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IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE RETENTION METHODS/ FACTORS ON EMPLOYEE / LOYALTY IN PRIVATE SECTOR UNIVERSITIES OF PAKISTAN

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
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A core belief in human resource is to retain and develop employees to obtain a competitive advantage. In order to retain these valuable employees it has become necessary for organizations to transform from using an employee controlling to a more employee driven strategy. To gain employees commitment to the organization and increase retention, the employer needs to identify which retention factors induce organizational commitment. Pay, University Reputation, Job Security, Management Policies, Training and development, Challenging work, Career Growth opportunities and Compensation & Benefits are considered the top retention factors. Organizational commitment has been defined as a mindset, which ties the individual to the organization. The consequences of organizational commitment and retention benefit the organization in terms of increased job performance, intention to stay, increase in attendance, loyalty, and decrease in turnover, greater creativity, more cooperation, more volunteerism and more time devoted to productive work on behalf of the organization. The conclusions were that the University reputation and challenging work and career growth opportunities are more important to visiting faculty members and Autonomy, Training & Development, benefits and compensation are more valuable to permanent and full-time faculty members.

INTRODUCTION

Retention of key employees is probably the biggest challenge in human asset management today. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention of employees. The mobility of workers is a major concern in the new economy as the loss of these workers to any institute means loss of both tangible and intangible knowledge and possibly competitive advantage. The role of retention methods should be to identify and retain committed employees for as long as is profitable both to the organization and the employee. The increasing turnover of employees in enterprises is attracting the keen attention of a growing number of people involved in a large variety of businesses. The flow of employees among firms is one of the important forms of social and enterprises human resources deployment. Simply Employees play a important role in the success or failure of any organizations that is why different competitors in world not only set their focus on each others business related activities but also try to capture their hard working employees that is why employee turnover rate is growing day by day. There are some factors which disturb employee s loyalty and forcing them to change their organizations these factors are higher salaries, better offering from competitors, long term development programs, high monetary incentives, respect for employees etc. Businesses today generally understand the need to capture and maintain their customers loyalty. Many have formal measurement programs in place to gather customer feedback and assess levels of loyalty on a regular basis. There are some organizations that include a
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customer loyalty metric in their corporate dashboard, treating it as a key performance indicator just as they would revenue or sales. It isnt hard for companies to see the connection between customer loyalty and business success. Loyal customers stay with you and buy more products and services. The purpose of my research is to study how retention methods affect the loyalty of employee of private universities in Pakistan. Evaluative research was used to investigate existing retention methods used by the private institutes to increase the employees loyalty and reduce attrition.

Answers for the following questions will be sought through my research

1.

What are the causes of employees personnel leaving in the

early or mid career with a department?

2.

What actions/programs are used by the private universities to

increase the employee loyalty?

3.

What impact does the executive officer have on attrition and

employee retention?

PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY

Higher Education Commission of Pakistan


The Higher Education Commission has been set up by the Government of Pakistan to facilitate the development of indigenous universities to be world-class centers for education, research and development. Through facilitating this process, the HEC intends to play its part in spearheading the building of a knowledge-based economy in Pakistan. Following past decades of underinvestment, the renewed realization of the Government of Pakistan of the importance of the higher education sector towards fuelling economic growth led to the establishment of the Higher Education Commission in 2002. Founded by Presidential Ordinance No. LIII in September 2002, the Commission has been entrusted with a broad mandate to evaluate, improve and promote the higher education and research sector in Pakistan. The reform agenda has been supported through the granting of a large array of powers to the Commission to fulfill its mandate, and record increases in financial resources by the Government to support this process. Since its establishment, the Higher Education Commission has undertaken a systematic process of implementation of the five-year agenda for reform outlined in the HEC Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF), in which Access, Quality and Relevance have been identified as the key challenges faced by the sector. To address these challenges a comprehensive strategy has been defined that identifies the core strategic aims for reform as (i) Faculty Development, (ii) Improving Access, (iii) Excellence in Learning and
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Research, and (iv) Relevance to National Priorities. These strategic aims are supported by well-integrated cross-cutting themes for developing Leadership, Governance and Management, enhancing Quality Assessment and Accreditation and Physical and Technological Infrastructure Development

Higher Education System in Pakistan


Higher education is provided by universities and professional universities and their constituent colleges and in colleges affiliated to universities. Universities are autonomous organizations founded by the central or provincial parliament. The senate, the syndicate and the academic council are the main university bodies responsible for matters concerning studies. The University Grants Commission serves as a clearinghouse for development schemes of the universities; provides support to centers of excellence, area study centers and Pakistan study centers; supports research fellowships and research programs; and organizes pre-service and in-service training of university teachers.

Selected Universities

Lahore university of Management Sciences


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The Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) is a national university, established by sponsors belonging to the countrys leading private and public sector corporations. The goal of the sponsors is to develop an institution, which would provide rigorous academic and intellectual training and a viable alternative to education comparable to leading universities across the world. In 1986 LUMS launched its Business School with a world-class MBA program (recently the School has been renamed as the Suleman Dawood School of Business). In 1994, LUMS started a BSc Honours Program in Economics and Computer Science. Over Subsequent years this evolved to include more specializations. In 1996, the School of Arts and Sciences was formed to oversee the undergraduate program at LUMS. Later on, masters program in Economics, Computer Science and Computer Engineering were also added, followed by the launch of doctoral program in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Mathematics and the Executive MBA program. In 2002, a five year, integrated, BA-LL.B degree was also included to the list of program offered by the school.

