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IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 28, NO. 5, JUNE 2010

**Optimized Relay Placement to Federate Segments in Wireless Sensor Networks
**

Sookyoung Lee and Mohamed Younis

Abstract—Federating disjoint segments may be necessary in some applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The segments can be simply distinct WSNs that operate autonomously or partitions of a single WSN that has suffered a signiﬁcant damage. Linking these segments is subject to varying distances among segments which may be longer than twice the communication range of a relay node. In this work, we focus on designing an effective approach for federating these segments by populating the least number of relay nodes. The deployment area is modeled as a grid with equal-sized cells. The optimization problem is then mapped to selecting the fewest count of cells to populate relay nodes such that all segments are connected. Finding the optimal number and positions of relay nodes with respect to length between segments is NP-hard and heuristics are thus pursued. We propose a distributed Cell-based Optimized Relay node Placement (CORP) algorithm and explain the beneﬁcial aspects of the resulting topology with respect to connectivity, and trafﬁc balance. The performance of CORP is validated through extensive simulation experiments. Index Terms—Wireless Sensor Networks, Network Segmentation, Relay Node Placement, Connectivity Restoration.

I. I NTRODUCTION

A

GROWING list of applications has fueled research on WSNs in recent years [1]. Most notable among these applications are those in harsh environments, such as coast and border protection, search-and-rescue and battleﬁeld reconnaissance. Typically a miniaturized sensor node is battery operated and consumes most of its energy in communication. Due to such an onboard energy constraint, a large set of sensors are involved to ensure area coverage and increase the ﬁdelity of the collected data. Upon deployment, the nodes are expected to form a network in order to coordinate their action for executing a task and forward the collected data to a command center. To enable such interactions nodes need to stay reachable to each other and thus the connectivity has a signiﬁcant impact on the effectiveness of WSNs. WSNs in these setups are subject to damage that can be so signiﬁcant in a part of the covered area that the network gets partitioned into disjoint segments. The dark areas seen in Fig. 1 represent the extent of the damage, after which the surviving nodes are partitioned due to the loss of connectivity. Restoring connectivity would be crucial so that the WSN becomes functional again. Recovery from a major damage is not the only application scenario, for which segments need to be linked. Sometimes it is desirable to federate the service

of multiple autonomous WSNs in order to achieve a critical mission or to react to unforeseen large scale events, e.g. earthquake, invasion, etc. In these scenarios, the segments are usually required to share data and orchestrate their action while performing a particular task. Some distributed algorithms, such as [2][3], have been designed to recover from the loss of a node in WSNs through the relocation of other nodes. However the algorithms may not be well suited to restore connectivity when the network is signiﬁcantly damaged. First, sensors have resource and capability constraints and may not be able to move long distance if the affected area is large. In addition, the reestablished topology tends to yield lower event coverage ratio since the node population does not increase. Finally, these algorithms are geared to recover from a single node failure and may not converge if multiple nodes fail simultaneously. Unlike these algorithms this paper employs relay nodes (RNs) in order to federate the disjoint network segments. The goal is to design an efﬁcient topology, in terms of the path length among segments, while employing the least number of RNs. Such node placement optimization problem can be mapped to ﬁnding the Steiner minimum tree with minimum number of Steiner points, which is shown to be an NP-hard problem [4]. To address such complexity, this paper presents CORP, a polynomial-time algorithm. CORP pursues greedy heuristics and opts to reduce the number of relays required for establishing a connected inter-segment topology. CORP models the area as a grid of equal-sized cells and deﬁnes the best neighboring cell of a segment Segi which lies on the shortest paths that connect Segi to the other segments. CORP operates in rounds. In each round, the best cells are selected and populated with RNs based on where the most recently populated RNs are located. This process concludes when all segments are connected using the newly deployed RNs. We validate the efﬁciency of the resulting topology with respect to the relays count and connectivity. The paper is organized as follows. Related work is covered in Section II. The problem and system model are described in Section III. CORP is detailed in Section IV. The validation results are presented in Section V. The paper is concluded in Section VI. II. R ELATED WORK Two categories of approaches have been pursued in the literature for federating segmented WSNs [5]: (1) populating additional relay nodes to establish connectivity, and (2) employing mobile agents to transport data between segments. Published work on RN placement can be grouped into two categories. The ﬁrst considers unconstrained setups and tries

Manuscript received 1 April 2009 and revised 29 September 2009. Sookyoung Lee and Mohamed Younis are with the Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (e-mail: slee22, younis@umbc.edu). Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/JSAC.2010.100611.

