CC-THERM

SHELL & TUBE

User’s Guide
And Tutorial


Revised 7/10/06 i
CC-THERM FOR WINDOWS 5.6
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CC-THERM SHELL AND TUBE
Product Overview .........................................................................................................................1
Introduction to CC-THERM .........................................................................................................................1
Easy to Learn .........................................................................................................................1
Overview .........................................................................................................................1
Installation .........................................................................................................................3
Technical Features for Shell and Tube.......................................................................................................3
Heat Transfer Methods .........................................................................................................................4
Evaporation .........................................................................................................................4
Condensation .........................................................................................................................7
Shellside Condensation .................................................................................................8
Tubeside Condensation .................................................................................................8
Multi-Component Condensation and the Effect of Non-Condensibles ...........................8
Condensate Retention on Low Fin Tubes......................................................................8
Sensible Heat Transfer.................................................................................................................9
The Zone Analysis......................................................................................................................10
Output Features .......................................................................................................................10
CC-THERM Commands .......................................................................................................................10
Running CC-THERM From the Sizing Menu ............................................................................................11
Running CC-THERM From a Flowsheet Heat Exchanger ........................................................................12
Data Entry in CC-THERM .......................................................................................................................13
Utility Streams .......................................................................................................................14
Heat Curve Generation .......................................................................................................................15
Heat Curve Input .......................................................................................................................16
Edit Heat Curves .......................................................................................................................17
General Specifications .......................................................................................................................18
The General Information Tab .....................................................................................................19
The Modeling Methods Tab........................................................................................................21
The Design Options Dialog Box................................................................................................................23
Design Criteria .......................................................................................................................24
Sizing Nozzles .......................................................................................................................24
Limits of Design Variables..........................................................................................................24
The Thermosyphon Reboiler Dialog Box..................................................................................................25
Inlet Pipe .......................................................................................................................28
Outlet Pipe .......................................................................................................................28
Exchanger Geometry .......................................................................................................................28
Tubes .......................................................................................................................29
Shell .......................................................................................................................30
Baffles .......................................................................................................................31
Nozzles .......................................................................................................................33
Clearances .......................................................................................................................34
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Materials ...................................................................................................................... 36
Miscellaneous ...................................................................................................................... 37
Calculate ...................................................................................................................... 38
View Results ...................................................................................................................... 38
Summary Results ...................................................................................................................... 39
Shellside Data ...................................................................................................................... 39
Tubeside Data ...................................................................................................................... 39
Baffle Data ...................................................................................................................... 39
Clearance Data ...................................................................................................................... 39
Overall Data ...................................................................................................................... 39
Tabulated Data ...................................................................................................................... 39
Heat Curves ...................................................................................................................... 39
Zone-by-Zone Data.................................................................................................................... 39
Vibration ...................................................................................................................... 40
Optimization ...................................................................................................................... 40
Stream Data ...................................................................................................................... 40
Reboiler Data ...................................................................................................................... 40
TEMA Sheet ...................................................................................................................... 40
Input Data Report ...................................................................................................................... 40
Select Reports ...................................................................................................................... 40
Label ...................................................................................................................... 41
Generate Reports ...................................................................................................................... 42
Plot ...................................................................................................................... 42
Heat Curve ...................................................................................................................... 42
Heat Flux ...................................................................................................................... 42
LMTD ...................................................................................................................... 42
Temperature ...................................................................................................................... 42
Heat XFER Coefficient ............................................................................................................... 42
Heat XFER Area ...................................................................................................................... 42
Save Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 42
Re-Enter Stream Information.................................................................................................................... 43
Re-Initialize Exchanger ...................................................................................................................... 43
CC-THERM Output ...................................................................................................................... 43
Summary Report ...................................................................................................................... 43
TEMA Sheet ...................................................................................................................... 45
Heating Curves ...................................................................................................................... 46
Shellside Data ...................................................................................................................... 47
Tubeside Data ...................................................................................................................... 50
Tabulated Data ...................................................................................................................... 51
Zone-By-Zone Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 53
Clearance ...................................................................................................................... 59
Overall Data ...................................................................................................................... 60
Vibration Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 61
Optimization ...................................................................................................................... 64
Stream Data ...................................................................................................................... 65
Reboiler Data ...................................................................................................................... 66
Revised 7/10/06 iii
Input Data Report .......................................................................................................................66
CC-THERM TUTORIAL
The Condensate Stabilizer Problem.........................................................................................................67
Entering CC-THERM .......................................................................................................................68
Appendix I: Material Code Numbers for Shell and Channel Materials ......................................................86
Shell Materials .......................................................................................................................86
Channel Materials ......................................................................................................................88
DIN-A.D. Merkblatter Code ..........................................................................................90
British Standard 5500...................................................................................................91
Appendix II: Material Code Numbers for Tubesheet Materials .................................................................92
ASME Code .......................................................................................................................92
Appendix III: TEMA Designations .............................................................................................................95
Appendix IV: Fin Tubes .......................................................................................................................96
Appendix V: User Fintubes .....................................................................................................................106
The Fintube Methods Dialog Box............................................................................................................107
The Fintube Specifications Dialog Box ...................................................................................................108
Appendix VI: CHEMCAD THERM References .......................................................................................112
Evaporation .....................................................................................................................112
Condensation .....................................................................................................................113
Sensible Flow .....................................................................................................................114
CC-THERM AIR COOLER
Product Overview .....................................................................................................................115
Introduction to CC-THERM Air Cooler ....................................................................................................115
Easy to Learn .....................................................................................................................115
Overview .....................................................................................................................115
Summary .....................................................................................................................116
Air Cooler Commands .....................................................................................................................117
Technical Features .....................................................................................................................118
Methods .....................................................................................................................118
Tubeside Heat Transfer............................................................................................................118
Airside Heat Transfer ...............................................................................................................120
Zone Analysis .....................................................................................................................120
Output Features .....................................................................................................................120
Using Air Cooler Menus .....................................................................................................................121
Data Entry in Air Cooler .....................................................................................................................121
Air Side Data .....................................................................................................................122
Heat Curve Generation .....................................................................................................................123
Edit Heat Curve .....................................................................................................................124
General Specification .....................................................................................................................125
Exchanger Geometry .....................................................................................................................127
Tube .....................................................................................................................128
Bundle .....................................................................................................................129
Nozzles .....................................................................................................................130
Miscellaneous .....................................................................................................................131
Materials .....................................................................................................................133
Fan Parameters .....................................................................................................................133
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Calculate .................................................................................................................... 137
View Results .................................................................................................................... 137
Streams .................................................................................................................... 138
Heat Curves .................................................................................................................... 138
Tabulated Data .................................................................................................................... 138
API Data .................................................................................................................... 138
Zone-By-Zone Data.................................................................................................................. 138
Optimization .................................................................................................................... 138
Plot .................................................................................................................... 139
Heat Curve .................................................................................................................... 139
Heat Flux .................................................................................................................... 139
LMTD .................................................................................................................... 139
Temperature .................................................................................................................... 140
Heat XFER Coefficient ............................................................................................................. 140
Heat XFER Area .................................................................................................................... 140
Re-Enter Stream Information.................................................................................................................. 140
Air Cooler Output .................................................................................................................... 141
Stream Data .................................................................................................................... 141
Heat Curves .................................................................................................................... 142
Tabulated Data .................................................................................................................... 143
API Data .................................................................................................................... 147
Zone-By-Zone Data.................................................................................................................. 150
Optimization .................................................................................................................... 155
CC-THERM PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER
Product Overview .................................................................................................................... 157
Introduction to CC-THERM Plate Heat Exchanger................................................................................. 157
Easy to Learn .................................................................................................................... 157
Technical Features .................................................................................................................... 157
Methods .................................................................................................................... 157
Output Features .................................................................................................................... 158
Overview .................................................................................................................... 158
Summary .................................................................................................................... 159
Plate Heat Exchanger Commands ......................................................................................................... 160
Using Plate Heat Exchanger Menus....................................................................................................... 161
Data Entry in Plate Heat Exchanger....................................................................................................... 161
Heat Curve Generation .................................................................................................................... 162
Edit Heat Curve .................................................................................................................... 163
General Specification .................................................................................................................... 163
Exchanger Geometry .................................................................................................................... 165
Plate .................................................................................................................... 165
Unit .................................................................................................................... 166
Nozzles .................................................................................................................... 167
Materials .................................................................................................................... 168
Calculate .................................................................................................................... 169
View Results .................................................................................................................... 169
Stream .................................................................................................................... 169
Revised 7/10/06 v
Heat Curves .....................................................................................................................169
Tabulated Data .....................................................................................................................170
Get Streams From Flowsheet...................................................................................................170
Plate Heat Exchanger Output .................................................................................................................171
Stream Data .....................................................................................................................171
Heat Curves .....................................................................................................................171
Tabulated Data .....................................................................................................................173
Appendix I Plate Heat Exchanger References........................................................................................176
CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE
Product Overview .....................................................................................................................177
Introduction to CC-THERM Double Pipe ................................................................................................177
Easy to Learn .....................................................................................................................177
Technical Features .....................................................................................................................177
Heat Transfer Methods .....................................................................................................................177
Sensible Heat Transfer.............................................................................................................177
The Zone Analysis....................................................................................................................178
Output Features .....................................................................................................................178
Overview .....................................................................................................................178
Summary .....................................................................................................................180
Double Pipe Commands .....................................................................................................................180
Data Entry in Double Pipe .....................................................................................................................182
Heat Curve Generation .....................................................................................................................183
Heat Curve Input .....................................................................................................................183
Utility Streams .....................................................................................................................184
Edit Heat Curve .....................................................................................................................185
General Specifications .....................................................................................................................186
The General Page....................................................................................................................187
The Methods Page...................................................................................................................188
Exchanger Geometry .....................................................................................................................189
Tubes .....................................................................................................................189
Shell .....................................................................................................................191
Nozzles .....................................................................................................................192
Materials .....................................................................................................................192
Calculate .....................................................................................................................193
View Results .....................................................................................................................193
Summary Results .....................................................................................................................194
Shellside Data .....................................................................................................................194
Tubeside Data .....................................................................................................................194
Overall Data .....................................................................................................................194
Tabulated Data .....................................................................................................................194
Heat Curves .....................................................................................................................194
Zone By Zone Data ..................................................................................................................195
Stream Data .....................................................................................................................195
Tema Sheet .....................................................................................................................195
Plot .....................................................................................................................195
Heat Curve .....................................................................................................................195
Revised 7/10/06 vi
Heat Flux .................................................................................................................... 195
LMTD .................................................................................................................... 195
Temperature .................................................................................................................... 196
Heat XFER Coefficient ............................................................................................................. 196
Heat XFER Area .................................................................................................................... 196
Report Generation .................................................................................................................... 196
Prepare Labels .................................................................................................................... 196
Select Reports .................................................................................................................... 197
Generate Reports .................................................................................................................... 198
Save Configuration .................................................................................................................... 198
Re-enter Stream Information.................................................................................................................. 198
Re-Initialize Exchanger .................................................................................................................... 198
CC-THERM Double Pipe Output ............................................................................................................ 199
Summary Report .................................................................................................................... 199
Tema Sheet .................................................................................................................... 200
Heating Curves .................................................................................................................... 202
Shellside Data and Tubeside Data......................................................................................................... 202
Tabulated Data .................................................................................................................... 203
Zone-By-Zone Analysis .................................................................................................................... 204
Overall Data .................................................................................................................... 206
Stream Output .................................................................................................................... 207
Appendix I: Material Code Numbers For Tube Materials........................................................................ 208
Appendix II: Double Pipe References..................................................................................................... 212
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
1
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION TO CC-THERM
CC-THERM is an integrated module for the design and rating of double pipe, shell and tube, plate and
frame and air cooled heat exchangers in the CHEMCAD Suite. The program will design and rate any
type of shell and tube heat exchanger, sensible/sensible service plate and frame heat exchangers and
air coolers. CC-THERM is fully integrated with the CHEMCAD Suite so process data is automatically
transferred from the process flowsheets to the heat exchanger analysis, and heating curves and
physical properties data are automatically generated using the same properties and methods. The first
part of this user guide covers tube and shell heat exchanger calculations.
EASY TO LEARN
The input for CC-THERM is simple and concise. It is based upon the CHEMCAD input system, so
anyone familiar with the CHEMCAD Suite will be able to operate CC-THERM with ease.
Since the input/output systems and conventions are the same in CC-THERM as those used in
CHEMCAD, please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for these types of “How to” instructions.
OVERVIEW
CC-THERM is an interactive simulation tool for the design or rating of shell and tube, doublepipe, plate-
and-frame, and air-cooled heat exchangers. This section gives an overall view of the program usage
and the options available on the CC-THERM menu for shell and tube heat exchangers. More
information on each option is provided in later sections. The input functions allow you to enter process
data by using dialog boxes with context specific help. With this input facility, you can create new
problem files; review the results of problems already designed, and make modifications to previously
saved problems.
There are six general steps involved in running a heat exchanger analysis with CC-THERM. The
following list illustrates the general steps.
1. Define the problem and run the flowsheet. This generates the overall heat and material balance for
the exchanger, which is used as the foundation for the CC-THERM calculations
2. Select the Sizing command on the menu bar. The Sizing Menu will open.
From this menu select the appropriate geometry option (Shell and tube, doublepipe, plate, aircooler,
etc).
3. The program will prompt you through the initial setup of the exchanger analysis. At the end of the
setup process, the CC-THERM Menu is displayed.
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4. Inspect and edit the input as desired using the menu commands.
5. Execute the program.
6. Review and printout the results.
OPTIONAL FEATURE: GEOMETRY SIMULATION ON THE FLOWSHEET
It is sometimes desirable to predict the actual performance of a given exchanger in CHEMCAD. In this
mode, the actual geometry and fouling factors expected are input and CC-THERM determines outlet
conditions based on the geometry. Also Fouling Factors may be predicted based on the known
geometry, inlet and outlet temperatures of the exchanger.
To use either fouling rating or simulation mode of CC-THERM, select Enter Geometry (CC-THERM
simulation) or fouling factor simulation mode of a CHEMCAD two-sided heat exchanger. If this
mode is selected, basic steady state specifications will be grayed out and after clicking OK, the CC-
THERM menu will appear allowing you to enter the geometry.
CC-THERM can do any of the following common tasks:
1. Performs extensive error checking.
2. Creates the streams for the use of one-sided heat exchangers, which include the condenser,
reboiler, thermosyphon reboiler and pumparound.
3. Generates the heat curve for the tube and shell sides.
4. Calculates in any of the following modes:
i. Design - The inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flowsheet and the program selects
the geometry and size of the exchangers (certain basic geometry specifications, such as TEMA
type, must be specified by the user).
ii. Rating – The inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flowsheet and the user supplies the
complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions. The program determines
whether the exchanger is too large or too small for the given application.
iii. Fouling rating – The inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flowsheet and the user
supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions. The program
calculates the fouling factors required to obtain the specified performance from the exchanger.
The inside and outside fouling factors are assumed to be equal.
iv. Rating (Geometry Simulation) – In this mode the user supplies the complete details of the
exchanger geometry and dimensions. The exchanger is then run as part of the flowsheet
simulation. Thus, for any inlet streams coming into the exchanger, CC-THERM will calculate
the outlet streams that the specified geometry would produce.
5. Generates the output for the design/analysis of the heat exchanger.
6. Provides an interactive user interface to allow the user to change the problem specifications to
rerun the problem and review the results.
7. Creates the CC-THERM files to save all the input/output data for each exchanger.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
3
As an integrated module to CHEMCAD Suite, CC-THERM offers the process engineer an easy and
comprehensive method of analyzing shell and tube heat exchangers. Since it uses the same graphic
interface as CHEMCAD, any CHEMCAD user can pick up the program in a matter of minutes. The
program has been thoroughly and rigorously tested over a period of years in real life situations and
found to be an accurate and reliable tool. It is fully supported by a staff of trained engineers.
INSTALLATION
By default CC-THERM is always installed with the CHEMCAD Suite. If any programs of the CHEMCAD
Suite have been installed, there is not any special procedure to install CC-THERM because it is
completely integrated with the CHEMCAD Suite and does not run in a separate interface. The use of
CC-THERM only depends on the user’s license. Please refer to the installation section of the
CHEMCAD User’s Guide.
To access CC-THERM, select an exchanger or distillation column UnitOp and go to the Sizing menu,
select Heat Exchanger.
TECHNICAL FEATURES FOR SHELL AND TUBE
1. CC-THERM handles the following applications.

Forced and thermosyphon reboilers

Forced circulation evaporators

Horizontal or vertical condensers

Falling film evaporators and heaters

Vertical thermosyphons

Reflux condensers

Sensible heat, both liquid and vapor
2. Three modes of calculation may be selected: Rating mode, fouling factor rating or design mode. In
the design mode, a full optimization of shell diameter, tube lengths and baffle spacing will be
carried out. Optionally, an optimization of tube passes can be carried out.
3. All TEMA-type exchangers.
4. Six types of baffles can be used: Single segmental, double segmental, triple segmental, no-tubes-
in-window, disk and donut, and rod baffles.
5. A complete vibration analysis is performed for all types of exchangers.
6. You may use TEMA clearances or input your own clearances.
7. Sealing strips are permitted.
8. Tube counts are calculated.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
4
9. Impingement plates can be handled.
10. Tubes may be bare or fin. A library of Wolverine, HPTI, and Wieland tubes is built into the
program. Users may enter custom fin geometry.
11. Turbulators may be used on the inside of the tube.
12. Dry wall and wet wall condensing can be accommodated.
13. A variety of heat transfer and pressure drop methods are available.
14. Heat exchangers sizes that are below those covered by TEMA, ASME, DIN, and BS5500 can be
handled.
15. A tabulated pressure drop distribution report through shell and tube heat exchangers is provided.
HEAT TRANSFER METHODS
EVAPORATION
The program considers these various types of evaporation.
Shellside Tubeside
Thermosyphon Reboiler Thermosyphon Reboiler
Pool-Type Evaporation (Kettle) Falling-Film Evaporation
Forced Evaporation Forced Evaporation
Thermosyphons:
The calculation of a thermosyphon reboiler is similar for both the shellside and the tubeside. In both
cases, the program combines the nucleate boiling and the two-phase convective heat transfer. The
computation of the tube wall temperature is of importance in the calculation. A calculation for subcooled
boiling when a substantial amount of subcooling is present is performed. The minimum amount of
superheat necessary to initiate subcooled boiling is computed and compared to the tube wall
temperature. If the tube wall temperature is sufficiently high, a nucleate boiling coefficient is calculated,
but proportioned according to the amount of subcooling present (the more the subcooling, the lower the
coefficient).
The program will complete the thermosyphon circulation rate (if so requested) by balancing the pressure
drops to the available head. The user can specify details of the inlet and outlet piping, elevations, and
the available head. In order to maintain a heat balance (that is, to keep the exchanger heat duty equal
to its specified value), a constant vapor generation rate is assumed on the thermosyphon side.
The following steps are used for thermosyphons.
1. Calculate the static head of the column liquid.
2. Calculate pressure drop in the inlet piping and nozzle.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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3. Calculate the new saturation temperature based on the pressure at the inlet to the exchanger.
4. Go through each zone of the exchanger and iterate on the pressure drop in each zone. Once the
pressure drop is converged, the saturation temperature is also updated and the LMTD is
recalculated. Thus the program makes a rigorous calculation of the boiling point rise and always
gives the correct LMTD.
5. Calculate the pressure drop in the outlet piping once the program goes through the last zone.
6. The program will leave the amount vaporized and vary the vapor-liquid split until the loop is
converged.
The calculation of the two-phase density and the two-phase pressure drop is critical to the success of
this calculation. Previously, the Nelson modification of the Lockhart-Martinelli equation was used to
calculate the two-phase density and pressure drop. However, more recently published correlations
have proven to be far more accurate and now supplant the Lockhart-Martinelli method. For the two-
phase density calculation, the CISE method, which is superior to Lockhart-Martinelli, is used since it
takes into account the mass flow effect on the two-phase density.
For the two-phase pressure drop calculation, the program uses both the Baroczy method and the
Friedel correlation and basically uses an average of the two results.
For the heat transfer coefficients for tubeside thermosyphons, the Chen method is used for both two-
phase convection boiling and the nucleate boiling coefficients. The nucleate boiling coefficient used by
Chen is that of Forster and Zuber (developed for boiling on the outside of tubes) and modified to take
into account the lower wall superheat inside the tubes. The basic Forster and Zuber equation calculates
the nucleate boiling coefficient on the outside of tubes for shellside evaporation.
The critical heat flux is determined for both the shellside and the tubeside. The critical heat flux for the
shellside is obtained by calculating the one-tube critical heat flux (as proposed by Kutaladze-Zuber) and
multiplying this by the bundle correction factor (originally from Palen and later modified by Grant). The
critical heat flux for the tube side (proposed by Bowring) is that flux at which dryout begins to occur.
Falling Films:
A falling-film exchanger is computed for a liquid being heated, cooled, or evaporated. Only falling films
inside the tubes are considered. Falling films on the outside of the tubes (the shellside) do exist, but
because they are rare, the program does not handle them presently. The calculation suggested by
Dukler in the above-mentioned reference is used. The program follows the procedures below.
1. Breaks the heat curve calculation into n (default=10) zones.
2. Determine a certain heat load increment and a defined vapor and liquid flow for each zone from the
heat curve.
3. Calculates the hydrodynamics.
4. Assumes a certain pressure drop and loops through each zone several times until the assumed
pressure drop converges on the actual pressure drop.
5. Once the pressure drop is converged, the vapor shear at the wall is computed. A non-dimensional
parameter named BETA (same name used in original Dukler paper) is printed. This parameter
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indicates the magnitude of the effect of the vapor shear. This term increases in proportion to the
amount of liquid evaporated. As this term increases, the turbulence of the film increases. There is
also a correlation between a high BETA and the thinning-out of the film. The thinner the film, the
higher the heat transfer coefficient.
6. Next the program decides whether the regime is laminar or turbulent once the BETA term is
calculated. The Reynold's number is determined in a similar fashion to Dukler and follows closely
his recommendations for the definition of laminar and turbulent flow. The cutoff points between
turbulent and laminar flow will be different depending on whether the process type is a falling film
being heated (or cooled) or a falling film being evaporated. Chun and Seban claim that a weber
number of the order unity is a better indicator of the transition between laminar and turbulent flow.
However, the program still uses the Reynold's number to decide whether the regime is laminar or
turbulent. The program arbitrarily uses a transition Reynold's number, which varies between 800
and 3000. If the vapor shear is high, the program goes as low as 800. If vapor shear is very low,
the program uses a transition number of 3000.
7. Once the flow regime is established, the film thickness is calculated. The boiling mechanism is
two-phase convective boiling with the boiling taking place at the liquid-vapor interface. The heat
transfer phenomenon through the film is one of conduction, and, therefore, the heat transfer
coefficient is determined by the thickness of the film. Nucleate boiling at the tube wall should
usually be avoided. The superheat at the wall necessary for incipient nucleate boiling is determined.
In a well-designed unit, the tube wall temperature should be below the temperature at which
nucleate boiling begins. The program prints the tube wall temperature and the temperature of the
onset of the nucleate boiling at each zone of the calculation. If the product being evaporated is not
temperature-sensitive, nucleate boiling may not be acceptable. The boiling coefficient will almost
always be as high or higher than the falling film coefficient being calculated. However, once
nucleate boiling commences, the phenomenon occurring is no longer convective boiling from a
falling film, but rather nucleate boiling at the tube wall. When a temperature-sensitive product is
present, the user should analyze the program results carefully. In order to avoid nucleate boiling at
the wall, decreasing the shellside temperature may be necessary in order to bring the wall to a
temperature below the superheat for the onset of nucleation. The program does not make this
temperature change automatically.
Avoidance of dry patch formation is a problem in a falling film exchanger. The program prints the
minimum Reynold's number at which the circumference of the tube wall will remain wet. The Reynold's
number of the calculation should be comfortably above this minimum in order to avoid streaking and
patch formation.
Pool Evaporation:
In the calculation of a pool-type evaporator, the program considers the coefficient to be mostly nucleate
boiling although it does consider the effect of natural convection. The calculation of the nucleate boiling
coefficient is by Forster-Zuber. The critical heat flux for the shellside is obtained by calculating the one-
tube critical heat flux (as proposed by Kutaladze-Zuber) and multiplying this by the bundle correction
factor, originally from Palen and later modified by Grant.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
7
Forced Evaporation:
For all types of evaporators, the program considers the simultaneous occurrence of nucleate boiling and
two-phase convective boiling. In cases where the amount evaporated is relatively small, the program
gives more weight to the nucleate boiling mechanism. Conversely, when a substantial amount is
evaporated, more weight is given to the two-phase convective boiling coefficients. As with a
thermosyphon reboiler, the tube wall temperature is elaborately calculated since this has a profound
effect on the nucleate boiling coefficient. When the fluid is almost entirely evaporated, the program
essentially calculates a gas coefficient. If any superheat is present, the coefficient in this region is
essentially a gas coefficient. Chen's two-phase forced convection coefficient is used for tubeside
evaporation. The two-phase forced convection coefficient for shellside evaporation is, essentially, the
shellside coefficient calculated as though the flow were all liquid. The program then multiplies this
coefficient by a suitable two-phase correction factor, empirical in nature and based on experience. The
nucleate boiling coefficient is the method of Forster-Zuber.
When forced evaporation inside the tubes exists and the entering liquid has a lot of subcooling, a
twisted-tape insert to promote turbulence (and the heat transfer coefficient) for the subcooled liquid is
commonly employed. Such twisted-tape inserts are available in the fin tube databank.
CONDENSATION
The program considers the following types of condensation.
Shellside Tubeside
Horizontal Condensation Horizontal Condensation
Vertical Condensation Vertical Condenser
Knock-back Condenser (Reflux condenser)
The program calculates tubeside condensation for both vertical and horizontal condensers, shellside
condensation for both horizontal and vertical condensers, and a reflux (or knock-back) condenser for
vertical in-tube condensation. The algorithm for both shellside and tubeside condensation is similar
because the exchanger is always broken into n (default=10) different zones. The two principal heat
transfer mechanisms occurring (shear-controlled condensation and gravity-controlled condensation) are
always computed for all types of condensers. In between these two extreme zones, the calculation is
considered to be in the transition region between shear-controlled and gravity controlled. For a
condenser where the inlet quality is 100% and the outlet 0%, the flow regime usually is shear-controlled
at the inlet, goes through the transition region, and, finally, is gravity controlled at the outlet. When a
large amount of vapor is present and vapor velocity is very high, the forces on the condensing film are
mostly from the interfacial shear of the vapor and the gravity forces on the film are negligible by
comparison.
The pressure drop computations for condensation are similar to the evaporation methods described
above. The CISE method for the two-phase density calculation is employed. Both the Baroczy method
and the Friedel correlation are utilized for vapor evaporation, and basically an average of the two results
is used in the calculation of the two-phase pressure drop.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
8
For a tubeside thermosyphon, the static head of the vapor-liquid mixture in the tubes always result in a
pressure drop because we are proceeding opposite to the direction for the gravity as we go up the
tubes. The situation in a vertical condenser is the opposite. We are proceeding in the same direction
as gravity and instead of a pressure loss, we have a gain or a negative loss. For some runs, this
pressure gain is larger than the pressure loss due to the combined effects of momentum and friction
and, thus, the sum of the losses can be a negative number (this may appear unusual but, in fact, it is a
real possibility). Three separate effects for the overall pressure drop are considered: frictional,
momentum, and gravity effects.
Shellside Condensation:
The program uses the Nusselt equation for gravity condensation on the outside of the tube banks up to
a Reynold's number of 1000. Above a Reynold's number of 1000, the equation is too conservative.
Thereafter, the semi-empirical equation of Labuntso is employed to predict the gravity coefficient in the
turbulent region. The cutoff Reynold's number of 1000 is an arbitrary choice. Cutoff values in the
literature usually vary between 800 and 1600. The shellside shear-controlled coefficient is determined
in a method similar to that used for forced evaporation on the shellside. The shellside coefficient is
computed as if the flow were all liquid. This coefficient is then multiplied by a suitable two-phase
correction factor, empirical in nature and based on experience.
Tubeside Condensation:
The program uses the Dukler method for gravity condensation for vertical tubes. This method is
described under Falling Film Evaporators. The Nusselt equation is used for gravity condensation inside
horizontal tubes. The flow in the horizontal tube is assumed to be stratified flow, not annular flow. The
Boyko-Kruzhilin method is employed to calculate the shear-controlled coefficient for condensation in
horizontal tubes.
The program also calculates a reflux or knock-back condenser often used on the top of a column. In
this type of exchanger, the vapor flows up the tubes, and the condensate flows counter-current down the
tubes, back into the column. This exchanger is similar to a vertical tubeside condenser except that a
vertical has co-current vapor and liquid flow while the reflux has counter-current flow. The flooding
velocity at the bottom of the tubes must be checked for the reflux condenser.
Multi-Component Condensation and the Effect of Non-Condensibles:
All above-mentioned methods are for condensation of a pure vapor and, as such, do not take into
account the presence of non-condensibles or the effect of large temperature differences between the
vapor dew point and bubble point.
To account for the presence of non-condensibles or large temperature differences between inlet and
outlet, a method similar to that suggested by Silver and Bell & Khaly in the above-cited references is
utilized. For each step along the condensation curve, the program calculates a resistance factor to
include the combined effects of a large temperature difference and the presence of non-condensibles.
A very common occurrence is a steam condenser in the presence of a small quantity of air. This type
gives a graphic illustration of how these resistance factors come into play. For the first several zones of
such an exchanger, the condensing temperature is practically isothermal because only a small amount
of air is present. In the last zone, a sizable temperature difference may exist and the amount of non-
condensibles may become more significant since almost the entire vapor has condensed. Thus, the
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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resistance factor in this last zone could be substantial, and, in such a case, half of the required area is
often necessary for the last zone alone.
Condensate Retention on Low Fin Tubes:
A horizontal shellside condenser with low radial fin tubes is a very common type of exchanger,
especially in the refrigeration industry. Typically in a refrigeration circuit, Freon 12 or Freon 22 will
evaporate in the tubes of the chiller and condense on the shellside of a condenser. The coefficients for
Freon condensing on bare tubes are not particularly high. Coefficients for water flowing inside a tube
are usually high. This presents an excellent opportunity for using low radial fin tubes since the in-tube
coefficient is high (even after relating to tube outer surface). Also the shellside condensing coefficient is
not affected adversely by condensate retention effects of the fins since the surface tension of the freon
is quite low. On the other hand, if steam is being condensed on the outside of a low radial fin tube, the
condensing coefficient is reduced so drastically (because of the condensate retention effects of the fins)
that it is almost never viable to use low fin radial tubes for steam condensing on their outside. If it is
necessary to use some sort of undulation on the tube with steam condensing, a fluted tube is often
used. A typical example of such a fluted tube is the Wolverine Korodense tube. A fluted tube has the
additional advantage of being less rigid than a smooth tube and, thus, for similar operating conditions,
may be less likely to overstress the tubes in a fixed tubesheet exchanger than a smooth tube. The
program has a very extensive databank with low radial fin tubes from such manufacturers as Wolverine,
HPTI, Wieland, etc.
SENSIBLE HEAT TRANSFER
Sensible flow – Tubeside:
The Sieder-Tate equation is employed for the calculation of the tubeside heat transfer coefficient in the
turbulent region. The method of Martinelli and Boelter is utilized for laminar flow in a vertical tube. The
method of Eubank and Proctor is used for laminar flow in horizontal tubes. Both of these correlations
combine the effects of natural convection and forced convection. The flow is assumed to be laminar
below a Reynold's number of 2000 and is turbulent above a Reynold's number of 10000. In the
transition region, the program prorates the laminar and turbulent coefficient according to the Reynold's
number to arrive at the final coefficient. The program uses the Blasius method for the friction factor in
the pressure drop calculation for laminar flow (Reynold's number below 2000). For turbulent flow
(Reynold's number above 3000) and for the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow, the
recommendations made in Section 5 of Perry are followed.
The program has the heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for a twisted-tape turbulence
promoter. It makes one complete revolution over a length equal to four internal diameters.
Sensible Flow – Shellside:
For the coefficient of shellside crossing flow, the stream analysis method is the default. This method
balances the pressure drop across the baffles for each of the possible flow paths. The following flow
paths are considered.
Stream A is that flowing through the space between the tube outer diameter and the baffle hole.
Stream B is the flow across the tube bundle.
Stream C flows between the shell internal diameter and the outer tube limit.
Stream E flows between the shell internal diameter and the baffle outer diameter.
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Stream F flows leaking through the empty spaces left by the tube pass partition.
Parallel flow model is used for calculating the coefficient when shell has no baffle; by setting baffle
spacing greater than tube length. The program can also perform the calculation for rod baffles.
THE ZONE ANALYSIS
For a change-of-phase exchanger, the unit is analyzed using n (default =10) zones. CC-THERM
automatically sets up the zones and properties of each zone, but permits the user to edit or override.
OUTPUT FEATURES
By default, new CC-THERM simulations generate reports in Wordpad, but the user may select
Microsoft Excel instead.
CC-THERM creates the following output reports:

Summary Report

TEMA Sheet

Heating Curves

Shell Side Data

Tube Side Data

Tabulated Data

Zone-by-Zone Analysis

Baffle Data

Clearances Report

Overall Data

Vibration Analysis

Optimization

Stream Data

Reboiler Data
In addition to obtaining a hardcopy output report, you can review the results interactively on the screen
and graphically using the plot features of the program.
CC-THERM COMMANDS
To run a tube and shell heat exchanger calculation in the CHEMCAD Suite, you must access the CC-
THERM menu. This menu provides a set of commands, which are used to setup, run, review, and print
out the analysis. This section describes the use of those commands in detail.
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There are two procedures used to call the CC-THERM menu. The first method is described below (for
design, rating and fouling rating calculations).
RUNNING CC-THERM FROM THE SIZING MENU
1. Run a simulation of a flowsheet containing a heat exchanger. A “heat exchanger” may be a column
condenser, reboiler, or pump around as well as the process heat exchanger unit operation. CC-
THERM must have a heat and material balance around the unit before it can rate or design it.
2. Select the Sizing command from the menu bar. The Sizing menu will open.
3. Highlight the Heat Exchanger option on the Sizing menu. A Heat Exchanger menu will open up.
4. Select the Shell & Tube option from the Heat Exchanger menu.
5. If a heat exchanger is not currently selected, the program will ask you to select one. If a heat
exchanger is currently selected on the flowsheet, the program will assume this is the unit you want
to design or rate.
6. If the selected heat exchanger has never been analyzed before, CC-THERM will walk you through
the input procedure. This will involve identifying the tubeside stream (the shellside stream is then
inferred), specifying utility streams (if necessary), and completing a series of dialog boxes. Once
these have been completed (or at least viewed), the CC-THERM menu will appear.
If the selected heat exchanger has been analyzed before, this walk through procedure will be
skipped and the CC-THERM menu will appear immediately.
The CC-THERM menu is shown below:












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The options on this menu are briefly described below and more fully described later in the manual.
RUNNING CC-THERM FROM A FLOWSHEET HEAT EXCHANGER
It is possible to use CC-THERM directly in a flowsheet to rate the performance of a specified geometry.
This feature is called the “Simulation Mode” and is set up inside the HTXR unit operation. In this mode
the user must describe the exchanger geometry and dimensions to CHEMCAD. When the simulation
calculates the HTXR UnitOp, CC-THERM takes the inlet streams data and uses the specified geometry
to determine how much heat is transferred, what the pressure drops are, and therefore what the outlet
streams are. The operation of a heat exchanger in a simulation mode can be based upon heat transfer
principles rather than solely upon thermodynamic specifications. In other words, the outlet conditions
rely only on geometry and feed conditions.
It is also possible to define the inlet conditions, geometry and outlet conditions, and CC-THERM will
calculate the fouling factors for the HTXR. This is especially useful when combined with our datamap
features: using excel real-time exchanger temperatures may be sent to CC-THERM, fouling factors may
be calculated, and then returned to excel (and any program that can interface to excel).
To invoke either kind of simulation mode, edit the HTXR by double-left clicking on it., and setting the
Simulation mode to “Shell & tube simulation” or “Shell & tube fouling rating”. The input procedure is
described in detail below. It is recommended to size the heat exchanger first before running simulation
mode. See “Running CC-THERM from the Sizing Menu” above
1. Open the Heat Exchanger (HTXR) dialog box.


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2. Select Simulation Mode 1 (Enter Geometry CC-THERM Simulation) or 2 (CC-THERM fouling
factor rating). All other fields of the dialog box will “gray out”, making them inaccessible.
3. Click [OK]. The Heat Exchanger Simulation Menu will open:

4. Enter the exchanger geometry details by completing all of the dialog boxes listed on the menu.
Each dialog box is opened by clicking on the appropriate button of the Heat Exchanger Simulation
Menu.
When all dialog boxes have been completed, click [OK] to return to the menu and then click the Exit
button on the menu to return to CHEMCAD.
DATA ENTRY IN CC-THERM
You will be entering data about your heat exchanger through the CC-THERM dialog boxes. You
should note the CHEMCAD input rules apply. Please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for the
details of all input connections and dialog boxes.
Heat Curve Generation – The heat exchanger analysis calculation takes place in two steps. First, the
heat curve is generated, then the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations are performed. The Heat
Curve Generation performs the first step. This calculation determines the flowrates and physical
properties of the heat transfer fluids in each side of the exchanger. These properties are then used in
the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. Heat curve generation is always done before the rest
of the heat exchanger calculations.
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Edit Heat Curve – This option enables the user to change the heat curve values calculated by CC-
THERM, allowing the user to override the program’s calculated heat curve.
General Specifications – This option is used to define basic exchanger parameters such as head type,
allowable pressure drops, fouling factors, maximum velocities, which heat transfer and pressure drop
equations are to be used, and the calculation rate of the analysis.
Exchanger Geometry – Selecting this option allows the user to provide physical dimensions and
orientations for the shell, tubes, baffles, nozzles, clearances, and to select materials.
Calculate – This is used to execute the thermal analysis and pressure drop calculations.
View Results – This item is used to view the calculated results interactively.
Select Reports –Allows user to configure report settings such as which reports to view, and what
program (Wordpad or Excel) to view the reports in
Generate Reports – This command is used to generate hardcopies of tabulated reports. The user can
select which information is to be included in the final report.
Plot – This option enables the user to graphically display a variety of heat curve, heat transfer, and
pressure drop information on a zone-by-zone basis.
Save Configuration – This saves the current data.
Re-enter Stream Information – When a one-sided heat exchanger is selected from CHEMCAD for
design or rating, the user must provide data defining the utility side flow. This is initially done in the
“Heat Curve Generation” step. This command enables the user to change this second stream
information.
Re-initialize Exchanger – This command completely deletes all data regarding the currently selected
heat exchanger and restarts the input process.
Field by field descriptions of these options are provided below.
UTILITY STREAMS
If the heat exchanger uses a utility stream (for one sided-heat exchanger, reboiler, condenser or
pumparound), CC-THERM will need information defining this stream and its conditions.
The inlet composition and thermodynamic conditions are specified using a stream dialog box just as in
CHEMCAD. The program will calculate the utility flowrate, but an initial guess must be given.
The utility stream flowrate is calculated based upon the heat duty of the exchanger and the outlet
conditions of the stream. The outlet conditions are specified using the following dialog box:
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Specify only one of the following:
Fix Flow: The flowrate will be the flow previously specified in the stream dialog
box.
Fix Outlet Temperature: The outlet temperature of the utility stream.
Fix Outlet Vapor Fraction: The outlet vapor fraction of the utility stream.
HEAT CURVE GENERATION
Selecting this option will cause the Heat Curve Parameters dialog box to appear:

This dialog box contains commands that allow you to enter the data necessary to calculate the heat
curves for the exchanger. If you have made any changes to the streams or heat exchanger units within
CHEMCAD, you will receive a notification from CC-THERM recommending that you recalculate the heat
curve.
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HEAT CURVE INPUT
Cutting method – The heat curve may be set up in zones of:
1. Bubble-dew point (equal enthalpy between dew points and bubble points)
2. Equal enthalpy.
The default is option (1), Bubble-dew point. If the dew points and bubble points are not within the
temperature range of this heat exchanger, then this simplifies to the Equal enthalpy method.
The heat exchanger itself is modeled as a zone-by-zone heat transfer process, and the whole path of
the heat transfer route will be calculated at n points (cutting the exchanger into n-1 zones), where n is
input by the user. The default value of n is 11. The number of cutting points can range from 7 to 31.
The Bubble-dew point method finds the dew points and bubble points first, and divides the region
between them into x zones of equal enthalpy. If super heat is present, it is put into one zone by itself. If
subcooling exists, it is also put into a zone by itself. If the superheat or subcooled zones are very large
compared to the other zones, CC-THERM will cut them into more than one zone.
The Equal enthalpy method calculates the temperature and the flow profiles by generating the
corresponding physical properties based on uniform enthalpy and pressure profiles.
Force dry wall – The user may choose to bypass the wet-wall calculations and force CC-Therm to use
drywall calculations as described below.
Wet wall condensing [Default] occurs whenever condensation occurs immediately at the inlet when the
first gas strikes the tubes. This would obviously occur if the entering fluid were at or below its dewpoint.
However, in many cases, the bulk fluid is above its dewpoint, but still condenses when it hits the
tubewall because the tubewall is so cold. In other words, the local condition at the tubewall is different
than the bulk conditions.
When wet wall condensing occurs, CC-THERM applies the following rules during the computation of
Zone 1:
a. If the inlet temperature is above the dewpoint, the LMTD is taken against the dewpoint
temperature of the fluid. If the inlet temperature is at or below the dewpoint, the actual inlet
temperature is always used in the LMTD calculation.
b. A condensing coefficient is always used even if the bulk fluid is superheated. Wet wall
condensing is the usual condition for a condenser.
Dry wall condensing occurs when the amount of superheat is sufficient so that condensation does not
occur at the tubewall until the fluid cools down. When this happens, CC-THERM applies the following
rules during the computation of Zone 1:
a. The LMTD is always calculated using the actual fluid inlet temperature.
b. A gas coefficient is computed for Zone 1.
By default, CC-THERM will use either dry or wet wall (or a mixture of both) based on the tube-wall
temperature in each zone. The user can override this calculation for either tubeside, shellside, or both.
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Number of cutting points– The entry here determines the number of zones which will be used for the
heat transfer analysis. n points defines n-1 zones. These are thermodynamic zones, not physical
zones. The default is 11 cut points user may enter between 7 and 31 points.
Countercurrent/Cocurrent flow
The heat curve is affected by the direction of fluid flow through the exchanger.
In countercurrent flow, the shell and tube flows are in opposite direction. Fluid at the tube inlet is
exchanging heat with fluid exiting the shell. (default)
In cocurrent flow, the shell and tube flows are in the same direction. Fluid at the tube inlet is
exchanging heat with fluid at the shell inlet.
EDIT HEAT CURVES
This option is used to modify the values CHEMCAD calculated for the heat curve. To change a value,
you simply type over it. The heat curve data will be displayed in a dialog box like that shown below:

This dialog box scrolls to the left (using the elevator bar at the bottom) to display additional values.
To save your changes, click the [OK] BUTTON.
If blanks or zeros are left between entered values, the program will use linear interpolation to fill them in.
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GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
The General Specifications dialog box is provided to permit you to define the general calculation
parameters such as calculation mode, heat transfer type, allowable pressure drops, etc. The General
Information dialog box appears as follows.
Page 1:


Page 2:


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These fields are described below.
THE GENERAL INFORMATION TAB
Calculation mode – There are three calculation modes, design, rating, and fouling rating.
Design mode: Optimizes shell diameter, # of tubes, tube length, and baffle spacing based upon the
design criteria (Appears after hitting OK on General Specifications when in design mode).
Rating mode: Calculates excess area based on current geometry and heat curve. For example, if a
given heat curve in a given exchanger needs 1000 square feet, and this exchanger has 1100 square
feet, the excess area is 10%.
Fouling Rating: Similar to Rating mode, except the shell and tube fouling factors are adjusted to give
0% excess area. This is useful to calculate existing exchanger fouling factors.
TEMA class - The class is in accordance with the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer's Association
(TEMA). When not running according to TEMA, other options are available. These standards refer
mostly to the mechanical details of the exchanger. Consequently, the thermal design and analysis of
the exchanger are not heavily influenced by this parameter.
The mechanical class (TEMA Class) affects the thermal calculation in two ways.
1. If affects the tube-sheet sizing calculation. CC-THERM will compute the approximate thickness of
the tubesheet. This is necessary to determine the effective area for heat transfer. The portion of
the tube covered by the tubesheet will not be available for heat transfer. The mechanical class
specifies which rules are to be used to size the tubesheet.
2. The class will also determine what standard commercial sizes are available for various components
of the exchanger. For instance, standard pipe shells would be different using TEMA (American) or
DIN (German) standards. The pipe shell ID's would then affect the tube count and, thus, the area
available for heat transfer.
TEMA R
TEMA B
TEMA C
ASME
DIN A.D. Merkblatter
British Standard 5500
Non-standard
TEMA front head - The following selections are available under this option.
A = Channel and Removable Cover
B = Bonnet
C = Removable Bundle
D = Special High Pressure Closure
N = Channel with Tubesheet and Removable Cover
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TEMA shell type - The following selection is available under this option.
E = One Pass
F = Two Pass
G = Split Flow
H = Double Split Flow
J = Divided Flow
K = Kettle Reboiler
X = crossflow shell
TEMA rear head - The following selections are available under this option.
L = Fixed Tubesheet (A head)
M = Fixed Tubesheet (B head)
N = Fixed Tubesheet (N head)
P = Outside Packed Flt Head
S = Flt Head with Backing Device
T = Pull Through Flt Head
U = U-Tube Bundle
W = Exit sealed Flt Tubesheet
Stream name – Optional stream names may be entered for the shell and tube sides of the heat
exchanger. These names are only used for reporting purposes.
Process type - You must determine the process type on both the shell and tube sides. The process
type specifies which heat transfer mechanism is to be used when calculating the film coefficients. For
instance, while it is obvious that CC-THERM will know when there is evaporation on the tubeside, it will
not know if that evaporation is forced, falling film, or thermosyphon. You must define which evaporation
mechanism is to be used. The following process types are accommodated.
Tubeside Shellside
Sensible flow Sensible flow
Horizontal condensation Horizontal condensation
Vertical condensation Vertical Condensation
Knock-back condensation Forced Evaporation
Forced evaporation Pool evaporation
Falling film evaporation Horizontal thermosyphon
Vertical thermosyphon
Fouling factor - Input of this variable is required for design or rating cases. For fouling rating cases,
this number will be calculated. It is a thermal resistance included to account for the fouling.
Optional h Coefficient - Input of this variable is optional. If one wants to specify shell or tube side film
heat transfer coefficient, he or she could enter the value in the corresponding field. The program will
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take this value in calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient. In case of zone-by-zone analysis, this
value will be used in calculating the local overall heat transfer coefficient for each zone.
THE MODELING METHODS TAB
Tubeside Methods:
Laminar Flow– This option defines which equation is to be used to calculate the sensible heat transfer
film coefficient for laminar flow on the tubeside. The options are:
Eubank-Proctor Reference S9
VDI–Mean Nusselt Number Reference S13
Turbulent Flow– This option specifies which method is to be used to calculate the tubeside film
coefficient for sensible, turbulent flow on the tubeside, the options are:
Program Select CC-THERM will select the most appropriate method based
upon the turbulent flow conditions.
Seader-Tate Reference No. S1
Colburn Method Reference No. S2
Dittus-Boelter Reference No. S2
ESDU Method Reference No. S17
Mean VDI Nusselt Reference No. S18
Single Phase Frictional Pressure Drop - This identifies the method to be used to calculate the
tubeside frictional pressure drop. The options are:
Blasius Equation See Reference No. S15
Chen’s Method See Reference No. S16
Two Phase Frictional Pressure Drop - This option permits the user to select the method to be used to
calculate the two-phase pressure drop. This method is used for both the tubeside and the shellside.
The options are:
Lockhart-Martinell See Reference No. C18
Friedal (CISE method) See Reference No. E6 and E8
Chisholm Method See Reference No. C19
Void Fraction - The void fraction model is used to calculate the two-phase flow void fraction for the
calculation of two-phase pressure drop. The options are:
Premoli, et. al. See Reference No. E17
Homogeneous Model See Reference No. C19
Lockhart & Martinelli See Reference No. E6 and E8
Vertical Condensation - The options are:
Chemstations Method See Reference No. C24
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VDI Method See Reference No. C25
Falling Film Evaporation - The options are:
Hewitt et. al. See Reference No. E25
VDI See Reference No. E26
Shellside Methods:
Single Phase - This option selects which method is to be used to calculate the shellside pressure drops
and film coefficients for sensible flow. The options are:
Stream-analysis Method Reference No. S4, S14, S15, S16
Bell-Delaware Method Reference No. S3
Kern Method Reference No. S2
No Vapor Shear Condensation, Horizontal - The laminar condensation model is used to calculate the
condensing film coefficient for laminar flow. The available options are:
Kern Method See Reference No. S2
Nusselt See Reference No. C20
Eisenberg See Reference No. C20
Vapor Shear Condensation, Horizontal - The turbulent condensation model is used to calculate the
condensing film coefficient in turbulent flow. The available options are:
Nusselt See Reference No. C20
McNaught Method See Reference No. C21
Taborek Method See Reference No. C22
SBG Multicomponent condensation - Selecting this option applies the Silver-Bell-Ghaly (SBG)
procedure to the calculation of non-isothermal (i.e., multicomponent) condensation. This is the default.
References: C1, C2
Parallel Flow Model If Shell Diameter < Baffle Spacing – If this option is checked, the program will
use parallel flow model for shell side computation when shell diameter is less than center baffle spacing.
However, the crossing flow model is always used when shell diameter is greater than center baffle
spacing. It is suggested to check this option if baffle spacing is far greater than shell diameter. Leave
this option unchecked when running design.
Subcooling Flow Pattern – Choose from stratified or filled pipe liquid flow. This option applies only to
condensers.
The liquid filled model assumes that after the bulk dew point is reached, the tube is completely filled with
liquid. Therefore, in subcooling zones, the velocities and film coefficients are low. This is a very
conservative method.
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In the liquid stratified flow model local subcooling occurs before the bulk dew point is reached.
Therefore, the flow is stratified even in the subcooling zones. The nature of the stratification depends
on whether the exchanger is vertical or horizontal.
Orientation – Select from Horizontal or Vertical.
LMTD Correction Factor – This option allows the user to override CC-THERM’s calculated LMTD
correction factor by specifying his/her own correction factor.
Warning level – Specify an integer between 0 and 3. Default is 2. The value controls suppression of
warning messages during CC-THERM calculation.
0 all warning messages are suppressed
1 most warning messages are suppressed
2 few warning messages are suppressed
3 no warning messages are suppressed
THE DESIGN OPTIONS DIALOG BOX
If the design mode is selected on the General Information dialog box, then when this dialog box is
closed, the Design Options dialog box will appear. The purpose of this dialog box is to allow the user
to constrain the sizing calculation to specified boundaries. The dialog box is shown below:

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DESIGN CRITERIA
Allowable tube pressure drop: An entry in this field forces the program to select an exchanger which
keeps the tubeside pressure drop (including the pressure drop through the nozzles) below this value.
The default is 5 psi.
If the nozzles are to be sized, 25% of this value is used as the allowable pressure drop across the
nozzles.
Allowable shell pressure drop: An entry in this field forces the program to select an exchanger which
keeps the shellside pressure drop (including the pressure drop through the nozzles) below this value.
The default is 5 psi.
If the nozzles are to be sized, 25% of this value is used as the allowable pressure drop across the
nozzles.
Allowable tube velocity: An entry in this field forces the program to select an exchanger which keeps
the tubeside velocity below this value. The default depends upon the vapor fraction of the fluid, but will
always be displayed when you first enter the dialog box.
Allowable shell velocity: An entry in this field forces the program to select an exchanger which keeps
the shellside velocity below this value. The default depends upon the vapor fraction of the fluid, but will
always be displayed when you first enter the dialog box.
Prefer tube length/shell diameter ratio: CC-THERM will attempt to select an exchanger which is close
to this ratio, i.e., the value of the tube length divided by the value of the inside shell diameter. This
constraint has a lower priority compared to the other constraints.
Minimum excess %: The selected exchanger must have at least this much extra heat transfer surface
The default is 0%.
{% excess area} = 100* ({design area} – {required area} ) / {required area}
SIZING NOZZLES
If these fields are checked (default), then the program will size the nozzles during the design calculation.
If these fields are blank, then the user must specify the nozzle sizes on the Nozzles dialog box, which is
on the Exchanger Geometry menu.
LIMITS OF DESIGN VARIABLES
These entries limit the allowable dimensions which the program can choose from when searching for an
exchanger which will meet the design criteria. The program must stay between the lower and upper
limits of each of the variables.
Tube Length: This is the installed tube length including that portion covered by the tubesheet(s).
Therefore, not all of this length will be available for heat transfer.
Shell Diameter: This is the nominal diameter of the shell if a pipe shell is being used or the inside
diameter of the shell if rolled plate is being used.
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Baffle Cut: This specification is in percent and can be based on diameter (default) or area depending
on what is specified on the Baffles dialog box on the Exchanger Geometry Menu.
Baffle Spacing: This is the distance between baffles. If there are tubes in the window, the unsupported
tube length is twice this value.
Optimize number of passes: Check this option to have the program optimize the number of tube
passes when doing a design calculation for shell and tube heat exchangers.
THE THERMOSYPHON REBOILER DIALOG BOX
If your heat exchanger is a thermosyphon reboiler, then you may want the program to calculate the
amount of fluid circulating through the syphon. This calculation requires knowledge of the inlet and
outlet piping geometry as well as of the available static head. The Thermosyphon Reboiler dialog
box is designed to collect this information. It will open whenever you close the General Information
dialog box only if you are designing or rating a thermosyphon.
The Thermosyphon Reboiler dialog box is shown below:














Most of these fields describe the reboiler inlet and outlet piping. This description, along with the
specified static head determines the recirculation rate. The available static head (labeled “Inlet Static
Head” in the dialog box) is the height of the liquid in the bottom of the column above the reboiler inlet
tubesheet.
The fields are described below.
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Calculate Circulation Rate: This field (located at the upper left of the dialog box), if checked, tells the
program to calculate the thermosyphon fluid recirculation by matching the system pressure drop to the
specified Inlet Static Head. This requires the program to iterate upon the inlet liquid flowrate of the
reboiler.
If this field is not checked, then CC-THERM will make no attempt to calculate the recirculation rate. The
reboiler inlet flowrate will be that taken from the flowsheet simulation.
Outlet Mol Vapor Fraction: This is the vapor fraction of the reboiler outlet stream. It must be specified
on a molar basis.
If the circulation rate is to be calculated, this value is calculated by the program. The initial value used
by the calculation is taken from the heat curve.
If the circulation rate is not to be calculated, then this value can be specified by the user. The heat
balance at this vapor fraction will then set the inlet liquid flowrate. The pressure drop associated with
this process flowrate will be calculated, but no attempt will be made to match the available static head.
The default value is always taken from the heat curve.
Outlet Elevation: The outlet elevation is the elevation difference between the reboiler outlet nozzle(s)
and the return nozzle to the column. Default is 4 feet for Vertical, 10 feet for horizontal
Inlet Static Head: This is the elevation difference between the surface of the liquid in the bottom of the
column and the “inlet” tubesheet closest to the inlet nozzle.
This value is specified in the height of process liquid. If the thermosyphon circulation rate is to be
calculated by the program, then this field must be specified. The circulation rate calculation will vary the
reboiler inlet flowrate until the calculated pressure drop from the column outlet nozzle to the column
return nozzle matches the specified inlet static head. Default is 8 feet for either vertical or horizontal.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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No. of Inlet Nozzles: This is the number of the inlet nozzles on the process side of the reboiler itself. If
the thermosyphon is vertical, you will always want to use a one in this field. However, horizontal or shell
side thermosyphons may have more than one inlet nozzle depending upon the TEMA shell type. CC-
THERM will not automatically pick up this value, so if it is other than one, you will need to enter it.
Multiple inlet nozzles affect the performance of the process side pressure drop calculation.
No. of Outlet Nozzles: This is the number of outlet nozzles on the process side of the reboilers itself. If
the thermosyphon is vertical, this will almost always be one (the default). However, horizontal or shell-
side thermosyphon may have more than one inlet nozzle depending on the TEMA shell type. CC-
THERM will not automatically pick up this value, so if it is other than one, you will need to enter it.
Multiple outlet nozzles affect the performance of the process side pressure drop calculation.
No. of Inlet Elbows: Specify the number of ninety degree turns in the piping going from the bottom of
the column to the reboiler inlet nozzle(s). The default is two. The resistance for this number of
standard, 90
0
elbows will be added to the inlet pipe length specified below when the pressure drop
calculations are performed.
No. of Outlet Elbows: Specify the number of 90
0
turns in the outlet piping going from the reboiler outlet
nozzle(s) to the column return nozzle. The default is one. The resistance for this number of 90
0
elbows
will be added to the outlet pipe length specified below when the pressure drops are calculated.
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28
INLET PIPE
Length: Specify the length (or total equivalent length of all flow resistances) of the inlet pipe (from the
column outlet nozzle to the reboiler inlet nozzle). The default value is 15 feet.
Diameter: Specify the inlet piping diameter. The default value is the rebolier inlet nozzle diameter if
known. This is the inside diameter.
Thickness: Specify the wall thickness of the inlet piping.
OUTLET PIPE
Length: Specify the length (or total equivalent length of all flow resistance) of the outlet piping (from the
reboiler outlet nozzle(s) to the column return nozzle). The default value is 10 feet.
Diameter: Specify the outlet piping diameter. The default value is the reboiler outlet nozzle diameter if
known. This is the inside diameter.
Thickness: Specify the wall thickness of the outlet piping.
Neither the safety factor nor the required static head is used in the determination of the required
calculation rate.
Set all to default: Clicking on this button restores the default values for all fields the Thermosyphon
Reboiler dialog box.
EXCHANGER GEOMETRY
The Exchanger Geometry option is used to define the geometry of the heat exchanger. Its purpose is
to permit the user to make detailed specifications concerning the dimensions and arrangement of the
heat exchanger.
Selecting this option will cause the Exchanger Geometry Menu to appear like so:

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29
Each of the above displays an input dialog box through which the detailed information is provided.
TUBES
The Tubes Parameter dialog box is used to define tube and tube arrangement information. The Tubes
Parameter dialog box appears as follows:
















These fields are described below.
Number of tubes – Enter the total number of tubes in the shell here. For U-Tube bundles or other multi-
pass systems, enter the number of holes in the tubesheet here. For example, if you had 100 U tubes you
would enter 200 here (2 passes). In design cases this field will gray out (design optimizes this).
Number of tube passes - For the design case, it is recommended that you allow the program to
optimize the number of tube passes. Typical U-tubes would have 2 passes here, or in the case of W-
tubes, 4 passes.
Tube outer diameter - The tube diameter is an optional input. If no value is input, the program defaults
to a diameter of ¾-inch (19.05-mm) outside diameter tubes.
Tube wall thickness - The wall thickness input is optional. If no value is input, the program defaults to
BWG 16 (.065-inches or 1.65-mm).
Tube length - This is the overall bundle length. In design cases this field will gray out (design optimizes
this).
Roughness factor – Enter the absolute roughness of the tube. This value is used in the frictional
pressure loss calculation. Default is 6.2e-5 inches.
Tube pattern - The following selection is available under this option.
Triangular (30)
Rotated Triangular (60) [Default]
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30
Square (90)
Diamond (45)
Tube pitch - The units are in inches or mm. The tube pitch is the distance between tube centers. The
default is 1.25 x tube diameter.
Trufin tube code - To use fin tubes, select the appropriate type from the drop-down list. Data for fin
tubes is stored in a databank in the CC5 directory. The default is bare tubes. If user specified is selected
an additional dialog box will appear after completing the Fin Tube Methods dialog box. The Finned
tube Specifications dialog box will appear so that the user can make relevant specifications.
Turbulator - To use turbulators (static mixing elements), select the appropriate type from the drop-down
list.
SHELL

The purpose of the Shell Specifications dialog box is to define shell information. The Shell
Specifications dialog box appears as follows
These fields are described below.
Shell diameter - If you are using a pipe shell, the diameter in this field will be the nominal diameter. If
you are using a rolled shell, the diameter will be the internal diameter. In design cases this field will gray
out (design optimizes this). When in the design mode, the program will use a pipe shell diameter up to
24-inches and, thereafter, will use a rolled shell.
When making a design run and using ASME (but not TEMA) or BS 5500 as the class for the exchanger,
the program begins the design algorithm with a 2-inch (50-mm) shell diameter. When using DIN, the
program starts with a 4-inch (100-mm) shell diameter and when using TEMA, the program starts with an
8-inch (200-mm) shell diameter.
Use standard pipe as shell - If you are using a pipe shell and wish to display the nominal diameter,
then check this box. Otherwise the diameter listed is the inside diameter of the exchanger.
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Number of shells in parallel - The default is one (1). Any positive integer number is allowed.
Number of shells in series - The default is one (1). Any positive integer number is allowed.
Untubed area/OTL area of tube sheet – This option allows the user to input the ratio of untubed area
and the outer tube limits area of tube tubesheet. Any positive number between 0.0 and 0.5 is allowed.
Calculate tube count - This button runs a tool for determining how many tubes will fit into shell diameter.
BAFFLES
The purpose of the Baffle Specifications dialog box is to permit you to define baffle geometry. This
information is optional when in the design mode but it is required for a rating. The Baffles
Specifications dialog box appears as follows.

These fields are described below.
Baffle type - Any of the following baffle configurations may be selected.
Single segmental baffle (default)
Double segmental baffle
Triple segmental baffle
Segmental(No tubes in window)
Disk & Donut
Rod
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32
Single segmental baffle is the default. Generally speaking, the higher the baffle segmentation, the lower
the shellside pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. Double and triple segmental baffles lower
velocities and therefore pressure drops and film coefficients as well.
No-tubes-in-window and rod baffles are used when high gas velocities on the shellside are producing
vibration problems. Both effectively lower velocities while maintaining short tube spans, resulting in lower
tube natural frequencies.
The baffle spacings below refer to the edge-to-edge spacing of the baffles, not center-to-center spacing.
Inlet spacing This is the spacing between the front tubesheet and the first
baffle. The program will calculate this spacing if left blank.
Center spacing This is a mandatory input if you are making a rating case. If
making a design run, the program will optimize on this parameter.
Outlet spacing This is the spacing between the last baffle and the rear
tubesheet. The program will calculate this value if left blank.
Number of baffles User may leave any of the above spacing blank and enter the # of
baffles, CC-THERM will recalculate the spacing to accommodate
the number of baffles .
Baffle thickness The baffle thickness affects the effective area of the tube and the
vibration analysis. The default is indicated.
Baffle cut percent The program assumes that the cut is a percent of the diameter. If
the cut is based on area, you should indicate such in the field
below. If the baffle is a rod baffle or a full circle type, then place a
0 in this field.
X Overlap This is the amount of overlap for double segmental and triple
segmental baffles. X is the overlap distance. X-overlap field will
appear only if you select double or triple segmental baffles.
Tubesheet thickness This is the thickness of the tubesheet.
Direction of baffle cut The following selections are available under this option:
Vertical cut
Horizontal cut [Default]
Diagonal cut
Basis of cut The following selection is available under this option.
Diameter
Area
Impingement plate Selecting "Let program decide" will allow the program to
determine if an impingement plate is necessary using the rules of
TEMA. Using Impingement Plate or No Impingement Plate will
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
33
force the use or exclusion of an impingement plate.
When it is not practical to fit an impingement plate inside or
outside a shell, a vapor belt could be used to reduce entrance
momentum of high speed vapor at inlet nozzle. CCTHERM allows
use of box type vapor belt as impingement device. One may
refer to the figure 9 on page 4.2.5-8 of HEDH. Three input
variables are Belt diameter, Port hole diameter, and Belt width.
Belt diameter should be specified larger than shell diameter,
otherwise a value of shell diameter plus half of nozzle diameter
will be used. Port hole diameter is the diameter of the hole on the
shell continuous through which vapor enters the shell. If more
than one hole or non round hole is used, an area equivalent
diameter may be specified. If not specified, the value of nozzle
diameter will be used for the port hole diameter. Belt width
should be specified greater than nozzle diameter, other wise a
value twice of nozzle diameter will be used for the width in the
calculation of vapor belt pressure drop.
Intermediate Baffles per baffle
space
You should input the number of intermediate baffles per baffle
space to be used when using No Tubes-in-Windows baffles.
Vibration problems on the exchanger shellside warrant the use of
intermediate baffles so as to shorten the unsupported tube length
and thus increase the natural frequency of the tube bundle.
NOZZLES
The purpose of the Nozzles Specifications dialog box is to permit you to specify nozzle sizes. The
Nozzles Specifications dialog box appears as follows.

These fields are described below.
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34
Nozzle diameter - This diameter is the nominal diameter in all cases. Even if making a rating, it is not
obligatory to input the nozzle diameter, as the program will calculate them if this information is omitted.
Longneck - If the nozzles are to be longneck, enter a check mark in this field by clicking on it. The
default is no.
Orientation - This is the orientation of the shellside nozzles. The options are:
Opposite side
Same side
The default for this field is to have the nozzles placed on the opposite side of the exchanger. If you want
to have them located on the same side, the user should select same side. This will effect the baffle
count for a single segmental baffle. With same side, the baffle count will be odd; with opposite side,
the baffle count will be even.
The default for a J-shell is one (1) inlet and two (2) outlets. You may reverse this setup by selecting
opposite side.
Tubeside flow enters
Bottom nozzle
Top nozzle
CLEARANCES
The Clearances dialog box permits you to specify the machining tolerances of the exchanger.
Clearances can have a significant influence on the tube count as well as the shellside heat transfer and
pressure drop.
Specification of clearances on this screen is optional regardless of whether you are running a design or a
rating. However, if clearances are not specified, CC-THERM imposes clearances according to the
following rules.
In the design mode, clearances are established according to the standard specified by TEMA. Since the
shell ID is selected from commercial standards and therefore is fixed, the tube count is adjusted to fill the
space fixed by the shell and the clearances. Changing the specifications in the Clearances dialog box
will cause the tube count to change for a given diameter.
For a rating case where the clearances have not been specified, the procedure is somewhat reversed.
The user specifies the shell ID and the tube count. The outer tube limits (OTL) is calculated from the
tube count. The tube hole clearance, baffle-to-shell ID clearance, and (for pull through floating heads)
the gasket and bolt sizes are taken from the selected standard. The shell ID to the OTL clearance and
the baffle OD to OTL diameter clearance are taken by difference. If the difference is negative, the
program will print a message saying the tubes will not fit into the shell. If the clearance is large, the
program will use this large clearance in the stream analysis. This may result in unrealistically low
shellside heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops.
Since fitting tubes into a bundle is to some extent an art and not an exact science, you may want (in the
rating case) to force the program to use specified clearances, tube count, and shell ID. This includes
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
35
when the CC-THERM tube count route would indicate that these parameters are inconsistent. The
program will permit this. In this event, the specified clearances and tube count are used in the analysis,
effectively setting the shell ID equal to the OTL plus the OTL-to-shell ID clearance as far as the
calculation is concerned, but using the specified shell ID in the output. This approach gives you
complete control of the calculation.
The Clearances dialog box appears as follows:

These fields are described below.
Baffle to shell - This is the gap between the inside wall of the shell and the baffle. This gap is defined
on a diametrical basis. Therefore, if the actual gap between the baffle and the shell ID is 0.25-inches, the
entry in this field should be 0.5-inches since there are two gaps along the diameter, one at each end.
This entry would only be used if you do not accept the program default for this option.
Shell outer tube limit - The default for this option is the TEMA Standard clearance and you should also
refer to the Number of Tubes in the Tube menu. When this entry is input and a rating case is being
made, the program will accept any tube count, which the user inputs. Therefore, greater care must be
taken when this field is input. This option was purposely programmed in a fashion to circumvent any
problems the user might have when making a rating case and the program finds that the tubes do not fit
and yet the user is analyzing an existing exchanger and hence knows the tube count to be correct.
Tube to baffle hole - This is a diametrical gap. This entry would only be used if the user did not accept
the program default of this option.
In-line pass partition – This is the space between the tubeset and the partition. The in-line pass
partition size may have a significant effect upon the amount of vapor or liquid that bypasses the regular
S-shaped flow pattern on the shell side of the exchanger. The fluid that is bypassed follows a more linear
path through the shell.
Space at top of bundle - This space is measured from the outside diameter of the top row of tubes to
the horizontal line described by the intersection of the shell with the shell nozzle horizontal line located at
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
36
the top of the shell. A space of this nature is usually necessary if an impingement plate is present, and it
is located on the bundle (it could also be located inside the shell nozzle). If the program is used in the
design mode and an impingement plate is necessary the program will automatically calculate this space
to meet the requirements of TEMA. It will also keep this space to the minimum necessary to allow the
maximum number of tubes to fit in the given shell diameter. When using this option, you should be
aware that if too small a value is placed here, it may provoke a disproportionately high pressure drop in
the shell inlet nozzle and this could effect the program's convergence characteristics. Also, if you have
No-Tubes-in-Window type baffles, a space similar to the one described herein will exist between the
bundle and the shell. It is not necessary (and you should not use this option) to specify this void space
for such a situation unless the void space necessary for placing the impingement plate is greater than the
void space of the baffle cut of the No-Tubes-in-Window baffle.
Space at bottom of bundle - This space is measured from the outside diameter of the bottom row of
tubes to the horizontal line described by the intersection of the shell with the shell nozzle located at the
bottom of the shell. It may be necessary to use such a space, for example, when there is a sparger pipe
located at the bottom of a kettle reboiler. In this case, a few rows of tubes would have to be eliminated
from the bottom of the bundle and hence a void space would exist there. Again, as noted above, this
option should not be used for the case of No-Tubes-in-Window type baffles unless the void space of the
bundle is greater than the baffle cut.
Pass clearance lane - The units are inches or mm. The pass clearance lane is calculated according to
the TEMA-recommended dimensions of the pass partition plate and whether the tubes are welded or
expanded to the tubesheet. The pass clearance lane may have a significant effect on the heat transfer
calculations on the shellside of the exchanger depending on the direction of the baffle cut and the tube
pass arrangement.
MATERIALS
The Materials dialog box is used to specify the materials of construction. It is shown below.

You may specify the material type for each of the five exchanger components. This is accomplished by
selecting one component's arrow box, which will bring up a scroll box containing the types of material
available. Select the type using the mouse or arrow keys.
You may also input tube material density and elastic modulus.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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MISCELLANEOUS
The purpose of this dialog box is to permit the user to define a variety of parameters, which do not fit
neatly into the other categories. The Miscellaneous dialog box appears as follows.

These fields are described below.
Rows/sealing strip - A sealing strip is a longitudinal, metal strip placed in the gap between the outer
tube limit and the shell inside diameter in order to block bypass flow on the shell-side. If the user wishes
to utilize sealing strips, you should do so here by indicating the number of rows at which sealing strips will
be placed. For instance, if it will be every four rows, the number here would be 4. If the user is designing
an exchanger with liquid or gas on the shell side and the rear head is TEMA type S or T, the program will
automatically place sealing strips every 5 rows unless overridden by a number in this field.
Entrainment ratio - If you have a pool evaporator, you can specify the maximum amount ratio of
entrained liquid in the vapor stream, and he/she would do so with this option. The program default is 2%.
If the user places a small value (say 1%), the disengagement space will become proportionately greater,
and, hence, the kettle diameter would become bigger. The kettle size may be fixed with the option listed
under the Shells Parameter dialog box (if used, this option would become irrelevant).
Heat duty - The program always calculates and balances the heat loads on both the shell-side and the
tube-side of the exchanger. If the user wants the output to appear with a rounded-up value of the
calculated heat duty or simply wishes to design the heat exchanger for some excess heat load capacity,
he/she may do so with this option.
Tube axial stress - If vibration problems are a major concern, this may become an important option to
use as it may have an important effect on the tube bundle natural frequency. This is especially true if the
tube stress is a compressive one, as this will lower the bundle natural frequency and very possibly
exacerbate any vibration problems. If the stress is input with a negative sign, it is considered to be a
compressive stress; otherwise, it will be considered to be a tensile stress.
U-bend efficiency (%) - If the user has a U-tube exchanger and he/she wishes to include some or all of
the U portion of the tube as being effective for heat transfer, he/she may do so with this option. If the
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38
number 100 is input, this indicates that the entire U portion is effective in heat transfer and its surface will
be included in the overall surface area. The default for this option is 0% or, in other words, none of the
U-bend surface will be included in the overall heat transfer surface area.
U-bend outermost radius - The default radius for the inner row of a U-tube bundle is 1.5 x the tube
diameter. If the user wishes to use a different value, he/she may enter that value here.
U-bend center to nearest baffle radius – This is distance from the center of the U-bend to the closest
baffle.
U-bend orientation – The user may specify the orientation of the U-bend relatively to the baffles by
choosing the appropriate option from the combo box.
CALCULATE
The Calculate command tells the program to execute the design or rating calculation. To begin the
calculation, move the pointer to the Calculate option and click the left mouse button. After the command
is issued, the program performs a complete data check to make sure there is no missing or unreasonable
information. If errors or warnings are detected, the program shows an error message on the screen. The
program allows you to either change the data or ignore the error messages.
In the design mode, the progress of the calculation will be reported in the lower left corner.
VIEW RESULTS
The View Results option enables the user to interactively review selected results on the screen. When
selected, the VIEW MENU appears on the screen like so:

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The sixteen (16) items listed provide summaries of the specific information requested. All displays are
in Wordpad so that they can be edited, printed, and/or saved. The format and content of these displays
are the same as in the CC-THERM reports. Since a complete explanation of this output is given under
the report generation section of this manual, no effort is made to duplicate that information here. Please
refer to the CC-THERM REPORT GENERATION section of this manual for further descriptions. A brief
description of each VIEW MENU option is given below.
SUMMARY RESULTS
This selection allows you to view a short summary of the most important input and output of the heat
exchanger calculations.
SHELL-SIDE DATA
This option shows the shell-side data for the current exchanger. This includes the film coefficient,
Reynold’s No., pressure drops, velocities, and stream factors.
TUBESIDE DATA
This option shows the tubeside data for the current exchanger. This includes the film coefficient,
velocity, Reynold’s No., pressure drops, and reference factor.
BAFFLE DATA
This option displays a summary of the current baffle specifications (input).
CLEARANCE DATA
This option displays a summary of the current heat exchanger clearances being used by the program
(input).
OVERALL DATA
This option displays a summary of the duty, area(s), heat transfer coefficient(s), and LMTD(s) of the
heat exchanger.
TABULATED DATA
This option displays the Shell-side Data, Tubeside Data, Clearance Data, Baffle Data, Tabulated
pressure drop distribution and Overall Data summaries together on one page.
HEAT CURVES
This displays the temperatures, vapor and liquid rates, heat duties, and physical and transport
properties for each zone. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop
calculations.
ZONE-BY-ZONE DATA
This option allows the user to review the zone-by-zone calculated results for both the tubeside and the
shell-side.
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VIBRATION
This displays the vibration analysis performed by CC-THERM. Results displayed include the natural
frequency, location of vibration, vibration criteria for the analysis, the turbulent buffeting frequency, the
vortex shedding frequency, vibration amplitude, and the acoustical frequency of the tube, as well as the
critical ratios of these numbers.
OPTIMIZATION
This shows the optimization sequence used by CC-THERM.
STREAM DATA
This option displays the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out of
the heat exchanger.
REBOILER DATA
This option displays a summary of thermosyphon and kettle reboiler calculations.
TEMA SHEET
This option displays the completed TEMA sheet.
INPUT DATA REPORT
This option displays a summary of the input data.
SELECT REPORTS
This displays a menu that allows you to select which reports and information you want to include in your
output.

CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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You man select to view results in Excel or in Wordpad, these settings apply for both report generation
and for viewing results.
You may select any of the report choices by clicking the desired option. A check mark will appear
indicating that the report will be included. To de-select an item, click on the box to make the checkmark
disappear. The contents of each report are described below.
LABEL
This option allows you to specify general information for output labeling.
Customer - Enter the name of the customer, limited to 40 characters.
Address - Enter the address of the service, limited to 40 characters.
Plant Location - Enter the plant location where the exchanger will be placed in service, limited to 40
characters.
Reference - Enter the reference number for this exchanger, limited to 10 characters.
Proposal - Enter the proposal number for this exchanger, limited to 10 characters.
Date - Enter the date, limited to 10 characters.
Revision - Enter the revision number of this calculation, limited to 10 characters.
Service of unit - Enter the type of service the exchanger will be used in, limited to 12 characters.
Item Number - Enter the item number, limited to 12 characters. Default is the equipment ID number.
Shell-side fluid - Enter the name of the shell-side fluid, limited to 12 characters.
Tubeside fluid - Enter the name of the tubeside fluid, limited to 12 characters.
Design Pressure - Enter the mechanical design pressure at the tubeside and shell-side.
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Design Temperature - Enter the mechanical design temperature at the tubeside and shell-side.
Corrosion Allowance - Enter the corrosion allowance at the tubeside and shell-side.
Comments - Enter the remarks you wish for the TEMA report.
GENERATE REPORTS
Selecting this option will generate the reports selected under “Select Reports”
PLOT
From the Plot Menu, you can plot several zone-by-zone results graphically. The plots are displayed in
Plot Windows. Therefore, the user can modify or edit the plots using the commands provided by this
window.
The following plot categories are available:
HEAT CURVE
Process heat curve is a plot of heat duty versus temperature for both sides of the exchanger.
HEAT FLUX
Heat flux (for evaporators)
LMTD
Log-mean temperature difference for each zone.
TEMPERATURE
Tube side, tube side wall, shell side wall and shell side temperatures for each zone.
HEAT XFER COEFFICIENT
Overall, tube side, shell side, tube fouling and shell fouling heat transfer coefficients for each zone.
HEAT XFER AREA
Heat transfer area for each zone.
SAVE CONFIGURATION
This command saves the current input for a rating case.
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RE-ENTER STREAM INFORMATION
This command displays the STREAM Dialog boxes for the four streams going in and out of the current
heat exchanger. These streams can be modified and the heat curve regenerated using this feature.
RE-INTIALIZE EXCHANGER
This command deletes all of the input and output data for the current exchanger and starts a new
analysis.
CC-THERM OUTPUT

SUMMARY REPORT
This report section includes general data and a summary of the key information regarding the current
exchanger. It contains physical configuration, heat transfer information and information describing the
thermodynamic options and engineering units being used. An example of this report appears below:










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SUMMARY REPORT
General Data: Heat Transfer Data:
Exch Class/Type R/AXU Effective Transfer Area 3623.57
Shell I.D. 3.67 Area Required 3489.93
Shell in Series/Parallel 1/1 COR LMTD 54.22
Number of Tubes 1550 U (Calc/Service) 265.63/254.51
Tube Length 12.00 Heat Calc 52.18
Tube O.D./I.D. 0.0625/0.0515 Heat Spec 50.00
Flow Area [In2] 0.00 Excess % 3.83
Tube Pattern SQUAR Foul(S/T) 1.000E-003/1.000E-003
Tube Pitch 0.08 Del P(S/T) 1.06/0.60
Number of Tube Passes 2 SS Film Coef 1315.83
Number of Baffles 3 SS CS Vel 4.05
Baffle Spacing 5.00 TW Resist 0.000215
Baffle Cut % 20 TS Film Coef 2313.40
Baffle Type FULL TS Vel 4.95
Thermodynamics:
K: SRK
H: SRK
D: LIBRARY
Number of Components: 3
Calculation Mode: Rating
Engineering Units:
Temperature F
Flow/Hour lbmol/hr
Pressure psia
Enthalpy MMBtu
Diameter/Area ft/ft2
Length/Velocity ft/sec
Film Btu/hr-ft2-F
Fouling hr-ft2-F/Btu
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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TEMA SHEET
The TEMA Sheet is reproduced from the TEMA book and is filled in for use as an equipment spec
sheet. An example is given on the next page. Most of the items on the TEMA Sheet are self-
explanatory. Only a few of them will be explained here, as these few may not be intuitively obvious.

Surf/unit The total surface area per unit. The first value is the gross or overall area
without discounting any part of the tube length which may be imbedded in
the tubesheet or covered by the baffles. The second number given is the
effective surface area after subtracting any portion of the tube length
embedded in the tubesheet or covered by baffles.
RHO-V2-inlet nozzle This is momentum term of the incoming shellside fluid at the inlet nozzle.
RHO-V2-bundle
entrance
The momentum term of the incoming shellside fluid at the bundle
entrance.
RHO-V2-bundle exit The momentum term of the leaving shellside fluid at the bundle exit.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
46

TEMA SHEET
1
2 Customer Ref No.
3 Address Prop No.
4 Plant Loc. Date Rev
5 Service of Unit Item
6 Size 44.0 in x 12.0ft TYPE AXU Horizontal Connected in 1 Parallel 1 Series
7 Surf/Unit 3652.1/3623.6 ft2 Shell/Unit 1.0 Surf/Shell 3652.1/3623.6 ft2
8 PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT
9 Type of Process Horiz Cond Horiz T-syphon
10 Fluid Allocation Shell Side Tube Side
11 Fluid Name Hydrocarbons Steam
12 Flow 931050.0 87700.0 lb/hr
13 Liquid 931050.0 0.0 lb/hr
14 Vapor 0.0 87700.0 lb/hr
15 NonCondensable 0.0 0.0 lb/hr
16 Steam 0.0 0.0 lb/hr
17 Evap/Cond 498205.0 59942.1 lb/hr
18 Density 2.513/29.520 0.466/54.044 lb/ft3
19 Conductivity 0.018/0.039 0.020/0.385 Btu/hr-ft-F
20 Specific Heat 0.616/0.817 0.689/1.088 Btu/lbmol-F
21 Viscosity at Avg. 0.011/0.117 0.016/0.134 cP
22 Latent Heat 94.74 833.37 Btu/lbmol
23 Temperature(In/Out) 334.000/337.164 390.001/389.804 F
24 Operating Pressure 793.67 796.83 psia
25 Fouling Factor 0.001000 0.001000 hr-ft2-F/Btu
26 Velocity 4.05 4.95 ft/sec
27 Press Drop Allow/Calc 5.000/1.063 5.000/0.598 psi
28 Heat Exchanged 5.000e+001 MMBtu; MTD(Corrected): 54.22 F
29 Transfer Rate, Service: 265.6 Clean: 566.7 Btu/hr-ft2-F
30 CONSTRUCTION DATA/SHELL Sketch
31 Shell Side Tube Side
32 Design/Test Press psia 0.000000/Code 0.000000/Code
33 Design Temperature F 0.000 0.000
34 No. Passes per Shell 1 2
35 Corrosion Allowance in 0.000 0.000
36 Connections IN in 22.0 12.00
37 Size & OUT in 30.0 6.000
38 Rating
39 Tube No. 775 Dia. 0.75 in Thk. 0.65 in Length 12.00 ft Pit 0.9375 in
40 Tube Type Bare Material 1 Carbon Steel
41 Shell A-285-C 44.0 ID in 44.0 OD in Shell Cover
42 Channel or Bonnet A-285-C Channel Cover
43 Tubesheet Stationary A-285-C Tubesheet Floating
44 Floating Heat Cover Impingement Protection: No
45 Baffles Cross A-285-C Type FULL Cut(Diameter) 20 Spacing C/C 5.00 ft
46 Baffles Long Seal Type
47 Supports Tube C.S. U-Bend
48 Bypass Seal Arrangement Tube-Tubesheet Joint
49 Expansion Joint No. Type
50 Rho-V2-Inlet Nozzle 628.13 Bundle Entrance 0.00 Bundle Exit 0.00
51 Shell Side Tube Side
52 Gasket Floating Head
53 Code Requirements Tema Class R
54 Weight/Shell
55 Remarks:
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
47
HEATING CURVES
The Heating Curve is a printout of the vapor and liquid properties at the inlet and outlet of each of the
ten zones of the exchanger. These variables are defined as follows.
- Point 1 is the inlet to the exchanger. Point 2 is the outlet from the first zone.
Point 3 is the outlet from the second zone, etc.
Pressure
- This is the cumulative heat load of the zone.
- Temperature.
- Vapor flowrate
- Liquid flowrate
- Latent heat
- Surface tension
- Critical pressure
- Vapor heat capacity
- Vapor viscosity
- Vapor thermal conductivity
- Vapor density
- Liquid heat capacity
- Liquid viscosity
- Liquid thermal conductivity
- Liquid density
SHELLSIDE DATA
The Shellside Data report has two different forms depending on whether the shellside is sensible or
change of phase.
If the Shellside is sensible and stream analysis method is used then the Shellside Data report looks
like this:
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
48

Otherwise, the Shellside Data report looks like this:

These fields are explained below.
1. “Avg. SS Vel.” is the shellside cross-flow velocity is taken at typical baffle spacing. This is the
"true" velocity across the bundle based on the actual flow across the bundle after all the bypass
streams have been discounted.
2. The end zone velocity is the velocity in the zone between the tubesheet and the first baffle.
3. The window velocity is taken in a typical baffle window. This is the "true" velocity through the
window after all the flow bypasses have been discounted.
4. The Film Coefficient is reported at the middle of the heat exchanger.
5. The Reynold’s No. is reported at the middle of the heat exchanger.
6. The Allowable Pressure Drop is input by the user.
If a thermosyphon is being run you would have input the static head available in the column (and
not have the allowable pressure drop). However, the program converts this static head to an
equivalent pressure drop. Therefore, the quantity printed, as allowable pressure drop is always a
pressure drop no matter what type of exchanger is being run.
7. Reported calculated pressure drop is the total across all shells if more than one shell in the series
is present.
8. Nozzle diameter is nominal diameter.
9. The Pressure Drop/Inlet Outlet Nozzle is the calculated pressure drop in the nozzles. The
following relation applies:
Shellside Data:
Avg. SS Vel. ft/sec 4.12
Film Coef. Btu/hr-ft2-F 2290.77 Reynold's No. 12284
Allow Press. Drop psi 5.00 Calc. Press. Drop psi 0.16
Inlet Nozzle Size in 6.00 Press. Drop/In Nozzle psi 0.10
Outlet Nozzle Size in 2.00 Press. Drop/Out Nozzle psi 0.03
Mean Temperature F 370.77
Rho V2 IN lb/ft-sec2 366.87 Press. Drop (Dirty) psi 0.28
Shellside Data:
Crossflow Vel. ft/sec 2.4E+001 EndZone Vel. 1.8E+001 Window Vel. 4.2E+001
Film Coef. Btu/hr-ft2-F 162.47 Reynold's No. 160724
Allow Press. Drop psi 5.00 Calc. Press. Drop psi 4.03
Inlet Nozzle Size ft 1.00 Press. Drop/In Nozzle psi 0.45
Outlet Nozzle Size ft 0.67 Press. Drop/Out Nozzle psi 0.39
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
49
(Calc. Pressure Drop) - (Inlet Nozzle Pressure Drop) - (Outlet Nozzle Pressure Drop) =
(Pressure Drop across the bundle).
10. When the program is in the design mode and no nozzle size has been specified, the program uses
up to a maximum of 25% of the available pressure drop to size the nozzle. If you are in the rating
mode and have specified the nozzle size, the program uses that nozzle size and the nozzle
pressure drop is calculated given the nozzle size and the exchanger geometry.
11. The metal temperature of the shell and tubes is an especially important value if you are analyzing
a fixed tubesheet exchanger. The program uses the actual shellside and tubeside heat transfer-
coefficients (and considers the exchanger to be in the fouled condition) to calculate this
temperature.
These values are used by mechanical engineers for stress analysis. Also, the tube wall
temperature is used frequently in the calculation of condensation and evaporation heat transfer.
12. The shellside pressure drop (dirty) is the pressure drop in the exchanger in the fouled condition.
Calculating the shellside pressure drop with possible flow bypasses (such as the clearance
between the baffle holes and the tubes) reduced somewhat (to simulate a fouled condition) does
this.
13. Rho V2 IN is the flow momentum term at the shellside inlet nozzle. It is obtained by multiplying the
fluid density by the square of the fluid velocity. This is an important term when the incoming fluid
is in the vapor state. TEMA makes recommendations as to the maximum value this parameter
may have before needing an impingement plate.
14. The stream analysis data are explained below.
SA factor A is that percentage of the shellside flow, which is leaking between the tubes and the
holes in the baffle plates.
SA factor B only has significance when there is sensible flow on the exchanger shellside. When
there is change of phase on the shellside, this quantity will always be output as 0. When there is
sensible flow on the shellside, the B STREAM refers to that portion of the shellside flow, which is
in cross flow across the bundle. The closer this quantity is to 100%, the more efficient the flow.
SA factor C is the percentage of the shellside flow, which is leaking between the bundle and the
internal diameter of the shell. For a fixed tubesheet exchanger, the empty space between the
bundle and the internal diameter of the shell is usually small and thus the C STREAM is a small
percentage. However, for a floating head design (TEMA P, S, or T), this empty space becomes
large and (if sealing strips are not used) thus the C STREAM percentage becomes large. When
you specify sealing strips for a floating head, you will notice a significant reduction in the
percentage of the C STREAM and an increase in the B STREAM (the "true" cross flow component
of the bundle). Referred to the above discussion on OTLC for more information on the use of
sealing strips.
SA factor E is that percentage of the shellside flow, which is leaking between the baffle outer
diameter and the shellside internal diameter.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
50
SA factor F is that percentage of the shellside flow which is leaking through the empty spaces left
by the tubeside pass partition (pass partition lanes). Even though the partition lane will always be
present for two or more tubeside passes, it may or may not affect the flow depending on the
direction of the baffle cut and the pass arrangement. (See the above discussion on the pass
arrangement in the Clearances menu). Below is a listing of the more common situations in which
a pass partition lane will have an effect on the shellside flow. This listing uses an E shell. For an
F shell, other variations are possible.
15. Ideal cross velocity is the ideal cross flow velocity of the shellside fluid across the bundle. This
would only be the case if all leakage paths were non-existent.
16. Ideal window velocity is the ideal velocity of the shellside fluid through the baffle window. This
would only be the case if all the possible window leakage paths were non-existent.
TUBESIDE DATA
The Tubeside Data report looks like this:
1. The Film Coefficient is reported at the middle of the exchanger.
2. The Reynold’s No. is reported at the middle of the exchanger.
3. The Allowable Pressure Drop is input by the user.
If a thermosyphon is being run you would have input the static head available in the column (and
not have the allowable pressure drop). However, the program converts this static head to an
equivalent pressure drop. Therefore, the quantity printed, as allowable pressure drop is always a
pressure drop no matter what type of exchanger is being run.
4. Reported calculated pressure drop is the total across all shells if more than one shell in the series
is present.
5. Nozzle diameter is nominal diameter.
6. The Pressure Drop/Inlet Outlet Nozzle is the calculated pressure drop in the nozzles. The
following relation applies:
(Calc. Pressure Drop) - (Inlet Nozzle Pressure Drop) - (Outlet Nozzle Pressure Drop)
= (Pressure Drop Across the bundle)
Tubeside Data:
Film Coef. Btu/hr-ft2-F 107.16 Reynold's No. 190037
Allow Press. Drop psi 5.00 Calc. Press. Drop psi 1.44
Inlet Nozzle Size ft 0.83 Press. Drop/In Nozzle psi 0.26
Outlet Nozzle Size ft 0.67 Press. Drop/Out Nozzle psi 0.41
Interm. Nozzle Size ft 0.00 Mean Temperature F 21.45
Velocity ft/sec 33.55 Mean Metal Temperature F 39.04
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
51
When the program is in the design mode and no nozzle size has been specified, the program
uses up to a maximum of 25% of the available pressure drop to size the nozzle. If you are in the
rating mode and have specified the nozzle size, the program uses that nozzle size and the
nozzle pressure drop is calculated given the nozzle size and the exchanger geometry.
7. The mean metal temperature of the tubes is an especially important value if you are analyzing a
fixed tubesheet exchanger. The program uses the TEMA calculation method to calculate this
value (See TEMA T-4.32)
These values are used by mechanical engineers for stress analysis. Also, the tube wall
temperature is used frequently in the calculation of condensation and evaporation heat transfer.
8. The Velocity is reported at the center of the exchanger. If a change of phase is occurring, this is
the two-phase velocity.
TABULATED DATA
The Tabulated Data report is a one-page summary of the exchanger. Most information is self-
explanatory, but you should make note of the following points.
1. Above 24-inches nominal diameter, the shell OD printed out will equal the shell ID printed out.
This is because below 24-inches, the program assumes the shell is pipe and above 24-inches, it is
rolled plate for carbon steel construction. For stainless steel, the break point is 12-inches. Pipe
wall thicknesses are known (standard wall), but since the program does no wall thickness
calculation, rolled plate thicknesses are not. As a result, the shell ID is printed in both fields.
2. For a kettle reboiler, the kettle ID is printed in the shell OD field, and the tube bundle diameter is
printed in the shell ID field.
3. All clearances are diametrical.
4. When the shell nozzles are on opposite sides of the shell and segmental baffles are being used,
the number of baffles will be an even number. When the shell nozzles are on the same side of the
shell and segmental baffles are being used, the total number of baffles will be an odd number.
When rod baffles are being used, this number can be disregarded since rod baffles are really tube
supports and there are no cross baffles as such as with the other baffle types. If the NTIW (No
Tubes-in-Window) type baffle is being used, the number of baffles given refers only to the NTIW
baffles themselves and does not include any intermediate baffles which may have been used to
lessen the effects of vibration.
5. The baffle spacing is the center spacing of the baffles -- this would be the applicable baffle spacing
of all those baffles, which are not immediately adjacent to the tube sheets. The baffle inlet spacing
is the baffle spacing between the front tubesheet and the first baffle.
6. Baffle types are as follows.
SSEG - Single segmental
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
52
DSEG - Double segmental
TSEG - Triple segmental
NTIW - No Tubes-in-Window
Disk - Disk and Donut
RODB - Rod
7. The tube number is the number of tubes in the tube bundle. If you have a U-tube bundle, the
number output would be the number of tubes, not the number of holes in the tubesheet.
8. Tube outside diameter is the outer diameter of the tube. For low-fin radial tubes, this diameter will
be the tube nominal diameter.
9. Tube inside diameter is the inner diameter of the tube. For low-fin radial tubes, this diameter will
vary due to the undulations on the inner surface of the tube, but the program continues print out of
the nominal inner diameter of the tubes.
10. The tubewall thickness is the wall nominal thickness of the tube. For low-fin radial tubes, this
thickness will vary and the minimum thickness will be somewhat less than the nominal thickness.
However, the program continues print out of the nominal wall thickness.
11. The tube pitch is the distance between the center of the tubes.
12. The tube pattern in the tubesheet may be:
TRI60 - Triangular
SQUA - Double segmental baffle
DIAM - Diamond (45)
TRI30 - Rotated triangular (30)
13. Tube pass type may be ribbon, quadratic, or mixed.
14. The outer tube limit is the outer diameter of the tube bundle. This limit diameter is based on that
tube which is furthest removed from the geometrical center of the exchanger.
15. The outer tube limit clearance (OTLC) is the diametrical clearance between the Outer Tube Limit
and the internal diameter of the shell. This is a very important piece of information and it has a
pronounced effect on shellside heat transfer and pressure drop. If the exchanger rear head is of a
fixed type (TEMA types L, M, and N) or a floating tubesheet (TEMA type W) or a U-tube
construction, the OTLC is usually small (0.5-inches, 12-mm, or less) and so there is usually only a
minimum amount of shellside fluid bypassing the tube bundle. On the other hand, the OTLC
dimension for floating head types (TEMA types P, S, and T) is usually considerable.
16. The bundle top space is the void space at the top of the bundle and is the distance measured from
the intersection of the shell inlet nozzle and the shell to the outside diameter of the top row of the
tube bundle. If the program has placed an impingement plate on the bundle, the top few rows
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
53
usually (but not always) must be removed. Also, if you are using No Tubes-in-Window type
baffles, this distance (as defined above) will appear in the output whether or not you have an
impingement plate. Also, you may have occasion to declare a void space at the top of the bundle
- for instance, for a shellside condenser with an X shell to permit uniform vapor distribution across
the tubes. Such a void space should be declared on the Clearances menu.
17. The bundle btm. (bottom) space is the void space at the bottom bundle. This is a quantity, which
appears far less frequently than the above parameter. It is the mirror image of the above
parameter as it appears at the bottom of the bundle. This quantity will appear in the output in
either of the following two circumstances.

You are using NTIW baffles, or

You have input this space on the Clearances menu
18. The words "Impingement plate" in the impingement plate field indicates that an impingement plate
does exist at the shellside inlet nozzle. If the Bundle Top Space is simultaneously a value of zero,
this indicates that the impingement plate has been placed inside the inlet nozzle (which in this
case would be flared). If an impingement plate is present and the Bundle Top Space is non-zero,
the impingement plate has been placed on the top of the bundle. To accommodate the plate, a
few rows of tubes must be removed.
19. The bonnet diameter is the inner diameter on the channel side of the exchanger. This parameter
only becomes important when you have a pipe for the channel section and have high pressure on
the tubeside. In this instance, the internal diameter will grow inward (since it is a pipe) and may
even be smaller than the inside diameter of the shell. If provisions are not made for the smaller
diameter on the channel side, the outer row of the tube bundle may not fit inside the channel. The
program always checks for situations such as this, but to be on the safe side, you can specify the
channel internal diameter on the Clearances menu.
20. Anytime there are two or more tubeside passes, a pass clearance lane will always exist to
accommodate the pass partitions, which separate the various tubeside passes on the channel
side. This lane cuts a void space throughout the entire bundle and will always have some effect
on the flow distribution on the shellside of the exchanger. The program always calculates this
quantity internally. This quantity only appears in the output if you specify it directly on the
Clearances menu.
21. The orientation refers to the position of the exchanger. H is horizontal and V is vertical.
22. Clearances are diametrical.
ZONE-BY-ZONE ANALYSIS
As the name implies, more detail is given about the two-phase calculation of the heat transfer
coefficient and the pressure drop. This information is given at each of the ten zones the program uses
to make the calculation. This information may pertain to a condenser calculation or an evaporation
calculation. The outputs are similar but not identical.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
54























ZONE: 1 2 3 4 5
Inc. Heat Load, MMBtu/hr5 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00
LMTD F 55.61 55.25 54.95 54.62 54.32
Overall Coef. 236.14 239.96 246.81 254.58 262.62
Iso-Overa. Coef. , Btu/hr-ft2-F 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
AINC ft2 380.77 377.13 368.80 359.55 350.48


Tube Side Results:
Process Type CONDENS CONDENS CONDENS CONDENS CONDENS
Condenser Type TRANSIT TRANSIT TRANSIT TRANSIT TRANSIT
Temp. F 389.81 389.83 389.85 389.87 389.89
Vap. Rate lb/hr 30754.43 36749.50 42743.65 48734.96 54728.17
Liq. Rate lb/hr 56945.56 50950.50 44956.35 38965.04 32971.83
Vapor Quality 0.3507 0.4190 0.4874 0.5557 0.6240
Gas Prandt's No. 1.3413 1.3414 1.3414 1.3415 1.3415
Liq Prandt's No. 0.9160 0.9159 0.9159 0.9159 0.9159
Film Coeff. 1837.18 1896.14 1979.17 2085.79 2215.92
Shear Coeff. 1756.91 1889.89 2009.71 2120.08 2224.77
Gravity Coeff., Btu/hr-ft2-F 1875.73 1902.03 1923.56 1943.35 1960.95
T-Non-Cond Fact. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Vap. Den. lb/ft3 0.4656 0.4657 0.4658 0.4659 0.4660
Liq. Den. lb/ft3 54.0474 54.0466 54.0458 54.0450 54.0442
V-L Den. lb/ft3 6.0527 5.2617 4.6065 4.0392 3.5284
Two Phase Xtt 118.55 161.65 219.75 301.59 423.79
Mome. dP psi -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01
Grav. dP psi 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fric. dP psi 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03
Gas Vel. ft/sec 12.70 14.93 17.13 19.31 21.46
Liq Vel. ft/sec 1.75 1.82 1.86 1.87 1.84
Vel. ft/sec 2.51 2.88 3.29 3.75 4.29
Liq Re 5608 5018 4428 3838 3248
Vap Re 24726 29545 34363 39179 43995


CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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The following comments are relevant.
1. For condensation there are three possible flow regimes.
SHEARCT - The vapor velocity is so high that the flow becomes turbulent, and this type of
heat transfer is referred to as a shear-controlled turbulent film.
GRAVCTL - The vapor velocity is low and the condensate film is basically in a laminar state.
This type of heat transfer is generally known as gravity controlled laminar film.
TRANSIT - The SHEARCT and GRAVCTL are basically the two extremes of the flows,
which may occur during condensation. In going from the SHEAR controlled to
the GRAVITY controlled, there is a transition region, which is usually called the
TRANSIT (for transition) region. There are times when the vapor is so low that
the predominant regime is the TRANSIT or even GRAVCTL for very low vapor
velocities.
The shear-controlled and gravity-controlled heat transfer coefficients are calculated at each zone
of a condenser whether or not it is the controlling coefficient. If the governing flow regime is shear,
the shear coefficient will be used. If the governing flow regime is gravity, the gravity coefficient will
be used. If flow regime is in the transition region, a geometrically weighted average of the two
coefficients will be used.

Shell Side Results
Process Type EVAPORA EVAPORA EVAPORA EVAPORA EVAPORA
Temp. F 334.20 334.58 334.92 335.25 335.57
Vap. Rate lb/hr 24463.03 73703.66 123296.19 172981.42 222821.61
Liq. Rate lb/hr 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Vapor Quality 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
Gas Prandt's No. 0.9226 0.9225 0.9223 0.9222 0.9220
Liq Prandt's No. 5.7972 5.8145 5.8313 5.8478 5.8642
P sat. psia 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
dP Sat. psi 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
T Sat. F 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
T wall F 362.36 362.39 362.15 361.90 361.68
(Twall-Tsat) F 822.03 822.06 821.82 821.57 821.35
Nuc. Boi. Coef., Btu/hr-ft2-F 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
For. Con. Coef., Btu/hr-ft2-F 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Film Coeff., Btu/hr-ft2-F 873.76 911.11 991.21 1091.17 1204.20
Vap. Den. lb/ft3 2.5173 2.5173 2.5166 2.5157 2.5149
Liq. Den. lb/ft3 29.5041 29.5031 29.5063 29.5096 29.5130
V-L Den. lb/ft3 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
Cross-flow Xtt 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Window-flow Xtt 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Mome. dP psi 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
Grav. dP psi 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.77
Fric. dP psi 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21
V-L Cross u ft/sec 4.05 4.05 4.05 4.05 4.05
Cross-Flow Re 240716 240242 239742 239248 238760


User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
56
2. The gas phase heat transfer (Gas Coeff.) is also calculated at each zone. This coefficient is very
important in the calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient when there are large amounts of
noncondensibles present.
3. Evaporation Flow Regimes and Coefficients - For all evaporators the regime always read
EVAPORA for evaporation.
4. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Noncondensibles Factor – For non-isothermal
condensation, if the MULTICOMPONENTS CORRELATION has been selected on the METHODS
page of the General Information dialog box, the Silver, Bell, and Ghaly method (Ref. Nos. C1,
C2, C22, C23, C24) will be used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient. This method is
illustrated in the following drawing:
In addition to the five heat transfer resistance’s normally accounted for in the calculation of the
overall heat transfer coefficient, a sixth resistance, that of a gas film at the boundary of the
condensing film, is included in the model. This “gas film” is a resistance to the sensible heat
transferred from the bulk gas on the condensing side to the bulk fluid on the other side. In reality
this resistance is a mass transfer resistance not a heat transfer resistance. However, at the
present time calculation of the mass transfer resistance for the general case is not practical.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
57
Therefore, the SBG method substitutes the “calculateable” gas heat transfer resistance for the
“uncalculateable” gas-liquid mass transfer resistance. This approach is conservative and
generally produces overall coefficients somewhat less than the real situation. However, it is much
better than omitting the resistance altogether. The presence of even small amounts of non-
condensibles significantly lowers the real heat transfer coefficient. The pure condensing
coefficient alone does not adequately represent the situation.
The overall procedure for the SGB method is outlined (in simplified form) below:
i. Calculate the film coefficients as normal.
ii. Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, as normal (one over the sum of the five
heat transfer resistance).
iii. Calculate the gas coefficient at the condensing liquid boundary using standard sensible
heat transfer methods.
iv. Calculate the non-condensable factor, F, (F-Non-Cons Fact on the zone-by-zone output)
as a function of the gas coefficient and the sensible heat change of the gas across the
zone.
v. Calculate the final overall heat transfer coefficient, U
o
, as:
F 1
U
U
o
+
=

If the non-condensibles factor is calculated, the zone-by-zone analysis will print out both the
unadjusted overall heat transfer coefficient, U, (labeled the Iso-Overall Coefficient) and adjusted
overall heat transfer coefficient, U
o
, (labeled Overall Coefficient).
5. Two-Phase Pressure Drops - The calculation of two-phase pressure drops in CC-THERM can be
broken into four parts.

Two-phase multiplier

Gravity portion

Friction portion

Momentum portion

These are explained below.
Two-phase multiplier, Xtt
- The two-phase multiplier is calculated at each zone. When there are
large amounts of vapor present, the multiplier will be quite large. This multiplier is applied to each
component of the pressure drop (momentum, gravity, and friction) and summed over all the zones
to arrive at the overall pressure drop.
Momentum portion - The momentum portion of the pressure drop is calculated based on the
assumption that the entire fluid is in the liquid state. A multiplier is calculated which corrects for
the two-phase nature of the flow. This multiplier then multiplies the momentum pressure drop at
each zone to calculate the overall two-phase pressure drop.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
58
Gravity portion - The gravity portion of the pressure drop is meant to simulate the two-phase
static head which will always exist in any two-phase situation and for a condenser will always be a
pressure gain, although usually a very small quantity.
Friction portion - The frictional portion of the pressure drop is calculated based on the
assumption that the entire fluid is in the liquid state. A multiplier is calculated which corrects for
the two-phase nature of the flow. This multiplier then multiplies the frictional pressure drop at each
zone to calculate the overall two-phase pressure drop.
6. The Nucleate Boiling Coefficient - In any evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient is a combination
of the two-phase heat transfer coefficient and the nucleate boiling coefficient. For pool-type
evaporation, nucleate boiling will predominate. For a vertical thermosyphon, the two-phase heat
transfer coefficient will usually be predominate.
7. AINC is the incremental area of the zone. It is calculated like so:
i i
i
i
CMTD U
Q
AINC

=

where, Q
i
= the heat duty of the zone
U
i
= the overall heat transfer coefficient (final) of the zone
CMTD
i
= the corrected log menu temperature difference across the zone. CMTD
i

is the LMTD of the zone times the correction factor for the entire
exchanger. All zones use the same correction factor.
The total required area for the heat exchanger is the sum of all the AINC
i
’s.
8. The zone-by-zone analysis prints out the arithmetic average of the zone inlets and outlets for the
following variables:

Temperature

Vapor flowrate

Liquid flowrate

Vapor quality

Vapor density

Liquid density

Two-phase density
9. The following numbers are calculated from the average properties of the zone:

Velocity

Reynold’s number

Prandtl number

Film coefficients
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
59
10. The “saturation variables” P saturation, dP sat., T sat., T wall, and (Twall – Tsat) are used only
for evaporation.
• P sat. stands for saturation pressure. Since any evaporation zone is saturated, P sat is
actually the specified average pressure of the zone, P
i
. For any evaporative zone,
m
P
* i P P . sat P
in i

− = =

where, Pi
n
= the inlet pressure to the heat exchanger
i = the number of the current zone


P = the allowable pressure drop across the heat exchanger
m = the total number of zones
• dP sat. is the “saturation pressure” at the tube wall temperature. This is a pseudo value used
by the Forrester - Zuber equation. It is calculated using the Clasius-Clapyron equation:
(
¸
(

¸

− =
Twall
1
Tsat
1
R
M * h
Psat
dPsat
In
LG

where, h
LG
= The latent heat of the fluid
m = The molecular weight of the fluid
R = The gas law constant
Tsat = The zone average temperature (explained below)
Twall = The zone wall temperature (explained below)
The Clasuis-Clapyron equation is for pure components, but is used by the Forrester-Zuber Method
as a satisfactory approximation.
• Tsat. Is the average zone temperature and is taken from the heat curve.
• Twall is the tube wall temperature. The tube wall temperature is calculated by solving the
heat balance across each heat transfer boundary.
• (Twall – Tsat) is the difference between the tube wall temperature and the bulk fluid
temperature. This quantity has a strong influence upon nucleate boiling coefficients.
11. For sensible shell side cases, stream analysis data will be printed out zone-by-zone if stream
analysis method is used. These data is explained in section 14 of SHELLSIDE DATA.
CLEARANCE
This report tabulates the clearances used in the exchanger calculations. All clearances are diametrical
except for the bundle top space and the bundle bottom space, which are radial.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
60
OVERALL DATA
1. The Area Total is the total installed area of the heat exchanger. It is the total surface area of a
single tube times the total number of tubes. For U-tubes, only the straight length of the tube is
used unless the user enters a value for the U-bend efficiency. For low radial finned tubes, the
area is the total area of the fins.
2. The Area Effective of the exchanger excludes that portion of the tube length, which is covered by
the tubesheet and the baffles. Also, for a U-tube bundle, the U-bend is not included in the surface
area calculation depending on what has been input for the U-tube efficiency. The default for the
U-tube efficiency is 0%, i.e., the U-bend will not be included.
3. The Area Required is that area needed to transfer the specified heat duty of the exchanger. This
value is determined by summing the incremental areas, AINC
i
’s of all the zones.
4. The Area per Shell is the effective area divided by the number of shells.
5. The % excess is the excess area for the present calculation. This value is always expressed as a
percent. A negative value indicates that the exchanger is undersurfaced. When making a design
run, the program usually terminates the calculation when the excess area is between 0 and 5%.
Occasionally, when making a design run, the % EXCESS will turn out to be slightly negative, and
this is usually acceptable to most users. If this is not acceptable, you can do one of two things.
i. Make the run one more time, fixing the heat load at a value 3% or 4% higher than the
maximum heat load, or
ii. Make a rating with a shell size just slightly greater than the one just designed.
6. The Heat Duty is the calculation heat load, which is the larger of the calculated or user-supplied
heat load.
7. U Service is the exchanger service heat transfer coefficient. This quantity is not a function of the
calculated heat transfer coefficients. It depends on the heat load, the CMTD, and the effective
surface area:
CMTD * Area
TOTAL Q
Service U =

where, Q TOTAL = the heat duty of the exchanger
Area = the total effective of the exchanger
CMTD = the corrected log mean temperature difference
8. U Calc is the calculated overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger. Since an overall
heat transfer coefficient, U
i
, is calculated for each zone, the definition of U Calc is somewhat a
matter of convention. CC-THERM defines U Calc as:
) WCMTD ( .) q Re Area (
Total Q
Calc U =
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
61
where, Q Total = the heat duty of the exchanger
Area Req = the required area which is the sum of the incremental areas for all
zones
WCMTD = the weighted corrected log mean temperature difference which is
calculated like so:

=
i
CMTD
i Q
TOTAL Q
WCMTD

where, Q TOTAL = the heat duty of the exchanger
Q
i
= the incremental heat duty of zone i
CMTD
i
= the corrected log mean temperature difference for zone i
9. Weight LMTD is the LMTD - Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference before any correction
factor is applied.
10. LMTD Corr Factor is the correction factor on the LMTD when a pure countercurrent flow condition
does not exist. This factor is only printed when sensible flow exists on both the shellside and the
tubeside.
11. CORR LMTD is the corrected LMTD. The program calculates the CORR LMTD in each of the
zones and then calculates a weighted CORR LMTD.
VIBRATION ANALYSIS
Each time the program makes a thermal calculation; it also does a vibrational analysis of the
exchanger shellside. There are some general points about this analysis, which should be noted here.
The program makes several checks to insure that there is no vibrational problem. These include the
following.
1. The Connors method for fluid elastic vibration (basically for liquids)
2. The Chen method for the vortex shedding frequency (basically for gases)
3. The Owen method for the turbulent buffeting frequency (basically for gases)
4. The Thorngren method for baffle damage
When the shellside fluid is a liquid, the Connors method is the most important determinant of a
vibration problem. When the fluid is a liquid and the velocity in the given span exceeds the Connors'
critical velocity, the program considers four different criteria based on the Chen and Owen method to
decide whether a vibration problem exists.
1. Ratio of vortex shedding frequency to natural frequency is greater than 0.5
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
62
2. Ratio of vortex shedding frequency to acoustic frequency is greater than 0.8 and less than 1.2
3. Ratio of turbulence buffeting frequency to natural frequency is greater than 0.5
4. Ratio of turbulence buffeting frequency to acoustic frequency is greater than 0.8 and less than 1.2
When you have a two-phase situation, whether it is an evaporator or a condenser, the program makes
the vibration analysis based upon the highest fluid velocity (generally the vapor velocity). This is a gray
area since the methods of analysis are based upon a single fluid state. The presence of liquid will tend
to dampen the effect of vortex shedding and turbulent buffeting. This is not explicitly accounted for in
these methods. It is thus left to the user to make an educated judgement, based on the numbers,
which the program generates, as to whether a vibration problem exists or not.
The program always checks for a vibration problem at three different locations.
1. The entrance baffle span (between the tubesheet and the first baffle)
2. The center baffle span (at a typical baffle center span location)
3. The exit baffle span (between the last baffle and the rear tubesheet)
There are possible several steps to take once a vibration problem does occur, and they usually entail
changing the natural frequency of the bundle in one way or another. Some of these include:
1. Shorten baffle spacing
2. Use No Tubes-in-Window Baffles
3. Use No Tubes-in-Window Baffles with intermediate support plates
4. Use Rod Baffles
5. Reduce the shellside velocities
When rod baffles are used, the program uses spacing between rod baffles of six inches. The rod
baffle calculations in the program are based on a single-phase fluid. The program allows the use of
rod baffles for a change-of-phase on the shellside but the results should be analyzed carefully. If you
have a G, H, K or X shell with either condensation or evaporation on the shellside, the results should
be reliable. If you have an E, F, or J shell, it implies flow over and around baffles. Rod baffles are
meant for longitudinal flow along the axis of the tubes. Thus, the program results will be less precise.
Tube span is the length of the span in question.
Cross-flow velocity is the shellside velocity at the span in question.
Critical velocity is the Connors critical velocity.
Ratio Vcross/Vcrit is the ratio of the actual velocity to the Connors critical velocity. When the
fluid is a liquid and this ratio is greater than 1.0, the possibility of fluid elastic vibration exists and
CC-THERM flags a problem.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
63
Natural Frequency (F Tube) is the first mode frequency of the tube in cycles per second.
CC-THERM considers only the first mode in its vibration analysis. This produces a conservative
result.
Acoustic Frequency (F AC) is the first acoustic frequency of the tube bundle. It is sometimes
called the fundamental tone. It is calculated as follows:
d 2
U
f
s
a
=

where, fa = the first acoustic frequency of the bundle
Us = the velocity of sound in the shell side fluid
d = the shell inside diameter
The acoustic frequency is always the same at the inlet, center, and outlet of the exchanger.
Vortex Shed. Freq. (F VS) is the vortex shedding frequency of the tube. Flow across a tube
produces, or “sheds, a series of vortices in the downstream wake of a fluid flowing across a tube.
This generates alternating forces, which occur more frequently as the velocity of flow increases.
Vortex shedding can excite tube vibration when its frequency matches the natural frequency of the
tubes, and can become “locked in” to the tube natural frequency even when the flow is increased.
Vortex shedding occurs the ranges 100 < Re < 10
5
and Re > 2x10
6
. It dies out in between.
CC-THERM uses the method of Chen to predict vortex-shedding frequencies. It should be noted
that Chen’s data contained few points in the range of the most common industrial pitch ratios (1.25
through 1.75).
Turbu. Buff. Freq. (F TB) is the dominant turbulent buffeting frequency in cycles per second. CC-
THERM uses the empirical equation of OWENS to predict this frequency:
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = 28 . 0
P
D
1 05 . 3
P P
D U
f
2
t
o
t
o c
tb
l

where, P
l
= the longitudinal tube pitch
P
t
= the transverse tube pitch
U
c
the crossflow velocity
D
o
= the tube outside diameter
This equation was developed for gases and may not be applicable to liquids.
FVS/FTUB is the ratio of the vortex shedding frequency to the tube bundle natural frequency.
When this ratio is greater than 0.5, a vibration problem is flagged.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
64
FVS/FAC is the ratio of the vortex shedding frequency to the tube bundle acoustic frequency.
When this ratio is in the range of 0.8 to 1.2, it indicates that a resonant condition exists and a
vibration problem is flagged.
FTB/FTUB is the ratio of the turbulent buffeting frequency to the tube bundle natural frequency.
When this ratio is greater than 0.5, a vibration problem is flagged.
FTB/FAC is the ratio of the turbulent buffeting frequency to the tube bundle acoustic frequency.
When this ratio is in the range of 0.8 to 1.2, it indicates that a resonant condition exists and a
vibration problem is flagged.
OPTIMIZATION
This portion of the output shows the optimization path that the program used to arrive at the final result.
This optimization printout only occurs if you are in the design mode. The program deliberately begins
with an obviously undersized unit in order to insure that the procedure does not miss the optimum
result. The program uses basically five criteria to arrive at the optimum result.
1. Supplied area is greater than the required area
2. Pressure drop allowable is met on the shellside
3. Pressure drop allowable is met on the tubeside
4. Velocities on the shellside do not exceed the imposed limit
5. Velocities on the tubeside do not exceed the imposed limit
In order to find the smallest unit, which will satisfy these criteria, the program will vary the following
parameters:

shell inside diameter

tube length

baffle spacing

baffle cut

tube passes if selected on the design options dialog box
It will also attempt to stay close to the preferred tube length to shell diameter ratio specified on the
General Information dialog box.
If the program makes a design and what appears to be the optimum point has been exceeded, it is
probable that the program continued on the optimization path in order to satisfy the velocity limitation.
When this occurs, you can override the limits set by the program by making the appropriate entry in the
General Information dialogue box.
Iter is the iteration number.
Sact is the actual surface area (installed) of the heat exchanger.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
65
Sreq is the required surface area. This is the sum of the incremental areas for all the zones.
Conceptually, it is the area required to transfer the heat duty of the unit at the conditions prevailing
within the unit.
Uall is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole heat exchanger. Since an overall heat transfer
coefficient is calculated for each zone, this value is a mater of convention. In CC-THERM it is
determined as follows:
WCMTD * Sreq
Q
Uall
TOTAL
=

where, Qtotal = the heat duty of the exchanger
Sreq = the required surface area (defined above)
WCMTD = the weighted corrected log mean temperature difference (defined below)
aS is the film coefficient on the shell side. This is the coefficient for the middle zone.
aT is the film coefficient on the tube side. This is the coefficient for the middle zone.
dPS is the calculated pressure drop on the shell side. This includes nozzle and bundle pressure
losses.
dPT is the calculated pressure drop on the tube side. This includes nozzle and bundle pressure
losses.
Lb is the center baffle spacing.
Cut is the baffle cut.
velS is the shell side cross flow velocity in the middle zone.
velT is the tube side velocity in the middle zone.
diamS is the shell inside diameter.
Lt is the tube length.
nT is the number of tubes. In the case of U-tubes this is the number of holes in the tube sheet.
nTP is the number of tube passes.
STREAM DATA
The stream data section allows you to include stream composition data in your printed output. It is
analogous to the view stream compositions report from CHEMCAD, except only those streams that are
included in the exchanger will appear in the report.

User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
66
REBOILER DATA
The Reboiler Data report provides detailed information for thermosyphon and kettle reboilers. It looks
like this:
For the first part this report is a tabulation of user input. Most of the balance of the report provides the
details of the pressure drop calculations around the thermosyphon loop. These are for the most part
self-explanatory. Special note should be taken for the following items:
1. The Total Pressure Drop through Reboiler Side Loop is equal to the sum of all the above reported
pressure drops.
2. The total amount vaporized in the reboiler will always be constant. Only the liquid flow through the
loop is varied. This is necessary to maintain the heat balance from the flowsheet.
3. The circulating flow will not be balanced for a kettle reboiler. However, the total pressure drop
through the loop is calculated and reported so the user can compare it to what is available.
INPUT DATA REPORT
Provides a complete tabulation of the input and assumptions used for the calculations.
* H Thermosyphon Reboiler Report *
*********************************************
Shell Style: AXU
Circulating Flow Calculation 1=on/0=off: 1
Number of Inlet Nozzle: 1
Number of Outlet Nozzle: 1
Number of Elbows on Inlet Pipes: 2
Number of Elbows on Outlet Pipes: 2
Inlet Static Head: 8.000000 ft
Inlet Pipe Length: 25.000000 ft
Inlet Pipe Diameter: 22.000000 in
Inlet Pipe Thickness: 0.375000 in
Outlet Elevation: 10.000000 ft
Outlet Pipe Length: 25.000000 in
Outlet Pipe Diameter: 30.800000 in
Outlet Pipe Thickness: 0.375000 in
Pressure Drop through Inlet Pipe: 0.023547 psia
Pressure Drop through Elbows on Inlet Pipe: 0.011820 psia
Pressure Drop through Entrance of Inlet Pipe: 0.024701 psia
Pressure Drop and Elevation through Outlet Pipe: 0.455354 psia
Pressure Drop through Elbows on Outlet Pipe: 0.039796 psia
Pressure Drop through Exit of Outlet Pipe: 0.009990 psia
Pressure Drop through Reboiler: 1.073879 psia
Total Pressure Drop through Reboiler Side Loop: 1.639087 psia
Mass Vapor Fraction at Outlet: 0.412435
Outlet Vapor Mass Flow Rate: 4.982270e+005 lb/h
circulating Liquid Mass Flow Rate: 7.097861e+005 lb/h
Circulating Flow Velocity in Inlet Pipe: 4.308202e+000
ft/sec
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
67
CC-THERM TUTORIAL
THE CONDENSATE STABILIZER PROBLEM
This section of the manual is designed to walk you through the rating of a heat exchanger. The
flowsheet of the problem you will deal with is shown below.
The flowsheet is the tutorial problem solved in part one of the CHEMCAD User’s Guide. Since
CC-THERM is an integrated module of the CHEMCAD Suite, it will be necessary to first simulate the
flowsheet in CC-STEADY STATE before you can design or rate any of the exchangers contained in this
tutorial. Please make sure that this is done before proceeding (please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s
Guide). This example job is located in \\cc5data\Examples\Tutorals\CHEMCAD Tutorial. New users of
CHEMCAD are recommended to build the example themselves.
In this tutorial we are going to rate the first heat exchanger in the above flowsheet. This unit is a
countercurrent gas/gas heat exchanger and it has the following geometry and dimensions:
TEMA Class = R An impingement plate is present
TEMA Type = BEM Shellside nozzles = 1 12-inches
Fouling factors = 0.001 on both sides Tubeside nozzles = 1 12-inches
Shell I.D. = 27-inches internal diameter Baffle to Shell I.D. clearance = 0.3125-inches (dia.)
Number of tubes = 646 Shell I.D. to OTL clearance = 0.35433-inches (dia.)
Tube OD = 0.75-inches Tube hole clearance = 0.035-inches (dia.)
Tubewall thickness = 0.065 Space at the top of the bundle = 2.8-inches
Tube length = 20ft. All material is carbon steel
Tube pattern = rotated triangular (60) There are 5 rows per sealing strip
Tube pitch = 0.9375-inches
1
2
3
4
5
1
2 3
4
5
6
7
8
9
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
68
Baffles: 10 baffles equally spaced
Baffle type = single segmental
Baffle cut = 35% (dia.)
ENTERING CC-THERM
Once the simulation is complete in CC-STEADY STATE, you should go to the Sizing menu select Heat
Exchangers >Shell & Tube. The program will respond with the following procedure:
1. If a heat exchanger is not currently selected, it will ask you to select which heat exchanger (from the
flowsheet) that you want to analyze. This is done by displaying the Select UnitOps dialog box.
Select the first heat exchanger and then click [OK].
2. After the desired heat exchanger has been selected, CC-THERM will prompt the user to identify
which process stream goes on the tube side.

3. Click [OK], then click on stream 1.
CC-THERM will walk you through the generation of the heat curve and the specification of the heat
exchanger. This process involves the following steps:
i. Generate and finalize the heat curve and properties on both sides of the exchanger.
ii. Define general information about the exchanger: The process type or heat transfer mechanism
on each side; the allowable pressure drops on each side; the fouling factors to be used for the
calculation; the TEMA class and TEMA type of the exchanger; and which sets of clearances
are to be used for the design.
iii. Enter any desired user data for labeling the output, design pressure/temperature, corrosion
allowance, and loop optimizer.
iv. Specify any desired shell data.
v. Specify any desired tube and tubeside data.
vi. Specify any desired baffle data.
vii. Specify any desired nozzle data.
viii. Specify any desired specific clearances.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
69
ix. Specify any desired miscellaneous data.
Please follow the program through these steps using the instructions given below.
STEP 1 - IDENTIFY THE TUBESIDE STREAM:
After the desired heat exchanger has been selected, CC-THERM will prompt the user to identify which
process stream goes on the tubeside. A message box will appear instructing you to select the tubeside
stream. Click [OK] on this box. The box will close and the Select Stream dialog box will appear. Use
the cursor to click on stream number one of the flowsheet. This stream will then be the tubeside stream.
CC-THERM will then display all 4 streams around the exchanger in a wordpad report:

After reviewing the stream data, you may close the report.
STEP 2 - GENERATE THE HEAT CURVE:
Once the tube side stream is identified, the program will prompt the user through the setup of the heat
curve. First, the Heat Curve Parameters dialog box, as shown below, is displayed.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
70

The input for this screen is described in detail elsewhere in this manual. No attempt is made to repeat
that information here. However, the following points should be noted:

To account for the change in physical properties across the heat exchanger, CC-THERM
divides the analysis into zones. These zones are thermodynamic segments based on equal
temperature changes or equal enthalpy increments. There are two options to choose from:
- Increments of equal enthalpy change;
- Increments of equal enthalpy change between the dew and bubble points with
separate zones for superheating and subcooling if present.
The default is to use the bubble-dew point option above, but the user may override their
selection.

For any of the segmentation methods described above, the user can decide how many zones
are to be calculated for the exchanger. Obviously, the more zones, the more accurate the
calculation, but the slower the calculations. The industry standard is 10 zones (11
points),which is the default, but the user can select any number by making an entry in the “No.
Of Points” field. The Number of Points equals the number of zones plus one.
For this tutorial let’s use the defaults for all of these entries. Click the [OK] button to accept the
defaults.
Heat exchangers may have countercurrent or co-current flow. Since this is a countercurrent heat
exchanger, let’s leave the default selection for flow pattern (countercurrent).

CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
71
At this point the program calculates the 11 points needed for the heat curve. When it is finished, it will
display the following plot:





















The purpose of displaying this plot is to allow the user to inspect the calculated heat curve for any
obvious problems in the set up of the analysis.
Select [OK] to close this window and continue.
STEP 3 - MAKING GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS:
The program will now prompt you to provide basic information governing the heat exchanger
calculations, such as process type, allowable pressure drop, fouling factor, TEMA class/type, etc. The
General Specifications dialog box should appear as follows:
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
72

As you can see, most of the data fields are set up with defaults. In addition, each field in this menu has
a Help button for assistance. Help topics can also be displayed by pressing the [F1] key while in the
field of concern.
Let's go through the input, item by item, as follows:
Page 1: General Information
Calculation mode - The first thing you must decide is if you doing a design or a rating. In our
case, we are doing a rating, so we set the box to Rating.
TEMA class - For this example, let's use TEMA class R.
TEMA type - In order to establish the basic configuration of the exchanger, you must define the
front-end, the shell, and the rear-end of the exchanger according to TEMA designations. This
is true even if you are using one of the foreign codes to set the mechanical aspects of the
exchanger. The allowable entries are contained in the scroll boxes that appear when you
select a field. They are also listed in Chapter 3 and in the Appendix of this manual. The
simplest and most common kind of exchanger is a fixed tubesheet, or BEM, TEMA type. From
the illustrations in the Supplements Section we can find the types that correspond to the letter
designations. Therefore select a Bonnet front head, One Pass shell, and a Fixed Tubesheet (B
head) rear head.
Orientation – This exchanger is mounted horizontally.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
73
Process type – In some cases the user must identify the process type, for example in the case
of pool boiling or falling film condensation. In our case, the program has selected
Sensible/Sensible, as there is no phase change on either side of the exchanger.
Fouling factor - To allow for fouling on the inside and outside of the tube, you are permitted to
enter fouling factors. The default is 0.001 (English units) on both sides, and that is what we
want in this case.
Page 2: Modeling Methods
Tab 2 of the General Specifications dialog box enables the user to select what formulas are
to be used in certain aspects of the heat exchanger calculations. For the purposes of this
tutorial we will use the program’s default selections. Therefore, no entries on Page 2 are
required.
Now close the General Specifications dialog box by clicking [OK].
CC-THERM will now walk you through each of the dialog boxes necessary to completely define
the geometry of the heat exchanger. These are:
The Tube Specifications dialog box
The Shell Specifications dialog box
The Baffle Specifications dialog box
The Nozzles Specifications dialog box
The Clearances Specifications dialog box
The Materials Specifications dialog box
The Miscellaneous Specifications dialog box
STEP 4 – THE TUBE SPECIFICATIONS dialog box:
The Tube Specifications dialog box is shown below:
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
74

You will notice that CC-THERM uses the following tube defaults:

0.75 inch O.D.

16 BWG (tubewall thickness = 0.065 inches

one tube pass

rotated triangle (60
o
) tube pattern

tube pitch = 0.9375 inches

plain tubes
All of these defaults are the values that we want to use for this rating. Therefore, all we need to input is
the number of tubes (6456) and the tube length (20 feet). Please enter those values now.
Your entries should now appear as shown in the above screen.
Now save the entries and close the dialog box by clicking [OK].
STEP 5 – THE SHELL SPECIFICATIONS dialog box:
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
75
The Shell Specifications dialog box will appear next:

The defaults for this screen are:

40 inch diameter

one exchanger in parallel

one exchanger in series
The number of tubes rows in a bundle will be determined by the program but the user can override it on
screen. We should use the program calculated value.
The only value we need to specify is the shell diameter. Since the diameter is over 24 inches, the
program assumes it is rolled plate and the value entered here is taken to be the actual shell I.D. Please
enter 27 in the shell diameter field, then save this entry and close the dialog box by clicking [OK].
STEP 6 – THE BAFFLE SPECIFICATIONS dialog box:
Next, the Baffle Specifications dialog box will be displayed:
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
76

This dialog box defaults to:

single segmental baffles

baffle thickness = 0.126 inches

horizontal baffles

baffles cut based on diameter

Impingement plate according to TEMA

No intermediate baffles (relevant only to No-Tubes-in-Windows baffles).
All of these defaults are acceptable in our rating case example, so there is no need to make entries in
these fields. It is necessary; however, to specify the baffle spacing and baffle cut.
Baffle Spacing –
All we are given for the baffle spacing is that there are 10 baffles equally spaced. Erase any default
values for spacing and enter 10 baffles, the program will calculate equal spacing for all.

CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
77
Baffle Cut Percent -
For this tutorial, the baffle cut percent is 35 (diameter). The baffle cut percent can be based on
diameter or on area. The field “Basis of Cut” identifies whether the specified cut is based on diameter or
area. The default is diameter. This is what we want. Therefore, enter 35 in the Baffle cut percent field.
Please save this information and close the dialog box by clicking [OK].
STEP 7 – THE NOZZLE SPECIFICATIONS dialog box:
Next, the Nozzle Specifications dialog box will appear:

The defaults for this dialog box are:

Regular (not longneck) nozzle

No intermediate nozzle

Opposite side nozzle orientation

No reducer percent
These are acceptable. Therefore, all we need to do in this dialog box is enter the inside diameter for the
inlet and outlet nozzles on both the tube and shell sides. All of these nozzles have 1 foot I.D.’s.
Therefore, complete this screen as shown above.
Now save this input and close dialog box by clicking [OK].
STEP 8 – THE CLEARANCES dialog box:
Now the Clearance Specification dialog box will appear:
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
78

CC-THERM always defaults to TEMA clearances so normally no entry is required on this dialog box.
However in our case the clearances are known and should be entered in the event they do not exactly
conform to TEMA.
Once we have an impingement plate, we need to enter the space at the top of the bundle. No other
outwear are necessary. Therefore, complete this screen as shown above.
Now save the input and close the dialog box by clicking [OK].
STEP 9 – THE MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS dialog box:
The next dialog box to appear will be the Material Specifications dialog box. It is shown below:


CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
79
The purpose of this dialog box is to allow the user to specify the materials of construction for the heat
exchanger.
Use Carbon steel for the tubes. Use A-285-C for all other materials.
Please close this dialog box by clicking [OK].
STEP 10 – THE MISCELLANEOUS SPECIFICATIONS dialog box:
The last dialog box to appear will be the Miscellaneous Specifications dialog box. It is shown below:

The only field on this screen which we are concerned about is the “Rows per Sealing Strip” field. We
want 5 rows per sealing strip, and this is the default. Therefore, no entries are required on this screen.
Close this dialog box by clicking [OK].
THE CC-THERM MENU:
The input sequence for our rating case is now complete. The program will now open the Shell and
Tube Exchanger menu, which is shown below:
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
80

STEP 11 – CALCULATING:
We are now ready to run, so you may now select the Calculate option on the menu. The program will
run very fast, show runtime messages on the status line and immediately return you to the Shell and
Tube Exchanger menu.
STEP 12 – USING THE VIEW RESULTS AND PLOT COMMANDS:
We can now select the View Results option to see the result of the heat exchanger calculations. You
may also display results graphically by using the Plot command, or you may print tabulated, hardcopy
reports by using the Report Generation option.
There are a variety of detailed results, which you may display on the screen by using the View Results
option. To get a list of the possible displays, click the View Results option. The View Results menu will
appear.
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81

First, let’s look at the Summary Results. When you select this option, your screen should display these
results:
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
82




















You will notice that the results are displayed in a Wordpad window. Using the Select Reports option, you
can select either Wordpad or Excel to view your results.
When you are finished reviewing your results, close the Wordpad window by clicking on the Close button
in the upper right hand corner of the Wordpad window. You will be returned to the View Results menu.
Next, to view the shell side data, click on the Shellside Data option. The following results are
displayed:
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
83

To view a vibration analysis, select the Vibration option, and the following screen is displayed:
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
84

For an explanation of these values, refer to the Report Generation section of this manual.
You may close the Wordpad window(s) at any time. This will return you to the View Results menu.
Exit this menu by clicking on the Exit option at the top of the menu. The View Results menu will close
and the Shell and Tube Exchanger menu will reopen.
The Plot option works the same way. Click on the word Plot on the menu to display the possible plots.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
85

All of these plots are zone-by-zone graphs and will generate plots in a plot window just like the heat
curve plot we saw at the beginning of this tutorial. When you close the plot window, you will be
returned to the Shell and Tube Exchanger menu.
STEP 13 – GENERATING A REPORT:
To generate a tabulated report, use the Generate Reports option. All the reports selected under
Select Reports will be generated.
We have now completed all of the exercises for our tutorial. To exit CC-THERM:
Close any report that were generated. You will be returned to the The Shell and Tube Exchanger
menu. Click on the Exit command on the Shell and Tube Exchanger menu. If the program asks if you
want to save changes, select yes to save your changes, or no to not save your changes.










User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
86
APPENDIX I: MATERIAL CODE NUMBERS FOR SHELL AND CHANNEL MATERIALS
SHELL MATERIALS:
1. A-285-C
2. A-515-55
3. A-515-60
4. A-515-65
5. A-515-70
6. A-516-55
7. A-516-60
8. A-516-65
9. A-516-70
10. A234-WPB
11. A-53B(W) (Considered ERW Pipe - NOT Seamless)
12. A-106-B
13. A312304W (Considered ERW Pipe - NOT Seamless)
14. A312316W (Considered ERW Pipe - NOT Seamless)
15. A-333-1
16. A-333-6
17. A-333-4
18. A-333-7
19. C.S.
20. A-537-2
21. A-202-A
22. A-202-B
23. A-203-D
24. A-203-E
25. A-203-F ( <= 2.0 INCH )
26. A-204-A
27. A-204-B
28. A-204-C
29. A-225-C
30. A-302-A
31. A-302-B
32. A-387-2 CLASS 1
33. A-387-12 CLASS 1
34. A-387-11 CLASS 1
35. A-387-22 CLASS 1
36. A-387-21 CLASS 1
37. A-387-5 CLASS 1 - (Allow. AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
38. A-533-A
39. A-533-B
40. A-533-C
41. MONEL (ERW)PIPE - SB-165-400A (Annealed)
42. MONEL (ERW)PIPE - SB-165-400S (Stress Relieved)
43. INCONEL (ERW)PIPE - SB-167-600A (Hot Finished/Annealed)
44. INCONEL (ERW)PIPE - SB-167-600S (Hot Finished/Annealed)
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87
45. INCOLOY - SB-163-825A (Annealed)
46. INCOLOY - SB-163-825S (Annealed)
47. ALUMINUM BRONZE - SB-171-61
48. MONEL - SB-127-400
49. ALUMINUM-6061 - SB-209-T651
50. TITANIUM-2 - SB-265-Gr 2
51. TITANIUM-12 - SB-265-Gr 12
52. NICKEL - SB-162-200 (Hot Rolled)
53. LC-NICKEL - SB-162-201 (H.R./Annealed)
54. ZIRCONIUM - SB-551
55. INCOLOY-800 - SB-409-800 (Annealed)
56. INCOLOY-825 - SB-424-825 (Annealed)
57. INCONEL-600 - SB-168-600 (Annealed)
58. HASTELLOY-B - SB-333-B2 (Soln Annealed)
59. HASTELLOY-C - SB-575-C276 (Soln Annealed)
60. HASTELLOY-G - SB-582-G (Soln Annealed)
61. A-240-304
62. A-240-304L
63. A-240-304H
64. A-240-304N
65. A-240-316
66. A-240-316L
67. A-240-316H
68. A-240-316N
69. A-240-317
70. A-240-317L
71. A-240-321
72. A-240-321H
73. A-240-347
74. A-240-347H
75. A-240-348
76. A-240-348H
77. A-240-309
78. A-240-309S
79. A-240-310
80. A-240-310S
81. A-240-405
82. A-240-410
83. A-240-430
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
88
CHANNEL MATERIALS
1. A-179
2. A-214
3. A-106-B
4. C.S.
11. A-334-1 (Seamless)
12. A-334-6 (Seamless)
13. A-210-A
14. A-210-C
15. A-178-A
16. A-178-C
17. A-199-T11
18. A-199-T3B
19. A-199-T22
20. A-199-T21
21. A-199-T5 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
22. A-199-T7 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
23. A-199-T9 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
24. A-209-T1B
25. A-209-T1
26. A-209-T1A
27. A-213-T2 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
28. A-213-T17
29. A-213-T12
30. A-213-T11
31. A-213-T22
32. A-213-T21
33. A-213-T5 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
34. A-213-T5B (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
35. A-213-T5C (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
36. A-213-T7 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
37. A-213-T9 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
38. A-334-9 (Seamless - Allow. AVAIL @ 650 F. and above)
39. A-334-7 (Seamless)
40. A-334-3 (Seamless)
41. COPPER -SB-111-122 (HARD DRAWN)
42. ADMIRALTY -SB-111-443 (Annealed)
43. ALUMINUM BRASS -SB-111-687 (Annealed)
44. RED BRASS -SB-111-230 (Annealed)
45. Cu-Ni 70/30 -SB-111-715 (Annealed)
46. Cu-Ni 90/10 -SB-111-706 (Annealed)
47. ALUMINUM BRONZE -SB-111-608 (Annealed)
48. MONEL -SB-163-400 (Annealed)
49. ALUMINUM-6061 -SB-234-6061-T6
50. TITANIUM-2 -SB-338-Gr 2 (Welded-Annealed)
51. TITANIUM-12 -SB-338-GR 12 (Welded-Annealed)
52. NICKEL -SB-163-200 (Annealed)
53. LC-NICKEL -SB-163-201 (Annealed)
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
89
54. ZIRCONIUM -SB-523-R60702
55. INCOLOY-800 -SB-163-800 (Annealed)
56. INCOLOY-825 -SB-163-825 (Annealed)
57. INCONEL-600 -SB-163-600 (Annealed)
58. HASTELLOY-B -SB-619-B (Soln Annealed)
59. HASTELLOY-C -SB-619-C-276 (Soln Annealed)
60. HASTELLOY-G -SB-619-G (Soln Annealed)
61. A-213-304
62. A-213-304L
63. A-213-304H
64. A-213-304N
65. A-213-316
66. A-213-316L
67. A-213-316H
68. A-213-316N
69. A-213-317
70. A-213-317L
71. A-213-321
72. A-213-321H
73. A-213-347
74. A-213-347H
75. A-213-348
76. A-213-348H
77. A-213-309
78. A-213-309S
79. A-213-310
80. A-213-310S
81. A-213-405
82. A-213-410
83. A-213-430
84. NOT USED
85. NOT USED
86. NOT USED
87. NOT USED
88. NOT USED
89. NOT USED
90. NOT USED
91. NOT USED
92. NOT USED
93. NOT USED
94. NOT USED
95. NOT USED
96. NOT USED
97. NOT USED
98. NOT USED
99. NOT USED
100. NOT USED
101. A-249-304
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
90
102. A-249-304L
103. A-249-304H
104. A-249-304N
105. A-249-316
106. A-249-316L
107. A-249-316H
108. A-249-316N
109. A-249-317
110. A-249-317L
111. A-249-321
112. A-249-321H
113. A-249-347
114. A-249-347H
115. A-249-348
116. A-249-348H
117. A-249-309
118. A-249-309S
119. A-249-310
120. A-249-310S
121. A-249-405
122. A-249-410
A-249-430
DIN-AD Merkblatter Code
A37
ST37.2
ST45.8
STAHL
1.4301
1.4301
1.4301
1.4401
1.4401
1.4401
TTST41
TTST45
ST45.8
ST45.8
ST37.2
ST37.2
CRMO
CRMO
1.4301
1.4401



CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
91
British Standard 5500
15123A
15123B
15126A
15126B
22128A
22128B
261
271
304S15
316S16




































User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
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APPENDIX II: MATERIAL CODE NUMBERS FOR TUBESHEET MATERIALS
ASME CODE
1. A-285-C
2. A-515-55
3. A-515-60
4. A-515-65
5. A-515-70
6. A-516-55
7. A-516-60
8. A-516-65
9. A-516-70
10. A-181-60
11. A-181-70
12. A-105
17. A-350-LF1
18. A-350-LF2
19. C.S.
21. A-182-F1
22. A-182-F2
23. A-182-F12
24. A-182-F11
25. A-182-F22 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
26. A-182-F21 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
27. A-182-F5 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
28. A-182-F5A (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
29. A-182-F7 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
30. A-182-F9 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
31. A-216-WCA
32. A-216-WCB
33. A-217-WC1
34. A-217-WC4
35. A-350-LF3
36. A-350-LF4
37. A-372-4
38. A-372-V
39. A-372-8
40. A-508-1
41. COPPER- SB- 11-110
42. ADMIRALTY- SB-171-443
43. ALUMINUM BRASS
44. NAVAL BRASS SB-171-464
45. B-171-70/30 SB-171-715
46. B-171-90/10 SB-171-706
47. ALUMINUM BRONZE SB-171-614
48. MONEL SB-127-400
49. ALUMINUM-6061 SB-209-T651
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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50. TITANIUM-2 SB-265-Gr 2
51. TITANIUM-12 SB-265-Gr 12
52. NICKEL SB-162-200 (Hot Rolled)
53. LC-NICKEL SB-162-201 (H.R./Annealed)
54. ZIRCONIUM SB-551
55. INCOLOY-800 SB-409-800 (Annealed)
56. INCOLOY-825 SB-424-825 (Annealed)
57. INCONEL-600 SB-168-600 (Annealed)
58. HASTELLOY-B SB-333-B2 (Sol Annealed)
59. HASTELLOY-C SB-575-C276 (Sol Annealed)
60. HASTELLOY-G SB-582-G (Sol Annealed)
61. A-240-304
62. A-240-304L
63. A-240-304H
64. A-240-304N
65. A-240-316
66. A-240-316L
67. A-240-316H
68. A-240-316N
69. A-240-317
70. A-240-317L
71. A-240-321
72. A-240-321H
73. A-240-347
74. A-240-347H
75. A-240-348
76. A-240-348H
77. A-240-309
78. A-240-309S
79. A-240-310
80. A-240-310S
81. A-240-405
82. A-240-410
83. A-240-430
84. NOT USED
85. NOT USED
86. NOT USED
87. NOT USED
88. NOT USED
89. NOT USED
90. NOT USED
91. NOT USED
92. NOT USED
93. NOT USED
94. NOT USED
95. NOT USED
96. NOT USED
97. NOT USED
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
94
98. NOT USED
99. NOT USED
100. NOT USED
101. A-182-304
102. A-182-304L
103. A-182-30426H
104. A-182-304N
105. A-182-316
106. A-182-316L
107. A-182-316H
108. A-182-316N
109. A-182-317
110. A-182-317L
111. A-182-321
112. A-182-321H
113. A-182-347
114. A-182-347H
115. A-182-348
116. A-182-348H
117. A-182-309
118. A-182-309S
119. A-182-310
120. A-182-310S
121. A-182-405
122. A-182-410
123. A-182-430












CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
95
APPENDIX III: TEMA DESIGNATIONS




User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
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APPENDIX IV: FIN TUBES
1. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-114028
2. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-115032
3. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-116038
4. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-114035
5. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-115040
6. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-116044
7. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-163058
8. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-164058
9. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-164065
10. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-164072
11. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-165058
12. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-165065
13. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-165072
14. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-165083
15. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-165095
16. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-166058
17. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-166065
18. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-166072
19. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-166083
20. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-166095
21. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-167065
22. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-167072
23. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-167083
24. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-167095
25. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-192032
26. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-193032
27. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-193042
28. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-193049
29. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-193058
30. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194028
31. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194032
32. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194042
33. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194049
34. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194058
35. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194065
36. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194072
37. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195032
38. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195035
39. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195042
40. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195049
41. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195058
42. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195065
43. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195072
44. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195083
45. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195095
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
97
46. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195109
47. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196035
48. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196042
49. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196049
50. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196058
51. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196065
52. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196072
53. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196083
54. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196095
55. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197042
56. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197049
57. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197058
58. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197065
59. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197072
60. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197083
61. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197095
62. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197109
63. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-264049
64. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265028
65. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265032
66. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265042
67. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265049
68. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265058
69. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265065
70. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265072
71. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267028
72. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267032
73. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267042
74. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267049
75. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267058
76. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267065
77. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267072
78. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285028
79. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285035
80. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285042
81. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285049
82. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285065
83. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285083
84. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286028
85. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286035
86. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286042
87. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286049
88. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286065
89. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286083
90. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287028
91. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287035
92. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287042
93. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287049
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
98
94. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287065
95. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287083
96. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-324028
97. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-324035
98. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-324042
99. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-324049
100. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-324065
101. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325028
102. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325035
103. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325042
104. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325049
105. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325065
106. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325083
107. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326028
108. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326035
109. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326042
110. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326049
111. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326065
112. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326083
113. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327028
114. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327035
115. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327042
116. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327049
117. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327065
118. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327083
119. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405128
120. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405135
121. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405142
122. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405149
123. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405165
124. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405228
125. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405235
126. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405242
127. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405249
128. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405265
129. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-195225
130. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-195228
131. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-195235
132. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265225
133. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265228
134. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265235
135. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265242
136. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265425
137. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265428
138. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265435
139. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265349
140. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-267228
141. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-267235
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
99
142. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-285628
143. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-285635
144. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-325525
145. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-325528
146. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-405228
147. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-405235
148. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-405425
149. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-405428
150. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-405435
151. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1035
152. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1042
153. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1049
154. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1065
155. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1235
156. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1242
157. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1249
158. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1265
159. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1435
160. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1442
161. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1449
162. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1465
163. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1635
164. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1642
165. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1649
166. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1665
167. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1835
168. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1842
169. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1849
170. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1865
171. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2035
172. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2042
173. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2049
174. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2065
175. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1022
176. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1028
177. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1035
178. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1036
179. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1044
180. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1051
181. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1068
182. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1222
183. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1228
184. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1235
185. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1236
186. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1244
187. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1251
188. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1268
189. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1422
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
100
190. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1428
191. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1435
192. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1436
193. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1444
194. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1451
195. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1468
196. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1622
197. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1628
198. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1635
199. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1636
200. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1644
201. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1651
202. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1668
203. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1828
204. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1835
205. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1836
206. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1844
207. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1851
208. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1868
209. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2028
210. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2035
211. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2036
212. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2044
213. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2051
214. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2068
215. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1035
216. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1042
217. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1049
218. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1065
219. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1235
220. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1242
221. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1249
222. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1265
223. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1435
224. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1442
225. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1449
226. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1465
227. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1635
228. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1642
229. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1649
230. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1665
231. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1835
232. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1842
233. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1849
234. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1865
235. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2035
236. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2042
237. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2049
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
101
238. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2065
239. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1022
240. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1028
241. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1035
242. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1036
243. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1044
244. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1051
245. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1068
246. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1222
247. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1228
248. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1235
249. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1236
250. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1244
251. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1251
252. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1268
253. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1422
254. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1428
255. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1435
256. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1436
257. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1444
258. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1451
259. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1468
260. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1622
261. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1628
262. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1635
263. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1636
264. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1644
265. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1651
266. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1668
267. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1828
268. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1835
269. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1836
270. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1844
271. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1851
272. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1868
273. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2028
274. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2035
275. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2036
276. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2044
277. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2051
278. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2068
279. HPTI - FINE-FIN 284028
280. HPTI - FINE-FIN 284049
281. HPTI - FINE-FIN 284065
282. HPTI - FINE-FIN 284083
283. HPTI - FINE-FIN 285028
284. HPTI - FINE-FIN 285049
285. HPTI - FINE-FIN 285065
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
102
286. HPTI - FINE-FIN 285083
287. HPTI - FINE-FIN 286028
288. HPTI - FINE-FIN 286049
289. HPTI - FINE-FIN 286065
290. HPTI - FINE-FIN 286083
291. HPTI - FINE-FIN 287028
292. HPTI - FINE-FIN 287049
293. HPTI - FINE-FIN 287065
294. HPTI - FINE-FIN 287083
295. HPTI - FINE-FIN 284028
296. HPTI - FINE-FIN 284035
297. HPTI - FINE-FIN 284049
298. HPTI - FINE-FIN 284065
299. HPTI - FINE-FIN 284083
300. HPTI - FINE-FIN 284109
301. HPTI - FINE-FIN 285028
302. HPTI - FINE-FIN 285035
303. HPTI - FINE-FIN 285049
304. HPTI - FINE-FIN 285065
305. HPTI - FINE-FIN 285083
306. HPTI - FINE-FIN 285109
307. HPTI - FINE-FIN 286028
308. HPTI - FINE-FIN 286035
309. HPTI - FINE-FIN 286049
310. HPTI - FINE-FIN 286065
311. HPTI - FINE-FIN 286083
312. HPTI - FINE-FIN 286109
313. HPTI - FINE-FIN 287028
314. HPTI - FINE-FIN 287035
315. HPTI - FINE-FIN 287049
316. HPTI - FINE-FIN 287065
317. HPTI - FINE-FIN 287083
318. HPTI - FINE-FIN 287109
319. HPTI - FINE-FIN 304028
320. HPTI - FINE-FIN 304049
321. HPTI - FINE-FIN 304065
322. HPTI - FINE-FIN 304083
323. HPTI - FINE-FIN 305028
324. HPTI - FINE-FIN 305049
325. HPTI - FINE-FIN 305065
326. HPTI - FINE-FIN 305083
327. HPTI - FINE-FIN 306028
328. HPTI - FINE-FIN 306049
329. HPTI - FINE-FIN 306065
330. HPTI - FINE-FIN 306083
331. HPTI - FINE-FIN 307028
332. HPTI - FINE-FIN 307049
333. HPTI - FINE-FIN 307065
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
103
334. HPTI - FINE-FIN 307083
335. WIELAND GEWA-K 16 R/Z 16015.08
336. WIELAND GEWA-K 16 R/Z 16015.11
337. WIELAND GEWA-K 16 R/Z 16015.14
338. WIELAND GEWA-K 16 R/Z 16015.16
339. WIELAND GEWA-K 16 R/Z 16015.20
340. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.08
341. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.08
342. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.11
343. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.11
344. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.14
345. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.14
346. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.14
347. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.14
348. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.16
349. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.16
350. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.16
351. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.20
352. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.20
353. WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.20
354. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.08
355. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.08
356. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.11
357. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.11
358. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.14
359. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.14
360. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.14
361. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.14
362. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.16
363. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.16
364. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.16
365. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.20
366. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.20
367. WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.20
368. WIELAND GEWA-K 30 R/Z 08508.11
369. WIELAND GEWA-K 30 R/Z 08508.14
370. WIELAND GEWA-K 30 R/Z 08508.16
371. WIELAND GEWA-K 30 R/Z 08508.20
372. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.12
373. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.12
374. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.12
375. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.12
376. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.15
377. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.15
378. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.15
379. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.15
380. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.18
381. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.18
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104
382. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.18
383. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.18
384. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.21
385. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.21
386. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.21
387. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.21
388. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.08
389. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.08
390. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.10
391. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.10
392. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.12
393. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.12
394. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.14
395. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.14
396. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.16
397. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.16
398. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.18
399. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.18
400. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.22
401. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.22
402. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22045.08
403. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22045.10
404. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22045.12
405. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22045.16
406. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22045.16
407. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22045.18
408. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22045.22
409. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22045.22
410. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.08S
411. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.10S
412. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.12S
413. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.14S
414. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.16S
415. WIELAND GEWA-D 11,5 R 22035.20S
416. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.09
417. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.09
418. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.09
419. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.09
420. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.12
421. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.12
422. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.12
423. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.12
424. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.12
425. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.12
426. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.15
427. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.15
428. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.15
429. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.15
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
105
430. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.15
431. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.15
432. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.15
433. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.15
434. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.18
435. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.18
436. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.18
437. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.18
438. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.18
439. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.18
440. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.21
441. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.21
442. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.21
443. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.21
444. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.21
445. WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.21
446. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.09
447. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.09
448. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.12
449. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.12
450. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.12
451. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.15
452. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.15
453. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.15
454. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.15
455. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.18
456. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.18
457. WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.21
458. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.09
459. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.09
460. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.09
461. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.12
462. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.12
463. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.12
464. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.12
465. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.15
466. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.15
467. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.15
468. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.15
469. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.15
470. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.18
471. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.18
472. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.18
473. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.21
474. WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.21
475. HPTI TITANIUM 435023


User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
106
APPENDIX V: USER FINTUBES
If the fin tube or “enhanced heat transfer” tube that is needed is not contained in the CC-THERM library,
then the user may define his own using the procedure outlined below.
1. Select the “User specified fin tube” option from the Trufin tube code list on the Tube
Specifications dialog box. This dialog box is found on the Exchanger Geometry Menu under
the main Shell and Tube Exchanger Menu.

