Tc&6ntf y",,8-lt,f ilJptuftl,. inr,p Tlfrll
Tllf ;;y.".o.c&t 11' A'1t I.'i'KJIp'e.,8-I14.
It That N6fala and or are the
fame, and tbat they reprefent the modem Afhtola,
cannot be doubted; for both lU'e raid tq lie on the
coad of the Ikbthu6pbagi,· IUld both at one hun-
dred ftadia, or feven miles, from fhore. And al-
though Afhtola lies at double that difiance, u
and· clapped· their hands upon their un-
expeaed deliverance, and the judgement
of Nearchus was as much their admira-
tion as his fortitude.
SQme of thefe whales are often left
dry on the reflux of the tide, and fome
are driven on fltore by In
ftate they lie ·and putrefy till the fleflt .
feparates from the bones, which the na-
tives employ in building their houfes.
Thofe taken out of the fides ferve for
beams and raften, and the fmaller ones
for planks; thofe in the jaws are flat and
adapted to doors. The animal itfelf is
often found near..., feet long.
XXXI. Nearchus likewife mentions
that, as· they paffed the coaft of the Ikh-
thoophagi, they heard of a defm ifland
at a. hundred ftadia from the {bore. The.
natives mid it was facred to the fun, and
was called k Nofala, a fpot which no one
dared to vifit; for thofe who had at-
tempted it were heard of no more. While.
Nearchus was near. this place, a bark
manned by Egyptians difappeared, and
the native pilots on board the fleet
tained that. it have been loft by ap-
there is DO otlK'r itland on that cod off at fea,
there can be no room for doubt. Added to this,
N6fala WIll enchanted wben NearchuI wu tbePe;
and Afhtola was enchanted when Yillted by Coin-
modore Robinfon. An enchantment of two thou-
!and years continuance is • proof .irrefragable.
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Tbe interpretation of thie obfcure pd. by
FaciUl, Blaac:ard, &c. is rejeaed by OronoviUl,
who renders it, IUmn &li apD'Uijfo Aune ipfi infi-
tuUl aft"eEtum, CUIII ;"'Jccratiorul ut et ip.fe flenet iUi
ind rugere, more eonuIt 9"i anteAac 1JefIiff'mt ad J-
irtj" But the primitive fenfe of .. ci.9tt,... [L'I{I:,
for"',", lot, or coaditioa] bill fugefted to me a dif-
fereDt codru€tiOD: for ArriaD ufes TV H.IM ... -
proaching too near this HJand. Nearchua
however difpatched a gaUey to the fpot,
with orders not to . land, but to fail elote
round, and {bout the name of the com-
mander or the officers. This done
. without eirea, and at laR: Nearchua went
in perfon to the place, where he landed
himfelf, and compelled his people, much
againft their will, to land lik.ewife, and
in (hort expJoded the whole as an idle
But there was another tale of mytho-
logy relating to the fame place; for the
tradition was, that this iOand was the re-
ldence of a Nereid, whofe name indeed.
was unknown, but whore praaice was to
feduce fuch mariners as landed there to
her embraces, and then, after transform-
ing them into. fi(h, to throw them into the
fea. The Sun was offended at this trea-
chery, and ordered the nymph to find'
. herfelf fome other reficieRce: with thi.
command, the faid, (he was to
comply, or if DOt, (he had no power to
refift. Upon her fubmiffion, the god
was fatisfied; and then, taking compaf-
.s",.. .... cap. 6. This is the eaCe with the Nile.
A Wnilar ufage occurs iD c. SO. We _y therefore
take the whole paft"age thus: .oAo,..;;
.... , A fl .. .a.,... .tai-
.j. Sbe confeoted to depart, jM·alImNd ,AaI
this fOUl tlle lot ajJ"w·to "w. HIJftC L'lmditiortart
filii eJfo irapoJit_: Atmc fortem.Pi effe illlIUMI:
fibi OJ*' ejJe ""ne Jortt:m patio But, in a cafe of
doubt, the reader wdl probably rather truft to Gro-
ncmUl cbao to the tI'aIdIator.
Digitized by Google
fion on ~ o f e who bad fufFered by her
enchantment, transfQnned them back
again from fifhes into men. This was
the origin of the Ikhthoophagi, and their
defcendants continued to inhabit the fame
coaft to the time of A1eunder. I .give
no credit to Nearchus for wafting his
time and mifapplying his talents in the
refutation of fuch idle fables, which re-
quire no con6deration, and it is an ufelefa
tatk to dwell upon them for a moment.
XXXII. Inland, north of the Ikhthu6-
phagi the country is Gadr66a, a fandy
and miferable diftri8:. The fufferings of
Alexander and his army in paRing it, have
been related in my fonner work. But
the fleet had now reached Karmania, and
at the cape where they bad anchored
they were obliged to lie in the open road,
becaufe of the {boa! and foul ground
which extended along the filore far out
into the fea. From this cape their courfe
was no longer weft, but north weft, and
Karmania was fQuod to be a country not
defolate like that of the Orite Qr Ikh-
thu6phagi, but abounding with corn and.
fruit and pafture, well wooded and well
Upon doubling the cape they came to
an anchor at Radia, [a place very different
from all that they bad lately experienced]
for it was well inhabited; it afforded a
fupply of grain, it abounded with vines,
and all kind of trees, yielding fruit for
the ufe of mao, except the olive. From
hence, after relievL"lg their wants, thef
proceeded eight hundred ftadia, and an-
chored again upen an open {hore. And
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'T"" XCCoTtU'r""e" -r''''P'''' tMI'X)IrtU ,r
., " ... ,
TO ""At#yOf. 0 'fIA' T' tlOXM. I{J&I
le' at! .., III
N '''e"X.'l'' flMl'tJWrltJr 'ft""'. ,r 'T' "tI'ltJ
-'Kftr«l, -'p "., SoJ.Nw-
, ,,, • -'" '0-
.,.". T«IIMf' 'Ttf' ""p'" XCCoTfltlOJ.
pA' W'
here, [on the oppofite coaft] at the dif-
tance of a day's fail, a vaft promon-
tory prefented itfelf to their view, which MalfendOD.
they were infonned was part of Arabia;
and that the DallJe of it was Maketa.
They were lik.ewife infonned by thofe
who wel,'e acquainted with the country,
that from the ports in its neighbourhood,
m cinnamon and other commodities of
that fort [that is to fay fpices] were con-
veyed into Atryria.
A line drawn from the point where
they were now anchored to the oppo6te
cape on the Arabian coaft, Nearchus con-
fiders as the commencement of that gulph
which is called the n Cea of Erythras, [but
which is, properly fpeaking, the gulph of
Perfia.] ,
Upon fight of this cape, Onesicritus
propoCed that they (bould fte:er for it di-
reCUy, and not advance into the gulph,
where they might be driven about, [with-
out knowing what courfe to take] and ha
expofed to the fame diftrefs they bad al-
ready experienced. .
This propofal Nearchua thought ab-
Curd, and contended that Onesicritus was
miftaken, if he Cuppofed this to be the in-
tention of Alexander; for he had not
fitted the fleet with a view to the ac-
commodation or-his tarces, or. as wanting
means to condua them by land: but
that his defign 0 was to explore the coafta
by means this navigation, to examine
.. Thill is a plain proof that the Arabs ot:Oman but the Erythr6l\n fea, in geDeral acceptation.
(rom Mal'cat, Sohar. &c. were in polfeffion of commences at Sua or Arsinoe. aDCI ateDd. over
trade between India IIDd Atrpia; that i.. &hey the whole eaftero ocean BB far u it was difcovenacl
_nt to Indill for the fpices, and carried them up by the ancients.
the gulph of Per6a to Ter6don. IIDd by the Eo- • Nean:h.., u weD u other writen, attributel
phratea to Babylon. From Babyloo or Ter610n tbe IIlUCh througb Gadr06a. and thilapedition by
there articles would pafa by cara'f'IUII to the Medi- re., to the YBDity of Alaander. But hill own !an-
terranean. page in this .inftance proves that utility was mucb
a According to AptbU-- more CODfulted in tbe attempt than olleotation.
.chides, the fea of E'f1thru. The mythology of It is here Iruly that Alaander make. aood Ius
E'rythru is alwa1l referred to the plph of Perfia; boaft-..4periom terra Imfibu.
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n. I n.''''' ,
Ja.JvMtvtU fit",.O,J/IT., """'. I(!JI fiteor
,-; 'ri TM' '"" n"
.. , ".t1.1 .,
.,."r XfIIf"Ir. I(!JI Tllr tJl,lloiTeAl1rIl, WfItK cV '1-
TM ';'roe'tt.r ;"'IAI)'O-
P OrmUI il an ifland which derives it. name
&om the COIoft; it is properly called Gerooo or Tu·
run. But Hannoz, HonuuI. and Hannozeia, are
the harbours and iflands, to penetrate into
the gulphs and bays, if any tbould occur,
to mark fuch towns or cities as they
might find on the coafi, and to explore
the nature of the counory whether fruitful
or defert. That it was their duty not to
fruftrate their fovereign's defign, when
they had now almofi arrived at the period
of lbeir labours, and were befides rea-
fonably aft"ured of a fupply for their ne-
ceffities. AI te? himfelf, be was afraid
that, as the oppofite cape had a tendency
to the fouth, the coafi: beyond would be
found nothing but a defert, parched and
without water.
Thefe fuggeftions prevailed; and to
me it appears plain, that this advice of
Nearchus was the prefervation of the
Beet, for the accounts which we now
have of this cape and die coaft adjoining
all agree in ftating that they are defert,
and that no water is to be had.
XXXIII. The fleet, when it weighed
anchor from Badis, kept clofe along the
frtore for 700 fiadia, till they came to
NeOptana, where they had again nothing
but an open road. They therefore left this
ftation the following morning, and after a
" frtort courfe of 100 ftadia, reached the ri-
ver A'namis in the diftria of HannoztaP.
Here they were received with hofpitality,
and found every thing in plenty, exceI>t
olives. The men were now allowed liberty
to go on frtore, and all were full of mutual
congratulations reBeaing with pleafure on
the variou8 diftreft"es they had endured, "nd
recounting the dangers they had been ex-
pofed to on the coafi: of the
on the margin of the defert, and from
the ferocity of the natives, as well as
namee from all antiquity known in this traa. which
it Mogho-ftao, or the date c;oUQtI'y. a diAriC& of
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'fEr aur" 'lfTtI.J.
XXXIV •. 'E, If 0 N'''e:tor TaUr4
, I "., I ..,
,x,WfA-". T"f ;tAIflfr 0 .II7I""e:t.r .'fi1f'1nJtr-
,",or ;""Mf i, q>eO"'J, Ix ..
their want of all the necetraries of life,
Some likewife wandere4 from the thore
up into the country, in fearch of what
they might find to relieve their wants, or
gratify their curiafity.
In the courfe of there rambles. a man
was encountered, who had the cloak. and
habit of a Greek, and who fpoke the lan-
guage. Such was their furprife, after all
their dangers, to fee a Greek and to hear
their own language, that they wept for
joy. They who he was, and
whence he came; when he informed them, .
that he had wandered from the Macedo-
nian camp, and that Alexander with hia
army was at no great diftance. Clamour-
ing therefore and clapping their hand.,
they hurried him Nearchus, the
fame nory was repeated, and they learnt
that the King and the army were not far-
ther off than a journey of five days. He
added likewife, that he could introduce
them to the prefident of the difuia, which
he immediately performed.
Hearing this, determined upon
going up to army. He returned to
the fleet for the evening, but the next
morning he ordered the filips to be drawn
on thore, both for the purpofe of repair-
ing fuch as were damaged, and becaufe
he meant the bulk of his forces to remain
upon the.fpot. For this purpofe he form.
ed a camp, enclofing it with a double
palifade and a rampart of earth. and car-
rying a trench from the river to the fea •.
within which the thips were drawn up
and fecured.
XXXIV. While Nearchus was occu-
pied in this bufinefs, the governor of the
diftriei, who had heard of the great
Digitized by Google
anxiety of Alexander refpeaiog the ex ..
pedition, and flattering himfelf with hopea
of reward for his intelligence, if he were
the firft to report the fafe arrival of the
fleet, and that the Admiral might fhortly
be expeaed in the prefence, baftened up
to the camp by the fhorteft road, and ac-
quainted the King that Nearchus was ac ..
tually on his journey from the coaft.
Alexander, '!S was natural, was rejoiced at
the intelligence, though he doubted the
raa. . But fevera1 days paffing without
feeing any thing of Nearchua, his, fuf ..
picions increafed with the duration ,of
the interval, and he concluded that the
whole was the fabricatien of the gover ..
nor. Parties however were difpatched
every way for the proteaion of the Ad-
miral; but fome returned foon without
proceeding far upon the fearch; and fome
fUll remained abfent, who had extended
their enquiries to a diftance. This there- .
fore adding to the anxiety of, the King,
he reproached the governor for fportiog
with his expeB:ations by a delufion ut-
terly faJfe, and, ordering him into con-
finement, fufl'ered his c o u n t e ~ to be-
tray the difappointment and vexation of
his heart.
In the mean time one of the parties,
which had been fent out with hones and
carriages for the accommodation of Ne-
archus, happened to hit upon the road by
which he and Archias, with five or fix in
their company, were coming up to the
camp. But the encounter feemed acci-
dental, and they recognized neither of
them as the perfons of whom they were
in fearch. This in £aB: might naturally
happen, for they were completely dif-
figured by the tattered appearance of
their drefs, their hair wild and negle8:ed,
their bodies emaciated, their countenances
wan and weather beaten, and exhibiting
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TU .".,,""f, O'1I'UTfIII "Nw.O.. IIIf .,.".r
tivr;. ., ri7ro({>S-UIIIf i.9-,N/trfU-
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n' J • .,.; t;,..,.;
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;. i,ui.o crv..9-_ ; • AJ...f'E .. ,Jeor. TMr ,u.
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'1" 5"'; 'Ap'¥iJl '1'; ".",1"p',
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"IV n..."'.- J ...."
",'A • ..".4. .""A TtI.Uf .. "f'ITo,
1f.iI; Tf 5; 'ArKi'" •.
Titf It ,wylr ¥I %.u.nWf wry,., 'A-
the figns of fuftering and diftrefs. To
their enquiries where 'Alexander was, they
barely mentioned the place of his en-
campment, and were paRing on without
farther notice. "How is this ?" rays Ar-
chias, who conje&red what was their
obje8:; "Surely, Nearchus, if I am not
"miftaken, thefe men, who are in the
"fame road we have taken through the
" defert, can be difpatched fot no other
" purpofe but in fearch of U8. That they
c4 know us not is no wonder, for our ap-
" pearance is a difguife. Let US ftop and '
" tell them who we are, and enquire why
"they are upon this road."' To this Ne-
archus afi"enred, and enquired which way
they were going. "We are in fearch of
" Nearchus," they replied, " and fent to
" enquire about the fleet'" "I am Ne-
" archus," rejoined the Admiral,. "and
" this is Archias: oondua us to Alex.
" ander, and we will report to bim all the
" circumftances of our expedition." .
XXXV. They were immediately placed
in the carriages, apd' the party returned
towards the camp. On th .. ir way
fome [of thofe who were mounted.) eager
to be the reporters of an event fo fortu-
nate, haftened before the reft, and carried
the account to the king, that Nearchus
and Archias, with five of their attendants,
were upon the road; but of the fuccefs
or failure of the enterprife, they bad made
no enquiry, and had nothing to rc;port.
This fuggefted to Alexander that thefo
officers might have had a miraculous
. efcape, but that the reft of their forces
muft all have perHhed; and the pleafure
he felt uPQn the :prefervation of the com ..
manders was overbalanced by the ap-
prebenfion that the remainder was loft,
While this was paRing, Nearchua and
Archias arrived in his prefence: but tlto
very fight elf them, disfigured as they
were. by their appearJQCC and their drel's,
Digitized by Google
hardly ruKered him to recognize them SI
his friends. This added to his fufpicion
that the fleet had perifhed; yet he held
out his hand to Nearchus, and taking
him afide from the party and from his
guards, he continued for fome time to
fhed tears without uttering a word; but
at length recovering himfelf from his an-
guifh, "Nearchus," fays he, "I feel fome
" fatisfaaion in the prefervation of your-
" felf and Archias, as a diminution of the
" aflliaion I feel for the calamity that has
"befallen my fleet. But tell me how
" and by what misfortune my (hips and
"my people have been loft." . "Sir,"
faid Nearchu's, " your (bips and your
"people are all in fafety, and we are
" come up as bearers of the glad tidings."
The King now wept more abundantly,
the more their prefervation was unex-
pe8:ed, and enquired where the fleet was
fecured: "At the mouth of the A'namis,"
replied the Admiral, "the (hips are all
"drawn on (hore and repairing." "I
" fwear to you," . rejoined the King, "by
"the Libyan Ammon, and by the Ju-
" piter of the Greeks, that I have greater
" pleafure in the fuccefs of this enterprife,
" than in the reduaion of all Afia to my
"power. For if my fleet had periOted, I
"(hould have confidered it as an over-
" balance to all the good fortune which
" has attended me."
XXXVI. In the mean' time, the g0-
vernor of Hannozia, whom Alexander
had put into confinement, upon fufpicion
of his bringing a fa)fe report, feeing Ne-
arohus, [and the reception he experi-
e,.nced] fell down at his feet, and " See,-'
fays he, " the fituation I am in who fira
"brought the account of your arrival."
Upon which Nearchus iqterceded for his
releafe, which was immediately granted.
Alexander now facrificed for the p ~
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troJM ,r TtI.f JltI.f.
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"yr,) 0, .. ,.". ." Ill, Itft T", "'" Nil
,.. "0..' :tl! I"
nrf W, .; -r"toI flIOIIGCI "1",.,.0'
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, '", 'C!R 0 tT",Te"'1I"If --
nw. TfT'Nrn1XIC "4T4 TDpOt;"tt.f'1I • ANf-
fervation of his fleet to Jupiter pre-
ferver, to Hereules, to Apollo the averter.
of evil, to Neptune, and all the gods of
the ocean. He ordered the games for the
exhibition of mental talents and perfonal
agility, and direaed a folemn proceffion
[in prefence of the 'whole army.] In this
proceffion Nearcbus was the principal ob-
je8: of admiration; the whole camp join-
ed in acclamations to his honour, while
garlands and flowers were heaped on him,
wherever he appeared.
Upon the conclufion of the ceremony,
the King addreffing him, faid, (( It is my
"intention, NCfLrChml, to expofe you
"to no farther danger or diftrefs, and
" I fhall appoint another commander to
" carry the fleet up the gulph to Soofa.'·
" Sir," replied Nearchus, is both my
.cc wifh and my duty to obey your com-
" manu: but if you de6re to eonler a
" favour,on me, fuffer me tQ retain my
" command to the conclufion of the en-
" terprlze, and till I fhall have carried the
" fleet in fafety up to Soofa. Do not let
"it be faid, that you have laid all the
"difficulty and danger of the voyage
" upon me, al1d another is to reap
" the glory of completing it, which is my
" due, when there is no longer any ha-
" zard to encounter."
Alexander futtered him not tp proceed
farther in his requeft, but accepted his
offer, and acknowledged that he was in-
debted to him for the continuance of his
fervices. He then ordered a fmall dcort
to attend bim on his return to the coafl,
fuppofing more was not necefTary, as the
province had been (ufficiently fubdued.
But his return was not without diffi-
culty, for the natives were in a. ftate of
. revolt upon the removal of their fatrap
by the King, and had· feized upon the
faftnetfes in the mountains, [with an in-
tention to intercept Nearchus upon his
Digitized by Google
• '!'be IIIeDUon of YiDea it is fom. meUare ap-
propriate; for the iBand of W roa affumes the name
ef KifmiI from a p8pe fo called, which ii
return.] TlepOJemus was the new ap-
pointed _trap, and he was not yet fully
efiablithed in his. command. Nedrchu8
was therefore neceffitated to encounter
the revolters twice or three tiDles in the
fame day j and though. he advanced with
all the difpatch in his power, it was with
great difficulty and fome danger that he
at laft reached the Anamis.
XXXVII. Here he facrificed to Jupiter
the preferver, and after the performant.-e
of the gymnaftic exercifes, prepared for
his departure. Thefe were confidered as·
religious ceremonies neceifary for the fuc-
cefs of their voyage j and the fleet now
fetting fail in a courfe of 300 ftadia pa1fed
a defert iQet, and anchored under a larger
iOand in its neighbourhood. The fmaller
one was called O'rgana, and the larger k
one, 800 ftadia in length, Oarakhta j it was ••
well inhabited, and proved abundant in woroc'tha,
corn and q vines and palm trees. The go_ W mU.
vernor of this iOand was who
came on board the fleet, and offered his
fervices to coDduB: it up to Soofa.
In Oarakhta the inhabitants pretended
to thew the tomb of E'rythras, who, they
fay, was the firft fovereign of their terri-
tory, and who communicated his name
to [the Erythrean ocean,' or at leaft to]
that part'of it wbiclt· is COlUptebeftdat.ia
the galf of PcrIia •.
the fleet. ita
again, they follolYed Q10fC of this
iflaod for two hWldred ftadia, aDd an-
chored again oppotiie 'a finaller ifte, which' Anpr.
lay at flaki.kmthe
. . .' .
cuIiar -. iunbis of wbicJa the iobabit-
anti run export a .sreat quutity.. vu.. are alfo
mentioned OD the cod. •.
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IC9I Ta. .r IMTtI:IIr1Mf ... ,..
•• ;,6 .J.e ,t; rWf f
la . I as fa to ptu and
ported to be inacceffible. Upon leavmg
tb . anch ge' the mornin the tide
of b e 0 0 un pe8:e y, Sho Ba-
of their veffels lay £aft aground; 6du.
an the ain ef gr
difficulty over the {hoats mto deep water.
The three bowever that had grounded
u the urn he Boa aga
and the following day joined the of
th eet. he t h mad ood
cour e of our undred adi&, Dd
chored at another iOand, was 300 Great Tumbo.
fta dUb fro e co nen ID
morning they weighed again, IUld,
in iOa oar Pul , on ir 1 Beli 0-
th Y proc ed t to on con lior .
nent, called or Sitdane: it wu BaftioD.
a Fpl whi coul fro . f
ply but fi1h and water j for the. mbab,-
tim here alfo w Ikhthu6 a d
ha 0 m S 0 ppo ut t th
derived from their fifhery. After taking
in, er , th nex ourf as S
ftadia to T ama, a cape of cenfidorablo cm· DghenI, or
ten and m ce Kab' a 10 CerteI.
defert iOand, facre to ercury and V Co- Keilh
nus to which the courfe Was 300 ftadia.
Hi the habi s 0 e n !>OU
ing iOands annually carry goats alld fheep,
wh the dica to de
tbefe, from neglea, and tbe length of
tUn hey d left th felv
were uecome perf ........ y w •
XYXVIII At Kataia ends the pro-- KeiOa
vin of man alo the aft
which tbey had failed three thoufand {e-
ven ldre adia The rm ns
femble the Perfians in their' manner of
livin . th' arm an ilita arra
are the fame, and, as adjoIning p inc,
th CUflODI8 and habits of both aflimi-
r f"t..
Leaving this ifiand, the fleet proceeded
400 ftadia to lla, where they found a Hi11am or
harbour, (beltered by an ifland in the Gillam.
offing, called Kaikandros; but it was Andania or
, IDder.abia.
fmall and uninhabited. On the follow-
ing morning they reached iOand, Schitwar.
where they found inhabitants and a 6th·
ery for pearls, like that in the Indian
ocean; and, proceeding forty ftadia from
a promontory formed by the termination
of the iOand, they came to an anchor un-
der a lofty mountain, called Okhus. Here Darabio.
was a good harbour, and a village inha-
bited by fithermen. The next .ftep was
to Ap6ftana, by a courfe of 350 ftadia; Sbevoo.
and here they found feveral native vetTels
at anchor, and a village fixty ftadia from
the thore:' but, leaving it in the night,
they proceeded 400 ftadi3. to a bay, where The ba
N ..
they anchored at the foot of a ruountain.
They had here villages all round them, DalJr.Mbaa.
and the country abounded with r palm
trees and othen, bearing fruits, fimilar .to
thofe of Greece. Upon leaving this place,
their ftretch was 600 ftadia to G6gana, KOIlp)D.
where they anchored at the mouth' of a
winter torrent, called A'rean. The,place
was not without inhabitants; but the an.
chorage unfafe on account of the Oloala
and breaken, which appeared on the ebb
of the tide, and the approach was narrow
dangerous. Their next progrefs was
• 800 ftadia, when they anchored not with-
, The date and the cocoa are both palmi. We have feen the cocoa iD the Indian ocean, bllt iD the
CU1ph it is probably the date.
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ptl-T" CbA.., ,up, ... ,7., OlQ,.,.".,.
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liMr /'"Jt.w'lIr. K._ T¥T" CfJ.-
e';'1rAlilr J.i.yH NI"'fXH
fir M. mew-
'lrNM-&rrtl,f T"M i"fU7e;,rra."
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• ...,. A\ t-.. ,
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• This is au eua defcriptioo of the -' from
Kougoon. rouod cape Verdiftau, to Keno or K ..
out danger at the mouth of another river,
called Sitakus. The whole navigation Kaneb Sbei-
along this put of the coaft of Pema i. tan Keon.
among ihoal. ,and • breakers; but they fe-
cured themfelves in their prefent ftation,.by
drawing their ihips on fhore, in order to
careen and refit fuch of them as had been
injured in the voyage. This bufinefs em-
ployed them for one and twenty days,
during which delay .they received a fup-
ply of provIDons, which the King or-
dered to be rent down to the coaA: for
their relief;
XXXIX'. Upon retuming the pro(ecu-
tioh of their vayage, they arrived, after a
paR"atge of 150 ftadia, at Hieratis, "and Kieruin'
anchofed'in a out, which is derived from KOldher.
the ri"er to the fea, and. is called Hera-
temis. On the following morning, as
foon as it day, they, moved again, and
reached Padargus, a winter torrent •
In they had tollowed. the
winding of the coaA:. round a peninfuJa,
(on which they faw plantations and gar-
dens, with all kind of fruit trees) and
allchored at a place called Mc!simbria. Bo/beer
.. 1. b . he " roceeded Abu-Shar.
From na t y p !lea
ftadia to TAoke, and anchored in the mer
Granis, [a ftream which comea from
in the aeigbbourhood, at the clifiaace of
200 fiadia, is a palace of dle kings o.f
Penia. During their patrage this day,
they had feen a whale thrown afhore by
the fea, which fome of the people ap-
proached, and found, upon meafuring it,
that it was fevebty-five feet in length.
neh. Cape Verdiftau .. marked b, modem uavi-,
gatora'oul, to be Ilvoided.
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" The whale is Dot fealy, and perhaps ,.A.r"",A.
will b be terp -OD fPl inO
rIIt ••
PER S 1 S.
he h of i as l[ y, a t a half
in thicknefs, covered with Y barnacles and
-w D hin ere ewi een
hovering about the body, much -larger
an t e w h w aye the edi-
terranean fea.
At con fion thei ourf ey
arrived at Rhog6nis, a winter torrent, af- Bunder Regh,
rdi di h
' the fandy
n com 0 ar ;an 18
day they had advanced but ftad18..
FOll hun R L m b
them to Brizana, a wmter torrent, where Delem?
ey a ore n a nge fit on,
WJth a urf an {ho s and I eakers all
und them. Here they had arrived at
tim f fl , and th ater bed
away, the veffels were all left dry upon
be: B as f as -tid fe
again, they weighed, and Rood otT the
re the :ach the er fis, Tab,
which, Nearchus fays, is the largeR of all !DdlaD Rn'er_
riv he h feen the rfe hie
XL . the ro6s "JOin th ro-
vince of Perfis, and that of Soofiana COIn-
nees And land om fia re
the U xians, an mdependent tribe of plun- AfCIBCls.
ra, om hay enti ed i Y
former work. The coaft of Perfis ex-
ds ftad· ,an con ndy 'th
Its climate, and the temperature 0 tb"
. it be nfidered as 0
three nas ..... at pa whic ong
, , -Ore'CI< cannot be better rendered' than by ha,...
nacles e fhe wbi adbe the tom
fhips, and all () le5 10 g eltpof the
ieu-9"6 0''''0,.,.''0'. a.,.,.p;;I'r T'
1" ,,, .,' , "
'''a., I(!Jt tm"0 K4U,.,...TOf' TO 11'
"'TI)._ filp'or -eXTor TI 3 Boe'''' ;,,,-
,.,." _AI" xue4Jta., T;' Ale'
• ..., T. '''a.,. If!II Nc-
,M'f14 wtp"Aitr IfiI ;',.,.,...).or <Pi-
" .t I
If!II WOI "a.e'6'''. fiI).,,' tNMItr'
T' fila.,n'o,rr, T.&,,).i,a.,.
filOT",""'" x.s-a.e0Mr, I""pp"c&a.,.
101''''''P.'' IfiI o,'w" o..wo,rr" filo- .
'I ..".vQ.. .,
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"..",.; T' ,;,,. ,1,a., It.!iI TW"
ti...oCU')'IoWI ",ac&a.,. K,q "AilI" T.
IfiI fileOtrIJtl
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IT, I'Jf' a.eXTO' 10""". "XII""'P'''' T' If!II rI-
l{J,Tfidl,,,,' jk. fileiu(ecr T"U- ix TM Eu-
filP"at "r"'" W'¥'I'
1iA, ..",s.' 010, ,om
n'ptT,ler, lfiI.9-tm,.,... "yf'l'C&a., • AN-
• O/M
(J... I ,,'.' I .,
..&tatrr.o'r tI' fiJeorro,XO' OT'
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M"eJo, ,.,.,. ni"".",., fileon'Xi.r o,uatrr,.
, '1' - te 'to
N/t;a., I(!Jt INn,' KOfI'tI''''''" tll, M"tlOIrr,.
Ka4 TaUra. filtUt-", T. t.9-.,,,,
·A).e!""leor• XHpM'Of ;r.' ;""'6""'" ..u-
To";rr", ar,
COAlf14 ;'6'{XTW', T¥ ,0,.,.J,Ja,r
"... .." IV ,_.t,
ET' tI1,OT'fp"" 5 '¥'Ir 'eoya.Ta,r.
5 w". u"re ;n.liI/, .......
• I
.. This" is charaaeriftic of Perfie at
the prerent day j and the winea of Sherauze are
celebrated througlioot the eaft, correCponding with
tlae 1Iina of Nearcholl, and which be reeml to meo-
tion with pleaClIlY wherever they -occurred.
• If this ha any meaning, it mutl be referred to
the gulph of Perfia is Candy, unproduc- The Kennirer
tive, and parched with heat. The dif- or GenneCeer,
tria farther inland towards the north and
north eaft has a climate of more mode-
rate temperature; for here the foil is
covered. with verdure" the plains are well
watered, and z vines, as well as other fruit
trees, except the olive, are found in abun-
dance. Here [the nobility and the fo-
vereign] have their parks, the rivers
pure and limpid, the lakes [of which
there are feveral] are covered with water-
fowl, cattle of all forts are paftured on
the plain, and the forefts furnilh· abun-
dance of animals for the chace.
There is rull a diftric9: farther to the
north, where the climate is cold, and the
mountains are covered with fnow: but thi •
is fo far north, that fome embatTadors,
who came from the neighbourhood of
the • Euxine fea, and who joined the
army on its. march 'to Perbs, had per-
formed a journey of no great extent, as
they informed Alexander, to his great
The Uxii border on Soofiana, as I have
already mentioned, and the Mardi on
Pema; both nations of plunderers. The
Cofmi lie nearer Media; but all thefe
tribes were fubdued by Alexander, who
enteted their country in winter, when
they thought it impra.aicable. Mter their
reduaion, he colleaed them into cities,
in order to reclaim them from a life of
vagrancy; and, by compelling them to
become cultivators inftea4 of
they had a property' of their own to de-
AI Gebal, the mountainoDl part of Mectia, or pot:.
libl,. Armenia. B,ut there provinc:el are DOt a part
of PerUs, though comprebeDded in the kiDgdom of
PerUa; they would likewiCe be ...-er the CaCpiaD
than the Eo1ine rea, and the joumey of the em-
ball'udOl'll could not be fbort.
Digitized by Google
b BetWeeIJ the A'rofis and Kataderm. lies the
!hOld or BRhr-el-Kanj it is run ceJeblated
ror ita filbery.
fend, inftead of molefting their neigh-
bours by their
From the A'rofis the fleet proceeded a-
long the coaA. of Soofiana. But of this pat:'
fage Nearchus informs us that he cannot
fpeak. with certainty; he therefore ftates
• •
only hIS anchorages, and the length of
each day's courfe, for here [the coaft was"
low and] the .fuoal extended a great way
out from the thore, fo that anchoring at
all was dangerous, and their courfe was
generally through the open fea, without
daring to approach the land.
Before they moved therefore from the
mouth of the A'rofis, they took in water
for five days, as their pilots informed
them, that during an interval of that
length no water could be obtained.
XLI. As foon as their water was com-
pleted, the fleet proceeded 500 ftadia to .
Kataderbis. Kataderbis is a bay, ,,·ith The country
'n d' called M ...&f.
an I an at Its entrance, ar6 .. - The illand
tana; the whole bay is remarkable for Deree boDna.
the quantity of b fifu it produces. From
Kataderbis the courfe was through a
channel furrounded by fuoals on both
fides, which the fleet paffed in a line of
fingle fuips. The fuoals were marked out
by ftakCl' fixed along the margin, in the
fame manDer as the channel between Leu-
kas and Acarnania is defined by marks,
to prevent accidents to thore who crofs
the ftraits. But at Leukas the fuoa! is a
fand, and if a gets on thore, the i.
eafed oft" again without difficulty; but upon
this fuoal in Soofiana the bottom is c mud
C The tenn ufed by Ptolemy is .&Awo, •
.flake "'",; by Marcian, -'A •• , IIItUId.r
"'y; both cbaraeten agreeiug with this KCCOUD&
of Arrian's.
Digitized by Google
and'ooze, fo that, if a ftrikea, there
are no means of relief. For if a pole
is put out, it finds no re6ftance, but finka
deep into the yielding mud; and if the
people are put over board to heave her
off, they find no bottom to fupport them.
It with great difficulty that the
veff"els conduaed through this paf-
(age one by one; when they came to an
anchor in the channel at the end of d fix
hundred ftadia, and the people took their
refre{hment 'on board. But they moved
again the fame night; and now, finding
deep water, pu{hed on during the whole
of the night and the following day,
evening, \'Yhen they ·reached Dirid6tis at T.edoa.
the e mouth of the Euphrates, after a
courfe of nine hundred ftadia. Dirid6tis
is a village of Babylonia, and a mart
which is the centre of the commerce of
Arabia, and whither the merchants bring
the &ank.incenfe, with all the ·gums and
odours that country produces. From
this mouth of the Euphrates up to Ba-
bylon the [computed) diftance is f three
thoufand three hundred ftadia. •
XLII. At this place they received an
account that Alexander was on his march
to Soofa. They therefore failed hack
again, with the intention of going up the
Pafitigris to join the army on its route. Rifti' of
OD their return, they failed Soofiana Bun HOnDOI.
on their left, and [firft) paffing a lake The Deje1e,or
which the Tigris formed at its mouth,
[they cro1l'ed the {hoals again towards the
Pa6tigris.) The TIgris comes out of Ar-
menia, and paffing' NiDUS or Nineveh in:
• The whole of this courfe, from &taderbis to mouth of the Euphrates: but that river now jom.·
Diricl6tia, is acrorl two fboala; the 6rft now called the TJgria at Kborna, 130 miles from the rea. '
Karabah, and the fecoDd Ala-MeidaD, or the great r 'SOO fWlia make little more than IlOO miles
8at. Englilh; the 'real diftaDce by the river is more than
• This is ill reality the Khore Abdillah, wbich tOO. Bat may DOt NearcbuI uulate this dU-
it liD CODidered bl the Datives .. the aocient &ucle bJ W. of eipt to • milel
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cUrJ. ;, IUSv,J,...,
.. fi" tN CpOfT.'YIII' ' .;,.-
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",»-ITO, ,.". Mor ".., AVJ"f '" TO rJ.'iIi
" ", IV ,,.
UTrJ. TO' 'IrOTrJ.I'-'" IC!II "'eo" T!f
'e",teorr4f, iqJ' ; TO I."b.b.
I N earchuI did not go up tbe T"Jgris, and mull
therefore fpeak &om report. What place ill meant
it il now impoffible to fay; it may be as
D' Anville fuppofet. But I fhould rather imagine
that it was a village at the mouth of Soweib river,
"y whic.h there is a _ter communication between
the Tigria and SooCa, by means of a canal called
Meferkan. But the dillance is totally incompatible.
The lake ill the mollth of the ShaHl-Arab.
I Tbe Pafitigril is afc:ertained for the river 01
. Ram Hormoz b1 CGlllparlng it with the campaip
ita courfe, which was formerly a great
and flourifhing city, enclofed one fide of
that traa which is called Mefopotamia,
as the Erlphrates encircles it on the other.
At the diftance of fix hundred ftadia from
the lake at the mouth of the Tigris, lies
a village called Aginis: this village is in
Soofiana, [on the eaft of the Tigris] and
is reckoned at five hundred ftadia from
g Soofa itfelf. rrhis village, however, they
did not vitit, for they did not enter the
lake, but only b Jailed IJy it;] and their
courfe back again acrofs the ihoals to
the Pa6tigris was two thoufand ftadia.
Upon arriving at the i Pa6tigris, they
failed up that river, through a populous
and well cultivated country for one hun-
dred and fifty ftadia, and there, came to
an anchor, waiting for the return of the
meKengers, whom Nearchus (eut up the
country to learn tidings of the kiDg'.
Here Nearchu8 facrificed to the gods
who had profpered his expedition, and
celebrated the ufual games; and here the
whole body of his people enjoyed them-
felves in fecurity, [and in triumph for the
conclufion of their laboun.]
As foon as they learnt that Aleuader
and the army were approaching, they
continued their progrefs up the river till
they reached the bridge of boats which
or AlltigonDl and Elimenes, with the march of Ti-
mour, and the high road from Perfis to Soofa. In
giving this detail of the return from DiridOtia to
the Palitigri., I have changed the lite of Aginia iD
compliance with Scluneider. The whole is DOW'
c:onliftent, ret Ilill the 2000 ftadia attributed te
this return il a dillance too great; but tI. riftr
of Ram Hormoz fiillII into a ba,: the estent of
this bay up to the river I cannot precifely afcer-
tain; it mal qualir, the diftance, but ftill it it ia
.cel.. '
by Google

