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MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
Department of Textile Technology Indian Institute of Technology sep, 2011
Dr. Apurba Das
Abhishek Jain (2010TTF3687) Mukesh Tiwari (2010TTF3684)
Humans have forever lived their lives according to the sun. No matter how vital the sun is for existence on earth, it also has risks of toxicity. Even though the fact that the sun is injurious to the skin has been well-known for many years, raising awareness for the sun protection methods are long and difficult process. The prevention of actinic harm has become increasingly significant in recent years. The change in sun exposure behavior over past few decades has increased occurrence of a variety of photo dermatoses, skin cancer and skin aging. Not only the occurrence of skin cancer is increasing, although the age at which first symptoms appear is declining, which even more is terrifying. Because of the long period between the sun exposure and development of skin cancer, a higher augment may be estimated in the future. Hence adequate sun protection is becoming even more crucial. Now a days, different systems of sun protection can be used: typically applied protection by sunscreen products formulated with inorganic and/or organic filters, medicines and foods containing free radical fighting substances, oral sun protection based on food supplements, vitamins or even filters like PABA, furthermore finally sun protective clothing1. There is a worldwide marketing opening for lightweight summer clothing which is comfortable to wear and also provides high protection from solar UVR radiation. Use of broad-spectrum sunscreens through high sun protection factor (SPF) values habitually resulted in people exposing their skin much longer to harmful effects of sun exposure, specific opposite of the intended effect. So sun protection by textiles has become growingly imperative because it can afford better protection than
where wavelength of UV spectrum lies between 290 nm to 400 nm.sunscreens. Textiles recommend protection against visible light. Clothing fabrics have been planned in treatment of photosensitive patients over and above for defense against xeroderma.7 nm to 3000 nm and effective spectrum of solar radiation reaching on surface of the earth range from 280 nm to 3000 nm. Sun light components Sunlight is prime energy source and important element for survival of human race. UV radiation constitutes to 5% of the total sunlight incident on earth surface (visible light 50% and IR radiation 45%) 1. UPF) in same way as SPF for sunscreens. spectrum for which sunscreens recommend less protection than for UV light. 2 3|Page . pigmentosum and premalignant graze. Sun energy has a continuous energy spectrum above wavelength range of about 0. Clothing is labeled with a protection factor in ultraviolet (UV) range (ultraviolet protection factor.
The UPF is calculated by following equation :- Where. It can be expressed as the ratio of time required for skin to show redness (erythema) with or without protection. Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 3. but some does reach the Earth Determination factor for sun light Generally three types of factors are used:1. Ultraviolet Protective Factor (UPF) 2. MED is the minimal quantity of radiant energy required to produce the first noticeable reddening of skin after 22 ± 2 hours of constant exposure. under constant exposure to solar radiation 3. Protection Factor for Visible Light (VPF) Ultraviolet Protective Factor (UPF) UV protective factor measures the efficiency of fabrics in protecting the human skin from UV radiations.280 nm): oxygen completely absorbed by the ozone layer and not absorbed by the ozone layer mostly absorbed.UV radiation may be classified based on wave length is as follow:• UV-A (315 . The various 4|Page .400 nm): • UV-B (280 -315 nm): surface • UV-C (100 .
fifteen times longer) without sunburn4. namely Vitro and vivo used for determination of UV protective factor. For example.e. 30.ratings of UPF are given in Table 1. if they usually get sunburn in an hour.5 protection category Good protection Very good protection Excellent protection UPF rating 15–24 25–39 40–50+ 15. 5|Page . as a multiple of amount required with no sunscreen. 35 40. then SPF 15 sunscreen allows them to keep on in the sun fifteen hours (i. There is a popular generalization of how SPF determines and how long one can keep on in the sun. 50+ Table 1 Sun Protection Factor (SPF) The SPF is amount of ultraviolet radiations required to cause sunburn on skin with sunscreen on.2 4.7–4. There are two basic methods. 50. 20 25. UPF range UV radiation Effective UV radiation transmission (%) 6.1–2. 45.6 ≤2. several users believe that.