2. Select the “User specified fin tube” option from the Trufin tube code list.
3. Click [OK]. The Fin Tube Methods dialog box will open.

4. Using this screen you can select a different method to calculate heat transfer on shell and tubeside,
or you can just use the default selections (recommended).
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
107
5. Click [OK]. The Fin Tube Specifications dialog box will open.

6. Complete both pages of the Fin Tube Specifications dialog box.
7. Click [OK]. You will be returned to the Shell and Tube Exchanger Geometry Menu.
THE FINTUBE METHODS DIALOG BOX
The Fin Tube Methods dialog box enables the user to specify which heat transfer method is to be
used to calculate the film coefficients and pressure drops on each side of the tube. The dialog box
looks like this:

User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
108
THE FINTUBE SPECIFICATIONS DIALOG BOX


CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
109
Page 1:
Name: Since the data for this fintube will be stored in the CHEMCAD databank, it is useful to specify a
name for the tube. This name will then appear at the bottom of your fintube list whenever it is
displayed.
Tube type: There are many types of enhanced heat transfer tubes. CC-THERM contains manufacturer
data for many commercially available tubes for each of these types. When a user defines his own tube,
the tube type must be identified as it determines the approval taken in the calculations. Available
options are:
• Plain Fin
• Koro-Dense
• Turbo-Chill
• Fluted
• Turbulator
Tube Material: The materials commonly used for low fintubes are available. These are carbon steel,
C-1/2 Moly Steel, C-1/2 Mo, and 11/4 Cr-1/2 Mo. For other materials the user can input the wall and fin
THERMal conductivity. Since the main influence of materials on the calculation is the determination of
tube wall resistance, this should be sufficient.
Number of Fins: Enter the number of fins per unit of length.
Nominal outer diameter: Enter a nominal diameter. This number is used only in the calculation of
Turbo-Chill and Korodense in the calculation, but may be useful in making your output conform to
industry standards.
Fin Root Diameter: This is the diameter of the tube from the bottom of the fins. In Figure 1 below, the
fin root diameter is requested by D
fr
.
Internal diameter: Low finned tubes have one internal diameter at their entrance and another internal
diameter along that portion of the tabs which is finned. Referring to Figure 1, D
ti
represents the internal
diameter of the fin tube. This is the portion of the tube which is finned.
Equivalent diameter-sensible: This is the correlating outside diameter for sensible flow in Turbo-Chill
tubes. It is used only for Turbo-Chill and Korodense tubes.
Equivalent diameter-condensation: This is the correlating outside diameter for condensation in
Turbo-Chill tubes. It is used only for Turbo-Chill and Korodense tuber.
Tube-to-baffle clearance: Standard TEMA clearances do not suffice for finned tube calculations. For
accuracy the user should enter his/her own value.
Fin height: Enter the height of the fin from its base. Referring to Figure 1.
2
D - D
fin of height h
fr fo
= =
Fin thickness: Enter the average width of the fin. This would be L
ss
in Figure 1 and w as shown in
Figure 2.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
110

Page 2:
Area/Length: This is the total heat transfer surface area on the outside of the tube per unit length. Put
another way, it is:
tube of Length
fin) by covered not tube of Area (Outside fins) of portion exposed of (Area
h Area/Lengt
+
=
Ratio of outside/based inside area: This is the total outside heat transfer area divided by the inside
area calculated using the nominal diameter of the tube. This value is used only for Turbo-Chill and
Korodense tubes.
Ratio of outside/actual inside area: This is the total outside heat transfer area divided by the inside
area calculated using the actual inside diameter of the tube. This value is used only for Turbo-Chill and
Korodense tubes.
Wall Thermal conductivity: Enter the wall thermal conductivity. It is used to calculate tube wall
resistance. The program defaults to that of the material selected above.
Fin Thermal conductivity: Enter the fin thermal conductivity. It is used to calculate the fin tube wall
resistance. The program defaults to that of the material selected above.
Heat transfer data: The factors m, r, β, χ are used in the equations given below:
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
111
χ β +
(
¸
(

¸

∗ ∗

=
136 . 0
8
F
8
f
Re Pr
G Cp
hi
( ) [ ]
m
Re
7
8
f
r ln 46 . 2
1
+

=
where, Cp = heat capacity
G = mass flow/cross sectional area
Pr = Prandtl’s No.
Re = Reynold’s No.
F, r, β, χ = correlating factors for tube
Fin efficiency: For a single fin the fin efficiency n
f
is introduced to simplify the calculation of the heat
transfer from an extended surface. It is defined as the ratio of the actual heat transfer from the
extended surface Q
a
, to the amount of heat that could be transferred if the complete surface of the fin
was at the temperature of the root of the fin, Q
i
. Thus,
) T - T A h
Q
Q
Q
n
b r f
a
i
a
f
( ⋅
= =
where, A
f
= area of surface extension of fin
T
r
= the temperature of the outside of the fin at the point of its attachment to the
base surface
T
b
= the temperature of the surrounding fluid
h = the film coefficient on the tube fins
The above is for a single isolated fin. Practical extended surfaces are composed of a number of fins
placed on a base surface. The heat transfer coefficient h is considered to be uniform over both the fin
and the base surface.
In calculating the total heat transfer from a tube containing extended surfaces, one must take into
consideration the amount of heat transferred through the unfinned part of the bar tube as well as that
from the extended surfaces. This is accomplished by introducing a weighted heat transfer coefficient
h
o
, defined by
( )
r f f t o
A n A h A h + =
where, A
r
is the surface of the tube that is not covered by fins and A
t
is the total surface area,
A
t
= A
f
+ A
r
. The weighted fin efficiency can be defined as;
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
− +
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
¸
(

¸

− =
t
f
t
f
f f
t
f
A
A
1
A
A
n n 1
A
A
- 1 n
Enter n in this field.
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APPENDIX VI CHEMCAD THERM REFERENCES
Here is a list of references that have been used in the program for the heat transfer calculations.
EVAPORATION
E1. Chen - Correlation for Boiling Heat Transfer to Saturated Liquids in Convective Flow, Ind.
Engr. Proc. Des. and Dev., Vol. 58, #3, p. 322, 1966.
E2. Baroczy - A Systematic Correlation for Two-Phase Pressure Drop, Symposium Series, Vol.
62, p. 232, 1966.
E3. Fair - What You Need to Design Thermosyphon Reboilers, Petroleum Refiner, p. 105,
February 1960.
E4. Hughmark - Designing Thermosyphon Reboilers, CEP, Vol. 60 #7, p. 59.
E5. Hewitt - Applications of Two-Phase Flow, CEP, p. 38, July 1982.
E6. Lockhart and Martinelli - Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Two-Phase Two-
Component Flow in Pipes, Chem. Engr. Prog., Vol. 45 #1, p. 39, 1949.
E7. Hughmark - Designing Thermosyphon Reboilers, CEP, Vol. 65 #7, p. 67, 1969.
E8. Martinelli and Nelson - Prediction of Pressure Drops during Forced-Circulation Boiling of
Water, Transactions ASME, Vol. 70, p. 695, 1948.
E9. Fair - Vaporizers. . ., Chemical Engineering, p. 119, August 1963.
E10. Dukler - Dynamics of Vertical Falling Film Systems, CEP, Vol. 55, #10, 1959.
E11. Sinek and Young - Heat Transfer in Falling Film Long-Tube Vertical Evaporators, CEP, Vol.
58 #12, 1962.
E12. Fair - Vaporizer and Reboiler Design, Chemical Engineering, July 1963.
E13. Malek - Predict Nucleate Boiling Transfer Rates, Hydrocarbon Processing, February 1973.
E14. Palen and Small - A New Way to Design Kettle and Internal Reboilers, Hydrocarbon
Processing, Vol. 43 #11, November 1964.
E15. McNelly, M. J. - J. Imperial College Chemical Engineering Society, Vol. 7 (18) (1953); also
Perry - Sixth Edition, pp. 10-23.
E16. Friedel, L. - Improved Friction Pressure Drop Correlations for Horizontal and Vertical Two-
Phase Pipe Flow European Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting, Isora, Italy, Paper E2, June 1979.
E17. Premoli, A., Francesco, D., and Prina, A. - A Dimensionless Correlation for Determining the
Density of Two-Phase Mixtures, Lo Termotecnica, Vol. 25, pp. 17-26, 1971.
E18. Forster, N. K., and Zuber, N. - Dynamics of Vapor Bubbles and Boiling Heat Transfer,
AIChE J., Vol. 1, No. 4 p. 531, 1955.
E19. Kutaladze, S. S. - Boiling Heat Transfer, Int. J. Heat & Mass Transfer, Vol. 4, page 31, 1961.
E20. Grant, Cotchin and Henry - Tests on a Small Kettle Reboiler, Paper presented at the 21st
National Heat Transfer Conf., Seattle, WA, 1983.
E21. Bowring, R. W. - A Simple but Accurate Round Tube Uniform Heat Flux, Dryout Correlation
over t he Pressure Range .7 - 17 MN/m2 (100 - 2500 Psia), Rept. AEEW-R789, 1972.
E22. Chung K. R. and Seban, R. A. - Heat Transfer to Evaporating Liquid Films, Journal of Heat
Transfer, Volume 93, p. 391, 1971.
E23. Chun, K. R. and Seban, R. A. - Performance Prediction of Falling-Film Evaporator, Journal of
Heat Transfer, Volume 94, p. 432, 1972.
E24. Junkham, G. H., Bergles, A. E., Nirmalan, V., and Ravigurajan, T. - Investigation of
Turbulators for Fire Tube Boilers, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 107, p. 354, May 1985.
E25. Hewitt, et. al.; Pgs. 537-550.
E26. VDI Heat Atlas; 1992; Pgs. Md1-Md7.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
113
E27. Jensen, M. K. and Bensler, A. P. - Saturated Forced-Convective Boiling Heat Transfer with
Twisted-Tape Inserts, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 108, p. 93, February 1986.
CONDENSATION
C1. Bell and Khaly - Approximate Method for Multi-Component Condensation, American Institute
of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series, Vol. 69, #131, p. 72, 1972.
C2. Silver - Gas Cooling with Aqueous Condensation, Transactions Institute of Chemical
Engineers, Vol. 25, p. 30, 1974.
C3. Shekriladze - Theoretical Study of Laminar Film Condensation of Flowing Vapor, Institute of
the Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, Vol. 9, p. 581, 1966.
C4. Dukler - Dynamics of Vertical Falling Film Systems, CEP, Vol. 55 #10, 1959.
C5. Kutaladze and Borisshanski - A Concise Encyclopedia of Heat Transfer, 1966.
C6. Gloyer - Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol. 49 #6, p. 103, 1970.
C7. Bell and Mueller - Condensation Heat Transfer, AIChE Today Series, 1971.
C8. Briggs, Katz and Young - How to Design Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers, CEP, Vol. 59 #11,
November 1963.
C9. Briggs and Young - Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Air Flowing Across
Triangular Pitch Banks of Finned Tubes, CEP Symposium Series, Vol. 59 #41, 1963.
C10. Boyko and Kruzhilin - Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Resistances during Condensation of
Steam in a Horizontal Tube and in a Bundle of Tubes, Vol. 10, p. 361, 1967.
C11. Carpenter and Colburn - General Discussion on Heat Transfer, ASME, p. 20, 1951.
C12. Webb, R. L., Ruby, T. M., Keozierski, M. A. - Prediction of the Condensation Coefficient on
Horizontal Integral-Fin Tubes, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 107, p. 369, May 1985.
C13. Webb, Ralph L. - A Generalized Procedure for the Design and Optimization of Fluted
Gregorig Condensing Surfaces, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 101, p. 335, May 1979.
C14. Rudy, T. M. and Webb, R. L. - An Analytical Model to Predict Condensate Retention on
Horizontal Integral-Fin Tubes, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol.. 107, p. 361, May 1985.
C15. Narato, P. J. - An Evaluation of Film Condensation on Horizontal Integral-Fin Tubes, Journal
of Heat Transfer, Vol. 110, p. 1287, November 1988.
C16. Bribbs, D. E., Katz, D. L. and Young, E. H. - How to Design Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers,
Chemical Engineering Process, Vol. 1.
C17. Transfer in Film Condensation of Pure Steam on Vertical Surfaces and Horizontal Tubes,
Teploenergetika, Vol. 4, No. 7, p. 72, 1957.
C18. Hewitt, G.F.; Shires, G.L., and Bott, T.R.; Process Heat Transfer CRC Press; Boca Raton,
Florida; 1994 Pgs. 405-406.
C19. Hewitt et. al.; ibid; Pgs. 402-405, 409-410, 412-413
C20. Hewitt et. al.; ibid; Pgs. 574-580, 590, 660.
C21. McNaught, J.M.; Mass Transfer Correction Terius Design Methods for Multi-Component/Partial
Condensers; 18
th
U.S. National Heat Transfer Conference; 1979.
C22. Toborek, J, palen, J.W., Breber, G.; Prediction of Horizontal Tube-side Condensation of Pure
Components using Flow Regeine Criteria; Trans. ASME, J. Heat Transfer; 1980 (102) 471-476.
C23. Hewitt, et. al.; Pgs. 580-589.
C24. VDI Heat Atlas; 1992; Pgs. Ja6-Ja8.


User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
114
SENSIBLE FLOW
S1. Sieder and Tate - Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Liquids in Tubes, Industrial
Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 28, p. 1429, 1936.
S2. Kern - Process Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, 1950.
S3. Bell, K. J. - Final Report, Cooperative Research Program on Shell and Tube Heat
Exchangers, University of Delaware, June 1963.
S4. Tinker - Shell-Side Characteristics of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Parts I, II, and III,
General Discussion of Heat Transfer, Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, 1951
S5. Gentry, Young and Small - Rod Baffle Exchangers - Thermal-Hydraulic Predictive Methods -
Phillips Petroleum Company, Second Symposium on Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, September 14,
1981.
S6. Chen - Flow-Induced Vibration and Noise in Tube-Bank Heat Exchangers Due to von Karman
Streets, Transactions of the ASME, p. 134, 1968.
S7. Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association - TEMA Section 6 - Flow
Induced Vibration.
S8. Klaczak, Adam - Heat Transfer in Tubes with Spiral and Helical Turbulators, Journal of Heat
Transfer, Vol. 95, p. 557, November 1973.
S9. Eubank, D. C. and Proctor W. S. - MS Thesis, Chemical Engineering Department,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1951.
S10. Martinelli, R. C. and Boelter, L. M. K. - University of California (Berkeley) Publ. Engr., Vol. 15,
p. 23, 1942.
S11. Marner, W. J. and McMillan, H. K. - Combined Free and Forced Laminar Non-Newtonian
Convection in a Vertical Tube with Constant Wall Temperature, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 27,
p. 473, 1972.
S12. Perry, R. H. and Green, D. - Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook, Sixth, Edition, McGraw-
Hill, 1984.
S13. VDI Heat Atlas; 1992; Pgs. Ga1-Ga8
S14. Palen, J.W., and Taborek, J.; Solution of Shellside Flow Pressure Drop and heat Transfer by
Stream Analysis Method; Heat Transfer Conference; CEP Symposium Series; AICHE; 1969.
S15. Wills, J.N., and Johnston, D.; A New and Accurate Hand Calculation Method for Shellside
Pressure Drop and Flow Distribution; 22
nd
National Heat Transfer Conference, HTD, ASME; Vol. 36.
S16. Grant, I.D. R.; Flow and Pressure Drop with Single Phase and Two Phase Flow on the
Shellside of Segmentally Baffled Heat Exchangers; Heat Transfer Conference; CEP Symposium Series,
AICHE; 1972.
S17. Hewitt, et. al.; ibid; Pg. 97
S18. Hewitt, et. al.; ibid; Pg. 98
S19. Hewitt, et. al.; ibid; Pgs. 73-79
S20. VDI Heat Atlas; 1992; Pgs. Gb1-Gb8.





CC-THERM

AIR COOLER

User’s Guide
And Tutorial

CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
115
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION TO CC-THERM AIR COOLER
CC-THERM AIR COOLER or AIR COOLER is an integrated module for the design, rating, and fouling
rating of air cooled heat exchangers in the CHEMCAD Suite. It is fully integrated with CHEMCAD so
process data is automatically transferred from CHEMCAD’s flowsheets to the heat exchanger sizing
program, and heating curves and physical properties data are automatically generated.
AIRCOOLER is part of the CCTHERM heat exchanger subproduct.
EASY TO LEARN
The input for AIR COOLER is simple and concise. It is based upon the CHEMCAD input system, so any
user familiar with CHEMCAD will be able to operate AIR COOLER with ease. Since the input/output
systems and conventions are the same in AIR COOLER as those used in CHEMCAD, please refer to
the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for these types of “How to” instructions.
OVERVIEW
AIR COOLER is a state-of-the-art interactive tool for rating and design of air-cooled (or heated) heat
exchangers. This section gives an overall view of the program usage and the options available in the
AIR COOLER main menu. More information on each option in the main menu is provided in Chapter 2.
Since AIR COOLER is integrated with the CHEMCAD Suite, the program is also equipped with sound
thermodynamic models as well as a database with physical properties for over 2150 pure components.
The interactive feature of AIR COOLER allows full control of data communication. The input functions
allow you to enter process data by using dialog boxes. With this input facility, you can create new
problem files, review the results of problems already designed, and make modifications to previously
saved problems.
There are seven general steps involved in running a heat exchanger analysis with AIR COOLER. The
following list illustrates the general steps.
1. If Air is the utility for the exchanger, select air in the component list. Other fin side fluids are
possible, but you will need to use a two-side heat exchanger model in CHEMCAD if the non-tube
side fluid is not air.
2. Define the simulation problem and run the flowsheet in CC-STEADY STATE. This generates the
heat and material balances for CC-THERM AIR COOLER to use.
3. Select the Sizing command on the menu bar. The Sizing Menu will open.
4. From this menu select the Heat Exchangers followed by selection of AIR COOLER option.
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5. The program will prompt you through the initial setup of the exchanger analysis. It will do this by
displaying instructions about what you are to do next. When the instruction is cleared by clicking
[OK], you will be taken to the function or dialog box appropriate for completing the instructed task.
At the end of the set up process, the AIR COOLER Menu is displayed.
6. Inspect and edit the input as desired using the menu commands.
7. Execute the problem.
8. Review and printout.
The program performs the following tasks.
1. Performs extensive error checking.
2. Creates the airside streams for the use of air cooled heat exchangers.
3. Generates the heat curve for the tube and airsides.
4. Calculates in any of the following modes:
i. Design - The tube side inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flow sheet, the user
supplies the fouling factors and airflow, and the program calculates the main dimensions of
the exchangers (certain basic geometry specifications must be specified by the user).
ii. Rating – The tube side inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flow sheet and the user
supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions, fouling factors,
and airflow. The program determines whether the exchanger is too large or too small for the
given application.
iii. Fouling rating – The tube side inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flow sheet and
the user supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions and
airflow. The program calculates the fouling factors required to obtain the specified
performance from the exchanger.
5. Generates the output for the design/analysis of the heat exchanger.
6. Provides an interactive user interface to allow the user to change the problem specifications to rerun
the problem and review the results.
7. Creates the AIR COOLER files to save all the input/output data for each exchanger.
SUMMARY
As an integrated module to the CHEMCAD Suite, AIR COOLER offers the process engineer an easy
and comprehensive method of sizing or rating air-cooled heat exchangers. Since it uses the same
command language as CHEMCAD, any CHEMCAD user can pick up the program in a matter of
minutes. The program has been thoroughly and rigorously tested and found to be an accurate and
reliable tool. It is fully supported by a staff of trained engineers. It is a valuable tool for the process
engineer.
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117
AIR COOLER COMMANDS
The AIR COOLER program is an interactive program for air cooler design, rating, fouling rating, and
other analysis. It allows you to enter your air cooler information through a menu system similar to CC-
THERM SHELL AND TUBE, run the problem immediately, review the results, edit your data if you wish
and re-run the problem until you are satisfied.
AIR COOLER is accessed from CHEMCAD using the Sizing, Heat Exchangers, and Air Cooler option.
The screen appears as follows.

Upon entering AIR COOLER, the program will take you to a different status of data entering depending
on whether you are creating a new job or revisiting an old one.
For creating a new job, the program will take you through several screens and allow you to enter all the
data required. The first screen you will see is the Air Cooler General Data screen. This screen permits
you to make specifications that affect the overall approach to design, rating, or fouling rating of the unit.
The second screen will be Air Cooler Geometry menu if your selection for computation mode is rating
or fouling rating. The entrance listed in the menu allows you to access various air cooler geometry data
specification dialog. Upon exiting the menu, the program will take you to the Air Side Data dialog
screen where airside data may be entered. If design is the computation mode you selected in the Air
Cooler General Data screen. The program will by pass the Air Cooler Geometry menu and lead you
directly to the Air Side Data dialog screen. Upon exiting the Air Side Data dialog screen, the program
will automatically take process data from CHEMCAD and those you just entered, perform mass and
energy balance computation, create and show the four streams entering and leaving the heat exchanger,
do the heat curve calculation, and take you to the main Air Cooler menu.
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118
For revisiting an old job, the program will take you directly to the main Air Cooler menu where you can
access any data entrance screen freely, run computation, and view results.
When revisiting an old job, it is important to note that if you have made any changes to the streams or
heat exchanger units within CHEMCAD, you will receive a warning from AIR COOLER recommending
that you recalculate the heat curve to reflect those changes.
TECHNICAL FEATURES
1. AIR COOLER handles the following applications:
• Sensible cooling
• Horizontal condensing
• Vertical condensing
• Reflux condensation
2. Three modes of calculation may be selected: design, rating, or fouling rating mode. In the design
mode, a full optimization of the bundle dimensions, tube length, as well as tube passes per bundle
will be carried out. In the fouling rating mode, fouling factors will be estimated for given process
stream and air cooler. In the rating mode, the required heat transfer area will be calculated for given
process stream and air cooler geometry data and compared to actual area at service.
3. Tubes may be bare or finned. Finned tube may be user defined or chosen from a library of
Wolverine, HPTI, and Wieland tubes built into the program.
4. Dry wall and wet wall condensing can be accommodated.
5. Conservative and non-conservative condensing methods are available.
METHODS
TUBESIDE HEAT TRANSFER
The tube side heat transfer is calculated differently for condensation and sensible flow.
Condensation
The program considers the following types of condensation:
Horizontal Condensation
Vertical Condensation
Reflux condenser
The program calculates tube side condensation for horizontal condenser, vertical condenser, and reflux
(or knock-back) condenser for in-tube condensation. The algorithm for condensation calculation in air
cooler program is similar to that in shell and tube program in that the exchanger is always broken into n
(default=10) different zones. The two principal heat transfer mechanisms occurring (shear-controlled
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
119
condensation and gravity-controlled condensation) are computed. In between these two extreme zones,
the calculation is considered to be in the transition region between shear controlled and gravity
controlled. For a condenser where the inlet quality is 100% and the outlet 0%, the flow regime usually is
shear-controlled at the inlet, goes through the transition region, and finally, is gravity controlled at the
outlet.
In horizontal tube condensation, two extreme cases are recognized, stratifying flow at low vapor velocity
and annular flow at high vapor velocity. Stratifying flow forms when the influence of vapor shear is low
and condensate film drains under gravity forming a drainage region at the top part of the tube inner and
a stratified layer at the bottom. Annular flow forms when the vapor shear force is much greater than
gravity and the stratified layer disappears. For the stratifying flow, gravity controlled model obtained by
Chaddock (1962) and Chato (1957) is applied to the drainage region and the heat transfer in the
stratified layer is also under consideration while calculating average heat transfer coefficients. For the
annular flow, shear controlled model is applied. For intermediate region between stratifying and annular
flows, interpolation is applied.
In vertical tube condensation, filmwise condensation is considered. Again, the gravity controlled and
shear controlled mechanism applies. The program uses the Dukler method for gravity condensation for
vertical tubes. The Nusselt treatment (1916) is followed for laminar film.
The calculation of two-phase flow is an important part of an air-cooled condenser calculation, especially,
of pressure drop, void fraction, and two-phase density. The calculation of the two-phase flow is
computed as if all the fluid is in the liquid state. A two-phase multiplier is then used to compute the real
two-phase variables. Previously, the Nelson modification (1948) of the Lockhart-Martinelli equation
(1949) was used to calculate the two-phase density and pressure drop. However, more recently
published correlations have proven to be far more accurate and now supplant the Lockhart-Martinelli
method. For the two-phase pressure drop calculation, the program uses the Friedel correlation (1979).
For void fraction, the correlation by Premoli et al. (1971) is used.
Multi-Component Condensation and the Effect of Non-Condensibles
All above-mentioned methods are for condensation of a pure vapor and, as such, do not take into
account the presence of non-condensibles or the effect or large temperature differences between the
vapor dew point and bubble point.
To account for the presence of non-condensibles or large temperature differences between inlet and
outlet, a method similar to that suggested by Silver and Bell & Khaly in the above-cited references is
utilized. For each step along the condensation curve, the program calculates a resistance factor to
include the combined effects of a large temperature difference and the presence of non-condensibles. A
very common occurrence in a steam condenser is the presence of a small quantity of air. This type
gives a graphic illustration of how these resistance factors come into play. For the first several zones of
such an exchanger, the condensing temperature is practically isothermal because only a small amount
of air is present. In the last zone, a sizable temperature difference may exist and the amount of non-
condensibles may become more significant since almost all of the vapor has condensed. Thus, the
resistance factor in this last zone could be substantial, and, in such a case, half of the required area is
often necessary for the last zone alone.
Sensible Flow
The Sieder-Tate equation is employed for the calculation of the tube side heat transfer coefficient in the
turbulent region. The method of Martinelli and Boelter is utilized for laminar flow in a vertical tube. The
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
120
method of Eubank and Proctor is used for laminar flow in horizontal tubes. Both of these correlations
combine the effects of natural convection and forced convection. The flow is assumed to be laminar
below a Reynolds number of 2000 and is turbulent above a Reynolds number of 10000. In the transition
region, the program prorates the laminar and turbulent coefficient according to the Reynolds number to
arrive at the final coefficient. The program uses the familiar Poiseuille’s law for the friction factor in the
pressure drop calculation for laminar flow (Reynolds number below 2000). For turbulent flow (Reynolds
number above 3000) and for the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow, the
recommendations made in Section 5.23 of Perry are followed.
AIRSIDE HEAT TRANSFER
For the airside heat transfer coefficient of bare tube, the program uses ESDU methods (1973). For
pressure drop, it uses the method described in the Heat Exchanger Design Handbook (1983). For
finned-tube, the concept of fin efficiency is applied to allow for the radial temperature profile in calculating
heat transfer coefficients. The heat transfer and pressure drop correlation suggested by ESDU (1984) is
used for low fin tubes. For high fin tubes, the correlation recommended by ESDU (1986) is applied for
staggered finned-tube arrays and that by Schmidt (1963) is applied for in-line arrays.
ZONE ANALYSIS
For all exchangers, the unit is analyzed using zones specified by user. AIR COOLER automatically sets
up the zones and properties of each zone, but permits the user to edit or override.
OUTPUT FEATURES
The user may select from the following output:
• A zone-by-zone print-out of the heat curve and fluid physical properties
• API datasheet
• A detailed print-out of overall exchanger values
• A zone-by-zone print-out of heat transfer and pressure drop calculations
• The stream information inlet/outlet with H, T, P, and component flow rates
• Optimization data
You can request any of above output to be opened in Microsoft Word or Word Pad by using the View
menu and conveniently view, edit, or print out the results. Also, the Plot menu is available at any time
for the graphic display of the most important profiles, such as temperature, heat transfer coefficient, and
heat flux, along the axial direction from the zone-by-zone analysis.
The editing heat curve facility also provides you with an opportunity not only to view the heat curve but
also to be able to access the contents of the heat curve and make any changes to the data that you want
without going through the procedures for the heat curve generation. The details of this operation will be
described later.
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USING AIR COOLER MENUS
The Air Cooler Menu looks like this

The options on this menu are briefly described below and more fully described in the following sections
bearing the option as title.
DATA ENTRY IN AIR COOLER
You will be entering data about air cooler through the Air Cooler dialog boxes. You should note that
CHEMCAD input rules apply. Please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for the details of all input
connections and dialog boxes.
Air Side Data – This option enables user to specify Air Side data and the data along with tube side data
obtained from CHEMCAD are used for calculating required air flow through material and energy balance.
Heat Curve Generation – The air cooler analysis calculation takes place in two steps. First, the heat
curve is generated, then the heat transfer, pressure drop calculations, and fan power estimation are
performed. Heat Curve Generation performs the former calculations. This calculation determines the
flows, physical properties of the heat transfer fluids in each side of the exchanger. These properties are
then used in the heat transfer, pressure drop, and fan power calculation. Heat Curve Generation is
therefore a necessary prerequisite to the rest of the calculations.
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122
Edit Heat Curve – This option enables the user to edit the heat curve values calculated by Heat Curve
Generation or even created heat curve through manual input. It also allows user to do linear
interpolation.
General Specifications – This option allows user to define general data for an air cooler calculation
including calculation mode, process type, allowed pressure drop for design mode, fouling factor, user
specified heat transfer, condensation model for condensation calculation, fouling rating option, air cooler
orientation, and some API reporting related items.
Exchanger Geometry – Selecting this option allows user to provide physical dimensions for tube,
bundle, nozzles, miscellaneous, material specifications, and fan.
Calculate – This is used to execute the thermal analysis and pressure drop calculation.
View Results – This item is used to view the calculated results interactively.
Plot – This option enables user to graphically display heat curve, heat flux, LMTD, temperature, heat
transfer coefficients, heat transfer area information on a zone-by-zone basis.
Re-enter Stream Information – This command enables user to retrieve new stream information for the
tube side from CHEMCAD process flow sheet.
AIR SIDE DATA
The Air Side Data input screen allows the user to specify the air inlet and outlet temperature, static
pressure, and face velocity. These inputs are used to calculate air flow. The screen is shown below.

These fields are described below.
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123
Stream name - Enter any name you wish to describe the air stream.
Inlet air temperature - Enter the inlet (ambient) air temperature in the units shown. The default for inlet
air temperature is 86 ºF (30ºC).
Outlet air temperature - Enter the outlet air temperature in the units shown. Outlet air temperature
together with inlet air temperature and tube heat duty will be used to calculate airflow rate through
energy balance. Further rating, fouling rating, and design will be carried out based on this fixed airflow
rate.
Face velocity at standard condition - This is the face velocity based on the entire airflow at standard
condition divided by the face area of the bundles. Further rating, fouling rating, and design will be
carried out based on this fixed face velocity. This face velocity together with the air cooler geometry data
is used to calculate airflow. A small value of face velocity for given air cooler geometry may lead to a
small air flow. If the outlet air temperature reaches the inlet temp of the process, then a pinch error will
occur.
Static pressure - Enter the available static pressure in the units as shown. If this entry is left blank, the
program will default the static pressure to .5 inches (12.7 mm). Static pressure is subtracted from
ambient pressure to obtain bundle outlet pressure for induced draft fan and it is added to ambient
pressure to obtain bundle inlet pressure for forced draft fan installation.
Altitude - Enter the altitude, elevation above sea level, at which the air cooler will operate. This altitude
determines ambient pressure for the air cooler.
Relative humidity - Enter the relative humidity if you wish to correct the air side properties to account for
the water vapor in air.
Fan position - The fan may be forced or induced draft. A forced draft fan receives the air at ambient
temperature and pushes it through the bundle. An induced draft fan pulls the air through the bundle.
HEAT CURVE GENERATION
Selecting this option will cause the Heat Curve Parameters dialog box to appear:













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This dialog box contains commands that allow you to enter the data necessary to calculate the heat
curves for the exchanger.
Cutting method – The heat curve may be cut by bubble-Dew Point or Equal Enthalpy method. The
default is bubble-Dew Point method. The bubble-Dew Point method finds the dew and bubble points
first, and then, keep cutting the largest zone in half until number of cutting points meets user’s specified
value. The Equal enthalpy method simply cuts the heating curve into n zones with equal enthalpy
increment, where n is user specified.
Tube side wall type – The options available are Wet for wet wall condensing and Dry for dry wall
condensing.
Wet wall condensing [Default] occurs whenever condensation occurs immediately at the inlet when the
first gas strikes the tubes. This would obviously occur if the entering fluid were at or below its dew point.
However, in many cases, the bulk fluid is above its dew point, but still condenses when it hits the tube
wall because the tube wall is so cold. In other words, the local condition at the tube wall is different than
the bulk conditions.
When wet wall condensing occurs, AIR COOLER applies the following rules during the computation of
the sensible zone next to dew point:
• If the inlet temperature is above the dew point, the LMTD is taken against the dew point
temperature of the fluid.
• If the inlet temperature is at or below the dew point, the actual inlet temperature is always used
in the LMTD calculation.
A condensing coefficient is always used even if the bulk fluid is superheated. Wet wall condensing is the
usual condition for a condenser.
Dry wall condensing occurs when the amount of superheat is sufficient so that condensation does not
occur at the tube wall until the fluid cools down. When this happens, AIR COOLER applies the following
rules during the computation of the sensible zone next to dew point:
• The LMTD is always calculated using the actual fluid inlet temperature.
• A gas coefficient is computed for the zone.
Number of cutting points – The entry here determines the number of zones which will be used for the
heat transfer analysis. n zones requires n+1 cut points (the entrance to the first zone, plus the outlet of
all n zones). These are thermodynamic zones, not physical zones. The default is 11 cut points or 10
zones.
EDIT HEAT CURVE
This option is used to modify the values calculated for the heat curve. To change a value, you simply
type over it. The heat curve data will be displayed in a dialog box like that shown below:
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This dialog box scrolls to the left (using the elevator bar at the bottom) to display additional values.
To save your changes, click the [OK] BUTTON.
If blank fields are left between entered values, the program will use linear interpolation to fill them in.
GENERAL SPECIFICATION
The General Specifications dialog box is provided to permit you to define the general calculation
parameters such as calculation mode, process type, exchanger orientation, etc. The General
Information dialog box appears as follows.
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These fields are described below.
Calculation mode – There are three calculation modes, design, rating, and fouling rating. In the design
mode, AIR COOLER may be used to size an air cooler, i.e., calculate the optimum bundle width, tube
length, and number of tube passes. When in the design mode, the information required to make a run
includes stream data, fouling factors, allowable pressure drops, and geometry data other than bundle
width, tube length, and tube passes.
In the rating mode, stream data, fouling factors, and all geometry data must be defined. The program
checks to see if the exchanger defined will work in the given application by checking effective heat
transfer area against area required to carry out the heat duty for given streams.
In the fouling rating, the required information includes streams and geometry data. The program will
calculate fouling factors on tube, air, or both sides depending on user’s selection on the Fouling rating
option ratio button.
Process type - The process type specifies which heat transfer mechanism is to be used when
calculating the film coefficients. For instance, while it is obvious that AIR COOLER will know when there
is condensation on the tube side, it will not know if that condensation is Reflux or Horizontal
condensation. User must define which condensation mechanism is to be used. The following process
types are accommodated.
Tubeside Airside
Sensible flow Sensible flow
Horizontal condensation
Vertical condensation
Reflux condensation
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Max. tube pressure drop - Input of this variable is required for design run, 75% of the input value is
allocated for tube bundle pressure drop and 25% of it will be for nozzle pressure drop. For rating and
fouling rating, this field will disappear from the dialog box.
Fouling factor - Input of this variable is used for rating and design calculation. It is a thermal resistance
included to account for the fouling. Its value is arbitrary and defines how often you want to clean the
tubes. The default is 0.001 in English units on tube side and 0.0001 for airside.
Coefficient - Input of this variable is optional. If you want to specify shell or tube side film heat transfer
coefficient, you could enter the value in the corresponding field. The program will take this value in
calculating the local overall heat transfer coefficient for each zone.
Condensation Model – Condensation model could be Chemstations’ or VDI model. This option only
appears when a condensation process is chosen.
Fouling rating options – This option allows the user to recalculate both tube and airside fouling factors,
just the airside fouling factor, or just the tubeside fouling factor, only available for fouling rating mode.
Orientation - Specify whether the tube bundle is oriented horizontally or vertically.
Design code - Select the design code to be used. These standards refer mostly to the mechanical
details of the exchanger. Therefore, the thermal design and analyses are not heavily influenced by this
choice. The available options are:
A - ASME Section VIII - Div. 1
B - British Standard 5500
D - DIN A.D. Merkblatter
Code stamp - Check this box if the air cooler must be stamped for ASME Section VIII - Div. 1. This
entry is purely for output on the API data sheet. It has no impact upon the thermal calculation.
API 661 - Check this box if the air cooler must conform to the requirements of API 661, “Air Cooled Heat
Exchangers for General Refinery Service."
This entry is purely for output on the API data sheet. It has no impact on the thermal calculation.
EXCHANGER GEOMETRY
This option is to permit the user to make detailed specifications concerning the dimensions and
arrangement of an air cooler. Selecting this option will cause the Exchanger Geometry Menu to appear:
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TUBE
Selection of Tube option opens up the Tube Specifications Dialog Box. The dialog box lets the user
specify all data regarding the tubes. This includes a description of the tubes themselves, as well as, how
they are arranged (tube pattern, tube pitch, etc.). The dialog box looks like this.

Finned tube code - AIR COOLER allows plain tube, user specified fin tube, and common fin tube. To
use finned tube, select the appropriate type from the drop-down list. AIR COOLER has a data bank
which contains 475 commonly used fined tubes. This data comes from the manufacturers. A list of
available tubes is provided in Appendix A of CC-THERM User Guide and Tutorial.
Outer diameter of tube - This is the outer diameter of tube for bared tube. For finned tube, this will be
root diameter. If no value is entered, the program will default to 1.0 inches (25.4 mm).
Tubewall thickness - This will be used to calculate inner diameter of tube. If left blank, the program will
default to .065 inches wall thickness.
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Tube length – In the design case, the program will calculate this value. In the rating case, this is
required input.
Tube pattern – The following selection is available under this option.
Triangular (30)
Rotated Triangular (60)
Square (90)
Diamond (45)
Tube pitch – The tube pitch is the distance between tube centers. One needs to make sure it is greater
than the outer diameter of tube for plain tube or Finned tube O.D. for finned tube.
Roughness factor – This field allows input of absolute tube internal roughness.
Finned tube O.D. – This field allows input of the outer diameter of the finned tube. It also serves as a
display field for diameter if a common finned tube is selected. This diameter should equal to the sum of
the tube O.D. and twice of fin height.
Number of fins per inch – This field allows input of the number of fins per inch length of tube. It also
serves as a display field for the number if a common finned tube is selected. The number determines the
distance between two neighboring fins.
Fin thickness - This field allows input of fin thickness for user defined finned tube. It also serves as a
display field for the thickness if a common finned tube is selected. Fin thickness together with fin
distance determines the fin spacing.
Tube type - Tubes may be welded or seamless. This entry has no impact upon the calculation. The
selection is printed on the API data sheet.
Fin Attachment - Fin attachment may be extruded, welded (soldered), grooved, and metal-coated hot-
dip galvanized. This entry has no impact upon the calculation. The selection is printed on the API data
sheet.
BUNDLE
The Bundle option opens up the Bundle Specifications Dialog Box. Some fields in this Dialog Box are
dynamically linked to Calculation mode. For rating and fouling rating mode, required specifications
include Tubes per row, Tube rows per pass, Passes per bundle, Bundle connection, and Bay
connection. For design mode, required specifications include Total number of tube rows, Bundle
connection, Bundle arrangement, and Bay connection. The dialog box is shown below and the
definition of each field follows.
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Tubes per row - This field should only be used for a rating or a fouling rating case for which it is a
mandatory entry. In the design run, the program will calculate its value.
Total number of tube rows - An entry should be made here for the total number of rows. This is
mandatory input for a design case. For a rating or a fouling rating run, the program will calculate it from
specified Tube rows per pass and Passes per bundle.
Tube Rows per pass - This entry is mandatory for a rating or a fouling rating case. For a design case
the program will calculate it.
Passes per bundle - This is a mandatory input for a rating or a fouling rating case. For a design case
the program will optimize on the number of passes.
Slope of header - Enter the slope of the tube bundle in the units shown. For a one pass condenser, the
program will default to 0.125 inches per foot (10 mm/meter).
Bay connection - Number of bays can be connected in proper parallel, series, or parallel-series
combination. The fields for number of parallel and series are mandatory entries.
Bundle connection and arrangement - Number of bundles can be connected in proper parallel, series,
or parallel-series combinations. The fields for number of parallel and series are mandatory entries.
Number of bundles may be arranged in proper rows by columns. For a rating or a fouling rating run, the
number of bundle rows will not affect the computation. However, in a design run, it is used to determine
bundle width and tube length for given number of bundles per bay, bay width, and bay length.
NOZZLES
Selection of this option brings up the Nozzle Parameter Dialog Box. The dialog box allows the user to
specify dimensions of nozzles. It looks like this.
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# of nozzles - inlet - This entry is for input of the number of nozzles per bundle for the tube side inlet.
# of nozzles - outlet - This entry is for input of the number of nozzles per bundle for the tube side outlet.
Inlet nozzle diameter - This is the inner diameter of an inlet nozzle. All inlet nozzles are assumed to
have the same diameter.
Outlet nozzle diameter -This is the inner diameter of an outlet nozzle. All outlet nozzles are assumed
to have the same diameter.
MISCELLANEOUS
Selection of this option brings up the Miscellaneous Parameters Dialog Box. The dialog box allows
user to specify miscellaneous items about bundle and all entries in this dialog box has no impact upon
the calculation. The data specified here is printed on the API data sheet. The dialog box looks like this.
















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Type of header - The following choices are available:
Plug
Cover Plate
Bonnet
Split
U-tube
Pipe (Dished)
Header design temp - Enter the header design temperature.
Header design pres - Enter the header design pressure.
Header gasket type - The following choices are available:
Spiral Wound
CAF (Corrugated w/ Asbestos Filling)
Corrugated
FAF (Flat w/ Asbestos Filling)
Grooved
Solid
Metallic "O-Ring"
Type of flange - The possible entries are as follow:
Slip-On
Weld Neck
Lap Joint
Ring Type Joint
Long Weld Neck
Flange rating - If you are using a flange per ANSI or API standard, enter the class of the flange in this
field. It is understood that the class will always be in psi even if you are using metric or SI units. The
following ANSI & API standard sizes are available (Rating in psi):
150 & 300 - all sizes up to 24 inches
400/600/900/1500 - all sizes up to 24 inches
2500 - all sizes up to 12 inches
The following DIN standard sizes are available (Rating in BAR):
6 & 10 -all sizes up to 600 millimeters
25 -all sizes up to 600 millimeters
16 -all sizes up to 600 millimeters
40 -all sizes up to 500 millimeters
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64 -all sizes up to 400 millimeters
100 -all sizes up to 350 millimeters
160 -all sizes up to 300 millimeters
MATERIALS
Selection of this option brings up the Material Specifications Dialog Box. The dialog box allows user
to specify material for varies parts of air cooler. Among these entries, only the selections in the tube and
fin material field will affect thermal calculation of an air cooler. Others are for the API data sheet only.
The dialog box looks like this.


















Tube material - Select the tube material from the options listed in the window. The tube material
directly influences the tube wall resistance in the heat transfer calculation.
Plug material - Select the plug material from the options listed in the window.
Header gasket material - Select the header gasket material from the options listed in the window.
Fan blade material - Fan blades may be fiberglass or aluminum. Make your selection from the window.
Fan hub material - Fan hubs may be of aluminum or steel. Selections are made from the window.
Fin material - Select the appropriate option from the window. Fin material may be carbon steel,
aluminum (default), copper, or stainless steel. The fin material selection affects the heat transfer
resistance.
FAN PARAMETERS
Defaults are available for all necessary fan parameters, so entries on this screen are optional.
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Fan manufacturer - Fan data from the following manufacturers are available within the program:
Checo
Moore
Environment Element Corp.
Aerovent
Hudson
Choose one of these from the window. The manufacturer's data is used in the fan size selection.
Manufacturer designation - For Checo and Moore fans, more than one type of fan is available. The
following fan designations are available:
Checo Moore
515 27
718 33
924 40
1224 49
1233 60
1245 73
90
Make the appropriate selection from the window.
# of fans / bay length - Enter the number of fans along the length of one bay.
Fan diameter - Enter the fan diameter in the units shown. If not specified, the program will take 90% of
bay width for fan diameter.
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# of fan blades - Enter the number of fan blades.
Fan RPM - Enter the fan speed in revolutions per minute.
Maximum noise level - Enter the maximum permissible noise level of the fan.
Fan pitch control - The user may choose from none, manual, or automatic. Selections are made from
the window and output to the API datasheet.
Action on air failure - The fan pitch on air failure may be:
None (no specification)
Minimum
Maximum
Lockup
Select the appropriate option from the window. This selection will be output to the API datasheet.
Louvers - Louvers may open and close manually or automatically. Therefore the user may choose from
the following options:
None (no specification)
Manual
Automatic
Selections may be made from the appropriate window. This selection is output to the API datasheet.
Action on air failure (Louvers) - On air failure the louvers may fail open, closed, or locked. Therefore,
the options available to the user are:
None (no specification)
Open
Closed
Locked up
Selections are made from the window. This selection is output to the API datasheet.
Recirculation - The possible choices are:
None (no specification)
Internal
External around bundle sides
External around bundle ends
Selections are made from the window. This selection is output to the API datasheet.
Minimum ambient temperature - Enter the minimum ambient temperature in the units displayed. This
value helps determine the operating range of the fan and is output to the API datasheet.
Drive manufacturer - The user may chose from GE, RELIANCE, or WESTINGHOUSE drivers. Make
the appropriate selection from the window. This selection will be output to the API datasheet.
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Type of driver - The driver type may be unspecified, electric, or steam turbine.
Driver RPM - The following choices are typical for an electric motor:
3500 / 1750 / 1450 / 1150 / 870 / 580
For a steam turbine, the RPM may be different than those shown above for an electric motor.
Voltage - The following choices are available for electric voltage:
220 v
380 v
440 v
460 v
# of phases - The following choices are available for number of phases:
Three phases
One phase
Voltage frequency - The following choices are available for voltage frequency:
60 Hz
50 Hz
Motor enclosure - The following choices are available for the motor enclosure:
Unspecified
Drip-Proof
Weather-Proof - class I
Weather-Proof - class II
TEFC - Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled
Explosion Proof
Bundle frame - The following choices are available:
Galvanized
Welded
Structural mounting - The following choices are available:
Grade Mounted
Piperack
Surface preparation - The following choices are available:
No surface preparation
Primed
Vibration switch - Enter a ‘Y’ if a vibration switch will be used.
Reducer manufacturer - The following choices are available for speed reducer manufacturer field:
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Leave Choice Blank
Philadelphia
Cleveland
Falk
Type of speed reducer - The following choices are available:
Leave Choice Blank
Right Angle Gear
V-Belt
Direct Coupled
Reducer AGMA rating - Enter the AGMA rating of the Speed reducer in HP or kW.
Reducer ratio - Enter the speed reducer ratio.
Reducer support - The following choices are available for speed reducer support:
Structure
Pedestal
CALCULATE
The Calculate command tells the program to execute the design, rate, or fouling rating calculation. To
begin the run, move the pointer to the Calculate option and click the left mouse button. After the
command is issued, the program performs a complete data check to make sure there is no missing or
unreasonable information. If errors or warnings are detected, the program shows an error message on
the screen. The program allows you to either change the data or ignore the error messages.
The progress of calculation will be reported in the status line in the lower left corner for design, heating
curve, and fouling rating calculation. A message of completion pops-up after calculation is done.
VIEW RESULTS
The View Results option enables the user to interactively review selected results on the screen. When
selected, the VIEW MENU appears on the screen like so:
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The items listed provide summaries of the specific information requested. All displays are in Wordpad so
that they can be edited, printed, and/or saved. A detailed description of each VIEW MENU option is
given below.
STREAMS
This option displays the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out of
the heat exchanger.
HEAT CURVES
This displays the temperatures, vapor and liquid rates, heat duties, and physical and transport properties
for each zone. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations.
TABULATED DATA
This option displays the Overall Data, TubeSide Data, AirSide Data, Bundle and Bay geometry, and
Tube and Fin geometry together on one page.
API DATA
This option displays the completed API Data sheet.
ZONE-BY-ZONE DATA
This option allows the user to review the zone-by-zone calculated results for the overall, the tube side,
and the air side.
OPTIMIZATION
This shows the optimization sequence used by Air Cooler to arrive at the final result.
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PLOT
From the Plot Menu, you can plot several zone-by-zone results graphically. The menu appears on the
screen like so:

The plots are displayed in Plot Windows. Therefore, the user can modify or edit the plots using the
commands provided by this window.
The following plot categories are available:
HEAT CURVE
Process heat curve is a plot of heat duty versus temperature for both sides of the exchanger.
HEAT FLUX
Heat flux
LMTD
Log-mean temperature difference for each zone.
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TEMPERATURE
Tube side, tube side wall, shell side wall and shell side temperatures for each zone.
HEAT XFER COEFFICIENT
Overall, tube side, shell side, tube fouling and shell fouling heat transfer coefficients for each zone.
HEAT XFER AREA
Heat transfer area calculated for each zone.
RE-ENTER STREAM INFORMATION
This command allows user to retrieve new streams from CHEMCAD flowsheet. This is very useful in
case any stream entering or exiting the exchanger is changed.
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AIR COOLER OUTPUT
AIR COOLER output includes stream data, heat curves, tabulated data, API data, zone-by-zone data,
and optimization.
STREAM DATA
The stream data reports the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out
of the heat exchanger. This information is fed to heat curve calculation to generate heat curve. A stream
data report looks like this:




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HEAT CURVES
This report includes the temperatures, vapor and liquid rates, heat duties, and physical and transport
properties for each zone. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations.
A heat curve report for the tube side looks like this:





































A heat curve report for the air side has a similar format and content.
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TABULATED DATA
This report includes the Overall Data, TubeSide Data, AirSide Data, Bundle and Bay geometry, and
Tube and Fin geometry together on one page. These values are calculated results and geometry inputs
from user. The tabulated data report looks like this:




































The Overall data includes key information regarding the air cooler. These items are explained below:
Effective Area – The area effective per bay excludes that portion of the tube length which is covered by
the tube sheet. The tube sheet thickness is default to one inch. This area is based on outer diameter if
bare tube is used and is on outer surface if finned tube is used.
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Service Coefficient – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger based on the
Effective Area of exchanger at service. It is defined as:
) Effective MTD, ( ) Area Effective (
Load) (Heat
Coeff.) (Service =

Calculated Area – The calculated heat transfer area required to carry out the heat load. In CC-THERM
AIR COOLER, heat transfer calculation is carried out zone by zone. The Calculated Area is the sum of
the incremental areas for all zones.
Calculated Coefficient – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger. It is
defined as:
) Effective MTD, ( ) Area Calculated (
Load) (Heat
Coeff.) d (Calculate =

Calculated Clean Area – The calculated heat transfer area required to carry out the heat load when the
heat transfer surface is clean. The Calculated Clean Area is the sum of the incremental clean areas for
all zones.
Clean Coefficient – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger based on the
Calculated Clean Area. It is defined as:
) Effective MTD, ( ) Area Clean Calculated (
Load) (Heat
Coeff.) (Clean =

MTD, Effective –The overall effective or corrected log mean temperature difference which is defined as:

=
i
CMTD
i Q
Load) (Heat
Effective) (MTD,

Where, Qi = the incremental heat duty of zone I,
CMTDi = the corrected log mean temperature difference for zone i.
Heat Load – The enthalpy difference between the inlet and outlet process streams of the air cooler.
TubeSide Fouling – The tube side fouling factor. For design and rating run, tube side fouling factor is
user specified. For fouling rating run, the program will calculate the fouling factor for given streams and
air cooler geometry.
AirSide Fouling – The air side fouling factor. For design and rating run, tube side fouling factor is user
specified. For fouling rating run, the program will calculate the fouling factor for given streams and air
cooler geometry.
Area Excess – The excess area for the present calculation. It is defined as:
%) 100 (
) Area Effective (
Area) d (Calculate - ) Area (Effective
Excess) (Area =

This value is always expressed as a percent. A negative value indicates that the exchanger is
undersurfaced in rating. When making a design run, the program will find a heat exchanger so that the
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excess is the minimum positive value. When making a fouling rating run, the program finds the fouling
factors so that the Area Excess is zero.
Area Per Bundle – The effective area per bundle excludes that portion of the tube length which is
covered by the tube sheet.
Gross Area – The gross area per bay based on outer surface.
Bare Area – The area based on outer tube diameter or root diameter. It is the effective area per bay.
Effective Length – The length effective excludes that portion of the tube length which is covered by the
tube sheet.
Calculated Length – The calculated tube length required to carry out the heat load. In CC-THERM AIR
COOLER, heat transfer calculation is carried out zone by zone. The calculated length is the sum of the
incremental length for all zones.
API applicable – Input of the API 661 option in the General Specifications Dialog Box is printed here.
Code – Input of the Design code option in the General Specifications Dialog Box is printed here.
Allowed Pressure Drop – The maximum allowed pressure drop for the process side. This value is
used as one of the design constrain.
Tube Side Pressure Drop. – The tube side pressure drop of all bundles.
Inner Nozzle Diameter, Inlet – Input of the Inlet nozzle diameter field in the Nozzle Parameter Dialog
Box is printed here.
dP, Inlet Nozzle – The pressure drop through inlet nozzles.
Inner Nozzle Diameter Outlet – Input of the Outlet nozzle diameter field in the Nozzle Parameter
Dialog Box is printed here.
dP, Outlet Nozzle – The pressure drop through outlet nozzles.
Number of Inlet Nozzles – Input of the # of nozzles - Inlet field in the Nozzle Parameter Dialog Box
is printed here.
Number of Outlet Nozzles – Input of the # of nozzles - Outlet field in the Nozzle Parameter Dialog
Box is printed here.
Face Area – The face area per pay. It equals to tube length times bundle width times number of
bundles.
Face Velocity – The face velocity is obtained by air volumetric flow rate at service condition divided by
Face Area.
Calculated Static dP – The calculated static pressure drop of air flow through the tube bundle. To
improve calculation result, the difference between Calculated Static dP and the Static pressure
specified in the Air Side Data screen should be minimized.
Static dP Per Row – The calculated static pressure drop of air flow through a tube row.
Face Velocity Specified? – Yes, if face velocity is specified as input, otherwise, No.
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Bundle width – The bundle width is calculated through the number of tubes per row, tube pitch, and
tube pattern for rating and fouling rating run. In the design run, it is calculated from the optimum bay
width and user specified total number of bundles per bay and number of bundle rows.
Tube length – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Orientation – The orientation of tube bundle may be horizontal or vertical as specified by user.
Total Number of Bundles – The total number of bundles of entire units.
Bundles in Parallel/Series – see Bundle connection and arrangement in the Bundle specification
screen.
Bundles in Row/Column – see Bundle connection and arrangement in the Bundle specification
screen.
Bays in Parallel/Series – see Bay connection in the Bundle specification screen.
Number of Tubes – This is the total number of tubes per bundle which is calculated from the Total
number of tube rows and Tubes per row.
Outer Diameter of Tube – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Tube Inside Diameter – The inside diameter is estimated from the Outer Diameter of Tube and
Tubewall thickness.
Tube Wall Thickness – Input to the Tubewall thickness field In the Tube Specifications Dialog Box
is printed here.
Tube Pitch – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Internal roughness – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Tube Pattern – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Number of Tube Passes – Input in the Passes per bundle field in the Bundle specification screen is
printed here.
Total Number of Rows – see Total number of tube rows in the Bundle specification screen.
Rows Per Pass – see Tube Rows per pass in the Bundle specification screen.
Tube Type – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Tube Material – see Material Specifications Dialog Box.
Finned Tube Code – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Fin Attachment – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Number of Fins Per Inch – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Fin Tube OD – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Fin Thickness – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.
Fin Material – see Material Specifications Dialog Box.
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Ratio of Finned/Bare Outer Area – The ratio of finned tube outer surface area over bare tube outer
surface area. The finned tube outer surface area is the sum of the total surface area of the fins and the
total surface area of the tube wall between the fins. The bare tube outer surface area is the surface area
based on the tube outer diameter.
Ratio of Outer/Inner Area – The ratio of tube outer surface area over tube inner surface area. The tube
outer surface area is the finned tube outer surface area for finned tube and the bare tube outer surface
area for bare tube. The tube inner surface area is the surface area based on the tube inner diameter.
Hydraulic Diameter – The equivalent hydraulic diameter or equivalent projected diameter (Dreq). This
is essentially a correlation value establishing an equivalent cross-flow area as compared to a bare tube.
) Lft )( Nf )( Llth ( 2 Dfr Dreq + =
where Dfr = the root diameter
Llth= = the fin height
Nf = the number of fins per unit length
Lft = Fin thickness
API DATA
This report includes the completed API Data sheet. The first page of the data sheet includes general
data, performance data for process side, performance data for airside, and design-material-construction
data. It looks like:
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The second page of the data sheet includes mechanical equipment data and air side
control data. It looks like this:




CHEMCAD 5.6.0 Page 1

API DATA
____________________________________________________________________________________

BAY SIZE(WxL), ft 4.313 x 15.666 TYPE Forced NUMBER OF BAYS 1
SURFACE/UNIT-FINNED, ft2 8013.009 BARE 373.310
HEAT EXCHANGED, MMBtu/h 0.447 MTD,EFF, F 138.221
TRAN RATE-FINNED, Btu/hr-ft2-F 0 BARE,SERVICE 9 CLEAN 9
____________________________________________________________________________________
PERFORMANCE DATA-PROCESS SIDE

TYPE OF PROCESS Sensible
FLUID NAME IN/OUT
TOTAL FLOW, lb/h 2714 VAPOR lb/h 2714 / 2714
DEW/BUBBLE POINT, F 0.00/0.00 NONCONDEN, lb/h 0 / 0
FREEZE POINT, F STEAM, lb/h 0 / 0
LATENT HEAT, Btu/lbmol 0 WATER, lb/h 0 / 0
INLET PRESSURE, psia 65.27 VISC,LIQ, cP 0.000 / 0.000
DP, ALLO/CALC, psi 5.0/0.0 VISC,VAP, cP 0.020 / 0.012
FOULING RESISTANCE, hr-ft2-F/Btu 0.00010 DENS,LIQ, lb/ft3 0.000 / 0.000
MOLECULAR WT,VAP, lb 209.329 DENS,VAP, lb/ft3 0.212 / 0.381
MOLECULAR WT,NC, lb 179.127 SPEC HEAT,LIQ,Btu/lb-F 0 / 0
IN/OUT SPEC HEAT,VAP,Btu/lb-F 0 / 0
TEMP., F 550.04 / 114.98 COND,LIQ, Btu/hr-ft-F 0.000 / 0.000
LIQUID, lb/h 0 / 0 COND,VAP, Btu/hr-ft-F 0.028 / 0.012
__________________________________________________________________________________
PERFORMANCE DATA-AIR SIDE

AIR MASS RATE, lb/h 184938 ALTITUDE, ft 164.0
AIR VOL. RATE, Std. ft3/hr 2502328 TEMPERATURE IN(DRY), F 95.00
ACTUAL STATIC PRES, psia 0.0 TEMPERATURE OUT(DRY), F 105.08
FACE VELOCITY, Act. ft/sec 10.78 MASS VELOCITY, lb/s-ft2 0.760
FACE VELOCITY, Std. ft/sec 10.29 MIN DSGN AMBIENT TEMP, F -40.00
____________________________________________________________________________________
DESIGN-MATERIALS-CONSTRUCTION

DSGN PRES,psia 0.7 TEST PRES,psia 0.7 DSGN TEMP, F 41.00
--BUNDLE-- --HEADER-- --TUBE--
WxL, ft2 4.31x15.67 TYPE Pipe(Dished) MAT'L A-179
NUMBER/BAY 1 MAT'L A-285-C TYPE Seamless
TUBE ROWS 4 PASSES 1 OD, in 1.000
BUNDLES, PAR 1 SER 1 SLOPE, in/ft 0.000 MIN THK, in 0.1091
BAYS, PAR 1 SER 1 PLUG A-285-C NUMBER/BUNDLE 92
BUNDLE FRAM Galvanized GASKET TYPE Metallic Ring LENGTH, ft 15.666
--MISCELLANEOUS-- CORRO ALLOW, in 0.00010 PITCH,in 2.2500
STRUCT MOUNT Grade Mounted IN NOZZLE, in 8.00x 2 --FIN--
SURF PREP Primed surface OUT NOZZLE,in 8.00x 2 TPYE Grooved
LOUVER Automatic EXT NOZZLE,in 0.00x 0 OD, in 2.248
VIBRATION SWITCH Yes RATING, 160 DIN THK, in 0.016
CHEM CLEANING No MISC. CONNS: NO./in, 10.000
TI PI
ASME STAMPED No
CUSTUMER SPECIFICATIONS:
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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The second page of the data sheet includes mechanical equipment data and air side control data. It
looks like this:
























Most of the items listed in the two pages are self-explanatory. Those items which are not are explained
below:
Bay Size (WXL) - The size here is for all the bundles taken together. The bay width is the sum of width
of all bundles in a row. The bay length is the sum of the tube length of all bundles in a column.
Surface/Unit-Finned ... - Bare - These are the total finned tube outer surface area and bare tube outer
surface area per unit. These are the effective surface area after discounting any portion of the tube
length embedded in the tube sheet. These areas correspond to Effective Area and Bare Area in the
tabulated data sheet.
Heat Exchanged - This is the total amount of heat load.
MTD, EFF - See MTD, Effective in the tabulated data sheet.
Tran Rate-Finned ...Bare, Service....Clean - The first two items are the service transfer rates based on
the finned tube outer surface and on the bare tube outer surface. The fin-tube service coefficient is
calculated by dividing the Heat Load by the MTD, EFF and by the finned tube outer surface area, that is,
the Effective Area. The bare tube service coefficient is calculated by dividing the Heat Load by the
MTD, EFF and by the bare tube outer surface area, that is, the Bare Area. The clean coefficient is the
inverse of the sum of the following resistances: the air side resistance plus the tubeside resistance plus
the tube wall resistance, all related to the outside diameter of the bare tube. This coefficient should
CHEMCAD 5.6.0 Page 2
____________________________________________________________________________________

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT

--FAN-- --DRIVER-- --SPEED REDUCER--
MFR & MODEL Checo TYPE Unspecified TYPE Unknown
NO/BAY 1 EFF RPM 1000 MFR & MODEL GE MFR & MODEL Unknown
DIA,ft 4.00 NO BLADE 4 NO/BAY 1 HP/DR NO/BAY 1
PITCH None ANGLE RPM 2000 AGMA RATING,HP 0.00
BLADE Fiberglass ENCLOSURE Unspecified RATIO 0.5 TO 1.0
HUB Aluminum V/PHASE/HZ 460/3/60 SUPPORT Structure
POWER/FAN, hp 192.65
TIP, ft/sec 209.44
____________________________________________________________________________________

CONTROLS-AIR SIDE

CONTRO ACTION ON AIR FAILURE-FAN PITCH Minimum LOUVERS Close
DEGREE CONTROL OF OUTLET PROCESS TEMPERATURE(MAXIMUM COOLING)
RECIRCULATION None MIN AMB TEMP, F -40.000 STEAM COIL
PLOT AREA,ft2 0x0 WEIGHT BUNDLE, lb 0 SHIPPING WGT, lb 0
____________________________________________________________________________________

User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
150
equal Clean Coeff. multiplied by Ratio of Finned/Bare Outer Area in the tabulated output above. The
bare tube service coefficient and clean coefficient may be compared to estimate fouling build up.
ZONE-BY-ZONE DATA
This report allows the user to review the zone-by-zone calculated results for the overall, the tube side,
and the air side. Zone-by-zone output contains information regarding calculation of heat transfer
coefficients and pressure drops. The information for tube side may pertain to a sensible or a condenser
calculation. The outputs are similar but not identical. The output which is presented below is the first
five zone of a ten-zone analysis for a sensible heat exchanging problem. Page 1 of the output includes
overall and tube side data.



