LUMS has a vision to become an internationally acclaimed research university that serves society through excellence in education and research. LUMS has a mission to be a pre-eminent academic institution, serving as a catalyst for economic prosperity and social development with a focus on management of resources." They believe in developing high quality professionals and scholars who are
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committed to the pursuit of excellence, and are endowed with vision, courage, and dedication, improving academic and management practices in the country through the generation, assimilation, and dissemination of knowledge, making a significant and meaningful contribution towards the social and economic betterment of Pakistan through development of its human resources and serving as an intellectual resource base in the region.

Superior University In the year 2000, South Asian Educational Promotion Network was making plans to develop educational facilities in Pakistan. They were in search of such leadership which could fulfill their aims and make that project a success. They found the leadership in the form of Prof. Dr. Ch. Abdul Rehman, who was a young passionate person with lots of enthusiasm to do big for his country and to bring a positive change in the society. The amalgamation resulted in the first campus with the name of Superior started working in 31-Tipu Block, New Garden Town, Lahore. In the first year Superior had an enrollment of 1000 students. Next year the number doubled. Every year the name started to rise and grew more respected in the eyes of all academic circles. In 2003 Superior got NOC from the Govt. of the Punjab. Just after a year it was elevated to another level through the charter. Superior Group of Colleges was recognized as a degree awarding institute. In 2007 Superior decided to expand and the search started for a project director. The board of directors showed their full confidence on Mr. Rana Adeel Mumtaz and was hopeful that he could

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bring the desired results. The task was taken up and colleges were opened in Faisalabad, Okara, Multan and Raheem Yar Khan.

Here also a phenomenal growth was shown in the first year. This project underwent great success and in 2008 Sargodha campus was opened and in the first year it was a mega success.

University of Management and Technology UMT has four different schools: SST, SPA, SBE and IAA The School of Science and Technology at UMT aims to generate a continuous stream of new scientific and technical knowledge; and to attract young, talented men and women and transform them in to the leaders of tomorrow's technology organizations. In order to fulfill its mission, the School strives to create a culture that attracts, develops, and retains the best available scientific and technical minds. The School of Science and Technology (SST) encourages the faculty members and participants to undertake research and development and engage in collaborative work with industry.

The School of Professional Advancement (SPA) has been established to provide a technological base for upward mobility and professional growth of individuals who are engaged in various professional fields. University of Management and Technology is a leading seat of higher studies with a futuristic vision and uncompromising commitment for quality education.
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The School of Business and Economics (SBE) at UMT is home to an outstanding faculty and an exceptional student body. The school aims to produce future managers, corporate executives, project leaders and business professionals who will be the decision makers and leaders of tomorrow's commercial enterprises. SBE graduates are trained to serve as agents of change for integrated development. The school's mission is to produce young men and women who understand the changing economic frontiers of the world and have the intellectual capacity to lead their companies towards a prosperous future. SBE graduates are hired by top national and international

organizations. The school offers both undergraduate and graduate studies in management, marketing, accounting, economics, finance, banking and information systems. All these programs develop critical and analytical skills of students. The school encourages its faculty to contribute to the world of scholarship and also serves as an avenue for networking academicians, practitioners, professionals and scholars. Resource persons keep themselves abreast of latest developments in the related fields or disciplines and utilize the latest concepts and practices in the classroom. Participants learn to think, conceive, draw, question, analyze, juxtapose and delineate the best course of action from a range of alternatives. SBE offers strong batch advising and career counseling schemes to all its students. The Institute of Audit and Accountancy has been founded to provide expert, yet affordable, tuition in professional courses that prepare students to get ahead in todays competitive world. Today's world of employment presents many challenges for career planning. In
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response

to

modern

industries

demands

for

highly

skilled

professionals, Institute of Audit and Accountancy has expanded its portfolio of courses to include Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) and Certified Accounting Technician (CAT).

Beaconhouse National University (BNU):

BNU is the first Liberal Arts University of Pakistan. Chartered by the Government of Punjab, the Beaconhouse National University (BNU) was established in 2003 for the purpose of imparting education with modern, rational, course content while ensuring that the history and culture of Pakistani society are respected. BNU is planned as a non-profit, private university disseminating learning and encouraging research in diverse areas where the essential focus of the programs offered has been determined by the type of the work force identified for the future economic, business, academic, cultural and technological advancement of the country. As such, BNU offers students a range of subject areas which are of immense relevance to the countrys economy. The education at BNU creates an improvement of perception and understanding. This is done by a number of unique, innovative practices at BNU: An academic format which encourages the student to read

across the curriculum allowing for cross registration in courses offered at Schools other than the one the student is registered in. These courses may be taken as minors or electives.
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The University underscores the importance of the creative and

performing arts which form an integral part of any liberal arts education. Open workshops and seminars are offered where students interact with scholars and practitioners of international repute. Each student works with an academic advisor who helps design a program of study most suited to the individual students talent and is also available for personal guidance throughout the students stay at the University. A system of education in which students learn in small, A system of student evaluation based on frequent written interactive class sessions. assignments and research projects rather than a traditional method of examination. At Beaconhouse National University, education is enriched through a free exchange of ideas and debate which is expertly guided by qualified faculty. Most courses are intensive and year long in which students are encouraged to question assumptions, listen to diverse opinions and challenge convention. This strategy is further developed through disciplined and motivated work on the students part and the evaluation of individual progress through written reports and ongoing interaction between students and teachers. The University is fully cognizant of the fact that the formative years of a young adults life i.e. the years spent at university must be enriched through a variety of experiences, both within and outside the classroom. Study tours therefore, form a regular feature of University life and serve as a means of research and exposure to life in other regions of the country and varied socio-economic groups.
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BNU is a non-profit, apolitical, non-sectarian, equal-opportunity institution offering undergraduate and graduate programs in modern disciplines, many of which are not offered anywhere else in Pakistan.