AJexander Was to pafs .onfhis march to.
Soofa; here the naval forces joined tho
army; and here the facrifices were re-
peated for the prefervation of the Beet,
and thofe. who had embarked in it •.
Wherever Nearchus appeared, garJand.
and Bowers were ihowered upon him,
and crowns of gold were beftowed upon
him for the execution of his commiffion,
and upon Leonnatus for his viaory over
the Oribe, and their allies. THUS WAI
XLIII. All the country beyond kBaby.
16nia, 1 weft of the gulph of Perua, is Ara-
bia j and the whole is Arabia, quite
acrofs the continent to the tea of Phl!-
Dicia and Paleftine, which is a
province. On weft, the limits of
Arabia join Egypt, between the Medi-
terranean and the Red fea j and the Red
fea communicating with the Erythraan
Ocean, and coming up to Egypt, provee
manifeftly that the navigation is open
between Egypt and Babylon. But fuch
is the violence of the heat, and .the
defert ftate of the country, that no one
has hitherto accompliihed this circum-
navigation, unlefs fQme who have paired
from one gulph to the other, [not by ad-
It Arrian exteDda the name or Babyl&Dia quite truth at the preCeDt day.
dowo to the gulpb or Periai fur thus (p. GS.) be I h 1If,; it is iD the oriciDBI i bat, to wader-
fa,., DiridOtis is • village or And iD ftand this, we muft fappofe Nean:bus at the bead
the pJefeDt iDftaDce, be meaDS to fa, that all which or the gulph, aDd read, to CaiI dowo again to itl
it DOt Babyl6Dia, is ,Arabia, from the gulpb or PeI'- mouth. See the fame Dfap or " laf'; iD the f0l-
ia to the MediterraDeIID rea. Tbit it Dearly the IowiDg page.
Digitized by Google
1 Arrian mentions this fo Qightly, that one Ihould
think he had beard little of the patrage from Egypt
to India by the monfoon of Hippalua: and this is
extraordinary, as Arrian Ii.,ed in the reign of A·
drian, and Hippalua introduced the knowledge of
the monfoon probably in -the time ofClaudiua.
ID It is plain that Arrian means to fay, that the
hering to the coaft, but] by ftanding out
into the open fea I.
The remains o£Cambyfes's army, which
efcaped out of Egypt back to Babylon,
and the force fent by the firA: Ptolemy
againft Seleucus Nicanor,· both paffed a
part of Arabia j but it required a.march
of eight days, during which both the
army, and the water for its fupport, were
conveyed on camels' through a country
totally parched and defert. They were
obliged likewife to move in the night
only, becaufe the heat of the day was in-
fupportable: but if the traa of country,
which I call the m Ifthmus, between the
guIph of Arabia and that of Perfia is fo
defert and fo little inhabited, the part
farther north is an utter fand, without
any means of fupport whatfoever.
Some indeed have attempted the paf-
(age from Egypt to Soofa arid Perfia, by
going down the gulph of Arabia j but
they could proceed no farther on fue
coaft of Arabia than they were enabled
by fuch a ftock of water as they could
take on board j and when that failed
them, they were obliged to return: while
thofe whom Alexander fent down from
Baby Ion: and who proceeded fartheft with
Arabia on their right, difcovered only
part of the coaft, and a feW of the ifiands
which lay in their coune j but not one
of them ventured to pafs that great cape
ann1 of Ptolemy patred the defert from one gulph
to the other in eight days. But this it impoRible ;
for tile diftance is feven hundred miles, and the
poll (moll probably on a dromedary) is eleveo days
OD its journey. The anny of Ptolemy mull ha.,e
palTed oDly a part of this defert, through Idumlla
to the Euphrates.
Digitized by Google
• To the eaft we now know.that it could not be,
bat to the fouth, or to the weft of the fouth for fe--
veral days, after paftiog tile ftraits of Gibraltar.
But this is Hanno's own language in his PeriplQs;
and, by the mention of this circumftance, with the
fiery torrents which caufed him to return, it is evi-
dent that Arrian bad feen that Journal.
• In reviewing this work of Arrian now for the
third time, I have foUDd to change the poli-
, ... .I ....
which lies oppofite to Karmania, and Mull'endoD.
which Nearchus faw upon his entrance
into the gulph of Perfia.
But if any means of intercourfe, either
by land or fea, could have been eft"eaed,
I have no doubt but that the bufy fpirit
of would have tempted him
to explore it to the utmoft.
Hanno the African undertook an ex-
pedition from Carthage into the Atlantic
ocean, beyond the pillars of Hercules; TIle ftraits 01
d fail
• ·th Afr' h' I ft Gibraltar.
an, 109 WI lca on IS e ,pro-
ceeded towards the n eaft for five and
thirty days: but as foon as he was ob-
liged to change his courfe to the fouth,
the difficulties he experienced were infur-
mountable. Want of water, intolerable
heat, and torrents of fire rolling into the
fea, put a ftop to his farther progrefs;
and yet Kurane, which is a colony efta-
blHhed in the moft defolate part of Mrica,
abounds with pafture, and has a fine foil
well watered; and, befides its produce of
all forts of fruits and cattle, is celebrated
for its benzoin, [which arrives at a greater
perfeaion there than in any other part
of the world;] but beyond the country
where this drug is found, the reft is all
a fandy defert.
This is the fecond work I have under-
taken relative to Alexander the Mace-
donian, the fon of PhiJip 0.
tion of two places only. Aginis I have now carried
into the Shat-el-Arab, in conformity to D'Anville
and Schmeider; and O'rgana to L'.ArK, inftead of
Ormus. On this Iaft point, I am not
confident; but I bave identified the Pafitigril with
the river of Ram Hol'lDOl ou the cleareft evidence.
In tbefe three points only the prefent work diJIim
from the firft edition.

