Routing Architecture

Module 2 Routing Fundamentals
Basic Problems Principles, Classification Operation

Author: Rolf Augstein raugstein@rolfaugstein.com January 2006
Feel free to use this publication for private, non-commercial purposes.

Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Basic understanding of routing graphs Describe the process of routing through a given network Identify problems with Distance-Vector and Link-State protocols Understand the solution for different routing problems Outline different routing classifications Describe the process of route summarization Understand the relationship IP addressing scheme - routing functionality

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Key terms:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aggregate Route Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Classless Routing Convergence Count-to-Infinity Distance Vector (DV) Exterior Routing Protocol EGP) Flapping Route Floating Static Fixed Length Subnet Mask (FLSM) Interior Routing Protocol (IGP) Link State (LS) Metric Poison Reverse Preference Value Prefix Routing Route Summarization Routing Hierarchy Routing Loops Smart Router Split Horizon Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)

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Routing Principles
Routing in general is a method of finding the best way through a given network of roads or rail-tracks, for example. The term “best way” depends on individual parameters. It could mean the fastest, cheapest, or most comfortable one. Mathematical algorithms like “Dijkstra”, are used to find out the “best” way through a given network. The discipline dealing with this kind of problems is called the graph theory.

Graph
Graphs are used to show all possible ways from a source to a destination. Not all combinations of ways are possible in the typical graph below. Example: • • It is not possible to go directly from node C to node B You can go from node B to node F, but not same way back

Theory of graphs
D
3 3 13 11 8

H E
3

C

F
6 5 3 2

1 4

7

A

2

B

G - Where are the possible paths ?

From A to H: - What´s the cost for each path ? Find the best way - What´s the best path ?

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Further, there are different metric values through certain paths between two nodes. The metric value from node A to node C is 6. The opposite direction, node C to node A has a metric value of 5 only.

Different elements are used to draw relations between certain nodes.

Elements of Graphs
Examples:
3

Serial Links, Shared Medium, etc. - both directions, equal cost

5

- one direction

Special Links (Satellite)

10 3

ADSL

- both directions, unequal cost

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Important Terms A graph consists of vertices (nodes) and edges. Two vertices are adjacent, if they are connected by an edge.

Example: This is a graph with 6 vertices (nodes) and 7 edges.

A graph is called a complete graph, if each edge is connected to each of the others in the graph. Below are the first 5 complete graphs.

In data networking, this kind of graph is often called a “fully meshed network”. The number of edges in a complete graph is increasing dramatically with each new node. The formula to calculate the number of edges (possible ways) in a fully meshed network is: n * ( n-1) 2

One more important term is directed graph. A digraph (directed graph) is a graph where edges are directed. This means that there are only certain possible ways through the graph.

The arrows mark the direction from which the graph is determined. In this example, we have a complete graph but there is no direct path from C to B.

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© 2006 All rights reserved

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fully meshed networks are normally not subject of a network design. The design is more based on geographic issues or available bandwidth etc. From this point of view. In most cases the design is based on partially meshed networks.25. This means not all nodes are connected to each other. the graphs draw the network topology from the IP layer. But the routing becomes very complex. So. In IP data networks each node is represented by an IP Router or a Switch with Layer 3 capabilities. Hub-and-Spoke Fully meshed networks can be found in parts of Wide Area Networks like ATM. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 6 . it is not possible to connect each node with all other nodes. On the other hand a meshed network is more reliable because of the redundancy.Basic Routing Topologies Because of the size of modern data networks. The Hub-and-Spoke architecture is often used where smaller locations like SOHO or ROBO are connected to a centralized node. Figures Partially meshed Fully meshed Partially meshed. Frame Relay or X.

Depending on the routing procedures..Metric Criteria for finding the best way ? Path length Metric Cost factor Bandwidth ? Reliability . the metric has different meanings. the load. This is covered later in this module.. Sometimes the metric counts the number of hops between two nodes. or the communication cost. Different routing protocols use different metric calculations. This is true for all dynamic and static routing procedures. For this reason there is no compatibility between the metric values of dynamic routing protocols. the MTU. In most cases the metric represents nothing more than an abstract value.. Note The smaller the calculated metric. In other cases the metric is calculated out of the available bandwidths on the path. To overcome this problem. the delay. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 7 . The value metric is used in all routing procedures or protocols. the better the way is. it is possible to use route redistribution.