Items in this page are explained below:
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Inc. Heat Load - The incremental heat load at each zone. The incremental heat load will be identical for
each zone if equal enthalpy method is used to cut the heating curve. They might differ with each other if
bubble-dew point method is used.
LMTD – The corrected local log mean temperature difference based on the four temperature points of
each zone.
Overall Coef. – The local overall heat transfer coefficient based on AINC, the tube outer surface area of
the corresponding zone.
AINC –The tube outer surface area of each zone.
Tube R. – The tube side heat transfer resistance due to fluid.
Tube F. – The tube side heat transfer resistance due to fouling.
Wall T. – The tube side heat transfer resistance due to metal wall.
Air F. – The air side heat transfer resistance due to fouling.
Air R. – The air side heat transfer resistance due to air.
Temp. – The average temperature of the two cutting points on the heating curve for the zone.
T Wall – The zone average metal wall surface temperature on the air or tube side.
Vap. Rate – The local vapor mass flow rate.
Liq. Rate – The local liquid mass flow rate.
Film Coeff. – The local heat transfer coefficient of fluid film.
Vap. Den. – The local vapor density.
Liq. Den. – The local liquid density.
Mome. dP – The tube side pressure drop due to momentum change.
Grav. dP – The tube side pressure drop due to gravitation.
Fric. dP – The pressure drop due to friction loss.
Vel. – The tube side fluid velocity.
Re Number – The Reynolds number of flow.
Page 2 of the output includes the air side data. It is shown below:
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Items in this page are explained below:
Prandtl No. – The Air flow Prandtl’s number in bulk.
Prandtl No. at Wall – The Air flow Prandtl’s number at the wall surface.
Max Cros. Vel. – The maximum air flow velocity crossing the tube bundle.
Cross-Flow Re – The Reynolds number of the air flow based on Max Cros. Vel..
The output which is presented below is the first five zone of a ten-zone analysis for a condenser heat
exchanging problem. Since only the tube side data differs from that of a sensible case, it is shown
below:
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Items in this page are explained below:
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
154
Iso-Overa. Coef. - The local overall heat transfer coefficient when gas film resistance is ignored.
Condenser Type – This is the flow type at each zone of the exchanger. There are three basic types of
flow which may exist in a condenser.
SHEARCT - The vapor velocity is so high that the shear force on the surface of condensate film is
dominant comparing to gravity force and this type of heat transfer is generally referred as shear-
controlled.
GRAVCTL - The vapor velocity is low and the shear force on the surface of a condensate film is
negligible. This type of heat transfer is generally known as gravity-controlled film.
TRANSIT - The SHEARCT and GRAVCTL are basically the two extremes of the flows which may occur
during condensation. In going from the SHEARCT controlled to the GRAVCTL controlled, there is a
transition region which is usually called the TRANSIT (for transition) region. There are times when the
vapor velocity is so low that the predominant regime is the TRANSIT or even GRAVCTL for very low
vapor velocities.
Vapor Quality – The vapor quality at each zone of the exchanger. The number 1.0 indicates that the
flow is all vapor and 0.0 indicates no vapor.
Shear Coeff. – The shear-controlled heat transfer coefficient. This coefficient is calculated at each zone
whether or not it is the controlling coefficient.
Gravity Coeff. – The gravity-controlled heat transfer coefficient. This coefficient is calculated at each
zone whether or not it is the controlling coefficient.
Vap. Coeff. – The heat transfer coefficient of the vapor phase. This coefficient is very important in the
calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient, especially so when there are large amounts of non-
condensable present. This coefficient is also calculated at each zone of the exchanger.
Film Coeff. – The heat transfer coefficient through condensate film. This coefficient is calculated at
each zone of the exchanger.
T-Non-Cond Fact – The tube side non-condensable factor. It is a factor which is calculated to reflect
the overall effects of non-condensable or a wide-boiling mixture. When calculating the tube side heat
transfer resistance at each zone, the gas film resistance is multiplied by T-Non-Cond Fact. When the
effects of non-condensable are small, the T-Non-Cond Fact. (resistance factor) will be small and the
overall coefficient, Overall Coef. will approach to Iso-Overa. Coef. - the pure condensation overall
coefficient. On the other hand, when there are large amounts of non-condensable present or there is a
wide boiling mixture, the T-Non-Cond Fact term may become quite large and, consequently, the "true"
overall heat transfer coefficient will also diminish.
V-L Den – The two phase mixing density.
Two Phase Xtt – This is a two-phase multiplier which is calculated at each zone. When there are large
amounts of vapor present, the multiplier will be quite large. This multiplier is applied to zone pressure
drop, and summed over all the zones to arrive at the overall pressure drop.
Vap. Vel. – The vapor flow velocity.
Liq Vel. – The liquid flow velocity.
Vel. – The two phase flow velocity.
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Liq Re – The liquid flow Renolds number.
Vap Re – The vapor flow Renolds number.
OPTIMIZATION
This shows the optimization sequence used by Air Cooler to arrive at the final result. The optimization
printout only occurs if you are in the design mode. The program deliberately begins with an obviously
undersized unit in order to insure that the procedure does not miss the optimum result. The program
uses basically two criteria to arrive at the optimum result.
• Supplied area is greater than the required area
• Pressure drop specifications are met on the tubeside
In order to find the smallest unit, which will satisfy these criteria, the program will vary the following
parameters:
• Tube passes
• bay length
• bay width
To make best use of fan (one or two) covered area in each bay, the program will also follow the
arrangement as shown in the table below to arrive at best combination of bay length and width.
Bay Width, ft 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
8 12 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
10 14 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
16 18 20 22 24 26 28
18 20 22 24 26 28 30
20 22 24 26 28 30 32
22 24 26 28 30 32 34
26 28 30 32 34 36
28 30 32 34 36 38
30 32 34 36 38 40
32 34 36 38 40
36 38 40
38 40
Bay Length, ft
40
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
156

A typical optimization report is shown below:


CC-THERM

PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

User’s Guide
And Tutorial

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157
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION TO CC-THERM PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER
CC-THERM PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER or PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER is an integrated module for
the design, rating, and fouling rating of plate heat exchanger in the CHEMCAD Suite. It is fully
integrated with CHEMCAD so process data is automatically transferred from CHEMCAD flowsheets to
the heat exchanger sizing program, and heating curves and physical properties data are automatically
generated.
EASY TO LEARN
The input for PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER is simple and concise. It is based upon the CHEMCAD
interface system, so any user familiar with CHEMCAD will be able to operate PLATE HEAT
EXCHANGER with ease. Since the input/output systems and conventions are the same in PLATE
HEAT EXCHANGER as those used in CHEMCAD, please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for
these types of “How to” instructions.
TECHNICAL FEATURES
1. The PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER mode of CC-THERM handles sensible heat exchange,
condensation, and evaporation.
2. Three modes of calculation may be selected: design, rating, or fouling rating mode. In the design
mode, an optimization of the number of plates will be carried out such that pressure drop is less
than its allowable value and the heat transfer area is sufficient. In the fouling rating mode, fouling
factors will be estimated for given process streams. In the rating mode, the required heat transfer
area will be calculated for given process streams and exchanger geometry data and compared to
actual area at service.
3. Plate type may be chevron corrugations, intermating corrugations, or user specified.
METHODS
Sensible Flow
Correlations from Chapter 3.7.3 of the Heat Exchanger Design Handbook (Kumar 1988) is employed for
the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of intermating and chevron plate. For
user specified plate, models similar to those for chevron plate are used while parameters in these
models are user specified.
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OUTPUT FEATURES
The user may select from the following output:
• A print-out of the heat curve and fluid physical properties
• A detailed print-out of overall exchanger values
• The stream information inlet/outlet with H, T, P, and component flow rates
Any of the above output can be opened in Microsoft Word or WordPad by using the View menu.
Therefore results can be viewed, edited, or printed. The editing heat curve facility also provides an
opportunity not only to view the heat curve but also to be able to access the contents of the heat curve
and make any changes to the data without going through the procedures for the heat curve generation.
The details of this operation will be described later.
OVERVIEW
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER is a state-of-the-art interactive tool for the rating and design of plate heat
exchangers. This section gives an overall view of the program usage and the options available in the
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER main menu. More information on each option in the main menu is
provided in Chapter 2.
Since PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER is integrated with CHEMCAD, the program is also equipped with
sound thermodynamic models as well as a database with physical properties for over 2150 pure
components.
The interactive feature of PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER allows full control of data communication. The
input functions allow the entering of process data by using dialog boxes. With this input facility, the user
can create new problem files, review the results of problems already designed, and make modifications
to previously saved problems.
There are seven general steps involved in running a heat exchanger analysis with PLATE HEAT
EXCHANGER. The following list illustrates the general steps.
1. Define the problem and run the flowsheet in CHEMCAD. This generates CHEMCAD files.
2. Select the Sizing command on the menu bar. The Sizing Menu will open.
3. From this menu select the Heat Exchangers followed by selection of Plate option.
4. The program will prompt the user through the initial setup of the exchanger analysis. It will do this
by displaying instructions about what to do next. When the instruction is cleared by clicking [OK],
you will be taken to the function or dialog box appropriate for completing the instructed task. At the
end of the set up process, the PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER Menu is displayed.
5. Inspect and edit the input as desired using the menu commands.
6. Execute the problem.
7. Review and printout.
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The program performs the following tasks.
1. Performs extensive error checking.
2. Generates the heat curve for the cold and hot side.
3. Calculates in any of the following modes:
i. Design - The inlet and outlet stream datum of the cold and hot side are taken from the flow
sheet, the user supplies the fouling factors and allowable pressure drop, and the program
calculates the number of plates required (other basic geometry specifications must be
specified by the user).
ii. Rating – The inlet and outlet stream datum of the cold and hot side are taken from the flow
sheet and the user supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions,
and fouling factors. The program determines whether the exchanger is too large or too small
for the given application.
iii. Fouling rating – The inlet and outlet stream datum of the cold and hot side are taken from
the flow sheet and the user supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and
dimensions. The program calculates the fouling factors required to obtain the specified
performance from the exchanger.
4. Generates the output for the design/analysis of the heat exchanger.
5. Provides an interactive user interface to allow the user to change the problem specifications to rerun
the problem and review the results.
6. Creates the PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER files to save all the input/output data for each exchanger.
SUMMARY
As an integrated module to the CHEMCAD Suite, CC-THERM PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER offers the
process engineer an easy and comprehensive method of sizing or rating plate heat exchangers. Since it
uses the same command language as the CHEMCAD Suite, any CHEMCAD user can pick up the
program in a matter of minutes. The program has been thoroughly and rigorously tested and found to be
an accurate and reliable tool. It is fully supported by a staff of trained engineers.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
160
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER COMMANDS
The PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER program is an interactive program for plate heat exchanger design,
and rating, fouling rating. It allows the user to enter plate heat exchanger information through a menu
system similar to CC-THERM SHELL AND TUBE, run the problem immediately, review the results, edit
the data if needed and re-run the problem until satisfied.
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER is accessed from CHEMCAD using the Sizing, Heat Exchangers, and
Plate option. The screen appears as follows.

Upon entering PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER, the program will take the user to a different status of data
entering depending on whether they are creating a new job or revisiting an old one.
For creating a new job, the program will automatically take process data from CHEMCAD, do the heat
curve calculation, and then go through several screens allowing the user to enter all the data required.
The first screen seen is the Plate Heat Exchanger General Data screen. This screen permits the user
to make specifications that affect the overall approach to design, rating, or fouling rating of the unit. The
second screen will be the Plate Geometry menu if the selection for computation mode is rating or
fouling rating. The entrance listed in the menu allows access to various geometry data specification
dialog boxes. If design is the computation mode you selected in the Plate Heat Exchanger General
Data screen, the program will by pass the Plate Geometry menu and go directly to the main Plate Heat
Exchanger menu.
For revisiting an old job, the program will automatically load the exchanger data from the old job file and
go directly to the main Plate Heat Exchanger menu where the user can access any data entrance
screen freely, run computation, and view results.
When revisiting an old job, it is important to note that if any changes are made to the streams or heat
exchanger units within CHEMCAD, you will receive a warning that will come up from PLATE HEAT
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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EXCHANGER recommending obtaining new stream data from CHEMCAD flowsheet to reflect those
changes.
USING PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER MENUS
The Plate Heat Exchanger Menu looks like this

















The options on this menu are briefly described below and more fully described in the following sections
bearing the option as title.
DATA ENTRY IN PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER
Data about plate heat exchanger is entered through the PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER dialog box,
CHEMCAD input rules apply. Please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for the details of all input
connections and dialog boxes.
Heat Curve Generation – The plate heat exchanger analysis takes place in two steps. First, the heat
curve is generated, then the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations are performed. Heat Curve
Generation performs the former calculations. This calculation determines the flows, physical properties
of the heat transfer fluids in each side of the exchanger. These properties are then used in the heat
transfer and pressure drop calculation. Heat Curve Generation is therefore a necessary prerequisite to
the rest of the calculations.
Edit Heat Curve – This option enables the user to edit the heat curve values calculated by Heat Curve
Generation or even created heat curve through manual input. It also allows the user to do linear
interpolation. For the sensible to sensible case, only the first and the last data point will be used in the
heat transfer and pressure drop calculation.
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General Specifications – This option allows the user to define general data for a plate heat exchanger
including calculation mode, allowed pressure drop for design mode, fouling factor, and user specified
heat transfer coefficients.
Exchanger Geometry – Selecting this option allows user to provide physical dimensions for plate, unit,
nozzles, and material specifications.
Calculate – This is used to execute the thermal analysis and pressure drop calculation.
View Results – This item is used to view the calculated results interactively.
Get Stream From Flowsheet – This command enables the user to retrieve new stream information from
CHEMCAD process flow sheet.
HEAT CURVE GENERATION
Selecting this option will cause the Heat Curve Parameters dialog box to appear:

This dialog box contains commands that allow the entry of data necessary to calculate the heat curves
for the exchanger.
Cutting method – The heat curve may be cut by Bubble-Dew Point or Equal Enthalpy method. The
default is Bubble-Dew Point method. The Bubble-Dew Point method finds the dew and bubble points
first, and then continues cutting the largest zone in half until number of cutting points meets the user’s
specified value. The Equal Enthalpy method simply cuts the heating curve into n zones with equal
enthalpy increment, where n is user specified.
Number of cutting points – The entry here determines the number of zones which will be used for the
heat curve. n zones requires n+1 cut points (the entrance to the first zone, plus the outlet of all n zones).
These are thermodynamic zones, not physical zones. The default is 11 cut points or 10 zones.
Direction of Fluid Flow –The heat curve is affected by the direction of fluid flow through the exchanger.
In countercurrent flow, flows are in opposite direction. Fluid at one inlet is exchanging heat with fluid
exiting the other side.
In cocurrent flow, flows are in the same direction. Fluid at one inlet is exchanging heat with fluid at the
inlet of the other side.
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EDIT HEAT CURVE
This option is used to modify the values calculated for the heat curve. To change a value, you simply
type over it. The heat curve data will be displayed in a dialog box like that shown below:





















This dialog box scrolls to the left (using the elevator bar at the bottom) to display additional values.
To save your changes, click the [OK] BUTTON.
If blank fields are left between entered values, the program will use linear interpolation to fill them in.
GENERAL SPECIFICATION
The General Specifications dialog box is provided to permit the user to define the general calculation
parameters such as calculation mode, fouling factor, allowable pressure drop, etc. The General
Information dialog box appears as follows.
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These fields are described below.
Calculation mode – There are three calculation modes; design, rating, and fouling rating. In the design
mode, PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER may be used to size a heat exchanger, calculating the optimum
number of plate. When in the design mode, the information required to make a run includes allowable
pressure drops, stream data, fouling factors, and geometry data other than the number of plate.
In the rating mode, stream data, fouling factors, and all geometry data must be defined. The program
checks to see if the exchanger defined will work in the given application by checking effective heat
transfer area against area required to carry out the heat duty for given streams.
In the fouling rating, the required information includes streams and geometry data. The program will
calculate fouling factors on cold, hot, or both sides depending on user’s selection on the fouling rating
option.
Allowable dp - Input of this variable is required for design run. This is the pressure drop allowable for
flow passing through plates. Pressure drop through nozzles is not included in this. For rating and
fouling rating, this field will be invisible from the dialog box.
Fouling factor - Input of this variable is used for rating and design calculation. It is a thermal resistance
included to account for the fouling. Its value is arbitrary and defines how often you want to clean the
tubes. The default is 0.001 in English units on the cold and hot side.
Film Coefficient - Input of this variable is optional. If the user wants to specify the cold or hot side film
heat transfer coefficient, they could enter the value in the corresponding field. The program will take this
value when calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient.
Rate cold side fouling – This option makes the program rate the cold side fouling factor. It requires hot
side fouling factor specified. It appears on the screen only if Calculation mode is set to fouling rating.
Rate hot side fouling – This option makes the program rate the hot side fouling factor. It requires cold
side fouling factor specified. It appears on the screen only if Calculation mode is set to fouling rating.
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Rate both side fouling – This option makes the program rate cold and hot side fouling factors. Under
this option, the program will assume the fouling factors on cold and hot sides are equal. This option
appears on the screen only if Calculation mode is set to fouling rating.
EXCHANGER GEOMETRY
This option allows the user to make detailed specifications concerning the dimensions and arrangement
of a plate heat exchanger. Selecting this option will cause the Exchanger Geometry Menu to appear as
shown below:












PLATE
Selection of Plate option opens up the Plate Specifications Dialog Box. The Dialog box lets the user
specify all data regarding the plate, it also allows the user to specify parameters for the pressure drop
and heat transfer coefficient models if user specified plate corrugation is selected. The Dialog box looks
like this.


















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Corrugation – PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER allows intermitting corrugation, chevron corrugation, and
user specified plate corrugation. For intermitting corrugation plate, plate height, width, thickness,
spacing are required inputs. For chevron corrugation plate, chevron angle is also required inputs in
addition to those for intermitting corrugation plate. For user specified plate, all model parameters are
required inputs in addition to those for intermitting corrugation plate.
Height - This is the plate height. If not specified, a default value of 10.4 feet will be assigned.
Width - This is the plate width. If not specified, a default value of 3.08 feet will be assigned.
Thickness - This is the plate thickness. If not specified, a default value of 0.1 inch will be used.
Spacing – This is the space between two plates or gap. If not specified, a default value of 0.118 inch will
be used.
Thermal conductivity – This is the thermal conductivity of the plate. This field is optional. If not
specified, the program will calculate it according to the plate wall temperature and the plate material
specified in the Material option.
Chevron angle – This is the chevron angle of the chevron corrugation plate. There are many different
conventions for chevron angle, we use the definition that chevron angle is the chevron-chevron angle,
that is 2 times the angle of the corrugation to the flow. This field will appear in the dialog box only if the
chevron corrugation plate is selected.
Effective area per plate – This is the effective heat transfer area per plate. This field is optional. If not
specified, the program will calculate it based on plate height, width, number of nozzle, and nozzle size.
Turbulent: Re > – This field is for input of the minimum Reynold’s number of turbulent flow regime. The
default is 300.
Laminar: Re < - This field is for input of the maximum Reynold’s number of laminar flow regime. The
default is 15. The field appears only if the user specified plate corrugation is selected. This field appears
only if the user specified plate corrugation is selected.
a1, a2, and a3 - These are parameters for the frictional factor correlations. The defaults are 32.8,
1.0213, and 0.199 respectively. This field appears only if the user specified plate corrugation is selected.
b1, b2, b3, and b4 - These are parameters for the heat transfer correlations. The defaults are 0.5,
0.3869, 0.1662, and 0.699 respectively. This field appears only if the user specified plate corrugation is
selected.
UNIT
The Unit option opens up the Unit Specifications dialog box. The dialog box is shown below and the
definition of each field follows.
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Number of plates - This field is for inputting the number of plates in the heat exchanger. For design
case, the number of plates is calculated by the program and will also be updated in this field.
Pass arrangement – This ratio button allows the user to select pass arrangement for the exchanger.
The first option allows the heat exchanger to be arranged in cold side single pass and hot side multiple
passes. The number of hot side pass may be specified in the Number of passes field. The second
option allows the heat exchanger to be arranged in hot side single pass and cold side multiple passes.
The number of hot side passes may be specified in the Number of passes field. The third option
allows the heat exchanger to be arranged in the same number of passes for both sides. The number of
passes may be specified in the Number of passes field. Plate Heat Exchanger assumes pure counter
current flow in thermal calculation when this option is selected. A correction factor, F, to LMTD similarly
to the one applied to the single E-Shell and multiple-tube-pass exchanger is applied when the first or
second options is selected, see Chapter 1.5 of the Heat Exchanger Design Handbook (Taborek 1988).
NOZZLES
Selection of this option brings up the Nozzle Parameter dialog box. The dialog box allows the user to
specify dimensions of nozzles. It looks like this.
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# of nozzles - inlet - This entry is for input of the number of nozzles per bundle for the tube side inlet.
# of nozzles - outlet - This entry is for input of the number of nozzles per bundle for the tube side outlet.
Inlet nozzle diameter - This is the inner diameter of an inlet nozzle. All inlet nozzles are assumed to
have the same diameter. The diameter will determine how much area should be subtracted from plate
gross area to obtain effective area.
Outlet nozzle diameter -This is the inner diameter of an outlet nozzle. All outlet nozzles are assumed
to have the same diameter. The diameter will determine how much area should be subtracted from plate
gross area to obtain effective area.
MATERIALS
Selection of this option brings up the Material Specifications dialog box. The dialog box allows the
user to specify material for the plates. The dialog box looks like this.










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Plate material - Select the plate material from the options listed in the window. The plate material
directly influences the plate wall resistance in the heat transfer calculation.
CALCULATE
The Calculate button tells the program to execute the design, rate, or fouling rating calculation. To
begin the run, move the pointer to the Calculate option and click the left mouse button. After the
command is issued, the program performs a complete data check to make sure there is no missing or
unreasonable information. If errors or warnings are detected, the program shows an error message on
the screen. The program allows you to either change the data or ignore the error messages.
The progress of calculation will be reported in the status line in the lower left corner for design
calculation.
VIEW RESULTS
The View Results option enables the user to interactively review selected results on the screen. When
selected, the VIEW MENU appears on the screen as shown below:











The items listed provide summaries of the specific information requested. All results are displayed in
Wordpad so that they can be edited, printed, and/or saved. A detailed description of each VIEW MENU
option is given below.
STREAM
This option displays the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out of
the heat exchanger.
HEAT CURVES
This displays the temperatures, vapor and liquid rates, heat duties, and physical and transport properties
for each zone. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations.
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TABULATED DATA
This option displays the Overall Data, Cold Side Data, Hot Side Data, Unit, Cold Side Nozzles, Hot Side
Nozzles and General Specification together on one page.
GET STREAMS FROM FLOWSHEET
This command allows the user to retrieve new streams from the CHEMCAD flowsheet. This is very
useful in case any stream entering or exiting the exchanger is changed.
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PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER OUTPUT
PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER output includes stream data, heat curves, and tabulated data.
STREAM DATA
The stream data reports the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out
of the heat exchanger. This information is fed to heat curve calculation to generate heat curve. A stream
data report looks like this:

HEAT CURVES
This report includes the temperatures, vapor and liquid rates, heat duties, and physical and transport
properties for each zone. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations.
A heat curve report for the cold side looks like this:
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A heat curve report for the hot side has a similar format and content.
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TABULATED DATA
This report includes the Overall Data, Cold Side Data, Hot Side Data, Unit, Cold Side Nozzles, Hot Side
Nozzles, and General Specification together on one page. These values are the calculated results and
geometry inputs from user. The tabulated data report looks like this:

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Items other than user input are explained below:
Effective Area – The heat transfer effective area excludes that portion occupied by nozzles. This area
is a projected area.
Service Coeff. – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger based on the
Effective Area of exchanger at service. It is defined as:
) Effective MTD, ( ) Area Effective (
Load) (Heat
Coeff.) (Service =

Calculated Area – The calculated heat transfer area required to carry out the heat load.
) Effective MTD, ( ) Coeff. Calculated (
Load) (Heat
Area) d (Calculate =

Calculated Coeff. – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient. It is calculated by the following
equation.
c h p c h R R / t / 1 / 1 Coeff.) ted 1/(Calcula + + + + = λ α α
where,
α
h
= hot stream heat transfer coefficient
α
c
= cold stream heat transfer coefficient
t = plate thickness
λ
p
= plate conductivity
R
h
= fouling resistance for the hot surfaces of the plate
R
c
= fouling resistance for the cold surfaces of the plate
Calculated Clean Area – The heat transfer area required to carry out the heat load when the heat
transfer surface is clean. It is calculated by following equation:
) Effective MTD, ( ) Coef. Clean Calculated (
Load) (Heat
Area) (Clean =

Clean Coeff. – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient when the surface is clean. It could be
calculated by following equation:

MTD, Effective –The overall effective mean temperature difference which is defined as:
) LMTD ( F Effective) (MTD, =
where F = a correction factor for not pure countercurrent flow
LMTD = log mean temperature difference.

p c h / t / 1 / 1 Coeff.) 1/(Clean λ α α + + =
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The LMTD is defined as:
in , c out , h out , c in , h T T T T LMTD − = − = for in , c out , h out , c in , h T T T T − = −
and
)) T T ( / ) T T log((
) T T ( ) T T (
(LMTD)
in , c out , h out , c in , h
in , c out , h out , c in , h
− −
− − −
=
for in , c out , h out , c in , h T T T T − ≠ −
Heat Load – The enthalpy difference between the inlet and outlet process streams of the heat
exchanger.
Excess Area – The excess area for the present calculation. It is defined as:
%) 100 (
) Area Effective (
Area) d (Calculate - ) Area (Effective
Excess) (Area =

This value is always expressed as a percent. A negative value indicates that the exchanger is
undersurfaced in rating. When making a design run, the program will find a heat exchanger so that the
excess is the minimum positive value. When making a fouling rating run, the program finds the fouling
factors so that the Excess Area is zero.
Area Per Unit – The effective area per unit excludes that portion which is occupied by the nozzles.
Gross Area – The gross area which is calculated by:
) Height )( Width )( Plate of Number ( ) Area Gross ( =
MTD, Factor –The correction factor, F, appeared in the definition of MTD, Effective. For pure
countercurrent flow, such as a large plate heat exchanger which has the same number of pass for cold
and hot side and arranged in pure countercurrent configuration, F equals one. Otherwise, it will be less
than one.
Film coefficient – The heat transfer coefficient of the fluid boundary layer or film next to the plate wall
on the cold or hot side.
Pres. Drop – Cold or hot side flow pressure drop due to frictional force.
Velocity – The fluid velocity is calculated by volumetric flow rate divided by the cross sectional area
defined by the plate width times the gap between two adjacent plates.
Reynolds No – Reynolds number of the cold or hot flow.






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APPENDIX I PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER REFERENCES
P1 Kumar, H. Performance. In Heat Exchanger Design Handbook; Schlunder E. U., Beaton C. F.,
Bell K. J., et al., Hemisphere Publishing Corporation: New York, 1988, Chap. 3.7.3.
P2 Taborek J., Charts for mean temperature difference in industrial heat exchanger configurations.
In Heat Exchanger Design Handbook; Schlunder E. U., Beaton C. F., Bell K. J., et al., Hemisphere
Publishing Corporation: New York, 1988, Chap. 1.5.

CC-THERM

DOUBLE PIPE

User’s Guide
And Tutorial

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PRODUCT OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION TO CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE
CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE or DOUBLE PIPE is an integrated module for rating, design, simulation,
and fouling rating of double pipe heat exchangers in the CHEMCAD Suite. DOUBLE PIPE is fully
integrated with the CHEMCAD Suite so process data is automatically transferred from the process
flowsheets to the heat exchanger analysis, and heating curves and physical properties data are
automatically generated using the same properties and methods.
EASY TO LEARN
The input for DOUBLE PIPE is simple and concise. It is based upon the CHEMCAD input system, so
anyone familiar with CHEMCAD will be able to operate DOUBLE PIPE with ease.
Since the input/output systems and conventions are the same in DOUBLE PIPE as those used in
CHEMCAD, please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for these types of “How to” instructions.
TECHNICAL FEATURES
1. DOUBLE PIPE handles the applications of sensible heat transfer for both liquid and vapor.
2. Four modes of calculation may be selected: Rating, design, simulation, fouling rating mode.
3. Standard double pipe exchanger from Brown Fintube Company.
4. Single and multiple modules in parallel and/or series.
5. Tubes may be bare or longitudinal fin, straight or U-shaped. A library of longitudinal finned tube
from Brown Fintube Company is built into the program.
6. Single and multiple tubes in one shell.
HEAT TRANSFER METHODS
SENSIBLE HEAT TRANSFER
Sensible Flow – Tubeside:
The Sieder-Tate, Colburn, Dittus-Boelter, or ESDU method can be selected in for the calculation of the
tubeside heat transfer coefficient in the turbulent region. The method of Eubank-Proctor or VDI Mean
Nusselt Number may be used for laminar flow. The flow is assumed to be laminar below a Reynolds
number of 2000 and is turbulent above a Reynolds number of 4000. In the transition region, the
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program prorates the laminar and turbulent coefficient according to the Reynolds number to arrive at the
final coefficient.
The Blasius method may be selected for the frictional factor in the pressure drop calculation for
turbulent flow with smooth tube internal surface while Chen method is available for rough surface. If the
flow is in the transient region where Reynolds number is greater than 2300 and less than 20000, the
Blasius equation is used.
Sensible Flow – Shellside:
For the heat transfer coefficient at the inner surface of the annulus, or shell side, the method
recommended in the book by Hewitt, et al. is used for laminar flow with bare tube. For turbulent flow,
same options are available as for tube side.
For finned tube, VDI-Mean Nusselt Number method of heat transfer cofficient is used for laminar flow in
the channels between fins. For turbulent flow heat transfer coefficient and frictional factor in the
pressure drop calculation, same options as for tube side are available.
THE ZONE ANALYSIS
The unit is analyzed using n (default =10) zones. DOUBLE PIPE automatically sets up the zones and
properties of each zone, but permits the user to edit or override.
OUTPUT FEATURES
The user may select from the following output reports:

A zone-by-zone print-out of the heat curve and fluid physical properties

The TEMA sheet

A tabulated print-out of overall exchanger values

A zone-by-zone print-out of heat transfer and pressure drop calculations

Inlet and outlet stream information

Plot of heat curve, heat flux, LMTD, temperature, coefficient, and area.
In addition to obtaining a hardcopy output report, you can review the results interactively on the screen
and graphically using the plot features of the program.
OVERVIEW
DOUBLE PIPE is an interactive simulation tool for the design, rating, simulation, or fouling rating of
double pipe heat exchangers. This section gives an overall view of the program usage and the options
available on the DOUBLE PIPE menu. More information on each option is provided in later sections.
The input functions allow you to enter process data by using dialog boxes with context specific help.
With this input facility, you can create new problem files, review the results of problems already
designed, and make modifications to previously saved problems.
There are seven general steps involved in running a heat exchanger design, rating, or fouling rating with
CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE. The following list illustrates the general steps.
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1. Define the problem and run the flowsheet in CC-STEADY STATE. This generates CHEMCAD files.
2. Select the Sizing command on the menu bar. The Sizing menu will open.
3. From this menu select the Heat Exchangers and then Double Pipe.
4. The program will prompt you through the initial setup of the exchanger analysis. It will do this by
displaying instructions about what you are to do next. When the instruction is cleared (by clicking
[OK]), you will be taken to the function or dialog box appropriate for completing the instructed task.
At the end of the setup process, the DOUBLE PIPE menu is displayed.
5. Inspect and edit the input as desired using the menu commands.
6. Execute the program.
7. Review and printout the results.
Similarly, there are seven general steps involved in running a heat exchanger simulation with DOUBLE
PIPE. The following list illustrates the general steps.
1. Define only input streams of the heat exchanger in CC-STEADY STATE. Please note that one-
sided heat exchanger could not be used with DOUBLE PIPE simulation mode.
2. Double click the heat exchanger icon on the flowsheet. The heat exchanger (HTXR) – dialog box
will open.
3. From this box, select 5. Double Pipe Simulation option for the Simulation mode and click on
[OK] button.
4. The program will prompt you through the initial setup of the exchanger analysis. It will do this by
displaying instructions about what you are to do next. When the instruction is cleared (by clicking
[OK]), you will be taken to the function or dialog box appropriate for completing the instructed task.
At the end of the setup process, the DOUBLE PIPE menu is displayed.
5. Inspect and edit the input as desired using the menu commands. Exit the menu and save all the
data entry.
6. Run simulation as you do for other UnitOps in CC-STEADY STATE.
7. Review and printout the results in CHEMCAD as you do for other UnitOp or go to CC-THERM to do
review and printout the results.
The program performs the following tasks.
1. Performs extensive error checking.
2. Creates the streams if one-sided heat exchanger is used.
3. Generates the heat curve for the tube and shell sides.
4. Performs the design, rating, simulation, fouling rating studies. In the design mode, the user needs
to specify all the basic information about the configuration of a single heat exchanger and the
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program will run optimization so that the smallest numbers of heat exchangers in parallel and series
are found which satisfies all design criteria. In the rating mode, you must provide all the basic
information about the exchanger configuration and the program will check and rate the exchanger
for its adequacy in the service specified. In the simulation mode, you must provide all the basic
information about the exchanger configuration and the program will calculate the output streams for
the specified heat exchangers. In the fouling rating mode, you must provide all the basic information
about the exchanger configuration except the fouling factor which will be estimated by the program.
5. Generates the output for the design, rating, simulation, or fouling rating of the heat exchanger.
6. Provides an interactive user interface to allow the user to change the problem specifications to
rerun the problem and review the results.
7. Creates the DOUBLE PIPE files to save all the input/output data for each exchanger.
SUMMARY
As an integrated module to the CHEMCAD Suite, DOUBLE PIPE offers the process engineer an easy
and comprehensive method of rating, design, simulating, and fouling rating double pipe heat
exchangers. Since it uses the same command language as CHEMCAD, any CHEMCAD user can pick
up the program in a matter of minutes. The program has been thoroughly tested against hand
calculations and found to be an accurate and reliable tool. It is fully supported by a staff of trained
engineers.
DOUBLE PIPE COMMANDS
To run a heat exchanger calculation in CHEMCAD you must access the DOUBLE PIPE menu. This
menu provides a set of commands, which are used to setup, run, review, and print out the analysis.
This section describes the use of those commands in detail.
For design, rating, and fouling rating, the following procedure is used to call the DOUBLE PIPE menu:
1. Run a simulation of a flowsheet containing a heat exchanger. CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE must
have a heat and material balance around the unit before it can rate it.
2. Select the Sizing command from the menu bar. The Sizing menu will open.
3. Select the Heat Exchangers > Double Pipe option from the Sizing menu.
4. If a heat exchanger is not currently “selected”, the program will ask you to select one to be rated. If
a heat exchanger is currently “selected” on the flowsheet, the program will assume this is the unit
you want to analyze.
5. If it is a one-sided heat exchanger, Double Pipe will walk you through the input of utility stream
composition and thermal conditions.
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6. If the selected heat exchanger has never been analyzed before, the program will let you select heat
exchanger category. After select Double pipe heat exchanger option, CC-THERM will walk you
through the input procedure. This will involve identifying the tubeside stream (that is, the inner tube
fluid) and completing a series of dialog boxes. Once these have been completed, the DOUBLE
PIPE menu will appear.
If the selected heat exchanger has been analyzed before, this walk through procedure will be
skipped and the DOUBLE PIPE menu will appear immediately.
The DOUBLE PIPE menu for design, rating, and fouling rating purpose looks like this:



















For simulation, the following procedure is used to call the DOUBLE PIPE menu:
1. Define a two-sided heat exchanger with input streams specified.
2. Right click on the unit to be analyzed and select the Edit UnitOp Data menu. The Heat exchanger
(HTXR)- dialog box will open.
3. Select option 5 or 6 (Double Pipe simulation or Double Pipe fouling factor rating) for the
simulation mode box and click [OK] button.
4. If the selected heat exchanger has never been analyzed before, the program will let you select heat
exchanger category. After select Double Pipe Heat Exchanger option, CC-THERM will walk you
through the input procedure. This will involve identifying the tubeside stream (the shellside stream
is then inferred) and completing a series of dialog boxes. Once these have been completed (or at
least viewed), the DOUBLE PIPE menu will appear.
If the selected heat exchanger has been analyzed before, this walk through procedure will be
skipped and the DOUBLE PIPE menu will appear immediately.
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The DOUBLE PIPE menu for simulation purposes looks like this:















The options on these menus are briefly described below and more fully described in the following
sections bearing the option as title.
DATA ENTRY IN DOUBLE PIPE
You will be entering data about your heat exchanger through the DOUBLE PIPE dialog boxes. You
should note the CHEMCAD Suite input rules apply. Please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for
the details of all input connections and dialog boxes.
Heat Curve Generations – The heat exchanger analysis calculation takes place in two steps. First, the
heat curve is generated, then the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations are performed. Heat
Curve Generation performs the former calculations. This calculation determines the flows,
thermodynamic properties of the heat transfer fluids in each side of the exchanger. These properties
are then used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. Heat Curve Generation therefore is
a necessary prerequisite to the rest of the calculations.
Edit Heat Curve – This option enables the user to change the heat curve values calculated by
DOUBLE PIPE, in other words, to override the program.
General Specifications – This option is used to define basic exchanger parameters such as
computation mode, exchanger type, process type, fouling factors, allowed pressure drop, and heat
transfer and pressure drop equations to be used.
Exchanger Geometry – Selecting this option allows the user to provide physical dimensions for the
shell, tubes, and nozzles. It also allows the user to make material specifications.
Calculate – This is used to execute the thermal analysis and pressure drop calculations.
View Results – This item is used to view the calculated results interactively.
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Plot – This option enables the user to graphically display a variety of heat curves, heat flux, LMTD,
temperature, heat transfer coefficient, and required heat transfer area on a zone-by-zone basis.
Report Generation – This command is used to generate hardcopies of tabulated reports. The user can
select which information is to be included in the final report.
Save Configuration – This saves the current data.
Re-enter Stream Information – When a one-sided heat exchanger is selected from the CHEMCAD
flowsheet for analysis, the user must provide information defining the second side in order for the
analysis to be performed. This is initially done in the “Heat Curve Generation” step. This command
enables the user to change this second stream information. It also allows the user to swap tube and
shell side streams.
Re-initialize Exchanger – This command completely deletes all data regarding the currently selected
heat exchanger and restarts the input process.
Field by field descriptions of these options is provided below.
HEAT CURVE GENERATION
Selecting this option will cause the Heat Curve Parameters dialog box to appear as shown below:

This dialog box contains commands that allow you to enter the data necessary to calculate the heat
curve for the exchanger. It is important to note that if you have made any changes to the streams or
heat exchanger units within CHEMCAD, you will receive a warning from DOUBLE PIPE recommending
that you recalculate the heat curve to reflect those changes.
HEAT CURVE INPUT
CUTTING METHOD – The heat curve may be set up in zones by the methods of:
1. Equal enthalpy
2. Bubble-Dew Point
The default is option (2), Bubble-Dew Point method. If the dew points and bubble points are not within
the temperature range of this heat exchanger, then it always uses the Equal Enthalpy method.
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The heat exchanger itself is modeled as a zone-by-zone heat transfer process, and the whole path of
the heat transfer route will be cut into n zones, where n is input by the user. The default value of n is 10.
The Enthalpy method calculates the temperature and the flow profiles by generating the corresponding
physical properties based on uniform enthalpy and pressure profiles.
The Bubble-Dew Point method finds the dew points and bubble points first, and divides the region
using these points. Further, it will keep cutting the largest zone in half until user specified number of
zones is reached.
NUMBER OF CUT POINTS – The entry here determines the number of zones which will be used for the
heat transfer analysis, n zones requires n+1 cut points (the entrance to the first zone, plus the outlet of
all n zone). These are thermodynamic zones, not physical zones. The default is 11 cut points or 10
zones.
DIRECTION OF FLUID FLOW
The heat curve is affected by the direction of fluid flow through the exchanger.
In countercurrent flow, shell and tube flows are in opposite direction. Fluid at the tube inlet is
exchanging heat with fluid exiting the shell.
In cocurrent flow, the shell and tube flows are in the same direction. Fluid at the tube inlet is
exchanging heat with fluid at the shell inlet.
After the desired information has been entered, click the [OK] button.
UTILITY STREAMS
If the heat exchanger uses a utility stream (one-sided heat exchanger icon), DOUBLE PIPE will prompt
for information defining this stream and its conditions.
The inlet composition and thermodynamic conditions are specified using a Stream dialog box just as in
CHEMCAD. The program will calculate the utility flowrate, but an initial guess must be given.
The utility stream flowrate is calculated based upon the heat duty of the exchanger and the outlet
condition of the stream. The outlet conditions are specified using the following dialog box:
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You may specify only one of the following:
Temperature: The outlet temperature of the utility stream.
Fixed flow: The flowrate will be the previously specified in the Streams dialog box.
EDIT HEAT CURVE
This option is used to modify the values CC-STEADY STATE calculated for the heat curve. To change
a value, you simply type over it. The heat curve data will be displayed in a dialog box similar to that
shown below:
















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This dialog box scrolls to the left (using the elevator bar at the bottom) to display additional values.
To save your changes, click the [OK] button.
If blank fields are left between entered values, the program will perform a line interpolation to fill them in.
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
The General Information dialog box is provided to permit you to define the general calculation
parameters such as computation mode, exchanger type, process type, etc. The General Information
dialog box appears as follows.
Page 1:

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Page 2:

These fields are described below.
THE GENERAL PAGE
Calculation mode - the DOUBLE PIPE module may be used to rate an existing exchanger. In this
mode, all the key variables must be defined. The program checks to see if the exchanger defined will
work in the given application. You must define the geometry type, shell ID, tube length, number of
exchangers in series and parallel.
Modular concept of double pipe heat exchanger lets you meet heat transfer duties and pressure drop
constrains by putting together double pipe heat exchanger modules in series , parallel, or mixed fashion.
Plant managers can immediately meet changing duties simply by rearranging, adding or subtracting
modules. DOUBLE PIPE may be used to carry out thermal design for such task. In this mode,
allowable pressure drops on both shell and tube side along with data needed for rating single module
have to be specified. DOUBLE PIPE will calculate numbers of modules in series and parallel needed to
meet the pressure drop constrains and heat duties.
DOUBLE PIPE may also be used to perform fouling rating. In this mode, all the geometry data of the
heat exchanger must be defined and the program will estimate fouling factor(s) for given process flow
data. This mode could be very useful for a process engineer in estimating the fouling situation of an on
duty heat exchanger. There are three options under this mode; Rate tube side fouling, Rate shell
side fouling, and Rate both side fouling. These options pop up on this page when fouling rating mode
is selected. The program will assume equal fouling on tube and shell side while perform Rate both
side fouling.
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Geometry type - selection of straight tube or U shaped tube exchanger.
Process type – DOUBLE PIPE allows sensible flow on both tube and shell side.
Fouling factor - It is a thermal resistance included to account for the fouling. Its value is arbitrary and
defines how often you want to clean the tubes. The default is 0.001 in English units on both sides.
THE METHODS PAGE
Tubeside Methods:
Tubeside Laminar Flow Method – This option defines which equation is to be used to calculate the
sensible heat transfer film coefficient for laminar flow on the tubeside. The options are:
Eubank-Proctor Reference No. 1 APPENDIX II
VDI Reference No. 2 APPENDIX II
Tubeside Turbulent Flow Method – This option specifies which method is to be used to calculate the
tubeside film coefficient for sensible, turbulent flow on the tubeside, the options are:
Program Select: Let DOUBLE PIPE select the most appropriate method base
upon the turbulent flow conditions.
Seader-Tate: Reference No. 3 APPENDIX II
Colburn Method: Reference No. 4 APPENDIX II
Dittus-Boelter: Reference No. 5 APPENDIX II
ESDU Method: Reference No. 6 APPENDIX II
Mean VDI Nusselt: Reference No. 7 APPENDIX II
Tubeside Frictional Pressure Drop - This identifies the method to be used to calculate the tubeside
frictional pressure drop. The options are:
The Blasius
Equation
Reference No. 8 APPENDIX II
Chen’s Method Reference No. 9 APPENDIX II
Shellside Methods:
Shellside Laminar Flow Model - This option selects which method is to be used to calculate the
shellside pressure drops and film coefficients for laminar flow. The options are:
Program Select: Let DOUBLE PIPE select the most appropriate method base upon the flow
conditions.
Shellside Turbulent Flow Method – This option specifies which method is to be used to calculate the
shellside film coefficient for sensible, turbulent flow on the shellside, the options are:

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Program Select: Let DOUBLE PIPE select the most appropriate method base upon the flow
conditions.
Seader-Tate: Reference No. 3 APPENDIX II
Colburn Method: Reference No. 4 APPENDIX II
Dittus-Boelter: Reference No. 5 APPENDIX II
ESDU Method: Reference No. 6 APPENDIX II
Mean VDI Nusselt: Reference No. 7 APPENDIX II
Shellside Frictional Pressure Drop - This identifies the method to be used to calculate the shellside
frictional pressure drop. The options are:
The Blasius
Equation
Reference No. 8 APPENDIX II
Chen’s Method Reference No. 9 APPENDIX II
The Load default methods button will load all default methods or setting on this page. Warning level
controls pop up frequency of warning messages. The bigger the integer value is, the more frequent the
messages will appear.
EXCHANGER GEOMETRY
The Exchanger Geometry option is to permit the user to make detailed specifications concerning the
dimensions and arrangement of the heat exchanger.
Selecting this option will cause the Exchanger Geometry menu to appear as shown below:

TUBES
The Tube Specifications dialog box is used to define tube and tube arrangement information. The
Tube Specifications dialog box appears as follows.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
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These fields are described below.
Number of tubes – This field is mandatory. The default number is 1 for single tube exchanger. For
multitube exchanger, a typical number is 7. This field will be overwritten if Brown Fintube exchanger is
selected for Finned tube code.
Tube Outer Diameter - The tube diameter has to be specified. The minimum value of outer tube
diameter is 0.25 inch. This field will be overwritten if Brown Fintube is selected for Finned tube code.
Tube wall thickness - The wall thickness is a mandatory input. This field will be overwritten if Brown
Fintube is selected for Finned tube code.
Tube length - This field is a mandatory input for a rating case. This field will be overwritten if Brown
Fintube is selected for Finned tube code.
Roughness factor – Enter the absolute roughness for the inside of the tube. This value is used in the
calculation of frictional pressure loss.
Tube pattern – The following selection is available under this option.
Rotated Triangular(60) [Default]
Square (90)
Diamond [rotated square (45)]
Rotated triangular(30)
Tube pitch - The units are in inches or mm. The tube pitch is the distance between tube centers. The
default is 1.25 x (tube outer diameter + 2.0 x fin height). This field will be checked by the program to
assure that it is greater than 1.25 x (tube outer diameter + 2.0 x fin height).
Finned tube code – Plain tube, User Specified Finned Tube, and Brown Fintube can be selected. The
default is Plain tube. Selection of User Specified Finned Tube allows user to specify fin tube geometry
dimensions and fin materials. Selection of Brown Fintube allows user to select double pipe heat
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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exchanger manufactured by Brown Fintube Company. If User Specified Finned Tube or Brown Fintube
is selected, upon clicking OK of The Tube Specification dialog box their respective dialog boxes will pop
up. These dialog boxes are shown below.
Longitudinal fin specifications – This dialog box allows user to specify a fin tube. To be specified are
the fin tube name, fin material, number of fins, fin height, and fin thickness. The dialog box appears as
follows.











Brown Fintube Double Pipe specifications – This dialog box allows user to specify a Brown Fintube
double pipe exchanger. User can select the section type, shell thickness, tube thickness, shell material,
tube material, number of fins, nominal fin length in feet, and fin height. The dialog box appears as
follows.
















For more details, please refer to the Brown Fintube product catalog.
SHELL
The purpose of the Shell Specifications dialog box is to define shell information. The Shell
Specifications dialog box appears as follows.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
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These fields are described below.
Shell diameter - This field must be input. It will be overwritten if Brown Fintube is selected for Finned
tube code. The diameter is the internal diameter.
Number of exchangers in parallel - The default is one (1). Any positive integer number between 1
and the maximum allowed per machine precision is acceptable.
Number of exchangers in series - The default is one (1). Any positive integer number between 1 and
the maximum allowed per machine precision is acceptable.
NOZZLES
The purpose of the Nozzle Specifications dialog box is to permit you to specify nozzle sizes. The
Nozzle Specifications dialog box appears as follows.









Nozzle diameter - This diameter is the inside diameter in all cases. Even if making a rating, it is not
obligatory to input the nozzle diameter, as the program will calculate it if this information is omitted. It will
be overwritten if Brown Fintube is selected for Finned tube code in the Tube Specifications dialog
box.
MATERIALS
The Material Specifications dialog box is used to specify the materials used for tubes. It appears as
follows.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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The first 34 options are material selections. After that, follow the ASME and DIN A. D. Merkblatter
material code.
The Calculate command tells the program to execute the design, rating, or fouling rating calculation.
To begin the calculation, move the pointer to the Calculate option and click the left mouse button. After
the command is issued, the program performs a complete data check to make sure there is no missing
or unreasonable information. If errors or warnings are detected, the program shows an error message
on the screen. The program allows you to either change the data or ignore the error messages.
The execution command of DOUBLE PIPE simulation is the same as of CHEMCAD simulation.
CALCULATE
Pressing the Calculate button executes the design, rating, or fouling rating calculation for the
exchanger. After the button is pressed, the program performs a complete data check to make sure
there is no missing or unreasonable information. If errors or warnings are detected, the program shows
an error message on the screen. The program allows you to either change the data or ignore the error
messages.
The execution command of DOUBLE PIPE simulation is the same as of CHEMCAD simulation.
VIEW RESULTS
The View Results option enables the user to interactively review selected results on the screen. When
selected, the View menu appears on the screen like so:
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
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The nine items listed provide summaries of the specific information requested. All displays are in
Wordpad so that they can be edited, printed, and/or saved. The format and content of these displays
are the same as in the DOUBLE PIPE reports. Since a complete explanation of this output is given
under the report generation section of this manual, no effort is made to duplicate that information here.
Please refer to the DOUBLE PIPE REPORT GENERATION section of this manual for further
descriptions. A brief description of each View menu option is given below.
SUMMARY RESULTS
This selection allows you to view a short summary of the most important input and output of the heat
exchanger calculations.
SHELLSIDE DATA
This option shows the shellside data for the current exchanger. This includes velocity, film coefficient,
Reynolds No., nozzles sizes, and pressure drops.
TUBESIDE DATA
This option shows the tubeside data for the current exchanger. This includes film coefficient, Reynolds
No., pressure drops, nozzle sizes, and velocity.
OVERALL DATA
This option displays summary of the duty, area(s), heat transfer coefficient(s), and LMTD(s) of the heat
exchanger.
TABULATED DATA
This option displays the Overall Data, Shellside Data, Tubeside Data, Tube Data, and Resistances Data
together on one page.
HEAT CURVES
This displays the temperatures, vapor and liquid rates, heat duties, and physical and transport
properties for each zone. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop
calculations.

CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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ZONE BY ZONE DATA
This option allows the user to review the zone-by-zone calculated results for both the tubeside and the
shellside.
STREAM DATA
This option displays the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out of
the heat exchanger.
TEMA SHEET
This option displays the completed TEMA sheet.
PLOT
From the Plot menu, you can plot several zone-by-zone results graphically. The plots are displayed in
Plot Windows. Therefore, the user can modify or edit the plot using the commands provided by this
window. The plot menu looks like the following.















A brief description of each option is given below:
HEAT CURVE
Process heat curve is a plot of heat duty versus temperature for both sides of the exchanger.
HEAT FLUX
Heat flux passes through the tube wall.
LMTD
Log-mean temperature difference for each zone.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
196
TEMPERATURE
Four temperature curves are plotted on same page. They are labeled as Tube Side, Tube Side Wall,
Shell Side Wall, and Shell Side. The definitions of label are list below.
Tube Side: bulk temperature of tube side flow;
Tube Side Wall: temperature at interface between tube side fouling and flow;
Shell Side Wall: temperature at interface between shell side fouling and flow;
Shell Side: bulk temperature of shell side flow.
HEAT XFER COEFFICIENT
The overall heat transfer coefficient curve is plotted along with four local heat transfer coefficient curves
for tube side, shell side, tube side fouling, shell side fouling. All heat transfer coefficients are based on
the surface area of tube outer diameter.
HEAT XFER AREA
Heat transfer area required for each zone is plotted. Zone area is based on tube outer surface.
REPORT GENERATION
The report generation menu is shown below.








PREPARE LABELS
This option allows you to specify general information for output labeling. Most of these fields are self-
explanatory and none of them are mandatory input.
Customer - Enter the name of the customer, limited to 40 characters.
Address - Enter the address of the service, limited to 40 characters.
Plant Location - Enter the plant location where the exchanger will be placed in service, limited
to 40 characters.
Reference - Enter the reference number for this exchanger, limited to 10 characters.
Proposal - Enter the proposal number for this exchanger, limited to 10 characters.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
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Date - Enter the date, limited to 10 characters.
Service of Unit - Enter the service of the unit, limited to 10 characters
Revision Number - Enter the revision number of this calculation, limited to 10 characters.
Name of Exchanger - Enter the name of the heat exchanger, limited to 12 characters.
Item Number - Enter the item number, limited to 12 characters. Default is the equipment ID
number.
Shellside fluid - Enter the name of the shellside fluid, limited to 12 characters.
Tubeside fluid - Enter the name of the tubeside fluid, limited to 12 characters.
Design Pressure - Enter the mechanical design pressure at the tubeside and shellside.
Design Temperature - Enter the mechanical design temperature at the tubeside and shellside.
Corrosion Allowance - Enter the corrosion allowance at the tubeside and shellside.
Comments - Enter the remarks you wish for the TEMA report.
This information appears in the output on the TEMA sheet and head of the report file.
SELECT REPORTS
This displays a menu that allows you to select which reports and information you want to include in your
output.
















You may select any of the choices by clicking the desired option. A check mark will appear indicating
that the report will be included. To de-select an item, click on the box to make the checkmark
disappear. The contents of each report are described in previous chapter, VIEW RESULTS.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
198
GENERATE REPORTS
Clicking on this option will cause the selected reports to be assembled into a single formatted output
and then displayed in a word pad file.
SAVE CONFIGURATION
This command saves the current input for a rating case.
RE-ENTER STREAM INFORMATION
This command allows user to get stream data from CC-STEADY STATE flowsheet for the four streams
going in and out of the current heat exchanger. This command is very useful when stream data of the
unit to be sized is changed. Utility side stream will be recalculated for one side heat exchanger and
heat curve will be regenerated using this feature.
RE-INITIALIZE EXCHANGER
This command deletes all of the input and output data for the current exchanger and starts a new
analysis. This command is useful when one wants to switch to other types of exchanger, i.e., from
double pipe heat exchanger to shell and tube heat exchanger.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
199
CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE OUTPUT
SUMMARY REPORT
This report section includes general data and a summary of the key information regarding the current
exchanger. It contains physical configuration, heat transfer information and information describing the
thermodynamic options and engineering units being used. An example of this report appears below:




SUMMARY REPORT
--------------
General Data: Heat Transfer Data:
Exch Type Double Pipe BF_x51 Effective Transfer Area 128.85
Shell I.D. 6.00 Area Required 102.59
Shell in Series/Parallel 1/2 COR LMTD 100.26
Number of Tubes 1 U (Calc/Service) 79.59/63.37
Tube Length 40.00 Heat Calc 1.03
Tube O.D./I.D. 1.9000/1.6100 Heat Spec 0.82
Excess % 25.60
Foul(S/T) 5.110E-010/5.110E-009
Del P(S/T) 1.95/1.28
SS Film Coeff 122.03
Avg. SS Vel 2.85
TW Resist 0.001459
TS Film Coeff 1692.26
Avg. TS Vel 6.25

Thermodynamics:
K: SRK
H: SRK
D: Library

Number of Components: 3

Calculation Mode: Design

Engineering Units:
Temperature F
Flow/Hour (lbmol/h)/h
Pressure psia
Enthalpy MMBtu
Diameter/Area in/ft2
Length/Velocity ft/(ft/sec)
Film Btu/hr-ft2-F
Fouling hr-ft2-F/Btu




User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
200
TEMA SHEET
The TEMA Sheet is reproduced from the TEMA book and is filled in for use as an equipment spec
sheet. An example is given on the next page. Most of the items on the TEMA Sheet are self-
explanatory. Only a few of them will be explained here as these few may not be intuitively obvious.
Type User or BF_nnn. User type is user specified double pipe heat exchanger.
BF_nnn type is Brown Fintube company’s standard where nnn is the heat
exchanger section type number. See Brown Fintube company’s sales brushes.
Surf/unit (G/E) The total surface area per unit. G means GROSS or overall area without
discounting any part of the tube length which may be imbedded in the
tubesheet. E is the effective surface area after discounting any portion of the
tube length embedded in the tubesheet.
Calc (coefficient) The same coefficient as U CALC stated below (see: Overall Data). See the
discussion below of U CALC for more details. It is the overall heat transfer
coefficient, taking into account the fouling factors on the shellside and the
tubeside. When the exchanger is oversurfaced, the CALC coefficient always
exceeds the SERVICE coefficient.
Service (coefficient) This is the coefficient calculated from service heat specification, effective
transfer area, and corrected LMTD.
RHO-V2-inlet
nozzle
The same as the quantity RV2 IN which is defined above. This is momentum
term of the incoming shellside fluid at the inlet nozzle.
Designation Exchanger designation. Could be User or Brown Fintube designation code. See
APPENDIX VIII for an example which details the definition of Brown Fintube
designation code.



CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
201









TEMA SHEET
1 ----------
2 Customer Ref No.
3 Address Prop No.
4 Plant Loc. Date Rev
5 Service of Unit Item
6 Size 6.0in x 40.0ft Type BF_x51 (Hor/Vert) H Connected in 2 Para 1 Seri
7 Surf/Unit(G/E) 129.4/128.9 ft2; Shell/Unit 2.000000 Surf/Shell 64.7/64.4 ft2
8 PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT
9 Type of Process Sensible Sensible
10 Fluid Allocation Shell Side Tube Side
11 Fluid Name
12 Flow 39683.2 38334.0 lb/h
13 Liquid 39683.2 38334.0 lb/h
14 Vapor 0.0 0.0 lb/h
15 NonCondensable 0.00000 0.00000 lb/h
16 Steam 0.0 0.0 lb/h
17 Evap/Cond 0.0 0.0 lb/h
18 Density 0.000/65.641 0.000/60.266 lb/ft3
19 Conductivity 0.000/0.081 0.000/0.387 Btu/hr-ft-F
20 Specific Heat 0.000/0.330 0.000/1.006 Btu/lb-F
21 Viscosity at Avg. 0.000/3.046 0.000/0.320 cP
22 Latent Heat 0.00 0.00 Btu/lb
23 Temperature(In/Out) 59.000/121.449 203.000/181.775 F
24 Operating Pressure 14.50 14.50 psia
25 Fouling Factor 0.000000 0.000000 hr-ft2-F/Btu
26 Velocity 2.85 6.25 ft/sec
27 Press Drop Allow/Calc 5.000/1.950 5.000/1.279 psi
28 Heat Exchanged 8.187e-001 MMBtu; MTD(Corrected): 100.26 F
29 Transfer Rate, Service: 63.4 Calc: 79.6 Clean: 79.6 Btu/hr-ft2-F
30 CONSTRUCTION DATA/SHELL Sketch
31 Shell Side Tube Side
32 Design/Test Press psia 0.000000/Code 0.000000/Code
33 Design Temperature F 0.000 0.000
34 No. Passes per Shell 1 1
35 Corrosion Allowance in 0.000 0.000
36 Connections IN ID in 2.469 3.068
37 Size & OUT ID in 3.068 3.068
38 Rating
39 Tube No. 1 OD 1.900 in;Thk. 0.1450 in;Length. 40.00 ft;Pit. 0.000 in; Ptn.
45
40 Tube Type L_Finned Material 1 Carbon Steel Shape U_tube
41 Shell A-285-C 6.00 ID 6.43 OD in Shell Cover
42 Fin A-203-E No. 32 Nom Length 20.00 ft
43 Rho-V2-Inlet Nozzle 1653.00
44 Weight/Shell
45 Designation: Brown Fintube x51-1E001-720
46 Remarks:
47
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
202
HEATING CURVES
The Heating Curve is a printout of the vapor and liquid properties at the inlet and outlet of each of the
ten zones of the exchanger. These variables are defined as follows.
Zone - Point 1 is the inlet to the exchanger. Point 2 is the outlet from the first zone.
Point 3 is the outlet from the second zone, etc.
Press. - Zone pressure.
Temp. - Zone outlet temperature.
Heat Load - This is the incremented heat load of the zone.
Vapor Flow - Vapor flowrate
Liquid Flow - Liquid flowrate
Latent Heat - Latent heat
Surface
Tension
- Surface tension
Crit. Pres. - Critical pressure
Vapor Ht. Cap. - Vapor heat capacity
Vapor Visco. - Vapor viscosity
Vapor Cond. - Vapor thermal conductivity
Vapor Density - Vapor density
Liquid Ht. Cap. - Liquid heat capacity
Liquid Visco. - Liquid viscosity
Liquid Cond. - Liquid thermal conductivity
Liquid Density - Liquid density

SHELLSIDE DATA AND TUBESIDE DATA
1. Avg. SS Vel. is the flow velocity at shell side parallel to tube.
2. Film coef. is the shell side heat transfer coefficient based on tube outside surface area and
temperature difference between fouling surface and bulk fluid temperature.
3. Reynold’s No. is defined by equivalent diameter of shell side annulus.
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
203
4. Allowed Press. Drop is what specified by user in general information page as design constrain.
5. Calc. Press. Drop is the calculated pressure drop which include pressure drop due to frictional in
nozzles, sudden cross sectional area change from nozzle to shell, frictional in shell. It is the total
of all units if there are several in series and/or parallel.
6. Press. Drop/In Nozzle is the pressure drop through the inlet nozzle.
7. Press. Drop/Out Nozzle is the pressure drop through the outlet nozzle.
8. Nozzle diameter is inside diameter.
TABULATED DATA
In addition to the overall data, shellside data, and tubeside data, details of tube geometry and heat
transfer resistances are provided together in one page. Most information is self-explanatory, but one
should make note of the following points.
1. Number is the number of tubes in the tube bundle. DOUBLE PIPE allows multi-tube arrangement.
An typical value of this number will be 1 or 7. It should always be the same as the number of
holes in the tube-sheet.
2. Length is the tube length.
3. Tube O.D. is the outer diameter of the tube.
4. Tube I.D. is the inner diameter of the tube.
5. Tube wall Thk. is the wall thickness of the tube wall.
6. Tube Type could be Bare or L_Finned indicating bare tube or longitudinally finned tube
respectively.
7. Free Int. Fl Area is the free internal flowing area of one single tube. For bare and longitudinally
finned tube, it is simple the area calculated from tube inner diameter.
8. Fin Efficiency is used to simplify the calculation of the heat transfer from an extended surface. It is
defined as the ratio of the actual rate of heat transfer from the extended surface to the rate of heat
transfer if the completed surface of the fin was at the temperature of the root of the fin. For details
about its definition, see section 3.2 of reference 10.
9. Tube pattern in the tubesheet may be:
TRI30 - Triangular (30)
SQUA - Square (90)
DIAM - Diamond (45)
TRI60 - Rotated triangular (60)
10. Tube pitch is the distance between the centers of the tubes.
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
204
11. Heat transfer resistances of Shellside Film, Shellside Fouling, Tube wall, Tubeside Fouling, and
Tubeside Film are listed here.
12. Reference Factor is the ratio of total outside to inside area. The total outside area is the surface
area of fins plus surface area of bare portion between fins. The inside area is based on tube inner
diameter.
13. Effective fin efficiency is the ratio of shell-side effective area (fin efficiency x fin area + bare area)
to actual area (fin area + bare area). Since bare area is relatively a small term, effective fin
efficiency usually has a value close to fin efficiency.
ZONE-BY-ZONE ANALYSIS
As the name implies, more detail is given about the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient and the
pressure drop.
























CHEMCAD 5.6.0 Page 1
=========================
ZONE-BY-ZONE ANALYSIS
=========================
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
ZONE 1 2 3 4 5
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

---- Overall ----
Inc. Heat Load 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04
MMBtu/h
LMTD F 120.57 116.19 111.88 107.63 103.46
Overall Coef. 61.14 69.92 77.14 78.92 80.67
Btu/hr-ft2-F
AINC ft2 5.55 5.04 4.74 4.82 4.90

---- Tube Side ----
Process Type LIQCOOL LIQCOOL LIQCOOL LIQCOOL LIQCOOL
Temp. F 182.84 184.96 187.09 189.21 191.33
T wall F 176.99 178.46 180.13 182.38 184.65
Vap. Rate lb/h 0 0 0 0 0
Liq. Rate lb/h 19167 19167 19167 19167 19167
Gas Prandtl No.
Liq. Prandtl No. 2.1474 2.1134 2.0804 2.0483 2.0171
Film Coeff. 1650.18 1659.73 1669.20 1678.60 1687.92
Btu/hr-ft2-F
Vap. Den. lb/ft3
Liq. Den. lb/ft3 60.5143 60.4664 60.4180 60.3693 60.3201
Fric. dP psi 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.11
Vel. ft/sec 6.23 6.23 6.24 6.24 6.25
Re Number 220867 224212 227569 230940 234324


CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
205



















Pressure Drops – Double pipe heat exchangers are oriented horizontally and without phase change,
thus, momentum and gravity portions are usually negligible and only frictional portion of pressure drop
is calculated in DOUBLE PIPE for each zone.
1. AINC is the incremental outer surface area of tubes of the zone. If longitudinally fined tube is used,
the outer surface area is the sum of fin area and area not covered by fin roots. AINC is calculated
like so:
i i
i
i
LMTD U
Q
AINC

=

where, Q
i
= the heat duty of the zone, Inc. Heat Load
U
i
= the overall heat transfer coefficient (final) of the zone based on outer
surface area, Overall Coef.
LMTD
i
= the log mean temperature difference across the zone, LMTD.
The total required area for the heat exchanger is the sum of all the AINC
i
’s.
2. The zone-by-zone analysis prints out the arithmetic average of the zone inlets and outlets
variables.

Temp. is fluid bulk temperature

T wall is tube wall temperature at the interface between fluid and fouling layer

Vap. Rate is vapor flow rate

Liq. Rate is liquid flow rate
CHEMCAD 5.6.0 Page 2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
ZONE 1 2 3 4 5
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

---- Shell Side ----
Process Type LIQHEAT LIQHEAT LIQHEAT LIQHEAT LIQHEAT
Temp. F 62.27 68.78 75.21 81.58 87.88
T wall F 160.20 159.70 159.99 162.52 165.10
Vap. Rate lb/h 0 0 0 0 0
Liq. Rate lb/h 19842 19842 19842 19842 19842
Gas Prandtl No.
Liq. Prandtl No. 36.3638 34.0008 31.8827 29.9767 28.2580
Film Coeff. 83.50 100.62 116.05 119.95 123.81
Btu/hr-ft2-F
Vap. Den. lb/ft3
Liq. Den. lb/ft3 66.4961 66.3190 66.1434 65.9691 65.7963
Fric. dP psi 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.17
Vel. ft/sec 2.82 2.82 2.83 2.84 2.85
Re Number 23368 25389 27495 29684 31956

User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
206

Vap. Den. is vapor phase density

Liq. Den. is liquid phase density.
3. The following numbers are calculated from the average properties of the zone:

Gas Prandtl No. is vapor phase Prandtl ‘s number

Liq. Prandtl No. is liquid phase Prandtl’s number

Film Coeff. is heat transfer coefficient of fluid film next to fouling layer

Fric. dP is pressure drop due to friactional pressure loss.

Vel. is fluid velocity

Re Number is Reynolds’s number of fluid. If the fluid is in the shell annulus, equivalent
diameter is used in calculating this number.
OVERALL DATA
1. Area Total is the total installed area of the heat exchangers. It is the total outer surface area of a
single tube times the total number of tubes. For longitudinally finned tubes, the area is the total
area of the fins plus area not covered by fin roots. For multi-units combination, the area is the total
of all units.
2. Area Required is the area total needed to transfer the specified heat duty of the exchanger. This
value is determined by summing the incremental areas, AINC
i
’s of all the zones.
3. Area Effective of the exchanger excludes that portion of the tube length, which is covered by the
tubesheet.
4. Area Per Shell is the Area Total of one shell.
5. The % excess is the excess area for the present calculation. Excess area is obtained by
comparing relatively Area Total with Area Required. This value is always expressed as a
percent. A negative value indicates that the exchanger is undersized.
6. U Calc is the calculated overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger based on outer
surface area of tube. Since an overall heat transfer coefficient, U
i
, is calculated for each zone, the
definition of U Calc is somewhat a matter of convention. CC-THERM defines U Calc as:
) WLMTD ( ) Area (
Q
U
req.
Total
Calc
=

CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
207

where, Q
Total
= the heat duty of the exchanger
Area
req
= the required area which is the sum of the incremental areas for all
zones; this is outer surface area of tube; for longitudinally finned
tubes, this area is the total area of the fins plus area not covered
by fin roots .
WLMTD = the log mean temperature difference which is calculated like so:

=
i
i
Total
LMTD
Q
Q
WLMTD

where, Q
Total
= the heat duty of the exchanger
Q
i
= the incremental heat duty of zone i.
LMTD
i
= the log mean temperature difference for zone i.
7. U Service is the exchanger service heat transfer coefficient. This quantity is not a function of the
calculated heat transfer coefficients. It depends on the heat load, the temperature difference, and
the effective surface area:
WLMTD Area
Q
U
Total
Service

=
where, Q
Total
= the heat duty of the exchanger
Area = the total effective area of the exchanger.
WLMTD = the weighted log mean temperature difference.
8. Heat Duty is the heat load for given inlet and outlet streams.
9. Weight LMTD is the WLMTD – weighted logarithmic mean temperature difference.
STREAM OUTPUT
The stream output section allows you to include stream composition data in your printed output. It is
analogous to CHEMCAD, except only those streams that are included in the exchanger will appear in
the report.




User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
208
APPENDIX I: MATERIAL CODE NUMBERS FOR TUBE MATERIALS
ASME CODE
1. A-179
2. A-214
3. A-106-B
4. C.S.
5. A-334-1 (Seamless)
6. A-334-6 (Seamless)
7. A-210-A
8. A-210-C
9. A-178-A
10. A-178-C
11. A-199-T11
12. A-199-T3B
13. A-199-T22
14. A-199-T21
15. A-199-T5 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
16. A-199-T7 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
17. A-199-T9 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
18. A-209-T1B
19. A-209-T1
20. A-209-T1A
21. A-213-T2 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
22. A-213-T17
23. A-213-T12
24. A-213-T11
25. A-213-T22
26. A-213-T21
27. A-213-T5 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
28. A-213-T5B (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
29. A-213-T5C (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
30. A-213-T7 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
31. A-213-T9 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)
32. A-334-9 (Seamless – Allow. AVAIL @ 650 F. and above)
33. A-334-7 (Seamless)
34. A-334-3 (Seamless)
35. COPPER -SB-111-122 (HARD DRAWN)
36. ADMIRALTY -SB-111-443 (Annealed)
37. ALUMINUM BRASS -SB-111-687 (Annealed)
38. RED BRASS -SB-111-230 (Annealed)
39. Cu-Ni 70/30 -SB-111-715 (Annealed)
40. Cu-Ni 90/10 -SB-111-706 (Annealed)
41. ALUMINUM BRONZE -SB-111-608 (Annealed)
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
209
42. MONEL -SB-163-400 (Annealed)
43. ALUMINUM-6061 -SB-234-6061-T6
44. TITANIUM-2 -SB-338-Gr 2 (Welded-Annealed)
45. TITANIUM-12 -SB-338-GR 12 (Welded-Annealed)
46. NICKEL -SB-163-200 (Annealed)
47. LC-NICKEL -SB-163-201 (Annealed)
48. ZIRCONIUM -SB-523-R60702
49. INCOLOY-800 -SB-163-800 (Annealed)
50. INCOLOY-825 -SB-163-825 (Annealed)
51. INCONEL-600 -SB-163-600 (Annealed)
52. HASTELLOY-B -SB-619-B (Soln Annealed)
53. HASTELLOY-C -SB-619-C-276 (Soln Annealed)
54. HASTELLOY-G -SB-619-G (Soln Annealed)
55. A-213-304
56. A-213-304L
57. A-213-304H
58. A-213-304N
59. A-213-316
60. A-213-316L
61. A-213-316H
62. A-213-316N
63. A-213-317
64. A-213-317L
65. A-213-321
66. A-213-321H
67. A-213-347
68. A-213-347H
69. A-213-348
70. A-213-348H
71. A-213-309
72. A-213-309S
73. A-213-310
74. A-213-310S
75. A-213-405
76. A-213-410
77. A-213-430
78. A-249-304
79. A-249-304L
80. A-249-304H
81. A-249-304N
82. A-249-316
83. A-249-316L
84. A-249-316H
85. A-249-316N
86. A-249-317
87. A-249-317L
88. A-249-321
89. A-249-321H
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
210
90. A-249-347
91. A-249-347H
92. A-249-348
93. A-249-348H
94. A-249-309
95. A-249-309S
96. A-249-310
97. A-249-310S
98. A-249-405
99. A-249-410
100. A-249-430
DIN AD Merkblatter Code
St 37.0
St 35.8
TTSt 35 N
15 Mo 3
13 CrMo 4 4
x 5 CrNi 18 10
x 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2
x 6 CrNiTi 18 10
x 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2
1.0254
1.0305
1.0356
1.5415
1.7335
1.4301
1.4401
1.4541
1.4571
A37
ST37.2
STAHL
TTST41
TTST45
ST45.8
ST37.2
ST37.2
CRMO
Brit Std 5500
15123A
15123B
15126A
15126B
CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide
211
22128A
22128B
261
271
304S15
316S16
User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6
212

APPENDIX II: DOUBLE PIPE REFERENCES
Here is a list of references that have been used in the program for the heat transfer calculations.
SENSIBLE FLOW
1. Eubank, D. C. and Proctor W. S. - MS Thesis, Chemical Engineering Department, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, 1951.
2. VDI Heat Atlas; 1992; Pgs. Ga1-Ga8.
3. Sieder and Tate - Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Liquids in Tubes, Industrial Engineering
Chemistry, Vol. 28, p. 1429, 1936.
4. Colburn, A. P. - Trans. AIChE, 29, p. 174, 1993.
5. Dittus, F. W. and Boelter, L. M. K. – Publications on Engineering, University of California, Berkley,
Vol. 2, p. 443, 1930.
6. Engineering Sciences Data Unit international plc - Forced convection heat transfer in circular
tubes. Part 1: correlation for fully developed turbulent flow, ESDU Item 67016.
7. VDI Heat Atlas; 1992; Pgs. Ga1-Gb8
8. Hewitt, G. F., G. L. Shires, and T.R. Bott - Process Heat Transfer, P. 97, CRC Press, Inc, 1994.
9. Chen, N. H. - An explicit equation for friction factor in pipes, Ind. Eng. Chem Fundam., 18(3), p.
296, 1979.
10. Schlunder, E. U., et al. – Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, Part 3, HEMISPHERE PUBLISHING
CORPORATION, New York, 1989.