NCBA & E:
National College of Business Administration & Economics traces its roots back to 1994, when NCBA&E was founded as a private institute. Due to its excellence in teaching, learning and a close partnership with industry, soon it became the recognized place for management studies. In 1997 NCBA&E started Computer science program and finally in 2002 got the charter from the Government of the Punjab. This story of excellence and dedication for improvement is never ending; currently NCBA&E has five schools covering a vast range of disciplines and offers career programs at multiple levels like professional certifications, Undergraduate studies, Graduate studies, and post graduate studies. The teaching is first-rate and is supported by world-class applied research. Students are a diverse group and benefit from a tailored approach that helps them to get the most from their studies. Top quality teaching and learning facilities are offered and the ability to learn in a way that best suits their needs.

Facilities are state-of-the-art and invested heavily in new technology to ensure that technological capability matches the cutting-edge
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approach of teaching. University is recognized as a Centre of Research Excellence for Teaching, Learning and employability. NCBA&E plays a key role in the city and region in which it operates. We are located in the heart of Lahore, which is the second largest city of Pakistan, it has been the historical capital of Punjab for a thousand years, and it is a vibrant center of education, industry, commerce and tourism.

Hajvery University

University Campus has been at the forefront for providing quality education over a decade. The staff and faculty is committed to providing high quality programs of teaching and research and to ensuring that education is exciting, challenging and rewarding. University Campus is a fully integrated institute, providing comprehensive and innovative programs of study at intermediate, Graduate, Post Graduate and Executive Levels. The building is situated on a piece of land in the heart of city accessible from all directions. Some Six Hundred Intermediate, five hundred Graduates and about five hundred Post-Graduates study with us each year, leading to a highly stimulating learning environment.

Forman Christian College and University

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Academic excellence and the preparation of leaders who understand the value of service have been the hallmarks of education at Forman Christian College since 1864. Widely regarded as one of the premier colleges on the sub-continent; Forman has distinguished itself through its remarkable graduates and the achievements of its faculty. Forman has built a reputation for providing outstanding education with innovation and pioneering work in its curriculum, admissions policies, and the rigor of its academic programs. Forman's green campus in the heart of the city of Lahore offers a safe, quiet environment for students at all levels. With its renovation projects and new buildings, students are benefiting from the latest technology as it is incorporated into the curriculum and spacious, modern classrooms in which to study.

Forman's new bachelor's program offers a western-style, world-class education to Pakistanis at tuitions that are affordable. Its generous financial aid program and scholarships for promising students make high quality education readily accessible. Forman's faculty takes a personal interest in students and has a deep desire to see students succeed. Overseas faculties teach in the intermediate and baccalaureate programs and offer an international perspective available at few colleges or universities in Pakistan.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT
What is the impact of retention methods/ factors on employee loyalty in private sector universities of Pakistan.

VARIABLES
The primary purpose of this research is to find the relationship between retention methods and employee loyalty. Employee loyalty is

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dependent on the retention methods. A change in the retention methods may have a positive or negative impact on employee loyalty.

Independent Variable: Retention methods


Retaining employees in any organization is a crucial and ongoing effort. In any organization, the staff requires reinforcement, direction, and recognition to grow and remain satisfied in their positions. Employee retention involves being sensitive to people's needs and demonstrating the various strategies.

Most of the effective retention methods include:


Clarity of role played by the employees each day at work. Good Managers/Supervisors are needed as most of the

people leave managers and supervisors more often than they leave companies or jobs.

Open and transparent culture: Friendly environment to speak

freely.

Talent management and skill utilization: Appropriate usage of

the strength of an employee

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Learning and growth opportunities: A career-oriented, valued

employee must experience both learning and growth opportunities within organization.

Communication and contact: Meeting with the employees Employee appreciation: employees must be appreciated,

regularly to discuss on particular issues

recognized, and rewarded for their good performance.

From these methods, specific retention factors have been identified which are;

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Dependent Variable: Loyalty of employees


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Most of the employees look for good working environments, learning and growth opportunities, and decent pay. There are some factors which disturb employee s loyalty and forcing them to change their organizations these factors are higher salaries, better offering from competitors, long term development programs, high monetary incentives, respect for employees etc. Employees loyalty fully depends upon the policies of retention in an organization. On the basis of the literature review, specific employee loyalty indicators have been defined which include employee turnover, job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

OBJECTIVES

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The purpose of my research is to:

Discuss and explain the subtleties of retention in private

education sectors from a Human Resource Management perspective.

To investigate the retention methods used by the private

institutes that are according to the employees demands.

Determine whether the retention method being used by an institute affects the employees loyalty.

Examine the current retention methods used in private institutes and their effects on employees loyalty

Which retention method is more effective to increase the

employees loyalty

To analyze whether the effect of retention methods changes with employees age and destination

SIGNIFICANCE
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This study is conducted for the private institutes for the betterment of its employee loyalty towards the institute.

The study can be very beneficial for the educational institutes. It

can help building employee loyalty which can be developed by the usage of good retention methods.

Employees will also benefit from the research because institutes

will better understand how to make them satisfy and loyal.

Research can also be useful for the institutes in understanding

their employee needs.

Research will be very useful for all educational sectors to lower

their employees turn over rate and help them in creating strong loyalty towards the institute. It will also be helpful for the upcoming researchers in this area.

LIMITATIONS
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The first limitation of the research is that the survey I am going to

conduct is within the city of Lahore only.

The second limitation is that the sample size I have selected is

only 150, so the research result may vary if the sample size increases.