. Digitized by Google
Digitized by Google

TnN il.7t'ol'/WYfA-DfAJ. opfA-OJ'
&tI.NMr"lS, TM. 'G1'e' tt.inJ,.
7t'0e'fAJ" ".,Mt.
" ., M " f\' ,,,. ,
fiGS opfA-Gs. ,TIt. (I' amo, flrrII' "'OYrfAJ.
." ,. , _ tI, • tI,l::'"
tlllrO "X)JtjrM' OX.T&XOG"I6I. t;tI.II.fIII', "
DIe"'''''' · ApJpoUe
' 01 "',.",PlS, i.
A;-yVJr71t' x.JMrOl
MwrI.f. TM-rfAJ.
pS _T;. l'f.M. Dle":x."s trfI.tItI(h,r .;
&b.UVtI.J, 'Ix&floepJ.'YfIII' 0;-
x.J'0fA-'l,.l,r;ur i. t;OMp.tI6lP,
, - , I
(11 O'X.lIVrrl.f· TtI. (11 fA-'rO'YfltI., r-t;"'''P''''
5 flIT' 'A'Yp.otpd,yin 5 M,%o-
Tfletl.;.,ltI. "fA-G,u.fIII'. O!r
• • .,. is reDdm:ed by Stuc:kias and
Hudfon injipu et "lebra: but it figoi6es, I
prehend, regularly appointed 6y BurJCnment j like
re".., "'"..".0(, ;".n,IO' "".1".... So Stepbanus in
yoce • .,. • .", times appointed "" _,
ctA}IotrI, or "f"B" See alfo BudmUJ, p. 176.
b Teez-u-bareek i. faid to mean '- and jlat
both in Periic and Arabic: if fo, may
mean the low traa between the moUDtJUas and the
h, like ,the Tebama in Arabia. But the adjetth'e
fOrm of like &c. makes it
THE Egyptians have feveral aeftablithed
harbours and marts on the coafts of the
Red rea, but the firft of thefe is Muos
Hormus. Next to Muos Hormus is Be- Deled eI u..
renike, at the difiance of eighteen hun- befh.
dred ftadia, as you proceed down the
gulph, with the African thore on the
right: both thefe harbours lie at the ex-
tremity of Egypt, and have feverally the
advantage of a bay. Lower down than
Berenike, on the right lies the level
traB: on the coaft. called b Tifeb&rike,
and here is the refidence of the Ikh-
thuophagi, whofe chief fubfiftence is fiOt;
their habitations are c cabins in the clefts
and caverns of the rocks, and they Jive
in feparate families, without any form
of a community. Other barbarous tribes,
as the d Agriophagi and Mofkbophagi,
potrers the interior; but there have a
rather referable to haAr, the fea, or ftaCOllfl, u the
bahr-nBgaih is king of the COllA.
C The mllgalia or mapalia of the N 1lIDidians, or
merely naturnl caves or artificial ellcavaDoas j for
the Ikhthoophagi are Troglodytes, who have their
name from this fort of refideoce, and who, chanc-
ing their fituation with the feafon, to avoid the 8y,
confequently never build.
.. Probably' A",lo,."" ihould be •
locuft-eater.; MOjlOXO'."OI, wal-eoIen.
Digitized by Google
., " / .,,,.
I'1I'UCltrtlf UTc& 'fllTrll tllll'0 Till'
•• "IS fWCeO" Mr-
I. TitS ;;"1"lS
, .. , ., r lV ,
tlIII"XO' Till'
JUllS, DTW,,""S T;' MyO""""
'S oi w) (!HMr,Ni.
i,('"trc&,. I. TO ;",..
'JI"0e'o, -x.w»"" Ifi"
, , " "' #Ill"
W",,', I(fN AIV",,' TO.S
II,tJ.S. Jr ;, ,u".; filOT' "J,
Wtpct.r oJU.yos • • pMOS a'
11. TO'Jr'OS riJIj"."os. 5 trx..,..._ "..'0'
qp,. fiTtJ-
, .... 1-1-. ' '" n. ... ., _ tv •
""r--c& .,.", Till' c&1r0 illS
;,.,.".op'o, .0,.",,,..,
" .., Il ..... n. 1OIo , t
M. JUCI'-"O' III XOA1r'! pc1fNII. ""'T raJ-
, " r'\...,,"-' .. '0-
TO. TO' 'OTO'. 'VU ",trOS.
).ry0"""" T¥ ,u, ;trr.".a.Tll xOA1rll.
6Jr ir TDiMros t"X.W'c& lUUt.tJtr'llr·
if TM' "..pM.
'E,; l'fi. ee,u;
Xc&Tc&"O"."c& filAO"'ic&, ;X
"",.,."Jp0",M. fi,w.,.o,,,.e, Me!"" "",.,.'
" , .. , , ..,.., ..... t"
tlA/rO, .,... 1fIWTc&.,.0' I/AA1rO' .. 111

", """,
,OU MyO,.,.." .'1. 1rtl.p f.WT'JI' .,.", "...,.-
form of government, as fubjea to their
refpeaive chiefs: and farther inland is
the country c of •••• towards the weft •
Upon the coaft below the Mofkh6phagi
there is a fmall mart, called Ptolem&ia
Epitheras, four thoufand ftadia from [Be-
renike] the port eftabli{hed for the re-
ception of oriental commodities j and
from Ptolemais f the hunters proceeded
into the who ufed to procure
elephants for the ICing. The true land
tortoife is found here, which is fina11
and white, with a thell proportionate to
the animal; and here alfo is the ele-
phant of an inferior fize, like. thole db-
tained at g Adooli: but there is no har-
bour here, the veffels lie in an open road,
and the articles procured are brought of
in boats.
..Kt the diftance of three'thoufand ftadia
below Ptolemais Epitheras, you arrive at
Adooli, an eftab1i{hed mart, which lies in
a deep bay towards the fouth j and at the The bay of
diftance of two hundred ftadia, in front of Mafuab.
the harbour, is the ifland called h
in the inmoft recefs of the bay, enclofed
on both fides by the furrounding {hores.
At this i iOand the veffels now anchor,
that they avoid the intrufion of the
natives from the continent. They ufed
formerly to lie at another ifland nearer
{bore, called Diod6rus, run deeper in the
I "ne- Gcleniut. ri StuckiUIo "" HudfOD.
a • AMtw ... Gclenilll.
• The name of the couutry mUting in the tat
Oloold probably be N ubia or EtbiopiL Strabo bB!l
Tbefia nearly in tbi, fituation.
r Ptolemai, Th6rOn or Epi-Tb&raa is probably
iD the bay fouth of Ru Ageeg.
I It is • iD the original tat, whicb Hud-
fon reads • AlwA' .... -i. apioft which there iB ob:-
jeaion. but that we know nothing of the ele-
phant at Adooli.
la '0,"" implies rocky or moWlCaioOUl i and
fuch is the ifland to whicb Lord Valentia has givee
biB own name.
J Lord Valentia's furvey givea a large extent to
the bay of Mafuah towards the fonth; and his
or Valentia Iiea in the moll fonthem
HiB LonIfbip fnppofes Tonalbout to be the iflet .
where the Greeka firft traded; but the defcription
of tile ifle of DiodOrua, run deeper in the bay tbaa
does Dot correfpond. By reference to
Adooli lay far to the fouth of Arkeeko.
Digitized by Google
f"', at.(; I.' ;" oZ

tl'GP. K«# u.,.,' i,' Tj' 'OM
., " _", t/ IV a.. ,
tIIIr. t;tMJ'fIII' HIf,W. Tflr JfI.NiIr-
" • 'A' I
"lr, .t;"" fJfNlt.I,.I"'f nl'-,.,.,.,.eor.
'A«(l ;r Hr 1'-" Ko).o".
If#t fItpMrGP il'-npltw ,.,¥ i>4fMf'or, olOr
it;" Te,z,. ' A ... I. ,.,.1JTflr '"'
/UlTeMrw, 'Af,fIII,.,m,. MyO-
",.,or, 'G'/''''''. 0
tD'4r i>1tpct.r ...... T¥ 'G'/'e- T¥ NeWt f'l-
elTlIf, 1.«' ,.,¥ ).,ryO"";'1I K., ;xiiS-..
'" • 'A "', .. 1. T:\. ,'r , ..
fI' lit fJ¥"". G ",.. lIP WVI' 'G'/A7fti7 or
,.;, 4>''Il10,,,,,,,,,,, iNtpUrflll'
, 'Ill" ,
,.01', fIt." Tllr "'fill "JUT., TG'JrIl", trJr4-
, t.!' , .. - 'a.'
,1tiIf fI' ... ". If!JI " TC! ..... -e«- Jti.NMrtI'4P,
.'e) ..... , MltM S-""e¥rr'" D,o-
IIMITIIf 11, T¥ i/lllf'0e'lI 5 U.T& 'G'/,NI,-yor,
4»-1If ,.,..,«# ;" Jaf,z, .1'-"«#
, . " ,
cMo"r, ).ryo",.,." vhd""
I;prllf Ar T' ipnrOelO' q>ae
..... ,.,;, '1x.9'u4&-Yflll'. Kat •• t;.J!fIII'
• \ , , , ., I.2_Q ... :-!
fMIW O"T""W'fIII', If,ONlror 1T'eOf pcrN""
l' ".,.,. \\,l: '"
""Tor, 011 "AT" TfI' IftI'aOMl' " fJ't:"o,r
.",,,,,or ;t;), ;r ;,
UX/tItI'pA,or 0
;, i..., pJ" TG'Jr'Ur "..,.
D__ ' A, I
",.,or. s..r1J..liM fJ. ,.fIII' TG7rflll' TOUTfIII',
..... TM' ";;r d.JN,r
MP'"'''' ,w T¥
11 KuII" •• &om the dog, or dog-ftar; and
.feir i. the Ecyptian or Etbiopic term of the fame
I TheGt are the iGaads of Dabalak, .. very CCJD6.
derabJe poup, of wtuch Dabalak it the Iargeft;
dIey esteDd &om the latitude of lIrIaf'uab ,to the
bay; but this is approachable from the
continent [at low water,] and the natives
frequently came over to the injury of the
merchants. '
On the continent, oppofite to
lies Adooli, at the
diftance of twenty
ftadia from the {hore. It is not a city,
but 'a con6derable village, through which
the road pafrea to Koloe, , three days
journey inland; &J:ld at Koloe is the
market for ivory. Five days journey far-
ther inland from Koloe is Ax6ma, tho
capital of the kingdom, whither all the
ivory is brought from beyond the Nile,
through the province of k and from
Axbma to. Adooli. '
Almoft the whole of the elephants and
Rhinocerofes, that are killed by the hunt-
ers, have their haunts in .the interior of
the country; they are feldom feen near
Adooli, or on the coaft.
Upon proceedinlt to fea again from
Adooli, there are a number of fmall fandy
iflands on the right, called I AlaIaioo, to DabaIat.
which the Ikhthu6phagi bring their tor-
toife {hell for fale. And eight hundred
ftadia lower down the coaft, there is a
very deep m bay, at the entrance of whicb.
there is a vaft accumulation of fand on
the right, and in the innennoft part the
Op6an ftone is procured, which is found
in DO other place.
. The king of this country is Zbfblea,
whore dominions extend from the MoC-
kh6phagi to n Barbaria. He is a prince
• Tbia bay it noticed by De Caftro, and ..
Wited, but not explored, by Lord Valentia: he
obtailled here feveral fpecimeol of what he Cup-
pofes to be the Opian lone. The diAance &om
the baJ of Mafuah it Comewbat fhort of dJat eivea
by the P«iplQs. .
• Fnm'" Aceec perhaps, to Adel.

Digitized by Google
IC#, TM' ifexJ"..,or, "fr- fuperior to mol\, in the correanere of his
N It' " " , life and condua, liberal in his manners,
I f1IfP' T" Aow«', I(fJt "f"/A-p4TfAJ' and educated with a kJlowledge of Greek.
tfAll""por. DPOXAIeH Jj Hr ·.The imports into thie country ar'e,-
T¥S' TMrIlS' TtnlrllS' ',",T"" undreifed cloth of Egypt, made up for
«.".. T«- i, ",,6/A-p«., • AelT'- the natives,-robes manufaaured at Ar-
'0tfT'u4 IfiI ,0,9-" finoe, [or 0 Suez,]-cloaks dyed,-linen,
'" '11'...., - ftriped clothe. - feveral forts of flint
TIIOI, I(fJt Am"", IC!II 1I'''f«""''' I(fJt J.J- glaCe ;-murrhina or porcelane of DiOf-
9-.. fi1JJ." "f,." «-]A"S' polie in lower Egypt; - Oreikhalkus,
MP''''S' .f> i, AlotrJI'OA". Kat [a metal compounded of copper and other
• , .,.,.. " . , ingredients] which the natives u1'e for
IUW/A'O', I(fJt ornaments, and which they cut into pieces
I , ", ,
lit ""Y"",",' fI,JT, PO/UfI'JI4Tor, I(fJt r--- forme inftead ofcoin;-prepared Pcopper,
,q>9-«. x,U.x«., *r Tf 5 Hr""Y- of which the natives make utenfils for
"",.. TM' the kitchen, bracelets and anklets for the
,.. 'I tI _ _, women I-iron, for weapons and for the
. ')N,GWUII,. Kill 1T"'Jfllor, ,; fHI/IrtUfAJ,.""or
'a me of the hunters of elephants or rhi-
T. TitS' IfiI nocerofes i-hatchets, adzes, chifeIa, and
T«- &"e'--' IfiI TW fi1o}..'fUlr. "0-' knives ;--drinking veff'els of brafs [or cop-
I. If#, 5 rr",- per] large and round;--denarii [that is a
" '" ,fmall quantity of fpecie] for ex-
'!7 p4XfJUP1"1. '!7 X"}.Jui, pences of the merchants who trade here;
p.ryb..«., If.9i Jij,J,p,or oJUryop. -Syrian and Italian wine, but in no
, , • .h. ... ''I'. __ 11 th ram bew
se0S' TIIS' """fPlfUI'T,", I(fJt O"or iUNIIl- great quantity; e e may . d of
t<it W .oiUr. tJ\lluf, oil ;-Glver and gold plate for the king,
W fi10AU, If made after the fafhion of the country ;-
'" N ':'LQ. ... cloaks made up, and plain q coverlids, or.
IC!II f"'" 'f"'! ""Tf- with the knap raifed on one fide only,.
'c , ,,., ,
rrIt.lUM/A-IJ«.. If!JI "1001il.llf, I(fJt but in no great quantity.-Some articles
I I • ... n..·.1I .... 11' ...
1UW'"1t.f fl/lrAOI, VII f1I.JAII 11' TGWT", likewife are landed here r for the trade
·O",w.S' If TM' IrrfAJ TMrfAJ' . with the interior of Arabia, as Indian
J _A •• Gel, 4 'All, Gel,
• Suez is not on the lite of .Arfinot!, but its re-
• .• fe .... &e. Whether
,.aA",s. figoifies brafe prepared in • particular
-1, or w1ietber it fignifies the ufe it is put to in
cookery. and refinos to "hen., I cannot clifcover.
It occun in DO lnic:on but Scbotti Thefaurus,
where tha pa&ge is cited, but witbout any inter-
pretation. It is found neither in HefydUus, Ba-
dIIuI, or SteveDI.
J ,.. ....... Gel, . 6 _u.l Stuckilll,
• K..II'J.., .trAGi. The wage of for
cloth, or cloth of one colour, in oppolition to •• ,-
or is proved by the catalope at
Moor., and coofirmed by a pa8"qe in Arrian, De
Venatione, cap. S. fub fine.
r 'Etr1 'I'M. 'lIT" 'I"tr", rie • A"':,.iie
DOt u, u Hudfon renden it: but they are articles
eYidendy landed out of the aeet on ita retarD from
Digitized by Google
· rendered wually muffins of the c0-
lour of mallows; but probabl, muilin. fJoeCifi-

t does not occur in the leucons in thi.
fenfe. but in MeumUl 001,. who readers it ltJ&1c ;
aDd cites this paI8p with MirepfUl. Gum-lack i.
red. and wed for japaoning lackered
a There is much coofufion in the afage of
PprelliOIl in the original; for it ia watteIl T".,..
iron, with a freel edge ;-Indian
cloths 'of large width, fine cottons, and
cotton for ftuffing coucbes or beds;-
• common muOins and· fome of the fineR:
forts ;-faihee and coloured t lack.
The exports are confined to ivory and
the horns of the rhinoceros.
The imports from Egypt come gene-
rally' to this port between January and
September, that is, from Tubi to Thoth;
but the beft {eafon for the voyage is in
September. '
From the bay'of Adooli the coaft trends
to the eaR:; the narroweft patrage of the
ftraits is immedjately previous to the bay
called Abalites or Avalites: and from
thence the courfe to the eaft is along the
coaft of Afiica: for four thoufand fiadia.
The marts in this interval are called the
u outer marts, as lying beyond the iraits,
and the is ftyled Barbaria, (cor-
refponding to the kingdom of Adel.] As
you arrive at there places in {ucceffion,
you find roads and anchorages in the
& favourable feafon, but no harboUrs.
Of thefe, Aval,ites is the firft: it llee Tajouraf
clofe to the ftraits, where the paifage to
Arabia is fhorteft. It is a mart of no
great importance, where you muft an-
ebor at a diftance from the ihore, and
convey the articles of trade in boats or
The imports are, flint glars of various
forts, dipfe or rob of grapes from
-r.ftp. -r. and TM. ftpta(: but all without doubt
ought to be -rill ";p. the marts 6eyorul the ftraita ;
an appellation which embracell all the.marts quite
to India.
11 That is, during the S. W. moofoon. _T. IUU-
,ile ' .. InJ,we. During the N. E. moofooo, it is
impotJibl, to advance to the north: but the fouth-
weft blowing oft' the coatl. though adverfe, is DOt
nolent, and is relieved by the fea and laacI
Digitized by Google
7 ul GeL
polia, feveral .forts of cloth dretfed and
made up into garments, corn, wine, and
a fmall quantity of tin. .
The exports are carried by the natives
in boats or rafts to Okelis and Moofa,
[on the oppofite coaft of. Arabia,] and
confift of fpices, tortoife {bell, a little ivory,
and a very fmall quantity of myrrh, but
. of the Jineft fart: The natives here
diforderly and troublefome.
. The next mart 00· this coaft is MaJaa;
it lies at the diftance of eight hundred
ftadia from the laft ·mart; it is fuperior .
to Avalftes, but the anchorage is ftill
only an open road, covered by a pro-
montory ftretching out from the eaft.
The nativet are of a better fort.
. The imports here are the fame ai
aforementioned, with.A larger atrortment
of cloaks, and under garments from Ar- Sues.
fi,noe, dreff'ed and dyed; drinking veff'els,·
brafs for. ornaments, iron, and a fman
quantity of fpecie, both gold and 61-
The exports are myrrh, frankincenfe
in fmall quantities, hard cinnamon, d06-·
aka, '1 kankamus, and mak.eir, . for the
Arabian Market, and a few fiaves.
At two days fail from Mala6lies Moon- Zen..,
dus, where there is a fafe road under
cover of an ifiartd clofe to the {bore.
The imports and exports are the fame,
with the addition of the inconfe called
Mokrotoo. The natives are untraaable.
, Kinbm1ll is • pm or MD. do6aka IDIi makeir -7 be gwDI or inferior fon. of cia.-
.' . .
" . .
Digitized by Google