CC-THERM FOR WINDOWS 5.6
TABLE OF CONTENTS CC-THERM SHELL AND TUBE Product Overview .........................................................................................................................1 Introduction to CC-THERM .........................................................................................................................1 Easy to Learn .........................................................................................................................1 Overview .........................................................................................................................1 Installation .........................................................................................................................3 Technical Features for Shell and Tube .......................................................................................................3 Heat Transfer Methods .........................................................................................................................4 Evaporation .........................................................................................................................4 Condensation .........................................................................................................................7 Shellside Condensation .................................................................................................8 Tubeside Condensation .................................................................................................8 Multi-Component Condensation and the Effect of Non-Condensibles ...........................8 Condensate Retention on Low Fin Tubes ......................................................................8 Sensible Heat Transfer.................................................................................................................9 The Zone Analysis......................................................................................................................10 Output Features .......................................................................................................................10 CC-THERM Commands .......................................................................................................................10 Running CC-THERM From the Sizing Menu ............................................................................................11 Running CC-THERM From a Flowsheet Heat Exchanger ........................................................................12 Data Entry in CC-THERM .......................................................................................................................13 Utility Streams .......................................................................................................................14 Heat Curve Generation .......................................................................................................................15 Heat Curve Input .......................................................................................................................16 Edit Heat Curves .......................................................................................................................17 General Specifications .......................................................................................................................18 The General Information Tab .....................................................................................................19 The Modeling Methods Tab........................................................................................................21 The Design Options Dialog Box................................................................................................................23 Design Criteria .......................................................................................................................24 Sizing Nozzles .......................................................................................................................24 Limits of Design Variables ..........................................................................................................24 The Thermosyphon Reboiler Dialog Box ..................................................................................................25 Inlet Pipe .......................................................................................................................28 Outlet Pipe .......................................................................................................................28 Exchanger Geometry .......................................................................................................................28 Tubes .......................................................................................................................29 Shell .......................................................................................................................30 Baffles .......................................................................................................................31 Nozzles .......................................................................................................................33 Clearances .......................................................................................................................34
Revised 7/10/06 i

Materials ...................................................................................................................... 36 Miscellaneous ...................................................................................................................... 37 Calculate ...................................................................................................................... 38 View Results ...................................................................................................................... 38 Summary Results ...................................................................................................................... 39 Shellside Data ...................................................................................................................... 39 Tubeside Data ...................................................................................................................... 39 Baffle Data ...................................................................................................................... 39 Clearance Data ...................................................................................................................... 39 Overall Data ...................................................................................................................... 39 Tabulated Data ...................................................................................................................... 39 Heat Curves ...................................................................................................................... 39 Zone-by-Zone Data .................................................................................................................... 39 Vibration ...................................................................................................................... 40 Optimization ...................................................................................................................... 40 Stream Data ...................................................................................................................... 40 Reboiler Data ...................................................................................................................... 40 TEMA Sheet ...................................................................................................................... 40 Input Data Report ...................................................................................................................... 40 Select Reports ...................................................................................................................... 40 Label ...................................................................................................................... 41 Generate Reports ...................................................................................................................... 42 Plot ...................................................................................................................... 42 Heat Curve ...................................................................................................................... 42 Heat Flux ...................................................................................................................... 42 LMTD ...................................................................................................................... 42 Temperature ...................................................................................................................... 42 Heat XFER Coefficient ............................................................................................................... 42 Heat XFER Area ...................................................................................................................... 42 Save Configuration ...................................................................................................................... 42 Re-Enter Stream Information.................................................................................................................... 43 Re-Initialize Exchanger ...................................................................................................................... 43 CC-THERM Output ...................................................................................................................... 43 Summary Report ...................................................................................................................... 43 TEMA Sheet ...................................................................................................................... 45 Heating Curves ...................................................................................................................... 46 Shellside Data ...................................................................................................................... 47 Tubeside Data ...................................................................................................................... 50 Tabulated Data ...................................................................................................................... 51 Zone-By-Zone Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 53 Clearance ...................................................................................................................... 59 Overall Data ...................................................................................................................... 60 Vibration Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 61 Optimization ...................................................................................................................... 64 Stream Data ...................................................................................................................... 65 Reboiler Data ...................................................................................................................... 66
Revised 7/10/06 ii

...........................................................................................................................................................................67 Entering CC-THERM .......................................................................................................115 Introduction to CC-THERM Air Cooler ............................................................................................................................................120 Using Air Cooler Menus ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................107 The Fintube Specifications Dialog Box ........................................92 Appendix III: TEMA Designations ........................................................................................................................................................................................................115 Summary ..................................................................................................................................................................................118 Airside Heat Transfer ................120 Output Features ...........................................114 CC-THERM AIR COOLER Product Overview ..129 Nozzles ................................................................................................124 General Specification ...............................117 Technical Features ................................................................................................115 Easy to Learn .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................130 Miscellaneous .............................................................................................128 Bundle ...................................................................................115 Overview ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................66 CC-THERM TUTORIAL The Condensate Stabilizer Problem ........133 Revised 7/10/06 iii .............................................................................................................................................................................. Merkblatter Code .........................................................90 British Standard 5500................................................88 DIN-A....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................D......................................................................................................................................................125 Exchanger Geometry ...............118 Methods .................120 Zone Analysis .......................................................................108 Appendix VI: CHEMCAD THERM References .............................................................................................................................................................................................................92 ASME Code ..................................112 Condensation ............................................106 The Fintube Methods Dialog Box.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................127 Tube ..................................................................................133 Fan Parameters ......................................................................................................121 Air Side Data ...................................96 Appendix V: User Fintubes ............................................................................112 Evaporation ...............................................131 Materials ..............................................................................................................................................68 Appendix I: Material Code Numbers for Shell and Channel Materials ......................................................................................121 Data Entry in Air Cooler ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................91 Appendix II: Material Code Numbers for Tubesheet Materials ..................................86 Channel Materials .....................................Input Data Report ..........................................................................................116 Air Cooler Commands ......................122 Heat Curve Generation .............................................................................................118 Tubeside Heat Transfer...............................................................................................................................123 Edit Heat Curve ................................................................................113 Sensible Flow ...............86 Shell Materials .........................................................................95 Appendix IV: Fin Tubes ...............................

.................................................................. 157 Output Features ............................ 140 Heat XFER Area .............................................................................................................................................................. 157 Introduction to CC-THERM Plate Heat Exchanger...................................... 138 API Data ............................................................................................................................................................... 139 Heat Curve ...................................... 169 Revised 7/10/06 iv ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 140 Re-Enter Stream Information....................137 View Results ...........................................................169 View Results .................................................... 157 Technical Features ................................................................................................................ 140 Heat XFER Coefficient ................ 160 Using Plate Heat Exchanger Menus.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 139 Temperature ............................................................................ 138 Tabulated Data .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 167 Materials .................... 143 API Data ....................................... 147 Zone-By-Zone Data........................... 137 Streams ............................................................................................................................... 159 Plate Heat Exchanger Commands ........................................................................................................ 150 Optimization ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 157 Easy to Learn ............................................................................................................ 139 Heat Flux ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 141 Heat Curves .................................................................................... 138 Plot ................................................................... 161 Heat Curve Generation .............................................................................................................. 138 Optimization ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 161 Data Entry in Plate Heat Exchanger.......................... 140 Air Cooler Output ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 163 Exchanger Geometry .................................................................................................................................................. 141 Stream Data ........................................................................................................................168 Calculate ........................................................... 163 General Specification ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 155 CC-THERM PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER Product Overview ................................................... 138 Zone-By-Zone Data.......................................................................... 166 Nozzles ......................... 169 Stream .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 158 Overview ...........................139 LMTD ....................... 162 Edit Heat Curve ........................................................................................................................... 142 Tabulated Data ................................. 138 Heat Curves .... 158 Summary ....................................Calculate ....................... 165 Plate .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 165 Unit ..... 157 Methods ......................

.........................................................170 Get Streams From Flowsheet.................................................................194 Zone By Zone Data ............................................................................................................................................................195 Plot ..............................................................................................................................170 Plate Heat Exchanger Output ............................................................................................................................................................................................................187 The Methods Page ............192 Calculate .............................177 Easy to Learn ..........195 Heat Curve .......................................................................................................................177 Heat Transfer Methods ..................................................................177 The Zone Analysis.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................180 Data Entry in Double Pipe ..................................................................................................................................................................................................193 View Results ........................................195 Stream Data ..............................................................................................................189 Tubes .......176 CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE Product Overview ................................................................................178 Summary ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................177 Introduction to CC-THERM Double Pipe .........................................................................Heat Curves .............171 Stream Data ................................................183 Utility Streams ..............................................................................................194 Tubeside Data ................................................................................180 Double Pipe Commands .................................................................................................................................191 Nozzles .........................................................................................................................177 Sensible Heat Transfer........................194 Heat Curves ................................................................................184 Edit Heat Curve ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................182 Heat Curve Generation ................................................................................................................................................178 Output Features ..................................................................................169 Tabulated Data .................................................................................................................................................................................................................185 General Specifications ....................186 The General Page ...................................................................................................................................................178 Overview ....................................................................................................................................................................................................194 Overall Data ...............195 Tema Sheet ...........................................................................171 Heat Curves .............................................................................................................195 Revised 7/10/06 v ...........................................................................................................................................................................189 Shell ......................................................................................................................................................................193 Summary Results ...........................................................................................192 Materials ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................183 Heat Curve Input .....................................194 Shellside Data ....................................................188 Exchanger Geometry ....................................................................................................177 Technical Features ......................................................173 Appendix I Plate Heat Exchanger References....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................171 Tabulated Data .......................................................................................194 Tabulated Data ....................................................

........................................................................................................... 198 Re-Initialize Exchanger ........................................ 199 Tema Sheet ........................................ 196 Heat XFER Coefficient ............................................................................................................................................................................. 202 Shellside Data and Tubeside Data .. 199 Summary Report ................................................................................................................................................................................. 208 Appendix II: Double Pipe References...................................................................................................................................................... 197 Generate Reports ...................................................................................... 207 Appendix I: Material Code Numbers For Tube Materials...................................................................................................................... 202 Tabulated Data .............................................................................................. 195 Temperature .............................................................................. 196 Heat XFER Area ................... 206 Stream Output ................................ 198 CC-THERM Double Pipe Output ..........Heat Flux .......................................................................................... 198 Re-enter Stream Information .................................................................................................................. 196 Report Generation ......................................................................................195 LMTD ................................................................................................ 196 Select Reports ............ 212 Revised 7/10/06 vi ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 196 Prepare Labels ........................................ 200 Heating Curves ...... 203 Zone-By-Zone Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 204 Overall Data ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 198 Save Configuration .............................................................................................................................................................................

More information on each option is provided in later sections. At the end of the setup process. review the results of problems already designed. sensible/sensible service plate and frame heat exchangers and air coolers. This generates the overall heat and material balance for the exchanger. The Sizing Menu will open. please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for these types of “How to” instructions. OVERVIEW CC-THERM is an interactive simulation tool for the design or rating of shell and tube. 1 . and make modifications to previously saved problems. shell and tube. etc). With this input facility. This section gives an overall view of the program usage and the options available on the CC-THERM menu for shell and tube heat exchangers. 3. aircooler. The program will prompt you through the initial setup of the exchanger analysis. CC-THERM is fully integrated with the CHEMCAD Suite so process data is automatically transferred from the process flowsheets to the heat exchanger analysis. Since the input/output systems and conventions are the same in CC-THERM as those used in CHEMCAD. The following list illustrates the general steps. and heating curves and physical properties data are automatically generated using the same properties and methods. EASY TO LEARN The input for CC-THERM is simple and concise. The input functions allow you to enter process data by using dialog boxes with context specific help. 1. which is used as the foundation for the CC-THERM calculations Select the Sizing command on the menu bar. plate. Define the problem and run the flowsheet. so anyone familiar with the CHEMCAD Suite will be able to operate CC-THERM with ease.CC-THERM Version 5. The program will design and rate any type of shell and tube heat exchanger.6 User’s Guide PRODUCT OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION TO CC-THERM CC-THERM is an integrated module for the design and rating of double pipe. There are six general steps involved in running a heat exchanger analysis with CC-THERM. plate and frame and air cooled heat exchangers in the CHEMCAD Suite. plateand-frame. The first part of this user guide covers tube and shell heat exchanger calculations. doublepipe. you can create new problem files. From this menu select the appropriate geometry option (Shell and tube. It is based upon the CHEMCAD input system. the CC-THERM Menu is displayed. doublepipe. and air-cooled heat exchangers. 2.

3. Calculates in any of the following modes: Design . 5. 7. the actual geometry and fouling factors expected are input and CC-THERM determines outlet conditions based on the geometry. Review and printout the results. CC-THERM Version 5. Execute the program.6 OPTIONAL FEATURE: GEOMETRY SIMULATION ON THE FLOWSHEET It is sometimes desirable to predict the actual performance of a given exchanger in CHEMCAD. Generates the heat curve for the tube and shell sides. Also Fouling Factors may be predicted based on the known geometry. iii. reboiler. In this mode. The program calculates the fouling factors required to obtain the specified performance from the exchanger. 5. i. To use either fouling rating or simulation mode of CC-THERM. must be specified by the user).User’s Guide 4. 4. select Enter Geometry (CC-THERM simulation) or fouling factor simulation mode of a CHEMCAD two-sided heat exchanger. Inspect and edit the input as desired using the menu commands. 6. the CCTHERM menu will appear allowing you to enter the geometry. Rating – The inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flowsheet and the user supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions. The exchanger is then run as part of the flowsheet simulation. Creates the CC-THERM files to save all the input/output data for each exchanger. such as TEMA type. CC-THERM can do any of the following common tasks: 1. The program determines whether the exchanger is too large or too small for the given application. Performs extensive error checking. Creates the streams for the use of one-sided heat exchangers. 6. Generates the output for the design/analysis of the heat exchanger. 2 ii. which include the condenser. basic steady state specifications will be grayed out and after clicking OK. Fouling rating – The inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flowsheet and the user supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions. Thus. iv.The inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flowsheet and the program selects the geometry and size of the exchangers (certain basic geometry specifications. CC-THERM will calculate the outlet streams that the specified geometry would produce. . Provides an interactive user interface to allow the user to change the problem specifications to rerun the problem and review the results. If this mode is selected. inlet and outlet temperatures of the exchanger. thermosyphon reboiler and pumparound. Rating (Geometry Simulation) – In this mode the user supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions. The inside and outside fouling factors are assumed to be equal. for any inlet streams coming into the exchanger. 2.

tube lengths and baffle spacing will be carried out. Tube counts are calculated. Six types of baffles can be used: Single segmental. 4. disk and donut. • • • • • • • 2. Forced and thermosyphon reboilers Forced circulation evaporators Horizontal or vertical condensers Falling film evaporators and heaters Vertical thermosyphons Reflux condensers Sensible heat. Sealing strips are permitted. You may use TEMA clearances or input your own clearances. CC-THERM handles the following applications. select Heat Exchanger. All TEMA-type exchangers. 5. 6. It is fully supported by a staff of trained engineers. there is not any special procedure to install CC-THERM because it is completely integrated with the CHEMCAD Suite and does not run in a separate interface. no-tubesin-window. .CC-THERM Version 5. a full optimization of shell diameter. an optimization of tube passes can be carried out. Optionally. 8. double segmental. 7. To access CC-THERM. In the design mode.6 User’s Guide As an integrated module to CHEMCAD Suite. triple segmental. select an exchanger or distillation column UnitOp and go to the Sizing menu. The program has been thoroughly and rigorously tested over a period of years in real life situations and found to be an accurate and reliable tool. INSTALLATION By default CC-THERM is always installed with the CHEMCAD Suite. The use of CC-THERM only depends on the user’s license. A complete vibration analysis is performed for all types of exchangers. Please refer to the installation section of the CHEMCAD User’s Guide. Since it uses the same graphic interface as CHEMCAD. both liquid and vapor Three modes of calculation may be selected: Rating mode. fouling factor rating or design mode. and rod baffles. any CHEMCAD user can pick up the program in a matter of minutes. CC-THERM offers the process engineer an easy and comprehensive method of analyzing shell and tube heat exchangers. If any programs of the CHEMCAD Suite have been installed. 3 3. TECHNICAL FEATURES FOR SHELL AND TUBE 1.

2. Calculate pressure drop in the inlet piping and nozzle. In both cases. The program will complete the thermosyphon circulation rate (if so requested) by balancing the pressure drops to the available head. A variety of heat transfer and pressure drop methods are available. CC-THERM Version 5. and BS5500 can be handled. HPTI. but proportioned according to the amount of subcooling present (the more the subcooling. Users may enter custom fin geometry. and Wieland tubes is built into the program. 12. Shellside Thermosyphon Reboiler Pool-Type Evaporation (Kettle) Forced Evaporation Tubeside Thermosyphon Reboiler Falling-Film Evaporation Forced Evaporation Thermosyphons: The calculation of a thermosyphon reboiler is similar for both the shellside and the tubeside. A calculation for subcooled boiling when a substantial amount of subcooling is present is performed. a constant vapor generation rate is assumed on the thermosyphon side. The computation of the tube wall temperature is of importance in the calculation. A library of Wolverine. Heat exchangers sizes that are below those covered by TEMA. DIN. and the available head. The user can specify details of the inlet and outlet piping.User’s Guide 9. 13. Calculate the static head of the column liquid. If the tube wall temperature is sufficiently high. ASME. Dry wall and wet wall condensing can be accommodated. A tabulated pressure drop distribution report through shell and tube heat exchangers is provided. Impingement plates can be handled. elevations.6 10. 1. The following steps are used for thermosyphons. to keep the exchanger heat duty equal to its specified value). the lower the coefficient). In order to maintain a heat balance (that is. Tubes may be bare or fin. 15. 4 . The minimum amount of superheat necessary to initiate subcooled boiling is computed and compared to the tube wall temperature. a nucleate boiling coefficient is calculated. Turbulators may be used on the inside of the tube. 11. the program combines the nucleate boiling and the two-phase convective heat transfer. 14. HEAT TRANSFER METHODS EVAPORATION The program considers these various types of evaporation.

but because they are rare. 3. Assumes a certain pressure drop and loops through each zone several times until the assumed pressure drop converges on the actual pressure drop. The critical heat flux for the shellside is obtained by calculating the one-tube critical heat flux (as proposed by Kutaladze-Zuber) and multiplying this by the bundle correction factor (originally from Palen and later modified by Grant). 4. is used since it takes into account the mass flow effect on the two-phase density. 5. The program follows the procedures below. The basic Forster and Zuber equation calculates the nucleate boiling coefficient on the outside of tubes for shellside evaporation. For the twophase density calculation. the vapor shear at the wall is computed.CC-THERM Version 5. cooled. Calculates the hydrodynamics. The program will leave the amount vaporized and vary the vapor-liquid split until the loop is converged. 2. the Chen method is used for both twophase convection boiling and the nucleate boiling coefficients. 1. The nucleate boiling coefficient used by Chen is that of Forster and Zuber (developed for boiling on the outside of tubes) and modified to take into account the lower wall superheat inside the tubes. This parameter 5 . The calculation of the two-phase density and the two-phase pressure drop is critical to the success of this calculation.6 3. the Nelson modification of the Lockhart-Martinelli equation was used to calculate the two-phase density and pressure drop. User’s Guide Calculate the new saturation temperature based on the pressure at the inlet to the exchanger. 6. or evaporated. The critical heat flux for the tube side (proposed by Bowring) is that flux at which dryout begins to occur. Breaks the heat curve calculation into n (default=10) zones. the saturation temperature is also updated and the LMTD is recalculated. Previously. 4. Go through each zone of the exchanger and iterate on the pressure drop in each zone. the program does not handle them presently. the program uses both the Baroczy method and the Friedel correlation and basically uses an average of the two results. 5. more recently published correlations have proven to be far more accurate and now supplant the Lockhart-Martinelli method. Falling films on the outside of the tubes (the shellside) do exist. The calculation suggested by Dukler in the above-mentioned reference is used. For the two-phase pressure drop calculation. Determine a certain heat load increment and a defined vapor and liquid flow for each zone from the heat curve. However. Thus the program makes a rigorous calculation of the boiling point rise and always gives the correct LMTD. Falling Films: A falling-film exchanger is computed for a liquid being heated. the CISE method. Once the pressure drop is converged. Once the pressure drop is converged. A non-dimensional parameter named BETA (same name used in original Dukler paper) is printed. Only falling films inside the tubes are considered. The critical heat flux is determined for both the shellside and the tubeside. which is superior to Lockhart-Martinelli. Calculate the pressure drop in the outlet piping once the program goes through the last zone. For the heat transfer coefficients for tubeside thermosyphons.

The program prints the tube wall temperature and the temperature of the onset of the nucleate boiling at each zone of the calculation. and. but rather nucleate boiling at the tube wall. the user should analyze the program results carefully. originally from Palen and later modified by Grant. However. The thinner the film. the higher the heat transfer coefficient. The boiling mechanism is two-phase convective boiling with the boiling taking place at the liquid-vapor interface. Pool Evaporation: In the calculation of a pool-type evaporator. the program considers the coefficient to be mostly nucleate boiling although it does consider the effect of natural convection. The heat transfer phenomenon through the film is one of conduction. the phenomenon occurring is no longer convective boiling from a falling film. 7.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. the program goes as low as 800. therefore.6 indicates the magnitude of the effect of the vapor shear. the turbulence of the film increases. However. The program prints the minimum Reynold's number at which the circumference of the tube wall will remain wet. If the vapor shear is high. The boiling coefficient will almost always be as high or higher than the falling film coefficient being calculated. This term increases in proportion to the amount of liquid evaporated. 6. The Reynold's number of the calculation should be comfortably above this minimum in order to avoid streaking and patch formation. which varies between 800 and 3000. decreasing the shellside temperature may be necessary in order to bring the wall to a temperature below the superheat for the onset of nucleation. If vapor shear is very low. The calculation of the nucleate boiling coefficient is by Forster-Zuber. once nucleate boiling commences. the heat transfer coefficient is determined by the thickness of the film. Avoidance of dry patch formation is a problem in a falling film exchanger. Next the program decides whether the regime is laminar or turbulent once the BETA term is calculated. nucleate boiling may not be acceptable. The program does not make this temperature change automatically. In a well-designed unit. Nucleate boiling at the tube wall should usually be avoided. In order to avoid nucleate boiling at the wall. The superheat at the wall necessary for incipient nucleate boiling is determined. Once the flow regime is established. 6 . The cutoff points between turbulent and laminar flow will be different depending on whether the process type is a falling film being heated (or cooled) or a falling film being evaporated. If the product being evaporated is not temperature-sensitive. the tube wall temperature should be below the temperature at which nucleate boiling begins. When a temperature-sensitive product is present. the program uses a transition number of 3000. As this term increases. Chun and Seban claim that a weber number of the order unity is a better indicator of the transition between laminar and turbulent flow. the film thickness is calculated. The critical heat flux for the shellside is obtained by calculating the onetube critical heat flux (as proposed by Kutaladze-Zuber) and multiplying this by the bundle correction factor. The program arbitrarily uses a transition Reynold's number. the program still uses the Reynold's number to decide whether the regime is laminar or turbulent. There is also a correlation between a high BETA and the thinning-out of the film. The Reynold's number is determined in a similar fashion to Dukler and follows closely his recommendations for the definition of laminar and turbulent flow.

In between these two extreme zones. The program then multiplies this coefficient by a suitable two-phase correction factor. Both the Baroczy method and the Friedel correlation are utilized for vapor evaporation. and a reflux (or knock-back) condenser for vertical in-tube condensation. When a large amount of vapor is present and vapor velocity is very high. In cases where the amount evaporated is relatively small. is gravity controlled at the outlet. empirical in nature and based on experience. Chen's two-phase forced convection coefficient is used for tubeside evaporation. As with a thermosyphon reboiler. If any superheat is present. When the fluid is almost entirely evaporated. Such twisted-tape inserts are available in the fin tube databank. CONDENSATION The program considers the following types of condensation. For a condenser where the inlet quality is 100% and the outlet 0%. essentially. Shellside Horizontal Condensation Vertical Condensation Tubeside Horizontal Condensation Vertical Condenser Knock-back Condenser (Reflux condenser) The program calculates tubeside condensation for both vertical and horizontal condensers.CC-THERM Version 5. The CISE method for the two-phase density calculation is employed.6 User’s Guide Forced Evaporation: For all types of evaporators. the flow regime usually is shear-controlled at the inlet. the program considers the simultaneous occurrence of nucleate boiling and two-phase convective boiling. the forces on the condensing film are mostly from the interfacial shear of the vapor and the gravity forces on the film are negligible by comparison. the tube wall temperature is elaborately calculated since this has a profound effect on the nucleate boiling coefficient. 7 . when a substantial amount is evaporated. finally. The two-phase forced convection coefficient for shellside evaporation is. When forced evaporation inside the tubes exists and the entering liquid has a lot of subcooling. the calculation is considered to be in the transition region between shear-controlled and gravity controlled. the coefficient in this region is essentially a gas coefficient. the program essentially calculates a gas coefficient. and. shellside condensation for both horizontal and vertical condensers. The nucleate boiling coefficient is the method of Forster-Zuber. The two principal heat transfer mechanisms occurring (shear-controlled condensation and gravity-controlled condensation) are always computed for all types of condensers. goes through the transition region. Conversely. The algorithm for both shellside and tubeside condensation is similar because the exchanger is always broken into n (default=10) different zones. the shellside coefficient calculated as though the flow were all liquid. The pressure drop computations for condensation are similar to the evaporation methods described above. more weight is given to the two-phase convective boiling coefficients. a twisted-tape insert to promote turbulence (and the heat transfer coefficient) for the subcooled liquid is commonly employed. the program gives more weight to the nucleate boiling mechanism. and basically an average of the two results is used in the calculation of the two-phase pressure drop.

the semi-empirical equation of Labuntso is employed to predict the gravity coefficient in the turbulent region.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. empirical in nature and based on experience. momentum. For the first several zones of such an exchanger. a sizable temperature difference may exist and the amount of noncondensibles may become more significant since almost the entire vapor has condensed. the sum of the losses can be a negative number (this may appear unusual but. The program also calculates a reflux or knock-back condenser often used on the top of a column. The shellside coefficient is computed as if the flow were all liquid. Thereafter. not annular flow. A very common occurrence is a steam condenser in the presence of a small quantity of air. we have a gain or a negative loss. The cutoff Reynold's number of 1000 is an arbitrary choice. Three separate effects for the overall pressure drop are considered: frictional. The Boyko-Kruzhilin method is employed to calculate the shear-controlled coefficient for condensation in horizontal tubes. In this type of exchanger. the static head of the vapor-liquid mixture in the tubes always result in a pressure drop because we are proceeding opposite to the direction for the gravity as we go up the tubes. The situation in a vertical condenser is the opposite. thus. Cutoff values in the literature usually vary between 800 and 1600. The Nusselt equation is used for gravity condensation inside horizontal tubes. In the last zone.6 For a tubeside thermosyphon. Shellside Condensation: The program uses the Nusselt equation for gravity condensation on the outside of the tube banks up to a Reynold's number of 1000. and the condensate flows counter-current down the tubes. This type gives a graphic illustration of how these resistance factors come into play. This coefficient is then multiplied by a suitable two-phase correction factor. This method is described under Falling Film Evaporators. This exchanger is similar to a vertical tubeside condenser except that a vertical has co-current vapor and liquid flow while the reflux has counter-current flow. To account for the presence of non-condensibles or large temperature differences between inlet and outlet. Tubeside Condensation: The program uses the Dukler method for gravity condensation for vertical tubes. the vapor flows up the tubes. The flow in the horizontal tube is assumed to be stratified flow. as such. For each step along the condensation curve. in fact. Above a Reynold's number of 1000. the equation is too conservative. it is a real possibility). this pressure gain is larger than the pressure loss due to the combined effects of momentum and friction and. a method similar to that suggested by Silver and Bell & Khaly in the above-cited references is utilized. The flooding velocity at the bottom of the tubes must be checked for the reflux condenser. the program calculates a resistance factor to include the combined effects of a large temperature difference and the presence of non-condensibles. The shellside shear-controlled coefficient is determined in a method similar to that used for forced evaporation on the shellside. the condensing temperature is practically isothermal because only a small amount of air is present. back into the column. Thus. We are proceeding in the same direction as gravity and instead of a pressure loss. and gravity effects. do not take into account the presence of non-condensibles or the effect of large temperature differences between the vapor dew point and bubble point. For some runs. Multi-Component Condensation and the Effect of Non-Condensibles: All above-mentioned methods are for condensation of a pure vapor and. the 8 .

HPTI. The following flow paths are considered. Typically in a refrigeration circuit. On the other hand. Stream E flows between the shell internal diameter and the baffle outer diameter. Sensible Flow – Shellside: For the coefficient of shellside crossing flow. a fluted tube is often used. Stream C flows between the shell internal diameter and the outer tube limit. and. in such a case. Condensate Retention on Low Fin Tubes: A horizontal shellside condenser with low radial fin tubes is a very common type of exchanger. the recommendations made in Section 5 of Perry are followed. The flow is assumed to be laminar below a Reynold's number of 2000 and is turbulent above a Reynold's number of 10000. the condensing coefficient is reduced so drastically (because of the condensate retention effects of the fins) that it is almost never viable to use low fin radial tubes for steam condensing on their outside. This presents an excellent opportunity for using low radial fin tubes since the in-tube coefficient is high (even after relating to tube outer surface). thus.6 User’s Guide resistance factor in this last zone could be substantial. if steam is being condensed on the outside of a low radial fin tube. Stream B is the flow across the tube bundle. SENSIBLE HEAT TRANSFER Sensible flow – Tubeside: The Sieder-Tate equation is employed for the calculation of the tubeside heat transfer coefficient in the turbulent region. A fluted tube has the additional advantage of being less rigid than a smooth tube and. The program has a very extensive databank with low radial fin tubes from such manufacturers as Wolverine. Stream A is that flowing through the space between the tube outer diameter and the baffle hole. for similar operating conditions. For turbulent flow (Reynold's number above 3000) and for the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow. 9 . Both of these correlations combine the effects of natural convection and forced convection. If it is necessary to use some sort of undulation on the tube with steam condensing. the stream analysis method is the default. especially in the refrigeration industry. Wieland. The method of Eubank and Proctor is used for laminar flow in horizontal tubes. A typical example of such a fluted tube is the Wolverine Korodense tube. The coefficients for Freon condensing on bare tubes are not particularly high. In the transition region. Also the shellside condensing coefficient is not affected adversely by condensate retention effects of the fins since the surface tension of the freon is quite low. Freon 12 or Freon 22 will evaporate in the tubes of the chiller and condense on the shellside of a condenser.CC-THERM Version 5. The program has the heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for a twisted-tape turbulence promoter. etc. may be less likely to overstress the tubes in a fixed tubesheet exchanger than a smooth tube. It makes one complete revolution over a length equal to four internal diameters. The program uses the Blasius method for the friction factor in the pressure drop calculation for laminar flow (Reynold's number below 2000). Coefficients for water flowing inside a tube are usually high. the program prorates the laminar and turbulent coefficient according to the Reynold's number to arrive at the final coefficient. half of the required area is often necessary for the last zone alone. The method of Martinelli and Boelter is utilized for laminar flow in a vertical tube. This method balances the pressure drop across the baffles for each of the possible flow paths.

and print out the analysis. by setting baffle spacing greater than tube length. OUTPUT FEATURES By default. 10 .6 Stream F flows leaking through the empty spaces left by the tube pass partition.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. This menu provides a set of commands. CC-THERM COMMANDS To run a tube and shell heat exchanger calculation in the CHEMCAD Suite. CC-THERM automatically sets up the zones and properties of each zone. Parallel flow model is used for calculating the coefficient when shell has no baffle. but the user may select Microsoft Excel instead. review. but permits the user to edit or override. new CC-THERM simulations generate reports in Wordpad. The program can also perform the calculation for rod baffles. This section describes the use of those commands in detail. THE ZONE ANALYSIS For a change-of-phase exchanger. the unit is analyzed using n (default =10) zones. you can review the results interactively on the screen and graphically using the plot features of the program. run. you must access the CCTHERM menu. CC-THERM creates the following output reports: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Summary Report TEMA Sheet Heating Curves Shell Side Data Tube Side Data Tabulated Data Zone-by-Zone Analysis Baffle Data Clearances Report Overall Data Vibration Analysis Optimization Stream Data Reboiler Data • In addition to obtaining a hardcopy output report. which are used to setup.

This will involve identifying the tubeside stream (the shellside stream is then inferred).6 User’s Guide There are two procedures used to call the CC-THERM menu. the program will assume this is the unit you want to design or rate. specifying utility streams (if necessary). If a heat exchanger is currently selected on the flowsheet.CC-THERM Version 5. rating and fouling rating calculations). The CC-THERM menu is shown below: 2. If the selected heat exchanger has never been analyzed before. this walk through procedure will be skipped and the CC-THERM menu will appear immediately. A “heat exchanger” may be a column condenser. the program will ask you to select one. 6. 3. the CC-THERM menu will appear. 4. CCTHERM must have a heat and material balance around the unit before it can rate or design it. 11 . Run a simulation of a flowsheet containing a heat exchanger. RUNNING CC-THERM FROM THE SIZING MENU 1. and completing a series of dialog boxes. A Heat Exchanger menu will open up. The Sizing menu will open. If the selected heat exchanger has been analyzed before. Highlight the Heat Exchanger option on the Sizing menu. reboiler. Select the Shell & Tube option from the Heat Exchanger menu. 5. or pump around as well as the process heat exchanger unit operation. Select the Sizing command from the menu bar. The first method is described below (for design. If a heat exchanger is not currently selected. CC-THERM will walk you through the input procedure. Once these have been completed (or at least viewed).

edit the HTXR by double-left clicking on it. and therefore what the outlet streams are. The operation of a heat exchanger in a simulation mode can be based upon heat transfer principles rather than solely upon thermodynamic specifications. fouling factors may be calculated. This feature is called the “Simulation Mode” and is set up inside the HTXR unit operation. and then returned to excel (and any program that can interface to excel). In this mode the user must describe the exchanger geometry and dimensions to CHEMCAD. 12 . In other words.. The input procedure is described in detail below. It is also possible to define the inlet conditions. CC-THERM takes the inlet streams data and uses the specified geometry to determine how much heat is transferred. what the pressure drops are. and CC-THERM will calculate the fouling factors for the HTXR. Open the Heat Exchanger (HTXR) dialog box. It is recommended to size the heat exchanger first before running simulation mode. geometry and outlet conditions. When the simulation calculates the HTXR UnitOp. To invoke either kind of simulation mode. RUNNING CC-THERM FROM A FLOWSHEET HEAT EXCHANGER It is possible to use CC-THERM directly in a flowsheet to rate the performance of a specified geometry. This is especially useful when combined with our datamap features: using excel real-time exchanger temperatures may be sent to CC-THERM.6 The options on this menu are briefly described below and more fully described later in the manual. See “Running CC-THERM from the Sizing Menu” above 1.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. and setting the Simulation mode to “Shell & tube simulation” or “Shell & tube fouling rating”. the outlet conditions rely only on geometry and feed conditions.

the heat curve is generated. User’s Guide Select Simulation Mode 1 (Enter Geometry CC-THERM Simulation) or 2 (CC-THERM fouling factor rating). 13 . First.6 2. You should note the CHEMCAD input rules apply. 3. Heat Curve Generation – The heat exchanger analysis calculation takes place in two steps. Please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for the details of all input connections and dialog boxes. The Heat Curve Generation performs the first step. All other fields of the dialog box will “gray out”. The Heat Exchanger Simulation Menu will open: 4. When all dialog boxes have been completed. Enter the exchanger geometry details by completing all of the dialog boxes listed on the menu. DATA ENTRY IN CC-THERM You will be entering data about your heat exchanger through the CC-THERM dialog boxes. making them inaccessible. Click [OK]. These properties are then used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. click [OK] to return to the menu and then click the Exit button on the menu to return to CHEMCAD.CC-THERM Version 5. This calculation determines the flowrates and physical properties of the heat transfer fluids in each side of the exchanger. Each dialog box is opened by clicking on the appropriate button of the Heat Exchanger Simulation Menu. Heat curve generation is always done before the rest of the heat exchanger calculations. then the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations are performed.

heat transfer. View Results – This item is used to view the calculated results interactively. allowable pressure drops. This is initially done in the “Heat Curve Generation” step. reboiler. and to select materials. Re-initialize Exchanger – This command completely deletes all data regarding the currently selected heat exchanger and restarts the input process. The outlet conditions are specified using the following dialog box: 14 .6 Edit Heat Curve – This option enables the user to change the heat curve values calculated by CCTHERM. but an initial guess must be given. the user must provide data defining the utility side flow. and the calculation rate of the analysis. Save Configuration – This saves the current data. nozzles. The program will calculate the utility flowrate. Re-enter Stream Information – When a one-sided heat exchanger is selected from CHEMCAD for design or rating. allowing the user to override the program’s calculated heat curve. and what program (Wordpad or Excel) to view the reports in Generate Reports – This command is used to generate hardcopies of tabulated reports. Exchanger Geometry – Selecting this option allows the user to provide physical dimensions and orientations for the shell. Plot – This option enables the user to graphically display a variety of heat curve. General Specifications – This option is used to define basic exchanger parameters such as head type. The inlet composition and thermodynamic conditions are specified using a stream dialog box just as in CHEMCAD. maximum velocities. Select Reports –Allows user to configure report settings such as which reports to view. fouling factors. Calculate – This is used to execute the thermal analysis and pressure drop calculations.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. condenser or pumparound). baffles. The user can select which information is to be included in the final report. UTILITY STREAMS If the heat exchanger uses a utility stream (for one sided-heat exchanger. tubes. Field by field descriptions of these options are provided below. CC-THERM will need information defining this stream and its conditions. This command enables the user to change this second stream information. and pressure drop information on a zone-by-zone basis. clearances. The utility stream flowrate is calculated based upon the heat duty of the exchanger and the outlet conditions of the stream. which heat transfer and pressure drop equations are to be used.

you will receive a notification from CC-THERM recommending that you recalculate the heat curve. If you have made any changes to the streams or heat exchanger units within CHEMCAD. HEAT CURVE GENERATION Selecting this option will cause the Heat Curve Parameters dialog box to appear: This dialog box contains commands that allow you to enter the data necessary to calculate the heat curves for the exchanger.CC-THERM Version 5. The outlet temperature of the utility stream. The outlet vapor fraction of the utility stream.6 User’s Guide Specify only one of the following: Fix Flow: Fix Outlet Temperature: Fix Outlet Vapor Fraction: The flowrate will be the flow previously specified in the stream dialog box. 15 .

the actual inlet temperature is always used in the LMTD calculation. The default value of n is 11. A condensing coefficient is always used even if the bulk fluid is superheated. in many cases. and divides the region between them into x zones of equal enthalpy. However. By default. If the inlet temperature is at or below the dewpoint. Dry wall condensing occurs when the amount of superheat is sufficient so that condensation does not occur at the tubewall until the fluid cools down. it is also put into a zone by itself. CC-THERM applies the following rules during the computation of Zone 1: a. The user can override this calculation for either tubeside. shellside. the bulk fluid is above its dewpoint. b. CC-THERM will cut them into more than one zone. 16 . If subcooling exists. The Bubble-dew point method finds the dew points and bubble points first. When wet wall condensing occurs. In other words. CC-THERM will use either dry or wet wall (or a mixture of both) based on the tube-wall temperature in each zone. it is put into one zone by itself. The heat exchanger itself is modeled as a zone-by-zone heat transfer process.User’s Guide HEAT CURVE INPUT Cutting method – The heat curve may be set up in zones of: 1. If the inlet temperature is above the dewpoint. CC-THERM Version 5.6 The default is option (1). When this happens. Force dry wall – The user may choose to bypass the wet-wall calculations and force CC-Therm to use drywall calculations as described below. If the dew points and bubble points are not within the temperature range of this heat exchanger. where n is input by the user. 2. then this simplifies to the Equal enthalpy method. The LMTD is always calculated using the actual fluid inlet temperature. the LMTD is taken against the dewpoint temperature of the fluid. The Equal enthalpy method calculates the temperature and the flow profiles by generating the corresponding physical properties based on uniform enthalpy and pressure profiles. This would obviously occur if the entering fluid were at or below its dewpoint. Bubble-dew point. but still condenses when it hits the tubewall because the tubewall is so cold. condensing is the usual condition for a condenser. Bubble-dew point (equal enthalpy between dew points and bubble points) Equal enthalpy. the local condition at the tubewall is different than the bulk conditions. If the superheat or subcooled zones are very large compared to the other zones. Wet wall b. Wet wall condensing [Default] occurs whenever condensation occurs immediately at the inlet when the first gas strikes the tubes. or both. A gas coefficient is computed for Zone 1. and the whole path of the heat transfer route will be calculated at n points (cutting the exchanger into n-1 zones). CC-THERM applies the following rules during the computation of Zone 1: a. If super heat is present. The number of cutting points can range from 7 to 31.

click the [OK] BUTTON. Countercurrent/Cocurrent flow The heat curve is affected by the direction of fluid flow through the exchanger.CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide Number of cutting points– The entry here determines the number of zones which will be used for the heat transfer analysis. you simply type over it. EDIT HEAT CURVES This option is used to modify the values CHEMCAD calculated for the heat curve. n points defines n-1 zones. These are thermodynamic zones. not physical zones. 17 . To save your changes. If blanks or zeros are left between entered values. Fluid at the tube inlet is exchanging heat with fluid at the shell inlet. In countercurrent flow. Fluid at the tube inlet is exchanging heat with fluid exiting the shell. To change a value. the program will use linear interpolation to fill them in. The heat curve data will be displayed in a dialog box like that shown below: This dialog box scrolls to the left (using the elevator bar at the bottom) to display additional values. The default is 11 cut points user may enter between 7 and 31 points. the shell and tube flows are in the same direction. (default) In cocurrent flow. the shell and tube flows are in opposite direction.

allowable pressure drops.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. The General Information dialog box appears as follows. etc. Page 1: Page 2: 18 . heat transfer type.6 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS The General Specifications dialog box is provided to permit you to define the general calculation parameters such as calculation mode.

CC-THERM Version 5. thus. 1. TEMA class . Merkblatter British Standard 5500 Non-standard TEMA front head . Fouling Rating: Similar to Rating mode. A = Channel and Removable Cover B = Bonnet C = Removable Bundle D = Special High Pressure Closure N = Channel with Tubesheet and Removable Cover 19 2. TEMA R TEMA B TEMA C ASME DIN A. If affects the tube-sheet sizing calculation. The class will also determine what standard commercial sizes are available for various components of the exchanger. CC-THERM will compute the approximate thickness of the tubesheet. standard pipe shells would be different using TEMA (American) or DIN (German) standards. the area available for heat transfer. The mechanical class (TEMA Class) affects the thermal calculation in two ways. # of tubes. THE GENERAL INFORMATION TAB Calculation mode – There are three calculation modes. tube length. other options are available.The class is in accordance with the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer's Association (TEMA). Consequently. if a given heat curve in a given exchanger needs 1000 square feet. rating. This is necessary to determine the effective area for heat transfer. except the shell and tube fouling factors are adjusted to give 0% excess area. and baffle spacing based upon the design criteria (Appears after hitting OK on General Specifications when in design mode). The portion of the tube covered by the tubesheet will not be available for heat transfer.The following selections are available under this option. the thermal design and analysis of the exchanger are not heavily influenced by this parameter. Rating mode: Calculates excess area based on current geometry and heat curve. For instance. For example.6 These fields are described below. and this exchanger has 1100 square feet. This is useful to calculate existing exchanger fouling factors. design. The pipe shell ID's would then affect the tube count and. The mechanical class specifies which rules are to be used to size the tubesheet. These standards refer mostly to the mechanical details of the exchanger. the excess area is 10%. and fouling rating. .D. When not running according to TEMA. User’s Guide Design mode: Optimizes shell diameter.

he or she could enter the value in the corresponding field.The following selection is available under this option. Tubeside Sensible flow Horizontal condensation Vertical condensation Knock-back condensation Forced evaporation Falling film evaporation Vertical thermosyphon Fouling factor . Process type . For fouling rating cases. For instance. These names are only used for reporting purposes. It is a thermal resistance included to account for the fouling. or thermosyphon.User’s Guide TEMA shell type . falling film.Input of this variable is required for design or rating cases.The following selections are available under this option.You must determine the process type on both the shell and tube sides. The following process types are accommodated. it will not know if that evaporation is forced. Optional h Coefficient . The program will 20 Shellside Sensible flow Horizontal condensation Vertical Condensation Forced Evaporation Pool evaporation Horizontal thermosyphon . If one wants to specify shell or tube side film heat transfer coefficient.6 Stream name – Optional stream names may be entered for the shell and tube sides of the heat exchanger. L = Fixed Tubesheet (A head) M = Fixed Tubesheet (B head) N = Fixed Tubesheet (N head) P = Outside Packed Flt Head S = Flt Head with Backing Device T = Pull Through Flt Head U = U-Tube Bundle W = Exit sealed Flt Tubesheet CC-THERM Version 5. The process type specifies which heat transfer mechanism is to be used when calculating the film coefficients. while it is obvious that CC-THERM will know when there is evaporation on the tubeside. E = One Pass F = Two Pass G = Split Flow H = Double Split Flow J = Divided Flow K = Kettle Reboiler X = crossflow shell TEMA rear head . You must define which evaporation mechanism is to be used.Input of this variable is optional. this number will be calculated.

In case of zone-by-zone analysis. S17 Reference No.This option permits the user to select the method to be used to calculate the two-phase pressure drop. S18 Single Phase Frictional Pressure Drop .6 User’s Guide take this value in calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient. the options are: Program Select Seader-Tate Colburn Method Dittus-Boelter ESDU Method Mean VDI Nusselt CC-THERM will select the most appropriate method based upon the turbulent flow conditions. The options are: Premoli. S15 See Reference No.This identifies the method to be used to calculate the tubeside frictional pressure drop.The options are: Chemstations Method See Reference No. this value will be used in calculating the local overall heat transfer coefficient for each zone. et. C19 Void Fraction . Reference No. S2 Reference No. al.The void fraction model is used to calculate the two-phase flow void fraction for the calculation of two-phase pressure drop. The options are: Blasius Equation Chen’s Method See Reference No. S1 Reference No. C19 See Reference No. C18 See Reference No. THE MODELING METHODS TAB Tubeside Methods: Laminar Flow– This option defines which equation is to be used to calculate the sensible heat transfer film coefficient for laminar flow on the tubeside.CC-THERM Version 5. Homogeneous Model Lockhart & Martinelli See Reference No. This method is used for both the tubeside and the shellside. E6 and E8 See Reference No. E6 and E8 Vertical Condensation . S2 Reference No. C24 21 . E17 See Reference No. turbulent flow on the tubeside. The options are: Lockhart-Martinell Friedal (CISE method) Chisholm Method See Reference No. The options are: Eubank-Proctor VDI–Mean Nusselt Number Reference S9 Reference S13 Turbulent Flow– This option specifies which method is to be used to calculate the tubeside film coefficient for sensible. S16 Two Phase Frictional Pressure Drop .

S16 Reference No. C21 See Reference No. E25 See Reference No. E26 No Vapor Shear Condensation. VDI Shellside Methods: Single Phase . The available options are: Kern Method Nusselt Eisenberg See Reference No. The options are: Stream-analysis Method Bell-Delaware Method Kern Method Reference No.The turbulent condensation model is used to calculate the condensing film coefficient in turbulent flow.The laminar condensation model is used to calculate the condensing film coefficient for laminar flow.. Horizontal . multicomponent) condensation. The available options are: Nusselt McNaught Method Taborek Method See Reference No. the program will use parallel flow model for shell side computation when shell diameter is less than center baffle spacing. C20 See Reference No.The options are: Hewitt et. 22 . C25 CC-THERM Version 5. C20 See Reference No. Therefore. C2 Parallel Flow Model If Shell Diameter < Baffle Spacing – If this option is checked.6 Falling Film Evaporation . This option applies only to condensers. Subcooling Flow Pattern – Choose from stratified or filled pipe liquid flow. C20 Vapor Shear Condensation.e.Selecting this option applies the Silver-Bell-Ghaly (SBG) procedure to the calculation of non-isothermal (i. in subcooling zones. S2 See Reference No. S2 See Reference No. S14. C22 SBG Multicomponent condensation . the tube is completely filled with liquid. S3 Reference No. References: C1.This option selects which method is to be used to calculate the shellside pressure drops and film coefficients for sensible flow. It is suggested to check this option if baffle spacing is far greater than shell diameter. This is the default. the velocities and film coefficients are low. the crossing flow model is always used when shell diameter is greater than center baffle spacing. al. However.User’s Guide VDI Method See Reference No. Horizontal . Leave this option unchecked when running design. S15. The liquid filled model assumes that after the bulk dew point is reached. S4. This is a very conservative method.

The value controls suppression of warning messages during CC-THERM calculation.CC-THERM Version 5. the flow is stratified even in the subcooling zones. Orientation – Select from Horizontal or Vertical. LMTD Correction Factor – This option allows the user to override CC-THERM’s calculated LMTD correction factor by specifying his/her own correction factor. 0 1 2 3 all warning messages are suppressed most warning messages are suppressed few warning messages are suppressed no warning messages are suppressed THE DESIGN OPTIONS DIALOG BOX If the design mode is selected on the General Information dialog box. The purpose of this dialog box is to allow the user to constrain the sizing calculation to specified boundaries. then when this dialog box is closed. the Design Options dialog box will appear. Therefore. The dialog box is shown below: 23 . Warning level – Specify an integer between 0 and 3.6 User’s Guide In the liquid stratified flow model local subcooling occurs before the bulk dew point is reached. The nature of the stratification depends on whether the exchanger is vertical or horizontal. Default is 2.

24 . not all of this length will be available for heat transfer. LIMITS OF DESIGN VARIABLES These entries limit the allowable dimensions which the program can choose from when searching for an exchanger which will meet the design criteria. If the nozzles are to be sized. If these fields are blank. 25% of this value is used as the allowable pressure drop across the nozzles.e. Allowable shell pressure drop: An entry in this field forces the program to select an exchanger which keeps the shellside pressure drop (including the pressure drop through the nozzles) below this value. then the program will size the nozzles during the design calculation. Minimum excess %: The selected exchanger must have at least this much extra heat transfer surface The default is 0%. The program must stay between the lower and upper limits of each of the variables. i. The default is 5 psi. 25% of this value is used as the allowable pressure drop across the nozzles. The default depends upon the vapor fraction of the fluid. Prefer tube length/shell diameter ratio: CC-THERM will attempt to select an exchanger which is close to this ratio. The default is 5 psi. but will always be displayed when you first enter the dialog box. Shell Diameter: This is the nominal diameter of the shell if a pipe shell is being used or the inside diameter of the shell if rolled plate is being used. but will always be displayed when you first enter the dialog box.6 DESIGN CRITERIA Allowable tube pressure drop: An entry in this field forces the program to select an exchanger which keeps the tubeside pressure drop (including the pressure drop through the nozzles) below this value. Tube Length: This is the installed tube length including that portion covered by the tubesheet(s)..User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. If the nozzles are to be sized. then the user must specify the nozzle sizes on the Nozzles dialog box. The default depends upon the vapor fraction of the fluid. which is on the Exchanger Geometry menu. Allowable shell velocity: An entry in this field forces the program to select an exchanger which keeps the shellside velocity below this value. This constraint has a lower priority compared to the other constraints. Allowable tube velocity: An entry in this field forces the program to select an exchanger which keeps the tubeside velocity below this value. Therefore. the value of the tube length divided by the value of the inside shell diameter. {% excess area} = 100* ({design area} – {required area} ) / {required area} SIZING NOZZLES If these fields are checked (default).

Optimize number of passes: Check this option to have the program optimize the number of tube passes when doing a design calculation for shell and tube heat exchangers. The Thermosyphon Reboiler dialog box is shown below: Most of these fields describe the reboiler inlet and outlet piping. This calculation requires knowledge of the inlet and outlet piping geometry as well as of the available static head. 25 . along with the specified static head determines the recirculation rate.CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide Baffle Cut: This specification is in percent and can be based on diameter (default) or area depending on what is specified on the Baffles dialog box on the Exchanger Geometry Menu. The fields are described below. It will open whenever you close the General Information dialog box only if you are designing or rating a thermosyphon. The Thermosyphon Reboiler dialog box is designed to collect this information. then you may want the program to calculate the amount of fluid circulating through the syphon. Baffle Spacing: This is the distance between baffles. This description. THE THERMOSYPHON REBOILER DIALOG BOX If your heat exchanger is a thermosyphon reboiler. The available static head (labeled “Inlet Static Head” in the dialog box) is the height of the liquid in the bottom of the column above the reboiler inlet tubesheet. If there are tubes in the window. the unsupported tube length is twice this value.

tells the program to calculate the thermosyphon fluid recirculation by matching the system pressure drop to the specified Inlet Static Head. if checked. then this field must be specified. Outlet Elevation: The outlet elevation is the elevation difference between the reboiler outlet nozzle(s) and the return nozzle to the column. 10 feet for horizontal Inlet Static Head: This is the elevation difference between the surface of the liquid in the bottom of the column and the “inlet” tubesheet closest to the inlet nozzle. If this field is not checked. The initial value used by the calculation is taken from the heat curve. then CC-THERM will make no attempt to calculate the recirculation rate. The reboiler inlet flowrate will be that taken from the flowsheet simulation. This requires the program to iterate upon the inlet liquid flowrate of the reboiler.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. If the thermosyphon circulation rate is to be calculated by the program. The default value is always taken from the heat curve. this value is calculated by the program. Default is 4 feet for Vertical. The pressure drop associated with this process flowrate will be calculated. but no attempt will be made to match the available static head. The heat balance at this vapor fraction will then set the inlet liquid flowrate. then this value can be specified by the user. If the circulation rate is to be calculated. Outlet Mol Vapor Fraction: This is the vapor fraction of the reboiler outlet stream. If the circulation rate is not to be calculated. The circulation rate calculation will vary the reboiler inlet flowrate until the calculated pressure drop from the column outlet nozzle to the column return nozzle matches the specified inlet static head.6 Calculate Circulation Rate: This field (located at the upper left of the dialog box). This value is specified in the height of process liquid. It must be specified on a molar basis. 26 . Default is 8 feet for either vertical or horizontal.

so if it is other than one. of Inlet Elbows: Specify the number of ninety degree turns in the piping going from the bottom of the column to the reboiler inlet nozzle(s). 0 27 . of Outlet Elbows: Specify the number of 90 turns in the outlet piping going from the reboiler outlet 0 nozzle(s) to the column return nozzle. If the thermosyphon is vertical. If the thermosyphon is vertical. The resistance for this number of 90 elbows will be added to the outlet pipe length specified below when the pressure drops are calculated. CCTHERM will not automatically pick up this value. The resistance for this number of 0 standard. However. horizontal or shell side thermosyphons may have more than one inlet nozzle depending upon the TEMA shell type. of Outlet Nozzles: This is the number of outlet nozzles on the process side of the reboilers itself. No. you will always want to use a one in this field. However.CC-THERM Version 5. this will almost always be one (the default). you will need to enter it. The default is two. No. CCTHERM will not automatically pick up this value. you will need to enter it. horizontal or shellside thermosyphon may have more than one inlet nozzle depending on the TEMA shell type. Multiple inlet nozzles affect the performance of the process side pressure drop calculation. 90 elbows will be added to the inlet pipe length specified below when the pressure drop calculations are performed. No.6 User’s Guide No. Multiple outlet nozzles affect the performance of the process side pressure drop calculation. so if it is other than one. The default is one. of Inlet Nozzles: This is the number of the inlet nozzles on the process side of the reboiler itself.

User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. The default value is 15 feet. Neither the safety factor nor the required static head is used in the determination of the required calculation rate. Diameter: Specify the inlet piping diameter. The default value is 10 feet. Diameter: Specify the outlet piping diameter. The default value is the reboiler outlet nozzle diameter if known. Set all to default: Clicking on this button restores the default values for all fields the Thermosyphon Reboiler dialog box. EXCHANGER GEOMETRY The Exchanger Geometry option is used to define the geometry of the heat exchanger. The default value is the rebolier inlet nozzle diameter if known. This is the inside diameter. Its purpose is to permit the user to make detailed specifications concerning the dimensions and arrangement of the heat exchanger.6 INLET PIPE Length: Specify the length (or total equivalent length of all flow resistances) of the inlet pipe (from the column outlet nozzle to the reboiler inlet nozzle). OUTLET PIPE Length: Specify the length (or total equivalent length of all flow resistance) of the outlet piping (from the reboiler outlet nozzle(s) to the column return nozzle). Thickness: Specify the wall thickness of the inlet piping. Thickness: Specify the wall thickness of the outlet piping. This is the inside diameter. Selecting this option will cause the Exchanger Geometry Menu to appear like so: 28 .

Roughness factor – Enter the absolute roughness of the tube. if you had 100 U tubes you would enter 200 here (2 passes). Triangular (30) Rotated Triangular (60) [Default] 29 .CC-THERM Version 5. Tube length . the program defaults to a diameter of ¾-inch (19. For U-Tube bundles or other multipass systems. the program defaults to BWG 16 (. Number of tube passes .The wall thickness input is optional. or in the case of Wtubes. Tube wall thickness . 4 passes. it is recommended that you allow the program to optimize the number of tube passes.The tube diameter is an optional input.065-inches or 1.The following selection is available under this option.2e-5 inches. If no value is input.This is the overall bundle length. Tube pattern .For the design case. Tube outer diameter . If no value is input. Default is 6. Number of tubes – Enter the total number of tubes in the shell here. TUBES The Tubes Parameter dialog box is used to define tube and tube arrangement information.05-mm) outside diameter tubes. The Tubes Parameter dialog box appears as follows: These fields are described below. This value is used in the frictional pressure loss calculation. Typical U-tubes would have 2 passes here. For example.65-mm). enter the number of holes in the tubesheet here. In design cases this field will gray out (design optimizes this).6 User’s Guide Each of the above displays an input dialog box through which the detailed information is provided. In design cases this field will gray out (design optimizes this).

The Shell Shell diameter . If user specified is selected an additional dialog box will appear after completing the Fin Tube Methods dialog box. the program begins the design algorithm with a 2-inch (50-mm) shell diameter.If you are using a pipe shell. In design cases this field will gray out (design optimizes this). 30 . Specifications dialog box appears as follows These fields are described below. The default is bare tubes. When making a design run and using ASME (but not TEMA) or BS 5500 as the class for the exchanger. the diameter will be the internal diameter. Trufin tube code . Turbulator . When in the design mode. select the appropriate type from the drop-down list.To use turbulators (static mixing elements).User’s Guide Square (90) Diamond (45) CC-THERM Version 5. Otherwise the diameter listed is the inside diameter of the exchanger. will use a rolled shell. the diameter in this field will be the nominal diameter. thereafter.If you are using a pipe shell and wish to display the nominal diameter. When using DIN. the program starts with an 8-inch (200-mm) shell diameter. If you are using a rolled shell. SHELL The purpose of the Shell Specifications dialog box is to define shell information. the program starts with a 4-inch (100-mm) shell diameter and when using TEMA. Use standard pipe as shell . The tube pitch is the distance between tube centers. then check this box.6 Tube pitch . the program will use a pipe shell diameter up to 24-inches and.To use fin tubes. The default is 1.25 x tube diameter. select the appropriate type from the drop-down list. The Finned tube Specifications dialog box will appear so that the user can make relevant specifications. Data for fin tubes is stored in a databank in the CC5 directory.The units are in inches or mm.

This information is optional when in the design mode but it is required for a rating. Baffle type . Any positive number between 0.This button runs a tool for determining how many tubes will fit into shell diameter.The default is one (1). BAFFLES The purpose of the Baffle Specifications dialog box is to permit you to define baffle geometry.The default is one (1). Calculate tube count .CC-THERM Version 5. The Baffles Specifications dialog box appears as follows. Number of shells in series . Any positive integer number is allowed. Untubed area/OTL area of tube sheet – This option allows the user to input the ratio of untubed area and the outer tube limits area of tube tubesheet.6 User’s Guide Number of shells in parallel . Any positive integer number is allowed. These fields are described below. Single segmental baffle (default) Double segmental baffle Triple segmental baffle Segmental(No tubes in window) Disk & Donut Rod 31 .0 and 0.5 is allowed.Any of the following baffle configurations may be selected.

the lower the shellside pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. This is the amount of overlap for double segmental and triple segmental baffles.6 Single segmental baffle is the default. Generally speaking. the program will optimize on this parameter. The baffle spacings below refer to the edge-to-edge spacing of the baffles. If the baffle is a rod baffle or a full circle type. If the cut is based on area. resulting in lower tube natural frequencies. The program will calculate this value if left blank. X-overlap field will appear only if you select double or triple segmental baffles. The baffle thickness affects the effective area of the tube and the vibration analysis. Diameter Area Selecting "Let program decide" will allow the program to determine if an impingement plate is necessary using the rules of TEMA. This is the thickness of the tubesheet. The following selections are available under this option: Vertical cut Horizontal cut [Default] Diagonal cut The following selection is available under this option. Using Impingement Plate or No Impingement Plate will Baffle thickness Baffle cut percent X Overlap Tubesheet thickness Direction of baffle cut Basis of cut Impingement plate 32 . The default is indicated. If making a design run. This is a mandatory input if you are making a rating case. User may leave any of the above spacing blank and enter the # of baffles. No-tubes-in-window and rod baffles are used when high gas velocities on the shellside are producing vibration problems. then place a 0 in this field. Both effectively lower velocities while maintaining short tube spans. not center-to-center spacing. This is the spacing between the last baffle and the rear tubesheet. The program will calculate this spacing if left blank. X is the overlap distance. The program assumes that the cut is a percent of the diameter. CC-THERM will recalculate the spacing to accommodate the number of baffles . you should indicate such in the field below. the higher the baffle segmentation. Double and triple segmental baffles lower velocities and therefore pressure drops and film coefficients as well. Inlet spacing Center spacing Outlet spacing Number of baffles This is the spacing between the front tubesheet and the first baffle.

the value of nozzle diameter will be used for the port hole diameter. User’s Guide When it is not practical to fit an impingement plate inside or outside a shell.CC-THERM Version 5. Vibration problems on the exchanger shellside warrant the use of intermediate baffles so as to shorten the unsupported tube length and thus increase the natural frequency of the tube bundle.2. Intermediate Baffles per baffle space You should input the number of intermediate baffles per baffle space to be used when using No Tubes-in-Windows baffles. Port hole diameter. an area equivalent diameter may be specified. If not specified. If more than one hole or non round hole is used. NOZZLES The purpose of the Nozzles Specifications dialog box is to permit you to specify nozzle sizes. CCTHERM allows use of box type vapor belt as impingement device. and Belt width.6 force the use or exclusion of an impingement plate. Three input variables are Belt diameter. Port hole diameter is the diameter of the hole on the shell continuous through which vapor enters the shell.5-8 of HEDH. 33 . a vapor belt could be used to reduce entrance momentum of high speed vapor at inlet nozzle. These fields are described below. One may refer to the figure 9 on page 4. Belt width should be specified greater than nozzle diameter. otherwise a value of shell diameter plus half of nozzle diameter will be used. other wise a value twice of nozzle diameter will be used for the width in the calculation of vapor belt pressure drop. Belt diameter should be specified larger than shell diameter. The Nozzles Specifications dialog box appears as follows.

and (for pull through floating heads) the gasket and bolt sizes are taken from the selected standard. You may reverse this setup by selecting opposite side.6 Nozzle diameter . tube count. With same side. However. the program will use this large clearance in the stream analysis. the tube count is adjusted to fill the space fixed by the shell and the clearances.This diameter is the nominal diameter in all cases. Longneck . In the design mode. Orientation . Clearances can have a significant influence on the tube count as well as the shellside heat transfer and pressure drop. enter a check mark in this field by clicking on it. Since fitting tubes into a bundle is to some extent an art and not an exact science. The default for a J-shell is one (1) inlet and two (2) outlets. If you want to have them located on the same side. with opposite side. If the difference is negative. Specification of clearances on this screen is optional regardless of whether you are running a design or a rating. The tube hole clearance. If the clearance is large. This will effect the baffle count for a single segmental baffle. the procedure is somewhat reversed. Changing the specifications in the Clearances dialog box will cause the tube count to change for a given diameter. This includes 34 . Since the shell ID is selected from commercial standards and therefore is fixed. The options are: Opposite side Same side The default for this field is to have the nozzles placed on the opposite side of the exchanger. This may result in unrealistically low shellside heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops. it is not obligatory to input the nozzle diameter. baffle-to-shell ID clearance. The user specifies the shell ID and the tube count. the baffle count will be odd. as the program will calculate them if this information is omitted.If the nozzles are to be longneck. For a rating case where the clearances have not been specified. The shell ID to the OTL clearance and the baffle OD to OTL diameter clearance are taken by difference. Even if making a rating.This is the orientation of the shellside nozzles. if clearances are not specified. The outer tube limits (OTL) is calculated from the tube count. you may want (in the rating case) to force the program to use specified clearances. The default is no. the baffle count will be even. the user should select same side. clearances are established according to the standard specified by TEMA. CC-THERM imposes clearances according to the following rules.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. and shell ID. the program will print a message saying the tubes will not fit into the shell. Tubeside flow enters Bottom nozzle Top nozzle CLEARANCES The Clearances dialog box permits you to specify the machining tolerances of the exchanger.

Tube to baffle hole . In-line pass partition – This is the space between the tubeset and the partition.The default for this option is the TEMA Standard clearance and you should also refer to the Number of Tubes in the Tube menu.This space is measured from the outside diameter of the top row of tubes to the horizontal line described by the intersection of the shell with the shell nozzle horizontal line located at 35 . The Clearances dialog box appears as follows: These fields are described below.This is the gap between the inside wall of the shell and the baffle.6 User’s Guide when the CC-THERM tube count route would indicate that these parameters are inconsistent.This is a diametrical gap. which the user inputs. but using the specified shell ID in the output. the program will accept any tube count. greater care must be taken when this field is input. Shell outer tube limit . Therefore. the entry in this field should be 0. This approach gives you complete control of the calculation.5-inches since there are two gaps along the diameter. The fluid that is bypassed follows a more linear path through the shell. The program will permit this. effectively setting the shell ID equal to the OTL plus the OTL-to-shell ID clearance as far as the calculation is concerned. The in-line pass partition size may have a significant effect upon the amount of vapor or liquid that bypasses the regular S-shaped flow pattern on the shell side of the exchanger. if the actual gap between the baffle and the shell ID is 0. When this entry is input and a rating case is being made.CC-THERM Version 5.25-inches. This gap is defined on a diametrical basis. Therefore. This entry would only be used if the user did not accept the program default of this option. the specified clearances and tube count are used in the analysis. This option was purposely programmed in a fashion to circumvent any problems the user might have when making a rating case and the program finds that the tubes do not fit and yet the user is analyzing an existing exchanger and hence knows the tube count to be correct. Space at top of bundle . Baffle to shell . This entry would only be used if you do not accept the program default for this option. In this event. one at each end.

Pass clearance lane . if you have No-Tubes-in-Window type baffles. when there is a sparger pipe located at the bottom of a kettle reboiler. In this case. Select the type using the mouse or arrow keys. 36 . and it is located on the bundle (it could also be located inside the shell nozzle).User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Also. MATERIALS The Materials dialog box is used to specify the materials of construction. You may specify the material type for each of the five exchanger components. When using this option. A space of this nature is usually necessary if an impingement plate is present. If the program is used in the design mode and an impingement plate is necessary the program will automatically calculate this space to meet the requirements of TEMA. this option should not be used for the case of No-Tubes-in-Window type baffles unless the void space of the bundle is greater than the baffle cut. It will also keep this space to the minimum necessary to allow the maximum number of tubes to fit in the given shell diameter. it may provoke a disproportionately high pressure drop in the shell inlet nozzle and this could effect the program's convergence characteristics.This space is measured from the outside diameter of the bottom row of tubes to the horizontal line described by the intersection of the shell with the shell nozzle located at the bottom of the shell. It may be necessary to use such a space. as noted above. a space similar to the one described herein will exist between the bundle and the shell. Again. Space at bottom of bundle .The units are inches or mm. for example. The pass clearance lane may have a significant effect on the heat transfer calculations on the shellside of the exchanger depending on the direction of the baffle cut and the tube pass arrangement. The pass clearance lane is calculated according to the TEMA-recommended dimensions of the pass partition plate and whether the tubes are welded or expanded to the tubesheet. a few rows of tubes would have to be eliminated from the bottom of the bundle and hence a void space would exist there. It is shown below. you should be aware that if too small a value is placed here. This is accomplished by selecting one component's arrow box. It is not necessary (and you should not use this option) to specify this void space for such a situation unless the void space necessary for placing the impingement plate is greater than the void space of the baffle cut of the No-Tubes-in-Window baffle. which will bring up a scroll box containing the types of material available. You may also input tube material density and elastic modulus.6 the top of the shell.

you should do so here by indicating the number of rows at which sealing strips will be placed. Entrainment ratio . the program will automatically place sealing strips every 5 rows unless overridden by a number in this field. the disengagement space will become proportionately greater. it is considered to be a compressive stress.A sealing strip is a longitudinal. The Miscellaneous dialog box appears as follows.If the user has a U-tube exchanger and he/she wishes to include some or all of the U portion of the tube as being effective for heat transfer. the kettle diameter would become bigger.If vibration problems are a major concern. If the user places a small value (say 1%). this option would become irrelevant). If the user is designing an exchanger with liquid or gas on the shell side and the rear head is TEMA type S or T. hence. These fields are described below. U-bend efficiency (%) . The kettle size may be fixed with the option listed under the Shells Parameter dialog box (if used. Rows/sealing strip . the number here would be 4.If you have a pool evaporator. For instance. The program default is 2%. he/she may do so with this option. if it will be every four rows. If the stress is input with a negative sign. Tube axial stress . Heat duty .The program always calculates and balances the heat loads on both the shell-side and the tube-side of the exchanger.6 User’s Guide MISCELLANEOUS The purpose of this dialog box is to permit the user to define a variety of parameters. If the user wishes to utilize sealing strips. If the user wants the output to appear with a rounded-up value of the calculated heat duty or simply wishes to design the heat exchanger for some excess heat load capacity. If the 37 . and.CC-THERM Version 5. This is especially true if the tube stress is a compressive one. otherwise. which do not fit neatly into the other categories. he/she may do so with this option. metal strip placed in the gap between the outer tube limit and the shell inside diameter in order to block bypass flow on the shell-side. as this will lower the bundle natural frequency and very possibly exacerbate any vibration problems. this may become an important option to use as it may have an important effect on the tube bundle natural frequency. and he/she would do so with this option. you can specify the maximum amount ratio of entrained liquid in the vapor stream. it will be considered to be a tensile stress.

If the user wishes to use a different value. none of the U-bend surface will be included in the overall heat transfer surface area. CALCULATE The Calculate command tells the program to execute the design or rating calculation. the program shows an error message on the screen.6 number 100 is input. The program allows you to either change the data or ignore the error messages. the VIEW MENU appears on the screen like so: 38 . the program performs a complete data check to make sure there is no missing or unreasonable information. The default for this option is 0% or. If errors or warnings are detected. To begin the calculation. When selected. move the pointer to the Calculate option and click the left mouse button. In the design mode. this indicates that the entire U portion is effective in heat transfer and its surface will be included in the overall surface area. VIEW RESULTS The View Results option enables the user to interactively review selected results on the screen. U-bend orientation – The user may specify the orientation of the U-bend relatively to the baffles by choosing the appropriate option from the combo box. After the command is issued. he/she may enter that value here.5 x the tube diameter.The default radius for the inner row of a U-tube bundle is 1.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. in other words. the progress of the calculation will be reported in the lower left corner. U-bend outermost radius . U-bend center to nearest baffle radius – This is distance from the center of the U-bend to the closest baffle.

All displays are in Wordpad so that they can be edited. Reynold’s No. BAFFLE DATA This option displays a summary of the current baffle specifications (input). heat duties. printed. HEAT CURVES This displays the temperatures. and physical and transport properties for each zone. TABULATED DATA This option displays the Shell-side Data.. vapor and liquid rates. Tubeside Data. TUBESIDE DATA This option shows the tubeside data for the current exchanger. and LMTD(s) of the heat exchanger. Clearance Data. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. pressure drops. This includes the film coefficient. OVERALL DATA This option displays a summary of the duty.6 User’s Guide The sixteen (16) items listed provide summaries of the specific information requested. SUMMARY RESULTS This selection allows you to view a short summary of the most important input and output of the heat exchanger calculations. heat transfer coefficient(s). and stream factors. pressure drops. SHELL-SIDE DATA This option shows the shell-side data for the current exchanger. A brief description of each VIEW MENU option is given below. 39 . and/or saved. Baffle Data. CLEARANCE DATA This option displays a summary of the current heat exchanger clearances being used by the program (input). Please refer to the CC-THERM REPORT GENERATION section of this manual for further descriptions. Tabulated pressure drop distribution and Overall Data summaries together on one page. ZONE-BY-ZONE DATA This option allows the user to review the zone-by-zone calculated results for both the tubeside and the shell-side.. no effort is made to duplicate that information here.CC-THERM Version 5. Since a complete explanation of this output is given under the report generation section of this manual. and reference factor. This includes the film coefficient. velocities. area(s). The format and content of these displays are the same as in the CC-THERM reports. velocity. Reynold’s No.

