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Abstract

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Project members: Magesh A ( 20080253 ) Mohammed Hussain U ( 20080263 ) Balamurali ( 20080215 ) Abijit SG Ram ( 20080201 )

DETAILED DESIGN:

MODULE 1: SPECTRUM SENSING Scenario: 1. Nu number of Primary users all transmitting with data rate Tb and modulated with the frequencies fi Hz, i = 1 to Nu. I have assumed AWGN channel. 2. Instead of considering Secondary user OR cognitive user I have considered spectrum sensing device which is used to check the status of Primary users. Algorithm: 1. Divide the sampled received signal into T Frames. Each frame containing N samples. xt(n), Where n = 1,2,3, . . N-1 2. 3. Multiply each frame with Window function, w. xw,t(n) = xt(n)w(n) Compute PSD of each frame. Pt(k) = abs(fft(xw,t(n)))^2

4. Find the average PSD of T frames. Pavg(k) = (1/T)sum(Pt(k)), for k = 0,1,2, . .(N/2) 5. Then, define mean of Pavg(k) as mean power Pm.

6. Decision variable r(k) is given by the ratio of r(k) = Pavg(k)/Pm , k = 0,1,2, .. (N/2) 7. Apply thresholding to get the channel or Primary user states. PU_status = Occupied(1) if r(k) > and Free(0) if r(k) <= ,Where, is the preset threshold.

MODULE 2: LINK RENDEZVOUS IN ALGORITHMS This process begins by dividing the spectrum into regularly spaced frequency bins appropriate to the link establishment protocol bandwidth. The node senses the spectrum in each of these bins. The RF energy in each bin is compared to a threshold. Vacant bins are flagged as potential link establishment channels. Once a certain number of vacant channels are identified, the link requester begins its attempt to connect to or establish a network. It transmits an attention signal with an easily identified spectrum on the channel for T seconds.

Fig. 1 Link Rendezvous protocol. The calling node chooses the final frequency on which to connect from the set of responses. This decision may be based upon signal strength or other ranking. The node is finally ready to establish a connection. It broadcasts a connection request code using some reasonably lowest common denominator RF parameters on the chosen frequency. After transmitting the attention reply signal, idle receivers enter a listen mode for a connection request. Upon detecting a connection request, the receiver transmits a connection response message directly to the originating node. This message is the first unicast message and can include information about the node such as the services it can provide and connection parameter preferences. The originating node chooses to which destination node to connect which finishes the rendezvous process.

MODULE 3: RANDOM ALGORITHM In random rendezvous, a radio wishing to join a network visits the potential communications channels in random order. During each time slot, the radio will select any of the mi channels with probability 1=mi. For two radios following this procedure, rendezvous will be successful when two conditions occur: 1) the two nodes select the same channel and 2) one of the radios is sensing the medium while the other is

transmitting a beacon in such a way that the handshake required for rendezvous is possible observe mi, the number of channels available while not rendezvous do j(i) = rand[0,mi] c = c [i, j(i)] attempt rendezvous on channel c end while Expanding on point (2) we assume that the radios have two sensor units. 1 unit is used to send beacon signals on the current channel and the other is used for sensing the current channel. So it if the both the radios end up on the same channel then, rendezvous is possible. MODULE 4: MODULAR CLOCK ALGORITHM Under the modular clock algorithm, a random prime number pi is chosen from the set of primes in [mi,2mi]. Furthermore, in the modified modular clock algorithm, instead of consistently remapping all channel indices between mi and pi (as was done in the modular clock algorithm), the radio chooses randomly. Since pi is no larger than 2mi, a radio will spend no more than half its index selections performing this random selection. observe mi, the number of channels available calculate pi, the next largest prime to mi j=0 -> I; rand[0,mi] while not rendezvous do choose ri from [0, mi] choose pi, a prime from [mi,2mi]_ for t = 0 to 2p do j(t+1) = ( j(i) + r(i) ) mod (p) if j(t+1) < m(i) then c = c( i, j(t+1) ) else c = c (i, rand([0,m(i)]) end if attempt rendezvous on channel c end for end while