0733-8716/10/$25.00 c 2010 IEEE

in order to decide REP(Segi ) in case of restoring a damaged WSN we need to ﬁrst address two major issues.e. i. in [10] by simply identifying positions that cover the maximum number of sensors. In addition. the proposed algorithm tends to establish an inefﬁcient topology as discussed in Section V. CORP considers the relay placement in a vast area with no sensor present. Fig. and the inter-RN network is strongly linked. In addition. nodes are assumed to be stationary and all communication links are bidirectional. 1 and their locations are announced according to the other nodes in the segments. Tang et al. the black nodes notify all reachable nodes. 5 REP()s are selected for 5 segments in Fig. The authors crafted polynomial time approximation algorithms based on forming a Steiner minimum tree with minimum number of Steiner points. Message Ferries have been introduced in [18] to efﬁciently deliver data in sparse mobile ad doc networks using deterministic movement. REP(Segi ) may be determined by a remote command center. This can be tracked by including the number of neighbors in the notiﬁcation messages that get ﬂooded in the segment. They opt to deterministically place the least count of additional RNs to establish k-vertex disjoint paths. at which RNs are virtually placed. 1.g. However. Wang et al. Segments discovered in a damaged WSN. We assume only one REP(Segi ) is deﬁned for Segi . Upon conﬁrming the damage. and fragmented sensor networks. The work is further extended by Hao et al. However. Meanwhile. or a relay that forwards data from one node to another [12][13][14][15]. WSNs that need to collaborate to perform a critical task. mobile relays are used as data forwarders to prolong the lifetime of a network of stationary sensors [16] or to link disjoint batches of nodes [17][18]. One is how surviving sensors recognize that a network is partitioned into segments. In Fig. the closest nodes to the affected area by uncontrolled event/force such as explosives. The second is a set of autonomous. If a tie occurs. [7] and Hou et al. Wang et al. opt to ﬁnd a minimum count of RNs to meet connectivity between sensors and a BS while the lifetime constraint is satisﬁed. e.LEE and YOUNIS: OPTIMIZED RELAY PLACEMENT TO FEDERATE SEGMENTS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 743 to just establish connectivity between end points [6]. they deploy additional RNs between the AFNs and a BS. a collector that tours the sensors and carries their data. CORP has a different connectivity goal.. Meanwhile. In Fig. split sensors into groups led by an aggregationand-forwarding node (AFN). 1. After some pre-determined convergence time the black node that has more neighbors than other border (black) nodes becomes REP(). In [6]. a base-station that consumes the data. they do not try to minimize the relay count. III. Finally the optimization problem is to ﬁnd the best positions of RNs with a given energy budget and number of RNs. 1. Meanwhile. Lloyd and Xue opt to deploy the fewest RNs such that a sensor is able to reach at least one RN. a mobile agent plays one of three roles. when they detect consecutive node failures. inﬂicted by explosives in battleﬁeld. detect the failure of their neighbors. delay tolerant networks. However. Although these approaches also study the effect of the number of nodes. On the other hand. nodes marked by a square are representative nodes of each segment selected among black (border) nodes which detect the damage. The focus of [17] on studying the delay effect of using mobile relays. [8] consider constraints on network lifetime besides the connectivity requirements. Achieving higher connectivity is the goal of [9][10][11]. Through an analysis of the inter-RN connectivity. which makes these approaches ineffective in terms of the number of employed RNs and makes the generated topology inefﬁcient. like the one at the leftmost of the bottom in Fig. [11] consider heterogeneous nodes with different transmission radius. We deﬁne a representative sensor node REP(Segi ) for each segment Segi whose location denotes the position of the segment. Han et al. Additionally they need an algorithm to select REP(Segi ) among sensor nodes which belong to Segi . In order to prolong the AFNs lifetime. In case of federating a set of autonomous WSNs. when they notice a huge and sudden drop in communication trafﬁc and/or when they become unable to reach a certain set of sensors. and employing a Geometric Disk Cover algorithm. Therefore. S EGMENTS ’ FEDERATION PROBLEM We consider two types of segmented WSNs. They place ﬁrst-level relays (FLR) that are directly connected to sensors and then populate the additional second-level relays (SLR) at a distance from FLRs so that FLRs stay operational for the longest time. Some heuristics may be used for the nodes to conclude that there is a major damage. which is NP-hard. it does . The rationale of the REP() selection is that new RNs are deployed in the vicinity of these border nodes and it is thus imperative to restore the network topology as similar as possible to its pre-failure. they do not focus on minimizing their count like CORP. In the second category either additional performance objectives are targeted [7][8] or higher degrees of connectivity is to be achieved [9][10][11]. 1 a black node in a square becomes a REP() for Segi . mobility has been exploited for data delivery in sparse mobile ad hoc networks. In both scenarios. the black node which has more live neighbors and/or the highest node ID becomes REP(). The ﬁrst is a WSN that got partitioned due to major damage in a part of the network. RNs with most coverage are switched from virtual to real in order to form a 2-connected graph. If a black node has no live neighbors. strive to place the minimum number of RNs such that each sensor is connected to at least two RNs and the interRN network is 2-connected [9]. Hou et al. The latter studies a similar problem to that tackled by CORP. In those types of networks. independently-operating.

Seg0 (RC00 ). the major steps of CORP are described in detail.. Seg1 . RCr1 . The BC of Segi in round r is denoted as BCr (Segi ) or simply BCri . The RC of Segi in round r is denoted as RCr (Segi ) or simply RCri . and Cj in the grid. border RCs lies on the perimeter of the smallest rectangle which includes all RCri ’s ∀i when the RCs form a polygon. The fMC (Ci . RCr2 . Thereafter. Lin and Xue proved that this problem is NP-hard [4]. Cj ) returns max(|row(Ci )row(Cj )|-1. the number of deployed relays is to be minimized and they should be carefully placed. We assume the border RCs are processed in the order of RCr0 . Cell-Based Grid Model CORP models the area of interest as a grid of equal-sized squares (cells). B.744 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS. Such a node can join the network if it becomes in range of one of the deployed relays or if it can move. is selected. 2) Border RC: The RCs located in the outer segments are identiﬁed as border RCs. Although relays can be equipped with sensing circuitry. 3) Best Cell (BC): Among neighboring cells of RCr (Segi ). as ﬁnding the Steiner minimum tree with minimum number of Steiner points and bounded edge length [19]. i=0. i = b. and RCr4 . Seg3 and Seg4 of Fig. the RCs such as RC00 . 3-(a).. As seen in Fig. RC01 . (5. There possibly exists more than one JCi ’s which belongs to Segi . The correctness of fMC () is evident . A. Seg1 ) returns the value of max(|73|-1. the one that is on the shortest path to most segments is called the BC of Segi . JUNE 2010 Fig. which serves as a working example in this section. Next.2). Since only one BCrb is selected for RCrb in round r. Those JCs are used in the pruning process of CORP. we ﬁrst formulate the function fMC (Ci .. at least two border RCs elected in a round is. Such a cell will be a part of the inter-RN topology with the fewest cells that connects RCr (Segi ) to RCr (Segj ) where {Segj | a set of segments and i = j}. B. fMC (Seg0 . they mainly perform data aggregation and forwarding. Therefore heuristics are pursued in this paper. This process is repeated until all RCs are connected. RC02 . IV. On the grid each cell is identiﬁed by its row and column and thus the initial location of each segment Segi is represented as the cell where the REP(Segi ) is located. VOL. So the communication range between any two relays is at most R. in round r. Then a pruning procedure is performed in order to reduce the number of RNs. Seg3 (RC03 ). the number of newly populated RNs in each round equals the number of border RCs identiﬁed in that round. JC represents the cell where two or more RCs meet. The segments whose RCs rendezvous in those JC. RC03 . and RC04 are represented as REP(Segi )’s. We present CORP as a centralized procedure and explain how it can be implemented in a distributed way. 4) Junction Cell (JC): RCri that has another RCrj (i = j) in one of its neighboring cells. not belong to any segment and will not join CORP process. NO. CORP places relays to federate the disjoint segments.13) and (7. a RC of Segi is the cell where REP(Segi ) is placed. While a sensor lacks on battery and computation power. (1. 2. and Seg4 (RC04 ) become border RCs in round 0. The problem of federating the 5 segments shown in Fig.7). Since intuitively. . say RC0b with b = 0. 1 is now mapped to reconnecting REP(Segi ). the BCri selected for Segi is populated with a relay. |column(Ci )-column(Cj )|-1). (3. The size of a cell equals . In the ﬁrst round. In other word. respectively. Therefore. 2. Major Steps of CORP 1) BC Identiﬁcation Phase: The goal of this phase is to identify the BCs for each segment such that the least number of cells achieve the desired inter-segment connectivity. 1 are (7. |1-2|-1) which is 3. In other words. Each segment is initially represented as a pair of row and column of the cell where its REP() is located. Therefore we can count the fewest cells to connect two RCs easily using fMC (). a relay is a more capable node with signiﬁcantly more energy reserve and longer communication range than a sensor. CORP identiﬁes BC0b of RC0b for Segb to populate a new RN. RCr3 . For instance. 28. In order to decide on BC0b . Cj ) which counts the minimum number of cells to connect any two cells Ci . The following notation will be used hereafter: 1) Representative Cell (RC): CORP populates RNs in rounds. If the RCs form a line.1). It is assumed that all relays have the same communication range R. is called the JCi of Segi . the BCri becomes RC(r+1)i and then BC(r+1)i is selected and populated with a new RN. T HE CORP A PPROACH The proposed CORP approach pursues greedy heuristics that operate in rounds until all segments are connected. Deploying the fewest relays to connect nodes is formulated by Cheng et al. the RCs at the end of this line become border RCs.. In round (r + 1). Seg2 . a RC represents the cell in which the most recently populated RN for a segment is placed. In the ﬁrst round (r=0). relays are more expensive. are connected and merged as one segment.4. After the set of border RCs. In each round r. Seg2 (RC02 ).. 5. CORP ﬁrst identiﬁes the border RCs. The rationale is that a relay centered at one cell should be able to reach relays located at the center of neighboring cells. The initial locations of segments Seg0 .. The BC0b is selected among neighboring cells of the border RC0b . For instance. Therefore.8). as seen in Fig. based on the locations of all RCri ’s ∀i. the problem becomes selecting the f ewest cells to be populated with relay nodes such that all segments are connected.