TEMA SHEET This option displays the completed TEMA sheet. the vortex shedding frequency. REBOILER DATA This option displays a summary of thermosyphon and kettle reboiler calculations. INPUT DATA REPORT This option displays a summary of the input data. and the acoustical frequency of the tube. as well as the critical ratios of these numbers. 40 . the turbulent buffeting frequency. Results displayed include the natural frequency. OPTIMIZATION This shows the optimization sequence used by CC-THERM.6 VIBRATION This displays the vibration analysis performed by CC-THERM. location of vibration. SELECT REPORTS This displays a menu that allows you to select which reports and information you want to include in your output. STREAM DATA This option displays the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out of the heat exchanger. vibration amplitude.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. vibration criteria for the analysis.

Date .Enter the proposal number for this exchanger.Enter the name of the customer. limited to 40 characters. Shell-side fluid . Service of unit . Tubeside fluid .6 User’s Guide You man select to view results in Excel or in Wordpad. limited to 12 characters.CC-THERM Version 5. Default is the equipment ID number. limited to 10 characters. LABEL This option allows you to specify general information for output labeling. To de-select an item. 41 .Enter the name of the tubeside fluid. these settings apply for both report generation and for viewing results.Enter the revision number of this calculation.Enter the date.Enter the item number. Plant Location . Reference . limited to 40 characters. click on the box to make the checkmark disappear. Customer . Address . limited to 40 characters. Proposal . You may select any of the report choices by clicking the desired option. limited to 10 characters.Enter the type of service the exchanger will be used in.Enter the mechanical design pressure at the tubeside and shell-side. Design Pressure . A check mark will appear indicating that the report will be included.Enter the address of the service. limited to 12 characters. Revision . limited to 10 characters. limited to 10 characters.Enter the reference number for this exchanger. Item Number . limited to 12 characters.Enter the name of the shell-side fluid. The contents of each report are described below. limited to 12 characters.Enter the plant location where the exchanger will be placed in service.

you can plot several zone-by-zone results graphically. GENERATE REPORTS Selecting this option will generate the reports selected under “Select Reports” PLOT From the Plot Menu. The following plot categories are available: HEAT CURVE Process heat curve is a plot of heat duty versus temperature for both sides of the exchanger. The plots are displayed in Plot Windows.6 Design Temperature . 42 .Enter the remarks you wish for the TEMA report. the user can modify or edit the plots using the commands provided by this window. Comments . HEAT FLUX Heat flux (for evaporators) LMTD Log-mean temperature difference for each zone. SAVE CONFIGURATION This command saves the current input for a rating case. Corrosion Allowance . TEMPERATURE Tube side. tube side wall.Enter the corrosion allowance at the tubeside and shell-side. tube fouling and shell fouling heat transfer coefficients for each zone. HEAT XFER AREA Heat transfer area for each zone. Therefore. shell side. tube side.Enter the mechanical design temperature at the tubeside and shell-side.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. HEAT XFER COEFFICIENT Overall. shell side wall and shell side temperatures for each zone.

CC-THERM OUTPUT SUMMARY REPORT This report section includes general data and a summary of the key information regarding the current exchanger. An example of this report appears below: 43 . RE-INTIALIZE EXCHANGER This command deletes all of the input and output data for the current exchanger and starts a new analysis.CC-THERM Version 5. heat transfer information and information describing the thermodynamic options and engineering units being used. It contains physical configuration.6 User’s Guide RE-ENTER STREAM INFORMATION This command displays the STREAM Dialog boxes for the four streams going in and out of the current heat exchanger. These streams can be modified and the heat curve regenerated using this feature.

000215 TS Film Coef 2313.0625/0.00 Tube O.60 SS Film Coef 1315.05 TW Resist 0.18 Heat Spec 50.93 COR LMTD 54.D.0515 Flow Area [In2] 0.57 Area Required 3489.67 1/1 1550 Heat Transfer Data: Effective Transfer Area 3623./I.51 Tube Length 12.D.6 SUMMARY REPORT General Data: Exch Class/Type Shell I.00 Baffle Cut % 20 Baffle Type FULL Thermodynamics: K: SRK H: SRK D: LIBRARY Number of Components: 3 Calculation Mode: Rating Engineering Units: Temperature Flow/Hour Pressure Enthalpy Diameter/Area Length/Velocity Film Fouling F lbmol/hr psia MMBtu ft/ft2 ft/sec Btu/hr-ft2-F hr-ft2-F/Btu Heat Calc 52.00 Tube Pattern SQUAR Tube Pitch 0. 0.22 U (Calc/Service) 265.95 44 .000E-003/1.63/254.83 SS CS Vel 4.D. Shell in Series/Parallel Number of Tubes R/AXU 3.08 Number of Tube Passes 2 Number of Baffles 3 Baffle Spacing 5.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.00 Excess % 3.40 TS Vel 4.06/0.83 Foul(S/T) 1.000E-003 Del P(S/T) 1.

Surf/unit The total surface area per unit. An example is given on the next page. The momentum term of the incoming shellside fluid at the bundle entrance. Most of the items on the TEMA Sheet are selfexplanatory. The first value is the gross or overall area without discounting any part of the tube length which may be imbedded in the tubesheet or covered by the baffles. Only a few of them will be explained here.6 User’s Guide TEMA SHEET The TEMA Sheet is reproduced from the TEMA book and is filled in for use as an equipment spec sheet. The momentum term of the leaving shellside fluid at the bundle exit. The second number given is the effective surface area after subtracting any portion of the tube length embedded in the tubesheet or covered by baffles.CC-THERM Version 5. RHO-V2-inlet nozzle RHO-V2-bundle entrance RHO-V2-bundle exit 45 . as these few may not be intuitively obvious. This is momentum term of the incoming shellside fluid at the inlet nozzle.

0 0.0 ID in 44.0 Surf/Shell 3652.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. 4 Plant Loc.385 Btu/hr-ft-F 20 Specific Heat 0.134 cP 22 Latent Heat 94.817 0.000 38 Rating 39 Tube No.466/54.520 0.513/29.6 Clean: 566.0 87700.088 Btu/lbmol-F 21 Viscosity at Avg.016/0. Type 50 Rho-V2-Inlet Nozzle 628.00 ft 46 Baffles Long Seal Type 47 Supports Tube C.0 lb/hr 15 NonCondensable 0. 0.0 lb/hr 13 Liquid 931050.83 psia 25 Fouling Factor 0. MTD(Corrected): 54. Date Rev 5 Service of Unit Item 6 Size 44. U-Bend 48 Bypass Seal Arrangement Tube-Tubesheet Joint 49 Expansion Joint No.000 0.020/0.000/1.7 Btu/hr-ft2-F 30 CONSTRUCTION DATA/SHELL Sketch 31 Shell Side Tube Side 32 Design/Test Press psia 0.74 833.65 in Length 12.001000 0.37 Btu/lbmol 23 Temperature(In/Out) 334.039 0.000/0.0 0. 0. 775 Dia.22 F 29 Transfer Rate.00 51 Shell Side Tube Side 52 Gasket Floating Head 53 Code Requirements Tema Class R 54 Weight/Shell 55 Remarks: 46 .689/1.67 796.0 OD in Shell Cover 42 Channel or Bonnet A-285-C Channel Cover 43 Tubesheet Stationary A-285-C Tubesheet Floating 44 Floating Heat Cover Impingement Protection: No 45 Baffles Cross A-285-C Type FULL Cut(Diameter) 20 Spacing C/C 5.000e+001 MMBtu.0ft TYPE AXU Horizontal Connected in 1 Parallel 1 Series 7 Surf/Unit 3652.0 in x 12.804 F 24 Operating Pressure 793.0 lb/hr 17 Evap/Cond 498205.000000/Code 33 Design Temperature F 0.117 0.000 36 Connections IN in 22.6 ft2 Shell/Unit 1.0 lb/hr 16 Steam 0.000 34 No.0 12.95 ft/sec 27 Press Drop Allow/Calc 5.13 Bundle Entrance 0.164 390.6 ft2 8 PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT 9 Type of Process Horiz Cond Horiz T-syphon 10 Fluid Allocation Shell Side Tube Side 11 Fluid Name Hydrocarbons Steam 12 Flow 931050.001000 hr-ft2-F/Btu 26 Velocity 4.00 37 Size & OUT in 30.0 lb/hr 14 Vapor 0.044 lb/ft3 19 Conductivity 0.0 87700. 3 Address Prop No.1 lb/hr 18 Density 2.0 59942.1/3623.616/0.9375 in 40 Tube Type Bare Material 1 Carbon Steel 41 Shell A-285-C 44.598 psi 28 Heat Exchanged 5.011/0.001/389.S.000 0. Passes per Shell 1 2 35 Corrosion Allowance in 0.00 ft Pit 0. Service: 265.000/337.1/3623.000000/Code 0.05 4. 0.75 in Thk.0 0.063 5.018/0.6 TEMA SHEET 1 2 Customer Ref No.00 Bundle Exit 0.0 6.

etc.CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide HEATING CURVES The Heating Curve is a printout of the vapor and liquid properties at the inlet and outlet of each of the ten zones of the exchanger. These variables are defined as follows. Vapor flowrate Liquid flowrate Latent heat Surface tension Critical pressure Vapor heat capacity Vapor viscosity Vapor thermal conductivity Vapor density Liquid heat capacity Liquid viscosity Liquid thermal conductivity Liquid density SHELLSIDE DATA The Shellside Data report has two different forms depending on whether the shellside is sensible or change of phase. Point 1 is the inlet to the exchanger. If the Shellside is sensible and stream analysis method is used then the Shellside Data report looks like this: 47 . Point 3 is the outlet from the second zone. Point 2 is the outlet from the first zone. Pressure This is the cumulative heat load of the zone. Temperature.

Drop/Out Nozzle psi 0.77 366.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. is reported at the middle of the heat exchanger. ft/sec Film Coef. Therefore.00 6.16 0. The Reynold’s No. 3. “Avg. Reported calculated pressure drop is the total across all shells if more than one shell in the series is present. 4. The Allowable Pressure Drop is input by the user. following relation applies: The 48 .10 0. Drop/In Nozzle psi 0.8E+001 Window Vel. Press. Drop psi 4. 4.” is the shellside cross-flow velocity is taken at typical baffle spacing.03 Inlet Nozzle Size ft 1. Drop/Out Nozzle psi Press. Btu/hr-ft2-F 162. Drop psi 5. Drop psi Press.03 0.2E+001 Film Coef. Drop psi Inlet Nozzle Size in Outlet Nozzle Size in Mean Temperature F Rho V2 IN lb/ft-sec2 4. Btu/hr-ft2-F Allow Press.67 Press. the Shellside Data report looks like this: Shellside Data: Avg. The window velocity is taken in a typical baffle window.00 2. 8.39 Otherwise. the quantity printed. This is the "true" velocity through the window after all the flow bypasses have been discounted. The Film Coefficient is reported at the middle of the heat exchanger. This is the "true" velocity across the bundle based on the actual flow across the bundle after all the bypass streams have been discounted. 160724 Allow Press. 5.12 2290. Calc. Drop/In Nozzle psi Press. SS Vel. 7. The Pressure Drop/Inlet Outlet Nozzle is the calculated pressure drop in the nozzles. Press.47 Reynold's No.4E+001 EndZone Vel.6 Shellside Data: Crossflow Vel. However.87 Reynold's No.00 370. The end zone velocity is the velocity in the zone between the tubesheet and the first baffle. 6. 1. 9.00 Calc. ft/sec 2. 2. the program converts this static head to an equivalent pressure drop.28 These fields are explained below. Drop (Dirty) psi 12284 0. 1. SS Vel. as allowable pressure drop is always a pressure drop no matter what type of exchanger is being run.45 Outlet Nozzle Size ft 0.77 5. If a thermosyphon is being run you would have input the static head available in the column (and not have the allowable pressure drop). Nozzle diameter is nominal diameter.00 Press.

this empty space becomes large and (if sealing strips are not used) thus the C STREAM percentage becomes large. 12. Also.(Outlet Nozzle Pressure Drop) = (Pressure Drop across the bundle). The stream analysis data are explained below. SA factor B only has significance when there is sensible flow on the exchanger shellside. Referred to the above discussion on OTLC for more information on the use of sealing strips. When you specify sealing strips for a floating head. 49 . The shellside pressure drop (dirty) is the pressure drop in the exchanger in the fouled condition. 14. the B STREAM refers to that portion of the shellside flow. The metal temperature of the shell and tubes is an especially important value if you are analyzing a fixed tubesheet exchanger.(Inlet Nozzle Pressure Drop) . 13. Pressure Drop) . you will notice a significant reduction in the percentage of the C STREAM and an increase in the B STREAM (the "true" cross flow component of the bundle). for a floating head design (TEMA P. this quantity will always be output as 0. TEMA makes recommendations as to the maximum value this parameter may have before needing an impingement plate. 11. which is leaking between the tubes and the holes in the baffle plates. which is leaking between the bundle and the internal diameter of the shell. The program uses the actual shellside and tubeside heat transfercoefficients (and considers the exchanger to be in the fouled condition) to calculate this temperature. the more efficient the flow. SA factor C is the percentage of the shellside flow. which is leaking between the baffle outer diameter and the shellside internal diameter. SA factor A is that percentage of the shellside flow. which is in cross flow across the bundle. Calculating the shellside pressure drop with possible flow bypasses (such as the clearance between the baffle holes and the tubes) reduced somewhat (to simulate a fouled condition) does this. These values are used by mechanical engineers for stress analysis. When there is sensible flow on the shellside.6 User’s Guide (Calc. For a fixed tubesheet exchanger. The closer this quantity is to 100%. SA factor E is that percentage of the shellside flow. S. If you are in the rating mode and have specified the nozzle size. It is obtained by multiplying the fluid density by the square of the fluid velocity. the tube wall temperature is used frequently in the calculation of condensation and evaporation heat transfer.CC-THERM Version 5. When there is change of phase on the shellside. 10. However. or T). the empty space between the bundle and the internal diameter of the shell is usually small and thus the C STREAM is a small percentage. Rho V2 IN is the flow momentum term at the shellside inlet nozzle. When the program is in the design mode and no nozzle size has been specified. the program uses up to a maximum of 25% of the available pressure drop to size the nozzle. This is an important term when the incoming fluid is in the vapor state. the program uses that nozzle size and the nozzle pressure drop is calculated given the nozzle size and the exchanger geometry.

This would only be the case if all leakage paths were non-existent. it may or may not affect the flow depending on the direction of the baffle cut and the pass arrangement.83 Outlet Nozzle Size ft 0. Btu/hr-ft2-F 107. Press. 190037 Calc. 6. the program converts this static head to an equivalent pressure drop. Drop psi 5. If a thermosyphon is being run you would have input the static head available in the column (and not have the allowable pressure drop). Reported calculated pressure drop is the total across all shells if more than one shell in the series is present. 16. 2. the quantity printed.(Inlet Nozzle Pressure Drop) . However. Drop/In Nozzle psi 0. This would only be the case if all the possible window leakage paths were non-existent. The Film Coefficient is reported at the middle of the exchanger. 5.(Outlet Nozzle Pressure Drop) = (Pressure Drop Across the bundle) 50 The .04 1.26 Press. TUBESIDE DATA The Tubeside Data report looks like this: Tubeside Data: Film Coef.00 Inlet Nozzle Size ft 0.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.41 Mean Temperature F 21.00 Velocity ft/sec 33. 4. Ideal window velocity is the ideal velocity of the shellside fluid through the baffle window. 15. For an F shell. (See the above discussion on the pass arrangement in the Clearances menu). This listing uses an E shell. Drop psi 1. Drop/Out Nozzle psi 0. other variations are possible. is reported at the middle of the exchanger.45 Mean Metal Temperature F 39.44 Press. Below is a listing of the more common situations in which a pass partition lane will have an effect on the shellside flow. The Pressure Drop/Inlet Outlet Nozzle is the calculated pressure drop in the nozzles. following relation applies: (Calc. Pressure Drop) . The Allowable Pressure Drop is input by the user. Nozzle Size ft 0. Nozzle diameter is nominal diameter. Ideal cross velocity is the ideal cross flow velocity of the shellside fluid across the bundle.55 Reynold's No. Even though the partition lane will always be present for two or more tubeside passes. The Reynold’s No.16 Allow Press. 3.6 SA factor F is that percentage of the shellside flow which is leaking through the empty spaces left by the tubeside pass partition (pass partition lanes).67 Interm. as allowable pressure drop is always a pressure drop no matter what type of exchanger is being run. Therefore.

SSEG Single segmental 51 . 3. explanatory. When the shell nozzles are on the same side of the shell and segmental baffles are being used. the number of baffles given refers only to the NTIW baffles themselves and does not include any intermediate baffles which may have been used to lessen the effects of vibration. the program assumes the shell is pipe and above 24-inches. As a result. 5. The mean metal temperature of the tubes is an especially important value if you are analyzing a fixed tubesheet exchanger. The baffle spacing is the center spacing of the baffles -. but you should make note of the following points. it is rolled plate for carbon steel construction. The Velocity is reported at the center of the exchanger. When rod baffles are being used. Baffle types are as follows. the shell ID is printed in both fields. and the tube bundle diameter is printed in the shell ID field.CC-THERM Version 5. the total number of baffles will be an odd number. For a kettle reboiler. For stainless steel. rolled plate thicknesses are not. but since the program does no wall thickness calculation. the kettle ID is printed in the shell OD field. 8. Above 24-inches nominal diameter. If a change of phase is occurring. When the shell nozzles are on opposite sides of the shell and segmental baffles are being used. the number of baffles will be an even number. this is the two-phase velocity. This is because below 24-inches. which are not immediately adjacent to the tube sheets. TABULATED DATA The Tabulated Data report is a one-page summary of the exchanger. the program uses that nozzle size and the nozzle pressure drop is calculated given the nozzle size and the exchanger geometry. The baffle inlet spacing is the baffle spacing between the front tubesheet and the first baffle. Also.this would be the applicable baffle spacing of all those baffles. the tube wall temperature is used frequently in the calculation of condensation and evaporation heat transfer. the shell OD printed out will equal the shell ID printed out.32) These values are used by mechanical engineers for stress analysis. 7. 2. 6. The program uses the TEMA calculation method to calculate this value (See TEMA T-4. 4. the break point is 12-inches. the program uses up to a maximum of 25% of the available pressure drop to size the nozzle. All clearances are diametrical. this number can be disregarded since rod baffles are really tube supports and there are no cross baffles as such as with the other baffle types. If you are in the rating mode and have specified the nozzle size. Pipe wall thicknesses are known (standard wall). Most information is self- 1.6 User’s Guide When the program is in the design mode and no nozzle size has been specified. If the NTIW (No Tubes-in-Window) type baffle is being used.

The tube number is the number of tubes in the tube bundle. this diameter will vary due to the undulations on the inner surface of the tube. S. This limit diameter is based on that tube which is furthest removed from the geometrical center of the exchanger. or mixed. If the program has placed an impingement plate on the bundle. and N) or a floating tubesheet (TEMA type W) or a U-tube construction. On the other hand. 10. and T) is usually considerable. 8. For low-fin radial tubes. 9. Tube pass type may be ribbon. the OTLC is usually small (0. 15. M. Tube outside diameter is the outer diameter of the tube. or less) and so there is usually only a minimum amount of shellside fluid bypassing the tube bundle.User’s Guide DSEG TSEG NTIW Disk RODB Double segmental Triple segmental No Tubes-in-Window Disk and Donut Rod CC-THERM Version 5. the number output would be the number of tubes. this thickness will vary and the minimum thickness will be somewhat less than the nominal thickness. The tube pitch is the distance between the center of the tubes.5-inches. The tubewall thickness is the wall nominal thickness of the tube. The outer tube limit is the outer diameter of the tube bundle. but the program continues print out of the nominal inner diameter of the tubes. This is a very important piece of information and it has a pronounced effect on shellside heat transfer and pressure drop. If the exchanger rear head is of a fixed type (TEMA types L.6 7. not the number of holes in the tubesheet. The bundle top space is the void space at the top of the bundle and is the distance measured from the intersection of the shell inlet nozzle and the shell to the outside diameter of the top row of the tube bundle. The outer tube limit clearance (OTLC) is the diametrical clearance between the Outer Tube Limit and the internal diameter of the shell. Tube inside diameter is the inner diameter of the tube. this diameter will be the tube nominal diameter. quadratic. the program continues print out of the nominal wall thickness. For low-fin radial tubes. The tube pattern in the tubesheet may be: TRI60 SQUA DIAM TRI30 Triangular Double segmental baffle Diamond (45) Rotated triangular (30) 13. 12-mm. For low-fin radial tubes. 11. 16. 14. 12. the top few rows 52 . However. the OTLC dimension for floating head types (TEMA types P. If you have a U-tube bundle.

The program always checks for situations such as this. Such a void space should be declared on the Clearances menu. The bonnet diameter is the inner diameter on the channel side of the exchanger. which separate the various tubeside passes on the channel side. 17. This parameter only becomes important when you have a pipe for the channel section and have high pressure on the tubeside. a few rows of tubes must be removed. This information may pertain to a condenser calculation or an evaporation calculation. The outputs are similar but not identical. ZONE-BY-ZONE ANALYSIS As the name implies. but to be on the safe side.for instance. the impingement plate has been placed on the top of the bundle. The program always calculates this quantity internally.CC-THERM Version 5. Also. Clearances are diametrical. 53 . It is the mirror image of the above parameter as it appears at the bottom of the bundle. the internal diameter will grow inward (since it is a pipe) and may even be smaller than the inside diameter of the shell. If the Bundle Top Space is simultaneously a value of zero. if you are using No Tubes-in-Window type baffles. If an impingement plate is present and the Bundle Top Space is non-zero. To accommodate the plate. The orientation refers to the position of the exchanger. This is a quantity. 20. this distance (as defined above) will appear in the output whether or not you have an impingement plate. If provisions are not made for the smaller diameter on the channel side. H is horizontal and V is vertical. This lane cuts a void space throughout the entire bundle and will always have some effect on the flow distribution on the shellside of the exchanger. • • You are using NTIW baffles. The words "Impingement plate" in the impingement plate field indicates that an impingement plate does exist at the shellside inlet nozzle. the outer row of the tube bundle may not fit inside the channel. 22. (bottom) space is the void space at the bottom bundle. you can specify the channel internal diameter on the Clearances menu. Also. Anytime there are two or more tubeside passes. a pass clearance lane will always exist to accommodate the pass partitions. This quantity will appear in the output in either of the following two circumstances. you may have occasion to declare a void space at the top of the bundle . for a shellside condenser with an X shell to permit uniform vapor distribution across the tubes. which appears far less frequently than the above parameter.6 User’s Guide usually (but not always) must be removed. more detail is given about the two-phase calculation of the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop. 19. This quantity only appears in the output if you specify it directly on the Clearances menu. 21. or You have input this space on the Clearances menu 18. In this instance. this indicates that the impingement plate has been placed inside the inlet nozzle (which in this case would be flared). This information is given at each of the ten zones the program uses to make the calculation. The bundle btm.

F Vap.86 3.3413 0.18 1756.6065 219.29 4428 34363 CONDENS TRANSIT 389.62 254.3414 0.59 -0.4874 1.01 0.0392 301.5284 423. lb/ft3 Liq. Den.46 1.0442 3.84 4.17 32971.03 17.65 -0. lb/ft3 V-L Den.51 5608 24726 CONDENS TRANSIT 389.17 2009. Rate lb/hr Vapor Quality Gas Prandt's No.88 5018 29545 CONDENS TRANSIT 389.00 0.6240 1. dP psi Fric.56 0.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.00 54.0466 5.3415 0.65 44956.70 1.55 -0.71 1923. dP psi Grav.4659 54.14 1889.95 0.3415 0.00 54.03 14.81 30754.2617 161.87 3.32 262.4656 54.25 239. ft/sec Vel.00 0.4660 54. Coef.13 3 5.14 0. Btu/hr-ft2-F AINC ft2 Tube Side Results: Process Type Condenser Type Temp.43 56945.3507 1.79 -0. lb/ft3 Two Phase Xtt Mome.83 36749.13 1.00 380. Iso-Overa.6 ZONE: Inc.9159 1896.75 3838 39179 CONDENS TRANSIT 389.00 350.03 0. ft/sec Liq Re Vap Re 1 5.58 0.9159 2085.48 CONDENS TRANSIT 389.00 0.4658 54..03 19. Vap.08 1943.80 4 5.4657 54.75 2. dP psi Gas Vel.9159 2215. ft/sec Liq Vel. Film Coeff.00 0.85 42743.0458 4.00 55.93 1.4190 1. Heat Load.03 12.00 55. Rate lb/hr Liq.00 0.50 50950.31 1.0527 118.82 2. Den.00 368.81 0.00 54.00 359. Liq Prandt's No. Shear Coeff.01 0.56 0.9160 1837.73 0.3414 0.29 3248 43995 54 .03 21.62 0. .00 377.89 1902.35 0.00 0.00 0. Gravity Coeff.91 1875.00 0.5557 1.00 0.0450 4.01 0.55 5 5.83 0.89 54728.50 0.77 2 5. MMBtu/hr5 LMTD F Overall Coef. Btu/hr-ft2-F T-Non-Cond Fact.75 -0.00 0.77 1960.9159 1979.04 0.96 0.79 2120.61 236.95 246.35 0.87 48734.96 38965.01 0.92 2224.0474 6.01 0.

00 0.0000 0.05 239248 EVAPORA 335.9222 5..15 821. Btu/hr-ft2-F Film Coeff. For condensation there are three possible flow regimes.5063 0.00 1. dP psi Grav.5130 0.77 0.8478 0.00 991. lb/ft3 V-L Den.82 0. If the governing flow regime is gravity.5031 0.5173 29.0000 0.0000 0.03 0. In going from the SHEAR controlled to the GRAVITY controlled. Btu/hr-ft2-F For.0000 0.17 2. which may occur during condensation.06 0.21 4. Den.5173 29. psi T Sat.00 0.00 1.19 0.00 0.9226 5. lb/ft3 Cross-flow Xtt Window-flow Xtt Mome.00 361.21 4.00 0.58 73703.5096 0.77 0.00 873..05 238760 The following comments are relevant. Btu/hr-ft2-F Vap.35 0.5041 0. If the governing flow regime is shear.00 0.00 361. This type of heat transfer is generally known as gravity controlled laminar film.00 0.00 1.21 4.5157 29. psia dP Sat.05 0. Rate lb/hr Liq.5166 29.00 362.00 0.11 2.00 0. and this type of heat transfer is referred to as a shear-controlled turbulent film. Liq Prandt's No.42 0.05 239742 EVAPORA 335.77 0.5149 29.66 0. lb/ft3 Liq.77 0.0000 0.00 1204.21 4. If flow regime is in the transition region.9220 5.00 0.0000 0.05 0.36 822. The vapor velocity is low and the condensate film is basically in a laminar state. F T wall F (Twall-Tsat) F Nuc.05 0.00 0. Den.05 240716 EVAPORA 334.39 822.90 821. Coef.00 0.25 172981. the shear coefficient will be used.00 362.00 0. Boi.8313 0.57 222821. there is a transition region.6 User’s Guide Shell Side Results Process Type Temp.0000 0.61 0.77 0. 55 . Coef. F Vap.8642 0.00 1.CC-THERM Version 5. 1.0000 0. which is usually called the TRANSIT (for transition) region.21 2.00 0.76 2.00 911. Con.0000 0.00 0.00 0. dP psi Fric.20 24463.00 0.03 0.00 1091.21 4.00 0.05 0.00 0.92 123296. the gravity coefficient will be used..00 362. dP psi V-L Cross u ft/sec Cross-Flow Re EVAPORA 334.68 821.9225 5.9223 5.00 0.20 2.00 0. SHEARCT GRAVCTL TRANSIT The vapor velocity is so high that the flow becomes turbulent.00 0. The SHEARCT and GRAVCTL are basically the two extremes of the flows.0000 0. a geometrically weighted average of the two coefficients will be used. The shear-controlled and gravity-controlled heat transfer coefficients are calculated at each zone of a condenser whether or not it is the controlling coefficient. P sat.7972 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1. There are times when the vapor is so low that the predominant regime is the TRANSIT or even GRAVCTL for very low vapor velocities.00 0. Rate lb/hr Vapor Quality Gas Prandt's No.8145 0.05 240242 EVAPORA 334.57 0.

the Silver. C23. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Noncondensibles Factor – For non-isothermal condensation. The gas phase heat transfer (Gas Coeff. at the present time calculation of the mass transfer resistance for the general case is not practical. In reality this resistance is a mass transfer resistance not a heat transfer resistance. if the MULTICOMPONENTS CORRELATION has been selected on the METHODS page of the General Information dialog box. is included in the model. Nos.6 2. 3. However. a sixth resistance.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. C22. 56 .For all evaporators the regime always read EVAPORA for evaporation. Evaporation Flow Regimes and Coefficients . and Ghaly method (Ref. This coefficient is very important in the calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient when there are large amounts of noncondensibles present. that of a gas film at the boundary of the condensing film. C24) will be used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient. C1. Bell. 4. C2. This method is illustrated in the following drawing: In addition to the five heat transfer resistance’s normally accounted for in the calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient.) is also calculated at each zone. This “gas film” is a resistance to the sensible heat transferred from the bulk gas on the condensing side to the bulk fluid on the other side.

(labeled Overall Coefficient). This multiplier then multiplies the momentum pressure drop at each zone to calculate the overall two-phase pressure drop. as normal (one over the sum of the five heat transfer resistance). 5. U. Two-Phase Pressure Drops . However. • • • • • Two-phase multiplier Gravity portion Friction portion Momentum portion These are explained below. (labeled the Iso-Overall Coefficient) and adjusted overall heat transfer coefficient. If the non-condensibles factor is calculated. (F-Non-Cons Fact on the zone-by-zone output) as a function of the gas coefficient and the sensible heat change of the gas across the zone. 57 . the multiplier will be quite large. The pure condensing coefficient alone does not adequately represent the situation. and friction) and summed over all the zones to arrive at the overall pressure drop. iii. Momentum portion . gravity. Calculate the non-condensable factor.6 User’s Guide Therefore. the SBG method substitutes the “calculateable” gas heat transfer resistance for the “uncalculateable” gas-liquid mass transfer resistance. When there are large amounts of vapor present. Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient. This multiplier is applied to each component of the pressure drop (momentum.The momentum portion of the pressure drop is calculated based on the assumption that the entire fluid is in the liquid state.The calculation of two-phase pressure drops in CC-THERM can be broken into four parts. Calculate the final overall heat transfer coefficient. The overall procedure for the SGB method is outlined (in simplified form) below: i. it is much better than omitting the resistance altogether. The presence of even small amounts of noncondensibles significantly lowers the real heat transfer coefficient. A multiplier is calculated which corrects for the two-phase nature of the flow. Uo. Two-phase multiplier. iv. Calculate the film coefficients as normal. Xtt . Uo. U. F. the zone-by-zone analysis will print out both the unadjusted overall heat transfer coefficient. Calculate the gas coefficient at the condensing liquid boundary using standard sensible heat transfer methods.CC-THERM Version 5. as: Uo = U 1+F v. This approach is conservative and generally produces overall coefficients somewhat less than the real situation.The two-phase multiplier is calculated at each zone. ii.

User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. 7.6 Gravity portion .The frictional portion of the pressure drop is calculated based on the assumption that the entire fluid is in the liquid state. the heat transfer coefficient is a combination of the two-phase heat transfer coefficient and the nucleate boiling coefficient. The zone-by-zone analysis prints out the arithmetic average of the zone inlets and outlets for the following variables: • • • • • • • Temperature Vapor flowrate Liquid flowrate Vapor quality Vapor density Liquid density Two-phase density 9. The Nucleate Boiling Coefficient . The following numbers are calculated from the average properties of the zone: • • • • Velocity Reynold’s number Prandtl number Film coefficients 58 . All zones use the same correction factor. although usually a very small quantity. For pool-type evaporation. This multiplier then multiplies the frictional pressure drop at each zone to calculate the overall two-phase pressure drop. For a vertical thermosyphon. nucleate boiling will predominate. AINC is the incremental area of the zone. Qi Ui CMTDi = = = Qi Ui • CMTDi the heat duty of the zone the overall heat transfer coefficient (final) of the zone the corrected log menu temperature difference across the zone. Friction portion .The gravity portion of the pressure drop is meant to simulate the two-phase static head which will always exist in any two-phase situation and for a condenser will always be a pressure gain. The total required area for the heat exchanger is the sum of all the AINCi’s.In any evaporator. 6. A multiplier is calculated which corrects for the two-phase nature of the flow. It is calculated like so: AINCi = where. 8. CMTDi is the LMTD of the zone times the correction factor for the entire exchanger. the two-phase heat transfer coefficient will usually be predominate.

dP sat. stream analysis data will be printed out zone-by-zone if stream analysis method is used. The “saturation variables” P saturation. • P sat. P sat is actually the specified average pressure of the zone.. and (Twall – Tsat) are used only for evaporation. Pi n i ∆P m = = = = the inlet pressure to the heat exchanger the number of the current zone the allowable pressure drop across the heat exchanger the total number of zones • dP sat. It is calculated using the Clasius-Clapyron equation: In where. is the “saturation pressure” at the tube wall temperature.. hLG m R Tsat Twall = = = = = dPsat hLG * M  1 1  = −   Psat R  Tsat Twall  The latent heat of the fluid The molecular weight of the fluid The gas law constant The zone average temperature (explained below) The zone wall temperature (explained below) The Clasuis-Clapyron equation is for pure components.=Pi = Pin − i * m where. Is the average zone temperature and is taken from the heat curve. Pi.Zuber equation.6 User’s Guide 10. All clearances are diametrical except for the bundle top space and the bundle bottom space. CLEARANCE This report tabulates the clearances used in the exchanger calculations. T wall. which are radial. (Twall – Tsat) is the difference between the tube wall temperature and the bulk fluid temperature. T sat.CC-THERM Version 5. These data is explained in section 14 of SHELLSIDE DATA. Twall is the tube wall temperature. This quantity has a strong influence upon nucleate boiling coefficients. For any evaporative zone. ∆P Psat. This is a pseudo value used by the Forrester . 11. Since any evaporation zone is saturated. • • • Tsat. For sensible shell side cases. 59 . stands for saturation pressure. but is used by the Forrester-Zuber Method as a satisfactory approximation. The tube wall temperature is calculated by solving the heat balance across each heat transfer boundary.

the CMTD. The Area Effective of the exchanger excludes that portion of the tube length. U Calc is the calculated overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger. This value is always expressed as a percent. only the straight length of the tube is used unless the user enters a value for the U-bend efficiency.) ( WCMTD ) 60 . i. When making a design run. Q TOTAL Area CMTD = = = the heat duty of the exchanger the total effective of the exchanger the corrected log mean temperature difference 8. is calculated for each zone. fixing the heat load at a value 3% or 4% higher than the maximum heat load. 4. for a U-tube bundle. and this is usually acceptable to most users. 2. Make the run one more time. Ui. 3. the % EXCESS will turn out to be slightly negative. and the effective surface area: U Service = Q TOTAL Area * CMTD where. CC-THERM defines U Calc as: U Calc = Q Total ( Area Re q. i. ii. The Area Total is the total installed area of the heat exchanger. the U-bend will not be included. A negative value indicates that the exchanger is undersurfaced. This value is determined by summing the incremental areas. AINCi’s of all the zones. the U-bend is not included in the surface area calculation depending on what has been input for the U-tube efficiency. This quantity is not a function of the calculated heat transfer coefficients.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Since an overall heat transfer coefficient. the definition of U Calc is somewhat a matter of convention. 5. The Area per Shell is the effective area divided by the number of shells. Occasionally. which is covered by the tubesheet and the baffles.. you can do one of two things. The default for the U-tube efficiency is 0%. The Area Required is that area needed to transfer the specified heat duty of the exchanger. U Service is the exchanger service heat transfer coefficient. The % excess is the excess area for the present calculation. when making a design run.6 OVERALL DATA 1. Also. It is the total surface area of a single tube times the total number of tubes. For low radial finned tubes. It depends on the heat load. or Make a rating with a shell size just slightly greater than the one just designed. 7. The Heat Duty is the calculation heat load. 6. If this is not acceptable. the area is the total area of the fins. which is the larger of the calculated or user-supplied heat load.e. For U-tubes. the program usually terminates the calculation when the excess area is between 0 and 5%.

CC-THERM Version 5.6 where, Q Total Area Req WCMTD = = = the heat duty of the exchanger

User’s Guide

the required area which is the sum of the incremental areas for all zones the weighted corrected log mean temperature difference which is calculated like so:
WCMTD =

Q TOTAL Qi CMTDi

where,

Q TOTAL Qi CMTDi

= = =

the heat duty of the exchanger the incremental heat duty of zone i the corrected log mean temperature difference for zone i

9. Weight LMTD is the LMTD - Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference before any correction
factor is applied.

10. LMTD Corr Factor is the correction factor on the LMTD when a pure countercurrent flow condition
does not exist. This factor is only printed when sensible flow exists on both the shellside and the tubeside.

11. CORR LMTD is the corrected LMTD. The program calculates the CORR LMTD in each of the
zones and then calculates a weighted CORR LMTD.

VIBRATION ANALYSIS

Each time the program makes a thermal calculation; it also does a vibrational analysis of the exchanger shellside. There are some general points about this analysis, which should be noted here. The program makes several checks to insure that there is no vibrational problem. These include the following.

1. The Connors method for fluid elastic vibration (basically for liquids) 2. The Chen method for the vortex shedding frequency (basically for gases) 3. The Owen method for the turbulent buffeting frequency (basically for gases) 4. The Thorngren method for baffle damage
When the shellside fluid is a liquid, the Connors method is the most important determinant of a vibration problem. When the fluid is a liquid and the velocity in the given span exceeds the Connors' critical velocity, the program considers four different criteria based on the Chen and Owen method to decide whether a vibration problem exists.

1. Ratio of vortex shedding frequency to natural frequency is greater than 0.5
61

User’s Guide

CC-THERM Version 5.6

2. Ratio of vortex shedding frequency to acoustic frequency is greater than 0.8 and less than 1.2 3. Ratio of turbulence buffeting frequency to natural frequency is greater than 0.5 4. Ratio of turbulence buffeting frequency to acoustic frequency is greater than 0.8 and less than 1.2
When you have a two-phase situation, whether it is an evaporator or a condenser, the program makes the vibration analysis based upon the highest fluid velocity (generally the vapor velocity). This is a gray area since the methods of analysis are based upon a single fluid state. The presence of liquid will tend to dampen the effect of vortex shedding and turbulent buffeting. This is not explicitly accounted for in these methods. It is thus left to the user to make an educated judgement, based on the numbers, which the program generates, as to whether a vibration problem exists or not. The program always checks for a vibration problem at three different locations.

1. The entrance baffle span (between the tubesheet and the first baffle) 2. The center baffle span (at a typical baffle center span location) 3. The exit baffle span (between the last baffle and the rear tubesheet)
There are possible several steps to take once a vibration problem does occur, and they usually entail changing the natural frequency of the bundle in one way or another. Some of these include:

1. Shorten baffle spacing 2. Use No Tubes-in-Window Baffles 3. Use No Tubes-in-Window Baffles with intermediate support plates 4. Use Rod Baffles 5. Reduce the shellside velocities
When rod baffles are used, the program uses spacing between rod baffles of six inches. The rod baffle calculations in the program are based on a single-phase fluid. The program allows the use of rod baffles for a change-of-phase on the shellside but the results should be analyzed carefully. If you have a G, H, K or X shell with either condensation or evaporation on the shellside, the results should be reliable. If you have an E, F, or J shell, it implies flow over and around baffles. Rod baffles are meant for longitudinal flow along the axis of the tubes. Thus, the program results will be less precise.
Tube span is the length of the span in question. Cross-flow velocity is the shellside velocity at the span in question. Critical velocity is the Connors critical velocity. Ratio Vcross/Vcrit is the ratio of the actual velocity to the Connors critical velocity. When the fluid is a liquid and this ratio is greater than 1.0, the possibility of fluid elastic vibration exists and CC-THERM flags a problem.

62

CC-THERM Version 5.6

User’s Guide

Natural Frequency (F Tube) is the first mode frequency of the tube in cycles per second. CC-THERM considers only the first mode in its vibration analysis. This produces a conservative result. Acoustic Frequency (F AC) is the first acoustic frequency of the tube bundle. It is sometimes called the fundamental tone. It is calculated as follows:
U fa = s 2d

where,

fa Us d

= = =

the first acoustic frequency of the bundle the velocity of sound in the shell side fluid the shell inside diameter

The acoustic frequency is always the same at the inlet, center, and outlet of the exchanger.
Vortex Shed. Freq. (F VS) is the vortex shedding frequency of the tube. Flow across a tube produces, or “sheds, a series of vortices in the downstream wake of a fluid flowing across a tube. This generates alternating forces, which occur more frequently as the velocity of flow increases. Vortex shedding can excite tube vibration when its frequency matches the natural frequency of the tubes, and can become “locked in” to the tube natural frequency even when the flow is increased.

Vortex shedding occurs the ranges 100 < Re < 10 and Re > 2x10 . It dies out in between.
CC-THERM uses the method of Chen to predict vortex-shedding frequencies. It should be noted that Chen’s data contained few points in the range of the most common industrial pitch ratios (1.25 through 1.75). Turbu. Buff. Freq. (F TB) is the dominant turbulent buffeting frequency in cycles per second. CCTHERM uses the empirical equation of OWENS to predict this frequency:
  D U D f tb = c o 3.05 1 − o  PlP t  Pt  
2    + 0.28     

5

6

where,

Pl Pt Uc Do

= =

the longitudinal tube pitch the transverse tube pitch the crossflow velocity

=

the tube outside diameter

This equation was developed for gases and may not be applicable to liquids.
FVS/FTUB is the ratio of the vortex shedding frequency to the tube bundle natural frequency. When this ratio is greater than 0.5, a vibration problem is flagged.

63

User’s Guide

CC-THERM Version 5.6

FVS/FAC is the ratio of the vortex shedding frequency to the tube bundle acoustic frequency. When this ratio is in the range of 0.8 to 1.2, it indicates that a resonant condition exists and a vibration problem is flagged. FTB/FTUB is the ratio of the turbulent buffeting frequency to the tube bundle natural frequency. When this ratio is greater than 0.5, a vibration problem is flagged. FTB/FAC is the ratio of the turbulent buffeting frequency to the tube bundle acoustic frequency. When this ratio is in the range of 0.8 to 1.2, it indicates that a resonant condition exists and a vibration problem is flagged.

OPTIMIZATION

This portion of the output shows the optimization path that the program used to arrive at the final result. This optimization printout only occurs if you are in the design mode. The program deliberately begins with an obviously undersized unit in order to insure that the procedure does not miss the optimum result. The program uses basically five criteria to arrive at the optimum result.

1. Supplied area is greater than the required area 2. Pressure drop allowable is met on the shellside 3. Pressure drop allowable is met on the tubeside 4. Velocities on the shellside do not exceed the imposed limit 5. Velocities on the tubeside do not exceed the imposed limit
In order to find the smallest unit, which will satisfy these criteria, the program will vary the following parameters: • • • • • shell inside diameter tube length baffle spacing baffle cut tube passes if selected on the design options dialog box

It will also attempt to stay close to the preferred tube length to shell diameter ratio specified on the General Information dialog box. If the program makes a design and what appears to be the optimum point has been exceeded, it is probable that the program continued on the optimization path in order to satisfy the velocity limitation. When this occurs, you can override the limits set by the program by making the appropriate entry in the General Information dialogue box.
Iter is the iteration number. Sact is the actual surface area (installed) of the heat exchanger.
64

6 User’s Guide Sreq is the required surface area. nTP is the number of tube passes. This is the sum of the incremental areas for all the zones. In the case of U-tubes this is the number of holes in the tube sheet. dPS is the calculated pressure drop on the shell side. In CC-THERM it is determined as follows: Uall = Q TOTAL Sreq * WCMTD where. STREAM DATA The stream data section allows you to include stream composition data in your printed output. 65 . Since an overall heat transfer coefficient is calculated for each zone. except only those streams that are included in the exchanger will appear in the report. diamS is the shell inside diameter. This includes nozzle and bundle pressure losses. Uall is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole heat exchanger. Lt is the tube length. This is the coefficient for the middle zone. Conceptually. It is analogous to the view stream compositions report from CHEMCAD. dPT is the calculated pressure drop on the tube side. Lb is the center baffle spacing. Qtotal Sreq WCMTD = = = the heat duty of the exchanger the required surface area (defined above) the weighted corrected log mean temperature difference (defined below) aS is the film coefficient on the shell side. This is the coefficient for the middle zone. Cut is the baffle cut.CC-THERM Version 5. This includes nozzle and bundle pressure losses. nT is the number of tubes. velS is the shell side cross flow velocity in the middle zone. this value is a mater of convention. velT is the tube side velocity in the middle zone. it is the area required to transfer the heat duty of the unit at the conditions prevailing within the unit. aT is the film coefficient on the tube side.

011820 psia Pressure Drop through Entrance of Inlet Pipe: 0.000000 ft Inlet Pipe Length: 25.000000 ft Outlet Pipe Length: 25. Special note should be taken for the following items: 1. the total pressure drop through the loop is calculated and reported so the user can compare it to what is available.039796 psia Pressure Drop through Exit of Outlet Pipe: 0.639087 psia Mass Vapor Fraction at Outlet: 0.800000 in Outlet Pipe Thickness: 0.009990 psia Pressure Drop through Reboiler: 1. The circulating flow will not be balanced for a kettle reboiler.000000 in Outlet Pipe Diameter: 30.6 REBOILER DATA The Reboiler Data report provides detailed information for thermosyphon and kettle reboilers. It looks like this: * H Thermosyphon Reboiler Report * ********************************************* Shell Style: AXU Circulating Flow Calculation 1=on/0=off: 1 Number of Inlet Nozzle: 1 Number of Outlet Nozzle: 1 Number of Elbows on Inlet Pipes: 2 Number of Elbows on Outlet Pipes: 2 Inlet Static Head: 8.455354 psia Pressure Drop through Elbows on Outlet Pipe: 0.308202e+000 ft/sec For the first part this report is a tabulation of user input.412435 Outlet Vapor Mass Flow Rate: 4.000000 in Inlet Pipe Thickness: 0. These are for the most part self-explanatory.073879 psia Total Pressure Drop through Reboiler Side Loop: 1. However.000000 ft Inlet Pipe Diameter: 22.023547 psia Pressure Drop through Elbows on Inlet Pipe: 0. Only the liquid flow through the loop is varied. This is necessary to maintain the heat balance from the flowsheet.097861e+005 lb/h Circulating Flow Velocity in Inlet Pipe: 4. The Total Pressure Drop through Reboiler Side Loop is equal to the sum of all the above reported pressure drops. 66 . 3. The total amount vaporized in the reboiler will always be constant. Most of the balance of the report provides the details of the pressure drop calculations around the thermosyphon loop.375000 in Outlet Elevation: 10.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. 2.982270e+005 lb/h circulating Liquid Mass Flow Rate: 7.375000 in Pressure Drop through Inlet Pipe: 0.024701 psia Pressure Drop and Elevation through Outlet Pipe: 0. INPUT DATA REPORT Provides a complete tabulation of the input and assumptions used for the calculations.

) Tube hole clearance = 0.35433-inches (dia.D.8-inches All material is carbon steel There are 5 rows per sealing strip 67 .75-inches Tubewall thickness = 0.035-inches (dia. Tube pattern = rotated triangular (60) Tube pitch = 0. New users of CHEMCAD are recommended to build the example themselves. In this tutorial we are going to rate the first heat exchanger in the above flowsheet. clearance = 0.9375-inches An impingement plate is present Shellside nozzles = 1 12-inches Tubeside nozzles = 1 12-inches Baffle to Shell I. flowsheet of the problem you will deal with is shown below.065 Tube length = 20ft. it will be necessary to first simulate the flowsheet in CC-STEADY STATE before you can design or rate any of the exchangers contained in this tutorial.) Space at the top of the bundle = 2.D.D. to OTL clearance = 0.6 User’s Guide CC-THERM TUTORIAL THE CONDENSATE STABILIZER PROBLEM This section of the manual is designed to walk you through the rating of a heat exchanger.) Shell I. Since CC-THERM is an integrated module of the CHEMCAD Suite. = 27-inches internal diameter Number of tubes = 646 Tube OD = 0.CC-THERM Version 5.001 on both sides Shell I.3125-inches (dia. Please make sure that this is done before proceeding (please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide). This example job is located in \\cc5data\Examples\Tutorals\CHEMCAD Tutorial. This unit is a countercurrent gas/gas heat exchanger and it has the following geometry and dimensions: TEMA Class = R TEMA Type = BEM Fouling factors = 0. 4 8 The 6 4 1 1 2 2 3 3 7 5 9 5 The flowsheet is the tutorial problem solved in part one of the CHEMCAD User’s Guide.

it will ask you to select which heat exchanger (from the flowsheet) that you want to analyze. corrosion allowance. If a heat exchanger is not currently selected. After the desired heat exchanger has been selected. viii. and which sets of clearances are to be used for the design. Select the first heat exchanger and then click [OK]. Specify any desired nozzle data. 68 . ii. the TEMA class and TEMA type of the exchanger. iii. Enter any desired user data for labeling the output. Specify any desired specific clearances. Specify any desired shell data. CC-THERM will walk you through the generation of the heat curve and the specification of the heat exchanger. then click on stream 1.6 ENTERING CC-THERM Once the simulation is complete in CC-STEADY STATE. 3. Define general information about the exchanger: The process type or heat transfer mechanism on each side. Specify any desired tube and tubeside data. Click [OK]. v. vii. vi.User’s Guide Baffles: 10 baffles equally spaced Baffle type = single segmental Baffle cut = 35% (dia. The program will respond with the following procedure: 1. design pressure/temperature. and loop optimizer. 2. you should go to the Sizing menu select Heat Exchangers >Shell & Tube. Specify any desired baffle data. CC-THERM will prompt the user to identify which process stream goes on the tube side. Generate and finalize the heat curve and properties on both sides of the exchanger. the allowable pressure drops on each side. the fouling factors to be used for the calculation. This is done by displaying the Select UnitOps dialog box. iv.) CC-THERM Version 5. This process involves the following steps: i.

IDENTIFY THE TUBESIDE STREAM: After the desired heat exchanger has been selected. STEP 1 . Click [OK] on this box. is displayed. This stream will then be the tubeside stream. The box will close and the Select Stream dialog box will appear.GENERATE THE HEAT CURVE: Once the tube side stream is identified.CC-THERM Version 5. A message box will appear instructing you to select the tubeside stream. Specify any desired miscellaneous data. 69 . CC-THERM will prompt the user to identify which process stream goes on the tubeside. First.6 ix. the program will prompt the user through the setup of the heat curve. User’s Guide Please follow the program through these steps using the instructions given below. the Heat Curve Parameters dialog box. STEP 2 . as shown below. you may close the report. Use the cursor to click on stream number one of the flowsheet. CC-THERM will then display all 4 streams around the exchanger in a wordpad report: After reviewing the stream data.

Heat exchangers may have countercurrent or co-current flow. The Number of Points equals the number of zones plus one. Click the [OK] button to accept the defaults. 70 .which is the default.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. The default is to use the bubble-dew point option above. but the user may override their selection. CC-THERM divides the analysis into zones. Obviously. These zones are thermodynamic segments based on equal temperature changes or equal enthalpy increments. There are two options to choose from: Increments of equal enthalpy change. but the slower the calculations.6 The input for this screen is described in detail elsewhere in this manual. For this tutorial let’s use the defaults for all of these entries. the more accurate the calculation. but the user can select any number by making an entry in the “No. the user can decide how many zones are to be calculated for the exchanger. let’s leave the default selection for flow pattern (countercurrent). the more zones. the following points should be noted: • To account for the change in physical properties across the heat exchanger. No attempt is made to repeat that information here. Since this is a countercurrent heat exchanger. • For any of the segmentation methods described above. Increments of equal enthalpy change between the dew and bubble points with separate zones for superheating and subcooling if present. The industry standard is 10 zones (11 points). However. Of Points” field.

MAKING GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS: The program will now prompt you to provide basic information governing the heat exchanger calculations. etc.CC-THERM Version 5. such as process type. it will display the following plot: The purpose of displaying this plot is to allow the user to inspect the calculated heat curve for any obvious problems in the set up of the analysis.6 User’s Guide At this point the program calculates the 11 points needed for the heat curve. Select [OK] to close this window and continue. When it is finished. allowable pressure drop. The General Specifications dialog box should appear as follows: 71 . STEP 3 . TEMA class/type. fouling factor.

as follows: Page 1: General Information Calculation mode . Therefore select a Bonnet front head. Help topics can also be displayed by pressing the [F1] key while in the field of concern. From the illustrations in the Supplements Section we can find the types that correspond to the letter designations. TEMA type . and a Fixed Tubesheet (B head) rear head. TEMA type. we are doing a rating. This is true even if you are using one of the foreign codes to set the mechanical aspects of the exchanger. In our case. The allowable entries are contained in the scroll boxes that appear when you select a field. so we set the box to Rating. Orientation – This exchanger is mounted horizontally. each field in this menu has a Help button for assistance.For this example. you must define the front-end. the shell. One Pass shell. In addition. The simplest and most common kind of exchanger is a fixed tubesheet. item by item.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. TEMA class . 72 . and the rear-end of the exchanger according to TEMA designations. or BEM.6 As you can see.The first thing you must decide is if you doing a design or a rating. let's use TEMA class R. most of the data fields are set up with defaults. They are also listed in Chapter 3 and in the Appendix of this manual. Let's go through the input.In order to establish the basic configuration of the exchanger.

For the purposes of this tutorial we will use the program’s default selections. In our case.001 (English units) on both sides. Page 2: Modeling Methods Tab 2 of the General Specifications dialog box enables the user to select what formulas are to be used in certain aspects of the heat exchanger calculations. Fouling factor . for example in the case of pool boiling or falling film condensation. the program has selected Sensible/Sensible. as there is no phase change on either side of the exchanger. The default is 0. CC-THERM will now walk you through each of the dialog boxes necessary to completely define the geometry of the heat exchanger. These are: The Tube Specifications dialog box The Shell Specifications dialog box The Baffle Specifications dialog box The Nozzles Specifications dialog box The Clearances Specifications dialog box The Materials Specifications dialog box The Miscellaneous Specifications dialog box STEP 4 – THE TUBE SPECIFICATIONS dialog box: The Tube Specifications dialog box is shown below: 73 .6 User’s Guide Process type – In some cases the user must identify the process type. and that is what we want in this case.To allow for fouling on the inside and outside of the tube.CC-THERM Version 5. Now close the General Specifications dialog box by clicking [OK]. no entries on Page 2 are required. Therefore. you are permitted to enter fouling factors.

User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.9375 inches plain tubes o All of these defaults are the values that we want to use for this rating. Now save the entries and close the dialog box by clicking [OK]. 16 BWG (tubewall thickness = 0. Please enter those values now.065 inches one tube pass rotated triangle (60 ) tube pattern tube pitch = 0. Therefore. Your entries should now appear as shown in the above screen. STEP 5 – THE SHELL SPECIFICATIONS dialog box: 74 .75 inch O.D. all we need to input is the number of tubes (6456) and the tube length (20 feet).6 You will notice that CC-THERM uses the following tube defaults: • • • • • • 0.

Since the diameter is over 24 inches.D. then save this entry and close the dialog box by clicking [OK]. the Baffle Specifications dialog box will be displayed: 75 . STEP 6 – THE BAFFLE SPECIFICATIONS dialog box: Next.6 The Shell Specifications dialog box will appear next: User’s Guide The defaults for this screen are: • • • 40 inch diameter one exchanger in parallel one exchanger in series The number of tubes rows in a bundle will be determined by the program but the user can override it on screen. the program assumes it is rolled plate and the value entered here is taken to be the actual shell I. Please enter 27 in the shell diameter field.CC-THERM Version 5. We should use the program calculated value. The only value we need to specify is the shell diameter.

Erase any default values for spacing and enter 10 baffles. to specify the baffle spacing and baffle cut. the program will calculate equal spacing for all.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. All of these defaults are acceptable in our rating case example. 76 .126 inches horizontal baffles baffles cut based on diameter Impingement plate according to TEMA No intermediate baffles (relevant only to No-Tubes-in-Windows baffles). so there is no need to make entries in these fields. however. It is necessary.6 This dialog box defaults to: • • • • • • single segmental baffles baffle thickness = 0. Baffle Spacing – All we are given for the baffle spacing is that there are 10 baffles equally spaced.

’s. Therefore. Please save this information and close the dialog box by clicking [OK]. The baffle cut percent can be based on diameter or on area. all we need to do in this dialog box is enter the inside diameter for the inlet and outlet nozzles on both the tube and shell sides. complete this screen as shown above. Therefore. Now save this input and close dialog box by clicking [OK]. Therefore. STEP 8 – THE CLEARANCES dialog box: Now the Clearance Specification dialog box will appear: 77 . All of these nozzles have 1 foot I.6 Baffle Cut Percent - User’s Guide For this tutorial.D.CC-THERM Version 5. the baffle cut percent is 35 (diameter). STEP 7 – THE NOZZLE SPECIFICATIONS dialog box: Next. The default is diameter. the Nozzle Specifications dialog box will appear: The defaults for this dialog box are: • • • • Regular (not longneck) nozzle No intermediate nozzle Opposite side nozzle orientation No reducer percent These are acceptable. enter 35 in the Baffle cut percent field. The field “Basis of Cut” identifies whether the specified cut is based on diameter or area. This is what we want.

User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. we need to enter the space at the top of the bundle. Once we have an impingement plate. It is shown below: 78 . complete this screen as shown above. No other outwear are necessary. Therefore. However in our case the clearances are known and should be entered in the event they do not exactly conform to TEMA.6 CC-THERM always defaults to TEMA clearances so normally no entry is required on this dialog box. STEP 9 – THE MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS dialog box: The next dialog box to appear will be the Material Specifications dialog box. Now save the input and close the dialog box by clicking [OK].

and this is the default. Use Carbon steel for the tubes.6 User’s Guide The purpose of this dialog box is to allow the user to specify the materials of construction for the heat exchanger.CC-THERM Version 5. STEP 10 – THE MISCELLANEOUS SPECIFICATIONS dialog box: The last dialog box to appear will be the Miscellaneous Specifications dialog box. THE CC-THERM MENU: The input sequence for our rating case is now complete. Therefore. Please close this dialog box by clicking [OK]. We want 5 rows per sealing strip. It is shown below: The only field on this screen which we are concerned about is the “Rows per Sealing Strip” field. Close this dialog box by clicking [OK]. Use A-285-C for all other materials. The program will now open the Shell and Tube Exchanger menu. no entries are required on this screen. which is shown below: 79 .

which you may display on the screen by using the View Results option. 80 . There are a variety of detailed results.6 STEP 11 – CALCULATING: We are now ready to run. hardcopy reports by using the Report Generation option. To get a list of the possible displays. You may also display results graphically by using the Plot command. The program will run very fast. show runtime messages on the status line and immediately return you to the Shell and Tube Exchanger menu. The View Results menu will appear.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. click the View Results option. or you may print tabulated. so you may now select the Calculate option on the menu. STEP 12 – USING THE VIEW RESULTS AND PLOT COMMANDS: We can now select the View Results option to see the result of the heat exchanger calculations.

6 User’s Guide First. let’s look at the Summary Results. When you select this option. your screen should display these results: 81 .CC-THERM Version 5.

Using the Select Reports option.6 You will notice that the results are displayed in a Wordpad window. to view the shell side data. close the Wordpad window by clicking on the Close button in the upper right hand corner of the Wordpad window. Next. When you are finished reviewing your results. click on the Shellside Data option. displayed: The following results are 82 .User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. You will be returned to the View Results menu. you can select either Wordpad or Excel to view your results.

CC-THERM Version 5. and the following screen is displayed: 83 . select the Vibration option.6 User’s Guide To view a vibration analysis.

Click on the word Plot on the menu to display the possible plots. 84 . The View Results menu will close and the Shell and Tube Exchanger menu will reopen. You may close the Wordpad window(s) at any time. This will return you to the View Results menu.6 For an explanation of these values. The Plot option works the same way.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Exit this menu by clicking on the Exit option at the top of the menu. refer to the Report Generation section of this manual.

You will be returned to the The Shell and Tube Exchanger menu. STEP 13 – GENERATING A REPORT: To generate a tabulated report. you will be returned to the Shell and Tube Exchanger menu. Click on the Exit command on the Shell and Tube Exchanger menu. All the reports selected under Select Reports will be generated. or no to not save your changes.CC-THERM Version 5. To exit CC-THERM: Close any report that were generated. When you close the plot window. If the program asks if you want to save changes. We have now completed all of the exercises for our tutorial. use the Generate Reports option. 85 .6 User’s Guide All of these plots are zone-by-zone graphs and will generate plots in a plot window just like the heat curve plot we saw at the beginning of this tutorial. select yes to save your changes.

31. 44.6 APPENDIX I: MATERIAL CODE NUMBERS FOR SHELL AND CHANNEL MATERIALS SHELL MATERIALS: 1. 5. 15.SB-167-600S (Hot Finished/Annealed) 86 . 26. 2. 6. 33. 22. 18. 3. 39. 23. A-537-2 A-202-A A-202-B A-203-D A-203-E A-203-F A-204-A A-204-B A-204-C A-225-C A-302-A A-302-B A-387-2 A-387-12 A-387-11 A-387-22 A-387-21 A-387-5 A-533-A A-533-B A-533-C MONEL MONEL INCONEL INCONEL (Considered ERW Pipe . 41. 29. 20. 17.NOT Seamless) (Considered ERW Pipe .NOT Seamless) (Considered ERW Pipe . 16. 8. 42. and above) (ERW)PIPE (ERW)PIPE (ERW)PIPE (ERW)PIPE .S. A-285-C A-515-55 A-515-60 A-515-65 A-515-70 A-516-55 A-516-60 A-516-65 A-516-70 A234-WPB A-53B(W) A-106-B A312304W A312316W A-333-1 A-333-6 A-333-4 A-333-7 C.SB-165-400S (Stress Relieved) .SB-167-600A (Hot Finished/Annealed) . 32. 27. 21. 14. 35. 40.0 INCH ) CLASS 1 CLASS 1 CLASS 1 CLASS 1 CLASS 1 CLASS 1 . 4. 11. 9. 30. 37.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. 28. 25.NOT Seamless) ( <= 2. 19. 10. 7. AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 13. 36. 24.(Allow. 38. 43. 12. 34.SB-165-400A (Annealed) .

67.SB-409-800 (Annealed) .SB-424-825 (Annealed) . 53. 66. 65. 74. 59. 50. 46. 64. 83. 77. 73.SB-582-G (Soln Annealed) User’s Guide 87 . 78. 58.SB-209-T651 . 51. 60.SB-163-825A (Annealed) . 55. 54. 68.SB-265-Gr 2 .SB-127-400 . 49. 57. 82. 47.SB-575-C276 (Soln Annealed) . 61. INCOLOY INCOLOY ALUMINUM BRONZE MONEL ALUMINUM-6061 TITANIUM-2 TITANIUM-12 NICKEL LC-NICKEL ZIRCONIUM INCOLOY-800 INCOLOY-825 INCONEL-600 HASTELLOY-B HASTELLOY-C HASTELLOY-G A-240-304 A-240-304L A-240-304H A-240-304N A-240-316 A-240-316L A-240-316H A-240-316N A-240-317 A-240-317L A-240-321 A-240-321H A-240-347 A-240-347H A-240-348 A-240-348H A-240-309 A-240-309S A-240-310 A-240-310S A-240-405 A-240-410 A-240-430 .SB-162-200 (Hot Rolled) . 72.SB-333-B2 (Soln Annealed) .6 45.SB-171-61 .SB-551 . 56. 62. 69. 70. 80. 79. 71. 63.R. 48. 76./Annealed) .SB-162-201 (H.SB-163-825S (Annealed) .CC-THERM Version 5. 52.SB-168-600 (Annealed) . 81.SB-265-Gr 12 . 75.

20. 40. 35. 27.Allow. 3. 39. and above) A-213-T5B (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above) A-334-9 (Seamless . and above) A-213-T17 A-213-T12 A-213-T11 A-213-T22 A-213-T21 A-213-T5 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. CC-THERM Version 5. 14. and above) A-199-T9 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 19. 18. 50. 30. 26. 52. 46. 21. 38. 47. 51. 25. 15. 12. 45. 2. 44. 34. 37. 11.6 A-179 A-214 A-106-B C. and above) A-213-T7 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 49. 29. 24. AVAIL @ 650 F. and above) A-334-7 (Seamless) A-334-3 (Seamless) COPPER -SB-111-122 (HARD DRAWN) ADMIRALTY -SB-111-443 (Annealed) ALUMINUM BRASS -SB-111-687 (Annealed) RED BRASS -SB-111-230 (Annealed) Cu-Ni 70/30 -SB-111-715 (Annealed) Cu-Ni 90/10 -SB-111-706 (Annealed) ALUMINUM BRONZE -SB-111-608 (Annealed) MONEL -SB-163-400 (Annealed) ALUMINUM-6061 -SB-234-6061-T6 TITANIUM-2 -SB-338-Gr 2 (Welded-Annealed) TITANIUM-12 -SB-338-GR 12 (Welded-Annealed) NICKEL -SB-163-200 (Annealed) LC-NICKEL -SB-163-201 (Annealed) 88 . 4. 17.S. 16. 41. and above) A-199-T7 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 36.User’s Guide CHANNEL MATERIALS 1. A-334-1 (Seamless) A-334-6 (Seamless) A-210-A A-210-C A-178-A A-178-C A-199-T11 A-199-T3B A-199-T22 A-199-T21 A-199-T5 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 42. and above) A-213-T9 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 31. 22. 33. 43. 32. 53. and above) A-209-T1B A-209-T1 A-209-T1A A-213-T2 (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 28. 23. 13. and above) A-213-T5C (Allowable AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 48.

63. 96. 79. 100. 70. 55. 67. 56. 93. 92. 74. ZIRCONIUM INCOLOY-800 INCOLOY-825 INCONEL-600 HASTELLOY-B HASTELLOY-C HASTELLOY-G A-213-304 A-213-304L A-213-304H A-213-304N A-213-316 A-213-316L A-213-316H A-213-316N A-213-317 A-213-317L A-213-321 A-213-321H A-213-347 A-213-347H A-213-348 A-213-348H A-213-309 A-213-309S A-213-310 A-213-310S A-213-405 A-213-410 A-213-430 NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED A-249-304 -SB-523-R60702 -SB-163-800 (Annealed) -SB-163-825 (Annealed) -SB-163-600 (Annealed) -SB-619-B (Soln Annealed) -SB-619-C-276 (Soln Annealed) -SB-619-G (Soln Annealed) User’s Guide 89 . 62. 89. 69. 77. 83. 95. 88.6 54. 84. 78. 90. 81. 60. 58. 82. 71. 68. 94. 97. 65. 76. 66. 61. 87. 101. 73. 75. 57.CC-THERM Version 5. 59. 64. 98. 80. 85. 72. 91. 86. 99.

A-249-321 112. A-249-310 120.4401 CC-THERM Version 5.4401 1. A-249-304H 104. A-249-309S 119.6 90 . A-249-317L 111. A-249-316L 107. A-249-310S 121.2 ST45. A-249-348H 117. A-249-405 122.4301 1. A-249-317 110. A-249-410 A-249-430 DIN-AD Merkblatter Code A37 ST37.4301 1. A-249-321H 113. A-249-347H 115. A-249-316 106.4401 1.2 ST37. A-249-316H 108.4401 TTST41 TTST45 ST45. A-249-348 116. A-249-304L 103.2 CRMO CRMO 1.8 ST45. A-249-316N 109.4301 1.8 STAHL 1.4301 1.8 ST37. A-249-309 118. A-249-347 114.User’s Guide 102. A-249-304N 105.

CC-THERM Version 5.6 British Standard 5500 15123A 15123B 15126A 15126B 22128A 22128B 261 271 304S15 316S16 User’s Guide 91 .

11-110 ADMIRALTYSB-171-443 ALUMINUM BRASS NAVAL BRASS SB-171-464 B-171-70/30 SB-171-715 B-171-90/10 SB-171-706 ALUMINUM BRONZE SB-171-614 MONEL SB-127-400 ALUMINUM-6061 SB-209-T651 92 . 26.S. 34. 21. 2. 3. 7. 40. and above) A-182-F5A (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above) A-182-F5 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 4. 22. A-285-C A-515-55 A-515-60 A-515-65 A-515-70 A-516-55 A-516-60 A-516-65 A-516-70 A-181-60 A-181-70 A-105 A-350-LF1 A-350-LF2 C. 37. 36. A-182-F1 A-182-F2 A-182-F12 A-182-F11 A-182-F22 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 9. 11. 49. 8. 38. 32. 10. 12. 39. and above) A-182-F7 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 23.6 APPENDIX II: MATERIAL CODE NUMBERS FOR TUBESHEET MATERIALS ASME CODE 1. 6. 48. 27.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. 33. 5. 45. 46. and above) A-182-F21 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 31. and above) A-182-F9 (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. 29. 19. 18. 43. 25. 35. 42. 47. 44. 24. and above) A-216-WCA A-216-WCB A-217-WC1 A-217-WC4 A-350-LF3 A-350-LF4 A-372-4 A-372-V A-372-8 A-508-1 COPPERSB. 41. 30. 17. 28.

95. 89.6 50. 82. 79.CC-THERM Version 5. 81. 90. 58.R. 74. 75. 84. 88. 64./Annealed) SB-551 SB-409-800 (Annealed) SB-424-825 (Annealed) SB-168-600 (Annealed) SB-333-B2 (Sol Annealed) SB-575-C276 (Sol Annealed) SB-582-G (Sol Annealed) User’s Guide 93 . 68. 92. 85. 57. 54. 62. 55. TITANIUM-2 TITANIUM-12 NICKEL LC-NICKEL ZIRCONIUM INCOLOY-800 INCOLOY-825 INCONEL-600 HASTELLOY-B HASTELLOY-C HASTELLOY-G A-240-304 A-240-304L A-240-304H A-240-304N A-240-316 A-240-316L A-240-316H A-240-316N A-240-317 A-240-317L A-240-321 A-240-321H A-240-347 A-240-347H A-240-348 A-240-348H A-240-309 A-240-309S A-240-310 A-240-310S A-240-405 A-240-410 A-240-430 NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED SB-265-Gr 2 SB-265-Gr 12 SB-162-200 (Hot Rolled) SB-162-201 (H. 60. 72. 97. 76. 67. 77. 66. 73. 65. 70. 86. 78. 93. 91. 59. 53. 87. 96. 51. 80. 94. 52. 71. 56. 61. 63. 69. 83.

User’s Guide 98. 111. 110. 101. 105. 120. 108. 121. 117. 106. 102. 104. 113. 107. NOT USED NOT USED NOT USED A-182-304 A-182-304L A-182-30426H A-182-304N A-182-316 A-182-316L A-182-316H A-182-316N A-182-317 A-182-317L A-182-321 A-182-321H A-182-347 A-182-347H A-182-348 A-182-348H A-182-309 A-182-309S A-182-310 A-182-310S A-182-405 A-182-410 A-182-430 CC-THERM Version 5. 109. 118. 100. 123. 99. 122. 112. 114.6 94 . 116. 103. 115. 119.

CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide APPENDIX III: TEMA DESIGNATIONS 95 .

5. 6. 41. 3. 4. 12. 13. 2. 36. 21. 7. 23. 42. 45. 8. 27. 32. 39. 26. 10. 22. 9. 29. 30. 20. 11. 14. 28.6 APPENDIX IV: FIN TUBES 1. 19. 25. 44. 43. 17. 31. 33. 40. 15. 38. 18. 35. 34. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-114028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-115032 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-116038 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-114035 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-115040 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 67-116044 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-163058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-164058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-164065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-164072 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-165058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-165065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-165072 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-165083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-165095 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-166058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-166065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-166072 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-166083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-166095 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-167065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-167072 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-167083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 63-167095 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-192032 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-193032 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-193042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-193049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-193058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194032 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-194072 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195032 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195035 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195072 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195095 96 . 24. 16.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. 37.

69. 88. 58. 47. 53. 70. 64.CC-THERM Version 5. 76. 71. 51. 91. 75. 48. 77. 82. 78. 50. 93. 72. 84. 67. 62. 52.6 46. 83. 57. 63. 66. 68. 86. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-195109 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196035 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196072 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-196095 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197072 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197095 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 60-197109 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-264049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265032 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-265072 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267032 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267058 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-267072 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285035 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-285083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286035 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-286083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287035 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287049 97 User’s Guide . 85. 55. 80. 61. 92. 59. 90. 79. 54. 74. 89. 56. 73. 81. 65. 49. 60. 87.

119. 104. 100. 140. 123. 129. 106. 97. 98. 117. 113. 116. 138. 110. 125. 124. 120. 135. 132. 101. 121. 107. 134. 105. 127. 115. 108. 126. 133. 136. 96. 122. 139. 109.6 . 95. 130.User’s Guide 94. 102. WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 65-287083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-324028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-324035 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-324042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-324049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-324065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325035 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-325083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326035 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-326083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327028 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327035 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327042 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327049 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327065 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-327083 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405128 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405135 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405142 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405149 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405165 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405228 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405235 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405242 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405249 WOLVERINE S/T TRUFIN 70-405265 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-195225 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-195228 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-195235 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265225 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265228 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265235 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265242 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265425 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265428 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265435 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-265349 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-267228 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-267235 98 CC-THERM Version 5. 112. 141. 114. 111. 103. 99. 137. 131. 118. 128.