This is called asymmetric routing. Do not change metric values in a complex network structure just to “find out”. a new logical topology of the data network. With manipulation of the routing metrics. It is possible to alter the entire routing behaviour in a given network disregard of real physical structure and cabling. Note Therefore the administrator must clearly understand all aspects of the routing protocol and it’s behaviour. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 8 .Each routing protocol uses a default method to calculate the metric between the nodes. a router becomes an altered directed graph. You can the force the entire data flow through a network to take different paths for special settings. Example: Asymmetric Routing Packets to the destination use a different path than the packets back from the destination. For the network administrator it is possible to influence and manipulate the metric calculation and the way these information are passed between neighbours.

These definitions are a big administrative challenge. The return packet within a session must be routed back – therefore a back route has to be defined as well. Static Routing vs. which networks are available Mr. Nevertheless.com © 2005 All rights reserved 2-8 Static Routing With static routing all destination networks and useable paths must be defined in the router. Administrator Defined by Administrator Learned from Network Developed by Media-Learning. static routing still plays a role even in big networks. Dynamic Hmm.Routing Classification There are some different ways to make a routing classification. The router does not learn which data packets of a session were routed earlier. Which networks do I need to reach ? Tell me. dynamic Routing Static vs. Three are covered in the following. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 9 . All routers at the remote side must have a route back the originating network.

Split Horizon etc. So the routers can take advantage of redundant links and react automatically whenever a link between two nodes is lost. All possible paths through the data network are explored and learned. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 10 . There are various dynamic routing protocols with different level of complexity.Table: Static Routing Advantage No routing updates. “ugly” route effects* More administrative knowledge An administrator must have enough knowledge regarding the update behavior between the routing nodes. Examples are “Count-to-Infinity”. Table: Dynamic Routing Advantage All paths are propagated dynamically Adaptation when links change Disadvantage Routing Updates cause traffic Convergence.* * Problems and effects with Routing Protocols are covered later in detail. They are quite different and come with tricky problems and solutions. Even the back routes are learned through this dynamic mechanism. less traffic Compatible with each router-system No flapping routes Disadvantage No adaptation when links change Complexity in bigger networks Dynamic Routing Dynamic routing or adaptive routing uses protocol updates to propagate all known networks to all adjacent nodes.

Example: A route map defines to forward all data packets from the network 10.0/24 to the next hop gateway 10. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 11 .6. Routing protocols like RIP. are based on destination routing. OSPF Examples: Policy Routing Arriving IP Packet Destination IP Source IP Data Whenever a data packet arrives at the router.5. this is the default procedure for the IP router in most cases.12. For this to make work.45.Destination Routing vs.12. the destination IP address is checked against the routing table. When working with static routing or dynamic routing protocols.0/24 to the Ethernet interface 3. Source Destination Routing Source Routing Routing decision based on IP Network to go Routing decision based on the Source of the IP packet Examples: RIP. and all data packets from 10. It is also possible to use the source part of an IP data packet to make a routing decision. If the destination network address is not defined in the routing table. an administrator must define special route maps.10. Source Routing Routing: Destination vs.1. the packet will be dropped. OSPF etc.

all rules for routing data traffic are defined statically in route maps. Source routing is often used in conjunction with Quality of Service (QoS). it can be very difficult to avoid “loosing routes somewhere in the network”. It is possible to combine destination routing with source routing within a routing node. An administrative policy rules how routing decisions have to be made. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 12 . Routing becomes a matter of local policies. Note This is also called policy based routing. Routing decisions are not longer based on best paths with low metric. When the network becomes bigger. When using this kind of routing.The example shows no use of any destination IP addresses to make the routing decision.

Typical routing protocols are: RIP Version 1/ 2 OSPF IS – IS Cisco IGRP Cisco EIGRP Routing Information Protocol Open Shortest Path First Intermediate State – Intermediate State Interior Gateway Routing Protocol Enhanced EIGRP Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 13 . Interior Gateway Protocols These protocols are used within an administrative area called Autonomous System (AS). Exterior Routing Interior vs. Exterior Routing Protocols IGP AS 56 EGP AS 53 IGP In larger networks it is necessary to use special routing protocols to handle the huge amount of routing information. Within an AS an administrator can decide with routing policy to use.Interior Routing vs. Two or more Autonomous Systems can be linked together with the help of border routers.