LITERATURE REVIEW

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In a job market where there are often more open positions for experienced financial professionals than there are people to fill them, retaining staff is a priority for accounting and finance managers. Retention in this current environment depends largely on four key drivers balance. Offering a fair and competitive salary is the most obvious way to attract and keep top talent, even though money isn't always the key factor determining an employee's job satisfaction. Still, if your company's raises have been minimal in recent years, they may no longer be competitive. Salaries for financial professionals are rising steadily in response to demand. Solicit input on your compensation levels and benefit offerings for accounting and finance positions from industry colleagues and associations, recruiting firm contacts, and resources such as annual salary guides. Messmer M. (2006) of job satisfaction: compensation and benefits, work environment, career development and advancement, and work/life

Importance of Retention in an Organization

The employees evaluate whether the benefits his company is offering are as attractive as those competitors provide. International revealed that 58% of employees polled would prefer a job with excellent benefits over one with a higher salary. Demographic changes in the workplace, including delayed

retirements, dual-income couples, domestic partners, and singleparent households, are making one-size-fits-all benefits packages
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insufficient. These and other changes have altered the profile of a "typical" employee--and his or her expectations of a company benefits program. Many companies now offer flexible, or cafeteria, benefits, which give employees a menu of choices.

supportive

work

environment

All employees desire a positive, supportive workplace. In fact, job applicants put this attribute near the top of their lists when evaluating companies. Managers need to make employees feel valued and engaged and extend support when staff members face work and personal challenges. Professionals who enjoy interacting with supervisors and peers not only make the office more enjoyable, but they also produce better work--and show the greatest loyalty. Talented people want to be heard and recognized for their contributions, but you'll need to go beyond simply telling staff members that you appreciate their input. Successful companies encourage employees at all levels to develop and experiment with new ideas. Actively seek your staff 's involvement in solving problems facing your department or company. Accounting and finance professionals also need to be provided with the technology tools required to do their jobs. Not only do these tools improve efficiency, but the technological sophistication of the work environment is an important retention factor for many professionals.

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Opportunities

for

career

development

and

advancement

For many workers, an opportunity for continuous learning weighs heavily in their decision to accept or remain in a position. As a result, employers are increasingly emphasizing career development activities and boosting training allowances and reimbursement amounts for continuing professional education (CPE ). Some businesses go as far as tying pay raises and bonuses to achieving learning milestones, such as completion of certain coursework or receiving a new certification, to show they value employees' Effective efforts managers to complement enhance training their and skills.

development

opportunities by being attentive to the professional needs, concerns, and career aspirations of individual employees. For instance, a financial analyst on your staff may be eager to move into a controller role but requires coaching on how to make the transition.

Flexibility

to

balance

work

and

personal

demands

Having some degree of control over when and where they work is also a concern for employees. Many struggle to find a healthy balance between personal and professional responsibilities.
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In fact, a survey by our company found that flexible scheduling is the benefit valued most by employees. If you offer these arrangements, make sure your policies in this area match the nature and demands of your business and of your staff, not solely individual needs. Retaining your top performers isn't an easy task, especially in today's competitive hiring environment. But by paying close attention to these four key areas of job satisfaction, you can reduce the odds of losing your most valuable team members to a more retention-focused employer. (Zogby, 2005)

Retention and Employee Relations

The problem of turnover should be addressed pro-actively. One of the most effective ways of both recruiting and retaining employees is to be the employer of choice. Denton adds that employees can be attracted and retained by offering them career opportunities, job variety, responsibility, training and 10 giving them a sense of ownership. (D. Keith Denton, 1992)

Seven Dimensions of Successful Reward Plans


Workers are willing to invest their intelligence, talent and creativity in support of the company strategy if they can expect a fair return. Many such programs are used throughout the nation by departments. These
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include Firefighter of the year, Outstanding firefighter award and more. The greatest reward is the work itself. At many times a heartfelt thank you may be much more appreciated than a cash reward. Ideal for improving retention and reducing attrition is the aligning of the goals of the individual to those of the employer. (Jamie Hale and George Bailey, 1998)

Change in Employees Loyalty Any discussion of employee loyalty which, ideally, results in retention, must include the executive leaderships influence on the employees. Todays younger generation places a higher value on personal achievement over corporate goals, they divert their loyalties inward. The important values do not, necessarily include pay as a high priority. His further study on employee loyalty revealed that while 80% of the workers surveyed would recommend theirs as the best place to work, 40% of this same group would go elsewhere for a slight pay increase. (Barbara M. McGuiness, 2003)