CORP optimizes GC by pruning VC in order to eliminate the vertices that are unessential for the inter-segment connectivity. It is worth noting that the number of RCs combined into one segment may be more than two. 4. BC11 } and {BC11 .e.. a connected directed graph GC =(VC . a random selection is applied. the BCrb is selected based on the following formula: (1) BCrb = Cnbr . i.3) and (4. BC14 . r + 1 (r > 0). 2. keeps identifying BCs in round r + 1. which are represented as circles. 3. Since CORP populates RNs from outer segments towards the core of the partitioned network. {Seg1 . Fig. in which RCs at the perimeter of a rectangle are selected as border RCs. BC04 .g. 4. 2. where representative sensors initially lie. 3-(b). CORP completes the ﬁrst phase at the round in which there is no more border RC found. EC ) generated by the BC Identiﬁcation phase of CORP based on Fig. where fMC (Cnbr . EC ) is generated. {Seg3. subsequent rounds may have two or more RCs. there is no case in which a new border RC elected in a later round r > r meets RCs which have been already combined into one segment in round r. 3. where j = b through Cnbr . which terminates at some segments. BC21 } for Seg1 . GC = (VC . seen in Fig. which are {Seg0 . In other words. If a tie occurs. The other RC.g. EC is a set of possible wireless communication links among vertices √ in VC . The 16 RNs are ﬁnally populated to connect the 5 partitioned segments represented in Fig. CORP uses fMC () to count the least number of cells in order to reach all RCrj ’s. A new RN is then populated in the selected BCrb . their corresponding segments are merged into one segment and only one RC is considered in the following rounds. RC(r+1)b . BC33 . For instance. 3. RCri becomes JCi for Segj and RCrj is considered as JCj for Segi . If so. BC43 . After placing RNs in one round. BC23 . and solid ones are JCs. in which RNs have been placed. The two segments Seg0 and Seg1 are thus merged at BC21 and a single path is formed. 3-(b) as dotted lines. 4 shows GC for the example in Fig. the RC(r+1)b and RC(r+1)b become JCb and JCb respectively. BC00 . two or more paths have merged and formed a single path. BC10 and BC11 in Fig.LEE and YOUNIS: OPTIMIZED RELAY PLACEMENT TO FEDERATE SEGMENTS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 745 Fig. the number of populated RNs is 16. whose ranges are R or R/ 2. it terminates the BC identiﬁcation phase and RC21 keeps populating RNs and representing both RC20 and RC21 which becomes JC0 and JC1 respectively. Fig. 3-(a) illustrates the rectangles formed in each round. At each JC. {Seg2 . For GC shown in Fig. there are 7 JCs founded during total 6 rounds. which are in (5. RCrj ) min Cnbr ∈N eighbor(RCrb ) j=b In (1). VC is a set of BCs. 2) Pruning Phase: In the second phase. Fig. . BC12 } for Seg2 . whether RC(r+1)b has another RC(r+1)b belonging to the different segment as a neighbor. They become border RCs in round 2 as RC20 and RC21 . BC02 . e. As a result of this phase. In order to identify such JCs in the next round. e. The 7 solid circles denote JCs where two or more segments are merged. 4 there are 7 JCs that mark the boundary of the sub-graph. (a) border RCri ’s in round r for the example in Fig.. BC03 . BC10 } for Seg0 . for each neighboring cell Cnbr of RCrb . The graph GC is divided as sub-graphs based on JCs. The resulting topology has more connections in the area where many segments are located as seen in Fig. and the cells of the segments. This process is repeated for each of border RCs considered in that round. is excluded from both the BC identiﬁcation process even in this round and border RC selection after this round. CORP ﬁrst checks for every border RC.. RCri and RCrj where i = j and r > 0. Using fMC (). When two RCs meet. 2 and (b) BCs and sub-graphs considered in the pruning phase as seen in Fig. In Fig. and {Seg4 . 3-(b) are BCs selected in round 1. |VC | is 21 which include 16 BCs marked as circles and EC contains 25 links between every pair of two neighboring cells.3) respectively. If RC20 ﬁnds there is another (border or non-border) RC such as RC21 in its neighboring cells. BC13 . Only one of these two RCs. One of the considered choices of Cnbr yields the minimum cumulative numbers of cells and becomes BCrb . RC(r+1)b . BC53 } for Seg3 . We will analyze the quality of the resulting topology in section V. becoming neighbors and would serve as JCs for their corresponding segments.