selection. Two Internet RFCs discuss autonomous systems: RFC 1930 (Guidelines for creation. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 14 . Here routing policy refers to how the rest of the Internet makes routing decisions based on information from your AS. March 1996) and RFC 0975 (Autonomous confederations." Exterior Gateway Protocols With an Exterior Gateway Protocol capsulated routing information within one Autonomous System is send to a second AS. February 1986) According to RFC 1930 .Note Autonomous Systems are identified by a 16 Bit number. "Without exception. and registration of an Autonomous System. It is mostly used in some internet areas where carriers and internet providers are working together. This number is administrated from the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). barely used) Border Gateway Protocol BGP design and configuration can be very complex. The EGP connects Autonomous Systems by delivering dynamic procedures to propagate routing changes in a controlled manner. an AS must have only one routing policy. Typical routing protocols are: EGP BGP Exterior Gateway Protocol (Old.

Routing Operation Finding the Way Routing Tables 1a 1 a 2a Net 1 2 3 4 Gateway Direct Direct 2b 2b 2 2b Net 1 2 3 4 Gateway 2a Direct Direct 3c b 3b Net 1 2 3 4 Gateway 3b 3b Direct Direct 3 3c c 4c 4 The basic idea behind routing protocols is. to send local routing information to adjacent routing nodes. With routing update packets send in a given time interval. The routing table consists of information to reachable destination networks. all learned routes from adjacent routing nodes are sent again in the next update cycle. All connected interfaces with a configured IP address. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 15 . neighbor routers using the same routing protocol learn possible ways to IP networks. Local networks are marked as “direct connected” or “local”. In the next step. cause an entry in the local routing table.

router 2b 2a 2 2b b 3b 3 3c Next Hop: 4c c 4 Interface IP Address of the directly connected neighbor router All reachable IP destination networks are learned in the routing table. which is the adjacent router “b”. Next Hop 1a 1 a I can reach network 3 and 4 through my “Next Hop”. But router “a” can reach the network “4” through router “b” as well. but is not aware of all other routers in the network. Example: Router “a” has only one information source.If a routing node learns routes via OSPF routing. There is no information. So always use the directly connected interface of the next-hop gateway as IP address. To make these protocols to interact. Routers must have a valid route to the next-hop gateway. these routes are not updated by a different routing protocol like RIP. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 16 . This is sometimes referred to as “routers have a flat view of the network”. This information source is called the “next-hop gateway”. But the router has only a limited number of information sources. telling router “a” that there is a third router “c”. a router learns all reachable networks. So after some time. route redistribution is necessary.

By this address receiving routers learn the address of the next-hop gateway over which the propagated networks can be reached. The vector consists of the source address of the sending router. These update packets use broadcast addresses. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 17 . and contain information about all the reachable networks.Bellman Ford Algorithm The Bellman Ford algorithm is used to find the shortest way in a graph and is the basis of distance-vector routing protocols. The distance describes the metric. A typical DV protocol is the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). It is widely used and implemented in all UNIX and Windows Servers. Distance Vector Routing Protocol RT RT RT RT Interval n+2 Interval n+1 Interval n Broadcast Load Convergence Problem Metric Restrictions Distance Vector (DV) Routing The principle of DV routing is to send routing updates in a defined interval through all interfaces. In most cases this is simply the number of hops to a destination network. This number is restricted to a maximum of 15 hops.

Link-State Routing Protocol LSA Topology Database CPU Memory RT ...... The advantage of DV routing is the simple implementation and the easy way to use it in networks.... ..................... .. But they operate in a totally different way than the DV protocols..By depending on a fixed time interval to send the routing updates to all neighbors.... Link State Algorithm Link-State algorithms are the solution for modern routing protocols.... .......................... ..... ............ This effect is called “convergence”... routing information need a certain amount of time to travel through the network... The use of broadcast addresses causes in the WAN part of large network some problems..... SPF Algorithm Shortest Path First Tree Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 18 .....

The paths with the best metric values are used to forward IP data packets. LS routing uses the algorithm SPF. Compared to DV routing. The LSA´s are used to identify other nodes which are directly connected and keep track of changes in routing. Shortest Path First (SPF) A routing node uses the stored graph to calculate all paths to each other routing nodes. Each node independently calculates the best next hop from it for every possible destination in the network Each router builds a relationship with all other routers using a link-state protocol. The advantage of LS routing is quick reaction to any changes in the network topology. a LS router holds more information about the entire network and does not have a flat view only. are assigned. Different roles like designated router. Each node periodically makes up a short message. area router. The result is a spanned tree with best paths to all destination networks instead of a flat view compared to DV routing. All information concerning other routing nodes and reachable networks are stored in the topology database. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 19 .Link State (LS) Routing The basic concept of link-state routing is that every node receives a connectivity map of the network. in the form of a graph showing which nodes are connected to which other nodes. the link-state advertisement. border router etc. (LSA). To find the best way through all the reachable destination networks.