Employees Loyalty and Retention What characterizes a committed employee is that (1) he is a team player; (2) willing to make sacrifices for the good of the company; (3) believes in the companys products; (4) will recommend the company as among the best places to work, and (5) is prepared to stay in the
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company for the next several years, even if offered a modest pay increase elsewhere. Attrition rate as employees loyalty and retention explained that during the past two or three years it seems that, on the El Paso Fire Department, some firefighter submits a letter of resignation every week or so. Although normal retirement is still the leading reason for leaving, more and more people are choosing to make their exit prior to fulfilling the minimum requirements for conventional retirement. They do not stay until the age of retirement, 45- years-of-age or serve for the minimum number of years, 20. Also, the number of veteran firefighters who stay past minimum age and time is decreasing. The latter group, those who leave as soon as they meet minimum requirements for retirement may be doing so due to the growing number of calls to which responses are made and the greater variety of hazards encountered. EMS calls, where handling patients in varying settings and with numerous problems, dealing with the many hazardous materials and their possible short and long term, harmful effects, as well as continuing fire calls may make firefighters view this as a young persons job. The physical and mental demands on the over forty population may be too much when compared to the compensation offered. If the pension is available, why not take advantage of it? Leaving the department before qualifying for retirement, in many cases after only few years of
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service is due to a number of reasons according to surveys and a review of literature. The reasons for leaving are as diverse as the firefighters themselves. Some firefighters use one department or fire service agency as a stepping stone to a bigger, better one. Others learn, after a small number of years, that other fields would be more challenging or more lucrative. Still others find plenty of opportunities for 7 growth and challenge within the fire service but the money is better in other areas of the state or the nation and they move on. If their career choice is a satisfying one, why not enjoy the job where the pay is better. Indicators of loyalty include; remaining with the company; not leaving, not job hunting, staying late to complete a project, Keeping the companys business confidential; no whistle blowing, promoting the company to customers and community, adhering to rules without close supervision, sacrificing personal goals to achieve companys goals, no gossiping, lying, cheating or stealing, buying companys products. Contribution to company-sponsored charities, offering improvement suggestions, participating in companys extracurricular activities, following orders, taking care of company property and not being wasteful, working safely, not abusing leave policies; including sick leave, helping coworkers; cooperating. Pay is not the only consideration driving firefighters away. The answer to the following questions might reveal other reasons. Is the job
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satisfying? Is the individual challenged? Are opportunities for growth provided? Do family issues receive attention by the employer? Do other reasons exist for firefighters seeking employment elsewhere? Whatever the impetus behind separation from a department, the result and the impact on the agency are the same. Recruiting activities may need more attention and will produce more strain on budgets. Service to the citizen/tax payer may suffer. Experienced personnel will be in shorter supply. Training and retraining of personnel will become a factor draining financial and personnel resources. Some of these items, such as the value of experience at a fire scene, are intangible, thus unquantifiable. Still, for quick, correct, lifesaving actions experience can be irreplaceable and priceless. Loyalty to a department has a variety of repercussions on a department not only in attrition. Some who stay may do so for convenience and not out of loyalty. The difference between loyalty and lethargy is productivity. As with most entities blame or credit will fall upon the leadership, the executive officer.

Drivers of Retention Aon Consulting has identified seventeen factors significantly related to work force commitment. Of these, five were listed as true drivers of retention:
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1. A fearless culture. 2. Job satisfaction. 3. Opportunities for growth. 4. Organizational direction and mission. 5. Recognition of work/life balance needs In most organizations, the culture is derived from the executive officer. Organizational direction is set by the executive officer. Employee programs which emphasize life issues are seldom instituted without the executive officer. Job satisfaction and opportunities for growth are results of employers placing the right person in the right job and providing training and educational programs for expanding knowledge and skills. Who, if not the executive officer, makes final decisions on issues such as these?

RESEARCH DESIGN

Type of Research:
Explanatory & Descriptive Research

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Research Plan:
The research plan to be used for the procedure will be of primary data collection..

Research Methodology:
Quantitative Methods will be used.

Research Instruments:
Ill be using questionnaire as research instrument for data collection. Questionnaire is an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. It is cheaper as compared to other methods of collecting data although time do require for its interpretation. For statistical data analysis, SPSS will be used.

Population: The population for my research would be the employees/ faculty of private sector universities of Pakistan.

Sample:

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Sample will consist of 200 employees of different private educational sectors which will be equally divided between male and female employees in Pakistan. Simple random sampling will be used to reach to the target respondents.

DATA ANALYSIS

Questionnaire Development
My projects questions are answered through five point likert scale i.e. from strongly disagree to strongly agree, where: 1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Neither Agree Nor Disagree/ Neutral 4 = Agree 5 = Strongly Agree

Data Analysis
I analyzed my whole data by using

Tables Linear Regression


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Correlation Pie-Charts

RESULTS
Correlation- Employee Loyalty & Retention Factor H0: Ha:

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Correlations Factors measuring Factors measuring

employee loyalty of Factors measuring employee loyalty of the respondent Factors measuring retention factors of the respondent Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation the respondent 1

retention factors of the respondent .639**

200 .639**

.000 200 1

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 200 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

200

The above table shows the correlation between the dependent variable employee loyalty and the independent variable retention factor. The correlation coefficient (r) is 0.639 which shows that there is a positive but moderate relationship between the two variables i.e. as the retention factors increase there is an increase in the employee loyalty as well. The significance of the correlation (p-value) is 0.000, less than the significance level of 0.01, which means that the correlation is highly significant and linearly related. It means that the correlation exists due to an actual relation between the variables, and not purely due to chance factors. Thus H0 is rejected and Ha is accepted.
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The overall relationship between the variables is moderate but yet significant. The reason for this is the small sample size. As the sample size increases the relationship may also get stronger.

Correlation- Employee Loyalty & Extrinsic Retention Factors

H0: Ha:

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Correlations Factors measuring employee loyalty of Factors measuring Pearson employee loyalty Correlation of the respondent Sig. (2-tailed) N Extrinsic retention Pearson factors respondent 1 the Extrinsic retention factors .329** .001 200 1

200 .329**

Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) .001 N 200 200 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). The above table shows the correlation between the employee loyalty and the extrinsic retention factor. The correlation coefficient (r) is 0.329 which shows that there is a positive but moderate relationship between the two variables i.e. as the extrinsic retention factors increase there is an increase in the employee loyalty as well. The significance of the correlation (p-value) is 0.001, less than the significance level of 0.01, which means that the correlation is highly significant and linearly related. It means that the correlation exists due to an actual relation between the variables, and not purely due to chance factors. Thus H0 is rejected and Ha is accepted.

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The overall relationship between the variables is moderate but yet significant. The reason for this is the small sample size. As the sample size increases the relationship may also get stronger.

Correlation- Employee Loyalty & Intrinsic Retention Factors

H0: Ha:

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Correlations Factors measuring employee loyalty of Intrinsic retention Factors measuring Pearson employee loyalty Correlation of the respondent Sig. (2-tailed) N Intrinsic retention Pearson factors the respondent 1 factors .576** .000 200 1

200 .576**

Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) .000 N 200 200 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The above table shows the correlation between the employee loyalty and the intrinsic retention factor. The correlation coefficient (r) is 0.576 which shows that there is a positive but moderate relationship between the two variables i.e. as the intrinsic retention factors increase there is an increase in the employee loyalty as well. The significance of the correlation (p-value) is 0.000, less than the significance level of 0.01, which means that the correlation is highly significant and linearly related. It means that the correlation exists due to an actual relation between the variables, and not purely due to chance factors. Thus H0 is rejected and Ha is accepted.

