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OCR ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY GCE IN MATHEMATICS (3890
)
OCR ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY GCE IN PURE MATHEMATICS (3891)
OCR ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY GCE IN FURTHER MATHEMATICS (3892)
OCR ADVANCED GCE IN MATHEMATICS (7890)
OCR ADVANCED GCE IN PURE MATHEMATICS (7891)
OCR ADVANCED GCE IN FURTHER MATHEMATICS (7892)
First AS assessment January 2005
First A2 assessment June 2005
First AS certification January 2005
First GCE certification June 2005
Key Features
 Simple, flexible structure.
 Clearly defined AS and A2 standards.
 Permits AS Further Mathematics to be studied in year 12.
 Firmly established progression routes from GCSE for all students.
 All units externally assessed – no coursework.
Support and InService Training for Teachers
In support of these specifications, OCR will make the following materials and services available to teachers:
 uptodate copies of these specifications;
 InService Training (INSET) meetings;
 specimen question papers and mark schemes;
 past question papers and mark schemes after each examination session;
 a report on the examination, compiled by senior examining personnel, after each examination session.
If you would like further information about the specification, please contact OCR.
QAN (3890) 100/3434/1
QAN (7890) 100/3435/3
QAN (3891) 100/6021/2
QAN (3892) 100/6020/0
QAN (7891) 100/6023/6
QAN (7892) 100/6022/4
Foreword
This booklet contains OCR’s specifications for Advanced Subsidiary GCE (AS) and Advanced GCE (A
Level) Mathematics, and associated certification titles, for teaching from September 2004. It has been
revised to take account of the changes to the GCE Mathematics Aggregation Rules from January 2008 and
the introduction of the A* award for A Level Certifications from June 2010.
Prior to 2008 GCE Mathematics and Further Mathematics were aggregated using the ‘least best’ method.
Under this system candidates were awarded the highest possible grade for GCE Mathematics using the
lowest possible uniform mark total and then the best grade for Further Mathematics using the remaining unit
results. Candidates were able to decline awards if they planned to improve their grades in the future.
From January 2008 a candidate wishing to improve their grade is no longer able to decline the original
award; instead candidates make an entry for at least one of the GCE Mathematics’ units and make an entry
for certification. GCE Mathematics and Further Mathematics are now aggregated by first establishing the
best possible combination of grades and then selecting the unit combination which gives the highest uniform
mark total for the GCE Mathematics.
From June 2010 the A* grade was introduced to reward exceptional performance at A Level. For GCE
Mathematics the A* grade is awarded based on performance in the Core 3 and Core 4 units. For Further
Mathematics A Level the award of A* will be based on the results of the best three A2 units.
Advanced Subsidiary GCE units are assessed at a standard appropriate for candidates who have completed
the first year of study of a twoyear Advanced GCE course. A2 units are assessed at a standard appropriate
for candidates who have completed a twoyear Advanced GCE course. Advanced Subsidiary GCE forms the
first half of Advanced GCE in terms of teaching time and content. However, the Advanced Subsidiary can
be taken as a ‘standalone’ qualification.
In these specifications, the term module is used to describe specific teaching and learning requirements. The
term unit describes a unit of assessment. Each teaching and learning module is assessed by an associated
unit of assessment.
These specifications meet the requirements of the Common Criteria (QCA, 1999), the GCE Advanced
Subsidiary and Advanced Level QualificationSpecific Criteria (QCA, 2003) and the relevant Subject
Criteria.
© OCR 2010 Contents 3
GCE Mathematics
CONTENTS
Section A: SPECIFICATION SUMMARY 5
Section B: General Information 10
1 Introduction 10
1.1 Rationale 10
1.2 Certification Title 11
1.3 Language 11
1.4 Exclusions 12
1.5 Key Skills 13
1.6 Code of Practice Requirements 14
1.7 Spiritual, Moral, Ethical, Social and Cultural Issues 14
1.8 Environmental Education, European Dimension and Health and Safety Issues 14
1.9 Avoidance of Bias 14
1.10 Calculators and Computers 14
2 Specification Aims 15
2.1 Aims 15
3 Assessment Objectives 16
3.1 Application to AS/A2 16
3.2 Specification Grid 17
4 Scheme of Assessment 19
4.1 Units of Assessment 19
4.2 Structure 19
4.3 Rules of Combination 21
4.4 Final Certification 23
4.5 Availability 25
4.6 ReSits 25
4.7 Unit Combinations 26
4.8 Question Papers 29
4.9 Coursework 30
4.10 Special Arrangements 30
4.11 Differentiation 31
4.12 Grade Descriptions 31
4 Contents © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations
5 Specification Content 33
5.1 AS Module 4721: Core Mathematics 1 (C1) 34
5.2 AS Module 4722: Core Mathematics 2 (C2) 37
5.3 A2 Module 4723: Core Mathematics 3 (C3) 40
5.4 A2 Module 4724: Core Mathematics 4 (C4) 44
5.5 AS Module 4725: Further Pure Mathematics 1 (FP1) 47
5.6 A2 Module 4726: Further Pure Mathematics 2 (FP2) 50
5.7 A2 Module 4727: Further Pure Mathematics 3 (FP3) 53
5.8 AS Module 4728: Mechanics 1 (M1) 56
5.9 A2 Module 4729: Mechanics 2 (M2) 59
5.10 A2 Module 4730: Mechanics 3 (M3) 62
5.11 A2 Module 4731: Mechanics 4 (M4) 65
5.12 AS Module 4732: Probability and Statistics 1 (S1) 68
5.13 A2 Module 4733: Probability and Statistics 2 (S2) 71
5.14 A2 Module 4734: Probability and Statistics 3 (S3) 73
5.15 A2 Module 4735: Probability and Statistics 4 (S4) 76
5.16 AS Module 4736: Decision Mathematics 1 (D1) 79
5.17 A2 Module 4737: Decision Mathematics 2 (D2) 81
6 Further Information and Training for Teachers 83
Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 84
Appendix B: Mathematical Notation 113
© OCR 2010 Section A: Specification Summary 5
GCE Mathematics
SECTION A: SPECIFICATION SUMMARY
COURSE OUTLINE
These specifications have been developed in line with the requirements of the revised Subject
Criteria for Mathematics (QCA, 2003), while continuing to provide a straightforward assessment
scheme that allows for a variety of different courses to be followed.
The modules in the scheme cover the following areas:
 Core Mathematics (modules 4721 to 4724);
 Further Pure Mathematics (modules 4725 to 4727);
 Mechanics (modules 4728 to 4731);
 Probability and Statistics (modules 4732 to 4735);
 Decision Mathematics (modules 4736 and 4737).
SPECIFICATION CONTENT
The content defined in the QCA Subject Criteria as ‘core’ material for Advanced Subsidiary GCE
Mathematics is included within Core Mathematics C1 and C2 (modules 4721 and 4722), and that for
Advanced GCE Mathematics is included within Core Mathematics C3 and C4 (modules 4723 and
4724).
SPECIFICATION UNITS
All units are externally assessed by a written examination of duration 1 hour 30 minutes; further
details are shown in the table below. The weighting of each unit is
1
3
33 % if contributing to
Advanced Subsidiary GCE certification and
2
3
16 % if contributing to Advanced GCE certification.
Entry
Code
Unit
Code
Unit Name Level
Entry
Code
Unit
Code
Unit Name Level
4721 C1* Core Mathematics 1* AS 4730 M3 Mechanics 3 A2
4722 C2 Core Mathematics 2 AS 4731 M4 Mechanics 4 A2
4723 C3 Core Mathematics 3 A2 4732 S1 Probability and Statistics 1 AS
4724 C4 Core Mathematics 4 A2 4733 S2 Probability and Statistics 2 A2
4725 FP1
Further Pure
Mathematics 1
AS 4734 S3 Probability and Statistics 3 A2
4726 FP2
Further Pure
Mathematics 2
A2 4735 S4 Probability and Statistics 4 A2
4727 FP3
Further Pure
Mathematics 3
A2 4736 D1 Decision Mathematics 1 AS
4728 M1 Mechanics 1 AS 4737 D2 Decision Mathematics 2 A2
4729 M2 Mechanics 2 A2
* indicates the unit in which no calculator may be used.
6 Section A: Specification Summary © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT
Units at AS Level have been designed for candidates following the first year of a twoyear
Advanced GCE course.
Units at A2 Level have been designed for candidates following the second year of a twoyear
Advanced GCE course.
Assessment is by means of three units of assessment for Advanced Subsidiary GCE and six units of
assessment for Advanced GCE.
Units C1, C2, FP1, M1, S1 and D1 are designated as AS units, while C3, C4, FP2, FP3, M2, M3,
M4, S2, S3, S4 and D2 are designated as A2 units.
The following combinations of units are available for certification.
Certification Title and Number Units Required
Advanced Subsidiary GCE
Mathematics (3890)
C1 and C2, together with one of M1, S1, D1
Advanced Subsidiary GCE
Pure Mathematics (3891)
C1, C2 and FP1
Advanced Subsidiary GCE
Further Mathematics (3892)
FP1 together with two other units which may not include
any of C1, C2, C3, C4
Advanced GCE
Mathematics (7890)
C1, C2, C3 and C4, together with either two from M1, S1,
D1 or M1, M2 or S1, S2 or D1, D2
Advanced GCE
Pure Mathematics (7891)
C1, C2, C3, C4, FP1 and either FP2 or FP3
Advanced GCE
Further Mathematics (7892)
FP1 together with FP2 or FP3 or both, plus three or four
other units, as appropriate
QUESTION PAPER REQUIREMENTS
For each unit in the scheme, the Question Paper consists of a number of questions of different lengths
and mark allocations. The total mark for each paper is 72. Candidates attempt all questions. Each
question paper has a duration of 1 hour 30 minutes.