123. Entries in Routing Table .0.. the operation state changes and all corresponding routes are effected in the routing table...141. To control the functionality of the interfaces.0... C 194. BRI0 .0 is directly connected.... Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 20 .. How does a routing node realize changes in the network topology? Usually.... the Operating System generates control packets which are sent through the interface.Process Topology Changes Link Up-Down Keepalive Timer router% Line protocol down.. The line protocol goes down or the interface hardware fails.. Ethernet0 R network 123.....0 via Ethernet 0 All routes associated with interface Ethernet 0 are not valid any longer C 193.. or router% Line protocol up.0 via Ethernet 0 R network 34...147.. If the interface signals a problem... topology changes cause error states on the connected router interface...16 is directly connected...23.123.123.

0 Route is erased from Routing table To avoid flapping interfaces and flapping routes the entire state change process uses a delay mechanism.Routing Timer Update Time between Updates Invalid network unreachable .. Time after the entry is marked as “invalid” Flushing network 13..3. network possibly down . An invalid timer controls when a route is marked as possibly unreachable or down.. This timer is set 2 – 3 times higher than the update timer..2. where i. An additionally flushing timer determines when a routing entry marked as possibly down is erased out of the routing table. At least two missed updates are necessary to cause a change in routing. an interface changes the state between up and down very often in small time intervals. This can cause a lot of problems and effect the entire network routing.e. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 21 . Note The term “flapping” is often used to describe a failure condition....

Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 22 .Using multiple Paths Load Balancing Route A Route B Packets are “balanced” through multiple ways More Bandwidth Advantage: Higher Availability When the routing process has two or more paths with equal metric to a destination network. The data load is balanced. Some routing protocols can perform unequal cost load balancing with up to 5 different routes. it is possible to send the data packets along these routes.

The first session initiated is sent through the first known path.) Problem: Different Trip Times Route A 114 ms Route B 262 ms . Special care must be taken. When using “Per Packet Load Balancing” all packets regardless of the session ID are balanced over both paths.Load Balancing (cont. Different techniques are available to solve the negative effects. In this case the load on the different paths is balanced in a optimized manner. This can cause problems for data application when the packets arrive in a different order then actually sent. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 23 . Example A gateway has 2 two different paths to the headquarter network.Per Destination Load Balancing . But the risk of packet delays with a higher rate of retransmissions is more likely. the second session is sent through the second path. This called “Per Destination Load Balancing”. The third session must use the first path and so on.Per Packet Load Balancing One of the main problems when performing load balancing exists in the different trip times of particular routes.

the TTL counter is decreased by one. A packet with TTL set to 0 is discarded by the router. Whenever a routing node forwards an IP packet. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 24 .Control Packet Lifetime Time-to-Live IP-Version 4 Header TTL 23 TTL 23 TTL 22 TTL 22 Decreasing Time-To-Live Counter when passing through router In the header of the IP packet. the field TTL takes care of data packets not travelling in the network for ever.

There is no perfect routing protocol.1.200.200.1.200.0 194.0 194.1.200. The negative effect is increasing when networks become bigger and the changes occur much more often.1. Convergence Convergence Problem New Route to 194. New information like changes in routing take quite some time to get to all members of the routing process.0 194.Routing Problems Each routing protocol has advantages and also disadvantages. An administrator must deal with the pros and the cons trying to find the best solution for his needs.1.200.0 194.200.0 300 secs 240 secs 180 secs 120 secs Next Update in 60 secs Worse case scenario A major problem with DV routing is the convergence problem. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 25 .1.0 194.

1.200.0 194.0 No Route to 194.1.0 194.1. Routers update routing information to neighbours. even if they are the source of this information.200.200. So how can one overcome this kind of effects? Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 26 .0 Worse case scenario Slow convergence causes additional problems.1. This phenomenon is called count-to-infinity.200.Count to Infinity Count to Infinity Don´t worry ! I have a route to 194.200. because it leads to a ping-pong effect until the maximum value for the metric is reached.0 194.200.0 ? 194.1.1.