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The overall relationship between the variables is moderate but yet significant. The reason for this is the small sample size. As the sample size increases the relationship may also get stronger.

Correlation- Employee Loyalty & Age

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Correlations Factors measuring employee loyalty of Factors measuring Pearson employee loyalty Correlation of the respondent Sig. (2-tailed) N Age of Pearson Respondent Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N the respondent 1 Age of Respondent -.126 .076 200 1

200 -.126 .076 200

200

The above table shows the correlation between the variables employee loyalty and the age of the respondent. The correlation coefficient (r) is -0.126, which shows that there is a very weak and negative relationship between the two variables. The significance of the correlation (p-value) is 0.076, greater than the significance level of 0.01, which means that the correlation is not significant. Therefore there is no relationship between employee loyalty and age of respondent.

Correlation- Employee Loyalty & Gender

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Correlations Factors measuring employee loyalty of Gender Factors measuring Pearson employee loyalty Correlation of the respondent Sig. (2-tailed) N Gender of Pearson Respondents Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N the respondent 1 Respondents .014 .841 200 1 of

200 .014 .841 200

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The above table shows the correlation between the variables employee loyalty and the gender of the respondent. The correlation coefficient (r) is 0.014, which shows that there is a very weak and negligible relationship between the two variables. The significance of the correlation (p-value) is 0.841, greater than the significance level of 0.01, which means that the correlation is not significant. Therefore there is no relationship between employee loyalty and gender of respondent.

Correlation- Employee Loyalty & Job Duration

H0: Ha:
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Correlations Factors measuring Job the respondent 1

duration

of with

employee loyalty of Respondent Factors measuring Pearson employee loyalty Correlation of the respondent Sig. (2-tailed) N Job duration of Pearson Respondent

current university -.189** .007 200 1

200 -.189**

with Correlation current university Sig. (2-tailed) .007 N 200 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

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The above table shows the correlation between the variables employee loyalty and the job duration of respondent with the university. The correlation coefficient (r) is -0.189, which shows that there is a weak relationship between the two variables. The significance of the correlation (p-value) is 0.007, less than the significance level of 0.01, which means that the correlation is significant. As the job duration of the respondent with the university increases, the employee loyalty decreases. H0 is rejected and Ha is accepted. The overall relationship between the variables is weak but yet significant. The reason for this is the small sample size. As the sample size increases the relationship may also get stronger.
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Correlation- Employee Loyalty & Job Classification

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Correlations Factors measuring employee loyalty of Factors measuring Pearson employee loyalty Correlation of the respondent Sig. (2-tailed) N Type of Job Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N the respondent 1 Type of Job .052 .462 200 1

200 .052 .462 200

200

The above table shows the correlation between the variables employee loyalty and the type of job. The correlation coefficient (r) is 0.052, which shows that there is a weak relationship between the two variables. The significance of the correlation (p-value) is 0.462, greater than the significance level of 0.01, which means that the correlation is not significant. Therefore there is no relationship between employee loyalty and type of job.

LINEAR REGRESSION
Linear Regression- Employee Loyalty & Retention Factors

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Variables Entered/Removedb Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method 1 Factors measuring . Enter retention factors of the respondenta a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Factors measuring employee loyalty of the respondent Model Summary
Adjusted Model 1 R R Square a .398 .159 Square .154 R Std. Error of the Estimate .47139

a. Predictors: (Constant), Factors measuring retention factors

The coefficient of determination R Square is 0.159 which means that 15.9% of the variation in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable i.e. 15.9% of change caused in the employee loyalty is due the retention factors.

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ANOVAb
Sum Model 1 Regression Residual Total Squares 8.259 43.775 52.034 of Df 1 197 198 Mean Square 8.259 .222 F 37.170 Sig. .000a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Factors measuring retention factors of the respondent b. Dependent Variable: Factors measuring employee loyalty of the respondent

Coefficientsa
Unstandardized Coefficients Model B Std. Error 1 (Constant) 1.095 .241 Factors measuring .518 .085 retention factors of the respondent Standardized Coefficients Beta .398 T 4.541 6.097 Sig. .000 .000

a. Dependent Variable: Factors measuring employee loyalty of the respondent

The regression equation will be: Employee Loyalty = 1.095 +( 0.518 x Retention Factors ) The above equation shows there is a positive relationship between retention factors and employee loyalty. The coefficient of dependent
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variable retention factor is 0.518, which means that for 1 unit increase in retention factors, a 0.518 unit increase in employee loyalty is predicted, holding all other variables constant. The coefficient for retention factors is statistically significant (different from 0) using alpha of 0.01 because pvalue is 0.000 which is smaller than the alpha value.

Linear Regression- Employee Loyalty & Age


Variables Entered/Removedb Variables Model 1 Entered Age Variables Removed of . Method Enter

Respondenta a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Factors measuring employee loyalty of the respondent Model Summary Adjusted Model R 1 .126a R Square Square .016 .011 R Std. Error of the Estimate .50954

a. Predictors: (Constant), Age of Respondent The coefficient of determination R Square is 0.016 which means that 1.6% of the variation in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable i.e. 1.6% of change caused in employee loyalty is due the change in age of the respondent.