Question papers are designed to have a gradient of difficulty, with the more straightforward questions
towards the beginning of the paper, and more demanding questions towards the end. Where
appropriate there is also a gradient of difficulty within individual questions.
No calculator may be used in answering unit C1; for all other units candidates may use a scientific or
graphical calculator. Computers and calculators with computer algebra functions are not permitted in
any of the units. Calculators are subject to the rules in the document Instructions for Conducting
Examinations, published annually by the Joint Council for Qualifications (www.jcq.org.uk).
COURSEWORK REQUIREMENTS
There is no requirement for coursework associated with any of the units in these specifications.
© OCR 2010 Section A: Specification Summary 7
GCE Mathematics
UNIT COMBINATIONS
The scheme of assessment has been designed to recognise the different stages of maturity of students
following a two year GCE course. AS Further Mathematics has been designed to broaden the
mathematical experience of students and be independent from the A2 units of the Advanced GCE
Mathematics course. Nevertheless, it is recognised that the needs of Centres differ and the scheme of
assessment also includes other approaches within its structure and rules of combination set out in
Sections 4.2 and 4.3.
Examples of common assessment patterns are given in Section 4.7. However, it should be
emphasised that, while the natural order would be to take AS units in Year 12 and A2 units in Year
13, there are no rules concerning either the order in which units should be taken or indeed which
units should be taken in Year 12 and which in Year 13.
MODULE CONTENT SUMMARY
Core Mathematics 1 (C1) (AS Unit 4721)
Indices and surds; Polynomials; Coordinate geometry and graphs; Differentiation.
Core Mathematics 2 (C2) (AS Unit 4722)
Trigonometry; Sequences and series; Algebra; Integration.
Core Mathematics 3 (C3) (A2 Unit 4723)
Algebra and functions; Trigonometry; Differentiation and integration; Numerical methods.
Core Mathematics 4 (C4) (A2 Unit 4724)
Algebra and graphs; Differentiation and integration; Differential equations; Vectors.
Further Pure Mathematics 1 (FP1) (AS Unit 4725)
Summation of series; Mathematical induction; Roots of polynomial equations; Complex numbers;
Matrices.
Further Pure Mathematics 2 (FP2) (A2 Unit 4726)
Rational functions and graphs; Polar coordinates; Hyperbolic functions; Differentiation and
integration; Numerical methods.
8 Section A: Specification Summary © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Further Pure Mathematics 3 (FP3) (A2 Unit 4727)
Differential equations; Vectors; Complex numbers; Groups.
Mechanics 1 (M1) (AS Unit 4728)
Force as a vector; Equilibrium of a particle; Kinematics of motion in a straight line; Newton’s laws of
motion; Linear momentum.
Mechanics 2 (M2) (A2 Unit 4729)
Centre of mass; Equilibrium of a rigid body; Motion of a projectile; Uniform motion in a circle;
Coefficient of restitution and impulse; Energy, work and power.
Mechanics 3 (M3) (A2 Unit 4730)
Equilibrium of rigid bodies in contact; Elastic strings and springs; Impulse and momentum in two
dimensions; Motion in a vertical circle; Linear motion under a variable force; Simple harmonic
motion.
Mechanics 4 (M4) (A2 Unit 4731)
Relative motion; Centre of mass; Moment of Inertia; Rotation of a rigid body; Stability and
oscillations.
Probability and Statistics 1 (S1) (AS Unit 4732)
Representation of data; Probability; Discrete random variables; Bivariate data.
Probability and Statistics 2 (S2) (A2 Unit 4733)
Continuous random variables; The normal distribution; The Poisson distribution; Sampling and
hypothesis tests.
Probability and Statistics 3 (S3) (A2 Unit 4734)
Continuous random variables; Linear combinations of random variables; Confidence intervals and
the t distribution; Difference of population means and proportions;
2
_ tests.
© OCR 2010 Section A: Specification Summary 9
GCE Mathematics
Probability and Statistics 4 (S4) (A2 Unit 4735)
Probability; Nonparametric tests; Probability generating functions; Moment generating functions;
Estimators; Discrete bivariate distributions.
Decision Mathematics 1 (D1) (AS Unit 4736)
Algorithms; Graph theory; Networks; Linear programming.
Decision Mathematics 2 (D2) (A2 Unit 4737)
Game theory; Flows in a network; Matching and allocation problems; Critical path analysis;
Dynamic programming.
10 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
SECTION B: GENERAL INFORMATION
1 Introduction
1.1 RATIONALE
The aim in preparing these Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE specifications has been to
promote the teaching and learning of mathematics post GCSE in schools and colleges by providing a
scheme that meets all the requirements of recent criteria while at the same time maintaining as far as
possible features that have proved popular in recent past specifications.
The broad objectives in designing the scheme have been to include a sufficient range of mathematical
topics to allow schools and colleges to devise courses to suit the varied requirements of a broad range
of students, while at the same time avoiding administrative complexity and maintaining
comparability between different options.
Students who successfully complete courses based on these specifications will have a suitable basis
for progression to further study in mathematics or related subjects, or directly into employment.
Overview of Scheme
Mathematics forms part of the suite of OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE modular
specifications in which a single Advanced Subsidiary GCE comprises three teaching modules and a
single Advanced GCE comprises six teaching modules, with each module representing about 45
hours of contact time. Each teaching module is assessed by an associated unit of assessment.
The 17 units in the scheme cover the areas of Core Mathematics (four units, 4721 to 4724), Further
Pure Mathematics (three units, 4725 to 4727), Mechanics (four units, 4728 to 4731), Probability and
Statistics (four units, 4732 to 4735), and Decision Mathematics (two units, 4736 and 4737).
The scheme allows for certification of the following:
 Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics (three units);
 Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics and Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics
(six units);
 Advanced GCE Mathematics (six units);
 Advanced GCE Mathematics and Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics (nine units);
 Advanced GCE Mathematics and Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (twelve units);
 Advanced Subsidiary GCE Pure Mathematics (three units);
 Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics (six units).
Titles listed in the bullet points above cover certification in the subjects ‘Mathematics’, ‘Pure
Mathematics’ and ‘Further Mathematics’ and consequently the necessary combinations of modules
meet in full the relevant requirements of the Subject Criteria for Mathematics (QCA, 2003).
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 11
GCE Mathematics
The requirement of the subject criteria for assessments of specifications in Mathematics and Pure
Mathematics to include one unit of the assessment which must be answered without the help of a
calculator is met by forbidding all calculating aids in the examination on the first Core paper (Unit
C1) in the scheme. In other units the use of a scientific or graphical calculator is permitted. The
specifications provide opportunities for the use of calculators and computers to enhance the learning
process and to help develop mathematical understanding, and such use is encouraged wherever
appropriate.
The specifications are intended to build on the knowledge, understanding and skills established at
GCSE. Students embarking on an Advanced Subsidiary GCE or Advanced GCE course of study are
expected to have achieved at least grade C in GCSE Mathematics and to have covered all the material
for Intermediate Tier GCSE*.
* GCSE Mathematics no longer has an Intermediate Tier. The mathematics content for the old
Intermediate Tier GCSE can be found in the document Assumed Knowledge for GCE Mathematics,
published on the OCR website, www.ocr.org.uk.
1.2 CERTIFICATION TITLE
These specifications will be shown on a certificate as one or more of the following.
 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Mathematics (3890)
 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Pure Mathematics (3891)
 OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Further Mathematics (3892)
 OCR Advanced GCE in Mathematics (7890)
 OCR Advanced GCE in Pure Mathematics (7891)
 OCR Advanced GCE in Further Mathematics (7892)
1.3 LANGUAGE
These specifications, and all associated assessment materials, are available only in English. The
language used in all question papers will be plain, clear, free from bias and appropriate to the
qualification.
12 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
1.4 EXCLUSIONS
Candidates for Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Further Mathematics are expected to have obtained or
to be obtaining concurrently the Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Mathematics or the Advanced GCE in
Mathematics.
Candidates for Advanced GCE in Further Mathematics are expected to have obtained or to be
obtaining concurrently an Advanced GCE in Mathematics.
No Advanced Subsidiary GCE qualification within these specifications may be taken with any other
Advanced Subsidiary GCE having the same title.
No Advanced GCE qualification within these specifications may be taken with any other Advanced
GCE qualification having the same title.
Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Pure Mathematics may not be taken with any other Advanced
Subsidiary GCE qualification within these specifications.
Advanced GCE in Pure Mathematics may not be taken with any other Advanced GCE qualification
within these specifications.
Candidates may not enter a unit from these Mathematics specifications and a unit with the same title
from other Mathematics specifications.
Every specification is assigned to a national classification code indicating the subject area to which it
belongs. Centres should be aware that candidates who enter for more than one GCE qualification
with the same classification code, will have only one grade (the highest) counted for the purpose of
the School and College Performance Tables.
The classification codes for these specifications are:
Mathematics 2210
Further Mathematics 2330
Pure Mathematics 2230
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 13
GCE Mathematics
1.5 KEY SKILLS
These specifications provide opportunities for the development of the Key Skills of Communication,
Application of Number, Information Technology, Working With Others, Improving Own Learning
and Performance and Problem Solving as required by QCA’s subject criteria for Mathematics.