In estimated order of importance. porosity. It is determined by following method :The light generated by xenon source is passed through a monochromator with a bandwidth of 1 nm along with imposes perpendicular to sample. physico-chemical nature of fibre. integrated metric. The UV protection provided by textile is a function of construction of fabric. There are several factors which play a important role in the amount of protection given by fabrics4. where T(λ). where VPF is defined as a function of wavelength. is transmission coefficient at a particular wavelength: UPF is composite. According to this transmission. Clothing attributes affecting sun light protection factor When ultraviolet radiation hits any textile materials. extension of the fabric. various types of interactions arise depending upon the substrate and its condition. The wavelength step is used of 1 nm. moisture content of fabrics and existence of ultraviolet absorbers. thickness. protection factor for visible light (VPF) is determined as follows. dyeing and finishing treatment applied on fabric. The sample is kept in front of the integrating sphere for getting direct and diffuse transmitted radiation.10.Protection Factor for Visible Light (VPF) VPF is a protection factor for the visible light. these factors are as follows:- 6|Page . chemical characteristics.
when the porosity is 1% (Table 2). Dry finishes have potential to change the porosity of the ideal fabric. Woven fabrics generally have higher cover factor than knitted fabrics. so more radiation is blocked. maximum UPF that may be expected is 4. In the case of a fabric having porosity of 25%. Fabric construction parameter (picks/inch & ends/inch or wales/inch & courses/inch) is primary determinant element of cover factor. 7|Page . Pores between yarns are normally larger in knitted fabric than woven fabric. The pores between yarns are smaller. An ideal fabric is in which the yarns are completely opaque to UV radiation and pores between the yarns are small. researches carried out regression analysis and observed that there exists positive coefficient of correlation among cover factor of fabric and its UPF value10. For poplin with 1% porosity. With light penetrating merely through pores. By increasing mass per unit area (with coarser count) whereas maintaining constant construction parameters and fibre composition will result in an increased cover factor and therefore. consequently increase in UPF. Many summer fabrics have open structures with low cover factor.Structure of Fabric Sun protective knitted or woven fabrics have more cover factor than traditional fabrics. UV transmission is associated to porosity of the ideal fabric as expressed in Equation The highest possible UPF is 100. due to frequent interlacement of yarns. highest UPF is 100. but yarns are not dense to ultraviolet radiation and so the UPF of a fabric is lesser than the ideal fabric. As cover factor is estimated to have optimistic influence on the protection to UV radiation.
fabrics with higher number of yarns in warp and weft give higher UPF. A higher degree of correlation exists between UPF and fabric porosity. 8|Page . The order of importance for UV protection is given by. although it is also influenced by the nature of fibres. Blend of Lycra with synthetic fibre shows the double advantage of protection against UV radiation because of the chemical nature of fibre and highly stretchable Lycra fiber offers higher cloth cover. Consequently. In double knit structures. Woven fabrics generally exhibit high cloth cover than knitted fabrics because of the manner in which yarns are interlaced10. cover factor > nature of fibre > fabric thickness. Double knit structures give appreciably higher UV protection than single knit structures. UPF shows enhanced association with fabric weight and thickness than porosity.Porosity and Maximum Theoretical UPF Table 2 The value of UPF increases with increase in fabric thickness and density for similar construction and it is dependent on fabric porosity. Knitted structure prepared from a blend of synthetic fibres with Lycra gives the best protection against sun radiation and warp-knitted structures are capable of broadcasting up to 80% of sun radiation & bright glares.
Bleached cotton shows high degree of permeability to UV radiation. The chemical nature of fibres influences the UPF. sanforising. The strong absorption of jute is due to the existence of lignin that acts as a natural absorber4. Raw natural fibres like hemp and linen have a UPF of 20 and 10-15 respectively and are not great UV protectors even with lignin content. Polyester fibres whose structure is based on 9|Page . Polyester fibres absorb strongly in the UV-B & UV-A regions than aliphatic polyamide fibres. 10. wool fabrics show higher absorption and lesser transmission of ultraviolet radiation. Silk fabrics are typically finer and have average ultraviolet transmission. Same fabric consisting of cotton in the grey state gives higher UPF. because of variation in UV transparency. wool and silk have lower degree of absorption of UV radiation than synthetic fibres. Wool absorbs more in the region of 280 nm-400 nm and even beyond 400 nm. Natural fibres like cotton.interlock provides the highest level of UV protection. that are normally used to obtain dimensional stability. and waxes. In contrast to this. Cotton has a comparatively high ultraviolet transmission in the range of 280 nm400 nm. compressive shrinkage processes such as compacting. as the effective porosity increases. which act as ultraviolet absorbers. Protein fibres have mixed property in allowing UV radiation. On the other hand. The fabric porosity is modified through many dry finishing processes. Stretching diminish the UPF rating of the fabric during wear. due to presence of natural pigments. Physio-chemical Nature of Fibre Ultraviolet protective factor is dependent on physical and chemical structure of fibres. Smooth milling employed in the case of lightweight wool fabrics is reduced the porosity and consequently the UPF4. during overfeed on the stenter. by the way diminishing the porosity which results in increased value of UPF.