Poison reverse is a triggered update to speed up the convergence of the routing protocol.Triggered Updates Solution: Triggered Updates interface down Network unreachable Metric <max. Value> Neighbor receives Update with max. If an entire network is unreachable. Poison Reverse This technical term is used to indicate. that a packet with a higher metric or the maximum metric is set and sent along the reverse path trough the network to overcome problems like routing loops or count-to-infinity. the update packets contain the metric value set to the maximum. these changes are transmitted immediately to all adjacencies. Whenever a change in routing occurs. Metric Any other Changes are transmitted immediately Overcome Convergence Problem ! The flow of negative information must be accelerated. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 27 .

0 via E0 >entering hold-down for network 154. A router should realize which routes were propagated through the interfaces and should not accept some routes backward.34 .23.23. When a route is flushed out of the routing table.34.Interface Hold-down Update from neighbor Network 154. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 28 .23.34.23. Again these kinds of problems occur mainly on DV routing protocols on networks with high convergence.0 d own er im T Route Table Flush network 154.34. new update packets for a particular route from any neighbour are not accepted for some time.0 for a certain amount of time • Avoidance of Routing-Loops A router should not rely on information arriving on an interface that was sent out earlier over that interface.0 • Accept no further Information for Network 154.

Brainbox Mr. Easy 198.200.45.0 Default Route to … Def a 200.0 Company Intranet with different Administrators De fau lt R ou te ute to … to … ult R o 195. A routing loop can be caused by a lack of communication between different routing administrators. Theory Another problem coming up sometimes is a loop in the routing information table. Another source for routing loops is the way DV-protocols like RIP are working as seen in previous chapter. for example. It looks ridicules – but it is configured very quickly.Loops Routing Loops Mrs.5.210. The solution to avoid loops is the Split Horizon.22.25. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 29 . This is a very tricky problem.0 Mr.

0 ! Network 173. A cause for the route loop is that the router propagates routing information learned from a neighbour to that neighbour back.0. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 30 . This is to avoid routing loops. The logical interfaces deal with the different IP networks. Administrators must be aware of the split horizon effect in point-to-multipoint interfaces to avoid routing misconfiguration.25. The idea of the split-horizon is not to send the routing information over the interface that has received this routing information.25.Split Horizon Split-horizon is a common solution to avoid routing loops.0. So something that was designed to solve a problem now causes another problem. The routing process deals with the physical interface. Split Horizon Hub and Spoke Is not propagated by RIP Propagated by RIP Dynamic Routing with RIP Can not access network 173. So information learned from the way in on this physical interface is not sent out over the same physical interface. In a switched network. one physical interface is configured with several instances of logical interfaces.0 Problem: Point-to-Multipoint Interfaces The Split Horizon problem comes up in switched wide area networks.

This means RIP gets all routing information for the network and a second routing protocol like OSPF calculates the best path through the some network as well. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 31 . Question: So what routing paths are preferred by a data packet ? Each routing protocol including static routing methods do have an assigned priority value by default. This chapter covers how different routing protocols can configured to interact with each other. But there is no interaction between each other.Routing Interoperability Many administrators use more than one routing protocol in their network to manage various needs. The Routing Order The Routing Preference OSPF Static Priority ? OSPF Static RIP 2 1 3 RIP Choice: Which routing method should be used ? Different routing protocols can be configured and activated in parallel on a router. This value is called the preference.

For customization purposes the preferences can be manually configured. This priority value is called Administrative Distance.0.0 Route to 100.0 By OSPF Static RIP Metric 3 1 3 Preference 5 8 10 Route with best preference value If there are several routes to a destination network. Again.0. the metric value is used to define the best path.0. or Static. This means the routing procedure with the highest priority is checked first. the default preference must be changed. RIP. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 32 .0. the first value checked is the preference value. If an administrator wants to trust a RIP derivate route more than an OSPF route. Working with Preference 100.0.Note: Cisco uses the same mechanism for routing interaction.0. Different manufacturers have different specifications on the preferences/ administrative distance of the routing protocols. A lower preference value means more trust for the routing source.0.0 Route to 100.0 Entries in Routing-Table Network Route to 100.0. within a routing procedure like OSPF.

and a value of "255" denotes any route from an untrustworthy source. Table: Default Preference Values for Quidway Series Routing Protocol DIRECT OSPF STATIC RIP Internal BGP OSPF AS External External BGP UNKNOWN Preference 0 10 60 100 130 150 170 255 Except the direct route. a value of “0" denotes the direct route. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 33 .The following table shows the default preferences of the routers of Quidway series produced by Huawei. preferences of all dynamic routing protocols can be configured manually according to the users' requirement. In the table.