For each module, the following matrix indicates those Key Skills for which opportunities for at least
some coverage of the relevant Key Skills unit exist at Level 3.
Module Communication
Application of
Number
Information
Technology
Working with
Others
Improving Own
Learning and
Performance
Problem
Solving
C1 4721
C2 4722
C3 4723
C4 4724
FP1 4725
FP2 4726
FP3 4727
M1 4728
M2 4729
M3 4730
M4 4731
S1 4732
S2 4733
S3 4734
S4 4735
D1 4736
D2 4737
Throughout the specification content in Section 5 the symbol is used in the margin to highlight
where Key Skills development opportunities are signposted. For these content areas, the document
Key skills and GCE Mathematics on the OCR website provides guidance to teachers in identifying
those parts of their teaching programme most appropriate to developing Key Skills.
14 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
1.6 CODE OF PRACTICE REQUIREMENTS
All qualifications covered by these specifications will comply in all aspects with the revised GCE
Code of Practice for courses starting in September 2004.
1.7 SPIRITUAL, MORAL, ETHICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES
Students are required to examine arguments critically and so to distinguish between truth and
falsehood. They are also expected to interpret the results of modelling exercises and there are times,
particularly in statistical work, when this inevitably raises moral, ethical, social and cultural issues.
Such issues are not assessed in examination questions.
1.8 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION, EUROPEAN DIMENSION AND
HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES
OCR has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the European Community and the
Report Environmental Responsibility: An Agenda for Further and Higher Education, 1993 in
preparing these specifications and associated specimen assessment materials.
1.9 AVOIDANCE OF BIAS
OCR has taken great care in the preparation of these specifications and assessment materials to avoid
bias of any kind.
1.10 CALCULATORS AND COMPUTERS
Candidates are expected to make appropriate use of graphical calculators and computers.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 15
GCE Mathematics
2 Specification Aims
2.1 AIMS
The aims of these Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE specifications are to encourage
students to:
 develop their understanding of mathematics and mathematical processes in a way that promotes
confidence and fosters enjoyment;
 develop abilities to reason logically and recognise incorrect reasoning, to generalise and to
construct mathematical proofs;
 extend their range of mathematical skills and techniques and use them in more difficult,
unstructured problems;
 develop an understanding of coherence and progression in mathematics and of how different
areas of mathematics can be connected;
 recognise how a situation may be represented mathematically and understand the relationship
between ‘real world’ problems and standard and other mathematical models and how these can
be refined and improved;
 use mathematics as an effective means of communication;
 read and comprehend mathematical arguments and articles concerning applications of
mathematics;
 acquire the skills needed to use technology such as calculators and computers effectively,
recognise when such use may be inappropriate and be aware of limitations;
 develop an awareness of the relevance of mathematics to other fields of study, to the world of
work and to society in general;
 take increasing responsibility for their own learning and the evaluation of their own
mathematical development.
16 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
3 Assessment Objectives
3.1 APPLICATION TO AS/A2
These specifications require candidates to demonstrate the following assessment objectives in the
context of the knowledge, understanding and skills prescribed. The Assessment Objectives for
Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE are the same.
Candidates should demonstrate that they can:
AO1
 recall, select and use their knowledge of mathematical facts, concepts and techniques in a
variety of contexts.
AO2
 construct rigorous mathematical arguments and proofs through use of precise statements, logical
deduction and inference and by the manipulation of mathematical expressions, including the
construction of extended arguments for handling substantial problems presented in unstructured
form.
AO3
 recall, select and use their knowledge of standard mathematical models to represent situations in
the real world;
 recognise and understand given representations involving standard models;
 present and interpret results from such models in terms of the original situation, including
discussion of assumptions made and refinement of such models.
AO4
 comprehend translations of common realistic contexts into mathematics;
 use the results of calculations to make predictions, or comment on the context;
 where appropriate, read critically and comprehend longer mathematical arguments or examples
of applications.
AO5
 use contemporary calculator technology and other permitted resources (such as formula
booklets or statistical tables) accurately and efficiently;
 understand when not to use such technology, and its limitations;
 give answers to appropriate accuracy.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 17
GCE Mathematics
3.2 SPECIFICATION GRID
The relationship between Assessment Objectives and units of assessment is shown in the grid below.
The figures are the ranges of marks (out of a total of 72 for each unit) within which the number of
marks relating to each Objective fall. Each valid combination of units that can lead to certification
for Advanced Subsidiary GCE or Advanced GCE Mathematics gives overall percentages that satisfy
the requirement of the Subject Criteria that the figures for AO1 to AO5 should be 30%, 30%, 10%,
5%, 5% respectively.
Weighting of Assessment Objective
Entry
Code
Unit
Code
Unit Name Level
AO1 AO2 AO3 AO4 AO5
4721 C1 Core Mathematics 1 AS 3437 3437 0 05 0
4722 C2 Core Mathematics 2 AS 2632 2632 0 05 1115
4723 C3 Core Mathematics 3 A2 2834 2834 0 05 610
4724 C4 Core Mathematics 4 A2 2834 2834 0 05 610
4725 FP1 Further Pure Mathematics 1 AS 2837 2837 0 05 05
4726 FP2 Further Pure Mathematics 2 A2 2635 2635 0 05 510
4727 FP3 Further Pure Mathematics 3 A2 2837 2837 0 05 05
4728 M1 Mechanics 1 AS 1217 1217 2232 1115 510
4729 M2 Mechanics 2 A2 1217 1217 2232 1115 510
4730 M3 Mechanics 3 A2 1217 1217 2232 1115 510
4731 M4 Mechanics 4 A2 1825 1825 1825 510 05
4732 S1 Probability and Statistics 1 AS 1217 1217 2232 1115 510
4733 S2 Probability and Statistics 2 A2 1217 1217 2232 1115 510
4734 S3 Probability and Statistics 3 A2 1217 1217 2232 1115 510
4735 S4 Probability and Statistics 4 A2 1825 1825 1825 510 05
4736 D1 Decision Mathematics 1 AS 1217 1217 2232 1115 0
4737 D2 Decision Mathematics 2 A2 1217 1217 2232 1115 0
Units C1 and C2 include the content of the Advanced Subsidiary GCE subject criteria for
Mathematics. The content of the Advanced GCE subject criteria for Mathematics is included within
units C1, C2, C3 and C4.
The specification for each of the units M1 to M4, S1 to S4, D1 and D2 involves the application of
mathematics.
All combinations of units that can lead to certification for Advanced Subsidiary GCE
Mathematics include one ‘applied’ unit, and all combinations of units that can lead to
certification for Advanced GCE Mathematics include two ‘applied’ units.
18 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
For unit C1 candidates are not allowed the use of any calculation aids. This ensures that any
combination of units that can lead to certification in Mathematics or in Pure Mathematics at either
Advanced Subsidiary GCE or Advanced GCE will satisfy the requirement in the QCA Subject
Criteria that one assessment unit is calculatorfree.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 19
GCE Mathematics
4 Scheme of Assessment
4.1 UNITS OF ASSESSMENT
Candidates take three units for Advanced Subsidiary GCE, followed by a further three units if they
are seeking an Advanced GCE award.
The table below shows all the units in the overall scheme.
Entry
Code
Unit
Code
Unit Name Level
Entry
Code
Unit
Code
Unit Name Level
4721 C1* Core Mathematics 1* AS 4730 M3 Mechanics 3 A2
4722 C2 Core Mathematics 2 AS 4731 M4 Mechanics 4 A2
4723 C3 Core Mathematics 3 A2 4732 S1 Probability and Statistics 1 AS
4724 C4 Core Mathematics 4 A2 4733 S2 Probability and Statistics 2 A2
4725 FP1
Further Pure
Mathematics 1
AS 4734 S3 Probability and Statistics 3 A2
4726 FP2
Further Pure
Mathematics 2
A2 4735 S4 Probability and Statistics 4 A2
4727 FP3
Further Pure
Mathematics 3
A2 4736 D1 Decision Mathematics 1 AS
4728 M1 Mechanics 1 AS 4737 D2 Decision Mathematics 2 A2
4729 M2 Mechanics 2 A2
* indicates the unit in which no calculator may be used.
4.2 STRUCTURE
4.2.1 Recommended Order
The units of the scheme are arranged into groups as follows:
Core Mathematics (4721 to 4724),
Further Pure Mathematics (4725 to 4727),
Mechanics (4728 to 4731),
Probability and Statistics (4732 to 4735)
Decision Mathematics (4736 and 4737).
Within each group, later units are dependent on earlier ones, except that while Further Pure
Mathematics 2 and Further Pure Mathematics 3 both depend on Further Pure Mathematics 1
they do not depend on each other.
‘Dependency’ of one unit on another means that in the assessment of the later unit the specification
content of the earlier unit is assumed, and that questions in the later unit may require knowledge and
use of the earlier material. Similarly, ‘applied’ modules are dependent on certain Core and Further
Pure Mathematics modules, as detailed at the start of the content list in each case. There are no
restrictions on the sequence in which units may be taken.
20 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
4.2.2 Weighting
For all certifications, the units contributing are equally weighted, i.e. each unit carries 33
1
/
3
% of the
total marks when contributing to Advanced Subsidiary GCE certification and 16
2
/
3
% when
contributing to Advanced GCE certification.