From Moondua the courfe is • eafterly;
and at the diftance of two or three days
fail, you reach a Mofullon, on an open
fuore. "
The imports here are rull the
and, befidea there, filver plate, a fmall af-
fortment of iron and glafs. The exports
are a great quantity of cinniunon, and
the natives ure b larger veff'els for con-
veying it [to Arabia]: they export like-
wife odoriferous gunis, fpices, tortoife
fuell, and mokrotoo, inferior to that of
Moondus, cfrankincenfe, ivory and myrrh
in fmall quantities. " .
At the diftance of two days fail from
MofulloD, you arrive at Nilo-Ptolemb,
Tapatega, the lefter Daphn6n, and
d Elephant. c This traa of country has Ra Feel.
feveral rivers, one called the Elepb&nt,
near the cape of. that name, with" tbe
greater Daphn8n or Akannah
In there parts the beR: and greateR:
quantity of frankincenre is procured; and
from hence the coaff takes a turn towards
the foUth to the great promontory called
f Arbmata, which is the moR: eallerly Cape <JanIa.
: fW.
• Feel is the Ethiopic tenD for aD elephaDt.
c:owie taking a direaiDn to the eaft here, is the • 'Aft .. c .re "TO' .,.x.",.i. ElT. de »-
crouud for fuppoling MooDdus to Zeila." 1:.. There word. lire aD evident interpolatioD, or
• The rea1'OD for fuppoliog MofulloD to be Bar- fraofpofed &om another of the original cop, :
bore .. the mentioD or a promoDtory there by Pto- they haYe DO meaning placed here. RI tbeJ are iD
Iemy ; for there is a cape at Barbora, wi&h a coo- all the printed editions.
lderable projeaiOD to the DOrth. f • in its primitive feDre Iigoifieelllloltrr,
b This has a reference &0 the boats and rafts or artIIIIIIlie ,."..; bat feems iD a variety of iD-
employed iD the trade between Avalita aDd.Ala- ftaoces to be wed by the author of the Peripl6a RI
bie, aDd DOt to the bulk ofciDll8lDOll. comprehending rpic:ea in genenl. No odour it
• ""-'I' I "CllTtdc. FrankiDceDfe broapt . fpacified iD this pd'age bDt fiankioceofe: m8sla.
frGm &he outer IIIIIltI, aDd theNbe called..,.. .aDd molb, are pollibly rpeciee of ciDlWDOD.
"'de iD &he IIIIII'ket 01 Aleundria. .
Digitized by Google
., , ,
___ 0...,,J\ I , It t' .,
.0', 1r.tIAT or TWor If!JI 0 pllt fAul.
ir,eO' ;/j" '0".';",. IfiI
, , ,.. \' ""
tlAfI'fI' 'ti1fOXWe*' fU'I T. 'fi1PMf'lI"',., TO
& cNwor i, ,,;,,; "",«'T"'I 1I.MTt.. 'fit
., "'''.''
1I11tJ!U', If!JI ".OTrII, '5 tllIAut.ti, "f"VtrGM,
-'fit fir Ai'jMr1or 'fit
'fit t{> d.).-
. J..rtr. O).'IT"'I & Hr cUr. TcWr. T.
" " ,'\ A' ,., ,
cif'" 'ffI1"Oe'fI., dl/ro 1"" ,,,,,,,.,11 'fi1'e'
point of the continent of Africa. It is
likewife the boundary of the whole traB:
called Barbaria. AdeI.
The anchorage here is on an open
(hore, and at particular times highly dan-
gerous.from its e%po6tion to the 'north.
The prognoftics of a ftorm IJeCIJliar to
the place are, the ground fwell of the fea,
and the change in the colour of the water.
At the fight of which the anchor is im-
mediately weighed, and the (hips find. no
fecurity till they get under the (helter of
a fecond great promontory, called h Tabai. DaNi.
But at .Ar&nata are procured (as its name
.implies) fpices more preeminenrly; for
cinnamon grows. here, and its different
fpecies, ftyled, Gizeir, fiRe,. MupM, or-
dinary, M6gla and Mow, and befides
thefe frankincenfe.
The imports are the fame 88 at the
other marts on this coaft.
The mart next to Tabai is Opbne, at BaadeI·CausP
the diftance of four hundred ftadia; and
the courfe to Op6ne is round the pro-
jeaion the cape, with the current in
your: favour.
The imports are the fame here as thofe
already fpecified; the exports are, abun-
dance of cinnamon, which is the produce
of the I country, fpice8, gums, a fuperior
fort of fiaves, who find a ready fale in
Egypt, and the fineft tortoife (hell in
great quantities. .
The beft feafon for the voyage to all
thefe marts beyond the ftraits is in Epi-
phi, or July; but befides the fleets which
come hither from Egypt, there is aJfo a
S • A.n-.. GelcniuI.
I ·That is, the teuiDg oC the N. E. monfOOD.
• Ptolemy hu DO Tabai, but, inftead oC it, Zea-
giza, which he defcftbes u a high cape. with a
three-Corked head. This is the c:hara6teriftic fea-
ture oC Dafui, accordiug to Capt. BiI"eIl: it is OD
Ul iQaod. aod. property (peaking, hu three cIi1linci
capes or proje€tioDs, which give it this appear-
I TA .tl .. Ali,... h cWrj ,.." • .,.., -.r'-. Tbit
is preci(e fOr the growth of cinDIDlOD iD Afiica;
but the r.a is. uai't'erCaIly deaied by the moderu.
Digitized by Google

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Y'O' IMNo. ".",4. 0
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'11"61' B&pU'Y«'(61', Hr
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IIIJCTJfS lIS T HTor w, 1rNtor.
filem4 ",., J..ryO"..", • A1rO-
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I'W4 IC!JI ".",ti,AGf, nrr IlI4
d." llOTtt.,...or. w) ItI".Mf if.
• ., ".1..' ,,. 'P! •
fiI«-e tUl'rOP 'IfIlI TOP .LITtt. uy,tt.-
"""eor ".t"YM, W' IpO-.
, ", " 'I!:
fUlS Kaf I'-'T tUl'rOJ I'tt.Ttt. TO
diftina communication, and a feparate
voyage performed by the' native mer-
chants from India.
k The veife1s they arrive in are fitted
out from 1 'or Barugaza, and come Concan and
to the coaft of Africa with their native Baroache.
produce, wheat, rice, butter or ghee, oil
of fefamwn, cotton in the web or for .
ftuffing 'couches, fathes, and honey from
the cane called fugar. Some of thefe
have their exprefs deftination for this
coaft, and others only touch here to ex-
change part of their cargo for fuch
cles as they can obtain; [and then pro-
ceed farther to Arabia or the Red rea.]
This part of the coaft of Africa is not
under the m dominion of anyone general
potentate, but each feparate port has its
refpeaive chief.
The whole traa from .Ar6mata to AJu.
Rhapta is ftyled Azania; but as the
coaft from, OpOne trends more to the
fouth, the firft divifion confifts of a courfe
of fix days, terminating at a river; and
in this interval lie two capes, called Ap6-
kopa the lefs, and ApOkopa the great.
(The firft is Morro Cobir, and the fecond
cape Baxos, or ihoal cape.] There is no
anchorage during the whole paifage but
. 011 the open (bore, and at the termination
of this divifion there is a river, and the
coaft inclines to the well of fouth.
The fecond divifion confifts of fix courfes
more, and the traCt is called the Little
and Great Coaft. And after thefe a third
J ""'c-' Gelenius.
k This is the moft curious palf. in the whole
work: it in the firft inftance, a direCt trade
between India and Arabia, iD all appearance e&J'o
lier tban the trade of the Greeks from Egypt; and
in the Cecond, that the lbipe whicb touched here
bad a fiutber deftinatioD, whicb could onl,. be to
Arabia or the Red rea. The articles re-aported
from Adooli to Arabia, noticed above; Ceem to ill-
timate that thefe lbipe &om India reached that
I Ariaki!! is Concan, the Mahratta coaft; Bant-
gUa is Baroacbe in Guzerat.
la So it was when tbe Portugueze firll reached
this coaft, and Co it continues, in a pat meafare,
to the preCeut da,..
Digitized by Google
11 I have in an e'lprefs diR'ertation acknowledged
my inability to reconcile this paffage to geography:
but our ground i .. certain as far as the termination
or the coaft· or feven riven, and the PmaIian
iAandl; there are, the mouths of the great river Obii
or with fome fmaller ftreams, and tbe
Ulaads Ampaa, Lamo, and Of the N_
CaDal [ am _tcertain; it may be Mombaza, or
it may be in the bay juft to the £Outh or
thefe i11ands. I laave conteRded ftroagly fGl' MIRD-
bua in my former work; but C.ptaia Bil'eIl'.
J8UIDlII has almoil converted my conje&ure to
Formol'a. From Formaf •• courfe of two days and
nights, equal to two hundred miles, anfwers fuli-
ciendy to the diflance of that bay from Pemba,
which is aauany 170 miles, or 18t miles Roman.
But then the ditince fiom Pemba to Rbapta it
far too fhort. muft be one or the
Zanguebar itlands; for no other on this part or the
c:oail1ie at three hundred ftadia, or thirty miles,
&om &be cemiDeDt. .After mnch ftuauation ia
my opinion which to prefer, I un determined ror
Pemba bJ Captain Bi&Il'. defcripaon of it, ..
divifion, ftiJl bearing the name of Azania,
in which the 6rft: anchorage is at Sera-
pi6n, the fecond at Nik6n; and then a
fucceffion of feven riven, at each of which
is an anchorage for feven fucceffive days •
• This divifion terminates at the Pura18an
ifiands, and a place called the New Canal. Mombua P
From the New Canal the vetrel [leaves
the coaft, and) ftretches over to an ifiand
called Menoothefias; her courfe is fouth-
weft' n for two days and nights, and the
ifiand lies direaIy 0 weft from •••• , at
the diftance of three hundred ftadia from
the continent; it is low and woody, and
has feveral rivers. Birds alfo are found
heie of various forts, and the land tor-
toife; but DO noxious animal except the
P crocodile, which here never attacks man.
The embarkations of the natives are vef-
fels fewen with coir, and canoes, which
they employ in catching 6th, and fea
loaJ and 1ItCJIIdy, which is die identical it
bears in the PeripIQs, 'I' .... _l The
courfe likewife from Pormof. to Pemba would be
fouth-weft, which reconciles ODe expreffion in the
original, a.,l,., ...v AI;'" The other point (which
marks the itland as lying --c' .,n.:.. n, H,.,)
it run irrecobcileable, I un weary of conje&ure OD
this moil corrupt P81'.; but run periUaded, that
.. MenootWlilll is ODe of the ZanguehBl' itlands,
fo it Rhapta Quiloa. becaufe on the whole coaft,
from Mombua to Quiloa, we have Dot • name to
b on, and Ptolemy's charaCten of Rhapta anCwer
to Quiloa precifely; tor he gives it. bay, • river, •
mart, and • Pl'Olllloutory to the fouch, which an-
fwers to cape DeJpdo. .
• ..,' .un, E:'I'I",.t... I hrfe
abandoned this lail word, and can add nothing to
what I have faid on it, but that fome genitive,
verned by lieI concealecl under it.
P The crocodile here meant is probably the verJ
large lizard fouDd in Madagafcar, the Comoro
iGands, and, I believe, on the continent.
Digitized by Google
tortoife; but for the latter they. have
alfo a peculiar of fi{hlng, by let-'
ting down wicker bafkets, inftead of nets,
at the openings of the {hoals.
From Menoothefias a courfe of twe
q days brings you to Rhapta, which is
the laft mart on the continent: and
Rhapta has its name from to few,
becaufe tbe vefl"els in ufe there are formed
of planks fewed togetber, [without the
ufe of nails.] -
. The- articles obtained hete are ivory
and tortoife {hell; and the natives are
men of· the largeft ftature that are any
where to be feen. This part Qf the coaft
likewife has a diftin8: chief in every fe-
parate place.
But, befides the native chiefs, the Ara-
bians have Ii command over the whole,
a power which by prefcriptive right be-
longs to [r Kholaibus] the chief of Ma-
phartis in but the merchants of
Moofa now hold it of [Kharibael] the
paramount fovereign of the [who
is an Homerite,] and by his·
co11eet the cuftoms or tribute of _the pOrt.
Hither likewife they fend their vetrels, on
board which they employ for command-
ers and faetors Arabs, who know the
coaft, and undcrfiand the language; or
who have conneetions with the nativesj
and fometimes "intermarry. with them.
The imports at Rhapta are lances, made
at Mooza fpecifically for this market,
- axes, daggers, and awls, with feveral forti
of flint glafs; and at tome places winct
and a large quantity of wheat, not for
fale, -but to anfwer the expences of the
traders, and to conciliate the natives •
.. ... ·P ... l\ ... .. Gclcniul. .
• This diftance is much too Ihort from Pemba ferent terms; the is ftyled ..6,. ... c. the pc'"
to Quloa. IIIOUllt S-w6t· the Came diftinc'iion as OCCUIII at
, The diftiDaion is here b, uIiDc two dif- p. IS. of the origiuah
Digitized by Google
., .. "","
1IIJr. 1'l1li, TO'It'tIIIr IAiq>M Ti/NCt;or, 'I""
I. TM 'AhAmM.i, Ifit Ifit %1-
" , t.' , ,
M"i D'-roeor !UTtI. TJf' bD'",,', ,CUI-
... Nor OJJyor. K«J Tlhvrru6rUrt.
it;', Tamtl. i""""e'tI. '
;, I,f,o';f Blp"'1Ulf '0
" " .,., I
I""tI. TJlTMf TitS TO'It'Jtf """,,,.of I lM'eW-
• , '-' - ' I .. ..!l '
wrns OW, ftf TJf' fJUtT",fI. I(!JI
T';;f .'t;'e"",,.,,a.o'f ",'e'6"" AI.9.,.-
, , ".,., "A'" - "
""M, If9I .luvtnff, .,...e'""f. ""1''' TO'
, I t''''
'fifer flf TJf' ,rnr'e'" (f'fJf"'"
, 0.. ,
.After going this work now
for the third time, I have not found it
neceffary to recall any of the affumptions
I had hazarded, neither have I a doubt
of any fingle pofition, except that of
Moinbaza. I have not difplaced it in the
• AD article unknown, but gene-
rally fuppofed to mean fome fort of fhell.
t It is evident from the paffage juil cited, p. 1S.
in the original, that not only Rbapta, the other
ports on the eaftem coaft of Africa or Ajan, were
fubjea to the Arabs.
a • Anrc.".".l,,,c ,,",CIlT", He meaDS the we'-
em coai of Africa.
The exports confift of a large afl'ort-
ment of ivory, but it is inferi!>r in quality.
to that of Adooli, with the addition of
rhinoceros's horn and tortoife thell, nearly
as good as that. of India, and fome infe-
rior s thells.
The t places for trade about Rhapta are
in a manner the laft marts of Azania, and
the termination of the whole coaft from
Berenike down this eaftem fide of Africa;
for the ocean farther fouth is run unex-
plored: but it winds round to the weft,
towards that part of the. continent. which
lies at the u back of Ethiopia, Libya, and
:I[ Africa, and Y communicates with the
weat [or Atlantic] ocean •
prefent tranflation, became there are not
fufficient data for an alteration: but the
uncertainty on this point cannot be re-
moved, unlefs recourfe could be had to
an original manufcript, of which there is
little expeetation.
i: Africa, as here diftinguifbed from Libya, is
the coaft of Numidia and Mauritania.
., This communicatioil is affumed by Skylu. fro.
the weftern fide- of the continent, as it is here by
the allthor of the from the eaftern fide.
The fame opinion is adopted by Ariftotle, Strabo,
Polybius, and Juba, as well as many others: but
the aKertion of the .anal circllDll1Rviption is ill
ene fenfe confined to HeJ6dotul aloDe •.
Digitized by Google

ne Second Part of the Periplus, containing the Navigation of the
Ancients round the Coafls of Arabia, and acrofi the Indian Ocean,
to the IYt;/lern Coafl of India.
IN the edition of the Peripl1l.s by H ud-
fon, the intelIea is of greater ufe than
the eye to difcriminate between the ter-
mination of the African, and the com-
mencement of the Oriental voyage j for
it i. by the in.tervention of a fingle point,
that we are carried back again from
Rhapta to and Muos HorDlus,
in order to proceed on the navigation to-
wards the eaft.
This is not a matter of importance in-
deed, but it is noticed to {hew the necef-
6ty of diftinguifhing the two Voyages
with precifion; and marking the depar-
ture from the fame two ports again, in
an oppofite direaion, and with a very
different deftination.
The Voyage itfelf is the moR: intereR:-
ing narrative which the .ancients have
left us on this fubje8:, except the expedi-
tion of Nearchus j and contains many
particulars in detai1p which could hardly
have been colIe8:ed by any author, unlefs
he were a navigator who had a8:uaIJy
performed the voyage himfelf. In this
refpea it is one of the moR: valuabk: re-
mains of antiquity j and the internal evi-
dence it contains is a complete proof of
its veracity and authenticity.
M uos Hormus lies on the a left of Be ..
renike, and from this port to Leuke Moi1aII.
K6me [on the oppofite cod Arabia]
the patrage is two or three days fail acrofs

• By there expreffion., on the left and the riB"', was on the right ofBereni", and the iOaDds Ala,
we are to undedland the author as taking hi. de- laioo on the right of Adooli.
puture from the port. Thus Ptolem8ia Th&riIn
Digitized by Google
A RAB I A. '
11 fignifies the .. Aite 'fIillsge; its
ite ill Moilah, determined by tbret: i1lancls, whicb
AgatbMcbides places at. the entrance of the Ela-
nitic plph.
is the place where the
merchants land to go up to Petra, the
refidence of king of the Na-
j and it is occupied by a [Roman]
garrifon. It is a mart likewife for the
fmall Arabian ve1feIs that trade on this
coaft j for which reafon there is a centu-
rion placed here with his company, both
for the proteCtion of the place, and in
order to fecure the colle&ion of the cur-
tams, which amount to a fourth part of
the value of the cargo.
From b the adjoining coaft
of Arabia ftretchea a great way [fouth]
down the Red fea, inhabited by variPUl
tribes or nations, all diftering in fome
meafure, and feveral having a diftinB:
guage. 'thofe next the fea live like the
Ikhthu6phagi [on the oppofite coaft] in
huts or tents j but the tribes more inland
are Kanraitea or Bedouin Arabs, who
(peak two different languages. If a vef-
fel happens to be thipwrecked here, the
is plundered, and thofe on board are re-
duced to {lavery: but the c Kanraitea, in
return, are feized and made fiavea of"
by all the native kings and chiefs [who
commerce on thefe feas.]
The whole navigation. along this·part
of Arabia is dangerous in. the higheft de-
gree, for there is no harbour, fcarcely aD.
anchorage that is fafe, foul ground every
where, the thore unapproachable from
.thoals and breakers, and in lhort every
thing that is to the mariner •.
It is for this reafon that on our pa1fage
down the gulph, WE hold our courfo
in the mid-channel, towards [the
e The Kanraites are tbe wildArabs of the de-
fert DOrth of Yambo, run thieves and plunderers or.
the "err woril defcription. IrrPita.
Digitized by Google
>. .. .... TtAJUJCtiUJ.
",,"If ""It ,.,..!7' 'U!}'fIIIf cU-
t\.. , ' .•• _1' 0.. I ,
If!II '0,-vUUflll' Jp'"",.,TM',
nwrxjif Sxe:.elllf. Kal,.,...,.
,.. • , IV
" "ONl" T" TIMvrlUtlrll.r" TfIII'
" J ,,,
ftJfIIIJfJfUM' TJlrIt Tit Til'Ml¥ltr, ",l/r0e'O'
• \ " .0.. I
NlI"fIM ';-"
'I' ." , I - ''D. I
,"ltf Tltf ·f1Iuru. 4'11'0
. ., ,,,
fiTct.p «.UTO, TO' ,tirO' TilAaorrflll'. fIIIf "f
fWeUtr To ,.., 'AeJ.-
re "'" -0..' ,
'tlWx.Nte",/II, II.JJee.nrflll' If!II 'tlWTl-
IfiI Tiif 4'11'0
X,IMrIllf· -13
TM'1I"PII.' ;(l'YtI4"'t;£ ur.O'f
ifcr.p-rw,.,.o;r. ''t'1l'ipltMrlllf 11 4'11'0
T{,M' '1I'o.1\lr Xcr.c:." '1I'lp) aUn,'
, ,.." /
'" If!II "II.TO",/II, tJUITJf', XONu-
Kal 1'-er i"ill. .
7 • AlPd.e f"'ITpMrOAlf. 'b;
t,!7,fI'pM i!7'M' ,to, TM T' '0.
"""elTlI If8II Tit Ary."""OfJ
".,. , " ,.L..' .'
.4f1tbtIMTlt, crv''X'fI'' 'G1e'fI'lDftIUr fI"'e01f
4>'Aor TM' tWr0N.fAT'eflll'. To 11
flw MJlell. 4.1\1,."., .. "".,. .. 11-5
" t"'·'·" ,
1V0e""0'I. fI.II. TII. Tilfe' II.tITfJ, 1I.""fU1Y1CfI. rAlY-
ciVilized part of] Arabia, never ftopping
till we come to the burnt d iOand.
Below this Wand, the inhabitants of
the coaft are civilized; have herds,
flocks, and pafture for camels. And on
the fouth, towards the extremity of the
Red fea, there is a bay, in which lies
Moofa, an eftablifhed port, clofe upon.
the fuore •
The extent of the whole navigation
from Berenikt [including the paifage to
Leuke K6me] is twelve thoufand ftadia
by a courfe nearly fouth.
The whole [of this part] of Arabia
abounds with mariners and pilots, and
with merchants who trade to all the ports
beyond the ftraits quite to BarugiLza. Baroache iD
Their exports confift of native commodi- GuzeraL
ties, [or fuch as are brought to them
&om Egypt.]
The province is called Maphartis j and
the capital, three days inland &om the
port, is Save, under the government of a.
·chief named Kholaibus j and nine days
ftill farther iDland is Aphar, the metro.
polia of the whole kingdom, UDder the
dominion of e Kharlbael, the paraulOUD't
fovereign of both the
and this is the prince whofe
friendlhip is courted by our emperors, and
to whom they. fend embaffies and pre-
fents •.
There is no harbour at Moofa, but an
open bay; yet the anchorage is fafe and
good upon a f.fandy bottom, where the
anchors have good holding.
5 %"c-- is Dot in GeleDilll'l edition.
• Gelenius.
7 •
•. Either gibel tar or gibe! zekir; both the
nmuUDI of volcanos. This is a ruD. of about eight
hundred miles, and PI"OVeII that the vetrels em-
ployed iD this trade mud have carried water and·
provillons, witb accommodations for the feameu,
which Nearchlll hid DOt.

e Kbola1bus is dyled ftra,roc. Kharibail r..s.'fMC
the legitimate king.
( Bruce fays the fame of Mocha; but Mocha.
is not Moof.. Tbere is a town Rill called MooCa,
110". twenty miles inland, between whicb and the
fea the fand is fuppofed to have accumula&ed bl
Niebuhr and othen.
Digitized by Google