. RC0i ’s.. The RNs are then re-stationed based on the new positions with the redundant RNs removed. 28. NO. We introduce the following theorems and lemmas: Theorem 1 : CORP guarantees the convergence of border RCs f rom the outer segments into the core of the area. i7 and becomes a JCA . BC23 .. The rectangle formed by border RCs for round r .. BC23 . If this number is smaller than the count of RNs populated over the path. the perimeter of Rect1 contains BC0i ’s and non-border RCs for round 0 and would thus lie completely inside Rect0 . The JCA combines theoretically at most eight RCs (segments) including itself since one cell has eight neighbors. BC43 . i7 and i=A terminate the BC identiﬁcation phase. So the RN count which CORP ﬁnally populates becomes 15. Segy ) rounds of BC identiﬁcation where Segx and Segy are the two furthest apart among the segments in the partitioned network. We thus prove the theorem through the following lemmas.. Since JCA is outside of Rectr and JCA has already merged all RCs in its neighboring cells in round r. The same can be proven for Rectr and Rectr for r =r+1 and by induction for any r >r. r >r are combined into the f ormer border RCs which have been already combined in round r. r >r. . any of RCr i ’s selected for round r . A. any of border RCs in round r . VOL. r >r cannot be merged into former border RCs in round r. RC1i ’s are selected among BC0i ’s and non-border RCs in round 0 which are inside Rect0 . no border RCs elected in round r . we prove the convergence into a connected topology and analyze the performance of CORP. Since each RC0i identiﬁes its BC0i in round 0.. the next border RCs for round 1. 5. JCj )/R -1. BC44 } for Seg4 . r ≥r+1 and the other RCri ’s. First. RCr A is already BC for JCA and does not constitute a new merge in round r . must contain the RCr A and have JCA outside its perimeter since RCr A is a new RC and Rectr which contains JCA (RCrA ) at its perimeter. gets reduced by one. Therefore. Let RCr i ’s be border RCs identiﬁed in round r which may include RCr A .. i = i0 . r > r. In addition. Obviously. In Fig. Lemma 1 : A rectangle f ormed by border RCs identif ied in round r contains all rectangles f ormed by border RCs identif ied in round r . new positions of the RNs are computed based on R along the straight line ignoring the grid-based coordinates. Pseudo code of CORP BC24 }.. cannot be a neighbor of JCA . Therefore.. and would lie at least one cell away from its perimeter. it will be sufﬁcient to show that the size of the rectangle formed by border RCs gets decreased by one cell in each round during the BC identiﬁcation phase . BC03 . Proof: To prove this theorem. BC33 and BC43 to maintain the distance each other as R. 3-(b). i.. by deﬁnition all non-border RCs reside inside Rect0 and all border RCs lies on its perimeter. Basically. i0 . {BC24 . Lemma 2 : During the BC identif ication phase. it will be sufﬁcient to show that a rectangle formed by border RCs identiﬁed in each round of the BC identiﬁcation phase of CORP shrinks towards the core of the partitioned network.746 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS. Proof : The proof of this lemma is by induction. the number of RNs found by the ﬁrst phase of CORP may be reduced. Each of the 7 sub-graphs is analyzed during the pruning phase. After that BCrA becomes RCr A .in should be inside Rect0 according to the selection rule of BC. In other words. .e. The pruning phase is initiated each time a JCi is identiﬁed during the BC identiﬁcation phase.. throughout the pruning process. the sub-graph Seg3 . i = i0 . C. JUNE 2010 Fig. 5. BC53 is pruned by removing one RN in BC03 and repositioning the four RNs in BC13 . Algorithm Analysis In this subsection. BC33 .. r >r except RCr A . Proof : Let RCrA be a border RC in round r which combines (border or non-border) RCri ’s. Proof : To prove this theorem.. covers Rectr as proven in Lemma 1. all BC0i ’s selected by the border RCs. The pseudo code of CORP is presented in Fig. All RCri ’s are then merged at JCA and BCrA gets selected in round r by the RCrA for the merged segments. The distance between RNs along the sub-path is extended to R. 5. The initiator JCi computes the Euclidean distance between JCi and the other JCj (or Segj ) based on the straight line between the start and end of the path. BC13 . Theorem 2:CORP guarantees all partitioned segments are connected within 1/2fMC (Segx. . the necessary number of RNs to serve the sub-graph is Length(JCi .