4.2.3 Synoptic Assessment
The subject criteria for mathematics require that any combination of units valid for the certification
of Advanced GCE Mathematics (7890) or Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics (7891) must include a
minimum of 20% synoptic assessment.
Synoptic assessment in mathematics addresses students’ understanding of the connections between
different elements of the subject. It involves the explicit drawing together of knowledge,
understanding and skills learned in different parts of the Advanced GCE course through using and
applying methods developed at earlier stages of study in solving problems. Making and
understanding connections in this way is intrinsic to learning mathematics.
In the Core Modules C1 to C4, much of the content of later modules builds on that of earlier ones, so
that the assessment of C3 and C4 in particular has a large synoptic element. All ‘application’
modules make use, to a greater or lesser extent, of core content and/or methods from earlier stages of
the relevant application area. In the assessment units for C3 and C4, about 50% of the marks will be
of a synoptic nature, and the synoptic assessment that also occurs within Unit C2 and within two
‘application’ units (in the case of Advanced GCE Mathematics) or two Further Pure Mathematics
units (in the case of Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics) will ensure that the 20% requirement of the
criteria is satisfied.
There are no requirements concerning synoptic assessment relating to the certification of Advanced
Subsidiary GCE or to Advanced GCE Further Mathematics.
4.2.4 Assessment Routes
Students who are intending to complete no more than six units over the course of two years will
normally complete three AS units during Year 12 and certificate for Advanced Subsidiary GCE
Mathematics. Many of these students will then continue their study of Mathematics in Year 13 and
take three A2 units and finally certificate for Advanced GCE Mathematics at the end of Year 13.
While this would be the natural pattern for such students, many other patterns exist and some
examples of assessment routes are given in section 4.7. It is important to appreciate that there are no
rules concerning the order in which units are taken or concerning which units are taken in each year.
However, for the ‘natural’ pattern described above, there are advantages concerning the efficiency of
teaching groups and it should be possible to arrange the teaching of the nine and twelveunit
students such that as many as six of these units can be taught in groups which also contain students
who are following a sixunit programme.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 21
GCE Mathematics
4.3 RULES OF COMBINATION
4.3.1 Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics (3890)
Candidates take one of the following combinations:
either C1, C2 and M1
or C1, C2 and S1
or C1, C2 and D1
4.3.2 Advanced GCE Mathematics (7890)
Candidates take:
C1, C2, C3 and C4
together with:
either any two from M1, S1, D1
or M1 and M2
or S1 and S2
or D1 and D2
4.3.3 Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics (3892)
Candidates for AS GCE Further Mathematics will be expected to have obtained, or to be obtaining
concurrently, either AS or A Level Mathematics.
Candidates take:
FP1
together with two other units which may not include any of C1, C2, C3, C4.
(Note that units included in Advanced GCE Mathematics may not also be included in Advanced
Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics.)
22 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
4.3.4 Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (7892)
Candidates for Advanced GCE Further Mathematics will be expected to have obtained, or to be
obtaining concurrently, an Advanced GCE in Mathematics.
Candidates take three units as described above for Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics.
A further three units are required which must include (unless already included in AS Further
Mathematics) either FP2 or FP3. The six units must include at least three which are assessed at A2
standard, and may not include any of C1, C2, C3, C4.
Candidates may enter for OCR Advanced GCE Further Mathematics having obtained Advanced
GCE Mathematics with a board other than OCR. Centres should contact OCR to check requirements
in these cases.
(Note that units included in Advanced GCE Mathematics may not also be included in Advanced
GCE Further Mathematics.)
4.3.5 Advanced Subsidiary GCE Pure Mathematics (3891)
Candidates take the following combination:
C1, C2 and FP1
A qualification in AS Pure Mathematics may not be obtained in the same series in combination with
any qualification in Mathematics or Further Mathematics.
4.3.6 Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics (7891)
Candidates take the three units listed above for Advanced Subsidiary GCE Pure Mathematics.
They also take one of the following combinations:
either C3, C4 and FP2
or C3, C4 and FP3
A qualification in Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics may not be obtained in the same series in
combination with any qualification in Mathematics or Further Mathematics.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 23
GCE Mathematics
4.4 FINAL CERTIFICATION
Each unit is given a grade and a Uniform Mark, using procedures laid down by Ofqual in the
document GCSE, GCE, principal learning and project code of practice. The relationship between
total Uniform Mark and subject grade follows the national scheme.
4.4.1 Certification
To claim an award at the end of the course, candidates’ unit results must be aggregated. This
does not happen automatically and Centres must make separate ‘certification entries’.
Candidates may request certification entries for:
either Advanced Subsidiary GCE
or Advanced GCE
or Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE in the same series
provided they have entered the appropriate AS and A2 units detailed in section 4.3.
Units that contribute to an award in Advanced GCE Mathematics may not also be used for an award
in Advanced GCE Further Mathematics:
 Candidates awarded certificates in both Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics and
Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics must use unit results from a minimum of
six different teaching modules.
 Candidates who are awarded certificates in both Advanced GCE Mathematics and Advanced
Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics must use unit results from a minimum of nine
different teaching modules.
 Candidates who are awarded certificates in both Advanced GCE Mathematics and Advanced
GCE Further Mathematics must use unit results from a minimum of 12 different teaching
modules
Candidates are strongly advised to recertificate any previously entered GCE Mathematics
qualifications whenever a certification entry is made for a GCE Mathematics qualification. This
allows the grades awarded to be optimised according to the GCE Mathematics Aggregation Rules,
available on the JCQ website.
For example, if a candidate certificates for A Level Mathematics the units used towards that
qualification are ‘locked’ into Mathematics. If the candidate then enters for AS or A Level Further
Mathematics in a subsequent series, only the unused units are available for use in Further
Mathematics. Recertification of all previously entered qualifications unlocks all units and allows the
optimisation of the pair of grades awarded.
24 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
4.4.2 Order of Aggregation
When a candidate has requested awards in both Mathematics and Further Mathematics, OCR will
adopt the following procedures in accordance with the GCE Mathematics Aggregation Rules.
If certification for Advanced GCE Mathematics is made at the same time as the request for Further
Mathematics certification then the valid combination of units will be chosen that gives, in decreasing
order of priority:
 the best possible grade for Mathematics;
 the best possible grade for Further Mathematics;
 the highest possible UMS in Mathematics.
Note: In the aggregation process, in order to achieve the best set of grades for a candidate as
described above, it is possible that AS GCE Further Mathematics may include some A2 units.
If the only certifications being requested are Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics at the same
time as Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics then the valid combination of units will be
chosen that gives, in decreasing order of priority:
 the best possible grade for AS Mathematics;
 the best possible grade for AS Further Mathematics;
 the highest possible UMS in AS Mathematics.
4.4.3 Awarding of Grades
The Advanced Subsidiary has a weighting of 50% when used in an Advanced GCE award.
Advanced Subsidiary GCE qualifications are awarded on the scale A to E or U (unclassified).
Advanced GCE qualifications are awarded on the scale A* to E or U.
4.4.4 Extra Units
A candidate may submit more than the required number of units for a subject award, e.g. seven
instead of six for an Advanced GCE. In these cases the optimum combination of units will be chosen
in accordance with the GCE Mathematics Aggregation Rules.
4.4.5 Enquiries on Results
Candidates will receive their final unit results at the same time as their subject results. In common
with other Advanced GCE results, the subject results are at that stage provisional to allow enquiries
on results. Enquiries concerning marking are made at the unit level and so only those units taken at
the last sitting may be the subject of such appeals. Enquiries are subject to OCR’s general
regulations.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 25
GCE Mathematics
4.5 AVAILABILITY
4.5.1 Unit Availability
There are two examination sessions each year, in January and June. All units are available in both the
January and June sessions with the exception of S4 and M4 which are only available in June.
4.5.2 Certification Availability
All GCE Mathematics qualifications are available for certification in both the January and the June
sessions.
4.5.3 Shelflife of Units
Individual unit results, prior to certification of the qualification, have a shelflife limited only by that
of the specification.
4.6 RESITS
4.6.1 Resits of Units
There is no limit to the number of times a candidate may resit a unit. The best result will count.
4.6.2 Resits of Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE
Candidates may take the whole qualification more than once.
26 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
4.7 UNIT COMBINATIONS
The scheme of assessment has been designed to recognise the different stages of maturity of students
following a two year GCE course. AS Further Mathematics has been designed to broaden the
mathematical experience of students and be independent from the A2 units of the Advanced GCE
Mathematics course. Nevertheless, it is recognised that the needs of Centres differ and the scheme of
assessment also includes other approaches within its structure and rules of combination set out in
Sections 4.2 and 4.3.
The illustrations below give a number of the more common assessment patterns. However, it should
be emphasised that, while the natural order would be to take AS units in Year 12 and A2 units in
Year 13, there are no rules concerning either the order in which units should be taken or indeed
which units should be taken in Year 12 and which in Year 13.
6 units over two years:
Advanced GCE Mathematics (Mechanics option)
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 M1 AS
Year 13 C3 C4 M2 AS, A Level
Note: Statistics and Decision Mathematics options can be constructed in a similar way.