The imports here are, purple cloth.,
both fine and ordinary, coating ready
made for the Arabian market, with fleevea
reaching to the wrift: the cloth of which
they are made is of various forts, plain,
or ordinary, or g mottled, or {hot with
gold. b Saffron, kuperus, or aromatic
ru{h, cottons, coverlids, fome plain and
fome peculiar to the market, but in no
great quantity, falhes of different lhades,
unguents, fpecie fufticient for purchafes,
wine, and a fmall proportion of wheat;
for the country itfelf in fome meafure
fupplies fufficient for its ·confumption.
Betides thefe, there are imported u
prefents for the king and for Kholaibus,
horfes and mules for the faddle, gold
plate and rllver burnifited, or chafed, brafa
wares, and cloth of high price for robes.
The exports are, native myrrh of the
fineft fort, gum from i Minea, and ala-
bafter, with all the articles that are im-
ported from t Adooli on the oppofite
The beft feafon for making the voyage
is in Thoth, that is September, or earlier.
At three hundred ftadia from Moora,
the two coafts of Arabia od Africa ap-
proach each to form' the ftraits [of
Bab-el-mandeb] clofe to the bay of Ava-
lites: the channel between is {hort but
narrow, not fixty ftadia, and is
divided by the ifJand of Diod6rus 1. The PeriIII.
• Gelmiu. Perbaps .... ri "
I i. the Latin term feut_lat .. , ap-
plied to the colour of a hone, dappled or -'tled;
oppofed here to .... cloth of one colour, and
.. ordinary: 'lNllIa,;" e mcdio f.mpt ...
• It i. not quite plain whether fall'ron it not one
or the dillinCtion. of the cloth, 81 yellorD.
I 'A,.lC "'..,.1., gum of Mine&. 'A,.l, it pof-
fibly the name of the gum.
It The exports from Adooli were both the pro-
duce of Egypt and the oriental commodities
brought to that port in the Greek or Indian fteets.
1 The whole ilrait fiom coaft to coafl it twenty-
four miles; Iix miles can only apply to the par.
between Perim and Arabia.
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'(111' rol ETiZ/ Nu 11 1I'eo 0»..
... , 'e xp' • K "'tra.e -inT KAT
m r." .. !Pr." 'l'lIe.";8'oc unplies, that It IS the
province ofthe '1" .roe. d n fKh 'bael ho
it i rrpJc -w • the "11'
R I 81
current here' viol t, d th ind by
be g c fine be een e moun alns
on the two 0 ofite thores, add gr tly
to e ft gt f th cur nt.
, Clofe within the ftraits on the Arabian
fid , lie : i a llae- cIo to ella.
the fea, [in a bay] and fub'ett to m Kho-
la 8, ch of e p vin • T re
is no mart here but it is merel a place
o ecu t an r , an pr re
water for the veffels upon their entering
tb JUl
For veft"els which are outward bound"
as oon the hav aff the ait he
courfe is eafterly, as the fea opens in that
di SUo an wi 8 d [to
Fartaque and Gardefan.] The firft port
i8 ab Fe , a lla on e' aft,
twel-ve· hundred ftadia from the ftraits,
a fu Cl n K rib is afe
harbour, and convenient for obtaining
w r, ich fw ter d ter an
that of The village lies at the
e nc f t ha ur, fa m bo
from the continent.
is lIe eli or ppy ca it
was formerly a flourithing city, when the
fl wh em ia th p-
ply of Egypt reforted to this port, and
w n th flee fro Eg t d not are
to Iwzard the voyage to India: the re-
r ive arg w th in ch ;cd
at this place j m the fame manner as the
p uc f r ypt nd e de mJ-
ported from foreign countries, are ex-
c ge t A DD ia. ut . hin ere
few years the city has been taken and
d oy by e 0 ma m or.
I Kill i. not ia Gelcnllll.
Tiic -m, Here fJ_l-
put oot iftio' 0 to p .. ,' •
o iv-e r Ce er was a lU\lue to all
88 ARAB lA.
TO. 'A
;"d'{X.71%f n,-
" , .. .I.
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urrp }uf .. \i:I • IJI IfJ'I et.t1'.
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nf '/Of. 'd,y J' 'r ", a. "
A;'}'VIJ' It fA"JI OfAAlf.tJf TmJPOf "AI"1Of UI
If.' ,,'/ C ,
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, Ae 0fA-0;f.tJf. '5 "o'Jlof 4'1r '5
In. / , "
;, Jlo-oT , 7r (l'0T K 'Q"
the an e rors ; d thi . y wa ftroy
prob y, by udiu, ecau e fie ram
gypt now went tQ India, and it was the iatereft of
ltom fup a ri
P I could have wilhe to place KIUlI! at Kefclun,
which I have found written or Katlin in
orie geo ers, whic a pi f gre
trade: but the diftance does not anfwer; and D'An-
Yille after S f n, 6 d a pia a1led C' ve-K
Dim his c
q Sabbaths and EleazlfH fuggeft Scripture names
e m but' ebuh arms that raJ
US in bia e th ame rom the '1 on
m A ia F [w h is fa
as the modem Aden] the adjoimng coaft
ftretches out with vait: f eep f mo
tha wo ufan ftadi P K ;
traB: is occupied by Ikhthu6phagi
and ande g tri , an und
a cape at the termmation of it, fubJeB: to
a chief called EleAzus, who is tretror f
the enfu un
There are two fmall uninhabited Hlands,
fryl O'm n & Troo , at e ch
tance of an hundred and twenty ftadia
The metropolis In the Interior IS q Sab- Schibam'
batha: here is the refidence of the ki
and ther brou all fra cen
of the country to be frored. Camels,
bo and fts ted infla 1ki
are employe in t e conveyance,
re i ew' co erab orei
tra at K to rug and indi In
India, to r Omana, and to the ports of the
gul of 1& i e hbo ood
im rts fr Egy are
fm quanttty 0 wheat and WIne, the
fame as at Moofa; cloth for the natives,
bo S pia and mm wi la
atrortment of it fraudulently manufac-
tur B ea eth im ·b
whi their· eld : d if could
app in pre inftan, the marke ay
might be on the Sabbath, or Saturday.
mana y me he 0 a of Peri
which is Shlllr, or Omana on the coaft of Karma-
rua. The real Oman is the foutb-eaft a le of A
• 'A ... ,..ii,. 'ATMf' applied t.o c0-
la . all one e, D riped mot
N' or OUS, y be ad cl , im
upon the natives inftead of a genuine manufaCture.
the nch y th clot T .
pafs them off for Londres.
tin, coral, ftoru, and other commodities
of the fame fort as. are carried to Moofa.
For the king, the merchants carry plate
wrought or chafed, fpecie, horfes, images,
and cloth of the 6ncft fort of one co-
exports are all forts of native pro-
duce, frankinceofe, aloes, and the fame
articles 88 are procured at the other ports
00 the coaft. The beft feafon for the
voyage is the fame 88 that for Moofa,
but rather earlier.-
Beyond Kane the bay called Sakha- .
lites commences; it is of vaft extent, and
of con6derable depth, and forms the coaft
of the frankincenfe country, a moun-
tainous and impraaicable' traB:, incom.
mooed with fogs and -a dark atmofphere
in all the parts where the trees grow that
produce the frankioceofe. Thefe trees
are neither large or lofty, but the fub.
ftance exudes from the bark, and becomes
confiftent, like the gum that weeps from
feveral of our trees in Egypt.
The inceofe ii colleaed by the king'.
Oaves, this fervice 88 a
punHhment; for the country is unhealthy
in the extreme, peft:ilential even to
who navigate on the coaft, and certain
death to the wretched fufferers employed
in the colleaion; who, if they efcape
death from the climate, are fure to ,perifh
by want and neglea.
The coaft which forms the border of
this country terminates at a promontory
called t Su8.groI, the Iargeft cape in the Cape F ....
S la Gelenius.
t StJivoa is fo called from a palm-tree, that
1Iean a fruit of the fame name. It forms the .en-
trance of a vaft inlet to the Red fea with the oppo-
fitoe cape Gardafbi, which lelfens as it approaches
the ftraitl of Bab-el-mandeb. It is not the largeft
ape in the world, but one of the moft important
ID the aayjptolo. Here the -1 SUbal1t. of the
J n... Gel_Ius.
Periplh tftminatel, and the of Pto1em1
commences. Ptdlem:y is probabl:y the more cor-
rea, as Sahar or Sachar, written Sc:hehr, is to the
eaft of Fartaque; bat the oriental geograpiJeJ'll
feem to countenance two bs:ys of name, as
then is BBOther Sahar Dot far hill K ..
Digitized by Google
• .:.... ".. ... a. ... "" , ....... Gcleniaa.
• This i. not correCt; Socotra lies neared to
" Whether liRB" is a proper interpretation of
or not, I caooot determiue; but it is
twice uled in this paft'age, and will bear that fenCe
jD both pi.... Hwifon and Stuckiul bave vfU7
world, and proje8:ing towards the eaft.
There is a garrifon here for the protec-
tion of the country, and a harbour, on
which are the ftorehoufes for the frank.-
incenfe colle8:ed here from the whole
coaft. 1""",
:J; lIt _ 'J tlr
Betwc:en this cape and [or )Jt/ = ; _;" It::
Gardafw] on the contment of 1._,'-:";/'/' -:r
Africa, lies the ifland of Diofc6rida; it is Socotra. /' ,' .. ; !.,
11 nearer the Arabian than the African
cc>aft, very large, but low and marihy,
and thinly inhabited, abounding with
crocodiles, fnakes, and enormous lizards,
and not derutute of rivers. The lizards
ferve for food, and their fat is melted to
anewer the purpofe of oil; but there is
neither wheat or grapes.
The few people that inhabit this ifland
live all on the north fide, looking towards
Arabia; they are a mixed race, confift-
iog of foreigners, Arabs, Indians, and
Greeks, who leave their country to trade
in the produaions of the place: thefe
confill chiefly of the fea and land tor-
toife, and a particular fpecies called the
white, which is here in great abundance,
and of the bell quality: be6des thefe
there is another fpecies found 'in the
mountains, with a (hell of remarkable
folidity j the part towards the belly i.
I tinged with yellow, and refills the tool;
it is employed therefore, without cutting,
to fom) boxes, cafes, tablets, ftands, and
other toys of the fame kind. The only
other produ8:ion worth noticing is the
gum called '1 dragon's blood, which ex-
wifely fuppre8'ed it.
, in the original; which, Chambera
fll)'ll, ill a miCnomer for dragon's blood: this drug
is ftill obtained in Socotra. It i. remarkable that
we find nothing of Socotrine aIoee, .. much c:eJe.
brated bJ the ancieofa .. at preCeoe.
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?rPOf oo:TO"1IJ "CIf fTlT. iNuo'. )..;-.r"
udea from a particular tree, and hardens
to a con6ftencc.
The fame circumftancc takes place here
as has been already mentioned relative to
Azania; for lis the ports in that part of
Africa are fubjea to Cbaribael and Kho-
laibus, fo is this inand of Diofc6rida un-
der the power of the king of the z incenfe
The merchants of Moofa, who trade
to Barugba and Limurike occafionaIly Guzerat ud
frequent this ifiand; and, when they Cuara.
touch here, they purcbafe of
tortoife fhell in exchange for their rice,
wheat, and cottons or mufiins; they
wife find a gOod market for feinaIe fiavea,
as the refidents have few women in the
ifiand at prefent. The king of a Hadra-
maut has a garrifon here, but the cuf ..
toms are fet to farm.
From SuAgros [or Fartaque] the ad-
joining bay of b Omana takes a large
fweep of confiderable depth into the main,
fix hundred ftadia in extent; and towarda
the tennination of this the fhore is high,
rocky, and fteep toll, for five hundred
ftadia more, the country is inhabited by
a tribe who dwell in caverns.
At this boundary is the eftablifhed port
for the reception of the Sachalitic in-
cenfe, called Mofkh8.; it is a place regu- SehehrP
larly frequented by the veO"e1s from Kane;
while the fleets returning from Baru-
gaza and if they happeD to
lofe the feafOD, are obliged to lie here,
[during the adverfe· monfoon,] and ex-
change part of their cargo, fuch as wheat,
oil [of fefamuD1,] and cottons, for frank-
• Now Hadramaut. apprebeDd to be the Mofkha of the Peripllll, wbe-
a Socotra is at this day dependant on the lheik ther by miftake of the nune Mufkbat, tranfpofed
or Kefchio. to this place, I cannot fay; but be drop. u a-
b Thi' i, the bay Sachalttel or Ptolemy, and preffioo, as if be called this bar,.as weU
Sabar or Se_hr iI near the centre of it, which I as Ptolem),.