a repRNi updates its list of reachable nodes when meeting another repRNj .B. Therefore it assumes being a border RC in every round and computes a new BC based on locations of the other repRN s which are approximately estimated based on positions of sensors to which the border RC lost connection due to the damage. The BC identiﬁcation phase is concluded when the repRNi could reach the nodes that became unreachable when the network got damaged. In the worst case that no other RCs inside the line. The size of the longer edge of the initial rectangle is represented by the number of cells which is fMC (RC0x . or simply repRNi . at most eight. where N Seg is the number of segments and Nnbr is the number of neighboring cells. and ends at the initial location of a corresponding segment. LOC REPi . the sizes of the rectangle are decreased by exactly one cell in each round since BCs are selected among neighboring cells of border RCs. Moreover. i. the two border RCs step one cell forward towards each other round by round. Distributed Implementation This section describes how CORP may be implemented in a distributed manner. We ﬁrst assume there are some mobile RNs in each segment. of CORP and thus the upper bound of the number of rounds is half the length of the diagonal of the initial largest rectangle. border RCs investigate each of their neighboring cells to identify BCs based on the locations of all unreachable segments using the function fMC ().j. Since at least one border RC exists at each periphery of a rectangle and all border RCs move one cell inward in a round. the total execution time of the entire BC identiﬁcation phase is bounded by O(r·N Seg). the maximum number of rounds is 1/2fMC (RC0x . only one of them marks the position as its JC and keeps executing the BC identiﬁcation procedure and the others terminate the phase and start the pruning process. and runs the BC identiﬁcation procedure. In case two or more repRN s meet. The pruning process is performed based on a path which starts at the current position. REP(Segi ) is elected through the REP() selection process and it broadcasts a LOC REPi message to announce its location. each repRN cannot realize whether it is a border RC since it does not know the locations of the other repRN s.. The repRN then sends Fig. Moreover. each RCrx . where r is the number of rounds and is proven to be O( 1/2fMC (Segx . it ﬁrst sends a RELOCAT ION message including its current location to the neighboring RN which belongs to the same segment Segi . repRNi terminates the phase and starts the pruning phase. Those RNs use the same segment identiﬁcation when they communicate to distinguish the origin of the message. If the repRN decides any of the sub-paths is over populated with RNs. since each of RC0x and RC0y represents a location of Segx and Segy respectively which are the furthest apart among segments. To check on whether the BC identiﬁcation phase should terminate. it computes the new positions for RNs to relocate along the corresponding sub-paths. as explained in Section IV. where r is the number of rounds and N Seg is the number of partitioned segments. Therefore. RC0y ) + 2. it ﬁrst checks whether it can reach any RN which may have been populated from another segment j. Each time the repRNi moves towards the calculated BC0i . j=i at a JC. As proven through lemma 1.k seen in Fig. Using the information of spots that the repRN has visited thus far. x=i. Proof: In each round. All RNs in the segment Segi then move toward the position of REP(Segi ).e. When the repRNi arrives at the new location. Theorem 3:The time Complexity of the BC identiﬁcation phase of CORP is O(r · N Seg). As explained in Section III. marked as a JC. In round r each border RC selects one of its (solid) neighboring cells as its BC. and the runtime of fMC () is O(1). the execution time of each round is bounded by O(N Seg·O(Nnbr ))=O(N Seg). 6 takes a maximum of one cell movement from the outer rectangle and they form an inner one whose size is decreased by one cell. Segy ) ). i=j. the new positions are computed only based on R and the positions of two ends of each sub-path ignoring the gridbased coordinates. The repRNi notes all visited positions for later consideration in the pruning process. Since the number of neighboring cells of border RCs is constant. Therefore populated RNs for the same segment Segi follow the path along which the repRNi has taken. which also matches the center of the rectangle formed by the border RCs identiﬁed in the ﬁrst round. Therefore. then RCs will eventually form a line whose ends become border RCs. the maximum number of rounds is bounded by O( 1/2fMC (Segx. In case that repRNi meets a RN which has been populated for Segj and is not repRNj . the rectangles formed by border RCs gradually shrinks towards the core of the network. For each sub-path. Segy ) ) in Theorem 2. the repRN ﬁrst counts relays required based on Euclidean distance between the two ends of each sub-path. the representative sensor of Segi . the repRN checks whether some RNs can slightly move back towards their own segment while staying a distance R from the JC. The path is divided as sub-paths based on JCs located in the middle of the path. 6.LEE and YOUNIS: OPTIMIZED RELAY PLACEMENT TO FEDERATE SEGMENTS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 747 D. RC0y ) . If the number of cells in a row or a column of the ﬁrst rectangle is odd or all segments are initially located in a row or a column. One of the RNs of a segment i (Segi ) is nominated as a representative RN. In a distributed implementation of COPR. . Basically. These relays may be provisioned for recovery or simply nodes that switch their role to help in restoring connectivity. where RC0x and RC0y are the furthest RCs apart in the ﬁrst round (r=0).

• N umber of segments (N Seg): Having a large number of segments may increase the connectivity requirement and thus a larger RN count would be needed. R. 28. r . E. 5. When |S’| is k. we try all possible un-ordered k-combinations from a set of segments. In addition. rk times the execution time of each round. The time complexity of the pruning process implemented in a distributed manner is mainly determined by the number of relocated RNs and their moving distances. k-LCA uses SPs in each round to form the minimal cost sub-Steiner tree that contains terminals in S’⊆S as leaves. In addition. A set S of terminals in k-LCA and a set of non-terminals (V-S) are mapped to the cells of segments and those of the non-segment in CORP respectively. where cost(u. cost). of the computed MST. k-LCA outputs an MST of all terminals and SPs identiﬁed in the best F.MST-1tRN: This algorithm opts to establish an MST through RN placement and is shown to have an approximation ratio between 6 and 7 [6]. The performance is assessed using the following three metrics: • N umber of RN s (N RN ): Obviously. A RN is placed at X and those three groups are merged into one. V. VOL. JUNE 2010 a RELOCAT ION message to the next RN on the sub-path to inform the new positions of RNs which they should move to. 2) Baseline Approaches: The performance of CORP is compared to the following three approaches. is larger than that of a sensor. The algorithm then identiﬁes for every three groups a point X that is at most R units away. It populates RNs on each edge. Given an undirected graph G=(V. The time complexity of k-LCA is computed as the number of iterations. Validation Experiments The simulation environment. We can get the same best F as combinations of all nonsegment cells in a grid are tried since an edge cost between two nodes is determined by the number of cells.748 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS. P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION A. and experimental results are discussed in this subsection. In order to ﬁnd the best k-restricted F in each round. each link is counted twice. One RN is placed in the middle of the edge if r ≤Length(e)<2r . The kLCA algorithm operates in rounds. It thus has the most inﬂuence on the performance of CORP since the minimum number of RNs is primarily dependant on the distance between segments. the execution time depends on R on since the number of rounds for BC identiﬁcation phase is determined by the largest number of cells between segments. It assumes that the communication range of a RN. each group is represented as a point Y and an MST is computed based on those Y ’s.55 [20]. there may be more RNs populated since each repRN assumes the number and locations of segments in the partitioned WSN. The third approach is called k-restricted losscontracting algorithm (k-LCA) [20] and is the best known approximation algorithm for solving the Steiner tree problem. performance metrics. The following parameters are used to vary the network characteristics: • Communication range of relays (R): R determines the cells count between two segments in the grid. kLCA seeks a minimum-cost tree G’ which spans a given set of terminal S⊆V. unlike a centralized approach relays may instantly repair the partitioned network and then any two segments could resume their communication as soon as the populated RNs connect them. Nonetheless. this is a self-healing process where a WSN autonomously tolerates the simultaneous multiple failures. If Length(e) is larger than 2r . e. These steps are repeated until no such X could be identiﬁed. This process is repeated until the RELOCAT ION arrives at the JC located at the other end of the sub-path or to the segment whose ID is the same as in the message. In order to ﬁnd the graph G’. the sub-Steiner tree is called k-restricted full component F. Through the distributed approach. each of which is bounded to the number of populated RNs and R. However. The cost of G is a sum of all costs of edges in E. We assume r equals R in our simulation. In addition. NO. 2+ (Length(e)-2r )/R -1 relays are populated along the e. Any non-terminal vertex contained in G’ which belongs to a subset of (V-S) is identiﬁed as a SP in k-LCA. It ﬁrst combines nodes that can directly reach each other into one group. Thus the total populated relay count equals the sum of the number of X’s and Length(e)/R -1 relays populated on each edge. the fewest cell count between two segments is used to assess the inter-segment proximity. the ﬁrst algorithm forms a minimum spanning tree based on single-tiered relay node placement (MST-1tRN) [6]. The second is for solving a Steiner tree problem with minimum number of Steiner points (STP-MSP) [19]. 1.STP-MSP: This approach pursues a Steiner tree model with minimum number of SPs [19]. After that. v) is a nonnegative cost of the shortest path between u and v. The RN which receives the RELOCAT ION forwards the message to the next RN on the path and then moves towards the new position described if needed. In our simulation. the pruning process reduces the resulting number of RNs by eliminating the RNs populated due to the wrong assumption about where the other repRN s are. e of the MST. It ﬁrst computes an MST for the given segments and then places RNs at the minimum number of Steiner Points (SPs) on the MST. • N umber of rounds: The execution time is primarily determined by the number of rounds during BC identiﬁcation. 2. for SPs we limit the considered combinations of SPs to non-segments cells in the smallest rectangle L which contains all segments (terminals) in S’. which is proportional to the distance between the two nodes. which places the least relays count to maintain connectivity such that the transmission range of each node is at most R. Since we assume all communication links are bidirectional. 1) Experiment Setup and Performance Metrics: The experiments consider a partitioned WSN that consists of a varying number of segments. Each F is evaluated based on the ratio µ of how much cost F decreases for all terminals to be connected to the cost of connecting the SPs to terminals in F. . 3. We use a 3-approximation algorithm. this is the objective of the optimization and captures the effectiveness of CORP. k-LCA: This is the best-known approximation algorithm for solving STP with a performance ratio of 1. • Average node degree: It measures the connectivity of the topology with the total number of links among neighboring RNs divided by N RN .