6 units over two years:
Advanced GCE Mathematics (mixed Statistics and Decision option)
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 S1 AS
Year 13 C3 C4 D1 AS, A Level
6 units over two years:
Advanced GCE Mathematics (Decision option)
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 D1 AS
Year 13 C3 C4 D2 AS, A Level
6 units over two years:
Advanced GCE Mathematics (mixed Statistics and Mechanics option)
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 S1 AS
Year 13 C3 C4 M1 AS, A Level
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 27
GCE Mathematics
9 units over two years:
Advanced GCE Mathematics + AS Further Mathematics
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 S1 M1 D1 FP1 AS, AS Further
Year 13 C3 C4 S2 AS, A Level, AS Further
Note: Six or more of the nine units (e.g. C1 C2 S1 C3 C4 S2) could be cotaught with students who
are taking only six units.
9 units over two years:
Advanced GCE Mathematics + AS Further Mathematics
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 S1 M1 D1 FP1 AS, AS Further
Year 13 C3 C4 M2 AS, A Level, AS Further
Note: Six of the nine units (e.g. C1 C2 M1 C3 C4 M2) could be cotaught with students who are
taking only six units.
12 units over two years:
Advanced GCE Mathematics + Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (balanced option)
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 S1 M1 D1 FP1 AS, AS Further
Year 13 C3 C4 S2 M2 D2 FP3* AS, A Level, AS Further, A Level Further
Note 1: Six of the 12 units (e.g. C1 C2 M1 C3 C4 M2) could be cotaught with students who are
taking only six units.
Note 2: * or FP2.
12 units over two years:
Advanced GCE Mathematics + Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (Statistics and Mechanics)
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 C3 C4 S1 M1 AS, A Level
Year 13 FP1 FP2* S2 S3 M2 M3 AS, A Level, AS Further, A Level Further
Note 1: This pattern of assessment does not have the advantage of being able to coteach some of
the units with students who are taking only six units.
Note 2: * or FP3.
28 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
12 units over two years:
Advanced GCE Mathematics + Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (Pure and Mechanics)
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 C3 C4 M1 S1 AS, A Level
Year 13 FP1 FP2 FP3 M2 M3 M4 AS, A Level, AS Further, A Level Further
Note: This pattern of assessment does not have the advantage of being able to coteach some of
the units with students who are taking only six units.
The following examples illustrate possible options for students who decide not to continue with
Mathematics in Year 13.
6 units over one year:
AS Mathematics + AS Further Mathematics
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 S1 M1 D1 FP1 AS, AS Further
6 units over one year:
Advanced GCE Mathematics (Statistics option)
Units taken Possible Certifications
Year 12 C1 C2 C3 C4 S1 S2 AS, A Level
Note: Mechanics and Decision Mathematics options can be constructed in a similar way.
Candidates may not certificate for AS Further Mathematics unless they have already obtained, or are
obtaining concurrently, either AS Mathematics or A Level Mathematics.
Candidates may not certificate for A Level Further Mathematics unless they have already obtained,
or are obtaining concurrently, A Level Mathematics.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 29
GCE Mathematics
4.8 QUESTION PAPERS
The examination on each unit is by means of a single written paper, of duration
1 hour and 30 minutes, and carrying a total of 72 marks.
Each question paper consists of a number of questions of different lengths and mark allocations.
Candidates should attempt all the questions.
Question papers are designed to have a gradient of difficulty, with the more straightforward questions
towards the beginning of the paper, and more demanding questions towards the end. Where
appropriate there is also a gradient of difficulty within individual longer questions. The order in
which the questions are printed in the paper will generally correspond to increasing numbers of
marks for questions.
Units C1, C2, FP1, M1, S1 and D1 are designated as AS units, while units C3, C4, FP2, FP3,
M2, M3, M4, S2, S3, S4 and D2 are designated as A2 units.
4.8.1 Use of Language
Candidates are expected to use clear, precise and appropriate mathematical language, as described in
Assessment Objective 2.
4.8.2 Standard
Candidates and Centres must note that each A2 unit is assessed at Advanced GCE standard and that
no concessions are made to any candidate on the grounds that the examination has been taken early
in the course. Centres may disadvantage their candidates by entering them for a unit examination
before they are ready.
30 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
4.8.3 Thresholds
At the time of setting, each examination paper will be designed so that 50% of the marks are
available to grade E candidates, 75% to grade C and 100% to grade A. Typically candidates are
expected to achieve about four fifths of the marks available to achieve a grade, giving design grades
of: A 80%, B 70 %, C 60%, D 50% and E 40%. The actual grading is carried out by the Awarding
Committee. They make allowance for examination performance and for any features of a particular
paper that only become apparent after it has been taken. Thus some variation from the design grades
can be expected in the Award.
4.8.4 Calculators
No calculating aids may be used in answering Unit C1.
For all other units candidates are permitted to use scientific or graphical calculators. Computers, and
calculators with computer algebra functions, are not permitted in answering any of the units.
Calculators are subject to the rules in the document Instructions for Conducting Examinations,
published annually by the Joint Council for Qualifications (www.jcq.org.uk).
4.8.5 Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables
A booklet (MF1) containing Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables is available for the use of
candidates in all unit examinations. Details of the items included in this booklet are contained in
appendix A.
Those formulae which candidates are required to know, and which are not included in the booklet of
Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables, are listed within the specification of the first module
for which they may be required. These formulae include all those specified in the subject criteria
together with others of comparable significance relating to noncore modules.
4.9 COURSEWORK
There is no requirement for assessed coursework for any of the units in these specifications.
4.10 SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS
For candidates who are unable to complete the full assessment or whose performance may be
adversely affected through no fault of their own, teachers should consult the JCQ document Access
Arrangements, Reasonable Adjustments and Special Consideration. In such cases advice should be
sought from OCR as early as possible during the course.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 31
GCE Mathematics
4.11 DIFFERENTIATION
In the question papers, differentiation is achieved by setting questions which are designed to assess
candidates at their appropriate level of ability and which are intended to allow all candidates to
demonstrate what they know, understand and can do.
The Advanced Subsidiary GCE is awarded on the scale A to E or U (unclassified). The Advanced
GCE has an additional grade of A* at the top end to reward exceptional performance.
4.12 GRADE DESCRIPTIONS
The following grade descriptions indicate the level of attainment characteristic of the given grade at
Advanced GCE. They give a general indication of the required learning outcomes at each specified
grade. The descriptions should be interpreted in relation to the content outlined in the specification;
they are not designed to define that content. The grade awarded will depend in practice upon the
extent to which the candidate has met the assessment objectives overall. Shortcomings in some
aspects of the examination may be balanced by better performance in others.
Grade A
Candidates recall or recognise almost all the mathematical facts, concepts and techniques that are
needed, and select appropriate ones to use in a wide variety of contexts.
Candidates manipulate mathematical expressions and use graphs, sketches and diagrams, all with
high accuracy and skill. They use mathematical language correctly and proceed logically and
rigorously through extended arguments or proofs. When confronted with unstructured problems they
can often devise and implement an effective solution strategy. If errors are made in their calculations
or logic, these are sometimes noticed and corrected.
Candidates recall or recognise almost all the standard models that are needed, and select appropriate
ones to represent a wide variety of situations in the real world. They correctly refer results from
calculations using the model to the original situation; they give sensible interpretations of their
results in the context of the original realistic situation. They make intelligent comments on the
modelling assumptions and possible refinements to the model.
Candidates comprehend or understand the meaning of almost all translations into mathematics of
common realistic contexts. They correctly refer the results of calculations back to the given context
and usually make sensible comments or predictions. They can distil the essential mathematical
information from extended pieces of prose having mathematical content. They can comment
meaningfully on the mathematical information.
Candidates make appropriate and efficient use of contemporary calculator technology and other
permitted resources, and are aware of any limitations to their use. They present results to an
appropriate degree of accuracy.
32 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Grade C
Candidates recall or recognise most of the mathematical facts, concepts and techniques that are
needed, and usually select appropriate ones to use in a variety of contexts.
Candidates manipulate mathematical expressions and use graphs, sketches and diagrams, all with a
reasonable level of accuracy and skill. They use mathematical language with some skill and
sometimes proceed logically through extended arguments or proofs. When confronted with
unstructured problems they sometimes devise and implement an effective and efficient solution
strategy. They occasionally notice and correct errors in their calculations.
Candidates recall or recognise most of the standard models that are needed, and usually select
appropriate ones to represent a variety of situations in the real world. They often correctly refer
results from calculations using the model to the original situation; they sometimes give sensible
interpretations of their results in the context of the original realistic situation. They sometimes make
intelligent comments on the modelling assumptions and possible refinements to the model.
Candidates comprehend or understand the meaning of most translations into mathematics of common
realistic contexts. They often correctly refer the results of calculations back to the given context and
sometimes make sensible comments or predictions. They distil much of the essential mathematical
information from extended pieces of prose having mathematical content. They give some useful
comments on this mathematical information.
Candidates usually make appropriate and efficient use of contemporary calculator technology and
other permitted resources, and are sometimes aware of any limitations to their use. They usually
present results to an appropriate degree of accuracy.
Grade E
Candidates recall or recognise some of the mathematical facts, concepts and techniques that are
needed, and sometimes select appropriate ones to use in some contexts.
Candidates manipulate mathematical expressions and use graphs, sketches and diagrams, all with
some accuracy and skill. They sometimes use mathematical language correctly and occasionally
proceed logically through extended arguments or proofs.
Candidates recall or recognise some of the standard models that are needed, and sometimes select
appropriate ones to represent a variety of situations in the real world. They sometimes correctly refer
results from calculations using the model to the original situation; they try to interpret their results in
the context of the original realistic situation.