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tIU''''1U' T"" TIITOl' TO. TfI'JI'tw ",",-
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1DA7fV.,,'tI,f tIU.tlt.TfJIf· xo'tle- TIS ffl.
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011 tIU.tlt.TtI,f '1r tI,f TO '1r n.u'0.
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'1r,los AryOpi,.,.
• ''''' ..41 '\ J'
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"".to- 1\ "
fIH/W t;'tMllfAI, tlUJI,II,O(f',,,,.. .lJ&IITfJIf 11.
Te'tr)., ""* ;'eOir 'IX-
C The author bad tenninateci Ail Sakhalites at
$u!lgrol, and yet he feeml here to adopt it again.
This is in harmony with Ptolemy; aDd however
O'mana and Moikha may fu. the idea or Oman
ODd Muikhat, I fhall prove immediately, by the
iRand. which follow, that we are not yet within
(our hundred miles o( the modem Oman, and that
the diftance to Mulkhat is halras much more.
d Harek means weedy·; and luch is the fea on
tbis eoaft.
e 'l1.efe itland. are aCc:ertained by another called
8ampis, now Mazeira, which fucceed.; and by
meafuring back 1500 Cbuliu, or 150 miles, to Mot:-
kha, a reference to the map will immediately fhew
incel1fe, .which is fupplied by the kin,·.
agents or faaors.
Throughout the whoJe traa called
c Sakhalites, frankincenfe lies piled up in
heaps, without watch or guard to fecure
it, as if it was committed to fome divine
power for prot.e&ion. For without the
king's permiffion it is impoffible to con-
vey it on thipboard either openly or clan-
I deftinely: even if a fingle grain were em-
barked, it would be a marvellous chance
if the vefl"e! efcaped {eifure.
From Mofkha the coaft extends &!teen
hundred ftadia more to the diftria of
d A'fikho; and at the termination of this Hafelt
traa. lie the feven iflands of Zenobius in AI EdritIi.
fucce{flOn, [which correfpond to the mo-
dem Curia Muria.]
The country which fucceeds next to
thefe iflands is not under Arabian but
Perfian jurifdiaion, the natives of which
are uncivilized. A vefl"el after paRing
this coaft f ftands otT to fea from the
iflands of Zenobius during a courfe of
two thoufand ftadia, till the reaches the
ifland of g Saripis, that lies an hundred Mueira.
and twenty fiadia from the main. Sari.-
pis is two hundred fiadia in breadth, and
divided into three diftritu, each of which
has its village. The natives are held fa-
that Molkha is at Sbehr. I rufped that the aathor
has mifapplied a name; (or Ptolemy'. Sakhalitel
is evidendy derived from· Sakhal, equivalent to
Sahar or Schll!hr.
r 'A" which Hudfon renders u JupemU
locu, lbould be read If' il.I-wc, aDd rendered fIjf
JIIore, through the open je..
I Were it poffible to. doubt the atrumption of
Curia Moria for Zenobius, the iRand of Saripis
muft infallibly determine the queftion: for there is
no other illancl but Mazeira on the whole eoa4 o(
Arabia of this- exteDt, and the dillance corre-
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EX- fI' " "ff/'K 'Xtt.l'Jf' x"f fll(I,-
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" 5
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no"'eo) J. ",.,..r tt.V-
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Il .. ' , \1\ , ., velfl."'
p"l'1I'omr. nle' fI' TIf' -,..-Nt'
#IV I' ", '11"_
1''''' n",.".,1I ""''''. XtItf TO 1I.ry0fI'DO' AW'"
,.' '"
).0, 0eK. .XflIXIT"f"""" 11 71'ol\u TO t;ofl'tl.
t1r Kat .".hit;"f XoMfI"'-
cred, and are Ikhthubphagi j they fpeak
the language of Arabia, and wear an
apron ot' h cocoa leaves. The produce of
the ifland is tortoife fhell of fupenor qua-
lity in great abundance, which the boats
and fmall vefi'els from come here
regularly to purchafe.
From Sarapis the courfe is along the
adjoining continent [till you arrive at
i K6r6damon or Ras-el-had,] when it turns
to the north, [if your deftination is] to
the gulph of Pema; and beyond this
promontory, at the diA:ance of two thou-
rand ftadia, lie the iflands of Kalaioo or
Kalaias: there iflands ftretch along pa-
rallel to the coaft [10 diftinB: lines,] and
you may fail through them, or between
them and the fhore, [their modem name
is Swadi, or Swardi, a corruption of It So-
har-di.] The inhabitants are a treache-
rous race, and during day-light their
fight is affeB:ed by the rays of the fun.
Beyond thefe iflands of Kalaioo there
is another group called PApias, at the
termination of which lies the Fair moun-
tain, not far from the entrance of the
Peman gulph; and [in that gulph is]
the pearl fifhery.
At the ftraits which form the entrance
into this fea, you have on the left that
vaft mountain called Sabo, and oppofite Mofandon.
to it on the right a lofty round moun-
tain which takes the name of 1 Semi- Now Elbol1n
"7 .At;"', Stuclr.illl: bat La.-AU,tta- or ....,.....A ..... fcems WUltiDg. • Perbaps
.. KIt_'."'. The expre8ion it remarkable, and
pollibly the mofl ancient mention of the c:oc:oa
I K&r6damon i. obtainrd from Ptolemy; it aD-
fwen to cape Raa-el-had, and tbe PeriplBa marks
it withol1t a IllUDe by a. change in the direaion of
the COl1ne to tbe _tla. By taking a liberty with
the text, I bring the itland. of Kalaioo or Kalaiu
into their poIition two hundred lI!iles north of
Ru-el-bad: and there it at this day a port or bay
called KaJaiat to the "north of that cape •
It Sohar-cli, or dive, fignifies the itland. of Sobar ;
and Sohar it a port once al much freqaented, u
Mulkhat now it, for the Indian trade.
I E1boun figni6ea a fire-tower of the Parfeee or
Goebres, and the mountain bu its name from the
refemblance it bean to ODe of chore buildiDgL
Pollibly the title of 8emiramia bu fume allofion to
tbe fame anc:ieDt race.
Digitized by Google
pMOf lIlnos 0 I.,;",.",¥s T¥ t;:;u.f'Of AlS
-'v '1:: ' ".." ,
t;fI,(J'W 'r:.lIt.XOfT,lIf, 11' 011 fMY't;Of "'"
'll'Nllr{".aTOf lis TMf W""",Tltf TWllf ,;
U'er'xOr "'ap.,. i,
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TOIS ,%aTo.s aWIt fUelfl''' 'fIAr'0e'o, It;"
.,0/1-'11'0" 'A'II'MOyIt, 1IMp.I"I
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xc&Ta U.,..HU N.aTa 'll'vraP-O'
.,..:AI I
FrODl there ftraits, which are only fix
hundred ftadia in breadth, the gulph of
Perfia expands to a vaft length and width
into the interior of the continent; and at
the extremity of the gulph [on the north-
weft] there is an eftablifhed port bearing
the. name of Apalogus, [which corre-
fponds with the O'boleh of the oriental
writers, and is the port to Bafra;] it lies
on the Euphrates, oppofite to the coun-
try of m Pasious.
[BUT if your deftination is for India,
and you do not enter the gulph of Perua,]
you take your for fix days acrof.
the bay previous to the ftraits for O'mana,
on the coaft oppofite. to Arabia. It lies
in the province of n Perus, and the mer';
chants from Barugaza bring their cargoes Baroache.
both to Ap6logu8 and to this port, confift-
iog of brafs, fandal wood, fefamum, ivory,
and ebeny. O'mana is frequented like-
wife by the fleets which bring frank-
incenfe from And from O'mana
and Apalogus there is trade open with
Arabia and Barugaza for pearls in great
quantities, but inferior to thofe of India;
as well as for purple and manufaaured
cloth, for 0 wine and dates, gold and
flaves. The vetrels alfo fewed with coir
• 1\ ·A ... •• a", _..\ n.,; .. Gcleniul. Either * il WUlted for 1\ • .".a .... or k:-'f-a after.-..
n.,;,.. Read. 1\ ·A ... •• """,,, _n n.,; .. •• , Pafini or Spafini Cbaru is known to all the po.
papbcrs. 11 S..".,.,H Gclcnius. Read, · X",.;_ GelcniUl.
• Pasinus was an Arab chief, who potretred a
diftritl on the Delta, formed by the mouths of the
Euphrates and Tigris, near the Hafar canal. He is
noticed by moll of the ancient geographers, and .
refembles the Sheik Schauib of the prefent day: hi.
Cuccell'or in Trajan'. time is ftyled AthBmbilus.
• It lies, properly (peaking, in Karmania, and
cakes its name from Oman, which i. a diftria in
Arabia, in the angle formed by C. Ru-el-bad, of
which MWkhat is now the principal port. The iD-
habitants of Oman have in all ages been commer-
cial, and they bad IDanifeftly eftablilhed this O'mB-
nB in Kannania as a central mart between India
and Arabia.
o "j"f may fipify any of the difFerent
&uits of the palm-tree, RI coc:ou, dates; but, joined
here with ,T,O(, it is probably toddy, a wine draw.
from the (pecies calJecI paJmeira.
Digitized by Google
are built at O'mana for the Arabians,
which they call Madarate.
Eaft from O'mana the courfe is dire&ed
along the coaft of "nother kingdom, and
the bay of the Terabdi; the jurifdi8:ion
of the king extends to the middle of this
bay, tenninating at a river which will
,admit {hips; and here there is a mart of
no great importance called P Oraia.'
But there is a large city inland at feven
days diftance from the fea, which is the
refidence of the king. At Oraia there i.
abundance of wheat, rice, wine, and toddy.
But the interior produces nothing but
Beyond this trad, the continent wind.
from the eaft round the indenture of feve-
ral bays till it reaches the rea coaft of
Scindi, which is exceeding low, and lies,
towards the q north. Then follows the The IDdUl.
Sinthus, the largeft of all the rivers in
the Erythr!an fea, and rolling with the
greateft volume of water; fo that while
you are at a diftance, and before you 'ar-
rive near {hore, you meet with whito
water quite out at fea.
The prognoftic of approaching this ri-
ver, is the appearance of fnakes riling up
from the bottom, and floating on the
furface, and a fimilar occurrence of a
reptile called Grae is noticed on tho
coaft of Perns.
s q J. GelcnilDo
P For Oraia or Horaia I can diCcover nothing
equivalent; it may be fomewbere near TIZ, aDd
the inland city Phoora: but the author palfel this
coaft fo haftiJy, that I doubt whether he vilited it.
I _ the more confinned in this doubt by hi. men-
tion of wine, rice, aDd wheat on a coaft where Ne-
an:hus found I i ~ e belidel fiih, datell, and camel'.
8e1h. Oraia may u well be Guadel u TiJ.
'I This whole palfllge is obfc1Ue; it is true there
are feveral bays, and the laft of thefe is fheltered
on the eaft by cape Eirua or Monze; aDd &om
cape Monze to the Indus the coaft is low; but the
Indus dOel ROt lie north from that cape. I thiolr.
the author is c:onfafed, became be is icnorant, he
probably r.iJed by the moDfoon, aDd wu oever' oa
this coaft. '
, Digitized by Google
J 'IbA .... Gelenius.
rAnt., .. bos-tOOm.
• Al.9of aoDe from Kallian,
or Bombay.
t ,Eirinus is • bay of Kutch or Kartch, equal-
ly unesplored [a.9 • ."....Of) at the prefent day, Co
The Sinthus haa feven mouths, motUy lad ....
ihallow, and rather fena than areams.
They are all unnavigable, except one in
the centre, upon which lies the mart of
Barbarike near the lea, under cover of
a fmall Hland. But inland from Bar·
b&riU, is the capital of the province
called Minnagar, the refidence of the
king; and the government is in the por-
feftion of a body of Parthiana divided
into ,two parties, which, as either of
them prevails, drives its opponents out of
the country.
The vetrels, upon their arrival, anchor
at and their cargoes are car-
ried up by the river to Minnagar. The
imports are,
A large atrortment of plain cloth, and
fome of fraudulent manufaaure. Fine
cloth, chryfolites, coral, ftorax, frank.-
'incenfe, vetrels, of Sint gla&, fiiver plate,
wine, and fpecie.
The exports are, koftus, gum bdellium,
r lukion, fpikenard, • callaip aone, fap-
phires, fura or hides from the country
of the Sares, fine muOins, fewing filk and
indigo. The beft feafon for the voyage
is in July or Epiphi; which, though
liable to difficulties at the commence-
ment, is ftill moft convenient upon the
whole, and fhortens the to a
confiderable degree.
To the eaJl of the Sinthus [or Indus]
you meet with another bay, called t Eiri- Kateh.
nus, hitherto 11 unexplored, which has an
inclination to the north: there are in faa
two bays, or rather one divided into two,
caUed from Kaeha, a town at the bead oftht- bay.
• • A5.';",.,.of. ¥ ti.fficilil in HlldCon: but 9..-
pi", fignifies more than barely Ceeinc; it impliel
contemplation, examination. Stepbenl in voce GC-
CfIrtItc i""Jligo.
Digitized by Google
«»r'P" T""'Y';;". a larger and a fmaller, the fea in both is
.. ' " ,N ihallow with continual eddies and h over-
Xon-" 'C!II flWfXHS' 'C!II !,-"PAr tlfII'O TJfr falls, extending a great way from {hore j
ov:.... '.0' -/> ;"":"11 u.t/tI I'J. ... _ I'. h ffi I tl d be
,-,.... .. -,-- r-' P'W' 10 t at ve e s are frequen y agroun -
?ro""",r. fMrOll.fJNa T«' ".;"0'''' .,JOT'eAl fore they come within fight of land, or
• .\ " , T ' are caught in the indraft, and driven upon
, fitpoJ...1r'fA' ,n-". tlfII'o»"u!'-"". 0Uf'1I the breakers.
/, 5v"prllCM ';;"".11 ;".,- At the entrance of this gulph a pro-
1I.&,."".'r ,ur«. .,,,7oN,, montory rites; [on the right] called Ba': JigaL
" , • , • from the point of which the (bore
'!7 TO' 'OTO' t»r fir TJf' ". '1I.
'eIJ...&p.- takes firft a fouth-eaft direaion, and then
Je J ."., , lLr .. "L
.. .,AI, AUTO' TO' 1(,0;"".0' ;"."ofUH' -r- winds round to the weft, encircling
""'. .lIr r,a«. the bay, and including the feven iflands
, , , • ,. which lie Vefl"els which make
f"' TAr 01 fit'e'".·lTO'", w- this cape keep oft" from the entrance of .
,.. .. Or""", Nil Hr n ftNuyor «.rAle-- the gulph, to efcape the danger j but if
,.,.orr.r. oi tI ftr tt.Ur1, It&- they are once embayed beyond the cape,
,... J , there is no poffibility of retreat j for the
to: IrTIr np TII BIICe&ll.1I 1t.OW., wave is fo large and heavy, the fea fo
tinrO».w.r«.(. To T' ,..«.p ,,;"'" p.;y" troubled and boifterous, the eddies and
)J.,. tI whirlpools fo numerous, that it is certain
, 0.....' 'IV!L. ' • , 1\.. • defi:ruaion. The foundings likewife are
I(!JI .;rUII., .... JC!II flIPAr 'C!II lJ06}tlftr fallac.
., r-. , ,. , ,r., as lOOS as the other dangers are
fiJU')'XItJr. 0 " TIlT. 1"' .. ".0- imminent; for you have one inftant an
XO'1ror. ;, T'lT) tI .".Ofueor• abrupt caft in deep water, and the next
., ",a.' ". , you are upon a rocky bottom, fo broken
t»t;'. T.}". «.( TAr ",..xu- and {harp, as to chafe the cables carried
eAr Mrf'Xft/ «'".,OIl.O"II".oAr. :.r tI out to fi:eady the veifel, and finally make
., Tt; M;. x",u;o, J\: them part from the anchor.
, N N ., • J '. , • The approach to this bay however is
tiU/TOIP TOIr tlfII'O e,Ni,,..lIr 'eX0f",ol,. 01 dil'. hI b th f fi:"·'-
... ., • , ,Jcovera eye appearance 0 IJIlAes
'C!II again, very large and black. The fame
pi""""r. 'E,.;s TtUr f'!T. TaUr" TWO',. occurrence takes place 'a1fo along the
,... , ... }}. , ,coaft, and at Barugaza; but the fnakes
I(!JI TOIr --.;-,,,,,,"', 'C!II there are fmaller, paler, and of a colour
xewlCon-,r w- approaching to gold.
,,".,. MIT«' tI rV.9-Vr Next to the ibay of fucceeds Kutch.
• • lLr ........ ,., N the gulph of Barugaza, and on this gulph
.trIP f --r-I-"AI' TJfr is the commencement of the whole [pen- The Iph of
infula] of India. as well as the kingdom Camey•
s ""c'%1' Hudfoa. 11 GelcaillL But "'"c'a" &om is Ptolemy'1 name for Guurat.
la A',.c eddies in fhoal water. the other part, from Jigat to Diu head, is not here
j The bay of Kutch and the gulph of C'.ambay iD contemplation of the author. There _ (eveD
two ides of the province of Guerat: i8aoda north of Jiggat iD Dalrymple'. chart.
Digitized by Google
of M!mbarus, towards [the confines of]
The interior part of Scindi extends
[on its weftem limit] to I Sabeiria, but
the fea coaft [between the Indus and] is ftyled It is a fer- Kutch or
tile country, abounding in wheat, rice, Booge-boop.
oil of fefamum, and butter or ghee; it
has likewife a manufaaure of fine muf-
lins and ordinary cottons: the natives
are black, and men of great ftature, and
feed a great quantity of catde. The cottons
fabricated here are exported by the ,mer-
chants of Minnagar to Barugaza.
In this kingdom of Minnagar feveral
memorials of the expedition of Alexander
are ftill preferved; fuch as ancient tem-
ples, fofl"es of encampment, and mag-
nificent wells. But the pafl"age from this
country to Barugaza, upon leaving Bar-
bArike, on the [and avoiding Ba-
r8k.e, or the bay of Kutch,] is direa to
Afta Kampra, and the cape called Pi- Diu head.
pika, which lies 0ppc?fite to,
at the diftance of three thoufand ftadia
from BarbArike. From Papika the coaft
winds in again north, [to the gulph of
Cambay,] and upon the turn of the coaft
at the entrance of the gulph lies the ifiand
of Diu.
At the head of the gulph comes in the
Mais, a very large river [ftill called Mahi,
or Myhi j] and to reach Barug&.za your
m courfe is, three hundred ftadia in mid-
7 Hudfon, from Ptelemy.
rcaclin" as ·A ....... C- oceun iD Ptolemy.
• • A,. ..l TC-""C-' Geteniu.. See' A ..... "...,.. infra; the lIecter
11 .......... , is wanlin, in Geleniua.
le In the original it i. • Ae-"ICiic. which Hudfon
, and Stuckiua both fuppofe to be erroneous, as
tainly is: they both therefore read • AeI.ICiic, and
I have followed their correCaoo; but I believe
A41pllCiic to be the true reading, and that Mfun'-
rUI was king of for i. Ptolemy'1
name for Guzerat, and Lar it is called by Abult'eda.
The only objeCtion to A41pllCiic is the particle
See the note at the conclufion.
1 Sabeiria is a reading of Hudfoo's, from Pto-
lemy, in1lead of as it is in the firil edition.
Ptolemy's Sabeiria is on the N. W. of the Indus.
• If I underftand my author right, he means to
{ay, that you are to. run north up the gulph till
BaiOnes is barely vifibJe, and then ftl'ike eaft acrofa
the gulph to the mouth of the Laomaius. Three
Digitized by Google
channel up the gulph, till is
fcarcely vifible in the horizon j and then
eaft, firait acrofs to the mouth of the
o Lamnaius, the river upon which Ba- Nerbudda.
N alJar..buddai
rugiza ftands. The river of
The bay of Barugaza is narrow, and is Booda.
approachable with difficulty from the
main fea, either on the right or the left j
but the patrage on the left is fafeft. For
on the right, at the very entrance of the
gulph, there lies a ftripe of Ihoal, long
and narrow, which is called with
very rough and broken ground, direaly
off the village of P Kamm6ni. And upon
the left, oppofite td this, towards Papika,
[or Diu head,] in the neighbourhood of
q Afta Kampra, the anchorage is rendered
dangerous by the rapidity of the current
which comes round the cape, and the
foulnefs of the pund which chafes the
cables. But even after you have entered
the gulph, the mouth of the Lamnaius is
extremely hard to hit, upon account ·of
the lownefs of the country round, and
the want of landm .. ks in the vicinity.
And finally, when you have entered the
river, the navigation upwards is very in-
tricate, occafioned by the fltoals and
marfhy ground on the banks.
r It is on this account that the govem-
I _M Geleniullo
bundred ftadia, or thirty miles, are not a futlicient Dalrymple place a long ftripe of rand, correfpond-
diilance from the ifland itfelf to the riyer: but ing precifely with the T.,,:., or fillet of the Peri-
when thirty miles up the gulph, you may ftrike pI&, which the author calls There can
acrofs to the Lamnaius. . be little d9ubt, from its appearance on the chart,
o The Lamnaius is the Nfunadus of PtoIemy, that this is correCt; and that KlUIlDlOni is the re-
written N amada by the HindOOl, and now called prefentative of Swalley.
Nerbudda. Baroache, that is, BarugUa, lies q Written Aftakampra in.the original, but doub ...
about thirty miles from the mouth. lefs the fame as Afta and Trapera before men-
, KUIIIIIOai mui be a village on the coaft of boned.
GuRrat, and maniferuy not far diflant from the r For the difficulties of navigating the gulpb of
ate of the modem in the front of Swa11y, Cambay, confult SkiDner, in the Oriental Navi-
wbich is the road of Surat.. Both Skinner and ptor, p. i06. See Dalrymple'. Charta of Malabar.
Digitized by Google
100 NDlA.
, 1" iftr ¥J 'N" Alii VTO-
f - J .. \",
"'0' flINtefMfUI4"' TlJAO'fM', et. Ae-
"tII ect'JrJr)'et. K ",Cet. ek
tMra.mttr" ;fiexorrtll ""XP' Xupct.-
/tip' oJ;, tII fiJA ""-
:te' IOJ,Jlf1" a.".O
... u 1\ ' ,
or TtIS' 0 Tet. 4)"l
_ I , , t1Iv , ,
Ttnf "A"P(illfUl4"'" If.!1I ct.uTet.
cr.9- et.)' o'f. 0", ,.,..,
T'lr fiJNt"",r a:ceOmf. ;t;1f""",f JI ,J,0p-
;(orr JCd.T "ct.f eJUlf '" ,Jlf.
Oi J, "u.9-e"o, TWO' Htr" T¥ 1I'OTet.fUI
-cr.9- I 0' ", B iX'«
'#IV "
)'et.e fllll'O TJI 'S"0pATtIS' et.,fM 11'«1" 1I'OTet.I'-fJ'
", / I""
,.". fMf 'fill ,et." fill'. ct.f1'et.
\ ."
fU'" ho,,,,, 1I'OTet.fUlf fXH 1I'Mc-
J " I
Jlf. fItTr Te 1I'M r '" 'S"ct.f,
tru,et.7I'70",i,ct.f wD T'I' If.!1I
'" ., IV, "'" ,_
et." '0' , T " '. Ttnf
!'-'T«(u JCd.Tct.t;'f/fUI4"" treM",f ,Act.f1'-
JI,u 'U J' "']A '"et.' Bet.-
i.It;. eUpr,,J,,, TE M-'o,
p4t8- "tII'et. " 1I'0T!
I. f"e4. T4 1I'p'o ""'''erN 11'
, , "_,, IV
Jlf 1I'OT Jlf. 0 T'I erao T'I
T¥ 1I'EAti)'Jlf QA¥ tru'fIII[tJl,u'JI.
trq>oJ eo, 4>,a.tII JCd. 4>&
. , , , - ,,, ,
tr" plU/A4TtIS' f1I'l 11' Mt;Jlf 'S"ct.fJ,Jlf. .c1,o
, It' IV ,
I(!JI "AII: fUl"l T6I )..tnflll pOfT'
et.)'AI'}'af ".;, ifet.)'AI'}'a4 TO'f
" ,. /
efltTr fUI" trill TO e e'" r"
""",r 11',) 1I'M",,,,
men eeps therm in , w Jar
vea-els called Trappaga and Kotumba. to
lie t the ranc f th ulph or t
wat the roac f ve as off'
[or the coall of Kutch,] and
top the pt ••
Thefe "ea-els have ftout crews, and from
the ran f th gulp they w th
vefl"e up oug the Oal9, alting
them at certain regular patches of deep
wat ftyl baf ; whin t th
commencement of the flood, and anchor-
ing d ing h tide f ebb' thef afon
whi are nd .te u 0 B giz
Barugliza lies at the diltance of three
hun d Ita fro he f
The whole of India abounds
in 'rs, 'h a fubj to mo
irupe ous es. e cue 0 efe IS
from the eall, and they are highell at the
full n, th Tee owi day
after which they fall off again during the
inte • B at B e v' nee •
rull re arka ; f at m
ment, when the \vater drops, the bottom
is bar nd rts the re a.
dry, where a few minutes tiefore veft"els
we failin A', u the omi
in he e,t floo om ef
drives back the water in the rivers, and
the rear re ed f gI nu
ber of miles, with a ftronger current than
that which they have in the' tuJ-l
def to oce
This makes the approach or departure
of Ish lyd gero to ew
are inexperienced, or who arrive at this
po or t firft me. or n
rifing of the tide. the Itream rwnes 10
. without I remiffion whe 0 II gth of
• n • '"'_ clilD
" / c\' ,
,",T4 TU tI1J '-0 , ","Tf I ,
fUM,.,."" ;;,., iltt n;r
.. '" , I¥
I OT 4' TO 1i1u\4'10r I
r' 07 W f'G
. rJ...' '0'1 07r " " "p(f\ III
, , ,,/ ,'. ,
",1UI0fA',,,,r I{!II fA'fT O.N'1Oll .... IT f-
- I '}' 0.'
'X."" TOIf T'I' Jti.NMnr411,
4 ry
.". -'"'tI.f '1,-) "- 4
H4 fU) "4 s-, T'" '} £-
,.,. 'c 'n.'
pllM I(S"- P W- I ---", U.;r-?4 ,l,
'«it n;r 4 rIpo"MiJor, 'Ell Dir &,u-
KtI.f Tour,.,I • .".'
IIOf Ba. pI
TC 011, K
... ,
'l, .,so
'A f-
INDIA, 101
cables is a fufticient fecunty; fhips are
ca ht' in nt nd ur d th
their fides to the ftream, and in that fitua-
o riv 0 the oa! an 10 ,a the
fame time that the f all v {fe1s re
complete y overfet, Many take reruge
'n t Cl :ks uri th tid f b, en
the falling of the water has been fo in-
la! ne s to op ei pro ef na
moment' (but this exp*'dient is fnutlefs ;]
or, upon the return of the ood, the rife
of e ate is ra' d, at e ue
filled before float, Thefe inftances
occ 11 qu tl du g e ht
tide at the full of the moon' for it is
he th.. th fl<J.vJ is mo vio ent, and
the ife mo ra', nd' f, IOn hi
conJunCture, you are prepared to enter
up th firft f e fl od, nd he the
fea' appeared perfeaIy calm; - you lhall
heL in m me a fhi g fo d qm
the 0 th of th rive IL1.. t tr-,ul
of battle, and the water, anving forward
wi th ut oft npe uo ve th
bare fhoals in an inftant u,
th co nt wlu h h in-lld om
Bsrnga ... a there is a va 'ety f t 'bes fuc
as e .n.ratru, the Rhak.hoofi, tbe TaR-
th nd the ro ean : i th re ro s
gion lies the Alexandria of x Buc6phalus, Peoge-ab l
an far er th no h t w lik na
tion of the Baarians under a reg? I go
ver men , was om this traCt of
J :in ... .. I .. ",; _ .. I ... " I".. Gel ius Rea ".,--"'''" -ut, "(",.
ele s.
t -eo>-" Si,or .. >. or;·,r. F th. wo
aft words, which are mauiCeftl), corrupt, I propofe
S' (3l lin 1.
11 The author 18 fo minute and graplllcal In bis
erc . tio f . b t1 th Cl be' tie
doubt of Ills bavlng expenenced the dangers be
eta" ; e :ge . ed ha by . fea or JI)'
. from the imperfett ftate of naYigation,
b ftill nf ab in ell' I:iaI uti JU'8
dle account of modern geographers. To judge
fro his arg en ere e y n raJ con
elude that he had little acquaintance with the coaft
of adro , w re . na tive as an as
is here dlft'ure.
he is thi an nt m rn, alii
us in placing there tribes ;' but the mention of Bu-
ce alus d e ri m 8 th ge. aph
of the author as tending to the of the Indul
d no
- ,.
country that Alexander proceeded to the
'1 Ganges, leaving Limurike, and the whole
peninfula on the fouth. And [in confe-
quence of his expedition] ancient coins
with Greek infcriptions are run current
at Barugaza; fome of there bear the im-
preffion of Apo1l6ciotui and Z Menander,
who reigned [in thefe northern provinces]
after the time of Alexander.
On the eaft of Barugaza lies the city
of [frill called Ougein] which UjjaiD.
was formerly the a feat of government.
From this city all the neceff'aries of life
are brought down to 'B,arugaza in abun-
dance, and many articles for 0 U R trade;
fuch as onyx froncs, porcelane, the fined:
muOins, fome of inferior P quaJity, and
ordinary cottons in large quantities. The
fpikenard alfo from c Prok.Ws [m the
north] pafi"es through in its way
to Barugaza; and ,?f this there are feveral
fpecies, diftinguilhed by the names of
KataboOrine, and the Kaba-
litic. The fame article, with the addition
of koftus and gum bdellium, is intro-
duced alfo through d Scindi, the province
adjoining to Prok.Ws.
The imports are, wine; Italian has the
preference; and next to that, Syrian and
c Arabian; brafs, tin, lead, coral, topazes,
7 This is aD unfortunate aifertion, auul provcs of fpikenud out of Tartary by Kabool, and the
that our author was more converfant in trade and . provinces on the foun:es of the Indus, is conform-
navigation thaD hiftory.
« Menander is well known in hiftoryas a Greek
king of &aria: the name of Apol16dotus does not
occur, but he was probably a Greek, who had
eftabllihed himfelf in fome province 011 the weft of
the IDduI. See Bayer. Hift. :aaa.
• Ougein is ftill in one fenfe the capital of the
Mahrattas, for it is the Jaghire of Scindia.
It Rendered alfo muftin of the c0-
lour of mallows. •
C I have already mentioned the difficulty of af-
Dping a fite to ProkWs; but if Kabalites means
KabGol, (which I belieYe it does,) the conveyance
able to the track of the regular caravans at this
day. The information of our author, who acquaints
us that fpikenard came out of Tartary, is very re-
markable; for this plant is a native of Thibet aDd
Boodtan, and hu been brought down in all ...
by the fame route, till of late that it has found a
nearer conveyance by Beogal. What the other
fpecics are befides the Kabalitic, we have DO
mCBDI of difcovering.
d Scythia in the Peripllla always meaoa Scindi,
auul is probably a corruption of Scinthia.
e"'Perbaps toddy or palm-wine.
Digitized by Google
cloth plain and adulterated, fine fafiles,
half yard wide, ftOr8.x, rweet lotus, flint
glars, cinnabar, ftibium for tinging the
eyes, fpecie, gold and ftlver, on which
there is profit by exchanging it with the
coin of the country; perfumes of no
great price, and not many. Gold and
tilver plate of the moA: expen6ve fort for
the king, at the f time when the govern-
was at Oz8ne. The articles im-
ported fpecially for the king were mOOcal
inA:ruments, handfome girls for the ha-
ram, wine of the beA: fort, cloth of the
higheA: price, and the tineft perfumes.
[There ittlports and exports feem all
relative to the market at but
fpikenard, bdellium, koftus, onyx ftones,
cottons of all forts and muffins were ob-
tained likewife at Barugaza; and betide.
there, ivory, myrrh, box thorn, tilks, filk
thread, long pepper, and black pepper,
brought from other marts on the coaA:.
The feafon for the voyage to this part
of India is in July or Epiphi, [that is,
during the fouth-wetl monfoon.]
From g Barugiza the coaA: of the ad-
joining continent ftretches down from
the north to the fouth;· and the gene-
ral name of the country is Dakhinaba-
des, from h Dakhan, which in the native
language figni6es SOUTH. The inte-
rior, which lies eaftward from the coaA:,
5 r;"'" illbe common uCage.
I K.,.' I •• :,I/t n,{ feems to imply, not
the immediate time when the merchant' WBII at
Barugaza, but a former period, when the metfO.
polis was Ougein.
I The long detail of circumftances at Barupza
is the bigheft internal evidence that the PeriplBs
is not the worlt of a geographer, but of a merchant
who performed the voyage in perfOD; and the
refpondence of thefe circwnftances with the pre-
fent ftate of the country and the trade, muft be
highly interefting to thore who are acquainted.
with the geography of thefe regions, and the cam- .
merce of the prefent age. We bave only one other
port (Nelkunda) where the fame uccuracy will
occur, and there two correfpond with the India
trade at Surat and Tellicheri, as firft eftabli/bed
by the Engllib. Con6dering therefore that the
PeriplBs . is 1800 years old, the agreement is
la The Deccaun is the term now in ofe for the
wbole peniofulR, but fpecially for the Nizam'. d0-
Digitized by Google
1O;f. INDIA.
. , , \ \ ,.,
IptJI''f'';(IC X1MPtU TI fAlo}AtU IC!JI.I 1e'ff'Hr.
,., I '0-.' "
IC!JI.I Oe'f fWYtU..fI" IC!JI.I '1'''' fAltU-
T0''''', fAltllfJtl.Nff T' 3 iJ..i-
Hl.._ '. I •
,....... tU, IC!JI.I . (lpu,oPTtU VIrlefWY'rJ"f,
"e0Ur7tU, 3 7r).W;fI, '1.",.
--..,.0...._ \ .. , I \
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e:" .-." ,.. ,,,,,
Tit n,l')I"YtIr. T M' fII " «lIT!'
7j :4c&Z\?,fI,C.u" ,Mo Juur",.,...,..:7,1,
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.;ti0PTfI, NO' "XotI'. .", ...
• A7rO TttImtr JiXfl, fAlpOr ti",.
, , ,
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Kct.TJ.YlTtI{ tI if rim;, il.II4fM,
3 ti",JtfJUr fWYVrfJUf fir
, " ,.. .. -
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'0 J\: iAor