Backup Serial Link. a static route has higher priority than all other dynamic routing procedures. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 34 . so as long as a dynamic route is present in the routing table.0. Floating static routes are often used as part of routing concepts with ISDN backup links.0 Use preference values to make static routes “interactive” ISDN Link.Floating Static Floating Static Route 100.0.0. One can change the behaviour.0. ISDN backup is triggered by static route With the help of the preference one can make a static route more “dynamic”.0 Route to 100. the defined static route takes precedence.0 By RIP Static Metric 3 1 Preference 10 20 Via Serial Link ISDN If serial links goes down.0. By default.0. these routes are preferred. 128 KB Entries in Routing-Table Network Route to 100. When for some reason the dynamic route disappears.

Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 35 . basically each routing procedure can be transferred in each other. To make them working together and exchange routing information. when using redistribution. This entire technique is covered in detail in a later chapter. Route Redistribution can be used. Administrators should have deeper understanding of the single routing procedures before using redistribution between them.Route Redistribution Route Redistribution Routing with OSPF Routing with RIP Metric 117 Metric 139 ? not compatible Metric 2 Metric 5 As mentioned earlier. With Route Redistribution. each routing procedure uses proprietary metric calculations. There are a lot of considerations to make.

Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 36 . so the entire routing information context makes sense. Example: A set of definitions rule the way. Also. the choice of the position of the router in the network redistributing routes is relevant.Redistribution Policy Define rules for redistribution Convert OSPF Routes to RIP: Starting Metric 4 Convert RIP Routes to OSPF: Starting Metric 9 The basic principle with route redistribution consists in the choice for special routing nodes in the network. where redistribution should be established. a RIP route is converted and transferred in an OSPF route and vice versa. OSPF Metric 230 is converted to RIP Metric 4 RIP Metric 3 is converted to OSPF Metric 9 All metric conversions must be set with care.

To take advantage of different routing mechanisms it is very important to have a well administrated IP address scheme. Without a proper IP addressing. Domains. some routers may have a more detailed knowledge about the network.Routing Design A structured network design is the fundament for implementing a useful routing strategy. there is no way for scalable and stable networks. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 37 . This is common technique to control the amount of routing information. Routing Hierarchy Internet Building Areas. Because of the routing information they hold in their routing table. Smart Router: From the routing perspective. Small routers in the access zone do not need all information about the entire network. some routers will take special control and handling of routing updates. some routers are smarter than others. AS Core Edge/ Convergence Access In larger networks with structured network design.

A good IP address plan implemented in a well-designed network has the following characteristics: • Scalability Allows for large increases in the number of supported sites • Predictability Exhibits predictable behavior and performance • Flexibility Minimizes the impact of routers. changes. or removals Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 38 . additions.

0/16 Class C 201.112.12.37. The Prefix points out.0 129.0.37. So a prefix of 20 bits for an IP address like 144.0/24 10.34 means. a more convenient format is used.248.The Prefix Prefix Prefix Host “Classfull” Routes Class A 10.255. you deal with a class B network 144.0.12.0.0 255. Instead of using the subnet mask in the dotted decimal format.12.255.0.0 “Classless” Routes Class C 201.0 255.0 performing 4 bit subnetting.12.0 255.0.112.0 For routing purposes.12. an IP address without a given subnet mask is “worthless”. To make routing decisions the subnet mask must always be considered.0 255. how many bits within the 32 bits of the IP address are used as the network part.23.0/21 201.0/8 Class B 129.255.0.0.0 201.12.0.255.0.99.0. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 39 .23.

it is important to minimize the amount of routing information. So the process of summarize many sub-networks to one network is called Route Summarization. When dealing with large networks.Summarize Routes Route Summarization Prefix Host Subnetting . Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 40 . Less routing information means less routing update traffic and less RAM (memory) needed in the router. (see TCP/IP fundamentals).Gain more routable networks .Search common network bits for summarization Prefix Host Summarization The process of divide a network in smaller sub-networks is done by shifting the network bits to the right. This is done by shifting the network bits to the left.

29.26. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 41 . B. An aggregate route includes different sub-networks by using appropriate subnet masks.0.25.0) the summarized route 132.0 132.0/16 is used.0 (132.254.0 /16 Only 1 update necessary 132.IP Address Management Route Summarization Route Aggregation 132. C addresses By default.17.0 IP subnetworks are auto-summarized based on Class A. most routers perform auto summarization for class A.0 132.28. Note: Sometimes the term Route Aggregation is used.17.17.1 7.17.0.17.0 to 132.27. Instead of propagating up to 254 subnets of the network 132.17. B.0 132.17. This means an enormous improvement for the amount of routing traffic sent to the neighbour router.0 132. or C networks.0.1.17.17.