the N RN decreases when R increases as seen in Fig. N Seg is 5 for (c) and R=150 for (d). As proven in Theorem 2 and 3. The results of the individual experiments are averaged over 10 runs. The value of R is varied from 25 to 300 with increment of 25. 7. Segy ) ·N Seg) where Segx and Segy are the segments that are furthest apart. Number of RNs: Fig. In addition. NSP . The characteristics of the generated topologies will be later elaborated through a detailed example. the time complexity of CORP is O( 1/2fMC (Segx . which is over 4900 times less than that of k-LCA. the worst-case time complexity of k-LCA (k=3) would be 245. For the same setup. Nk equals N Seg!/{k!·(N Segk)!}. 7-(a). the resulting Steiner tree which k-LCA generates also forms an MST among all segments. CORP . 7-(a) when R is very small. and NSP is determined by the size of the rectangle L. 7-(b). The performance advantage for large R is attributed to how CORP populates RNs inward to form a core mesh rather than having an MST or a Steiner tree when the number of segments is small. Segy ) is at most the number of cells along the diagonal in 14×14 grid. In CORP. Segments are randomly located in an area 1000m×1000m. All results are subjected to 90% conﬁdence interval analysis and stay within 10% of the sample mean. ST P -M SP and M ST -1tRN with respect to the number of RN s. STP-MSP and MST-1tRN opt to form an MST among the segments using the least possible RN count. the number of tried full components equals the number of possible k-tuple segments. According to [20] rk is proven to be O(N Segk ). 7-(a) for large R. However. Meanwhile.LEE and YOUNIS: OPTIMIZED RELAY PLACEMENT TO FEDERATE SEGMENTS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 749 Fig. which equals 19 when some segments are located at the corner of the boundary of the deployment area. CORP has much less time complexity. In summary. Comparison of the performance of CORP to that of k-LCA. which may have a negative impact on the optimization of the number of RN s. Simulation results We have simulated multiple conﬁgurations with different combinations of R and N Seg. which is a magniﬁed version of Fig. This section focuses on the number RNs and the node degree. the runtime complexity of CORP becomes about 50 nodes. 7 compares the performance of CORP in terms of the RN count to that of the baselines. This is clear in Fig. The runtime of k-LCA is thus O(N Segk ·Nk ·NSP ). CORP delivers better performance when R grows beyond 100m with N Seg=3 as seen in Fig. fMC (Segx . In general. For a setup with N Seg=5 and R=100 in a 1000×1000 area. CORP in essence tries to form a network topology that has the segments at the periphery. while varying R and N Seg. Therefore two relays may be populated within a distance less than R. Meanwhile. This is very much expected since proximity is the primary factor for restoring inter-segment connectivity. Nk times the number of possible combinations of SPs. N Seg changes between 3 and 6. In a round. RNs are placed at the center of cells.000 nodes. N Seg is 3 for (a) and (b). B.