Candidates sometimes comprehend or understand the meaning of translations into mathematics of
common realistic contexts. They sometimes correctly refer the results of calculations back to the
given context and attempt to give comments or predictions. They distil some of the essential
mathematical information from extended pieces of prose having mathematical content. They attempt
to comment on this mathematical information.
Candidates often make appropriate and efficient use of contemporary calculator technology and other
permitted resources. They often present results to an appropriate degree of accuracy.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 33
GCE Mathematics
5 Specification Content
It should be noted that individual questions may involve ideas from more than one section of the
relevant content, and that topics may be tested in the context of solving problems and in the
application of Mathematics.
In all examinations candidates are expected to construct and present clear mathematical arguments,
consisting of logical deductions and precise statements involving correct use of symbols and
connecting language. In particular, terms such as ‘equals’, ‘identically equals’, ‘therefore’, ‘because’,
‘implies’, ‘is implied by’, ‘necessary’, ‘sufficient’, and notations such as ¬, :, · and should be
understood and used accurately.
In addition, candidates are expected to understand the nature of a mathematical proof.
In A2 units, questions that require
 proof by contradiction;
 disproof by counterexample
may be set.
34 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
5.1 AS MODULE 4721: CORE MATHEMATICS 1 (C1)
Preamble
No calculators are permitted in the assessment of this unit.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Algebra
Solution of
2
0 ax bx c + + = is
2
4
2
b b ac
x
a
÷ ± ÷
=
Discriminant of
2
ax bx c + + is
2
4 b ac ÷
Coordinate Geometry
Equation of the straight line through
1 1
( , ) x y with gradient m is
1 1
( ) y y m x x ÷ = ÷
Straight lines with gradients
1
m and
2
m are perpendicular when
1 2
1 m m = ÷
Equation of the circle with centre ( , ) a b and radius r is
2 2 2
( ) ( ) x a y b r ÷ + ÷ =
Differentiation
If
n
y x = then
1
d
d
n
y
nx
x
÷
=
If f( ) g( ) y x x = + then
d
f ( ) g ( )
d
y
x x
x
' ' = +
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 35
GCE Mathematics
Indices and Surds
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand rational indices (positive, negative and zero), and use laws of indices in the course of
algebraic applications;
(b) recognise the equivalence of surd and index notation (e.g.
1
2
a a = ,
2
3
3 2
a a = );
(c) use simple properties of surds such as 12 3 = 2 , including rationalising denominators of the
form a b + .
Polynomials
Candidates should be able to:
(a) carry out operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication of polynomials (including
expansion of brackets, collection of like terms and simplifying);
(b) carry out the process of completing the square for a quadratic polynomial
2
ax bx c + + , and use
this form, e.g. to locate the vertex of the graph of
2
y ax bx c = + + ;
(c) find the discriminant of a quadratic polynomial
2
ax bx c + + and use the discriminant, e.g. to
determine the number of real roots of the equation
2
0 ax bx c + + = ;
(d) solve quadratic equations, and linear and quadratic inequalities, in one unknown;
(e) solve by substitution a pair of simultaneous equations of which one is linear and one is
quadratic;
(f) recognise and solve equations in x which are quadratic in some function of x, e.g.
2 1
3 3
5 4 0 x x ÷ + = .
Coordinate Geometry and Graphs
Candidates should be able to:
(a) find the length, gradient and midpoint of a linesegment, given the coordinates of its end
points;
(b) find the equation of a straight line given sufficient information (e.g. the coordinates of two
points on it, or one point on it and its gradient);
(c) understand and use the relationships between the gradients of parallel and perpendicular lines;
(d) interpret and use linear equations, particularly the forms y mx c = + ,
1 1
( ) y y m x x ÷ = ÷ and
0 ax by c + + = ;
(e) understand that the equation
2 2 2
( ) ( ) x a y b r ÷ + ÷ = represents the circle with centre ( , ) a b and
radius r;
36 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
(f) use algebraic methods to solve problems involving lines and circles, including the use of the
equation of a circle in expanded form
2 2
2 2 0 x y gx fy c + + + + = (knowledge of the following
circle properties is included: the angle in a semicircle is a right angle; the perpendicular from the
centre to a chord bisects the chord; the perpendicularity of radius and tangent);
(g) understand the relationship between a graph and its associated algebraic equation, use points of
intersection of graphs to solve equations, and interpret geometrically the algebraic solution of
equations (to include, in simple cases, understanding of the correspondence between a line
being tangent to a curve and a repeated root of an equation);
(h) sketch curves with equations of the form
(i)
n
y kx = , where n is a positive or negative integer and k is a constant,
(ii) y k x = , where k is a constant,
(iii)
2
y ax bx c = + + , where a, b and c are constants,
(iv) f( ) y x = , where f( ) x is the product of at most 3 linear factors, not necessarily all distinct;
(i) understand and use the relationships between the graphs of f( ) y x = , f( ) y a x = , f( ) y x a = + ,
f( ) y x a = + , f( ) y ax = , where a is a constant, and express the transformations involved in terms
of translations, reflections and stretches.
Differentiation
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the gradient of a curve at a point as the limit of the gradients of a suitable sequence
of chords (an informal understanding only is required, and the technique of differentiation from
first principles is not included);
(b) understand the ideas of a derived function and second order derivative, and use the notations
f ( ) x ' , f ( ) x '' ,
d
d
y
x
and
2
2
d
d
y
x
;
(c) use the derivative of
n
x (for any rational n), together with constant multiples, sums and
differences;
(d) apply differentiation (including applications to practical problems) to gradients, tangents and
normals, rates of change, increasing and decreasing functions, and the location of stationary
points (the ability to distinguish between maximum points and minimum points is required, but
identification of points of inflexion is not included).
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 37
GCE Mathematics
5.2 AS MODULE 4722: CORE MATHEMATICS 2 (C2)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Module C1 is assumed, and candidates may be required to
demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit C2.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Algebra
The remainder when a polynomial f( ) x is divided by ( ) x a ÷ is f( ) a
log
b
a
a c b c = · =
Laws of logarithms: log log log ( )
a a a
x y xy + ÷
log log log
a a a
x
x y
y
 
÷ ÷

\ .
log log ( )
k
a a
k x x ÷
Trigonometry
In triangle ABC:
sin sin sin
a b c
A B C
= =
1
2
Area sin ab C =
sin
tan
cos
u
u
u
÷
2 2
cos sin 1 u u + ÷
radians is 180 t °
For a sector of a circle: s ru =
2
1
2
A r u =
38 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Integration
1
1
d , ( 1)
1
n n
x x x c n
n
+
= + = ÷
+
}
{f ( ) g ( )}d f( ) g( ) x x x x x c ' ' + = + +
}
Area between a curve and the xaxis is d
b
a
y x
}
(for 0 y > )
Area between a curve and the yaxis is d
d
c
x y
}
(for 0 x > )
Trigonometry
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the sine and cosine rules in the solution of triangles (excluding the ambiguous case of the
sine rule);
(b) use the area formula
1
2
sin ab C A = ;
(c) understand the definition of a radian, and use the relationship between degrees and radians;
(d) use the formulae s ru = and
2
1
2
A r u = for the arc length and sector area of a circle;
(e) relate the periodicity and symmetries of the sine, cosine and tangent functions to the form of
their graphs;
(f) use the identities
sin
tan
cos
u
u
u
÷ and
2 2
cos sin 1 u u + ÷ ;
(g) use the exact values of the sine, cosine and tangent of 30° , 45° , 60° e.g.
1
2
cos30 3 ° = ;
(h) find all the solutions, within a specified interval, of the equations sin( ) kx c = , cos( ) kx c = ,
tan( ) kx c = , and of equations (for example, a quadratic in sin x ) which are easily reducible to
these forms.
Sequences and Series
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the idea of a sequence of terms, and use definitions such as
2
n
u n = and relations
such as
1
2
n n
u u
+
= to calculate successive terms and deduce simple properties;
(b) understand and use E notation;
(c) recognise arithmetic and geometric progressions;
(d) use the formulae for the nth term and for the sum of the first n terms to solve problems
involving arithmetic or geometric progressions (including the formula
1
2
( 1) n n + for the sum of
the first n natural numbers);
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 39
GCE Mathematics
(e) use the condition 1 r < for convergence of a geometric series, and the formula for the sum to
infinity of a convergent geometric series;
(f) use the expansion of ( )
n
a b + where n is a positive integer, including the recognition and use of
the notations
( )
n
r
and n! (finding a general term is not included).
Algebra
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the factor theorem and the remainder theorem;
(b) carry out simple algebraic division (restricted to cases no more complicated than division of a
cubic by a linear polynomial);
(c) sketch the graph of
x
y a = , where 0 a > , and understand how different values of a affect the
shape of the graph;
(d) understand the relationship between logarithms and indices, and use the laws of logarithms
(excluding change of base);
(e) use logarithms to solve equations of the form
x
a b = , and similar inequalities.
Integration
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand indefinite integration as the reverse process of differentiation, and integrate
n
x (for
any rational n except 1 ÷ ), together with constant multiples, sums and differences;
(b) solve problems involving the evaluation of a constant of integration, (e.g. to find the equation of
the curve through ( 1, 2) ÷ for which
d
2 1
d
y
x
x
= + ;
(c) evaluate definite integrals (including e.g.
1
2
1
0
d x x
÷
}
and
2
1
d x x
·
÷
}
;
(d) use integration to find the area of a region bounded by a curve and lines parallel to the
coordinate axes, or between two curves or between a line and a curve;
(e) use the trapezium rule to estimate the area under a curve, and use sketch graphs, in simple cases,
to determine whether the trapezium rule gives an overestimate or an underestimate.