RIP updates are not aware of network prefix.0 What the Router does ! Network: 11111111 11111111 00000000 00001001 00010100 00000000 00000000 Bits to care Don´t care Routing nodes need the IP address and the corresponding subnet mask to make routing decisions. The prefix bits define the network relevant bits within an IP address.5 00001001 00010100 Logical 00100011 “AND” 00000000 00000101 255. it is a simple process to read out the network part of the IP address. Each interface needs this information as part of the configuration.20. so different subnet masks can be used within a single IP network.20.35. With the help of the subnet mask and the logical “AND” operation. This is the reason for sending the prefix in each routing update when using routing protocols like OSPF or RIP version 2. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 42 .20. The older RIP version 1 is not capable of using different subnet masks in one class A. B.5 00001001 00010100 00100011 00000101 16 Bits Prefix: Marks the relevant bits for all routing decisions 10. or C network.0.Relevant Bits IP Address: 10.35.35.255.5/ 16 10.

5/19 00001001 00010100 0010 0011 00000101 Subnet 10.20.35.35.20. not all routing protocols can be used.Sub-Subnet Host A IP Address: 10. End systems like hosts or servers do not have to deal with VLSM.20.20.35. Interesting: Only routing nodes with appropriate routing procedures must be “aware” of VLSM.5/ 16 10. They just have to be configured with a proper IP address and mask.5/16 00001001 00010100 00100011 00000101 Subnet 10. So.32 Host B IP Address: 10. Working with VLSM is simple math. it is not possible to determine the location of a given host in the network. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 43 .5/ 19 Without the subnet mask information.20. but can be complex in real live.20 10.35. VLSM is like using an additional subnet for a “main subnet”. A “sub subnet” describes how many subnets are used within a defined subnet.

16.13.13. to optimize the address space for a given class A.16. Worse case is a PPP link with the need of two valid IP addresses only.8/30 172.4/30 172.16.0. Using large subnets like 8 bits prefix actually wastes a lot of address space.0/16 Optimization with use of various prefix subnets Variable Length Subnet Mask is often used.56. or C network.VLSM Routing VLSM 172.16. There are lots of small networks with few hosts. there are 252 wasted IP addresses ! Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 44 . With a 8 bits subnet. B.0/24 172.11.16.0/24 172.

.1.16.0 62 Subnets Use one subnet to split into smaller VLSM subnets A proven way of using VLSM is.0 . so 62 new subnets are addressable. . 172.0 . Apply the new subnet mask i. Note: VLSM does not mean an increasing of IP addresses at all. lots of addresses are lost because of broadcasts and network addresses.16. As a matter of fact.0/30 172.2.16. .16.14. The benefit is the gain of new smaller routable networks. .16.0 172.Variable-Length Subnet Mask 172. to take a certain subnet out of the group of available subnets.0/24 172.14. .16. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 45 .14.16. 30 bits.252 172.16. Each new subnet can address two hosts. 172. which can be used to address PPP links. Aggregate Route 254 Subnets 172.14.e.8 .16. .4 172. .0. . .254.14.

255.0 255.0 255.255.255.255.255.255.255.240.0 255.224 255.255.224.255 1 Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 46 .255.248.0 255.0 255.0.0 255.254 Hosts / subnet 16777216 8388608 4194304 2097152 1048576 524288 262144 131072 65536 32768 16384 8192 4096 2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 Class A Typical usage Largest block allocation made by IANA B ISP / large business ISP / large business ISP / large business Small ISP / large business Small ISP / large business C Large LAN Large LAN Small LAN Small LAN Small LAN "Glue network" (point to point links) "Useless Network".254.255.248.252.0.0.252 255.255.Table: Prefix Calculation CIDR /8 /9 /10 /11 /12 /13 /14 /15 /16 /17 /18 /19 /20 /21 /22 /23 /24 /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30 /31 Netmask 255.255.0 255.255.248 255.192 255.0 255.0 255.255.192.0 255.240.255.255.0.255. proposed for point to point links (RFC 3021) Host route /32 255.0.0 255.240 255.128.128 255.0 255.192.254.0 255.252.0.255.255.128.255.255.255.224.0 255.0.255.0.0.0.255.255.255.0 255.0 255.0 255.