since stronger inter-segments connectivity requirements are to be met. However. (d) shows the number of rounds of CORP for various values of R and N Seg. while STP-MSP ﬁnds the point which is directly reachable three segments. 5. Meanwhile.750 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS. outperforms k-LCA since large R lowers the chance for kLCA to ﬁnd the best full component that has all segments as leaves. k-LCA (k=3) shows better performance than STP-MSP with large R. However. Meanwhile. CORP consistently outperforms all baseline approaches in terms of the average node degree regardless of R and N Seg. In Fig. JUNE 2010 Fig. NO. This is because it is harder to ﬁnd a qualiﬁed full component in which segments are connected at leaves when N Seg gets larger in a ﬁxed area. This is because CORP places RNs towards the center of the locations of segments. 8. while it is not affected by N Seg as seen in Fig. It is worth noting that as k gets larger. This is because k-LCA looks for the best cell over multiple rounds and is thus able to reduce the cost for connecting every three segments. k-LCA is less effective with larger k. This is because k-LCA (k=3) investigates every cell to ﬁnd the best place for a RN to connect each group of three segments. Therefore. This is because with larger N Seg. CORP consistently shows high efﬁciency with large R since it populates RNs in the best cells in each round without constraints on the degree of the SP (placed RN). The performance advantage of CORP becomes even more signiﬁcant as R grows as seen in Fig. until N Seg reaches 5. 7-(c) CORP consistently outperforms MST-1tRN and STP-MSP with various R and large N Seg. Meanwhile. k-LCA has higher opportunities to ﬁnd the SP which connects three segments with less RNs than CORP. k-LCA with k=3 shows better performance than CORP in this setup. CORP outperforms MST-1tRN and STP-MSP with various N Seg. the number of RNs deployed to connect all segments is reduced since the population of segments also gets dense in this setup. 8-(a). Comparison of the average node degree of the generated topology achieved by CORP to those of baseline approaches. CORP places more RNs than k-LCA when its k is 3 and N Seg is larger than 3. In comparison to k-LCA. it generates an MST. k-LCA requires much more processing time and capacity than CORP in order to ﬁnd the best SP since it applies a bruteforce. 7-(d). N Seg=5 for (b). CORP outperforms k-LCA whose k is larger than 3 with large R (≥150) since large k lowers the chance to ﬁnd the best full component which has k (>3) segments as leaves and makes µ nonnegative. with N Seg larger than 5. Therefore. R=150 for (c). 28. 7-(d) shows the effectiveness of CORP with respect to N Seg in a partitioned network. This is because RNs with large R can cover more area and make it easy to connect segments. 8-(a). the performance of k-LCA becomes worse with large N Seg approaching to that of MST1tRN and thus the resulting topology gets closer to an MST. and (c) indicate that CORP generates a topology with better connectivity. All approaches involve more RNs as N Seg gets larger. Fig. the average node degree of the topology by . (b). CORP outperforms k-LCA whose k equals N Seg as N Seg gets larger as seen in Fig. If k-LCA fails to ﬁnd such a full component. 8-(c). Average node degree: Fig. However. VOL. As the known performance ratios indicate. N Seg=3 for (a).

CORP requires fewer RNs to forward data than the other algorithms. 9-(a) have a node degree of two in the MST. CORP is affected by the initial layout of segments. 9-(c). First. 13 out of total 18 RNs. since the resulting topology becomes closer to an MST. Overall CORP engages 246 hops (forwarding relays) for delivery between all pairs of two segments. However. 8-(d) shows that the number of rounds performed during BC identiﬁcation depends only on R and not on N Seg. the topology by k-LCA is a little better with respect to trafﬁc balance than the MST shown in Fig. 9-(a). and (5.1) forwards packets in and out of Seg1 to the rest of the network. would have the potential of becoming bottlenecks. as proven in Theorem 2. VI. i. and (c) respectively. It is worth noting that k-LCA provides less connectivity with larger k and larger N Seg. In addition the relay populated in (6. not by the number of segments.2). and 17 for (a). 9-(a) would be overwhelmed by more than 50% of the overall trafﬁc. However.e. Quality of the Generated Topology CORP places RN inward and thus yields a better topology compared to baseline approaches. the relays placed in two light solid circles transfer 48% of the packet trafﬁc. the 5 RNs in empty circles transfer 29% trafﬁc load. about 19% RNs. 8-(b). Table 1 shows the RNs count along the shortest path between every two segments in all topologies. would suffer from the heavy trafﬁc overhead and have a high potential to become bottlenecks after restoring the connectivity. N Seg determines the execution time of each round since BCs are selected by considering all unreachable segments. CORP yields a topology that is less prone to having trafﬁc bottlenecks than the baselines. which is fewer by 120 than the hop counts in MST and by 28 for the topology of k-LCA (with k=3). N RN is 18. Meanwhile in the topology created by CORP there are only two RNs. Assuming the same trafﬁc density on the link between every pair of segments. 9. 9 shows one of the resulting topologies obtained through CORP and k-LCA and the MST which STPMSP and MST-1tRN produce for the same setup. (b).. which identify BCs. 9-(a). Moreover.1) and (3. The trafﬁc unbalance can also be an issue for the topology generated by k-LCA (k=3) as seen in Fig. Number of rounds: Fig. This can be attributed to the fact that border RCs. Example topologies generated by different approaches. Therefore. about 72% of the deployed RNs. CORP populates RNs in a topology which reduces the overall latency of data delivered between segments. the RNs marked in 9 dark circles seen in Fig. The trafﬁc load forwarded through the RNs marked in two light solid circles is 42% and 48% out of total data. move a distance of R towards each other every round. Connectivity: Fig.5) and (7. Therefore. the average node degree in the topology by STP-MSP slightly increases with large R since it has higher chance to include RNs whose degree is 3 by combining 3 segments. 9-(b). RNs like the one in cell (4. the resulting topology of MST-1tRN is not much affected by R. As seen in Fig.1) transfer a heavy trafﬁc load since the relay in (4. as seen in Fig. In addition. Balanced Trafﬁc Load: The topology constructed by CORP also distributes trafﬁc more evenly than the other alternatives. In the worst case all points except two leaf nodes such as Seg0 and Seg6 in Fig. Moreover. which take responsibility for transferring about 52% and 57% of total data between 11 or 12 out of 21 pairs of segments.8) takes care of about 52% and 67% of the total data trafﬁc respectively. the number of rounds grows proportional to the largest inter-segment distance. marked in dark circles in Fig. Therefore. We assume the same path is used for both directions of data delivery between two segments. and Seg2 . The following elaborates on the properties of the generated topology. For all segments except Seg1 . 16. The RNs in 4 light solid circles transfer 48% of total trafﬁc. C. 43% RNs take care of more than half trafﬁc overload. each of two pairs of RNs in (4. Overall 4 RNs out of 13 RNs.LEE and YOUNIS: OPTIMIZED RELAY PLACEMENT TO FEDERATE SEGMENTS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS 751 Fig. yet a signiﬁcant percentage of the deployed RNs can be bottlenecks. These RNs between Seg2 and Seg3 and between Seg3 and Seg4 would transfer data for 12 out of 21 pairs of segments (about 57%). we have investigated the problem of federating disjoint segments in a partitioned WSN or a set of autonomous . about 71% of the total data.5) delivers the highest trafﬁc load. Meanwhile. large R increases the total number of communication links of the populated RNs. C ONCLUSION In this paper. In conclusion. The 7 relays in dark circles would have high potential to become bottlenecks since they carry about between 52% and 71% of total trafﬁc load. Additionally.