40 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
5.3 A2 MODULE 4723: CORE MATHEMATICS 3 (C3)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 and C2 is assumed, and candidates may be
required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit C3.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Trigonometry
1
sec
cos
u
u
÷
1
cosec
sin
u
u
÷
1
cot
tan
u
u
÷
2 2
sec 1 tan u u ÷ +
2 2
cosec 1 cot u u ÷ +
sin 2 2sin cos A A A ÷
2 2 2 2
cos 2 cos sin 2cos 1 1 2sin A A A A A ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
2
2tan
tan 2
1 tan
A
A
A
÷
÷
Differentiation and Integration
If e
kx
y = then
d
e
d
kx
y
k
x
=
If ln y x = then
d 1
d
y
x x
=
If f( ).g( ) y x x = then
d
f ( )g( ) f( ) g ( )
d
y
x x x x
x
' ' = +
If
f( )
g( )
x
y
x
= then
2
d f ( ) g( ) f( ) g ( )
d {g( )}
y x x x x
x x
' ' ÷
=
d d
1
d d
y x
x y
= ÷
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 41
GCE Mathematics
If f(g( )) y x = then
d
f (g( )) g ( )
d
y
x x
x
' ' =
Connected rates of change:
d d d
.
d d d
y y x
t x t
=
1
e d e
kx kx
x c
k
= +
}
1
d ln x x c
x
= +
(
(
]
Volumes of revolution about the axes:
2
d
b
x
a
V y x t =
}
2
d
d
y
c
V x y t =
}
Algebra and Functions
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the terms function, domain, range, oneone function, inverse function and
composition of functions;
(b) identify the range of a given function in simple cases, and find the composition of two given
functions;
(c) determine whether or not a given function is oneone, and find the inverse of a oneone function
in simple cases;
(d) illustrate in graphical terms the relation between a oneone function and its inverse;
(e) use and recognise compositions of transformations of graphs, such as the relationship between
the graphs of f( ) y x = and f( ) y a x b = + , where a and b are constants;
(f) understand the meaning of x and use relations such as
2 2
a b a b = · = and
x a b a b x a b ÷ < · ÷ < < + in the course of solving equations and inequalities;
(g) understand the relationship between the graphs of f( ) y x = and f( ) y x = ;
(h) understand the properties of the exponential and logarithmic functions e
x
and ln x and their
graphs, including their relationship as inverse functions;
(i) understand exponential growth and decay.
42 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Trigonometry
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the notations
1
sin x
÷
,
1
cos x
÷
,
1
tan x
÷
to denote the principal values of the inverse
trigonometric relations, and relate their graphs (for the appropriate domains) to those of sine,
cosine and tangent;
(b) understand the relationship of the secant, cosecant and cotangent functions to cosine, sine and
tangent, and use properties and graphs of all six trigonometric functions for angles of any
magnitude;
(c) use trigonometrical identities for the simplification and exact evaluation of expressions, and in
the course of solving equations within a specified interval, and select an identity or identities
appropriate to the context, showing familiarity in particular with the use of
(i)
2 2
sec 1 tan u u ÷ + and
2 2
cosec 1 cot u u ÷ + ,
(ii) the expansions of sin( ) A B ± , cos( ) A B ± and tan( ) A B ± ,
(iii) the formulae for sin 2A, cos 2A and tan 2A,
(iv) the expression of sin cos a b u u + in the forms sin( ) R u o ± and cos( ) R u o ± .
Differentiation and Integration
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the derivatives of e
x
and ln x , together with constant multiples, sums, and differences;
(b) differentiate composite functions using the chain rule;
(c) differentiate products and quotients;
(d) understand and use the relation
d d
1
d d
y x
x y
= ÷ ;
(e) apply differentiation to connected rates of change;
(f) integrate e
x
and
1
x
, together with constant multiples, sums, and differences;
(g) integrate expressions involving a linear substitution, e.g.
8
(2 1) x ÷ ,
3 2
e
x+
;
(h) use definite integration to find a volume of revolution about one of the coordinate axes
(including, for example, the region between the curves
2
y x = and y x = , rotated about
the xaxis.)
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 43
GCE Mathematics
Numerical Methods
C3.3 IT3.2 IT3.3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) locate approximately a root of an equation, by means of graphical considerations and/or
searching for a signchange;
(b) understand the idea of, and use the notation for, a sequence of approximations which converges
to a root of an equation;
(c) understand how a given simple iterative formula of the form
1
F( )
n n
x x
+
= relates to the equation
being solved, and use a given iteration, or an iteration based on a given rearrangement of an
equation, to determine a root to a prescribed degree of accuracy (knowledge of the condition for
convergence is not included, but Candidates should understand that an iteration may fail to
converge);
(d) carry out numerical integration of functions by means of Simpson’s rule.
44 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
5.4 A2 MODULE 4724: CORE MATHEMATICS 4 (C4)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1, C2 and C3 is assumed, and candidates may
be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit C4.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Differentiation and Integration
If sin y kx = then
d
cos
d
y
k kx
x
=
If cos y kx = then
d
sin
d
y
k kx
x
= ÷
1
cos d sin kx x kx c
k
= +
}
1
sin d cos kx x kx c
k
= ÷ +
}
f (g( )) g ( ) d f(g( )) x x x x c ' ' = +
}
Vectors
2 2 2
x y z x y z + + = + + i j k
( ) ( ) a b c x y z ax by cz + + + + = + + i j k . i j k
cosu = a.b a b
Equation of a line through a parallel to b is t = + r a b
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 45
GCE Mathematics
Algebra and Graphs
Candidates should be able to:
(a) simplify rational expressions, including factorising and cancelling;
(b) divide a polynomial, of degree not exceeding 4, by a linear or quadratic polynomial, and
identify the quotient and remainder (which may be zero);
(c) recall an appropriate form for expressing rational functions in partial fractions, and carry out the
decomposition, in cases where the denominator is no more complicated than
(i) ( )( )( ) ax b cx d ex f + + + ,
(ii)
2
( )( ) ax b cx d + + ,
and where the degree of the numerator is less than that of the denominator;
(d) use the expansion of (1 )
n
x + where n is a rational number and 1 x < (finding a general term is
not included, but adapting the standard series to expand, e.g.
( )
1
1
2
2 x
÷
÷ is included);
(e) understand the use of a pair of parametric equations to define a curve, and use a given
parametric representation of a curve in simple cases;
(f) convert the equation of a curve between parametric and cartesian forms.
Differentiation and Integration
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the derivatives of sin x , cos x and tan x , together with sums, differences and constant
multiples;
(b) find and use the first derivative of a function which is defined parametrically or implicitly;
(c) extend the idea of ‘reverse differentiation’ to include the integration of trigonometric functions
(e.g. cos x and
2
sec 2x );
(d) use trigonometric relations (such as double angle formulae) in order to facilitate the integration
of functions such as
2
cos x ;
(e) integrate rational functions by means of decomposition into partial fractions (restricted to the
types of partial fractions specified above in Algebra and graphs);
(f) recognise an integrand of the form
f ( )
f( )
k x
x
'
, and integrate, for example,
2
1
x
x +
or tan x ;
(g) recognise when an integrand can usefully be regarded as a product, and use integration by parts
to integrate, for example, sin 2 x x ,
2
e
x
x , ln x (the relationship between integration by parts
and differentiation of a product should be understood);
(h) use a given substitution to simplify and evaluate either a definite or an indefinite integral (the
relationship between integration by substitution and the chain rule should be understood).
46 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
First Order Differential Equations
Candidates should be able to:
(a) formulate a simple statement involving a rate of change as a differential equation, including the
introduction if necessary of a constant of proportionality;
(b) find by integration a general form of solution for a differential equation in which the variables
are separable;
(c) use an initial condition to find a particular solution of a differential equation;
(d) interpret the solution of a differential equation in the context of a problem being modelled by
the equation.
Vectors
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use standard notations for vectors, i.e.
x
y
z
 


\ .
, x y z + + i j k , AB
, a;
(b) carry out addition and subtraction of vectors and multiplication of a vector by a scalar, and
interpret these operations in geometrical terms;
(c) use unit vectors, position vectors and displacement vectors;
(d) calculate the magnitude of a vector, and identify the magnitude of a displacement vector AB
as
being the distance between the points A and B;
(e) calculate the scalar product of two vectors (in either two or three dimensions), and use the scalar
product to determine the angle between two directions and to solve problems concerning
perpendicularity of vectors;
(f) understand the significance of all the symbols used when the equation of a straight line is
expressed in the form t = + r a b ;
(g) determine whether two lines are parallel, intersect or are skew;
(h) find the angle between two lines, and the point of intersection of two lines when it exists.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 47
GCE Mathematics
5.5 AS MODULE 4725: FURTHER PURE MATHEMATICS 1 (FP1)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 and C2 is assumed, and candidates may be
required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit FP1.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Algebra
1
2
1
( 1)
n
r
r n n
=
= +
¿
For
2
0 ax bx c + + = : ,
b c
a a
o  o + = ÷ =
For
3 2
0 ax bx cx d + + + = : , ,
b c d
a a a
o o o¸ E = ÷ E = = ÷
Matrices
1 1 1
( )
÷ ÷ ÷
= AB B A
Summation of Series
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the standard results for r E ,
2
r E ,
3
r E to find related sums;
(b) use the method of differences to obtain the sum of a finite series;
(c) recognise, by direct consideration of the sum to n terms, when a series is convergent, and find
the sum to infinity in such cases.