The class.173.16.175. CIDR uses VLSM to allocate IP addresses to subnets according to individual needs.171.16.168.0 200.168.16.169.0 200.16.16.0 200. the new system is called classless routing.16. with a portion of the address space being further divided into even smaller portions.16. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 47 . Because the normal class distinctions are ignored. Without any other way of specifying the length of a subnet mask.174. through the use of masks which cover more bits.170. could always be determined from the most significant bits of the IP address. where each class had a fixed network size.Classless Routing Contains block of: Defined Summary Route: 200. routing protocols necessarily used the class of the IP address specified in route advertisements to determine the size of the routing prefixes to be set up in the routing tables.0 200.0 200.0 200.16. the length of the subnet mask and the number of hosts on the network.16.0/21 200.0 CIDR: Classless Inter-Domain Routing The IP address space was divided into three main network classes. Thus the network/host division can occur at any bit boundary in the address. The process can be recursive.172.0 200.

org/rfc/rfc1519.ietf.txt) Architecture for IP Address Allocation with CIDR Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 48 . For example. and stopping the Internet from expanding further. preventing 'routing table explosion' from overwhelming routers. and so forth. Two contiguous /20s could then be aggregated to a /19.txt) Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR): an Address Assignment and Aggregation Strategy.Prefix aggregation Another benefit of CIDR is the possibility of routing prefix aggregation. sixteen contiguous /24 networks could now be aggregated together. The Border Gateway Protocol is discussed more detailed in a later module. When dealing with aggregate routes within the internet the term “Supernet” is used sometimes. and advertised to the outside world as a single /20 route (if the first 20 bits of their network addresses match). CIDR is described in: RFC 1519 (http://www.ietf. This allows a significant reduction in the number of routes that had to be advertised over the Internet.org/rfc/rfc1518. These kinds of routing mechanisms are part of BGP routing. RFC 1518 (http://www.

0 Another interesting effect comes up with the discontinuous use of a class A. From the routing perspective.0. To solve the above problem.10.0. or C network.0/24 ? Oh fine: I have two routes by RIP to 155. there are two paths to the network 155. which could lead to additional problems.0 – with fatal consequences ! It is not recommended to split IP networks and use them on different discontinuous locations.10. Auto-summarization 155.23.34.Discontinuous Use of Subnets Routing with RIP. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 49 .35. the above situation arises for a router between two networks using discontinuous IP address spaces.10. too many routes are propagated through the network cloud. But then.10.0/24 198. which is important to understand for routing administrators. Because routers perform auto-summarization on IP network address borders. auto-summary must be disabled on both routers.0/24 155. B.24.

the routing table has various entries for a network with different prefix lengths.16.32 / 27 Subnet 192.Prefix Matching Priority 192.3.33 / 32 Host 192.16.0 / 24 Net 192.3.16.0.16. this means the one with smallest host address range. Longest prefix match or best prefix match refers to an algorithm used to decide for the best routing entry.0 / 16 Block Network 0. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 50 . one destination address may match more than another routing table entry.0 / 0 Default Rule: “best prefix matches” When using subnetting and VLSM in a network. The most specific table entry.0. is called the longest prefix match.3.0. Because each entry of a routing table may specify a range of addresses.

Adaptive routing protocols are divided in Distance-Vector and Link-State protocols. Loops. Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 51 . Network design and appropriate IP addressing schemes are important for fast and stable routing. Convergence. Different routing protocols can interact with the help of routing redistribution.Module Review Summary Static routing is still as important as adaptive routing protocols. Routing decisions are based on preferences and metric calculations. The ability for route summarization and aggregation is the key for adaptive routing in larger networks. or other effects depending on the routing protocol. Network administrators must be aware of different routing problems like Split Horizon.

Outline the difference between metric and preference? 2. What is the meaning of an adjacent router? Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 52 . What are common problems of D-V routing protocols? 3. Build a small table and outline the advantages and disadvantages of L-S routing protocols. 4.Review Question 1.

What kind of topology is Hub-and-Spoke? 8. What is the meaning of asymmetric routing ? Rolf Augstein © 2006 All rights reserved Page 53 . 7. What is the preference for a direct connected network ? Why ? 10.5. 9. Describe the problems arising with a slow convergence. What is meant by a “Floating Static Route” ? 6. Describe the rule “best prefix matches” and the relevancy to routing protocols.

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