Cheng. on Discrete Math. 1366-1379. 444-461. Akkaya and M. Gupta and K. Lin and G. is based on populating additional relays inward the center of the area in order to establish communication links among the segments. 2005. CORP. D. [6] E. L. 2006. Lee. [9] J. O. pp. pp. Conf. Relay Node Placement in Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks. MO. Japan. Miami. candidate in the CSEE Department of the Univ. Korea Electrics Technology Institute. 51st IEEE Global Telecom. St. the 48th IEEE Global Telecom. The performance of CORP is analyzed mathematically and validated through simulation.. [8] Y. Vol. pp. Computer Networks. T. program chair for LCN 2009 and program cochair of the ad-hoc and sensor networks symposium of ICC 2009. Modeling Mobility-Assisted Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks. Vol. Shi. special issue on wireless sensor networks. 4(4). Relay Sensor Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks. Hubaux. She was with LG ELECTRONICS Inc. 48th IEEE Global Telecomm. Proc. Fault-tolerant relay node placement in wireless sensor networks: formulation and approximation. Sen. Nov. 20(9). Younis has published over 100 technical papers in refereed conferences and journals. and A. et al. Cao. LTD. Proc. (GLOBECOM ’05). Abbasi. pp.. pp. Her current research interest is wireless sensor networks and network modeling and performance analysis for dynamic and sparse networks. pp.. Nov. H. Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute.. Shen. Louis. 2005. A. He is the general chair of LCN 2010. Strategies and Techniques for Node Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey. Lloyd and C. F. Journal of Ad Hoc Networks. [15] K.-C. Sys. 69. She is a Ph. New Orleans. Wang. B. the 5th ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing. Dr. Future work includes extending CORP to handle quality of service requirements assigned to segments. Jan. on System Sciences (HICSS05). Trading Latency for Energy in Densely Deployed Wireless Ad Hoc Networks using Message Ferrying. pp. A 2 . Younis is an Associate professor in the CSEE department of the Univ. E.. Proc. 2005. Before joining UMBC. Luo. 5. In addition. May 2007. Sookyoung Lee received the BS and MS degrees in CS from the Ewha Womans University. Information Processing Letters. [7] Q. [11] X. Movement-Assisted Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks. 512534. 122-134. . April 2004. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is supported by the National Science Foundation.D. K. and Samsung Electronics Co. VOL. Han. Steiner Tree Problem with Minimum Number of Steiner Points and Bounded Edge-length. H. On Energy Provisioning and Relay Node Placement for Wireless Sensor Networks. Akkaya. Huang. Younis. The proposed solution. AND CORP RESPECTIVELY. Computer Comm. Hao.. Wang. 6(4). Lloyd and G. 2008. Relay Node Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks. [14] Z. [2] A. Akyildiz. 2005. CORP not only minimizes the number of populated RNs. 393-422. Missouri. L. Sink Repositioning for Enhanced Performance in Wireless Sensor Networks. 56(1). (GLOBECOM08).-C.. Xu. the Workshop on High Performance Switching and Routing. Phoenix. Vol. and balanced trafﬁc load. Korea from 1998 to 2004. FL. 2005.. Akkaya and M. Tighter Bounds for Graph Steiner Tree Approximation. G. Sep. [12] C. et al. pp.-P. A message ferrying approach for data delivery in sparse mobile ad hoc networks. No. M. S. 134-138. Vol. D. 2008.Koc. 19(1). R EFERENCES [1] I. including the best known approximation algorithm for the STP. 4(5). Nov. and A. Mohamed F. Younis and K. SIAM J. The simulation results have conﬁrmed its performance advantage in comparison to contemporary schemes found in the literature. on Wireless Comm. [17] H. Proc. and H. Xu. C. Y. Younis. 2008.-z. 4. Proc. 53-57. Xue. [13] J. et al. 2007. AND A 3 DENOTE MST. L. 0000002270. Conf.. S. and Zelikovsky. Kamal. pp. 347-355. IEEE Trans. AZ. Younis has ﬁve patents. Locally Optimal Relay Node Placement in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks. Hawaii. 28. [5] M. 2005. on Parallel and Dist.. [18] W. St. of Maryland Baltimore County. et al. [3] M. 490501. INFOCOM05. Tang. Sherali. K -LCA. Journal of Ad-Hoc Networks. contract no. K. Takahara. IEEE Tran. on Computers. [10] B. Zhao. 5. pp. he was with Honeywell International Inc. INFOCOM07. G. WSNs. Tokyo. Fisher. Exploiting Sink Mobility for Maximizing Sensor Networks Lifetime. [16] H. Shen. May 2007. G. X. 29. IEEE Trans. Xue. Computer Networks. [20] Robins. Dr. Jaikaeo. Hao. Louis.752 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS. May 2004. Almasaeid. but also generates more efﬁcient topology in terms of the degree of connectivity. Conf. 2579-2590. 2009. Trajectory Control of Mobile Access Points in MANET. and Z. Proc. A Localized Self-healing Algorithm for Networks of Moveable Sensor Nodes. 14(3). March 2005. Jun. 9. pp. Xue. 38. J. in 1995 and 1997. [19] X. E. Proc. Wang and B. Proc. [4] G. Jan. he serves/served on the editorial board of multiple journals and the organizing and technical program committee of numerous conferences. Proc. A 1 . 2002. Wireless sensor networks: a survey. New Orleans. Fault-tolerant Relay Nodes Placement in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks. Korea. 2008. Conf. Dec. the 38th Hawaii Intl Conf. Younis. Du. Hassanein. Sep. Hou.. Joint mobility and routing for lifetime elongation in wireless sensor networks. Tang. of the IEEE Global Comm. 1999.. 621-655. JUNE 2010 TABLE I N RN BETWEEN EVERY TWO SEGMENTS IN F IG . Anchorage AK. LA. of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC). Wireless Networks. NO.

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