t1I ,;,. ,a.y1tl.J..O,. T07I"xa. t1I ill'-
I .. .''1' ,.t:.: . , 'A I •
7r0e'fI, ..,. TO ','If lUCf'I,fI,. "AV"f'""'
Io;;"."."ffl,. 'lrONr. i ... , '1';,
comprehends a number of regions, Come
defert, and others mountainous: in thefe
parts there are wild animals of all forts,
leopards, tigers, elephants, prodigious fer-
pents, hyenas, and baboons of different
fpecies. There is a variety alfo of pro-
vinces, extremely populous, quite to the
i Ganges. But in that tra8: which is
called the Dakhan, or South, Plithana and
TIigara are two inland marts of great
preeminence: PHtbana lies at the diftance
of twenty days fouth from Barugaza,
and t T&,gara, which is an immenfe city, Deogbur.
ten days eafl: from Plithana.
The produce of thefe two places is
brought down to Damp by land car-
riage, through a country where the roads
are obftruaed with extraordinary diffi-
culties': from Plithana great quantity of
the on'yx ftone; and .from Ti.gara ordi-
nary cottons, common mufiins; and fome
of the finefl: fort, befides a variety of other
articles reach that capital from the
countries on the coaft.
The extent of the navigation from Ba-
rugaza to [which la the mo-
dem Canara] amounts to feven I thou-
{and ftadia down the coaft. The marts
frequented by the natives lie in the fol-
lowing order; firfl:, Akabarous 1LIld Oop-
para, or Sooppara, [which are apparently
in the province of Guzerat,] and then
KalIiena, [which is Gallian in the vi-
cinitY of BombaY'lUld in the diftria Qf
the piri!te :coafl: of the ancients,
the Konkan or country of
ode J y' .,. ..
m ms. ...
11 See Stuetilll.
7 i. wanting.
• s""'c- Ptolcmai.
I Kixc' .lJ'ii n'rr1IIf. Correaed by StuckiUl
".I"" ri r.T1Iff.
It Tigara is Deogbur, 6nce called Elore, the
bead of the province of Dowlatabad, and within
is or {even milee of the modern Auruogabad.
Plithaoa is {aid by Captain Wilford to be Polta-
aah; but I have not found it iD ReDDell, De la Ro-
chette, or any other map tbat I have feen. ...p.t-
.'f and .""-'f relate to the roads through U.
Ghaat ••
I This ftatement it too large.
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'j), , ' .. , .. ,
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tT4f. "''' 'Ii''' " 11-" Tu,.,,,
trfIlI-Of. Jt 11-
.". • H , , N t
tull'Jfr. Ill. TOIf tlllf'0 nrr Af.-
fir fiJlI.%.r ''I';;r
lCalliena was formerly an eftabll{hed
mart under the fovereignty of Saraganus ;
but the prefent 'chief is Sandllnes, who
hu obfiruaed the commerce of the
Greeks [from Egypt] : fo that if any of
their veffels touch here by accident, he
puts a guard on board them, and felida
them to Barugaza.
Below Kalliena the ports in fucceffion
are m Semulla, Mandllgora, Palai-Patma,
Melizeigara, T6paron of the Byzantians,
and TurannMboas. Then follow the iOands
called Sefekreienai; then two more, de- Vingorla
rocks? Goa
nominated Aigidii and Kaineitle, clofe to aDd M_
the. peninfula [of Soonda] where there COD?
are PIRATES; and lafi of all the White
IOand 0. Aogediye'
Below the White IOand commences the .
kingdom of Keprobotas, ftyled Limu- Caoara.
rlke, the firfi mart of which is Naoora,
then Tundis, a large village clofe to' tho
{hore; and next t.o thefe Mooziris, a
flouri{hing place, frequented both by
the native vetrels frolP Ariake, and by
SI '1 __ .,.. Stuckiu.
• There is notbing which CBD enable UII to at:
&go aDy one or there 1lIUDet! to a modem repre-
fentative. I have ofFered a conjeCtore in the Com-
mentary, tbat Meli-Zeigara may be Zyghur, and
Palai-Patma (tbe old or &retJt city) DUDda Rajah-
poor; but it is mere cOnje&re. They muft be OD the
pirate coaft BDd not iD Guzerat, where D' Anville
places them, beeauCe they are below Kalltena,
which he acknowledges to be near Bombay. They
are.all mentioned by Ptolemy, who writell Bali-
patma (or city or the god Ball) ror Palai-Patma.
Mandflgora has the termination ghur, (a fort,) or
oar, (a city,) which is till a native ufage.
" I dare not anfwer for the lU'I'IUlgeIIleot of there
itland., .. we have fcarcely BDy charaaeriftics to
direa Ill: but it fuitl bed with the pupe
on the coaft, and the peninfula or Soonda does lie
between and that is, between the
termination or the Mahratta coad and Canara;
and I fiod no other peniofula, or Cherfonefe .. it
is called, on the whole coafl, ei_ abme or be-
D Angedive liee ofF Carwar, the cape which it
the limit between the provioce of the Soooda Ra-
jah and Can.,.; and .. the author maket! Naoora,
Beltt mentioned, the firft mart or and
is Canara, the ancient and modem boUD-
-d.., correfpond. or Konkan is UDder San-
dines; Naoora, Tundis, and Mooalris are iD tbe
dominion or Kepr6botaa, that is, or Ca-
. Digitized by Google
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E».J,,,,,,,,,. Kiir«t (JI CCIf" Cft'fl.I""
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filt'X«r«t ""'IMf .. ,...... _ ", fl.1r0
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f>ft"P"" T 'fI'1rOP'''''' " ..., """0)'IIff I£fl.T-
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"lUIfTl. K«f Cfp' T.uf (JI TWour.
;1£ fI'fI,u,O'I' ,.,.}.,
.; O<p., ,.,.;u,'I1r pD ICit
• " , 0.-._' "" "
1/UlT0I TIf' (J'. IC!II (Je"
&o'IToJiir TO'" Of'fU"TI'I
I M..a/r" Geleniul.
• I do not comprehend what the author meaDI
by the ellpreffioll l._ ri ...... ,..ii • .1
ne: but I have elicited a feufe, though I dare IIOt
fa, that it ia corre&.
• I haft given my reafODl at large iD the Com-
mentaI'J for placillg Naoora, Tundil, aDd MOOIiril
at Oooor, Barceloor, and Manploor. They are
founded 011 .the authority or Rennell, who
&us Nelkuoda at Neli-c:eram. and on the cone-
fponclenc:e or diftanc:ea, which are nearl, 6a,. miles
between there three places mpeaively; aDd 011
&be local cimuDftaDces at Neli-ceram.
the Greeks from Egypt. It lies upon a ri-
ver but at the diftance of twenty fiadia, and
five hundred from Tundis j the intermedi-
ate fpace is equal, whether you meafure by
land from river to river, or take the paf-
(age by feaP. [Naoora, Tundis, and q Moo· Onoor.
ziris,] are fuccced.ed by Nelkunda, which =
is in another province under the govern- .
ment of Pandion. This mart is again five
hundred ftadia from Mooziris, by mea·
furement between their two rivers, or by
the road on {bore, or by the courfe of
the veO"el along the coaft.
Nelkunda lies on a river at the r diftance
of an hundred and twenty ftadia from the
fea j but at the mouth of the river there is
a village called and here the veC·
fels, wh\ch come down from Nelkunda,
lie in an open road to receive their car-
goes: for the river is full of {boals,. or
a mud banks, and the channel between
them is not deep. Both Nelkunda and Perha MIM
BaraU are Cubje& to a king who refides dria, .: Ba-
. th. •
In e lntenor. Pandlon at
Upon approaching this river you again lfidwa.
find fnakes, but they are black, and are
{borter in the body [than thofe at the
Indus] j their eyes are as red as blood,
and they are t crefted •
• Stuckiu ..
r This acc:onla with the fite or NeIi-eeram..
• ", .. • ...1 'p
Corre&d. by Stucki .. U _
ft¥a,. • ..u l"II' .....
loc:a ctIftI!fo, ia a good correaion: ill a da-
bioUl term; but the author has ufeet it 0DCe before
in a pall"age where the contellt requires.JMllt-.
Hef,chilll renders iMf,- by,.. ,... bid
this fenfe ia not appnwed by tile editor.
t 6c ... ,,...,J.if. I do DOt bow the diN W.
between z,,, and ,.C ..... ·
Digitized by Google
, nft.,..N _AM. GeIcDi_
• Xfw--,.I\ Stackiaa.
• N.,1'oc r .... ".'. Ilead by Had-
loD; aDd Co ufed by the aathor below.
• It is worthy of efpecial DOtice, that the author
makes no JDeDboa of the Y0yapl Cuppofed to haYe
There is a great refort of fiUpping to
this port for pepper and betel; the mer-:-
chants bring out a large quantity of
fpecie, and their other imports are to-
pazes, a fmall afl"ortment of plain cloth,
ffibium, coral, flint gWs, brafs, tin, lead,
a fmaIl quantity of wine, as profitable as
at Barugaza, cinnabar, fine cloth, arfenic,
and wheat, not for faIe, but for the ufe
of the crew.
The principal article obtained here is
PBPPER, which is the ftaple of the coun-
try, as growing in the interior; it is brought
down to this port in preference to all
others, and is of that fpedes called. Cot-
tonarikon, [from Canara the province
where it grows.] Great quantities of
the beft pearl are likewife purcbafed here,
[brought from Ceylon,] ivory, filk in the
web, fpikenard from the a Ganges, betel
from the countries farther to the
tranfparent ftones of all forts,
rubies, and tortoife {hell from the golden
Cherfoncfe, or from the [Lackdive] iOanda
oft" the coaft of LimuriU.
The beft feafon for the voyage is to
leave Egypt in the month of July or Epi-
phi j and this voyage was originally per-
formed in fmall vefTels from Kant and
Aden in II Arabia, which followed the
coaft during their whole pafTage.
But HI'PPALUI was the firft navigator
who difcovered the dire& courfe acrofs
the ocean, by obferving the pofition of
s r.,.",..j Stadtiaa. Racber T • .,.,....-.
been performed under the Ptolemiet &om Egypt,
but feem. to c:oafiDe the trade whony to the Arabe
of Yemea aud Hadramaut.
Digitized by Google
108 INDI A.
,.. .. Il.' ''''- ,
TO 'J(1''''' T" filA nNi.-
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7r'M"Y" y,,",1T1JIf 7rear •• o"..-
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ifwp""",or l,tlnrAJn. oV
,- \ \ ., , ,
I(gI MI, T"'r ".., wuUf' ...... 0 K"",. TI"'r
';''''0 TM. 'Aft'ItI,.,ATt'ItI. oi ,uP
fir 7rAlovr,r, 7rM.,
oi 11 fir .i I.
';r :£"US-;"", oil 7rMO' TeHr
«.vrfxW1. K«f TO
rI,,, let""., ;"
I,d. "'r i'ft'ltl.9-n 7r"e ...... AlW, Tltr
fl'POllf'lpA'lJr 'A,,' f'v.a.C",_
TO DUppo, «.».." set.-
xcde" T'I • • • ""r 8 U"e.")J,,, M-
7rior "WO, TO. ''''w. 'Er; ,,0-
u.-O T n",I'"''
. .
7 •• p-a.p.u\ before.
, The ellprellion is what it ell-
prefsly meaas, I caunol fay. The verb 6gaifies to
"!JI llIe IIcck or Iteatl of an adverfUJ in ftrugling
or wreftliag. TC.XIIA'Co ..... ' orJ.c ,.p, might 6g-
niry, turning the beads of their fhipe difFerent ways,
backwards and furwards; that is, I_artg or cruif-
i"B ofi' Aromata or Kw: but I have no authority
better conjeCture for fuppoing that this is the
fenfe ortbe Buthor.
• The tellt here has a charm, which pofIibly con-
tained another name of the country: .,r'
\ _\ .. .....c 0 '!l -
--C" n .-,vfU'O' ocoe. &AA" -"C'I'" Xlllp.
'n ....... "e ti D-C1lA1a ""ro,u",. The chafm I have
the porta and the general appearance of
the fea. For at the feafQn when the
annual winds peculiar to 0 v a climate
fettle in the north, and blow for a con-
tinuance upon our cOaft from the Medi-
terranean; in the Indian ocean the wind
is continually from the And
this wind has in thofe feaa obtained the
name of Hippalua, from the pilot who
firA: took advantage of it to make his
paffage to the eaR:.
From the period of that difcovery to •
the prefent time, vetrels bound to India
take their departure either from on
the Arabian, or cape Atamata on the
African fide; and from thefe points they
R:retch out into the open fea at once,
leaving all the windings of the guJphs
and bays at a diR:ance, and make for their
feveral deR:inations on the coaR: of India;
thofe that are intended for
Y waiting fome time before they faU, but "
thofe that are deiHned for Barugaza or
Scindi, feldom more three days.
. Upon leaving Ela-bakare, or the Ruddy Ram d'lUi'
Mountain, the country which fucceeds
is under the • government of Pandion; it
is called Par&lla, [or THB coaR:, by way
of preeminence,] and lies almoR: dire8:ly
north and fouth ; [as this coaR: winds
t n.,..a;. GclCllius.
filled up with rie O ...... ,,,&ii,, but it is dubious.
Elabakare may be the ruddy mountain, but rather,
as I fuppofe, Ramdllli, which lies at the entrance
of the Neliceram river; and then Ollcia, leoe ought
to be mount D'llli: but I do not know that that
mountain is red. .Red cliffs are noticed in modem
geography both juft previous to D'Illi, and lower
down, near Anjengo; but the latter feem too low
fur our parpofe: fur I conceive Ballta to be the
capital of Malabar proper, like the modem Cali-
cut: but the author is fo brief, that I conclude be
never was lower down than Nelkunda.
Digitized by __ _
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Deer T" ,IT", W, TOV n"'e,,"'" '0;".
round again to the eaft] it reaches to
Kolkhi, in the vicinity of the pearl fifhery,
and Pandion is fovereign of the whole •
But the firft port after leaving the
Ruddy Mountain, is Balita, and next to
that is Komar, which has a fort and a Cape Co-
harbour. This place is frequented for morio.
the purpofe of ablution by thofe who
have dedicated themfelves to a religious
life, and taken a vow of celibacy. Wo-
men as well as men are admitted into
this a inftitution; and the legend refpeCt-
ing it reports, that a goddefs in fome
former period praCtifed the fame ablu-
tions once a month at this fpot.
From Komar the diftriCt extends to
Kolkhi, and the pearl fifhery; which is
conduCted by Oaves or criminals con-
demned to this fervice; and this whole
fouthem [point of the] continent is part
of Pandion's b dominion.
11 Gelenias.
• This fociety is faid by Paolino run to aiR., but
a& a place three leagues inland. The fuperftition,
however, is the fame, and Comar or Comorin takes
its IIIIIIIe from CaoJ8muri or Cumarl, the vilJin
.. The court of Pandion W8I at Miltun, called
M6dufa by Pliny, and Modoora by Ptolemy j and
by both placed far inland from the coad of Mala-
bar, agreeing with its -anal fite. In the age of the
Periplat, this fovereign mud bave e:ltended his
power over the whole of Malabar proper. Travao-
core. Mara..., and the pearl61hery; but in tile age
of Ptoiemy, Malabar. or the COUDtry of the AU,
W8I no longer part of his dominions. Pandton is
probably a Dame common to all the kings of Mr.-
dura, for the natives of province are called
Pandooa and Pandavaia in Sanlkreet. Kolkhi, I
bave no doubt, is Raman-Coil in the itland of
Rami-ceram, near MaDar, the feat of the pearl
61hery. Coil 6pi6es a temple, Raman-Coil the
temple of Ram, Rami-ceram the itland Ram. This
temple or pagoda ftill e:lifts j and Ram is a Hindoo
deity, the fabulous conqueror of Ceylon with ..
Digitized by Google
Digitized by Google

THE continual attention, which a re-
gular tranOation requires, bad led to the
difcovery of fome few inaccuracies that
occur in the commentary, which I have
given on this work: but as they were
not of importance, I have corre8:ed them
filently, without troubling the reader with
an apology.
But there is one error which I regret,
as it afl"eaa a material part of the work.
For I have attributed the fovereignty of
Arlake or Concan to Mlunbarus, and
I am now convinced that his dominion
was Guzerat. For this portion of the
error I can ihelter myfelf under the cor-
ruption of the text ;-but in order to
render the text confiRent, after having
adopted the reading of Hudfon, I made
the Parthian power at Minnagar on the
Indus extend over Guzerat, whereas in
reality it embraced only Scindi and Kutch;
and for this portion of the error I am ac-
The text in the firfi edition fiands thus;
. Md B. nP 1;,,' ..
xh..tro" xal , Tl' 'Apa'.xijs xc'pas TlS
1ifx1), xal TlS 'bB.xij,
JVf&. T.,m" Ti '"' pAVlytlf& Tl' &c.
For Hudfon and Stuckius
read And it is evident Arabia
can have here no relation to India. But
ftill if 'Ap,"xij, be fubfiituted, the author
does not mention the territory of MIun-
barus by name, but fays only, " luwe is
the commencement of the kingdtml of Ma"..
banu [lreO'] 'owaTds A.riaIt.e, or, towanU
• it aD ..ijeaive like •.
";,ff( the pnmoce of tar. .
[the confine' w.J .AriGU.
Let us next obferve that Barugba or
Baroache is the principal mart of Gu-
zerat; and that is equivalent to
Concan, the Pirate or Mabratta coaft.
If therefore the territory of Guzerat is
undefined at its northern limit, and mark-
ed only by its fouthem boundary, our
geography travels the contrary way, to
our courfe; and this can only be re-
conciled by noticing, that we fail 6rft,
foutherly to Diu head ; and -then come up
the gulph of Cambay north, to the boun-
dary between Guzerat and Concan. ThiI
interpretation is as circuitous as our
Under the preffure of this difficulty
I have a conjeCbue to otTer, which I fub-
mit to the judgement of the reader. That
is, inRead of I would fubfiituto
is the title affigned to Guzerat by Pto-
'lemy, and LAB it is called by Abu'lfeda.
If this conje8:ure fhould be deemed
admiffible, I would read the whole par-
fage thus;
Mw. BI nj, 1; .. ,
l;'" xlAftS, xal , TlS AAPIKIa xriPlIS Tl'
M.p.,-,. xal TlS oAII, 'bB,xis