MODULE 5: JUMP SEQUENCE ALGORITHM [ RANDOM SEQUENCE ] Input: M, N, v, i0, t Output: channel c n1=t/N; n2=tN; IF (n2<v) i=(i0+n1v+n21)M+1; ELSE i=(i0+n1v+v2)M+1; END RETURN c=ci; MODULE 6: RING WALK VELOCITY BASED ALGORITHM In this scheme, the user with ID v, 1 v N, stays at each vertex for v time slots before it advances one vertex. It implies that the user with smaller v will walk faster. For instance, suppose that there is a ring with 4 vertices (i.e., M=4). A user with v=2 starts at vertex 1 and walks on the ring. The CH sequence generated by the user is: 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, The CH function of this scheme is formally described as follows: 1: Input: M, v, i0, t 2: Output: channel c 3: n=t/v; 4: i=(i0+n1)M+1; 5: RETURN c=ci;

DIFFERENT CASES FOR THE RADIOS: CASE 1: Both the radios have predefined to communicate at some point of time. CASE 2:

One of the radios alone wants to communicate to the other radio and this is not known to the other radio.

ALLOCATION OF VELOCITIES: NO MOTIVATION: The radio with no motivation will choose a value for its velocity on the lower side of the defined parameters, i.e. Its ID will be chosen as a large value. 1 RADIO HAS MOTIVATION: This radio will know that the other radio is not in pursuit of finding it so it chooses a value which is gives it a lower ID and a greater velocity BOTH RADIOS HAVE MOTIVATION: Both radios compare their values generated from the names. The radio with the smaller value will compromise by choosing a large ID value or smaller velocity value. Similarly the larger of those values will choose an ID value which is small enough or possesses a greater velocity.

ALGORITHM ANALYSIS:

1. RANDOM ALGORITHM AND MODULAR CLOCK ALGORITHM

Number of Primary Users = 10; n_bits = 10; Percentage of occupancy = 0.10 Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 20; n_bits = 40; Percentage of occupancy = 0.70 Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 10; n_bits = 10; Percentage of occupancy = 0.90 (LLH) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 10; n_bits = 40; Percentage of occupancy = 0.10 (LML) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous

8000 761

11.4875 71 0

11.0795 65 1

Number of Primary Users = 10; n_bits = 40; Percentage of occupancy = 0.90 (LMM) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 10; n_bits = 40; Percentage of occupancy = 0.50 (LMH) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 10; n_bits = 75; Percentage of occupancy = 0.10 (LHL) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 10; n_bits = 75; Percentage of occupancy = 0.50 (LHM) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous

15000 765

29.6928 194 1

20.4138 151 1

Number of Primary Users = 10; n_bits = 75; Percentage of occupancy = 0.90 (LHH) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 25; n_bits = 10; Percentage of occupancy = 0.10 (MLL) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 25; n_bits = 10; Percentage of occupancy = 0.50 (MLM) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 25; n_bits = 10; Percentage of occupancy = 0.90 (MLH) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR

2000 5 747

Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

1165 268

358 2

Number of Primary Users = 25; n_bits = 40; Percentage of occupancy = 0.10 (MLL) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 25; n_bits = 40; Percentage of occupancy = 0.50 (MMM) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 25; n_bits = 40; Percentage of occupancy = 0.90 (MMH) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 40; n_bits = 10; Percentage of occupancy = 0.10 (HLL) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR

Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 40; n_bits = 10; Percentage of occupancy = 0.50 (HLM) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 40; n_bits = 10; Percentage of occupancy = 0.90 (HLh) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 40; n_bits = 25; Percentage of occupancy = 0.10 (HML) Random Algorithm

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

Number of Primary Users = 10; n_bits = 75; Percentage of occupancy = 0.35 Ring Walk

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR

Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

56 1

23 1

Number of Primary Users = 20; n_bits = 40; Percentage of occupancy = 0.70 Ring Walk

Total-Number-Of-Timeslots Total-Number-Of-Rendezvous Average-TTR Maximum-TTR Minimum-TTR

No of users: 20

Random Algorithm:

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