because its porosity is too high. which heavily diminish the fibres permeability over the range of ultraviolet region. The higher concentration of such dyes. Studies at the University of Alberta also propose that darker colored fabrics can recommend more protection than lighter colored fabrics. Clothing engineered for ultraviolet protection possibly will use high concentrations of premium dyes that interrupt ultraviolet light. the absorption band of many dyes enlarges in to ultraviolet spectral region. 10 | P a g e . This is armored by the absorptivity of delustering agent. fabrics dyed with black and dark blue show evidence of maximum ultraviolet radiation protection. especially longest wavelength UV rays.g. such dyes acts as UV absorbers and enhances the UPF of the fabric. it is said that for the same fabric structure and dye. Such dyes contain conjugated molecules that disturb ultraviolet radiation. e. As a general rule. Since fluorescent brighteners absorb in ultraviolet region. the darker shade will give the higher the UPF value. darker the garment becomes however ultimately the color has no persuade on ultraviolet radiations1. As a result. The UV transmissions of different materials are as follows: Cotton bleached > Cotton grey > Polyamide > Silk > Wool > Polyester Dyeing and Finishing The dyes used to color textiles can have a great influence on their permeability to ultraviolet radiation. they also lessen the ultraviolet permeability of textile materials. In theory. The polyamide fibre is comparatively permeable to ultraviolet radiation.aromatic components show a strong absorption effect in the shorter wavelength of UV region. If the UPF of a dark dyed fabric should be found to be insufficient. TiO2. in most cases the fabric structure is inappropriate. Depending on chemical structure of dyes.
the regularity and additives1. elevated transmission of ultraviolet radiation is observed in case of bright fibres than dull fibres. which is superior than using heavyweight fabrics which are not appropriate for summer conditions. 4. absorptive groups present in dyestuff. In a given fabric. Darker colors of the same fabric type (black.Influence of color Pigment dyed fabrics that consist of a resin that generates a powdery feel and look. deepness after dyeing. get high marks for UV protection. A defensive effect can be obtained by printing or dyeing. navy) absorb ultraviolet radiation much more strongly than the light neutral colors for indistinguishable weave with UPF in the series of 18-37 and 19-34 for cotton 11 | P a g e . The ultraviolet protection abilities of the textiles are very much influenced by the type of dye or pigment. dark red.
Colours of fabric also manipulate the UPF. Cellulosic fabrics dyed with these dyes illustrate reduced UV radiation transmission from 24. reactive and vat dyes are skilled for giving a UPF rating of higher than 50.8% to 8-22% for UV-A and UV-B correspondingly.and polyester respectively. the UPF raises from 4. When dyed with reactive dyes. Some direct. Dyes extracted from a variety of natural resources also demonstrate the UPF within the range of 15-45 depending on mordant used. Some combinations of disperse reactive mix can give extended ultraviolet protection with a UPF of 50+ for polyester/cotton blends. which also increase with concentration.014. When combinations of these dyes are used.0. depending upon concentration.9.6% to 10-20% and 27.7 to 5. 12 | P a g e . Some of the direct dyes significantly enlarge UPF of bleached cloth that depends on relative transmittance of dyes in the UV-B region. Some of the vinyl sulphone dyes and monochlorotriazine dyes have ultraviolet radiation absorption character. Dark colours of the same fabric type will absorb UVR more sturdily than light pastel shades and will have higher UPF6. the UPF increases. Cellulosic fabrics transmit UV-A and UV-B uniformly with the transmittance ratio (TA/TB) of 0. which is not enough to satisfy the lowest requirements.
Optical brightening agents are often applied to improve the whiteness of textile goods by UV excitation and visible blue emission.5% in the fabrics of polyester/cotton blended 13 | P a g e . All the darker colours had a UPF rating of 50q Fabric whitening agents and Optical brightening agents are used at the finishing operations and in wash cycles. but not of fabrics of 100% polyester or nylon.The spectral transmission of a number of fabrics of different coloured fabrics of the same type. The incident of excitation and emission is caused by transition of electrons involving p-orbitals from either aromatic compounds or conjugated. Optical brightening agent can enhance the UPF of cotton and cotton blends. The presence of optical brightening agent to the amount of 0. Most optical brighteners encompass excitation maxima within the range of 340 nm-400 nm.