CC-THERM Version 5. 159. 154. 165. 158. 172. 185. 170. 148. 182. 162. 164. 166. 145. 176. 178. 184. 187.6 142. 150. 152. 171. 163. 180. 188. 156. 173. 177. 153. WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-285628 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-285635 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-325525 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-325528 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-405228 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-405235 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-405425 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-405428 WOLVERINE TURBO-CHIL 56-405435 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1035 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1042 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1049 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1065 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1235 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1242 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1249 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1265 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1435 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1442 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1449 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1465 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1635 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1642 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1649 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1665 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1835 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1842 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1849 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1865 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2035 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2042 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2049 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2065 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1022 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1028 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1035 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1036 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1044 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1051 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1068 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1222 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1228 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1235 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1236 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1244 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1251 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1268 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1422 99 User’s Guide . 186. 181. 183. 168. 147. 179. 167. 160. 143. 149. 174. 175. 144. 155. 161. 146. 189. 151. 157. 169.

233. 230. 231. 229. 213. 211. 223. 219. 195. 227. 234. 191. 237. 206. 228. 210. 199. 222. 212. 209. 218. 202. 208.User’s Guide 190. 197. 196. 194. 205. 200. 207. 221.6 . 220. 232. 226. 203. 217. 214. 216. 224. 193. 204. 225. 198. WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1428 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1435 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1436 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1444 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1451 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1468 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1622 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1628 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1635 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1636 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1644 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1651 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1668 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1828 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1835 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1836 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1844 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1851 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-1868 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2028 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2035 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2036 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2044 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2051 WOLVERINE KORODENS MHT 57-2068 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1035 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1042 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1049 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1065 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1235 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1242 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1249 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1265 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1435 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1442 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1449 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1465 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1635 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1642 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1649 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1665 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1835 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1842 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1849 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1865 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2035 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2042 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2049 100 CC-THERM Version 5. 215. 236. 192. 235. 201.

248. 274. 266. 245. 265.CC-THERM Version 5.FINE-FIN 284065 HPTI .FINE-FIN 285065 101 User’s Guide . 270. 255. 262. 273. 267. 277. 240. WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2065 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1022 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1028 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1035 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1036 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1044 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1051 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1068 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1222 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1228 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1235 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1236 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1244 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1251 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1268 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1422 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1428 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1435 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1436 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1444 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1451 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1468 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1622 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1628 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1635 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1636 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1644 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1651 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1668 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1828 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1835 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1836 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1844 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1851 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-1868 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2028 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2035 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2036 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2044 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2051 WOLVERINE KORODENS LPD 57-2068 HPTI . 275. 283. 258. 260. 271. 269. 249.FINE-FIN 285028 HPTI . 259. 282. 276.FINE-FIN 284028 HPTI . 281.FINE-FIN 284049 HPTI . 264. 261. 247. 257.FINE-FIN 284083 HPTI . 244. 278. 280. 239. 256. 285. 246. 243.FINE-FIN 285049 HPTI . 284. 268.6 238. 251. 241. 272. 242. 279. 252. 253. 254. 263. 250.

FINE-FIN 307065 102 CC-THERM Version 5. 292.FINE-FIN 284035 HPTI . 332. 320.FINE-FIN 286049 HPTI . 307. 326.FINE-FIN 286065 HPTI .FINE-FIN 287028 HPTI . 325.FINE-FIN 287083 HPTI . HPTI . 327. 289. 306.6 . 302. 305.FINE-FIN 284028 HPTI .FINE-FIN 285083 HPTI . 304.FINE-FIN 304049 HPTI .FINE-FIN 286049 HPTI . 293. 290.FINE-FIN 287065 HPTI .FINE-FIN 285109 HPTI . 287. 330. 291. 319. 288. 310. 297. 322.FINE-FIN 304065 HPTI .FINE-FIN 286083 HPTI . 318.FINE-FIN 305083 HPTI .FINE-FIN 285028 HPTI .FINE-FIN 305065 HPTI .FINE-FIN 287109 HPTI .FINE-FIN 286065 HPTI .FINE-FIN 286035 HPTI . 308.FINE-FIN 286028 HPTI .FINE-FIN 306049 HPTI .FINE-FIN 287049 HPTI . 299.FINE-FIN 285065 HPTI . 296.FINE-FIN 287028 HPTI .FINE-FIN 287035 HPTI .FINE-FIN 305028 HPTI .FINE-FIN 284083 HPTI . 309.FINE-FIN 284065 HPTI .FINE-FIN 307049 HPTI . 312.FINE-FIN 306028 HPTI . 315. 317. 328. 303. 329.FINE-FIN 285049 HPTI .FINE-FIN 307028 HPTI .FINE-FIN 286083 HPTI . 321. 301. 313. 314.FINE-FIN 305049 HPTI . 294. 298. 300.FINE-FIN 286028 HPTI . 295. 331.FINE-FIN 287065 HPTI . 316.FINE-FIN 284049 HPTI . 324.FINE-FIN 306065 HPTI .FINE-FIN 285035 HPTI .FINE-FIN 306083 HPTI .FINE-FIN 287083 HPTI .FINE-FIN 285083 HPTI .User’s Guide 286. 323.FINE-FIN 286109 HPTI .FINE-FIN 304083 HPTI .FINE-FIN 284109 HPTI . 333.FINE-FIN 304028 HPTI .FINE-FIN 287049 HPTI . 311.

11 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.16 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515. 345.20 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209. 343. 350. 378. 362.11 WIELAND GEWA-K 16 R/Z 16015.20 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.15 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.18 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209. 368.12 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209. 371.11 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015. 338.FINE-FIN 307083 WIELAND GEWA-K 16 R/Z 16015. 373. 376.08 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515. 341. 355. 364.20 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015. 359.16 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015. 344. 366.16 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.20 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015. 353. 356.11 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515. 381. 380.14 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.6 334.15 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209. 361. 340.20 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515. 357. 363.14 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.14 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.16 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515. 367.08 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.14 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015. 347. HPTI .12 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.16 WIELAND GEWA-K 30 R/Z 08508. 372. 375. 335.12 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.14 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.15 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209. 374.11 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.15 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.20 WIELAND GEWA-K 30 R/Z 08508.11 WIELAND GEWA-K 30 R/Z 08508. 379. 377. 369.08 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515. 346.08 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.16 WIELAND GEWA-K 16 R/Z 16015.14 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515. 348. 337.CC-THERM Version 5. 349.12 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209. 365. 352.08 WIELAND GEWA-K 16 R/Z 16015. 370.14 WIELAND GEWA-K 16 R/Z 16015. 354. 351. 342. 336. 360.14 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.18 103 User’s Guide .14 WIELAND GEWA-K 30 R/Z 08508. 358.16 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.20 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.16 WIELAND GEWA-K 19 R/Z 13515.20 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015.14 WIELAND GEWA-K 26 R/Z 10015. 339.

5 R 22035.22 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.6 .09 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.10S WIELAND GEWA-D 11. WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.08 WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 410.22 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.12 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.18 WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 384. 414. 401.21 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.5 R 22035. 420. 397.5 R 22035.5 R 22045. 389. 407.5 R 22045.18 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209. 387.18 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.22 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.15 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.20S WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.09 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.5 R 22045.15 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 413.12S WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 429. 403.21 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.12 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.18 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209.User’s Guide 382.14 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.5 R 22035.5 R 22035.5 R 22035.12 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.10 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.12 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.5 R 22035.08 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.5 R 22035.5 R 22035. 424.14 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.12 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.12 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.12 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 428.21 WIELAND GEWA-K 36 R/Z 07209. 409. 423.16 WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 427. 393. 411.09 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.18 WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 386.5 R 22045.15 104 CC-THERM Version 5.5 R 22045. 426.5 R 22035. 395.14S WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 396. 425. 421. 408.16 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.16 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.08S WIELAND GEWA-D 11.5 R 22035.09 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 404.12 WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 418. 406. 402.5 R 22045. 388.5 R 22035.5 R 22045.5 R 22035.12 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 390.22 WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 391.5 R 22035.15 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 400. 405. 416.5 R 22035.16S WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 392. 394.16 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.10 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.5 R 22045.5 R 22035. 383.5 R 22035.08 WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 412. 417. 422. 419.5 R 22035. 415.21 WIELAND GEWA-D 11. 385. 398.10 WIELAND GEWA-D 11.5 R 22035. 399.5 R 22035.

6 430.18 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 440. 455.15 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 432.12 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.18 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.15 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510. 450.21 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 462. 467. 461.21 HPTI TITANIUM 435023 User’s Guide 105 . WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 453. 447. 431. 445. 436. 464.21 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.18 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.21 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 458.15 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.15 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.18 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 451. 475. 472.12 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.21 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.15 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.18 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.18 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.18 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 460.18 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.15 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 473.09 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.09 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510. 474. 465. 434. 448. 441.15 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.18 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510. 469.09 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510. 470.21 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510. 466. 459. 463. 443. 452. 454.15 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.21 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 435.21 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.15 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.12 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.18 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 444. 438. 457.12 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510. 456.15 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510. 471. 468.15 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.15 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.12 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510. 439.12 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.09 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510.09 WIELAND GEWA-TW 19R/Z 13510. 442. 449.18 WIELAND GEWA-T 19 R/Z 13510.15 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510.CC-THERM Version 5.21 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510. 446. 433.12 WIELAND GEWA-TWX19R/Z 13510. 437.

1. then the user may define his own using the procedure outlined below. or you can just use the default selections (recommended). 3. Select the “User specified fin tube” option from the Trufin tube code list. Using this screen you can select a different method to calculate heat transfer on shell and tubeside. Select the “User specified fin tube” option from the Trufin tube code list on the Tube Specifications dialog box.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. This dialog box is found on the Exchanger Geometry Menu under the main Shell and Tube Exchanger Menu.6 APPENDIX V: USER FINTUBES If the fin tube or “enhanced heat transfer” tube that is needed is not contained in the CC-THERM library. The Fin Tube Methods dialog box will open. 4. 2. 106 . Click [OK].

Click [OK]. 7. The dialog box looks like this: 107 . Complete both pages of the Fin Tube Specifications dialog box. THE FINTUBE METHODS DIALOG BOX The Fin Tube Methods dialog box enables the user to specify which heat transfer method is to be used to calculate the film coefficients and pressure drops on each side of the tube. The Fin Tube Specifications dialog box will open. Click [OK]. 6.6 User’s Guide 5. You will be returned to the Shell and Tube Exchanger Geometry Menu.CC-THERM Version 5.

6 THE FINTUBE SPECIFICATIONS DIALOG BOX 108 .User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.

D fr 2 Fin thickness: Enter the average width of the fin. This number is used only in the calculation of Turbo-Chill and Korodense in the calculation. but may be useful in making your output conform to industry standards. Tube-to-baffle clearance: Standard TEMA clearances do not suffice for finned tube calculations. Equivalent diameter-condensation: This is the correlating outside diameter for condensation in Turbo-Chill tubes. C-1/2 Mo. Nominal outer diameter: Enter a nominal diameter. It is used only for Turbo-Chill and Korodense tubes. Available options are: • • • • • Plain Fin Koro-Dense Turbo-Chill Fluted Turbulator Tube Material: The materials commonly used for low fintubes are available. this should be sufficient. Referring to Figure 1. Since the main influence of materials on the calculation is the determination of tube wall resistance. 109 . Equivalent diameter-sensible: This is the correlating outside diameter for sensible flow in Turbo-Chill tubes. This is the portion of the tube which is finned. h = height of fin = D fo . it is useful to specify a name for the tube. Referring to Figure 1. Fin Root Diameter: This is the diameter of the tube from the bottom of the fins. the tube type must be identified as it determines the approval taken in the calculations. In Figure 1 below. Dti represents the internal diameter of the fin tube. When a user defines his own tube. This would be Lss in Figure 1 and w as shown in Figure 2. These are carbon steel. the fin root diameter is requested by Dfr. Number of Fins: Enter the number of fins per unit of length.CC-THERM Version 5. Tube type: There are many types of enhanced heat transfer tubes.6 Page 1: User’s Guide Name: Since the data for this fintube will be stored in the CHEMCAD databank. This name will then appear at the bottom of your fintube list whenever it is displayed. For accuracy the user should enter his/her own value. Internal diameter: Low finned tubes have one internal diameter at their entrance and another internal diameter along that portion of the tabs which is finned. and 11/4 Cr-1/2 Mo. C-1/2 Moly Steel. For other materials the user can input the wall and fin THERMal conductivity. It is used only for Turbo-Chill and Korodense tuber. Fin height: Enter the height of the fin from its base. CC-THERM contains manufacturer data for many commercially available tubes for each of these types.

Wall Thermal conductivity: Enter the wall thermal conductivity. It is used to calculate the fin tube wall resistance. Fin Thermal conductivity: Enter the fin thermal conductivity.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Ratio of outside/actual inside area: This is the total outside heat transfer area divided by the inside area calculated using the actual inside diameter of the tube. Put another way. This value is used only for Turbo-Chill and Korodense tubes. it is: Area/Lengt h = (Area of exposed portion of fins) + (Outside Area of tube not covered by fin) Length of tube Ratio of outside/based inside area: This is the total outside heat transfer area divided by the inside area calculated using the nominal diameter of the tube.6 Page 2: Area/Length: This is the total heat transfer surface area on the outside of the tube per unit length. r. χ are used in the equations given below: 110 . The program defaults to that of the material selected above. The program defaults to that of the material selected above. It is used to calculate tube wall resistance. This value is used only for Turbo-Chill and Korodense tubes. β. Heat transfer data: The factors m.

Reynold’s No. Practical extended surfaces are composed of a number of fins placed on a base surface.136 +χ m 2. The heat transfer coefficient h is considered to be uniform over both the fin and the base surface. The weighted fin efficiency can be defined as. At = Af + Ar. Ar is the surface of the tube that is not covered by fins and At is the total surface area. Q Qa nf = a = Qi h ⋅ A f (Tr . Af Tr Tb h = = = = area of surface extension of fin the temperature of the outside of the fin at the point of its attachment to the base surface the temperature of the surrounding fluid the film coefficient on the tube fins The above is for a single isolated fin.Tb ) where. 111   A   + 1 − f    At     . to the amount of heat that could be transferred if the complete surface of the fin was at the temperature of the root of the fin. χ = = = = = heat capacity mass flow/cross sectional area Prandtl’s No. defined by ho A t = h(A f n f + A r ) where. This is accomplished by introducing a weighted heat transfer coefficient ho. β. Qi.6 User’s Guide hi = Cp ∗ G f 8 β f Pr ∗ Re ∗ F 8      8 = 0. r. Thus. It is defined as the ratio of the actual heat transfer from the extended surface Qa. In calculating the total heat transfer from a tube containing extended surfaces.CC-THERM Version 5. A  A  n = 1 .46 ln r + 7 Re [ ( )] −1 where. correlating factors for tube Fin efficiency: For a single fin the fin efficiency nf is introduced to simplify the calculation of the heat transfer from an extended surface. one must take into consideration the amount of heat transferred through the unfinned part of the bar tube as well as that from the extended surfaces. Cp G Pr Re F.f (1 − n f ) = n f  f A  At   t Enter n in this field.

Investigation of Turbulators for Fire Tube Boilers. 60 #7.6 APPENDIX VI CHEMCAD THERM REFERENCES Here is a list of references that have been used in the program for the heat transfer calculations. . CEP.J. pp. 1962. N. Pgs. R. N. Int. Junkham. E6. p. 1966. A.Vaporizer and Reboiler Design. and Ravigurajan. K.. E17. VDI Heat Atlas. EVAPORATION E1. Vol. R. Vol. 4 p. Paper E2. 39.Improved Friction Pressure Drop Correlations for Horizontal and Vertical TwoPhase Pipe Flow European Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting.17 MN/m2 (100 . Hewitt . E8. Journal of Heat Transfer. Petroleum Refiner.Performance Prediction of Falling-Film Evaporator. 10-23. 1. Chemical Engineering. 1971.. 695. p. Italy. E15.A Simple but Accurate Round Tube Uniform Heat Flux. Chun. July 1963. 1983. Engr. also Perry . Journal of Heat Transfer. 1966. Vol. 62. 107. E24. E4. R. Symposium Series.. November 1964. Rept. Fair .Predict Nucleate Boiling Transfer Rates. Chung K. . February 1973. Vol. CEP. Lockhart and Martinelli . Cotchin and Henry . p. 537-550. E9. E16. Prog. Vol. Heat & Mass Transfer. .Tests on a Small Kettle Reboiler. E13.. Hughmark .. CEP. Forster. p. #3. pp. 1948. Ind. 25. Sinek and Young . E20. Martinelli and Nelson . R. E5. Hydrocarbon Processing. Fair . E25.2500 Psia). Md1-Md7. Imperial College Chemical Engineering Society.. and Seban. E3. and Prina. J. Vol. 4. Vol. CEP. and Dev.Applications of Two-Phase Flow. Vol. Premoli. 322. p. A. Chem. 65 #7. #10. 17-26. Lo Termotecnica. WA. p. M. 7 (18) (1953).. AEEW-R789. Vol..User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.Dynamics of Vapor Bubbles and Boiling Heat Transfer. G. .. July 1982. 67.. Paper presented at the 21st National Heat Transfer Conf. p. A. 1992. Chemical Engineering. E11. Dryout Correlation over t he Pressure Range . Malek .. A.Heat Transfer in Falling Film Long-Tube Vertical Evaporators.A Systematic Correlation for Two-Phase Pressure Drop. p. S. Vol.A Dimensionless Correlation for Determining the Density of Two-Phase Mixtures. Baroczy .Correlation for Boiling Heat Transfer to Saturated Liquids in Convective Flow. Des. J. 43 #11. E10. . Palen and Small . 105. 1949. 531. L. May 1985. 1961. No. Grant. V.Dynamics of Vertical Falling Film Systems. E21.. Francesco. W. Vol.Boiling Heat Transfer. K. McNelly. 391.Designing Thermosyphon Reboilers. Hughmark .Vaporizers. 58 #12. AIChE J. et. Fair . p.Heat Transfer to Evaporating Liquid Films. 1972. E18. Kutaladze. 55. 38. 58. D. Journal of Heat Transfer. 1969. E2. Friedel. E19. Chen . Volume 94. 432. 1959. H. Hydrocarbon Processing. E23. Engr.A New Way to Design Kettle and Internal Reboilers. 112 . . Vol. . 232. page 31. 70. 1955.Sixth Edition. June 1979.Prediction of Pressure Drops during Forced-Circulation Boiling of Water. Isora.What You Need to Design Thermosyphon Reboilers. Seattle. Proc. Vol.7 . Bergles. 45 #1. R. E14. Nirmalan. T. Pgs. A. 119. S. al. and Seban. CEP. p. August 1963. Dukler . 1971. Volume 93.Designing Thermosyphon Reboilers. 59.Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal Two-Phase TwoComponent Flow in Pipes. E7. 354. . Hewitt. . p. E. E22. . 1972. p. Transactions ASME. and Zuber. Vol. . February 1960. E26. E12. Bowring.

10.Dynamics of Vertical Falling Film Systems. Carpenter and Colburn . Mass Transfer Correction Terius Design Methods for Multi-Component/Partial th Condensers. p. 9. Keozierski. Vol.CC-THERM Version 5. P. 113 . p.. G.Theoretical Study of Laminar Film Condensation of Flowing Vapor. p.Gas Cooling with Aqueous Condensation. Journal of Heat Transfer. J. Transfer in Film Condensation of Pure Steam on Vertical Surfaces and Horizontal Tubes. Hewitt.. C2. Gloyer . American Institute of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series. CONDENSATION C1. 1970.How to Design Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers. 405-406. . Briggs.L. J. 101. 369. and Bott. p.Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Air Flowing Across Triangular Pitch Banks of Finned Tubes. Katz and Young .Heat Transfer and Hydraulic Resistances during Condensation of Steam in a Horizontal Tube and in a Bundle of Tubes. 107. CEP Symposium Series. p. Teploenergetika. Toborek. Boyko and Kruzhilin . Webb.Hydrocarbon Processing. M. G. Vol. C15. 93. T. November 1988. M. J. 1. E. J. Vol. CEP.F.. 1980 (102) 471-476. C13. Ralph L. E. 361. C3. . J. Vol. 1979. No. 59 #11. 1951. C10. Chemical Engineering Process. 7. C24. Kutaladze and Borisshanski . D. Process Heat Transfer CRC Press. May 1979. 20. 1992. 574-580.An Analytical Model to Predict Condensate Retention on Horizontal Integral-Fin Tubes. Hewitt et. C14. C18. CEP. ibid. May 1985. Vol.. D. C23.Approximate Method for Multi-Component Condensation. P.. G. C21. 1966.Saturated Forced-Convective Boiling Heat Transfer with Twisted-Tape Inserts. 72. R. C22. 412-413 C20. 69. . 581. Journal of Heat Transfer. Briggs and Young .R.. VDI Heat Atlas. 55 #10. Dukler . and Bensler. Hewitt. A. L. Pgs.A Generalized Procedure for the Design and Optimization of Fluted Gregorig Condensing Surfaces. C4. Transactions Institute of Chemical Engineers. 18 U. R. Webb. T. p. Ruby.General Discussion on Heat Transfer. Vol.. May 1985. February 1986. . L. Rudy. Narato. 580-589. 1287. Prediction of Horizontal Tube-side Condensation of Pure Components using Flow Regeine Criteria. Bell and Khaly .Prediction of the Condensation Coefficient on Horizontal Integral-Fin Tubes. C6. Vol.6 User’s Guide E27. p.An Evaluation of Film Condensation on Horizontal Integral-Fin Tubes. et. 110. Heat Transfer. Vol. al. p. 409-410. M. Jensen. 1966.How to Design Finned-Tube Heat Exchangers. H. p. 25. al. 103. Vol.. C17. C12.. and Young. Shires. 660. 1994 Pgs. and Webb. 49 #6. p. ASME. p. 335. 107. al. Breber. Vol. #131.. Vol. 59 #41.M. Katz. Bribbs. AIChE Today Series. Journal of Heat Transfer. 590. Pgs. Trans. C11. K. Hewitt et. A. Bell and Mueller . C8.. C16. November 1963. . 1974. 1957. 1963.Condensation Heat Transfer.S. 361. 1972. M. Journal of Heat Transfer. 30. Vol. McNaught. C5. 4. Vol. C19. Florida. T. p. 1971. 402-405. 108.W.. 72.. C7. Pgs. National Heat Transfer Conference. ASME. ibid. Institute of the Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer. 1959. Boca Raton. L. Silver . Vol. Ja6-Ja8. 1967. . Journal of Heat Transfer.A Concise Encyclopedia of Heat Transfer. C9. Shekriladze . palen. Vol. Pgs.

. Pgs. 1950. Parts I. Hewitt. 98 S19. 134. Engr. M. J. p. R. and McMillan. 36. London. 114 . Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association .Heat Transfer in Tubes with Spiral and Helical Turbulators. Second Symposium on Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers. Klaczak. 1981. Hewitt. HTD. and Taborek.. Wills.Combined Free and Forced Laminar Non-Newtonian Convection in a Vertical Tube with Constant Wall Temperature. 1984.W. D. Adam .Thermal-Hydraulic Predictive Methods Phillips Petroleum Company. K. 1969.Process Heat Transfer. Chemical Engineering Science. Industrial Engineering Chemistry. Young and Small . R. et. Gb1-Gb8. Edition. Transactions of the ASME. S4. McGraw-Hill. 473. p. Sieder and Tate . C. al. Bell. 1951 S5. Eubank. Chen . S13. ASME. Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Kern . Vol. Palen. Marner. AICHE. November 1973. .. 1992.TEMA Section 6 .. Martinelli. K. . Grant. Heat Transfer Conference. S11. VDI Heat Atlas. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Pgs. S9. S10. 1936. p. K. Pg. 28. Proc. and Proctor W.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. University of Delaware. Vol. Pg. S2. September 14. al. I. and Johnston. Vol. S16. CEP Symposium Series. D. J. Tinker . AICHE. 1992.N. ibid.University of California (Berkeley) Publ. Vol. S.Flow Induced Vibration.. McGrawHill. S12. CEP Symposium Series.. 15. VDI Heat Atlas. p. 95. S7. 557. R. 22 National Heat Transfer Conference. Chemical Engineering Department. ibid. al. S8.Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Liquids in Tubes. J.Shell-Side Characteristics of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers. Perry.. . Heat Transfer Conference. S15. Sixth. 97 S18. 73-79 S20. and Boelter. Ga1-Ga8 S14. Pgs. Solution of Shellside Flow Pressure Drop and heat Transfer by Stream Analysis Method. 1972. Hewitt. H. H.. Cooperative Research Program on Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers. 1942. 1951. S6. Gentry. General Discussion of Heat Transfer. J. S17. p. 1968. W. ibid. 1972. et. Vol. . 1429.Flow-Induced Vibration and Noise in Tube-Bank Heat Exchangers Due to von Karman Streets. C. June 1963.Rod Baffle Exchangers . A New and Accurate Hand Calculation Method for Shellside nd Pressure Drop and Flow Distribution..MS Thesis. et.6 SENSIBLE FLOW S1. 23. L.Final Report. and Green. S3. Journal of Heat Transfer. II. J. and III. Flow and Pressure Drop with Single Phase and Two Phase Flow on the Shellside of Segmentally Baffled Heat Exchangers..D. 27. D.Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook.

CC-THERM AIR COOLER User’s Guide And Tutorial .

.

It is based upon the CHEMCAD input system. review the results of problems already designed. Since AIR COOLER is integrated with the CHEMCAD Suite. EASY TO LEARN The input for AIR COOLER is simple and concise. 1. This generates the heat and material balances for CC-THERM AIR COOLER to use. More information on each option in the main menu is provided in Chapter 2. the program is also equipped with sound thermodynamic models as well as a database with physical properties for over 2150 pure components. The input functions allow you to enter process data by using dialog boxes. but you will need to use a two-side heat exchanger model in CHEMCAD if the non-tube side fluid is not air. please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for these types of “How to” instructions.6 User’s Guide PRODUCT OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION TO CC-THERM AIR COOLER CC-THERM AIR COOLER or AIR COOLER is an integrated module for the design. you can create new problem files.CC-THERM Version 5. Define the simulation problem and run the flowsheet in CC-STEADY STATE. 4. This section gives an overall view of the program usage and the options available in the AIR COOLER main menu. AIRCOOLER is part of the CCTHERM heat exchanger subproduct. so any user familiar with CHEMCAD will be able to operate AIR COOLER with ease. There are seven general steps involved in running a heat exchanger analysis with AIR COOLER. 2. The following list illustrates the general steps. The Sizing Menu will open. If Air is the utility for the exchanger. 115 . Other fin side fluids are possible. With this input facility. It is fully integrated with CHEMCAD so process data is automatically transferred from CHEMCAD’s flowsheets to the heat exchanger sizing program. Since the input/output systems and conventions are the same in AIR COOLER as those used in CHEMCAD. select air in the component list. The interactive feature of AIR COOLER allows full control of data communication. From this menu select the Heat Exchangers followed by selection of AIR COOLER option. and heating curves and physical properties data are automatically generated. Select the Sizing command on the menu bar. rating. and make modifications to previously saved problems. OVERVIEW AIR COOLER is a state-of-the-art interactive tool for rating and design of air-cooled (or heated) heat exchangers. and fouling rating of air cooled heat exchangers in the CHEMCAD Suite. 3.

It is a valuable tool for the process engineer. The program will prompt you through the initial setup of the exchanger analysis. 116 . ii. Inspect and edit the input as desired using the menu commands. and airflow. 6. 1. Performs extensive error checking. Provides an interactive user interface to allow the user to change the problem specifications to rerun the problem and review the results. Generates the heat curve for the tube and airsides. Review and printout. the user supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions and airflow.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Rating – The tube side inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flow sheet and the user supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions. When the instruction is cleared by clicking [OK]. The program performs the following tasks. iii. the AIR COOLER Menu is displayed. Calculates in any of the following modes: i.6 5. and the program calculates the main dimensions of the exchangers (certain basic geometry specifications must be specified by the user). Generates the output for the design/analysis of the heat exchanger. 8. The program has been thoroughly and rigorously tested and found to be an accurate and reliable tool. The program calculates the fouling factors required to obtain the specified performance from the exchanger. the user supplies the fouling factors and airflow. 7. 2. Creates the airside streams for the use of air cooled heat exchangers. Creates the AIR COOLER files to save all the input/output data for each exchanger. Since it uses the same command language as CHEMCAD. you will be taken to the function or dialog box appropriate for completing the instructed task. 4. Design . At the end of the set up process. 7.The tube side inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flow sheet. SUMMARY As an integrated module to the CHEMCAD Suite. It will do this by displaying instructions about what you are to do next. The program determines whether the exchanger is too large or too small for the given application. 6. 3. It is fully supported by a staff of trained engineers. any CHEMCAD user can pick up the program in a matter of minutes. AIR COOLER offers the process engineer an easy and comprehensive method of sizing or rating air-cooled heat exchangers. fouling factors. Fouling rating – The tube side inlet and outlet streams are taken from the flow sheet and 5. Execute the problem.

For creating a new job. rating. the program will take you to a different status of data entering depending on whether you are creating a new job or revisiting an old one. It allows you to enter your air cooler information through a menu system similar to CCTHERM SHELL AND TUBE. and other analysis. Upon exiting the Air Side Data dialog screen. Upon exiting the menu. AIR COOLER is accessed from CHEMCAD using the Sizing. 117 . The screen appears as follows. rating. If design is the computation mode you selected in the Air Cooler General Data screen. run the problem immediately.6 User’s Guide AIR COOLER COMMANDS The AIR COOLER program is an interactive program for air cooler design. The program will by pass the Air Cooler Geometry menu and lead you directly to the Air Side Data dialog screen. and take you to the main Air Cooler menu. perform mass and energy balance computation. The first screen you will see is the Air Cooler General Data screen. the program will take you to the Air Side Data dialog screen where airside data may be entered. the program will automatically take process data from CHEMCAD and those you just entered. the program will take you through several screens and allow you to enter all the data required. Heat Exchangers. create and show the four streams entering and leaving the heat exchanger. The second screen will be Air Cooler Geometry menu if your selection for computation mode is rating or fouling rating. The entrance listed in the menu allows you to access various air cooler geometry data specification dialog. edit your data if you wish and re-run the problem until you are satisfied. do the heat curve calculation. or fouling rating of the unit. fouling rating.CC-THERM Version 5. Upon entering AIR COOLER. and Air Cooler option. This screen permits you to make specifications that affect the overall approach to design. review the results.

Condensation The program considers the following types of condensation: Horizontal Condensation Vertical Condensation Reflux condenser The program calculates tube side condensation for horizontal condenser.6 For revisiting an old job. Three modes of calculation may be selected: design. and view results. rating. The two principal heat transfer mechanisms occurring (shear-controlled 118 . the program will take you directly to the main Air Cooler menu where you can access any data entrance screen freely. and Wieland tubes built into the program.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. In the design mode. a full optimization of the bundle dimensions. HPTI. 5. Finned tube may be user defined or chosen from a library of Wolverine. vertical condenser. METHODS TUBESIDE HEAT TRANSFER The tube side heat transfer is calculated differently for condensation and sensible flow. In the fouling rating mode. The algorithm for condensation calculation in air cooler program is similar to that in shell and tube program in that the exchanger is always broken into n (default=10) different zones. and reflux (or knock-back) condenser for in-tube condensation. 3. 4. tube length. the required heat transfer area will be calculated for given process stream and air cooler geometry data and compared to actual area at service. TECHNICAL FEATURES 1. it is important to note that if you have made any changes to the streams or heat exchanger units within CHEMCAD. fouling factors will be estimated for given process stream and air cooler. as well as tube passes per bundle will be carried out. Tubes may be bare or finned. In the rating mode. or fouling rating mode. Dry wall and wet wall condensing can be accommodated. Conservative and non-conservative condensing methods are available. AIR COOLER handles the following applications: • • • • Sensible cooling Horizontal condensing Vertical condensing Reflux condensation 2. run computation. When revisiting an old job. you will receive a warning from AIR COOLER recommending that you recalculate the heat curve to reflect those changes.

do not take into account the presence of non-condensibles or the effect or large temperature differences between the vapor dew point and bubble point. For void fraction. as such. a method similar to that suggested by Silver and Bell & Khaly in the above-cited references is utilized. half of the required area is often necessary for the last zone alone. stratifying flow at low vapor velocity and annular flow at high vapor velocity. the correlation by Premoli et al. the program calculates a resistance factor to include the combined effects of a large temperature difference and the presence of non-condensibles. For a condenser where the inlet quality is 100% and the outlet 0%. especially. and two-phase density. and. and finally. A very common occurrence in a steam condenser is the presence of a small quantity of air. the flow regime usually is shear-controlled at the inlet. the resistance factor in this last zone could be substantial. The Nusselt treatment (1916) is followed for laminar film. To account for the presence of non-condensibles or large temperature differences between inlet and outlet. interpolation is applied. The calculation of two-phase flow is an important part of an air-cooled condenser calculation. In between these two extreme zones. Previously. Stratifying flow forms when the influence of vapor shear is low and condensate film drains under gravity forming a drainage region at the top part of the tube inner and a stratified layer at the bottom. Multi-Component Condensation and the Effect of Non-Condensibles All above-mentioned methods are for condensation of a pure vapor and. a sizable temperature difference may exist and the amount of noncondensibles may become more significant since almost all of the vapor has condensed. shear controlled model is applied. gravity controlled model obtained by Chaddock (1962) and Chato (1957) is applied to the drainage region and the heat transfer in the stratified layer is also under consideration while calculating average heat transfer coefficients. The 119 . the calculation is considered to be in the transition region between shear controlled and gravity controlled. two extreme cases are recognized. Sensible Flow The Sieder-Tate equation is employed for the calculation of the tube side heat transfer coefficient in the turbulent region. For the two-phase pressure drop calculation. void fraction. the program uses the Friedel correlation (1979). is gravity controlled at the outlet. (1971) is used. For each step along the condensation curve. Thus. For the stratifying flow. A two-phase multiplier is then used to compute the real two-phase variables. In vertical tube condensation. In horizontal tube condensation. the condensing temperature is practically isothermal because only a small amount of air is present. the Nelson modification (1948) of the Lockhart-Martinelli equation (1949) was used to calculate the two-phase density and pressure drop. The program uses the Dukler method for gravity condensation for vertical tubes. in such a case. The calculation of the two-phase flow is computed as if all the fluid is in the liquid state. For intermediate region between stratifying and annular flows. In the last zone. The method of Martinelli and Boelter is utilized for laminar flow in a vertical tube. For the first several zones of such an exchanger. filmwise condensation is considered. more recently published correlations have proven to be far more accurate and now supplant the Lockhart-Martinelli method. For the annular flow. This type gives a graphic illustration of how these resistance factors come into play. However.CC-THERM Version 5. goes through the transition region. of pressure drop. Again. the gravity controlled and shear controlled mechanism applies.6 User’s Guide condensation and gravity-controlled condensation) are computed. Annular flow forms when the vapor shear force is much greater than gravity and the stratified layer disappears.

The heat transfer and pressure drop correlation suggested by ESDU (1984) is used for low fin tubes. 120 . the correlation recommended by ESDU (1986) is applied for staggered finned-tube arrays and that by Schmidt (1963) is applied for in-line arrays. For finned-tube. ZONE ANALYSIS For all exchangers. it uses the method described in the Heat Exchanger Design Handbook (1983). P. T. such as temperature. the recommendations made in Section 5. The flow is assumed to be laminar below a Reynolds number of 2000 and is turbulent above a Reynolds number of 10000. For high fin tubes.23 of Perry are followed. the concept of fin efficiency is applied to allow for the radial temperature profile in calculating heat transfer coefficients. the program uses ESDU methods (1973). edit. AIRSIDE HEAT TRANSFER For the airside heat transfer coefficient of bare tube. the Plot menu is available at any time for the graphic display of the most important profiles. the program prorates the laminar and turbulent coefficient according to the Reynolds number to arrive at the final coefficient. along the axial direction from the zone-by-zone analysis. AIR COOLER automatically sets up the zones and properties of each zone. For pressure drop. Both of these correlations combine the effects of natural convection and forced convection. heat transfer coefficient.6 method of Eubank and Proctor is used for laminar flow in horizontal tubes. OUTPUT FEATURES The user may select from the following output: • • • • • A zone-by-zone print-out of the heat curve and fluid physical properties API datasheet A detailed print-out of overall exchanger values A zone-by-zone print-out of heat transfer and pressure drop calculations The stream information inlet/outlet with H. For turbulent flow (Reynolds number above 3000) and for the transition region between laminar and turbulent flow. The program uses the familiar Poiseuille’s law for the friction factor in the pressure drop calculation for laminar flow (Reynolds number below 2000). the unit is analyzed using zones specified by user. and heat flux. but permits the user to edit or override. In the transition region.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. The editing heat curve facility also provides you with an opportunity not only to view the heat curve but also to be able to access the contents of the heat curve and make any changes to the data that you want without going through the procedures for the heat curve generation. or print out the results. and component flow rates • Optimization data You can request any of above output to be opened in Microsoft Word or Word Pad by using the View menu and conveniently view. Also. The details of this operation will be described later.

pressure drop calculations. Air Side Data – This option enables user to specify Air Side data and the data along with tube side data obtained from CHEMCAD are used for calculating required air flow through material and energy balance. and fan power calculation. Please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for the details of all input connections and dialog boxes. This calculation determines the flows. and fan power estimation are performed. pressure drop. then the heat transfer.CC-THERM Version 5. Heat Curve Generation is therefore a necessary prerequisite to the rest of the calculations.6 User’s Guide USING AIR COOLER MENUS The Air Cooler Menu looks like this The options on this menu are briefly described below and more fully described in the following sections bearing the option as title. physical properties of the heat transfer fluids in each side of the exchanger. the heat curve is generated. 121 . Heat Curve Generation performs the former calculations. You should note that CHEMCAD input rules apply. First. DATA ENTRY IN AIR COOLER You will be entering data about air cooler through the Air Cooler dialog boxes. Heat Curve Generation – The air cooler analysis calculation takes place in two steps. These properties are then used in the heat transfer.

The screen is shown below. heat transfer area information on a zone-by-zone basis. General Specifications – This option allows user to define general data for an air cooler calculation including calculation mode. nozzles.6 Edit Heat Curve – This option enables the user to edit the heat curve values calculated by Heat Curve Generation or even created heat curve through manual input. Plot – This option enables user to graphically display heat curve. AIR SIDE DATA The Air Side Data input screen allows the user to specify the air inlet and outlet temperature. heat flux. heat transfer coefficients. Calculate – This is used to execute the thermal analysis and pressure drop calculation. bundle. 122 . These inputs are used to calculate air flow.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. static pressure. View Results – This item is used to view the calculated results interactively. material specifications. Re-enter Stream Information – This command enables user to retrieve new stream information for the tube side from CHEMCAD process flow sheet. and some API reporting related items. process type. temperature. air cooler orientation. fouling rating option. It also allows user to do linear interpolation. LMTD. and fan. fouling factor. condensation model for condensation calculation. These fields are described below. allowed pressure drop for design mode. miscellaneous. Exchanger Geometry – Selecting this option allows user to provide physical dimensions for tube. user specified heat transfer. and face velocity.

Outlet air temperature . elevation above sea level. Inlet air temperature . the program will default the static pressure to . Relative humidity .6 User’s Guide Stream name .Enter the outlet air temperature in the units shown. This face velocity together with the air cooler geometry data is used to calculate airflow.CC-THERM Version 5.The fan may be forced or induced draft. Further rating. at which the air cooler will operate.Enter the altitude.7 mm). An induced draft fan pulls the air through the bundle. If the outlet air temperature reaches the inlet temp of the process. Fan position . fouling rating. If this entry is left blank. fouling rating. This altitude determines ambient pressure for the air cooler.Enter the relative humidity if you wish to correct the air side properties to account for the water vapor in air. Outlet air temperature together with inlet air temperature and tube heat duty will be used to calculate airflow rate through energy balance. The default for inlet air temperature is 86 ºF (30ºC).This is the face velocity based on the entire airflow at standard condition divided by the face area of the bundles. and design will be carried out based on this fixed airflow rate.Enter the inlet (ambient) air temperature in the units shown. and design will be carried out based on this fixed face velocity.5 inches (12. Further rating. HEAT CURVE GENERATION Selecting this option will cause the Heat Curve Parameters dialog box to appear: 123 . A forced draft fan receives the air at ambient temperature and pushes it through the bundle.Enter the available static pressure in the units as shown. A small value of face velocity for given air cooler geometry may lead to a small air flow. Static pressure is subtracted from ambient pressure to obtain bundle outlet pressure for induced draft fan and it is added to ambient pressure to obtain bundle inlet pressure for forced draft fan installation.Enter any name you wish to describe the air stream. Altitude . then a pinch error will occur. Static pressure . Face velocity at standard condition .

When wet wall condensing occurs. Dry wall condensing occurs when the amount of superheat is sufficient so that condensation does not occur at the tube wall until the fluid cools down. The default is 11 cut points or 10 zones. you simply type over it. keep cutting the largest zone in half until number of cutting points meets user’s specified value.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. AIR COOLER applies the following rules during the computation of the sensible zone next to dew point: • • If the inlet temperature is above the dew point. and then. Wet wall condensing is the usual condition for a condenser. A condensing coefficient is always used even if the bulk fluid is superheated. Number of cutting points – The entry here determines the number of zones which will be used for the heat transfer analysis.6 This dialog box contains commands that allow you to enter the data necessary to calculate the heat curves for the exchanger. A gas coefficient is computed for the zone. These are thermodynamic zones. EDIT HEAT CURVE This option is used to modify the values calculated for the heat curve. In other words. where n is user specified. the local condition at the tube wall is different than the bulk conditions. the bulk fluid is above its dew point. If the inlet temperature is at or below the dew point. but still condenses when it hits the tube wall because the tube wall is so cold. not physical zones. the actual inlet temperature is always used in the LMTD calculation. Wet wall condensing [Default] occurs whenever condensation occurs immediately at the inlet when the first gas strikes the tubes. Tube side wall type – The options available are Wet for wet wall condensing and Dry for dry wall condensing. Cutting method – The heat curve may be cut by bubble-Dew Point or Equal Enthalpy method. the LMTD is taken against the dew point temperature of the fluid. This would obviously occur if the entering fluid were at or below its dew point. n zones requires n+1 cut points (the entrance to the first zone. The default is bubble-Dew Point method. The bubble-Dew Point method finds the dew and bubble points first. AIR COOLER applies the following rules during the computation of the sensible zone next to dew point: • • The LMTD is always calculated using the actual fluid inlet temperature. To change a value. However. plus the outlet of all n zones). When this happens. The heat curve data will be displayed in a dialog box like that shown below: 124 . in many cases. The Equal enthalpy method simply cuts the heating curve into n zones with equal enthalpy increment.

GENERAL SPECIFICATION The General Specifications dialog box is provided to permit you to define the general calculation parameters such as calculation mode. the program will use linear interpolation to fill them in. process type. The General Information dialog box appears as follows. 125 . To save your changes.CC-THERM Version 5. exchanger orientation. etc.6 User’s Guide This dialog box scrolls to the left (using the elevator bar at the bottom) to display additional values. click the [OK] BUTTON. If blank fields are left between entered values.

and geometry data other than bundle width. i.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Tubeside Sensible flow Horizontal condensation Vertical condensation Reflux condensation Airside Sensible flow 126 . AIR COOLER may be used to size an air cooler. stream data. For instance. The program will calculate fouling factors on tube. and fouling rating. User must define which condensation mechanism is to be used. fouling factors. the information required to make a run includes stream data. tube length. Process type . it will not know if that condensation is Reflux or Horizontal condensation. and tube passes. In the fouling rating. fouling factors. The program checks to see if the exchanger defined will work in the given application by checking effective heat transfer area against area required to carry out the heat duty for given streams. and number of tube passes. In the rating mode. In the design mode. Calculation mode – There are three calculation modes. allowable pressure drops. air. rating. while it is obvious that AIR COOLER will know when there is condensation on the tube side. design. calculate the optimum bundle width.e.. and all geometry data must be defined. or both sides depending on user’s selection on the Fouling rating option ratio button. tube length. When in the design mode. The following process types are accommodated.The process type specifies which heat transfer mechanism is to be used when calculating the film coefficients. the required information includes streams and geometry data.6 These fields are described below.

Design code . API 661 . EXCHANGER GEOMETRY This option is to permit the user to make detailed specifications concerning the dimensions and arrangement of an air cooler. This entry is purely for output on the API data sheet. It is a thermal resistance included to account for the fouling.DIN A. just the airside fouling factor. or just the tubeside fouling factor. Its value is arbitrary and defines how often you want to clean the tubes. Merkblatter Code stamp .Div.ASME Section VIII .Select the design code to be used. This option only appears when a condensation process is chosen. The available options are: A .British Standard 5500 D .Specify whether the tube bundle is oriented horizontally or vertically. tube pressure drop . 75% of the input value is allocated for tube bundle pressure drop and 25% of it will be for nozzle pressure drop. Orientation .Div. this field will disappear from the dialog box. For rating and fouling rating. Fouling factor . These standards refer mostly to the mechanical details of the exchanger. If you want to specify shell or tube side film heat transfer coefficient.001 in English units on tube side and 0.Check this box if the air cooler must be stamped for ASME Section VIII . you could enter the value in the corresponding field. The program will take this value in calculating the local overall heat transfer coefficient for each zone." This entry is purely for output on the API data sheet.Check this box if the air cooler must conform to the requirements of API 661. Coefficient . 1.CC-THERM Version 5. only available for fouling rating mode. Selecting this option will cause the Exchanger Geometry Menu to appear: 127 .Input of this variable is used for rating and design calculation.D. It has no impact on the thermal calculation. It has no impact upon the thermal calculation. 1 B .6 User’s Guide Max. “Air Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service. The default is 0. Condensation Model – Condensation model could be Chemstations’ or VDI model.0001 for airside. Fouling rating options – This option allows the user to recalculate both tube and airside fouling factors. Therefore. the thermal design and analyses are not heavily influenced by this choice.Input of this variable is required for design run.Input of this variable is optional.

If no value is entered.AIR COOLER allows plain tube. how they are arranged (tube pattern.This will be used to calculate inner diameter of tube.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. user specified fin tube. select the appropriate type from the drop-down list. and common fin tube. the program will default to 1. Finned tube code . A list of available tubes is provided in Appendix A of CC-THERM User Guide and Tutorial. tube pitch. AIR COOLER has a data bank which contains 475 commonly used fined tubes. If left blank. etc.0 inches (25.). the program will default to . The dialog box looks like this. Tubewall thickness . This data comes from the manufacturers. This includes a description of the tubes themselves. For finned tube. 128 .4 mm). To use finned tube.This is the outer diameter of tube for bared tube. as well as.6 TUBE Selection of Tube option opens up the Tube Specifications Dialog Box. The dialog box lets the user specify all data regarding the tubes. this will be root diameter. Outer diameter of tube .065 inches wall thickness.

Tube rows per pass.D. and Bay connection. It also serves as a display field for the number if a common finned tube is selected. Some fields in this Dialog Box are dynamically linked to Calculation mode. This entry has no impact upon the calculation. Bundle arrangement. The dialog box is shown below and the definition of each field follows. It also serves as a display field for the thickness if a common finned tube is selected. for finned tube. this is required input. One needs to make sure it is greater than the outer diameter of tube for plain tube or Finned tube O. 129 . Fin Attachment .D.D. Bundle connection. It also serves as a display field for diameter if a common finned tube is selected. Finned tube O. Tube pattern – The following selection is available under this option.6 User’s Guide Tube length – In the design case. and Bay connection. Fin thickness together with fin distance determines the fin spacing. Triangular (30) Rotated Triangular (60) Square (90) Diamond (45) Tube pitch – The tube pitch is the distance between tube centers.Fin attachment may be extruded.This field allows input of fin thickness for user defined finned tube. Number of fins per inch – This field allows input of the number of fins per inch length of tube. required specifications include Tubes per row. This entry has no impact upon the calculation. the program will calculate this value.CC-THERM Version 5. For design mode. The number determines the distance between two neighboring fins. Tube type . BUNDLE The Bundle option opens up the Bundle Specifications Dialog Box. The selection is printed on the API data sheet. Passes per bundle. and metal-coated hotdip galvanized. required specifications include Total number of tube rows. – This field allows input of the outer diameter of the finned tube.Tubes may be welded or seamless. Fin thickness . and twice of fin height. For rating and fouling rating mode. grooved. Bundle connection. welded (soldered). Roughness factor – This field allows input of absolute tube internal roughness. The selection is printed on the API data sheet. In the rating case. This diameter should equal to the sum of the tube O.

or parallel-series combinations. series. Slope of header . series. the program will default to 0. the program will calculate it from specified Tube rows per pass and Passes per bundle. It looks like this. However.This is a mandatory input for a rating or a fouling rating case. Passes per bundle . in a design run.This field should only be used for a rating or a fouling rating case for which it is a mandatory entry. The fields for number of parallel and series are mandatory entries.This entry is mandatory for a rating or a fouling rating case. For a rating or a fouling rating run.125 inches per foot (10 mm/meter). NOZZLES Selection of this option brings up the Nozzle Parameter Dialog Box. 130 . The dialog box allows the user to specify dimensions of nozzles. In the design run.Number of bays can be connected in proper parallel.An entry should be made here for the total number of rows. For a rating or a fouling rating run.Enter the slope of the tube bundle in the units shown. it is used to determine bundle width and tube length for given number of bundles per bay. For a design case the program will calculate it. and bay length.6 Tubes per row . The fields for number of parallel and series are mandatory entries. Tube Rows per pass . For a one pass condenser. Bundle connection and arrangement . This is mandatory input for a design case. bay width. Number of bundles may be arranged in proper rows by columns.Number of bundles can be connected in proper parallel.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. the number of bundle rows will not affect the computation. or parallel-series combination. Total number of tube rows . the program will calculate its value. For a design case the program will optimize on the number of passes. Bay connection .

# of nozzles .This is the inner diameter of an inlet nozzle.This entry is for input of the number of nozzles per bundle for the tube side inlet. All outlet nozzles are assumed to have the same diameter.outlet .inlet .CC-THERM Version 5.This entry is for input of the number of nozzles per bundle for the tube side outlet. Inlet nozzle diameter . The dialog box looks like this. The data specified here is printed on the API data sheet. The dialog box allows user to specify miscellaneous items about bundle and all entries in this dialog box has no impact upon the calculation.6 User’s Guide # of nozzles . All inlet nozzles are assumed to have the same diameter. Outlet nozzle diameter -This is the inner diameter of an outlet nozzle. MISCELLANEOUS Selection of this option brings up the Miscellaneous Parameters Dialog Box. 131 .

all sizes up to 12 inches The following DIN standard sizes are available (Rating in BAR): 6 & 10 25 16 40 -all sizes up to 600 millimeters -all sizes up to 600 millimeters -all sizes up to 600 millimeters -all sizes up to 500 millimeters 132 . It is understood that the class will always be in psi even if you are using metric or SI units.all sizes up to 24 inches 400/600/900/1500 .6 Flange rating .all sizes up to 24 inches 2500 . enter the class of the flange in this field.Enter the header design pressure. Header gasket type .If you are using a flange per ANSI or API standard.The following choices are available: Plug Cover Plate Bonnet Split U-tube Pipe (Dished) Header design temp .The possible entries are as follow: Slip-On Weld Neck Lap Joint Ring Type Joint Long Weld Neck CC-THERM Version 5. The following ANSI & API standard sizes are available (Rating in psi): 150 & 300 .The following choices are available: Spiral Wound CAF (Corrugated w/ Asbestos Filling) Corrugated FAF (Flat w/ Asbestos Filling) Grooved Solid Metallic "O-Ring" Type of flange . Header design pres .User’s Guide Type of header .Enter the header design temperature.

CC-THERM Version 5.6 64 100 160 -all sizes up to 400 millimeters -all sizes up to 350 millimeters -all sizes up to 300 millimeters

User’s Guide

MATERIALS Selection of this option brings up the Material Specifications Dialog Box. The dialog box allows user to specify material for varies parts of air cooler. Among these entries, only the selections in the tube and fin material field will affect thermal calculation of an air cooler. Others are for the API data sheet only. The dialog box looks like this.

Tube material - Select the tube material from the options listed in the window. The tube material directly influences the tube wall resistance in the heat transfer calculation. Plug material - Select the plug material from the options listed in the window. Header gasket material - Select the header gasket material from the options listed in the window. Fan blade material - Fan blades may be fiberglass or aluminum. Make your selection from the window. Fan hub material - Fan hubs may be of aluminum or steel. Selections are made from the window. Fin material - Select the appropriate option from the window. Fin material may be carbon steel, aluminum (default), copper, or stainless steel. The fin material selection affects the heat transfer resistance. FAN PARAMETERS Defaults are available for all necessary fan parameters, so entries on this screen are optional.

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User’s Guide

CC-THERM Version 5.6

Fan manufacturer - Fan data from the following manufacturers are available within the program: Checo Moore Environment Element Corp. Aerovent Hudson Choose one of these from the window. The manufacturer's data is used in the fan size selection. Manufacturer designation - For Checo and Moore fans, more than one type of fan is available. The following fan designations are available: Checo 515 718 924 1224 1233 1245 Moore 27 33 40 49 60 73 90

Make the appropriate selection from the window. # of fans / bay length - Enter the number of fans along the length of one bay. Fan diameter - Enter the fan diameter in the units shown. If not specified, the program will take 90% of bay width for fan diameter.

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CC-THERM Version 5.6 # of fan blades - Enter the number of fan blades. Fan RPM - Enter the fan speed in revolutions per minute. Maximum noise level - Enter the maximum permissible noise level of the fan.

User’s Guide

Fan pitch control - The user may choose from none, manual, or automatic. Selections are made from the window and output to the API datasheet. Action on air failure - The fan pitch on air failure may be: None (no specification) Minimum Maximum Lockup Select the appropriate option from the window. This selection will be output to the API datasheet. Louvers - Louvers may open and close manually or automatically. Therefore the user may choose from the following options: None (no specification) Manual Automatic Selections may be made from the appropriate window. This selection is output to the API datasheet. Action on air failure (Louvers) - On air failure the louvers may fail open, closed, or locked. Therefore, the options available to the user are: None (no specification) Open Closed Locked up Selections are made from the window. This selection is output to the API datasheet. Recirculation - The possible choices are: None (no specification) Internal External around bundle sides External around bundle ends Selections are made from the window. This selection is output to the API datasheet. Minimum ambient temperature - Enter the minimum ambient temperature in the units displayed. This value helps determine the operating range of the fan and is output to the API datasheet. Drive manufacturer - The user may chose from GE, RELIANCE, or WESTINGHOUSE drivers. Make the appropriate selection from the window. This selection will be output to the API datasheet.

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User’s Guide Type of driver - The driver type may be unspecified, electric, or steam turbine. Driver RPM - The following choices are typical for an electric motor: 3500 / 1750 / 1450 / 1150 / 870 / 580

CC-THERM Version 5.6

For a steam turbine, the RPM may be different than those shown above for an electric motor. Voltage - The following choices are available for electric voltage: 220 v 380 v 440 v 460 v # of phases - The following choices are available for number of phases: Three phases One phase Voltage frequency - The following choices are available for voltage frequency: 60 Hz 50 Hz Motor enclosure - The following choices are available for the motor enclosure: Unspecified Drip-Proof Weather-Proof - class I Weather-Proof - class II TEFC - Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled Explosion Proof Bundle frame - The following choices are available: Galvanized Welded Structural mounting - The following choices are available: Grade Mounted Piperack Surface preparation - The following choices are available: No surface preparation Primed Vibration switch - Enter a ‘Y’ if a vibration switch will be used. Reducer manufacturer - The following choices are available for speed reducer manufacturer field:
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Reducer support .6 Leave Choice Blank Philadelphia Cleveland Falk Type of speed reducer . If errors or warnings are detected.CC-THERM Version 5. After the command is issued.Enter the speed reducer ratio. move the pointer to the Calculate option and click the left mouse button. When selected. or fouling rating calculation. rate. and fouling rating calculation. the program shows an error message on the screen. heating curve. To begin the run.The following choices are available: Leave Choice Blank Right Angle Gear V-Belt Direct Coupled Reducer AGMA rating . VIEW RESULTS The View Results option enables the user to interactively review selected results on the screen. The program allows you to either change the data or ignore the error messages.The following choices are available for speed reducer support: Structure Pedestal CALCULATE User’s Guide The Calculate command tells the program to execute the design.Enter the AGMA rating of the Speed reducer in HP or kW. A message of completion pops-up after calculation is done. The progress of calculation will be reported in the status line in the lower left corner for design. the VIEW MENU appears on the screen like so: 137 . the program performs a complete data check to make sure there is no missing or unreasonable information. Reducer ratio .

Bundle and Bay geometry. HEAT CURVES This displays the temperatures. and the air side. vapor and liquid rates. OPTIMIZATION This shows the optimization sequence used by Air Cooler to arrive at the final result. ZONE-BY-ZONE DATA This option allows the user to review the zone-by-zone calculated results for the overall. 138 . TubeSide Data.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. TABULATED DATA This option displays the Overall Data.6 The items listed provide summaries of the specific information requested. and Tube and Fin geometry together on one page. All displays are in Wordpad so that they can be edited. A detailed description of each VIEW MENU option is given below. and physical and transport properties for each zone. STREAMS This option displays the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out of the heat exchanger. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. the tube side. heat duties. printed. AirSide Data. and/or saved. API DATA This option displays the completed API Data sheet.

6 User’s Guide PLOT From the Plot Menu. the user can modify or edit the plots using the commands provided by this window. The following plot categories are available: HEAT CURVE Process heat curve is a plot of heat duty versus temperature for both sides of the exchanger. The menu appears on the screen like so: The plots are displayed in Plot Windows.CC-THERM Version 5. you can plot several zone-by-zone results graphically. 139 . HEAT FLUX Heat flux LMTD Log-mean temperature difference for each zone. Therefore.

tube side.6 TEMPERATURE Tube side. RE-ENTER STREAM INFORMATION This command allows user to retrieve new streams from CHEMCAD flowsheet. 140 .User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. HEAT XFER COEFFICIENT Overall. tube side wall. tube fouling and shell fouling heat transfer coefficients for each zone. This is very useful in case any stream entering or exiting the exchanger is changed. shell side wall and shell side temperatures for each zone. shell side. HEAT XFER AREA Heat transfer area calculated for each zone.

A stream data report looks like this: 141 . tabulated data. STREAM DATA The stream data reports the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out of the heat exchanger. heat curves. and optimization. zone-by-zone data. API data. This information is fed to heat curve calculation to generate heat curve.CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide AIR COOLER OUTPUT AIR COOLER output includes stream data.

A heat curve report for the tube side looks like this: A heat curve report for the air side has a similar format and content. heat duties. vapor and liquid rates. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. and physical and transport properties for each zone.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6 HEAT CURVES This report includes the temperatures. 142 .

and Tube and Fin geometry together on one page. The tabulated data report looks like this: The Overall data includes key information regarding the air cooler. The tube sheet thickness is default to one inch. This area is based on outer diameter if bare tube is used and is on outer surface if finned tube is used.6 User’s Guide TABULATED DATA This report includes the Overall Data.CC-THERM Version 5. 143 . These values are calculated results and geometry inputs from user. TubeSide Data. Bundle and Bay geometry. AirSide Data. These items are explained below: Effective Area – The area effective per bay excludes that portion of the tube length which is covered by the tube sheet.

When making a design run. the program will calculate the fouling factor for given streams and air cooler geometry. Effective ) Calculated Clean Area – The calculated heat transfer area required to carry out the heat load when the heat transfer surface is clean. For fouling rating run. Qi = the incremental heat duty of zone I. heat transfer calculation is carried out zone by zone. The Calculated Clean Area is the sum of the incremental clean areas for all zones. In CC-THERM AIR COOLER. Effective –The overall effective or corrected log mean temperature difference which is defined as: (MTD. It is defined as: (Calculate d Coeff.(Calculated Area) (100%) (Effective Area ) This value is always expressed as a percent. CMTDi = the corrected log mean temperature difference for zone i.) = (Heat Load) (Calculated Clean Area ) (MTD. tube side fouling factor is user specified. AirSide Fouling – The air side fouling factor. the program will calculate the fouling factor for given streams and air cooler geometry. Effective ) MTD. TubeSide Fouling – The tube side fouling factor. Effective ) Calculated Area – The calculated heat transfer area required to carry out the heat load. Heat Load – The enthalpy difference between the inlet and outlet process streams of the air cooler.6 Service Coefficient – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger based on the Effective Area of exchanger at service. It is defined as: (Service Coeff. For design and rating run. For design and rating run. Calculated Coefficient – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger. Area Excess – The excess area for the present calculation. For fouling rating run. It is defined as: (Area Excess) = (Effective Area ) . tube side fouling factor is user specified. Clean Coefficient – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger based on the Calculated Clean Area. Effective) = (Heat Load) Qi CMTD i ∑ Where.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. It is defined as: (Clean Coeff.) = (Heat Load) (Effective Area ) (MTD. A negative value indicates that the exchanger is undersurfaced in rating. the program will find a heat exchanger so that the 144 .) = (Heat Load) (Calculated Area ) (MTD. The Calculated Area is the sum of the incremental areas for all zones.

This value is used as one of the design constrain. Inlet Nozzle – The pressure drop through inlet nozzles. To improve calculation result. In CC-THERM AIR COOLER. Tube Side Pressure Drop. 145 . if face velocity is specified as input. Effective Length – The length effective excludes that portion of the tube length which is covered by the tube sheet. Number of Inlet Nozzles – Input of the # of nozzles . Face Velocity Specified? – Yes. Inlet – Input of the Inlet nozzle diameter field in the Nozzle Parameter Dialog Box is printed here. the difference between Calculated Static dP and the Static pressure specified in the Air Side Data screen should be minimized. dP. Calculated Length – The calculated tube length required to carry out the heat load. Inner Nozzle Diameter. – The tube side pressure drop of all bundles. When making a fouling rating run. Code – Input of the Design code option in the General Specifications Dialog Box is printed here.CC-THERM Version 5. Calculated Static dP – The calculated static pressure drop of air flow through the tube bundle. Allowed Pressure Drop – The maximum allowed pressure drop for the process side.Outlet field in the Nozzle Parameter Dialog Box is printed here. Face Velocity – The face velocity is obtained by air volumetric flow rate at service condition divided by Face Area. Outlet Nozzle – The pressure drop through outlet nozzles. dP. heat transfer calculation is carried out zone by zone. otherwise. the program finds the fouling factors so that the Area Excess is zero. Inner Nozzle Diameter Outlet – Input of the Outlet nozzle diameter field in the Nozzle Parameter Dialog Box is printed here. It is the effective area per bay. API applicable – Input of the API 661 option in the General Specifications Dialog Box is printed here.Inlet field in the Nozzle Parameter Dialog Box is printed here. Gross Area – The gross area per bay based on outer surface. Face Area – The face area per pay. Bare Area – The area based on outer tube diameter or root diameter. Area Per Bundle – The effective area per bundle excludes that portion of the tube length which is covered by the tube sheet.6 User’s Guide excess is the minimum positive value. It equals to tube length times bundle width times number of bundles. No. The calculated length is the sum of the incremental length for all zones. Static dP Per Row – The calculated static pressure drop of air flow through a tube row. Number of Outlet Nozzles – Input of the # of nozzles .

Tube Inside Diameter – The inside diameter is estimated from the Outer Diameter of Tube and Tubewall thickness. Number of Fins Per Inch – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.6 Bundle width – The bundle width is calculated through the number of tubes per row.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Tube Type – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box. Tube Pattern – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box. Rows Per Pass – see Tube Rows per pass in the Bundle specification screen. Fin Material – see Material Specifications Dialog Box. Tube Pitch – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box. and tube pattern for rating and fouling rating run. Tube Wall Thickness – Input to the Tubewall thickness field In the Tube Specifications Dialog Box is printed here. it is calculated from the optimum bay width and user specified total number of bundles per bay and number of bundle rows. Bundles in Row/Column – see Bundle connection and arrangement in the Bundle specification screen. Fin Attachment – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box. Bays in Parallel/Series – see Bay connection in the Bundle specification screen. Number of Tube Passes – Input in the Passes per bundle field in the Bundle specification screen is printed here. Internal roughness – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box. Bundles in Parallel/Series – see Bundle connection and arrangement in the Bundle specification screen. In the design run. Number of Tubes – This is the total number of tubes per bundle which is calculated from the Total number of tube rows and Tubes per row. tube pitch. Orientation – The orientation of tube bundle may be horizontal or vertical as specified by user. Outer Diameter of Tube – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box. Total Number of Rows – see Total number of tube rows in the Bundle specification screen. Tube Material – see Material Specifications Dialog Box. Finned Tube Code – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box. Tube length – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box. 146 . Total Number of Bundles – The total number of bundles of entire units. Fin Thickness – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box. Fin Tube OD – see Tube Specifications Dialog Box.

It looks like: 147 . This is essentially a correlation value establishing an equivalent cross-flow area as compared to a bare tube. and design-material-construction data. performance data for airside. Hydraulic Diameter – The equivalent hydraulic diameter or equivalent projected diameter (Dreq).6 User’s Guide Ratio of Finned/Bare Outer Area – The ratio of finned tube outer surface area over bare tube outer surface area. performance data for process side. The tube inner surface area is the surface area based on the tube inner diameter. The finned tube outer surface area is the sum of the total surface area of the fins and the total surface area of the tube wall between the fins. Ratio of Outer/Inner Area – The ratio of tube outer surface area over tube inner surface area. The bare tube outer surface area is the surface area based on the tube outer diameter. The tube outer surface area is the finned tube outer surface area for finned tube and the bare tube outer surface area for bare tube.CC-THERM Version 5. Dreq = Dfr + 2(Llth)(Nf )(Lft ) where Dfr Llth= Nf Lft = = = = the root diameter the fin height the number of fins per unit length Fin thickness API DATA This report includes the completed API Data sheet. The first page of the data sheet includes general data.

ft/sec 10.. cP 0. lb/ft3 0.0 Page 1 API DATA ____________________________________________________________________________________ BAY SIZE(WxL).020 / 0. F -40.NC.000 TI PI ASME STAMPED No CUSTUMER SPECIFICATIONS: 148 .009 BARE 373. Act. lb/h 0 / 0 INLET PRESSURE.LIQ.7 TEST PRES.in 2. lb/h 0 / 0 FREEZE POINT.00010 DENS.00x 2 --FIN-SURF PREP 8.EFF.04 / 114. ft 164.LIQ.29 MIN DSGN AMBIENT TEMP.00x 0 OD. lb/h 2714 VAPOR lb/h 2714 / 2714 DEW/BUBBLE POINT.31x15.666 --MISCELLANEOUS-CORRO ALLOW.78 MASS VELOCITY.00 ACTUAL STATIC PRES.6.00010 PITCH. Btu/hr-ft2-F 0 BARE.08 FACE VELOCITY.98 COND.000 / 0. F 41.Btu/lb-F 0 / 0 IN/OUT SPEC HEAT.2500 The second page of the data sheetNOZZLE. PAR 1 SER 1 SLOPE.000 MIN THK. Std. ft2 4.000 DP. lb/ft3 0. cP 0.012 __________________________________________________________________________________ PERFORMANCE DATA-AIR SIDE AIR MASS RATE.00 ____________________________________________________________________________________ DESIGN-MATERIALS-CONSTRUCTION DSGN PRES.000 / 0. lb 209.760 FACE VELOCITY.016 CHEM CLEANING No MISC. F STEAM. lb/h 184938 ALTITUDE.VAP. ft 15. ft2 8013.127 SPEC HEAT. ft3/hr 2502328 TEMPERATURE IN(DRY). psia 65.000 LIQUID.VAP. F 0. in 2.447 MTD.310 HEAT EXCHANGED. hr-ft2-F/Btu 0. in 0. CONNS: NO. inmechanical equipment data and air side STRUCT MOUNT Grade Mounted IN includes 8. Btu/hr-ft-F 0.27 VISC.0 VISC.psia 0.212 / 0.in LOUVER Automatic 0.VAP.0 AIR VOL.012 FOULING RESISTANCE.028 / 0.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.221 TRAN RATE-FINNED. Primed surface OUT NOZZLE.0/0. psia 0. F 550. PAR 1 SER 1 PLUG A-285-C NUMBER/BUNDLE 92 BUNDLE FRAM Galvanized GASKET TYPE Metallic Ring LENGTH.329 DENS.381 MOLECULAR WT.00/0. lb/h 0 / 0 COND. in 0. lb/s-ft2 0.Btu/lb-F 0 / 0 TEMP.00 NONCONDEN. lb/h 0 / 0 LATENT HEAT.313 x 15.248 VIBRATION SWITCH Yes RATING.67 TYPE Pipe(Dished) MAT'L A-179 NUMBER/BAY 1 MAT'L A-285-C TYPE Seamless TUBE ROWS 4 PASSES 1 OD. in 0. Btu/lbmol 0 WATER. 10.000 BUNDLES. in 1.VAP. Std.SERVICE 9 CLEAN 9 ____________________________________________________________________________________ PERFORMANCE DATA-PROCESS SIDE TYPE OF PROCESS Sensible FLUID NAME IN/OUT TOTAL FLOW.VAP./in.00 --BUNDLE---HEADER---TUBE-WxL.7 DSGN TEMP.000 / 0.6 CHEMCAD 5. MMBtu/h 0. ft 4.psia 0. ALLO/CALC. F 138.in It looks like this:EXT NOZZLE. F 105. lb 179. F 95.LIQ. 160 DIN THK. ft/sec 10.1091 BAYS.LIQ. RATE.00x 2 TPYE Grooved control data.0 TEMPERATURE OUT(DRY). Btu/hr-ft-F 0. in/ft 0. psi 5.666 TYPE Forced NUMBER OF BAYS 1 SURFACE/UNIT-FINNED.000 MOLECULAR WT.

. . These areas correspond to Effective Area and Bare Area in the tabulated data sheet. Service.65 TIP.ft 4. ft/sec 209. the Bare Area. It looks like this: CHEMCAD 5. that is.5 TO 1.Bare .00 NO BLADE 4 NO/BAY 1 HP/DR NO/BAY 1 PITCH None ANGLE RPM 2000 AGMA RATING.. The clean coefficient is the inverse of the sum of the following resistances: the air side resistance plus the tubeside resistance plus the tube wall resistance. hp 192. The fin-tube service coefficient is calculated by dividing the Heat Load by the MTD.Clean . that is. The bay width is the sum of width of all bundles in a row. Heat Exchanged . The bay length is the sum of the tube length of all bundles in a column..ft2 0x0 WEIGHT BUNDLE.CC-THERM Version 5. EFF and by the finned tube outer surface area. lb 0 ____________________________________________________________________________________ Most of the items listed in the two pages are self-explanatory. lb 0 SHIPPING WGT. Surface/Unit-Finned . EFF and by the bare tube outer surface area.See MTD. MTD..44 ____________________________________________________________________________________ CONTROLS-AIR SIDE CONTRO ACTION ON AIR FAILURE-FAN PITCH Minimum LOUVERS Close DEGREE CONTROL OF OUTLET PROCESS TEMPERATURE(MAXIMUM COOLING) RECIRCULATION None MIN AMB TEMP. F -40.HP 0. This coefficient should 149 .000 STEAM COIL PLOT AREA. Tran Rate-Finned .00 BLADE Fiberglass ENCLOSURE Unspecified RATIO 0. the Effective Area.0 HUB Aluminum V/PHASE/HZ 460/3/60 SUPPORT Structure POWER/FAN. Those items which are not are explained below: Bay Size (WXL) .The first two items are the service transfer rates based on the finned tube outer surface and on the bare tube outer surface. EFF ..6. all related to the outside diameter of the bare tube. Effective in the tabulated data sheet.0 Page 2 ____________________________________________________________________________________ MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT --FAN---DRIVER---SPEED REDUCER-MFR & MODEL Checo TYPE Unspecified TYPE Unknown NO/BAY 1 EFF RPM 1000 MFR & MODEL GE MFR & MODEL Unknown DIA.These are the total finned tube outer surface area and bare tube outer surface area per unit.The size here is for all the bundles taken together.. These are the effective surface area after discounting any portion of the tube length embedded in the tube sheet.Bare..6 User’s Guide The second page of the data sheet includes mechanical equipment data and air side control data.This is the total amount of heat load. The bare tube service coefficient is calculated by dividing the Heat Load by the MTD.

6 equal Clean Coeff. The information for tube side may pertain to a sensible or a condenser calculation. Items in this page are explained below: 150 . and the air side. The bare tube service coefficient and clean coefficient may be compared to estimate fouling build up.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. ZONE-BY-ZONE DATA This report allows the user to review the zone-by-zone calculated results for the overall. the tube side. Page 1 of the output includes overall and tube side data. The output which is presented below is the first five zone of a ten-zone analysis for a sensible heat exchanging problem. Zone-by-zone output contains information regarding calculation of heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops. The outputs are similar but not identical. multiplied by Ratio of Finned/Bare Outer Area in the tabulated output above.

Vap. dP – The tube side pressure drop due to momentum change. Tube F. The incremental heat load will be identical for each zone if equal enthalpy method is used to cut the heating curve. – The tube side heat transfer resistance due to fluid. Liq. Overall Coef. the tube outer surface area of the corresponding zone. Grav. Den. – The air side heat transfer resistance due to fouling. Vel.CC-THERM Version 5. It is shown below: 151 . Den. Rate – The local vapor mass flow rate. Air F. Rate – The local liquid mass flow rate. Temp. – The local overall heat transfer coefficient based on AINC. – The tube side heat transfer resistance due to metal wall.6 User’s Guide Inc. – The average temperature of the two cutting points on the heating curve for the zone. – The tube side fluid velocity. AINC –The tube outer surface area of each zone. They might differ with each other if bubble-dew point method is used. Wall T. Page 2 of the output includes the air side data. Heat Load . T Wall – The zone average metal wall surface temperature on the air or tube side. – The air side heat transfer resistance due to air. Vap. dP – The pressure drop due to friction loss. Mome. Re Number – The Reynolds number of flow.The incremental heat load at each zone. Liq. Tube R. Air R. LMTD – The corrected local log mean temperature difference based on the four temperature points of each zone. dP – The tube side pressure drop due to gravitation. – The tube side heat transfer resistance due to fouling. Film Coeff. – The local vapor density. – The local heat transfer coefficient of fluid film. – The local liquid density. Fric.