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ANOVAb Sum of Model Squares Df Regression .828 1 1 Residual Total 51.406 52.234 198 199 Mean Square .828 .260 F 3.188 Sig. .076a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Age of Respondent b. Dependent Variable: Factors measuring employee loyalty of the respondent
Coefficientsa Unstandardized Model 1 (Constant) Age Coefficients B Std. Error 2.707 .093 of -.084 .047 Standardized Coefficients Beta -.126 T Sig. 29.033 .000 -1.786 .076

Respondent a. Dependent Variable: Factors measuring employee loyalty of the respondent

The regression equation will be: Employee Loyalty = 2.306 0.188 (Age of Respondent) The above equation shows there is a negative relationship between age of respondent and employee loyalty. The coefficient of dependent variable age of respondent is -0.188, but this coefficient is not statistically significant (different from 0), because p-value is 0.076 is greater than the alpha value of 0.01.
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Linear Regression- Employee Loyalty & Job Duration


Variables Entered/Removedb Variables Model 1 Variables Entered Job duration Respondent Removed of . with Method Enter

current universitya a. All requested variables entered. b. Dependent Variable: Factors measuring employee loyalty of the respondent

Model Summary Adjusted R Model R R Square Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .189a .036 .031 .50436 a. Predictors: (Constant), Job duration of Respondent with current university The coefficient of determination R Square is 0.036 which means that 3.6% of the variation in the dependent variable is explained by the independent variable i.e. 3.6% of change caused in employee loyalty is due the change in job duration of respondent with the current university.

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ANOVAb Sum Model Squares 1 Regressi 1.868 on Residual 50.366 Total 52.234 of Df 1 198 199 Mean Square 1.868 .254 F 7.343 Sig. .007a

a. Predictors: (Constant), Job duration of Respondent with current university b. Dependent Variable: Factors measuring employee loyalty of the respondent Coefficientsa
Standardize d Unstandardized Coefficients Coefficients Model B Std. Error Beta t 1 (Constant) 2.809 .101 27.862 Job duration of -.108 .040 -.189 -2.710 Respondent with current university a. Dependent Variable: Factors measuring employee loyalty of the respondent Sig. .000 .007

The regression equation will be: Employee Loyalty = 3.217 0.332 (Job duration of respondent with current university) The above equation shows there is a negative relationship between job duration of respondent with current university and employee loyalty. The coefficient of dependent variable is 0.322, which means that for 1 unit increase in job duration of respondent with current university, a 0.322
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unit decrease in employee loyalty is predicted, holding all other variables constant. The coefficient for job duration of respondent with current university is statistically significant (different from 0) because p-value of 0.007 is smaller than the alpha value of 0.01.

CONCLUSION

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This research set out to understand the impact of retention factors on the employee loyalty of the employees of private sector universities in Pakistan. The retention cognitions of a large sample of these employees were established, supplying information on the high level of individualism, the need for challenge and the career management desires of worker. This study may contribute to the understanding organizations and academics have of more effective methods for managing employees, who are unique and increasingly important contributors to the knowledge based economy. The results indicate that there is general dissatisfaction with the job which results into high turnover. Permanent Employees of Universities are specifically dissatisfied with their salary and rewards distribution as it is not merit based. They are also dissatisfied with management attitude. There is no motivation, neither intrinsic nor extrinsic to charge them to give their best. There are minimal opportunities for training and the training provided is not effective denying further career development or growth for visiting faculty members. However, employees are satisfied with the working environment more as it is comfortable and well equipped. Full time faculty members want a strong need for empowerment, allowed to take at least small decisions at the spot. Stress during the work leads to turnover.

RECOMMENDATIONS
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Once organizations accept that evaluating the rate of attrition must become a matter of policy it can take steps to promote employee loyalty and prevent the loss of experienced personnel as well as the increased cost of replacing personnel who leave early in their career in pursuit of greener pastures. The recruiting and hiring process must be evaluated and adapted to find the best candidates. These should be enlightened immediately about the positives and negatives of any occupation so they can self select and eventually fit better into the position sought. Pay should be in line with the performance required. A reward program can be an additional method to recognize outstanding workers and motivate loyalty by aligning individual goals to those of the organization. These programs should include constant and consistent recognition of workers who perform above and beyond the everyday expectations. The workforce should also find satisfaction in their job, feeling important and challenged and allowed to participate and contribute intellectual as well as physical attributes they bring with them. Assure that people can speak their mind even when their ideas may be contrary to existing policy. No one should be afraid to make suggestions for change or improvement of operations is these in the field or administrative. Empower the employee. Allow them to grow within the organization by providing opportunities for learning through formal education sources, conferences, networking and mentoring programs. The department, the organization, the agency is only as good as the people it is successful in retaining to provide stability and effectiveness. The transformation to the knowledge era, and the consequent changes in the psychological contract between employer and employee, has
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resulted in retention of knowledge workers being a key issue in management today. Recommendations on retention that emerge from the findings of our research are listed below: This research has implications for the way knowledge workers manage their careers. They need to understand that this is the age of self determination. They must create their own futures by continuously developing their employability via further education and developing new, labor-market related competences.

Initiate preventative measures within the department to retain faculty. Once faculty has become dissatisfied enough to interview elsewhere, the department often has few prospects of retaining them. Department culture and collegiality, quality of graduate students, departmental ranking, and salaries are key factors in retaining faculty. Since ranking is a long-term issue, special attention must be given to the other areas over which departments have more direct control. Providing mentoring and reasonable teaching loads are important factors. It is also important to reward faculty who are especially effective (e.g., with tenure or early promotion). Proactive measures and a generally favorable environment will prevent many faculty members from ever seriously considering another job. Provide collaborative work environments. Data show that access to colleagues in the same research area is important, especially for women. Efforts must be made to support collaborative work environments and to fairly assess any
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multidisciplinary work that arises from these collaborations. Departments may choose to concentrate their hiring in a few research areas, rather than maximizing breadth of technical area coverage, in order to improve the chances that faculty members will have colleagues to work with on campus. Deans must be proactive as well as reactive. Deans are often critical players in helping a department to react to the anticipated departure of an individual faculty member. However, deans must also be cultivated as allies to be proactive in preventing retention problems. They can both help to create a favorable environment in the department and make available financial and university-wide resources as they are needed. Such proactive measures may reduce the number of retention cases that will arise. Actions should be taken to retain a valuable faculty member. In many cases, the only action available to try to retain faculty members after they indicate they are considering leaving is to talk to them. Useful topics for discussion include reminders of the advantages your department offers and plans for departmental improvements and how they would affect that faculty member, in addition to any issues the individual raises. Counteroffers may also increase the probability that the person will stay; such offers demonstrate to the individual and to the rest of the faculty that top people are appreciated. This may be tricky, of course, since a counteroffer can sometimes create jealousy among other faculty members.