3 to 32. moisture and additives combined in processing also influence the UPF of the textile materials. the existence of water decreases scattering effects. In addition. such as the swelling of fibres because of moisture absorption. The relative humidity% or moisture content of fibres influence the UPF of the fabric in 2 ways. which is more or less closer to that acquired by using the UV absorbers with 0. which result in swelling phenomena. An additional limitation of many optical brightening agents is that they generally absorb in UV-A part of day sunlight but have a weak absorption in UV absorption approximately 308 nm. the construction parameters and wear circumstances of the textile materials. which explains the semi-permanent nature of the finish and protection. as the refractive index of water is nearer to that of the textile polymer and hence there is a greater UV transmission and a lower value of 14 | P a g e .5).yarn of blend proportion 67:33 can enhance the UPF from 16. the effect is mainly dependent on the type & hygroscopicity of fibers and conditioning time. which plays an imperative role in skin diseases. In case of moisture.2% (UPF 35. Moisture and Swelling The UV protection factor of wet garment is considerably lower than that of the same garment determine in the dry state. Wetness may source a 30%-50%deduction in a fabric's UPF rating. The ability of textile fibres to deliver ultraviolet protection varies depending on the structure and other additives existing in the fibres. that reduces the interstices and subsequently the UV transmittance and on the other hand.2. increases its ultraviolet radiation permeability. Water in the interstices of the fabric decreases the scattering effect and so. Washing of fabrics leads to loss of UPF in the case of OBA-treated fabrics and the UPF accomplishes the level of that in untreated fabric subsequent to 10 washes.
Though silk has poor swelling properties. but normally when wet. A usual cotton fabric could transfer 15-20%UV radiation. 6. results in greater swelling due to capillary absorption and thus less UV transmittance.UPF. etc.5% for suitable and exceptionally good protection respectively. Dependence of humidity is more distinct in silk and viscose fibres. increasing to more than 50%. The UV radiation transmission should be lower than 6% and 2. and amount of water is absorbed. it’s very fine in nature and has a larger number of fibres in the cross-section of yarn. of that viscose as higher water absorption and swelling ability. Depends upon the type of fabric such as cotton. The effect of water on the UVR transmission of a cotton fabric. fabrics offer less UVR protection4. with the wet sample transmitting significantly more UVR. if the garment is wet. Finishing treatments 15 | P a g e . while silk has poor swelling capacity. polyester.
Chemically. o-hydroxyphenyl hydrazines. 2-hydroxypheny benzotriazoles. The high-energy. Sunscreen lotions have UV absorbers that physically block UV radiation8. 2-hydroxybenzophenones. make a considerable contribution to the RI matching of skin. There is occurrence of better degree of correlation between hydrophilic fibres and their UPF values. UV absorbers combined into the fibres change electronic excitation energy into thermal energy.given to the fabrics to decrease swelling. Commonly-used ultraviolet absorbers are 2-hydroxy 16 | P a g e .e. Ultra Violet Absorbers UV absorbers are organic/inorganic color less compounds with solid absorption in the UV wavelength range of 290 nm-360 nm. Some of the substituted benzophenones enter into synthetic fibres much like disperse dyes. short-wavelength UV radiation stimulates the UV absorber to a higher energy state. o-hydroxy phenyl triazines. An active UV absorber must be able to absorb all over the spectrum to remain stable against UV radiation and to dissipate the absorbed energy to evade degradation or loss in color4. work as radical scavengers and singlet oxygen quenchers. i.2-ethyl hexyl-4-methoxy cinnamate having high refractive index. The most broadly used UV-B screens. 9. some classes of ultraviolet absorbers are available. The important groups of UV absorbers are. The orthohydroxyl group is considered necessary for absorption and to make the compound soluble in alkaline solution. Organic ultraviolet absorbers are mostly derivatives of o-hydroxybenzophenones. the energy absorbed may then be degenerate as longer-wavelength radiation. which decreases the transmittance of ultraviolet rays. 2-hydroxyphenyl-s-triazines. ‘refractive index matching’. isomerisation can happen and the UV absorber may then break into non-absorbing isomers. Alternately.