6 Items in this page are explained below: Prandtl No. The output which is presented below is the first five zone of a ten-zone analysis for a condenser heat exchanging problem. Since only the tube side data differs from that of a sensible case. Max Cros. it is shown below: 152 . Prandtl No. – The maximum air flow velocity crossing the tube bundle.. Cross-Flow Re – The Reynolds number of the air flow based on Max Cros. – The Air flow Prandtl’s number in bulk. at Wall – The Air flow Prandtl’s number at the wall surface. Vel.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Vel.

CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide Items in this page are explained below: 153 .

. the multiplier will be quite large. Coef. Coeff. especially so when there are large amounts of noncondensable present. SHEARCT . Coef. consequently. On the other hand. This multiplier is applied to zone pressure drop. When there are large amounts of vapor present. Gravity Coeff. This coefficient is also calculated at each zone of the exchanger. – The liquid flow velocity. In going from the SHEARCT controlled to the GRAVCTL controlled. Vel. – The heat transfer coefficient of the vapor phase. 154 . The number 1. the T-Non-Cond Fact. – The two phase flow velocity. This coefficient is calculated at each zone whether or not it is the controlling coefficient. Vel. (resistance factor) will be small and the overall coefficient. Vap. It is a factor which is calculated to reflect the overall effects of non-condensable or a wide-boiling mixture.The SHEARCT and GRAVCTL are basically the two extremes of the flows which may occur during condensation. Two Phase Xtt – This is a two-phase multiplier which is calculated at each zone. – The gravity-controlled heat transfer coefficient. When calculating the tube side heat transfer resistance at each zone.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.0 indicates that the flow is all vapor and 0. T-Non-Cond Fact – The tube side non-condensable factor. There are times when the vapor velocity is so low that the predominant regime is the TRANSIT or even GRAVCTL for very low vapor velocities. the gas film resistance is multiplied by T-Non-Cond Fact. – The vapor flow velocity. Overall Coef. Shear Coeff. Condenser Type – This is the flow type at each zone of the exchanger. when there are large amounts of non-condensable present or there is a wide boiling mixture. This coefficient is very important in the calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient.The vapor velocity is low and the shear force on the surface of a condensate film is negligible. This type of heat transfer is generally known as gravity-controlled film. Vapor Quality – The vapor quality at each zone of the exchanger. and summed over all the zones to arrive at the overall pressure drop. – The heat transfer coefficient through condensate film. TRANSIT . . There are three basic types of flow which may exist in a condenser.the pure condensation overall coefficient. Vap. there is a transition region which is usually called the TRANSIT (for transition) region. will approach to Iso-Overa.6 Iso-Overa. When the effects of non-condensable are small. This coefficient is calculated at each zone of the exchanger. V-L Den – The two phase mixing density. GRAVCTL . This coefficient is calculated at each zone whether or not it is the controlling coefficient. – The shear-controlled heat transfer coefficient.The vapor velocity is so high that the shear force on the surface of condensate film is dominant comparing to gravity force and this type of heat transfer is generally referred as shearcontrolled.The local overall heat transfer coefficient when gas film resistance is ignored. Liq Vel. the "true" overall heat transfer coefficient will also diminish. the T-Non-Cond Fact term may become quite large and. Film Coeff.0 indicates no vapor.

Bay Width. ft Bay Length. the program will vary the following parameters: • • • Tube passes bay length bay width To make best use of fan (one or two) covered area in each bay. The program uses basically two criteria to arrive at the optimum result. the program will also follow the arrangement as shown in the table below to arrive at best combination of bay length and width. Vap Re – The vapor flow Renolds number.CC-THERM Version 5. which will satisfy these criteria. The optimization printout only occurs if you are in the design mode. The program deliberately begins with an obviously undersized unit in order to insure that the procedure does not miss the optimum result. • • Supplied area is greater than the required area Pressure drop specifications are met on the tubeside In order to find the smallest unit. ft 4 4 6 8 10 6 6 8 12 14 8 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 10 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 12 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 14 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 16 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 18 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 20 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 155 .6 Liq Re – The liquid flow Renolds number. User’s Guide OPTIMIZATION This shows the optimization sequence used by Air Cooler to arrive at the final result.

6 A typical optimization report is shown below: 156 .User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.

CC-THERM PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER User’s Guide And Tutorial .

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157 . please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for these types of “How to” instructions. rating.7. In the fouling rating mode.CC-THERM Version 5. 2.6 User’s Guide PRODUCT OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION TO CC-THERM PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER CC-THERM PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER or PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER is an integrated module for the design. and fouling rating of plate heat exchanger in the CHEMCAD Suite. It is based upon the CHEMCAD interface system. fouling factors will be estimated for given process streams. and evaporation. In the rating mode. an optimization of the number of plates will be carried out such that pressure drop is less than its allowable value and the heat transfer area is sufficient. Plate type may be chevron corrugations. For user specified plate. rating. Since the input/output systems and conventions are the same in PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER as those used in CHEMCAD. METHODS Sensible Flow Correlations from Chapter 3. TECHNICAL FEATURES 1. In the design mode. or fouling rating mode. 3. the required heat transfer area will be calculated for given process streams and exchanger geometry data and compared to actual area at service. so any user familiar with CHEMCAD will be able to operate PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER with ease. The PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER mode of CC-THERM handles sensible heat exchange. intermating corrugations. EASY TO LEARN The input for PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER is simple and concise. Three modes of calculation may be selected: design. condensation. models similar to those for chevron plate are used while parameters in these models are user specified. or user specified. It is fully integrated with CHEMCAD so process data is automatically transferred from CHEMCAD flowsheets to the heat exchanger sizing program. and heating curves and physical properties data are automatically generated.3 of the Heat Exchanger Design Handbook (Kumar 1988) is employed for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of intermating and chevron plate.

4.6 OUTPUT FEATURES The user may select from the following output: • • • A print-out of the heat curve and fluid physical properties A detailed print-out of overall exchanger values The stream information inlet/outlet with H. The following list illustrates the general steps. Therefore results can be viewed. and make modifications to previously saved problems. 7. the user can create new problem files. 1. edited. Select the Sizing command on the menu bar. More information on each option in the main menu is provided in Chapter 2. you will be taken to the function or dialog box appropriate for completing the instructed task. This generates CHEMCAD files. The input functions allow the entering of process data by using dialog boxes. The editing heat curve facility also provides an opportunity not only to view the heat curve but also to be able to access the contents of the heat curve and make any changes to the data without going through the procedures for the heat curve generation. the PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER Menu is displayed. 3. 2. From this menu select the Heat Exchangers followed by selection of Plate option.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Since PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER is integrated with CHEMCAD. The Sizing Menu will open. The details of this operation will be described later. When the instruction is cleared by clicking [OK]. T. 5. the program is also equipped with sound thermodynamic models as well as a database with physical properties for over 2150 pure components. or printed. With this input facility. P. This section gives an overall view of the program usage and the options available in the PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER main menu. review the results of problems already designed. Review and printout. OVERVIEW PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER is a state-of-the-art interactive tool for the rating and design of plate heat exchangers. 6. Define the problem and run the flowsheet in CHEMCAD. Inspect and edit the input as desired using the menu commands. and component flow rates Any of the above output can be opened in Microsoft Word or WordPad by using the View menu. Execute the problem. It will do this by displaying instructions about what to do next. 158 . There are seven general steps involved in running a heat exchanger analysis with PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER. At the end of the set up process. The program will prompt the user through the initial setup of the exchanger analysis. The interactive feature of PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER allows full control of data communication.

Performs extensive error checking. Fouling rating – The inlet and outlet stream datum of the cold and hot side are taken from the flow sheet and the user supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions. The program determines whether the exchanger is too large or too small for the given application. The program calculates the fouling factors required to obtain the specified performance from the exchanger.CC-THERM Version 5. and the program calculates the number of plates required (other basic geometry specifications must be specified by the user). User’s Guide 1. 6. 5. Generates the output for the design/analysis of the heat exchanger. CC-THERM PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER offers the process engineer an easy and comprehensive method of sizing or rating plate heat exchangers. 2. Rating – The inlet and outlet stream datum of the cold and hot side are taken from the flow sheet and the user supplies the complete details of the exchanger geometry and dimensions. Calculates in any of the following modes: i. The program has been thoroughly and rigorously tested and found to be an accurate and reliable tool. iii.6 The program performs the following tasks. and fouling factors. any CHEMCAD user can pick up the program in a matter of minutes. the user supplies the fouling factors and allowable pressure drop. Creates the PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER files to save all the input/output data for each exchanger. Since it uses the same command language as the CHEMCAD Suite. 3. 4. SUMMARY As an integrated module to the CHEMCAD Suite. ii. It is fully supported by a staff of trained engineers. Provides an interactive user interface to allow the user to change the problem specifications to rerun the problem and review the results. Generates the heat curve for the cold and hot side.The inlet and outlet stream datum of the cold and hot side are taken from the flow sheet. 159 . Design .

The entrance listed in the menu allows access to various geometry data specification dialog boxes. and rating.6 PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER COMMANDS The PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER program is an interactive program for plate heat exchanger design. the program will automatically take process data from CHEMCAD. it is important to note that if any changes are made to the streams or heat exchanger units within CHEMCAD. For revisiting an old job. rating. the program will take the user to a different status of data entering depending on whether they are creating a new job or revisiting an old one. The second screen will be the Plate Geometry menu if the selection for computation mode is rating or fouling rating. run the problem immediately. When revisiting an old job. and then go through several screens allowing the user to enter all the data required. or fouling rating of the unit. edit the data if needed and re-run the problem until satisfied. This screen permits the user to make specifications that affect the overall approach to design. do the heat curve calculation. fouling rating. Heat Exchangers. review the results. If design is the computation mode you selected in the Plate Heat Exchanger General Data screen. the program will by pass the Plate Geometry menu and go directly to the main Plate Heat Exchanger menu. and view results. you will receive a warning that will come up from PLATE HEAT 160 . It allows the user to enter plate heat exchanger information through a menu system similar to CC-THERM SHELL AND TUBE. Upon entering PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER. run computation.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. The screen appears as follows. PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER is accessed from CHEMCAD using the Sizing. the program will automatically load the exchanger data from the old job file and go directly to the main Plate Heat Exchanger menu where the user can access any data entrance screen freely. and Plate option. For creating a new job. The first screen seen is the Plate Heat Exchanger General Data screen.

Heat Curve Generation is therefore a necessary prerequisite to the rest of the calculations. For the sensible to sensible case. physical properties of the heat transfer fluids in each side of the exchanger. then the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations are performed. only the first and the last data point will be used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculation. These properties are then used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculation. This calculation determines the flows.CC-THERM Version 5. Heat Curve Generation performs the former calculations. DATA ENTRY IN PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER Data about plate heat exchanger is entered through the PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER dialog box.6 User’s Guide EXCHANGER recommending obtaining new stream data from CHEMCAD flowsheet to reflect those changes. First. CHEMCAD input rules apply. 161 . It also allows the user to do linear interpolation. Edit Heat Curve – This option enables the user to edit the heat curve values calculated by Heat Curve Generation or even created heat curve through manual input. Please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for the details of all input connections and dialog boxes. USING PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER MENUS The Plate Heat Exchanger Menu looks like this The options on this menu are briefly described below and more fully described in the following sections bearing the option as title. the heat curve is generated. Heat Curve Generation – The plate heat exchanger analysis takes place in two steps.

The Equal Enthalpy method simply cuts the heating curve into n zones with equal enthalpy increment. allowed pressure drop for design mode. Fluid at one inlet is exchanging heat with fluid exiting the other side. and then continues cutting the largest zone in half until number of cutting points meets the user’s specified value. Get Stream From Flowsheet – This command enables the user to retrieve new stream information from CHEMCAD process flow sheet. plus the outlet of all n zones). In cocurrent flow. The Bubble-Dew Point method finds the dew and bubble points first. and material specifications. Exchanger Geometry – Selecting this option allows user to provide physical dimensions for plate. Fluid at one inlet is exchanging heat with fluid at the inlet of the other side. and user specified heat transfer coefficients. flows are in opposite direction. not physical zones. flows are in the same direction. 162 . The default is 11 cut points or 10 zones. where n is user specified. n zones requires n+1 cut points (the entrance to the first zone.6 General Specifications – This option allows the user to define general data for a plate heat exchanger including calculation mode.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. View Results – This item is used to view the calculated results interactively. Calculate – This is used to execute the thermal analysis and pressure drop calculation. nozzles. Cutting method – The heat curve may be cut by Bubble-Dew Point or Equal Enthalpy method. HEAT CURVE GENERATION Selecting this option will cause the Heat Curve Parameters dialog box to appear: This dialog box contains commands that allow the entry of data necessary to calculate the heat curves for the exchanger. These are thermodynamic zones. Direction of Fluid Flow –The heat curve is affected by the direction of fluid flow through the exchanger. fouling factor. Number of cutting points – The entry here determines the number of zones which will be used for the heat curve. unit. The default is Bubble-Dew Point method. In countercurrent flow.

To change a value. The heat curve data will be displayed in a dialog box like that shown below: This dialog box scrolls to the left (using the elevator bar at the bottom) to display additional values. click the [OK] BUTTON.CC-THERM Version 5. etc. If blank fields are left between entered values. fouling factor. you simply type over it. To save your changes. allowable pressure drop. 163 .6 User’s Guide EDIT HEAT CURVE This option is used to modify the values calculated for the heat curve. GENERAL SPECIFICATION The General Specifications dialog box is provided to permit the user to define the general calculation parameters such as calculation mode. The General Information dialog box appears as follows. the program will use linear interpolation to fill them in.

PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER may be used to size a heat exchanger. the information required to make a run includes allowable pressure drops. Calculation mode – There are three calculation modes. It appears on the screen only if Calculation mode is set to fouling rating. fouling factors. rating. Rate cold side fouling – This option makes the program rate the cold side fouling factor. Pressure drop through nozzles is not included in this. stream data. In the rating mode. hot. In the fouling rating. and all geometry data must be defined. Fouling factor . This is the pressure drop allowable for flow passing through plates. It requires cold side fouling factor specified.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. and geometry data other than the number of plate. It is a thermal resistance included to account for the fouling. For rating and fouling rating. The default is 0. and fouling rating. Rate hot side fouling – This option makes the program rate the hot side fouling factor.Input of this variable is used for rating and design calculation.Input of this variable is required for design run. 164 . they could enter the value in the corresponding field.Input of this variable is optional. the required information includes streams and geometry data. It appears on the screen only if Calculation mode is set to fouling rating. The program will take this value when calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient. The program will calculate fouling factors on cold. Allowable dp . If the user wants to specify the cold or hot side film heat transfer coefficient. In the design mode. design. Its value is arbitrary and defines how often you want to clean the tubes. When in the design mode.6 These fields are described below.001 in English units on the cold and hot side. Film Coefficient . It requires hot side fouling factor specified. this field will be invisible from the dialog box. fouling factors. or both sides depending on user’s selection on the fouling rating option. The program checks to see if the exchanger defined will work in the given application by checking effective heat transfer area against area required to carry out the heat duty for given streams. stream data. calculating the optimum number of plate.

The Dialog box lets the user specify all data regarding the plate. the program will assume the fouling factors on cold and hot sides are equal. Under this option. it also allows the user to specify parameters for the pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient models if user specified plate corrugation is selected. The Dialog box looks like this. EXCHANGER GEOMETRY This option allows the user to make detailed specifications concerning the dimensions and arrangement of a plate heat exchanger. Selecting this option will cause the Exchanger Geometry Menu to appear as shown below: PLATE Selection of Plate option opens up the Plate Specifications Dialog Box.6 User’s Guide Rate both side fouling – This option makes the program rate cold and hot side fouling factors. 165 .CC-THERM Version 5. This option appears on the screen only if Calculation mode is set to fouling rating.

0213.699 respectively.This field is for input of the maximum Reynold’s number of laminar flow regime. 166 . There are many different conventions for chevron angle. The field appears only if the user specified plate corrugation is selected. Chevron angle – This is the chevron angle of the chevron corrugation plate. If not specified. number of nozzle.1662.3869.4 feet will be assigned. 0. This field is optional. b2.These are parameters for the frictional factor correlations. and 0. The default is 15. If not specified. plate height. Thermal conductivity – This is the thermal conductivity of the plate. and nozzle size. For chevron corrugation plate. a2. a default value of 0. The default is 300. b3. chevron angle is also required inputs in addition to those for intermitting corrugation plate. This field appears only if the user specified plate corrugation is selected. and 0. If not specified. thickness. all model parameters are required inputs in addition to those for intermitting corrugation plate. The dialog box is shown below and the definition of each field follows. This field appears only if the user specified plate corrugation is selected. If not specified. If not specified. Effective area per plate – This is the effective heat transfer area per plate.08 feet will be assigned. width. Turbulent: Re > – This field is for input of the minimum Reynold’s number of turbulent flow regime. Spacing – This is the space between two plates or gap.This is the plate height.6 Corrugation – PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER allows intermitting corrugation. For intermitting corrugation plate. and b4 .5. and user specified plate corrugation. 0. b1. Thickness . 1. and a3 . The defaults are 0. spacing are required inputs. the program will calculate it according to the plate wall temperature and the plate material specified in the Material option. Height . we use the definition that chevron angle is the chevron-chevron angle.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. If not specified. width.This is the plate thickness. a default value of 0. This field appears only if the user specified plate corrugation is selected.118 inch will be used. that is 2 times the angle of the corrugation to the flow. a1.1 inch will be used. the program will calculate it based on plate height. For user specified plate. UNIT The Unit option opens up the Unit Specifications dialog box.These are parameters for the heat transfer correlations. a default value of 10. chevron corrugation.This is the plate width. Width . This field will appear in the dialog box only if the chevron corrugation plate is selected. The defaults are 32. a default value of 3. This field is optional. Laminar: Re < .8.199 respectively.

It looks like this. the number of plates is calculated by the program and will also be updated in this field. The first option allows the heat exchanger to be arranged in cold side single pass and hot side multiple passes. The third option allows the heat exchanger to be arranged in the same number of passes for both sides.CC-THERM Version 5. The number of hot side pass may be specified in the Number of passes field. The dialog box allows the user to specify dimensions of nozzles. NOZZLES Selection of this option brings up the Nozzle Parameter dialog box. 167 . For design case. The second option allows the heat exchanger to be arranged in hot side single pass and cold side multiple passes. Plate Heat Exchanger assumes pure counter current flow in thermal calculation when this option is selected. F. Pass arrangement – This ratio button allows the user to select pass arrangement for the exchanger.5 of the Heat Exchanger Design Handbook (Taborek 1988). The number of passes may be specified in the Number of passes field.This field is for inputting the number of plates in the heat exchanger. The number of hot side passes may be specified in the Number of passes field. see Chapter 1. to LMTD similarly to the one applied to the single E-Shell and multiple-tube-pass exchanger is applied when the first or second options is selected.6 User’s Guide Number of plates . A correction factor.

The dialog box allows the user to specify material for the plates. The diameter will determine how much area should be subtracted from plate gross area to obtain effective area.This entry is for input of the number of nozzles per bundle for the tube side inlet. # of nozzles . All inlet nozzles are assumed to have the same diameter. The dialog box looks like this. Outlet nozzle diameter -This is the inner diameter of an outlet nozzle. MATERIALS Selection of this option brings up the Material Specifications dialog box.outlet .inlet . All outlet nozzles are assumed to have the same diameter. 168 . The diameter will determine how much area should be subtracted from plate gross area to obtain effective area. Inlet nozzle diameter .User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.6 # of nozzles .This is the inner diameter of an inlet nozzle.This entry is for input of the number of nozzles per bundle for the tube side outlet.

the VIEW MENU appears on the screen as shown below: The items listed provide summaries of the specific information requested. The plate material directly influences the plate wall resistance in the heat transfer calculation. VIEW RESULTS The View Results option enables the user to interactively review selected results on the screen. rate. If errors or warnings are detected. The progress of calculation will be reported in the status line in the lower left corner for design calculation. HEAT CURVES This displays the temperatures. and/or saved.6 User’s Guide Plate material .Select the plate material from the options listed in the window. printed. or fouling rating calculation. A detailed description of each VIEW MENU option is given below. When selected. and physical and transport properties for each zone. All results are displayed in Wordpad so that they can be edited. CALCULATE The Calculate button tells the program to execute the design. The program allows you to either change the data or ignore the error messages. the program performs a complete data check to make sure there is no missing or unreasonable information. 169 . After the command is issued. heat duties. To begin the run. vapor and liquid rates. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. move the pointer to the Calculate option and click the left mouse button. STREAM This option displays the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out of the heat exchanger. the program shows an error message on the screen.CC-THERM Version 5.

Unit. Hot Side Data. This is very useful in case any stream entering or exiting the exchanger is changed. Cold Side Nozzles.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. 170 . Cold Side Data.6 TABULATED DATA This option displays the Overall Data. Hot Side Nozzles and General Specification together on one page. GET STREAMS FROM FLOWSHEET This command allows the user to retrieve new streams from the CHEMCAD flowsheet.

vapor and liquid rates. and tabulated data. STREAM DATA The stream data reports the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out of the heat exchanger. This information is fed to heat curve calculation to generate heat curve. A heat curve report for the cold side looks like this: 171 . These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. and physical and transport properties for each zone. A stream data report looks like this: HEAT CURVES This report includes the temperatures. heat curves. heat duties.CC-THERM Version 5.6 User’s Guide PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER OUTPUT PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER output includes stream data.

User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. 172 .6 A heat curve report for the hot side has a similar format and content.

CC-THERM Version 5. Hot Side Data. Cold Side Nozzles. and General Specification together on one page. Unit. The tabulated data report looks like this: 173 . These values are the calculated results and geometry inputs from user. Hot Side Nozzles.6 User’s Guide TABULATED DATA This report includes the Overall Data. Cold Side Data.

Effective ) Clean Coeff. equation.) (MTD. This area is a projected area. It is defined as: (Service Coeff. Effective) = F(LMTD ) where F LMTD = = a correction factor for not pure countercurrent flow log mean temperature difference. – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger based on the Effective Area of exchanger at service.) = 1/ αh + 1/ αc + t / λp + Rh + Rc where. – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient.) = (Heat Load) (Effective Area ) (MTD. Service Coeff. Effective –The overall effective mean temperature difference which is defined as: (MTD. calculated by following equation: 1/(Clean Coeff. – This is the overall heat transfer coefficient when the surface is clean. ) (MTD. It is calculated by the following 1/(Calculated Coeff. Effective ) Calculated Area – The calculated heat transfer area required to carry out the heat load. It is calculated by following equation: (Clean Area) = (Heat Load) (Calculated Clean Coef. αh = hot stream heat transfer coefficient αc = cold stream heat transfer coefficient t = plate thickness λp = plate conductivity Rh = fouling resistance for the hot surfaces of the plate Rc = fouling resistance for the cold surfaces of the plate Calculated Clean Area – The heat transfer area required to carry out the heat load when the heat transfer surface is clean. 174 . Effective ) Calculated Coeff.) = 1 / αh + 1 / αc + t / λp It could be MTD. (Calculate d Area) = (Heat Load) (Calculated Coeff.6 Effective Area – The heat transfer effective area excludes that portion occupied by nozzles.User’s Guide Items other than user input are explained below: CC-THERM Version 5.

Factor –The correction factor. in − Tc. F. in for Th. it will be less than one. in − T c. in log(( Th. out ) − (Th. in − Tc. When making a design run. the program will find a heat exchanger so that the excess is the minimum positive value. Velocity – The fluid velocity is calculated by volumetric flow rate divided by the cross sectional area defined by the plate width times the gap between two adjacent plates. out − Tc. Drop – Cold or hot side flow pressure drop due to frictional force. Reynolds No – Reynolds number of the cold or hot flow. 175 . out ≠ Th.6 The LMTD is defined as: User’s Guide LMTD = Th. in) for Th. out = Th. in − Tc. A negative value indicates that the exchanger is undersurfaced in rating. the program finds the fouling factors so that the Excess Area is zero.CC-THERM Version 5. Effective. out ) / ( Th. Gross Area – The gross area which is calculated by: (Gross Area) = (Number of Plate )( Width )(Height ) MTD. Pres. in)) Heat Load – The enthalpy difference between the inlet and outlet process streams of the heat exchanger. When making a fouling rating run. appeared in the definition of MTD.(Calculate d Area) (100%) (Effective Area ) This value is always expressed as a percent. such as a large plate heat exchanger which has the same number of pass for cold and hot side and arranged in pure countercurrent configuration. Area Per Unit – The effective area per unit excludes that portion which is occupied by the nozzles. in − Tc. out − Tc. Film coefficient – The heat transfer coefficient of the fluid boundary layer or film next to the plate wall on the cold or hot side. out − Tc. out = Th. in and (LMTD) = ( Th. out − Tc. Otherwise. out − Tc. F equals one. For pure countercurrent flow. Excess Area – The excess area for the present calculation. It is defined as: (Area Excess) = (Effective Area ) .

.3. J. J.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. 176 . Performance. 1988.5. Beaton C.. et al. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation: New York. H. P2 Taborek J. Schlunder E.6 APPENDIX I PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER REFERENCES P1 Kumar. Bell K.. U. et al. U. F. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation: New York. Bell K. Chap. 1. Chap.. 1988. Charts for mean temperature difference in industrial heat exchanger configurations. F. Schlunder E.. In Heat Exchanger Design Handbook... Beaton C.7. 3... In Heat Exchanger Design Handbook.

CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE User’s Guide And Tutorial .

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design. The flow is assumed to be laminar below a Reynolds number of 2000 and is turbulent above a Reynolds number of 4000. DOUBLE PIPE handles the applications of sensible heat transfer for both liquid and vapor. simulation. 6. In the transition region. Standard double pipe exchanger from Brown Fintube Company. Since the input/output systems and conventions are the same in DOUBLE PIPE as those used in CHEMCAD. Single and multiple modules in parallel and/or series. Single and multiple tubes in one shell. simulation. TECHNICAL FEATURES 1. The method of Eubank-Proctor or VDI Mean Nusselt Number may be used for laminar flow. straight or U-shaped. Dittus-Boelter. Colburn. 4. and fouling rating of double pipe heat exchangers in the CHEMCAD Suite. HEAT TRANSFER METHODS SENSIBLE HEAT TRANSFER Sensible Flow – Tubeside: The Sieder-Tate. so anyone familiar with CHEMCAD will be able to operate DOUBLE PIPE with ease. or ESDU method can be selected in for the calculation of the tubeside heat transfer coefficient in the turbulent region.6 User’s Guide PRODUCT OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION TO CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE or DOUBLE PIPE is an integrated module for rating. DOUBLE PIPE is fully integrated with the CHEMCAD Suite so process data is automatically transferred from the process flowsheets to the heat exchanger analysis. 3. Four modes of calculation may be selected: Rating. Tubes may be bare or longitudinal fin. the 177 . and heating curves and physical properties data are automatically generated using the same properties and methods. A library of longitudinal finned tube from Brown Fintube Company is built into the program. 2. please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for these types of “How to” instructions.CC-THERM Version 5. fouling rating mode. EASY TO LEARN The input for DOUBLE PIPE is simple and concise. It is based upon the CHEMCAD input system. design. 5.

or fouling rating with CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE. same options are available as for tube side.6 program prorates the laminar and turbulent coefficient according to the Reynolds number to arrive at the final coefficient. OUTPUT FEATURES The user may select from the following output reports: • • • • • • A zone-by-zone print-out of the heat curve and fluid physical properties The TEMA sheet A tabulated print-out of overall exchanger values A zone-by-zone print-out of heat transfer and pressure drop calculations Inlet and outlet stream information Plot of heat curve. you can review the results interactively on the screen and graphically using the plot features of the program. review the results of problems already designed. THE ZONE ANALYSIS The unit is analyzed using n (default =10) zones. For finned tube. OVERVIEW DOUBLE PIPE is an interactive simulation tool for the design. For turbulent flow. same options as for tube side are available. or fouling rating of double pipe heat exchangers. Sensible Flow – Shellside: For the heat transfer coefficient at the inner surface of the annulus. and make modifications to previously saved problems. the Blasius equation is used. More information on each option is provided in later sections. DOUBLE PIPE automatically sets up the zones and properties of each zone. but permits the user to edit or override. et al. If the flow is in the transient region where Reynolds number is greater than 2300 and less than 20000. For turbulent flow heat transfer coefficient and frictional factor in the pressure drop calculation. temperature. In addition to obtaining a hardcopy output report. coefficient. With this input facility. is used for laminar flow with bare tube. The following list illustrates the general steps. heat flux. 178 . and area. LMTD. This section gives an overall view of the program usage and the options available on the DOUBLE PIPE menu. The Blasius method may be selected for the frictional factor in the pressure drop calculation for turbulent flow with smooth tube internal surface while Chen method is available for rough surface. the method recommended in the book by Hewitt. VDI-Mean Nusselt Number method of heat transfer cofficient is used for laminar flow in the channels between fins.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. The input functions allow you to enter process data by using dialog boxes with context specific help. or shell side. simulation. you can create new problem files. rating. There are seven general steps involved in running a heat exchanger design. rating.

1. Review and printout the results. From this box. Similarly. The program performs the following tasks. The heat exchanger (HTXR) – dialog box will open. When the instruction is cleared (by clicking [OK]). 6. Please note that onesided heat exchanger could not be used with DOUBLE PIPE simulation mode. Execute the program. 5. Define only input streams of the heat exchanger in CC-STEADY STATE. The program will prompt you through the initial setup of the exchanger analysis. fouling rating studies. Generates the heat curve for the tube and shell sides. The program will prompt you through the initial setup of the exchanger analysis. rating. 2.CC-THERM Version 5. simulation. 7. This generates CHEMCAD files. Select the Sizing command on the menu bar. It will do this by displaying instructions about what you are to do next. It will do this by displaying instructions about what you are to do next. 1. At the end of the setup process.6 User’s Guide 1. you will be taken to the function or dialog box appropriate for completing the instructed task. 3. Review and printout the results in CHEMCAD as you do for other UnitOp or go to CC-THERM to do review and printout the results. 3. the DOUBLE PIPE menu is displayed. From this menu select the Heat Exchangers and then Double Pipe. 3. 5. 4. 2. 6. The Sizing menu will open. Define the problem and run the flowsheet in CC-STEADY STATE. select 5. Performs the design. 7. 4. 2. Exit the menu and save all the data entry. Performs extensive error checking. there are seven general steps involved in running a heat exchanger simulation with DOUBLE PIPE. Double Pipe Simulation option for the Simulation mode and click on [OK] button. the user needs to specify all the basic information about the configuration of a single heat exchanger and the 179 . Inspect and edit the input as desired using the menu commands. In the design mode. 4. the DOUBLE PIPE menu is displayed. When the instruction is cleared (by clicking [OK]). The following list illustrates the general steps. Inspect and edit the input as desired using the menu commands. At the end of the setup process. Creates the streams if one-sided heat exchanger is used. Run simulation as you do for other UnitOps in CC-STEADY STATE. Double click the heat exchanger icon on the flowsheet. you will be taken to the function or dialog box appropriate for completing the instructed task.

5. 180 . In the rating mode. run. This menu provides a set of commands. In the fouling rating mode. review. 7. If a heat exchanger is not currently “selected”. 6. design. If it is a one-sided heat exchanger. the program will assume this is the unit you want to analyze. simulation. CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE must have a heat and material balance around the unit before it can rate it. For design. you must provide all the basic information about the exchanger configuration except the fouling factor which will be estimated by the program. DOUBLE PIPE offers the process engineer an easy and comprehensive method of rating. which are used to setup. and print out the analysis. and fouling rating. In the simulation mode. Select the Sizing command from the menu bar. you must provide all the basic information about the exchanger configuration and the program will check and rate the exchanger for its adequacy in the service specified. the program will ask you to select one to be rated. rating. 4. or fouling rating of the heat exchanger. Since it uses the same command language as CHEMCAD. Provides an interactive user interface to allow the user to change the problem specifications to rerun the problem and review the results.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. simulating. The program has been thoroughly tested against hand calculations and found to be an accurate and reliable tool. Creates the DOUBLE PIPE files to save all the input/output data for each exchanger. Select the Heat Exchangers > Double Pipe option from the Sizing menu. 2. This section describes the use of those commands in detail. rating. you must provide all the basic information about the exchanger configuration and the program will calculate the output streams for the specified heat exchangers. and fouling rating double pipe heat exchangers. Run a simulation of a flowsheet containing a heat exchanger. 3. Generates the output for the design.6 program will run optimization so that the smallest numbers of heat exchangers in parallel and series are found which satisfies all design criteria. Double Pipe will walk you through the input of utility stream composition and thermal conditions. If a heat exchanger is currently “selected” on the flowsheet. It is fully supported by a staff of trained engineers. DOUBLE PIPE COMMANDS To run a heat exchanger calculation in CHEMCAD you must access the DOUBLE PIPE menu. The Sizing menu will open. any CHEMCAD user can pick up the program in a matter of minutes. the following procedure is used to call the DOUBLE PIPE menu: 1. 5. SUMMARY As an integrated module to the CHEMCAD Suite.

the program will let you select heat exchanger category. Right click on the unit to be analyzed and select the Edit UnitOp Data menu. CC-THERM will walk you through the input procedure.6 User’s Guide 6. If the selected heat exchanger has never been analyzed before. After select Double Pipe Heat Exchanger option. this walk through procedure will be skipped and the DOUBLE PIPE menu will appear immediately. Define a two-sided heat exchanger with input streams specified. This will involve identifying the tubeside stream (the shellside stream is then inferred) and completing a series of dialog boxes. 3. Once these have been completed (or at least viewed). the DOUBLE PIPE menu will appear. the inner tube fluid) and completing a series of dialog boxes. If the selected heat exchanger has been analyzed before. this walk through procedure will be skipped and the DOUBLE PIPE menu will appear immediately.CC-THERM Version 5. This will involve identifying the tubeside stream (that is. The Heat exchanger (HTXR). 4. Select option 5 or 6 (Double Pipe simulation or Double Pipe fouling factor rating) for the simulation mode box and click [OK] button. 181 . 2. the following procedure is used to call the DOUBLE PIPE menu: 1. Once these have been completed. rating. and fouling rating purpose looks like this: For simulation. If the selected heat exchanger has never been analyzed before. The DOUBLE PIPE menu for design. the program will let you select heat exchanger category. CC-THERM will walk you through the input procedure. If the selected heat exchanger has been analyzed before. After select Double pipe heat exchanger option.dialog box will open. the DOUBLE PIPE menu will appear.

Edit Heat Curve – This option enables the user to change the heat curve values calculated by DOUBLE PIPE. allowed pressure drop. View Results – This item is used to view the calculated results interactively. DATA ENTRY IN DOUBLE PIPE You will be entering data about your heat exchanger through the DOUBLE PIPE dialog boxes. tubes. Curve Generation performs the former calculations. You should note the CHEMCAD Suite input rules apply. to override the program. thermodynamic properties of the heat transfer fluids in each side of the exchanger. Heat This calculation determines the flows. It also allows the user to make material specifications. General Specifications – This option is used to define basic exchanger parameters such as computation mode. 182 . in other words. exchanger type.User’s Guide The DOUBLE PIPE menu for simulation purposes looks like this: CC-THERM Version 5. process type. Heat Curve Generation therefore is a necessary prerequisite to the rest of the calculations. Exchanger Geometry – Selecting this option allows the user to provide physical dimensions for the shell. then the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations are performed. and nozzles. Calculate – This is used to execute the thermal analysis and pressure drop calculations. Heat Curve Generations – The heat exchanger analysis calculation takes place in two steps.6 The options on these menus are briefly described below and more fully described in the following sections bearing the option as title. and heat transfer and pressure drop equations to be used. Please refer to the CHEMCAD User’s Guide for the details of all input connections and dialog boxes. fouling factors. the heat curve is generated. First. These properties are then used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations.

heat transfer coefficient. If the dew points and bubble points are not within the temperature range of this heat exchanger. Bubble-Dew Point method. heat flux. HEAT CURVE GENERATION Selecting this option will cause the Heat Curve Parameters dialog box to appear as shown below: This dialog box contains commands that allow you to enter the data necessary to calculate the heat curve for the exchanger. Re-enter Stream Information – When a one-sided heat exchanger is selected from the CHEMCAD flowsheet for analysis. Bubble-Dew Point The default is option (2). This is initially done in the “Heat Curve Generation” step. then it always uses the Equal Enthalpy method. temperature. Equal enthalpy 2. Save Configuration – This saves the current data. the user must provide information defining the second side in order for the analysis to be performed.CC-THERM Version 5. Report Generation – This command is used to generate hardcopies of tabulated reports. LMTD. Re-initialize Exchanger – This command completely deletes all data regarding the currently selected heat exchanger and restarts the input process. HEAT CURVE INPUT CUTTING METHOD – The heat curve may be set up in zones by the methods of: 1. It also allows the user to swap tube and shell side streams. This command enables the user to change this second stream information. and required heat transfer area on a zone-by-zone basis. 183 . The user can select which information is to be included in the final report.6 User’s Guide Plot – This option enables the user to graphically display a variety of heat curves. It is important to note that if you have made any changes to the streams or heat exchanger units within CHEMCAD. you will receive a warning from DOUBLE PIPE recommending that you recalculate the heat curve to reflect those changes. Field by field descriptions of these options is provided below.

plus the outlet of all n zone). shell and tube flows are in opposite direction.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. and divides the region using these points. The Bubble-Dew Point method finds the dew points and bubble points first. where n is input by the user. it will keep cutting the largest zone in half until user specified number of zones is reached. not physical zones. DOUBLE PIPE will prompt for information defining this stream and its conditions. Fluid at the tube inlet is exchanging heat with fluid at the shell inlet. The Enthalpy method calculates the temperature and the flow profiles by generating the corresponding physical properties based on uniform enthalpy and pressure profiles. Fluid at the tube inlet is exchanging heat with fluid exiting the shell. The default value of n is 10. DIRECTION OF FLUID FLOW The heat curve is affected by the direction of fluid flow through the exchanger. The program will calculate the utility flowrate. These are thermodynamic zones. After the desired information has been entered. Further. In countercurrent flow. n zones requires n+1 cut points (the entrance to the first zone. and the whole path of the heat transfer route will be cut into n zones. the shell and tube flows are in the same direction. click the [OK] button. NUMBER OF CUT POINTS – The entry here determines the number of zones which will be used for the heat transfer analysis. The inlet composition and thermodynamic conditions are specified using a Stream dialog box just as in CHEMCAD.6 The heat exchanger itself is modeled as a zone-by-zone heat transfer process. but an initial guess must be given. The default is 11 cut points or 10 zones. In cocurrent flow. The utility stream flowrate is calculated based upon the heat duty of the exchanger and the outlet condition of the stream. The outlet conditions are specified using the following dialog box: 184 . UTILITY STREAMS If the heat exchanger uses a utility stream (one-sided heat exchanger icon).

EDIT HEAT CURVE This option is used to modify the values CC-STEADY STATE calculated for the heat curve.6 User’s Guide You may specify only one of the following: Temperature: Fixed flow: The outlet temperature of the utility stream. To change a value. you simply type over it.CC-THERM Version 5. The flowrate will be the previously specified in the Streams dialog box. The heat curve data will be displayed in a dialog box similar to that shown below: 185 .

6 This dialog box scrolls to the left (using the elevator bar at the bottom) to display additional values. process type. If blank fields are left between entered values. click the [OK] button. the program will perform a line interpolation to fill them in. etc. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS The General Information dialog box is provided to permit you to define the general calculation parameters such as computation mode. To save your changes. Page 1: 186 . The General Information dialog box appears as follows.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. exchanger type.

CC-THERM Version 5. The program checks to see if the exchanger defined will work in the given application. DOUBLE PIPE will calculate numbers of modules in series and parallel needed to meet the pressure drop constrains and heat duties. and Rate both side fouling. You must define the geometry type. Modular concept of double pipe heat exchanger lets you meet heat transfer duties and pressure drop constrains by putting together double pipe heat exchanger modules in series . Rate shell side fouling.6 Page 2: User’s Guide These fields are described below.the DOUBLE PIPE module may be used to rate an existing exchanger. adding or subtracting modules. DOUBLE PIPE may also be used to perform fouling rating. In this mode. number of exchangers in series and parallel. Plant managers can immediately meet changing duties simply by rearranging. allowable pressure drops on both shell and tube side along with data needed for rating single module have to be specified. 187 . There are three options under this mode. This mode could be very useful for a process engineer in estimating the fouling situation of an on duty heat exchanger. In this mode. THE GENERAL PAGE Calculation mode . The program will assume equal fouling on tube and shell side while perform Rate both side fouling. all the geometry data of the heat exchanger must be defined and the program will estimate fouling factor(s) for given process flow data. Rate tube side fouling. tube length. In this mode. These options pop up on this page when fouling rating mode is selected. parallel. DOUBLE PIPE may be used to carry out thermal design for such task. all the key variables must be defined. or mixed fashion. shell ID.

3 APPENDIX II Reference No.This identifies the method to be used to calculate the tubeside frictional pressure drop.6 Fouling factor . Reference No. turbulent flow on the shellside. 9 APPENDIX II Shellside Turbulent Flow Method – This option specifies which method is to be used to calculate the shellside film coefficient for sensible.It is a thermal resistance included to account for the fouling. The options are: The Blasius Equation Chen’s Method Shellside Methods: Shellside Laminar Flow Model . 5 APPENDIX II Reference No.This option selects which method is to be used to calculate the shellside pressure drops and film coefficients for laminar flow. the options are: 188 . 1 APPENDIX II Reference No. 6 APPENDIX II Reference No. 8 APPENDIX II Reference No. The options are: Program Select: Let DOUBLE PIPE select the most appropriate method base upon the flow conditions. THE METHODS PAGE Tubeside Methods: Tubeside Laminar Flow Method – This option defines which equation is to be used to calculate the sensible heat transfer film coefficient for laminar flow on the tubeside. CC-THERM Version 5.selection of straight tube or U shaped tube exchanger. 4 APPENDIX II Reference No. turbulent flow on the tubeside. 7 APPENDIX II Tubeside Frictional Pressure Drop . Its value is arbitrary and defines how often you want to clean the tubes. the options are: Program Select: Seader-Tate: Colburn Method: Dittus-Boelter: ESDU Method: Mean VDI Nusselt: Let DOUBLE PIPE select the most appropriate method base upon the turbulent flow conditions. The options are: Eubank-Proctor VDI Reference No. 2 APPENDIX II Tubeside Turbulent Flow Method – This option specifies which method is to be used to calculate the tubeside film coefficient for sensible.001 in English units on both sides.User’s Guide Geometry type . Process type – DOUBLE PIPE allows sensible flow on both tube and shell side. The default is 0. Reference No.

This identifies the method to be used to calculate the shellside frictional pressure drop.6 Program Select: Seader-Tate: Colburn Method: Dittus-Boelter: ESDU Method: Mean VDI Nusselt: User’s Guide Let DOUBLE PIPE select the most appropriate method base upon the flow conditions. The bigger the integer value is. 5 APPENDIX II Reference No. EXCHANGER GEOMETRY The Exchanger Geometry option is to permit the user to make detailed specifications concerning the dimensions and arrangement of the heat exchanger.CC-THERM Version 5. 8 APPENDIX II Reference No. The options are: The Blasius Equation Chen’s Method Reference No. 9 APPENDIX II The Load default methods button will load all default methods or setting on this page. Reference No. Warning level controls pop up frequency of warning messages. The Tube Specifications dialog box appears as follows. Selecting this option will cause the Exchanger Geometry menu to appear as shown below: TUBES The Tube Specifications dialog box is used to define tube and tube arrangement information. 189 . 4 APPENDIX II Reference No. the more frequent the messages will appear. 6 APPENDIX II Reference No. 7 APPENDIX II Shellside Frictional Pressure Drop . 3 APPENDIX II Reference No.

Tube wall thickness . Roughness factor – Enter the absolute roughness for the inside of the tube.0 x fin height). This field will be overwritten if Brown Fintube is selected for Finned tube code. The default number is 1 for single tube exchanger. and Brown Fintube can be selected.The wall thickness is a mandatory input.6 These fields are described below.This field is a mandatory input for a rating case.The units are in inches or mm. a typical number is 7.25 inch. For multitube exchanger. This field will be overwritten if Brown Fintube is selected for Finned tube code. Rotated Triangular(60) [Default] Square (90) Diamond [rotated square (45)] Rotated triangular(30) Tube pitch . Selection of Brown Fintube allows user to select double pipe heat 190 . This field will be overwritten if Brown Fintube is selected for Finned tube code. This field will be overwritten if Brown Fintube exchanger is selected for Finned tube code. The default is 1. User Specified Finned Tube.The tube diameter has to be specified. Finned tube code – Plain tube. Number of tubes – This field is mandatory.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5.25 x (tube outer diameter + 2.25 x (tube outer diameter + 2. This field will be checked by the program to assure that it is greater than 1.0 x fin height). Tube Outer Diameter . Selection of User Specified Finned Tube allows user to specify fin tube geometry dimensions and fin materials. This value is used in the calculation of frictional pressure loss. The default is Plain tube. Tube length . Tube pattern – The following selection is available under this option. The minimum value of outer tube diameter is 0. The tube pitch is the distance between tube centers.

CC-THERM Version 5. The dialog box appears as follows. These dialog boxes are shown below. and fin thickness. SHELL The purpose of the Shell Specifications dialog box is to define shell information. shell material. nominal fin length in feet. number of fins. upon clicking OK of The Tube Specification dialog box their respective dialog boxes will pop up. please refer to the Brown Fintube product catalog. The dialog box appears as follows. tube thickness. and fin height. To be specified are the fin tube name. For more details. 191 The Shell . User can select the section type. If User Specified Finned Tube or Brown Fintube is selected. fin material. Brown Fintube Double Pipe specifications – This dialog box allows user to specify a Brown Fintube double pipe exchanger. Longitudinal fin specifications – This dialog box allows user to specify a fin tube. fin height. tube material. Specifications dialog box appears as follows. number of fins.6 User’s Guide exchanger manufactured by Brown Fintube Company. shell thickness.

Number of exchangers in series . as the program will calculate it if this information is omitted.This diameter is the inside diameter in all cases. Even if making a rating. It will be overwritten if Brown Fintube is selected for Finned tube code. Shell diameter . It will be overwritten if Brown Fintube is selected for Finned tube code in the Tube Specifications dialog box. Number of exchangers in parallel . The diameter is the internal diameter. The Nozzle Specifications dialog box appears as follows.This field must be input.The default is one (1). Nozzle diameter . Any positive integer number between 1 and the maximum allowed per machine precision is acceptable. NOZZLES The purpose of the Nozzle Specifications dialog box is to permit you to specify nozzle sizes.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. it is not obligatory to input the nozzle diameter.6 These fields are described below. 192 . Any positive integer number between 1 and the maximum allowed per machine precision is acceptable. It appears as follows. MATERIALS The Material Specifications dialog box is used to specify the materials used for tubes.The default is one (1).

the program performs a complete data check to make sure there is no missing or unreasonable information. the program performs a complete data check to make sure there is no missing or unreasonable information. When selected. the program shows an error message on the screen. rating. the program shows an error message on the screen. After the command is issued.CC-THERM Version 5. After that. After the button is pressed. Merkblatter material code. VIEW RESULTS The View Results option enables the user to interactively review selected results on the screen.6 User’s Guide The first 34 options are material selections. To begin the calculation. CALCULATE Pressing the Calculate button executes the design. or fouling rating calculation for the exchanger. If errors or warnings are detected. The program allows you to either change the data or ignore the error messages. or fouling rating calculation. The execution command of DOUBLE PIPE simulation is the same as of CHEMCAD simulation. The Calculate command tells the program to execute the design. the View menu appears on the screen like so: 193 . follow the ASME and DIN A. rating. If errors or warnings are detected. move the pointer to the Calculate option and click the left mouse button. The program allows you to either change the data or ignore the error messages. The execution command of DOUBLE PIPE simulation is the same as of CHEMCAD simulation. D.

Since a complete explanation of this output is given under the report generation section of this manual. and LMTD(s) of the heat exchanger. and Resistances Data together on one page. nozzle sizes. heat transfer coefficient(s). and pressure drops. A brief description of each View menu option is given below. printed. Tubeside Data. Reynolds No. heat duties. This includes film coefficient. OVERALL DATA This option displays summary of the duty. pressure drops. Please refer to the DOUBLE PIPE REPORT GENERATION section of this manual for further descriptions. Shellside Data. HEAT CURVES This displays the temperatures. These are the values used in the heat transfer and pressure drop calculations. and velocity. SUMMARY RESULTS This selection allows you to view a short summary of the most important input and output of the heat exchanger calculations. The format and content of these displays are the same as in the DOUBLE PIPE reports..6 The nine items listed provide summaries of the specific information requested. SHELLSIDE DATA This option shows the shellside data for the current exchanger. TUBESIDE DATA This option shows the tubeside data for the current exchanger.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. no effort is made to duplicate that information here. All displays are in Wordpad so that they can be edited. TABULATED DATA This option displays the Overall Data. and/or saved. 194 . This includes velocity.. Reynolds No. vapor and liquid rates. and physical and transport properties for each zone. Tube Data. film coefficient. nozzles sizes. area(s).

HEAT FLUX Heat flux passes through the tube wall. you can plot several zone-by-zone results graphically. LMTD Log-mean temperature difference for each zone. PLOT From the Plot menu.6 User’s Guide ZONE BY ZONE DATA This option allows the user to review the zone-by-zone calculated results for both the tubeside and the shellside. 195 . The plots are displayed in Plot Windows. The plot menu looks like the following. A brief description of each option is given below: HEAT CURVE Process heat curve is a plot of heat duty versus temperature for both sides of the exchanger. the user can modify or edit the plot using the commands provided by this window. TEMA SHEET This option displays the completed TEMA sheet. STREAM DATA This option displays the compositions and thermodynamic properties of the streams going in and out of the heat exchanger. Therefore.CC-THERM Version 5.

Tube Side Wall.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. limited to 40 characters. All heat transfer coefficients are based on the surface area of tube outer diameter.Enter the name of the customer. HEAT XFER AREA Heat transfer area required for each zone is plotted. Most of these fields are selfexplanatory and none of them are mandatory input.Enter the proposal number for this exchanger. shell side. Address . limited to 10 characters. limited to 40 characters. Reference . Shell Side: bulk temperature of shell side flow. Proposal . 196 . Plant Location . Tube Side Wall: temperature at interface between tube side fouling and flow.6 TEMPERATURE Four temperature curves are plotted on same page. Shell Side Wall. Tube Side: bulk temperature of tube side flow. Customer . shell side fouling. and Shell Side. tube side fouling. The definitions of label are list below. They are labeled as Tube Side. Shell Side Wall: temperature at interface between shell side fouling and flow. limited to 10 characters. Zone area is based on tube outer surface. REPORT GENERATION The report generation menu is shown below.Enter the address of the service. HEAT XFER COEFFICIENT The overall heat transfer coefficient curve is plotted along with four local heat transfer coefficient curves for tube side.Enter the reference number for this exchanger.Enter the plant location where the exchanger will be placed in service. PREPARE LABELS This option allows you to specify general information for output labeling. limited to 40 characters.

limited to 12 characters. VIEW RESULTS.Enter the name of the shellside fluid. click on the box to make the checkmark disappear.Enter the corrosion allowance at the tubeside and shellside. To de-select an item.Enter the service of the unit.Enter the mechanical design pressure at the tubeside and shellside. You may select any of the choices by clicking the desired option. Service of Unit . This information appears in the output on the TEMA sheet and head of the report file.Enter the revision number of this calculation.6 Date . Default is the equipment ID number. Item Number . limited to 12 characters. Design Temperature . limited to 12 characters. limited to 12 characters. Tubeside fluid .Enter the name of the heat exchanger.Enter the date.Enter the item number. 197 . Corrosion Allowance .Enter the mechanical design temperature at the tubeside and shellside. Name of Exchanger . Comments . The contents of each report are described in previous chapter.CC-THERM Version 5.Enter the name of the tubeside fluid. SELECT REPORTS This displays a menu that allows you to select which reports and information you want to include in your output. A check mark will appear indicating that the report will be included. limited to 10 characters. limited to 10 characters User’s Guide Revision Number .Enter the remarks you wish for the TEMA report. limited to 10 characters. Design Pressure . Shellside fluid .

SAVE CONFIGURATION This command saves the current input for a rating case. RE-INITIALIZE EXCHANGER This command deletes all of the input and output data for the current exchanger and starts a new analysis. i. from double pipe heat exchanger to shell and tube heat exchanger..User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. 198 . RE-ENTER STREAM INFORMATION This command allows user to get stream data from CC-STEADY STATE flowsheet for the four streams going in and out of the current heat exchanger.6 GENERATE REPORTS Clicking on this option will cause the selected reports to be assembled into a single formatted output and then displayed in a word pad file.e. This command is very useful when stream data of the unit to be sized is changed. This command is useful when one wants to switch to other types of exchanger. Utility side stream will be recalculated for one side heat exchanger and heat curve will be regenerated using this feature.

28 SS Film Coeff 122.110E-010/5. 1. heat transfer information and information describing the thermodynamic options and engineering units being used.25 Thermodynamics: K: SRK H: SRK D: Library Number of Components: 3 Calculation Mode: Design Engineering Units: Temperature Flow/Hour Pressure Enthalpy Diameter/Area Length/Velocity Film Fouling F (lbmol/h)/h psia MMBtu in/ft2 ft/(ft/sec) Btu/hr-ft2-F hr-ft2-F/Btu 199 . It contains physical configuration.59 COR LMTD 100./I.001459 TS Film Coeff 1692.110E-009 Del P(S/T) 1.9000/1.00 Shell in Series/Parallel 1/2 Number of Tubes 1 Tube Length 40.26 U (Calc/Service) 79.59/63.95/1.6 User’s Guide CC-THERM DOUBLE PIPE OUTPUT SUMMARY REPORT This report section includes general data and a summary of the key information regarding the current exchanger.03 Avg. SS Vel 2.85 TW Resist 0. TS Vel 6.82 Excess % 25.60 Foul(S/T) 5. An example of this report appears below: SUMMARY REPORT -------------General Data: Exch Type Double Pipe BF_x51 Shell I.D.D. 6.D.37 Heat Calc 1.CC-THERM Version 5.26 Avg.6100 Heat Transfer Data: Effective Transfer Area 128.85 Area Required 102.03 Heat Spec 0.00 Tube O.

Surf/unit (G/E) Calc (coefficient) Service (coefficient) RHO-V2-inlet nozzle Designation 200 . Only a few of them will be explained here as these few may not be intuitively obvious. The total surface area per unit. effective transfer area. See the discussion below of U CALC for more details. It is the overall heat transfer coefficient. taking into account the fouling factors on the shellside and the tubeside. An example is given on the next page. G means GROSS or overall area without discounting any part of the tube length which may be imbedded in the tubesheet. See Brown Fintube company’s sales brushes. BF_nnn type is Brown Fintube company’s standard where nnn is the heat exchanger section type number. The same as the quantity RV2 IN which is defined above.6 TEMA SHEET The TEMA Sheet is reproduced from the TEMA book and is filled in for use as an equipment spec sheet. This is the coefficient calculated from service heat specification. E is the effective surface area after discounting any portion of the tube length embedded in the tubesheet. When the exchanger is oversurfaced. The same coefficient as U CALC stated below (see: Overall Data). See APPENDIX VIII for an example which details the definition of Brown Fintube designation code. the CALC coefficient always exceeds the SERVICE coefficient.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Type User or BF_nnn. Exchanger designation. Most of the items on the TEMA Sheet are selfexplanatory. This is momentum term of the incoming shellside fluid at the inlet nozzle. User type is user specified double pipe heat exchanger. Could be User or Brown Fintube designation code. and corrected LMTD.

000000/Code 0.068 3.081 0.266 lb/ft3 19 Conductivity 0.000 34 No.775 F 24 Operating Pressure 14.Pit. MTD(Corrected): 100.1450 in.00 Btu/lb 23 Temperature(In/Out) 59.387 Btu/hr-ft-F 20 Specific Heat 0. Passes per Shell 1 1 35 Corrosion Allowance in 0. 4 Plant Loc.000000/Code 33 Design Temperature F 0.25 ft/sec 27 Press Drop Allow/Calc 5. 32 Nom Length 20.0in x 40.0 lb/h 14 Vapor 0.0 0.950 5.068 38 Rating 39 Tube No. 0.0 0.000000 Surf/Shell 64.000 0.00 ft 43 Rho-V2-Inlet Nozzle 1653. Date Rev 5 Service of Unit Item 6 Size 6.00000 0. 0.50 14. 1 OD 1.43 OD in Shell Cover 42 Fin A-203-E No.6 Btu/hr-ft2-F 30 CONSTRUCTION DATA/SHELL Sketch 31 Shell Side Tube Side 32 Design/Test Press psia 0.000000 0.330 0.449 203.2 38334.0 lb/h 15 NonCondensable 0.4/128.900 in.CC-THERM Version 5.50 psia 25 Fouling Factor 0.4 ft2 8 PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT 9 Type of Process Sensible Sensible 10 Fluid Allocation Shell Side Tube Side 11 Fluid Name 12 Flow 39683.000/3.279 psi 28 Heat Exchanged 8.0 0.641 0.0 lb/h 13 Liquid 39683.0 lb/h 17 Evap/Cond 0.00 ID 6.000/181.046 0.00 44 Weight/Shell 45 Designation: Brown Fintube x51-1E001-720 46 Remarks: 47 201 .000 0.000/0. Shell/Unit 2. 3 Address Prop No.187e-001 MMBtu.000/0.000/1.000/1.0 lb/h 18 Density 0.000/0.000/60.006 Btu/lb-F 21 Viscosity at Avg.2 38334. 40.Length. Ptn.00000 lb/h 16 Steam 0.000/121.000/1.000000 hr-ft2-F/Btu 26 Velocity 2.0ft Type BF_x51 (Hor/Vert) H Connected in 2 Para 1 Seri 7 Surf/Unit(G/E) 129.000/0.6 User’s Guide TEMA SHEET 1 ---------2 Customer Ref No.068 37 Size & OUT ID in 3.6 Clean: 79.469 3.4 Calc: 79.320 cP 22 Latent Heat 0.000 36 Connections IN ID in 2. 45 40 Tube Type L_Finned Material 1 Carbon Steel Shape U_tube 41 Shell A-285-C 6.9 ft2. Service: 63.Thk.00 ft.26 F 29 Transfer Rate.000/65.000 in.00 0.7/64. 0.85 6.

2. 3. 202 . Zone pressure. is the shell side heat transfer coefficient based on tube outside surface area and temperature difference between fouling surface and bulk fluid temperature. is defined by equivalent diameter of shell side annulus. Pres. Cap. Vapor Cond. is the flow velocity at shell side parallel to tube. SS Vel. Zone outlet temperature. Cap. Film coef. Avg. Liquid Visco. Heat Load Vapor Flow Liquid Flow Latent Heat Surface Tension Crit. Zone Press. etc.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Vapor Density Liquid Ht. Reynold’s No.6 HEATING CURVES The Heating Curve is a printout of the vapor and liquid properties at the inlet and outlet of each of the ten zones of the exchanger. Liquid Density Point 1 is the inlet to the exchanger. This is the incremented heat load of the zone. Vapor flowrate Liquid flowrate Latent heat Surface tension Critical pressure Vapor heat capacity Vapor viscosity Vapor thermal conductivity Vapor density Liquid heat capacity Liquid viscosity Liquid thermal conductivity Liquid density SHELLSIDE DATA AND TUBESIDE DATA 1. Point 3 is the outlet from the second zone. Point 2 is the outlet from the first zone. Vapor Ht. Vapor Visco. Liquid Cond. These variables are defined as follows. Temp.

8. Drop is what specified by user in general information page as design constrain. shellside data. 5. and tubeside data. Free Int. An typical value of this number will be 1 or 7. Fin Efficiency is used to simplify the calculation of the heat transfer from an extended surface. 6. Length is the tube length. Number is the number of tubes in the tube bundle. 7. is the outer diameter of the tube. Tube O. DOUBLE PIPE allows multi-tube arrangement. 9. 203 . Press. Press. 6. Allowed Press. Tube Type could be Bare or L_Finned indicating bare tube or longitudinally finned tube respectively. Drop/In Nozzle is the pressure drop through the inlet nozzle. It should always be the same as the number of holes in the tube-sheet. it is simple the area calculated from tube inner diameter. is the wall thickness of the tube wall. 7. 4. see section 3. It is the total of all units if there are several in series and/or parallel. Press.2 of reference 10. sudden cross sectional area change from nozzle to shell. Fl Area is the free internal flowing area of one single tube.D. For bare and longitudinally finned tube. Tube pattern in the tubesheet may be: TRI30 SQUA DIAM TRI60 Triangular (30) Square (90) Diamond (45) Rotated triangular (60) 10. Tube pitch is the distance between the centers of the tubes. Calc. TABULATED DATA In addition to the overall data. 3. 8.6 User’s Guide 4. 1. Tube wall Thk. Most information is self-explanatory. Drop is the calculated pressure drop which include pressure drop due to frictional in nozzles. Nozzle diameter is inside diameter.CC-THERM Version 5. Drop/Out Nozzle is the pressure drop through the outlet nozzle. is the inner diameter of the tube. It is defined as the ratio of the actual rate of heat transfer from the extended surface to the rate of heat transfer if the completed surface of the fin was at the temperature of the root of the fin. For details about its definition. details of tube geometry and heat transfer resistances are provided together in one page. 5. frictional in shell. Tube I.D. but one should make note of the following points. 2.

User’s Guide

CC-THERM Version 5.6

11. Heat transfer resistances of Shellside Film, Shellside Fouling, Tube wall, Tubeside Fouling, and
Tubeside Film are listed here.

12. Reference Factor is the ratio of total outside to inside area. The total outside area is the surface
area of fins plus surface area of bare portion between fins. The inside area is based on tube inner diameter.

13. Effective fin efficiency is the ratio of shell-side effective area (fin efficiency x fin area + bare area)
to actual area (fin area + bare area). Since bare area is relatively a small term, effective fin efficiency usually has a value close to fin efficiency.

ZONE-BY-ZONE ANALYSIS As the name implies, more detail is given about the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop.
CHEMCAD 5.6.0 Page 1 ========================= ZONE-BY-ZONE ANALYSIS ========================= --------------------------------------------------------------------------ZONE 1 2 3 4 5 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Overall ---Inc. Heat Load MMBtu/h LMTD F Overall Coef. Btu/hr-ft2-F AINC ft2 ---- Tube Side ---Process Type Temp. F T wall F Vap. Rate lb/h Liq. Rate lb/h Gas Prandtl No. Liq. Prandtl No. Film Coeff. Btu/hr-ft2-F Vap. Den. lb/ft3 Liq. Den. lb/ft3 Fric. dP psi Vel. ft/sec Re Number 0.04 120.57 61.14 5.55 LIQCOOL 182.84 176.99 0 19167 2.1474 1650.18 60.5143 0.13 6.23 220867 0.04 116.19 69.92 5.04 LIQCOOL 184.96 178.46 0 19167 2.1134 1659.73 60.4664 0.12 6.23 224212 0.04 111.88 77.14 4.74 LIQCOOL 187.09 180.13 0 19167 2.0804 1669.20 60.4180 0.11 6.24 227569 0.04 107.63 78.92 4.82 LIQCOOL 189.21 182.38 0 19167 2.0483 1678.60 60.3693 0.11 6.24 230940 0.04 103.46 80.67 4.90 LIQCOOL 191.33 184.65 0 19167 2.0171 1687.92 60.3201 0.11 6.25 234324

204

CC-THERM Version 5.6

User’s Guide

CHEMCAD 5.6.0 Page 2 --------------------------------------------------------------------------ZONE 1 2 3 4 5 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Shell Side ---Process Type Temp. F T wall F Vap. Rate lb/h Liq. Rate lb/h Gas Prandtl No. Liq. Prandtl No. Film Coeff. Btu/hr-ft2-F Vap. Den. lb/ft3 Liq. Den. lb/ft3 Fric. dP psi Vel. ft/sec Re Number LIQHEAT 62.27 160.20 0 19842 36.3638 83.50 66.4961 0.20 2.82 23368 LIQHEAT 68.78 159.70 0 19842 34.0008 100.62 66.3190 0.18 2.82 25389 LIQHEAT 75.21 159.99 0 19842 31.8827 116.05 66.1434 0.17 2.83 27495 LIQHEAT 81.58 162.52 0 19842 29.9767 119.95 65.9691 0.17 2.84 29684 LIQHEAT 87.88 165.10 0 19842 28.2580 123.81 65.7963 0.17 2.85 31956

Pressure Drops – Double pipe heat exchangers are oriented horizontally and without phase change, thus, momentum and gravity portions are usually negligible and only frictional portion of pressure drop is calculated in DOUBLE PIPE for each zone.

1. AINC is the incremental outer surface area of tubes of the zone. If longitudinally fined tube is used,
the outer surface area is the sum of fin area and area not covered by fin roots. AINC is calculated like so: AINCi = where, Qi Ui LMTDi = = = Qi Ui ⋅ LMTD i

the heat duty of the zone, Inc. Heat Load the overall heat transfer coefficient (final) of the zone based on outer surface area, Overall Coef. the log mean temperature difference across the zone, LMTD.

The total required area for the heat exchanger is the sum of all the AINCi’s.

2. The zone-by-zone analysis prints out the arithmetic average of the zone inlets and outlets
variables. • • • • Temp. is fluid bulk temperature T wall is tube wall temperature at the interface between fluid and fouling layer Vap. Rate is vapor flow rate Liq. Rate is liquid flow rate
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User’s Guide • • Vap. Den. is vapor phase density Liq. Den. is liquid phase density.

CC-THERM Version 5.6

3. The following numbers are calculated from the average properties of the zone:
• • • • • • Gas Prandtl No. is vapor phase Prandtl ‘s number Liq. Prandtl No. is liquid phase Prandtl’s number Film Coeff. is heat transfer coefficient of fluid film next to fouling layer Fric. dP is pressure drop due to friactional pressure loss. Vel. is fluid velocity Re Number is Reynolds’s number of fluid. If the fluid is in the shell annulus, equivalent diameter is used in calculating this number.

OVERALL DATA

1. Area Total is the total installed area of the heat exchangers. It is the total outer surface area of a
single tube times the total number of tubes. For longitudinally finned tubes, the area is the total area of the fins plus area not covered by fin roots. For multi-units combination, the area is the total of all units.

2. Area Required is the area total needed to transfer the specified heat duty of the exchanger. This
value is determined by summing the incremental areas, AINCi’s of all the zones.

3. Area Effective of the exchanger excludes that portion of the tube length, which is covered by the
tubesheet.

4. Area Per Shell is the Area Total of one shell. 5. The % excess is the excess area for the present calculation. Excess area is obtained by
comparing relatively Area Total with Area Required. This value is always expressed as a percent. A negative value indicates that the exchanger is undersized.

6. U Calc is the calculated overall heat transfer coefficient for the whole exchanger based on outer
surface area of tube. Since an overall heat transfer coefficient, Ui, is calculated for each zone, the definition of U Calc is somewhat a matter of convention. CC-THERM defines U Calc as:

UCalc =

Q Total ( Area req. ) ( WLMTD )

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CC-THERM Version 5.6

User’s Guide

where,

QTotal Areareq

= =

the heat duty of the exchanger the required area which is the sum of the incremental areas for all zones; this is outer surface area of tube; for longitudinally finned tubes, this area is the total area of the fins plus area not covered by fin roots . the log mean temperature difference which is calculated like so:
WLMTD =

WLMTD

=

QTotal Qi LMTDi

where,

QTotal Qi LMTDi

= = =

the heat duty of the exchanger the incremental heat duty of zone i. the log mean temperature difference for zone i.

7. U Service is the exchanger service heat transfer coefficient. This quantity is not a function of the
calculated heat transfer coefficients. It depends on the heat load, the temperature difference, and the effective surface area:
UService = QTotal Area ⋅ WLMTD

where,

QTotal Area WLMTD

= = =

the heat duty of the exchanger the total effective area of the exchanger. the weighted log mean temperature difference.

8. Heat Duty is the heat load for given inlet and outlet streams. 9. Weight LMTD is the WLMTD – weighted logarithmic mean temperature difference.
STREAM OUTPUT The stream output section allows you to include stream composition data in your printed output. It is analogous to CHEMCAD, except only those streams that are included in the exchanger will appear in the report.

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User’s Guide

CC-THERM Version 5.6

APPENDIX I: MATERIAL CODE NUMBERS FOR TUBE MATERIALS

ASME CODE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. A-179 A-214 A-106-B C.S. A-334-1 A-334-6 A-210-A A-210-C A-178-A A-178-C A-199-T11 A-199-T3B A-199-T22 A-199-T21 A-199-T5 A-199-T7 A-199-T9 A-209-T1B A-209-T1 A-209-T1A A-213-T2 A-213-T17 A-213-T12 A-213-T11 A-213-T22 A-213-T21 A-213-T5 A-213-T5B A-213-T5C A-213-T7 A-213-T9 A-334-9 A-334-7 A-334-3 COPPER ADMIRALTY ALUMINUM BRASS RED BRASS Cu-Ni 70/30 Cu-Ni 90/10 ALUMINUM BRONZE

(Seamless) (Seamless)

(Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above) (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above) (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)

(Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above)

(Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above) (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above) (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above) (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above) (Allowables AVAILABLE @ 650 F. and above) (Seamless – Allow. AVAIL @ 650 F. and above) (Seamless) (Seamless) -SB-111-122 (HARD DRAWN) -SB-111-443 (Annealed) -SB-111-687 (Annealed) -SB-111-230 (Annealed) -SB-111-715 (Annealed) -SB-111-706 (Annealed) -SB-111-608 (Annealed)
208

CC-THERM Version 5.6 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. MONEL ALUMINUM-6061 TITANIUM-2 TITANIUM-12 NICKEL LC-NICKEL ZIRCONIUM INCOLOY-800 INCOLOY-825 INCONEL-600 HASTELLOY-B HASTELLOY-C HASTELLOY-G A-213-304 A-213-304L A-213-304H A-213-304N A-213-316 A-213-316L A-213-316H A-213-316N A-213-317 A-213-317L A-213-321 A-213-321H A-213-347 A-213-347H A-213-348 A-213-348H A-213-309 A-213-309S A-213-310 A-213-310S A-213-405 A-213-410 A-213-430 A-249-304 A-249-304L A-249-304H A-249-304N A-249-316 A-249-316L A-249-316H A-249-316N A-249-317 A-249-317L A-249-321 A-249-321H -SB-163-400 (Annealed) -SB-234-6061-T6 -SB-338-Gr 2 (Welded-Annealed) -SB-338-GR 12 (Welded-Annealed) -SB-163-200 (Annealed) -SB-163-201 (Annealed) -SB-523-R60702 -SB-163-800 (Annealed) -SB-163-825 (Annealed) -SB-163-600 (Annealed) -SB-619-B (Soln Annealed) -SB-619-C-276 (Soln Annealed) -SB-619-G (Soln Annealed)

User’s Guide

209

User’s Guide 90. A-249-347 91. A-249-347H 92. A-249-348 93. A-249-348H 94. A-249-309 95. A-249-309S 96. A-249-310 97. A-249-310S 98. A-249-405 99. A-249-410 100. A-249-430 DIN AD Merkblatter Code St 37.0 St 35.8 TTSt 35 N 15 Mo 3 13 CrMo 4 4 x 5 CrNi 18 10 x 5 CrNiMo 17 12 2 x 6 CrNiTi 18 10 x 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 1.0254 1.0305 1.0356 1.5415 1.7335 1.4301 1.4401 1.4541 1.4571 A37 ST37.2 STAHL TTST41 TTST45 ST45.8 ST37.2 ST37.2 CRMO Brit Std 5500 15123A 15123B 15126A 15126B

CC-THERM Version 5.6

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6 22128A 22128B 261 271 304S15 316S16 User’s Guide 211 .CC-THERM Version 5.

1429. S. Chem Fundam. 1979. 443. . Schlunder. HEMISPHERE PUBLISHING CORPORATION. . Pgs.An explicit equation for friction factor in pipes. M. G. VDI Heat Atlas. 296. A. VDI Heat Atlas.User’s Guide CC-THERM Version 5. Ind. Shires. 1989. 2. Hewitt. Vol. Colburn. et al. 9. Industrial Engineering Chemistry. 1993. University of California. 18(3). 1936. 6. L.Trans. p. AIChE. 1951. N. – Publications on Engineering. 2.. P.Forced convection heat transfer in circular tubes. 1992. L. P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. and Proctor W. and T. F. 4. Chen. New York. 29. 10. Dittus. W.Process Heat Transfer. p.R. Sieder and Tate . E.. 1930. Inc. Pgs. H. K. Berkley. SENSIBLE FLOW 1. 5. .6 APPENDIX II: DOUBLE PIPE REFERENCES Here is a list of references that have been used in the program for the heat transfer calculations. 1994. G. CRC Press. p. Part 3. 28. p. Eng. Vol.MS Thesis. D. 1992. Engineering Sciences Data Unit international plc . C. Part 1: correlation for fully developed turbulent flow. 212 . 7. 174. 3. and Boelter. Ga1-Ga8. Eubank. ESDU Item 67016. F. 97. – Heat Exchanger Design Handbook.Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Liquids in Tubes.. Chemical Engineering Department. Ga1-Gb8 8. U. Bott .