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The institution should carefully track the problem of faculty retention. It is likely that the faculty retention problem will continue to rise and fall over the years. Some systemic issues may also affect faculty retention. For example, there is subjective evidence that faculty dissatisfaction with their teaching loads and administrative overhead is increasing. These factors do not seem to have affected retention to date, but they bear watching. Minimizing Work Overload: "Too much to do too little time." Increase planning time available to teachers and use paraprofessionals in the classroom. Teachers need ongoing information regarding current course and education topical issues . Maximizing Autonomy: Facilitate teacher involvement in decision making particularly as it relates to curriculum decision and course instructional materials. Institutes culture: Implement activities that facilitate the sharing of information between different faculty members.

Role conflict: Role confusion emanates from poor information flow, changing responsibilities of teachers, and the stress associated with the
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prioritization of work activities. Communicate with faculty members through the supervisory process regarding performance and role expectations. Recommendations to management The literature review and the data from this sample indicate that managers and human resource managers in particular, need to understand that: high levels of knowledge worker mobility are a defining characteristic of the knowledge based economy; the costs associated with this mobility and the benefits of reducing labor turnover via employing retention strategies are significant; high levels of employee commitment can be achieved but not long term loyalty. As Cappelli (2000:105) writes, you are managing a river not a dam, i.e. managers should adapt to a continual flow of people through the organization. This implies that organizations should develop a high level of competence in attracting and selecting competent knowledge workers. They should also ensure the continual transfer and encoding of knowledge, so that in the event of a knowledge worker leaving, their knowledge is retained by the organization. Recommendations to academics This research has begun to develop an understanding of the complexity of the drivers of mobility amongst knowledge workers. What is evident is that the new world of work is fruitful ground for empirical research into the defining characteristics of knowledge workers. In particular, this research suggests to fellow academics that the old theories may no longer hold; job satisfaction and organizational commitment do not necessarily lead to loyalty, long defined as the intention to remain with

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an employer. The psychological contract has changed profoundly, with concomitant spin-offs that need to be fully researched. The data shows that knowledge workers have defining overarching characteristics and can be further segmented into meaningful subgroupings, each with its own defining characteristics. These factors need to be further researched so that management theories and practices for the knowledge era could be built on an empirical basis.

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APPENDICIES

Name of the University Youre Age (in years)

: :

_______________________________ 25-35 35-45 55-65


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Gender
Designation Qualification 1.

:
: :

Female

Male

Lecturer Associate Professor Professor Graduate Post Graduate

How would you classify your job?


Visiting Faculty Permanent Faculty

2.

For how long have you been employed at this University?


0-1 Years 1-2 Years 2-4 Years 4-5 Years More than 5 Years

3.

What factors are most important to you that make you to stay with your employer? Kindly rank each factor according to importance; with 1 being most important?

Pay Autonomy Career Growth Opportunities Training & Development University Reputation Job Security Challenging Work University Policies

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________


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No other job option Fringe Benefits Work Environment Choice of courses

________ ________ ________ ________

4.

You would choose to leave your present job because of (choose one)
Lack of professional & career development opportunities

Poor compensation & benefits Lack of training & development Lack of autonomy Poor management policies
Work related stress

A better opportunity available Any other 5. I would not want to leave my present job How much do you agree or disagree that you are committed to your institution?
1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

6.

If an opportunity arises, you intend to change your job in the foreseeable future?
1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

7.

If you are assigned some other duties in addition to your basic job duties, how willing would you be to accept them?
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1 Not willing

2 Less willing

3 Willing

4 Much willing

5 More than willing

8.

Are you being compensated for these extra responsibilities?


1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

9.

Are you given sufficient learning & development opportunities?


1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

10. Are you given sufficient autonomy to complete your tasks?


1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

11. You enjoy sufficient job security at your present job


1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

12. You are given sufficient career growth and promotion opportunities
1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

13. You are given flexibility in choosing assigned courses and working hours?
1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

14. Are you satisfied with university/management policies regarding attracting

and retaining outstanding employees?


1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

15. The institute provides enough reasons that make you want to stay with it.
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1 Strongly disagree

2 Disagree

3 Neutral

4 Agree

5 Strongly agree

16. The institute provides enough reasons that prevent you from leaving it.
1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

17. Over the past years your loyalty with the institute has grown stronger.
1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree

18. How willing are you to help your co-workers?


1 Not willing 2 Less willing 3 Willing 4 Much willing 5 More than willing

19. Are you willing to sacrifice your personal goals for organizational goals?
1 Not willing 2 Less willing 3 Willing 4 Much willing 5 More than willing

20. Are you satisfied with your pay and compensation benefits?
1 Very dissatisfied 2 Dissatisfied 3 Neutral 4 Satisfied 5 Very satisfied

21. Are you satisfied with the work environment?


1 Very dissatisfied 2 Dissatisfied 3 Neutral 4 Satisfied 5 Very satisfied

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