15%) is adequate to improve the stability significantly. and phenyl triazine are mostly used for coating and padding processes to achieve broad protection against UV radiations. pad liquor or print paste.5% treated to the fabric are adequate enough to provide sufficient UV radiation protection. The strong absorption in the near UV range of 2. appropriate for dye baths. 2-hydroxy phenyl-striazines. The existence of UV absorbers in polyester. UV absorbers can delay the photo yellowing that happens upon contact to sunlight9. Organic products like hydro Benzophenone. Benzophenone derivatives show low energy levels. if the fibres are exposed to UV radiation during their services11. easy diffusibility and a low sublimation fastness. benzotriazole. Ultraviolet absorbers to the degree of0. by virtue of 17 | P a g e . Ultraviolet absorbers have refractive indices of more than 2. nylon. Triazine class-hindered amine light stabilizers are used in polypropylene fibre to increase the UV stability. High-energy UV absorbers appropriate for polyester include derivatives of hydroxyl phenyldiphenyltriazine. On wool. Even pigmented polypropylene needs ultraviolet stabilizers. silk and wool defends the fibres against sunlightinduced photo degradation. Appropriate combinations of UV absorbers and antioxidants can produce synergistic effects. The addition of HALS (0.55. UV absorbers combined into the spinning dope earlier to the fibre extrusion and dye bath in bath dyeing.6%-2. diphenyltriazine and Orthohydroxy phenyl derivatives show an outstanding sublimation fastness and self-dispersing preparation can be used in high temperature dyeing in pad-baths and also in print pastes.phenyl benzotriazoles.2-hydroxy benzophenones and chemicals such as benzoicacid esters and hindered amines. 4 dihydroxybenzophenone is accredited to the conjugating chelation between theorthohydroxyl and carbonyl groups. increase the light fastness of definite pastel shades and the weather ability of spun-dyed fibres.
wool. without harming the tensile properties. The mixture of (67/33) titanium dioxide and zinc oxide on cotton and nylon fabrics gives significantly higher absorption of UV radiation than the influence of individual components. TiO2 added in the spinning dope for dull effects in the fibres also work as UV absorber. modal yarns. Maximum of the commercial products are well-suited with the dyes and other finishing agents applied on textile materials and these can be applied using simple padding/ exhaust method/pad-thermo fix and pad-dry-cure methods. For supreme effect. using numerous dope additions and topical applications for nearly all types of fabrics formed from cellulosic fibres. TiO2and ceramic materials have absorption ability in the UV region between 280 nm-400 nm and returns visible and IR rays and these absorbers are also added as dope additives. Zno2 nano particles show a very slender size distribution (20 nm-40 nm) and minimal aggregation. Nano scale titanium gel particles toughly bound to the cotton fabrics can give a UPF ≥ 50. The presence of inorganic pigments in the fibres gives more diffuse reflection of light from the substrate and offers improved protection. 18 | P a g e . except in post-treatment application. Combining UV absorber in dyeing reduces the dye uptake to some extent. the particles have to be mono molecularly distributed and are frequently applied in one bath. silk and synthetic fibres.which maximum covering ability and opacity is achieved. Numerous commercial products and processes have been established to give fabrics with a high level of UPF. Brighter viscose yarns offer the highest ultraviolet transmittance than the dull pigmented viscose yarns.1% porosity can give UPF greater than 50. which can give higher levels of UV radiation blocking.5% TiO2 &having 0. Nylon fabrics treated with 1.
silk.Conclusion Ultra violet radiations cause degradation of textile materials because of excitation in some parts of the polymer molecules. when incorporated in the fabrics. The UV protective factor of fabric is mainly dependent on the physical and chemical structure of the fibres. Natural fibres like cotton. Optical brightening agent can improve the UPF of cotton and cotton blends. 19 | P a g e . Fabrics dyed with black and dark blue exhibit maximum ultraviolet radiation protection. Sun protective woven or knitted fabrics show higher cover factor than traditional fabrics. but not of fabrics that are 100% polyester or nylon. and wool have lower degree of absorption of ultraviolet radiation than synthetic fibres. The ultraviolet protection factor of wet garment is significantly lower than that of the same garment measured in the dry state. Ultraviolet absorbers are organic/inorganic colorless compounds with strong absorption in the ultraviolet wavelength range of 290 nm-360 nm and block the ultraviolet radiation reaching the human skin. Darker colored fabrics can offer more protection than lighter colored fabrics for the same fabric structure and dye.
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