Next to immediately fucceed.
the gulph of Barugba, and the com-
mencement of the • province of Lar,
[which is] the kingdom of Mambarua,
and the whole of b this part of India has
the fame commencement.
b ... _ it takeo fiom the following fenteac:e.
nu ,.., of IDdia it the peaiufula.
Digitized by Google
I do not with to lay greater firers on
a conjeB:ural emendation than it will
bear;' but if this fhou]d be thought ad-
miffible, it gives the c arrangement of the
provinees in exquifite order;
Minnagar and SU-}Under the Parthian
Scindi and government at '
Kutch, Minnagar.
or Guzerat,-under Miunbarus.
Arlake, Concan,. }under Sandanes,
Kemkem, the Pl- . fuccefi"or to Sara-
rate or Mahratta ganus.
Limurike or Canara,-under Keprobotas.
ParaIia or Malabar} under Pandion.
The limits affigned to thefe province.
by the Peripltls continue to this day the
refpeB:ive limits of difiinB: languages pe-
culiar to the feveral different countries;
an ufage in this infianee which pre-
vailed over the lapfe of ages, and the in-
trufions of conquefi; and which preferve.
an indelible feature, by which the pro-
vinces may be difiinguifhed after a courfe
of eighteen centuries.
In fhort, if Nelkunda has been identi-
fied with Neli-eeram, (as I am perfuaded
the documents in the commentary will
fufficiently prove,) the whole voyage, con-
tained in the original work, has been af-
certained from M uos Hormus in Egypt
to the coafi of Malabar.
C This IU'I'IIDFment ia conformable to the author's plan in both Y01ageB, giviD, the marts or pro-
Yincea, with their refpeftive governments. .
or prorIiJlc:ea. Gt1I1U'ftamt.
Muos Hormus and
Troglod,te1, Vagrant without chie&.
Mofkh6phagi and Akri-}Tribea under their re-
d6phllgi, ' Cpettive chiefs.
and Adooli, under ZOfkalea.
of Adel or Du- under chiefs.
Marts of Aunia or Ajan, Severall, UDder chim.
Rbapta and ita depeo-}Under Kharibael and
deDcia, Klaolaibus, Araba.
.11.,.,. tIP' pl"tnlirac: ...
Arabia Petrfla,
G""",,mc .. ' •
under Malikhu.
Arabia Deferta Heju, { o::.eena, called Kan-
SabeBDII and Homeritel, under KbaribaeL
} under Kholaibus.
Jle of Arabm,
Haclramaut, or Incetd"e}under Elebua.
Mazeira, under priefta.
South-eaft angle of Ara-}ouder the ki .. of PeII-
bia, or modern Oman, Iia.
Ap6l Obo
l h {under the king of pft"o
ogua, or e • fi ..
Oman_ in Karmania, under Arab c:hiefa.
Digitized by Google
ll1ET A tt. ."d'ixrrr.t.(
'" , "
1)'1«' " .".." 1-"'1 &;tAl pM
f"fTOryHtJ'I AryIJf'''lJr ' Arr«.AJI. 'E'I I'll
- ", - ,
"'"" PIJ",.. 'GI a.uf TlfS' ."..,0-
l';pJI fJ'V»:.rylJf"'IIJ'I 'GI"""O'l. tEelJ'lTr.t.(
, f/I# I' I L /
tt.cJ fTl'I r «-rr4 rIo, ryo-
fU'Ir.t.(. T;" J, Ifi1 TltrfM'I 'f''''''lJetfM'I T'
• , f'fM 'r rJJ T ';"""0 '" AI
'<if «.'lr1J 'GIA&IJ'lTEr X«.TtUyIJJlTr.t.(,
• / , "cl!':: ' ,
"'"I"." "'e«. «. T r:;"r f'f"«'
Ei"I'I i,.,.."..0p'«" K«.f'«.p«', If.SI1 IIIJA-",!, I{gf
-'.' ""
.tJiYII' f'«.. 'I TIJ'Ir' Ei"'
'If' AIJ;«' . f'ixpl 'GI«.e«.ArylJf'fJl«'
''I "E Jt. f'IJ 'Ml, IJlfM
f'r'Y'i"fM" .Ucp Eewrf'E'IfMJI, AryIJf""«'
,trY IS. ' JI . n" , ,;
, :rt..
TIJ' r«.i"Y'I" "IJM" l..,..fM'IT«' T«'
-.i-y n JI,;r 'r Tal
MMf .-. mafius
• This bay in our charts has no Dative Dame;
ut it called alk's age. exte &0
Ramanadaburam to Point Kalymere; the· coa11
10 it i araw and couo of T .
THE lirfi place that fucceeds after leav-
ing K lkhi" he a A Ius, ne -lam' .am.
ed a firia land of fam
name]. Here, and here only, the pearls
di e ry
Epiod&rus are [allowed to be] perforated Manu.
and repared for th ma k. d fro
the me Dd pr red e fi
b muflins fprinkled with pearls •
P eed" fro rgal the fi co
fpicuous of all the marts and anchorages
on co are nar od a Cave
Sopatma. To thefe the traders from LJ.- Soro-patma,
and the other provinces n rth f <j0roman-
Lim ke, ort : d in efe s Can
found the native vdT'els which make coafi-
ing age' Li riU e C nox
of e large fort called Sangara, and
others fiyled Colandiophonm, which are
vetT' of :at k, pted 0 t
voyages madt'l to the Ganges and the
Go Cone
fone lem
with pearls. Salmafiu8.
oox e 0 tI'el. e ou a 6n
tree, but which have a lingle piece of timber for
ir kee r bo , &0 hich plan' of
fide raif . thou bs. h ve ....
rull in ure OD this coaft, able to carry 150
To thefe marts are brought all the
ar'ticles prepared (in Egypt] for the mar-
ket of and almoft all the fpecie,
of which Egypt is continually drained by
its trade with Limurike, finally centres
. in this coaft, as well as all produce of CoI'OlDlllldeL
But atier paffing Limurike and the
provinces next in d fucceffion, the coafi:
winds round to the eaft; and, as the
vetrel takes this direCtion in her courfe,
the iOand now called Palaifimoondus, but
formtrly Taprobana, lies out in the open Ceylon.
fea to the weft. The northern part of
this iOand is civilized, e but the patrage to
it from the continent is feldom perform-
ed in lefs than twenty days. The whole
extent is fo large that it reaches almoft 'to
the oppofite f coaft of Azania [in Africa;] Ajaa. bar
and here, pearls, precious frones, fine muf- Zaague •
lins, and tortoife {hell are to be obtained.
But [returning now to the coaft of
Coromandel.; above KAmara, Podooka,
and Sopatma lies] Mafalia, a difrria which Mdulipatam.
extends far inland. In this country a
great quantity of the fineft muQins are
manufaaured: and from Maa8lia the
courfe iies eaftward acro(s a bay to Defa- Oriiia.
where the ivory is procured of that
called B6fare g.
Leaving the courfe is north-
erly h, paffing a variety of barbarous
tribes, one of which is ftyled i K.irrbade,
J ..u.. Gelcniul. 4 .al ... AI;"" .. .;,.al, ...... .. Geleniul; for which Salma6us rCIdI
.... -, lr .............. l ... , ... IW;: (Q • ...;,) but Voftius fl .. A .... tl--ii. much nearer tbe tut. • ..l ... ?
d Malabar proper, Travaacore. aad Tinivelli.
e The text is corrupt; but in the 6r1l edition it
is written Ite ,.1 ... AI ..... corretted by Vof-
6ulI. ..& .. AI, .. for tAe mojl port ita ""etat!!
Thill correaion is fupported by Strabo, .. ,.;,
. - "
",...,0/, 11_011'1.
f This error, relative to the magnitude of Ceylon,
Wall perpetuated till the time of Gama; but in no
author is the extent carried fo far all in the Peri-
I I would willingly fuppofe this to be the ham
of the rhinoceros, called SHe ,...HU,Mc: but the au-
thor has diftinguilhed that by the term
011 tAe coojl if Afrita..
b I am afraid our courfe has been hitherto eaJl-
erly all the Wliy from Argalus.
1 The KirrhBdz of Ptolemy are on the eaft or
the Ganges. and he is probably coma; all they
feem to correfpond with the Kadrange oC oriental
ceocraphy, which I take to be Arncaa.
Digitized by Google
«.ye;"'. IUr4 B«.p-'
I ., , , #IV R
')NG"III', IT'e''' K«f '1'111/' """',0-
. '1I'e
';r"", fA4J'e
"", A"1Of"'"
'I' M'"''''
•• 07elll'1l'..,.-'Y"" fl'«t. fJf
, ,., ,,' * ,» ',t-
fir ,.", 'l'eI, ", fI'r.,olr
;xG""'" ,u';flfJfMI' J. 'I'd. AOI'1I'd.· pi",
GS".,..,..AJYrIll/" G rrHyr"r
If.iI flI'e) aArr"
I. ;t;" flI'e)
aArrO" 0 rtl.-yr"r .mor ,.".-
'Yl'i'"or '1';, '"'-'I'd. .",. ti.'JI'ObtllT"
, • ,,. ,., !..... ... N'
'1" ,.". c&unI' .UN' r" H-
;,u'1l'oplo, ;t;),' op.,;l'fJfIA'
0 r4'Y'Y'fr, I,' q>'elT«t '1'0
'''.0.. ,. ,., ..!.11
T' I{#I " rA"yJI'I',q
'\ " f,; • .1\_"" ,;
If!II flI""""" '!7 "''''flo"r «f
.; r"",rl'l'lxal Ary0f"'«t. Af.yIT«t'" 5
, ", ., ,;
flI'P, 'l'lIr 'l'tnrllr '''«t, fIO,..,-
trfMl' Ta 0 A"1Of"'or AfM\T,r.
, ., , ,fill.,
t/HrO, fll '1'0' "ftrOr .t;.,
" .. , N ,., '"
'1''''' '1I'por p.I-
e;' .6XOUp.{"fr , $ wl
1- u.A1I,u'''' tXII-
, NI "'" a.LQ.' ,
flIa.VTIII' T "Ta. ,."" Er"" ea.' 'l'tnr""
I' c,
"1''i'"fI'' 01 'l'tJUJTtf' ,.". XIII".,'- 11'11'
., ... .h., , Il.'; .. C1.. 15' ...
4iWTOJ "tIJI- '1'0" 'r.IIIIo7111 IfS ",,"111'
T'.a. 'l'WO' 4.'1I'oArroyw"r
;. Ti10A,r p.errry"or ,u'-
a favage race with nofes flattened to the
face. Another tribe are the Bargufi,
and there are others diftinguifhed by the
projection of the face,· like that of the
horfe, and others by the length of the
head from the forehead to the k chin j
both which tribes are faid to be canni-
After paffing thefe, the courfe turns
again to the eaft, and, proceeding with
the coaft on the left, and the fea on the
right, you arrive at the Ganges, and the
extremity of the continent towards the
eaft, called KhrufC, [or the Golden €her- The peninrula
fonefe.] . ofAva,&c.
The Ganges is the largeft river of In-
dia j it has an annual jncreafe and de-
creafe, like the Nile j and there is a mart·
on it of the fame name, through which
paffes a con6derable traffic, con6fting of
pearls, betel, the Gangetic fpikenard, and
Gangetic muffins, which are the tineA:
manu£aaure of the fort.
I n this province alfo is I faid to be a
gold mine, and a gold coin called m Kal-
Immediately upon leaving the Ganges
there is an ifland in the ocean. of great ce-
lebrity, called Khrufe, 01' the Golden me,
which lies dire&ly under the ri6ng fun,
and at the extremity of the world towards
the eaft. This ifland produces the tineft
tortoife fiJell that is found throughout
the whole of the Erythr&Ln fea. The Indiu
But Rill beyond this, immediately under ocean.
the north, at a certain point, where the
exterior fea lies a city called

s W ... ... 'x ..... ... d ....... ''''· xc-"' x.l.m., Ix." Gclenias. Xfwii i. a better reading. buc
.).8"",,,, i. preferable co .. r. f.-. Cl .t, ................. l",..'" Gclenilll.
It The wildell tribes of India are in the northtra
parts ofOrilfa; but wben an author turua them into
monften, we know that be ill at &he 8teDt of his
J The ellpn:llion ill AIoyrr •• : a proof. apparently.
that tbe author fpeaks from report only,
'" Kurdeen or Kardet!n is ftill applied to gold, Gt
a gold coin, in BeDpI.
Digitized by Google
.,t", )."1o,u", ai.c&. 'Afl TO T.
" "- , '!o..' ,
'e''', I{!JI TO "'fU', I{!JI TO OJor,.. TO "f-
, " I 1'. to' I
e"t.o •• Hf Tor (lid.
fiI,e; 4>'efTtI.f. KcrI '"'
fiI&N' I.a. T¥ rC&'YrK COTc&,a. Eir If
ai.c&,. l;" rVx'eZf tinr,).-
.sw,. ';WOC&,;6,f .wo' TIP'" W
Kiirtl.f Ii 0 TOr", n'
A''YITtI.f If
Toif d,WOf'iecr.,.",.,,',o.f ""'elf,", T¥
n'm .. , Kc&tNrU&s-,u", Af,."", M"..,m'f ';f TU
" --- ,,,
tTfIrc&,tU;0f'ltM'c&. JUr,T 1T0f (11
tTfIroetc&' a"c&f
"1"\.. ... \ ;!J ,., , Ir'I1I1...
IJrof TI, ,." .. (J'QI,."fM' '5 v,....-
Jecr. 'lDlI.c&7IJ'11'eWtn'0I. ,if T').of. c&U-
T¥f Ii ).ry.09-tI.f Clli0f'Otilf
.",,,,,'eOlf. n4pc'Ytrorrtl.f m )Ilmuf.,
fWY«.M i,
Thina, not OD the coali, but inland; from
which both the raw material, and manu-
faetured 6Jk, are brought by land through
Baetria to Barugaza; or elfe down the
Ganges [to Bengal,] and thence by fea to
Limurike on the coali of Malabar. CaDIUL
n To Thina itfelf the means of approach
are very difficult; and from Thina fome
few [merclUmts] come, but very rarely:
for it lies [far remote] under the con-
lienation of the lefi'er bear, and is faid
to join the 0 confines of the Euxine fea,
the Cafpian, and the lake t4Mtis, which
iflhes at the fame mouth with the Caf-
pian into the northern ocean.
On the confines of Thina an annual
fair or mart is eftabli(bed; for the Sefatle, Tartan of
who are a wild uncivilized tribe, atfemble LaS'aP
there with their wives and children. They
are defcribed as a race of men fquat and
thick fet, with their face broad, and their
nofe P greatly depretred. The articles they
bring for trade are of great bulk, and
enveloped in mats or facks, which in
their outward appearance refemble the
early leaves of the q vine. Their place of
n W I! are to underi\and by this ftrange pal'age,
t. That thfo coad of China lies open to a great ocean
on the nft, (now the Pacific ocean.) 2. That the
capital of China lies in a high northern latitude,
liS Pekin does in 40', (but not under the bear-ftar.)
S. That the fea is not farther navigable to the
north. 4. That the lilk of Chin" patres one way,
through Tartnry to Baaria, and thence by the In-
dus down to Guzerat; and, by another route, down
the Ganges to Bengal, and from Bengal to the
coafts of COlOmandel and of MI\).,bar. See the
Commentary and Ditrertation. 5. TIant the domi-
nion of China extends far through Tartary to the
weft. And, G_ That the Cafpian and Pulus Meotis
communicate with the northern ocean, (which is
an ancient error.)
o TD;, .,...rr.,..,...t.olf ,.Jr./N 'I'¥ Donll, &c.
The country of China reaches to the limitl of thofe
regions which front (north) to another fea. lie ha
ufed .'r,"""; ... , once before in this fenfe, when
he places the Atlantic at the back of Libya, A-
frica, &c.
P Thill defcription can refer to no nation but a
tribe of Tartnr!I i the BCfadllB of Ptolemy have the
fame lIuributes, and are apparently the fame pe0-
ple. He places them N. E. of the Ganges. They
may be in any lite from Atram to Thibet or Boud-
bUI. We learn from Goez, that eight tribes of Tar-
tan came to lnule OD the confines of China, under
pretence of embldties.
q The betel is a fpecies of the pepper-plant; the
fmit grows on a 'Dine, the leaves of which are wrap-
ped round tbe areka-nut, with other ingredientl.
aOlI is then called betel-nut, or betre, &om pet,.",.
Thi. mode of manufaeture wiu perhaps explain
why the matl are raid to be of the colour of rin ..
by Google
,., .. , "1 -
ElT 'N'1I"I"',IIr., , ... , TlrCS T'O'lrO, nrr tI1J,-
,/ #IV t , fill 0.' K '
'e"" fWTfItJ'. 5 TM' tnro nrr o.rc&r. «f
a. T"fI,f fnrOt;prNcsr-
. IV' ,/ '"
T'r '4UrOK TfI,f T"fI'orfl,f. J(jCf tllJrtlU('lttr"
, 't '" , ,.. , 0'
fir TCS Uj,CS "I' Tltr 'tr61T'eltr T .... ltr. ,
lr T«OrCS I.xm-.r Tar. 'G14pcs'Y'''rT«f
,,/ , " '''1 It
TitS' T .... !1 tI1J».iylttrl T.CS, ''''''M' rnro-
" "2: I., , ,
J(jCf 'c,,,,eurcsr,.r xa.A4/A-1JS' TlJr
... irellr "' )....".7'0, i....I .... N»-
trcIrTlS' Ta. 'Pti».t& 5 ... .,m-IS'.
,,"I ""'"..." , 41
tJ'''elltr. TtUr CS'1t'O TM' "tUr.
r"IT«f ,..", Te'CS. T¥
tpr$JAIJ. TO AleOtrf>tUe" )..,-
'Y0/A-i,or. "Ex T¥ inrJrrt;'ell. TO /A-'-
,\1\'" '"
tr .... .ylUf". b tJl Tit lA""eOT'ell, T., /A"-
VU .. T4 /A-fe'/ T¥
MCJ..9-ell ICi/ ,ir
n" inrl T X47'e'Y"",wM. ClairJ..
... ' to' "" \I le,.
J. 4 ft /UT'.'" Tllr T .... llr. ,,"" T' rnr'eao-
, , " 1 \I
)..fI,f J(jCf fDfJlYlIS' /A-"Y.t;lIr t'IfItr-
\' 'I' '0..' '\11
IDAoT6I' T' T01f6l'. liT", J(jCf .;Tilt!- T", (/fi'"
l1... "" , I I'
/A'" .;TEM', "'''PW"IT''' 't;".
W'IIU: the rolling up of there drawing
out of the fibres-tbe rolling' up into balls, &c, and
however inadequate the defcription may be, it
proves that the _la-butlarulfl of the ancients is the
6eIn, or petros,
atrembly is between their own borders
and thofe of Thina; and here, fpreading
out their mats, on . which they fit [and
exhibit their goods for fale,] they hold a
feaft [or r fair] for feveral days, and at the
conclufion ot'it return to their country in
the interior.
Upon their retreat, the Thinae, who
have continued on the watch, repair to
the fpot, and collea the mats which the
ftrangers left behind at their departure j
from thefe they pick out the haulm
which is called PETROS, and, drawing
out the fibres, fpread the leaves double,
and make them up into balls, paffing the
fibres through them. Of thefe balls there
are three forts, the large, the middle
fized, and the fmall; in this form they
take the name Qf MalA-bathrum, and
under this denomination the three forts
of that mafficatory are brought into
India, by thofe who prepare them [for
the market.]
All the regioDs beyond Thina [towards
the north] are unexplored, either on ac-
count of the feventy of the winter, the
continuance of. the frofts, or the difficulty
of the country j perhaps alfo the will of
the gods has fixed thefe limits to the
curiofity of man.
r It is ... C'lCm in the original, which So1lma-
6us reads Perhaps A'1Of"CIltJ'U is bet-
ter, and approaches nearer to "' .... '11.:710, which
is nonfenfe.

Digitized by Google
N.oticea received fince the publication of the Second Edition of the
Commerce of the Ancients in the Indian Ocean .
Vol. I. p. 174.
THE title of Nullah Sunkra is applied
to the eaftemmoft branch of the Indus i
but Colonel Reynolds, who has been em-
ployed many years upon a furvey of
India, has found, that the weftem branch,
ufually called the Laribundar river, is the
true Nullah Sunkra. The miftake was
derived from Frezier's aCcount of Nadir
Shah's treaty with the Mogul emperor,
in which the province of Tatta is ceded
to Nadir, and it was concluded that the
Pattalene or Delta of the Indus was the
more efpecial part of that province.
Vol. I. p. 185,
Rhambakia. There is a ca.ftle of Rluzm
mentioned in Nadir Shah's treaty; it is
the fame as Rham-baugh, the garden of
RJaam, found by Colonel Reynolds at the
head of Crotehy bay. This fite does not
accord with the marches of Alexander,
but doubtlefs Rham-baugh and Rham-
bakia are in fome fenfe or other allied. I
It may be well imagined that Colonel
Reynolds, whofe attention was more par-
- tieularly dire&d to the countries on the
Indus, will be enabled to throw great
light on the tranfaCtions of Alexander in
that quarter, and the courfe of the fleet
down the river. Very happy {hould I
have been to have received the informa-
tion and correCtions of fo able a geogra-
pher. But the voyage of Nearchus eould
be conduaed only ori fuch intelligence as
was previouOy in exiftence; and I bave

the fatisfac9:ion to know from Colonel
Reynolds, that my general outline is cor-
rea, notwithftanding fome errors in parti-
Vol. n. p. 531.
The Adulitie infcription is defcribed by
Cofmas, with whom it originates, as COll-
filling of two parts, one engraved upon
a chair or throne, and the other upon a
tablet; but both Parts are fuppofed by
Cofmas to relate to one of the Ptolemies.
The commentators alfo who have pub-
liOled this infcription from Cofmas, as
Leo Allatius, Berkelius, Spon, Me1chi-
zedec Thevenot, Chi{hull, and Mont-
" faucon, all agree in the fame opinion,
and conclude that Pto]emy Euergetea is
the fovereign defigned.
Berger, Valkenaer, and others, who ob-
jec9: to the authenticity of the infcription,
feem never to have fufpec9:ed that the tWQ
different parts relate to different perfons.
But time has prOduced a difcovery, of
which no one was aware. For Lord Va- .
lentia has vifited Abyffinia, and his Secre-
tary Mr. Salt has met with an infcription
at Axum, which proves that the tablet •
only relates to Euergetes, and that the
infeription on the chair is appropriate to
. Aeisanas, a king of Abyffinia in the fourth
That fuch a prince did reign in Abyf-
tinia, he proves by a letter direc9:ed. to a
fovereign of this name by the Emperor
Conftantius, by the coincidence of hi,
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reign with that of Conftantius, by the
duration of his reign for feven and twenty
years, and by the affumption of his de-
fcent from Mars; whereas the tablet de-
rives the pedigree of Ptolemy from Her-
cules on the father's fide, from Diondfus
and Jupiter on the mother's.
Mr. Salt from thefe premifes concludes
therefore, that the tablet only relates to
Ptolemy, and the chair to Aeifanas; and
that they contain diftinc9: infcriptiona to
different perfons.
As I had beftowed much time on this
infcription, I cannot help feeling fome
difappointment from the reflec9:ion that
my labour has been thrown away; but
integrity requires that, being convinced,
I {bould acknowledge my convicuon.
Mr. Salt indeed haa made ample amends
for my difappointment by the he
has allotted me in the unraveling of the
infcription {Vol. Ill. p. IS,...} But he im-
putes a doubt to me, as fufpeaing that
might be the unknown name of
a month. Such a doubt I had upon my
firft communication with him upon the
. fubjea; but upon a fecond view I faw it
was «xP" OU, and immediately imparted
the correc9:ion to Lord Valentia. As this
correc9:ion was adopted, and taX"'" OU, re-
ceived into the Greek text, and as it was
rendered accurately in the Englilh " till
'" the time that," I could have wilhed that
my firA: crude conjec9:ure had been fup-
prefTed. But I have no right to com-
plain; due juftice has been rendered to
the full extent of my wi1hes; and though
I am forced to abandon a favourite dif-
fertation, I feel that it was conftruc9:ed
on firm ground, when it required a joU:"-
ney into the heart of Abyffinia to con- .
vince me of my miftak.e.
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