Proof by Induction
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the method of mathematical induction to establish a given result (not restricted to
summation of series);
(b) recognise situations where conjecture based on a limited trial followed by inductive proof is a
useful strategy, and carry this out in simple cases, e.g. to find the nth power of the matrix
1 1
0 1
 

\ .
.
48 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Roots of Polynomial Equations
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the relations between the symmetric functions of the roots of polynomial equations and the
coefficients (for equations of degree 2 or 3 only);
(b) use a given simple substitution to obtain an equation whose roots are related in a simple way to
those of the original equation.
Complex Numbers
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the idea of a complex number, recall the meaning of the terms ‘real part’, ‘imaginary
part’, ‘modulus’, ‘argument’, ‘conjugate’, and use the fact that two complex numbers are equal
if and only if both real and imaginary parts are equal;
(b) carry out operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of two complex
numbers expressed in cartesian form ( i ) x y + ;
(c) use the result that, for a polynomial equation with real coefficients, any nonreal roots occur in
conjugate pairs;
(d) represent complex numbers geometrically by means of an Argand diagram, and understand the
geometrical effects of conjugating a complex number and of adding and subtracting two
complex numbers;
(e) find the two square roots of a complex number;
(f) illustrate simple equations and inequalities involving complex numbers by means of loci in an
Argand diagram, e.g. z a k ÷ < , z a z b ÷ = ÷ , arg( ) z a o ÷ = .
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 49
GCE Mathematics
Matrices
Candidates should be able to:
(a) carry out operations of matrix addition, subtraction and multiplication, and recognise the terms
null (or zero) matrix and identity (or unit) matrix;
(b) recall the meaning of the terms ‘singular’ and ‘nonsingular’ as applied to square matrices, and,
for 2 2 × and 3 3 × matrices, evaluate determinants and find inverses of nonsingular matrices;
(c) understand and use the result, for nonsingular matrices, that
1 1 1
( )
÷ ÷ ÷
= AB B A ;
(d) understand the use of 2 2 × matrices to represent certain geometrical transformations in the xy
plane, and in particular
(i) recognise that the matrix product AB represents the transformation that results from the
transformation represented by B followed by the transformation represented by A,
(ii) recall how the area scalefactor of a transformation is related to the determinant of the
corresponding matrix,
(iii) find the matrix that represents a given transformation or sequence of transformations
(understanding of the terms ‘rotation’, ‘reflection’, ‘enlargement’, ‘stretch’ and ‘shear’ will
be required);
(e) formulate a problem involving the solution of 2 linear simultaneous equations in 2 unknowns, or
3 equations in 3 unknowns, as a problem involving the solution of a matrix equation, and vice
versa;
(f) understand the cases that may arise concerning the consistency or inconsistency of 2 or 3 linear
simultaneous equations, relate them to the singularity or otherwise of the corresponding square
matrix, and solve consistent systems.
50 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
5.6 A2 MODULE 4726: FURTHER PURE MATHEMATICS 2 (FP2)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1, C2, C3, C4 and FP1 is assumed, and
candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit FP2.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Hyperbolic Functions
1
2
cosh (e e )
x x
x
÷
÷ +
1
2
sinh (e e )
x x
x
÷
÷ ÷
sinh
tanh
cosh
x
x
x
÷
Rational Functions and Graphs
Candidates should be able to:
(a) express in partial fractions a rational function in which the denominator may include a factor of
the form
2 2
( ) x a + in addition to linear factors as specified in section 5.4, and in which the
degree of the numerator may exceed the degree of the denominator;
(b) determine the salient features of the graph of a rational function for which the numerator and
denominator are of degree at most 2, including in particular
(i) asymptotic behaviour (understanding of oblique asymptotes, as well as asymptotes parallel
to the axes, is expected),
(ii) any restrictions on the values taken by the function;
(c) understand and use the relationship between the graphs of f( ) y x = and
2
f( ) y x = .
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 51
GCE Mathematics
Polar Coordinates
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the relations between cartesian and polar coordinates (using the convention 0 r > ),
and convert equations of curves from cartesian to polar form and vice versa;
(b) sketch simple polar curves, for 0 2 u t s < or t u t ÷ < s or a subset of either of these intervals,
and identify significant features of polar curves such as symmetry, least/greatest values of r, and
the form of the curve at the pole (knowledge that any values of u for which 0 r = give
directions of tangents at the pole is included);
(c) use the formula
2
1
2
d r

o
u
}
for the area of a sector in simple cases.
Hyperbolic Functions
Candidates should be able to:
(a) recall definitions of the six hyperbolic functions in terms of exponentials, and sketch the graphs
of simple hyperbolic functions;
(b) derive and use identities such as
2 2
cosh sinh 1 x x ÷ ÷ and sinh 2 2sinh cosh x x x ÷ ;
(c) use the notations
1
sinh x
÷
,
1
cosh x
÷
,
1
tanh x
÷
to denote the principal values of the inverse
hyperbolic relations, and derive and use expressions in terms of logarithms for these.
Differentiation and Integration
Candidates should be able to:
(a) derive and use the derivatives of
1
sin x
÷
,
1
cos x
÷
,
1
tan x
÷
;
(b) derive and use the derivatives of sinh x , cosh x , tanh x ,
1
sinh x
÷
,
1
cosh x
÷
,
1
tanh x
÷
;
(c) use the first few terms of the Maclaurin series of e
x
, sin x , cos x and ln(1 ) x + ;
(d) derive and use the first few terms of the Maclaurin series of simple functions, e.g. sin x , cos3x ,
e sin
x
x , ln(3 2 ) x + (derivation of a general term is not included);
(e) integrate
2 2
1
a x ÷
,
2 2
1
a x +
,
2 2
1
x a ÷
and
2 2
1
x a +
, and use appropriate trigonometric or
hyperbolic substitutions for the evaluation of definite or indefinite integrals (the substitution
1
2
tan t x = is included);
(f) derive and use reduction formulae for the evaluation of definite integrals in simple cases;
(g) understand how the area under a curve may be approximated by areas of rectangles, and use
rectangles to estimate or set bounds for the area under a curve or to derive inequalities
concerning sums.
52 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Numerical Methods
C3.3 IT3.2 IT3.3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand, in geometrical terms involving ‘staircase’ and ‘cobweb’ diagrams, the convergence
(or not) of an iteration of the form
1
F( )
n n
x x
+
= to a root of the equation F( ) x x = ;
(b) use the facts that, for an iteration
1
F( )
n n
x x
+
= which converges to o , successive (small) errors
e
n
are such that:
(i)
1
e F ( )e
n n
o
+
' ~ , if F ( ) 0 o ' = ,
(ii)
1
e
n+
is approximately proportional to
2
e
n
(in general) if F ( ) 0 o ' = ;
(c) understand, in geometrical terms, the working of the NewtonRaphson method, and appreciate
conditions under which the method may fail to converge to the desired root;
(d) derive and use iterations based on the NewtonRaphson method, and understand that this
method is an example of an iteration of the form
1
F( )
n n
x x
+
= with F ( ) 0 o ' = .
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 53
GCE Mathematics
5.7 A2 MODULE 4727: FURTHER PURE MATHEMATICS 3 (FP3)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1, C2, C3, C4 and FP1 is assumed, and
candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit FP3.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Differential Equations
An integrating factor for
d
P( ) Q( )
d
y
x y x
x
+ = is
P( ) d
e
x x
}
Vectors
The plane through a with normal vector n is ( ) 0 ÷ = r a .n
Complex Numbers
If
i
e z
u
= then:
1 1
cos
2
z
z
u
 
= +

\ .
1 1
sin
2i
z
z
u
 
= ÷

\ .
Differential Equations
Candidates should be able to:
(a) find an integrating factor for a firstorder linear differential equation, and use an integrating
factor to find the general solution;
(b) use a given substitution to reduce a firstorder differential equation to linear form or to a form in
which the variables are separable;
(c) recall the meaning of the terms ‘complementary function’ and ‘particular integral’ in the context
of linear differential equations, and use the fact that the general solution is the sum of the
complementary function and a particular integral;
(d) find the complementary function for a first or second order linear differential equation with
constant coefficients;
54 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
(e) recall the form of, and find, a particular integral for a first or second order linear differential
equation in the cases where ax b + or e
bx
a or cos sin a px b px + is a suitable form, and in other
cases find the appropriate coefficient(s) given a suitable form of particular integral;
(f) use initial conditions to find a particular solution to a differential equation, and interpret the
solution in the context of a problem modelled by the differential equation.
Vectors
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the significance of all the symbols used when the equation of a line is expressed in
the form
x a y b z c
p q r
÷ ÷ ÷
= = ;
(b) understand the significance of all the symbols used when the equation of a plane is expressed in
any of the forms ax by cz d + + = or ( ) 0 ÷ = r a .n or ì µ = + + r a b c ;
(c) recall the definition, in geometrical terms, of the vector product of two vectors, and, in cases
where a and b are expressed in component form, calculate × a b in component form;
(d) use equations of lines and planes to solve problems concerning distances, angles and
intersections, and in particular
(i) determine whether a line lies in a plane, is parallel to a plane, or intersects a plane, and find
the point of intersection of a line and a plane when it exists,
(ii) find the line of intersection of two nonparallel planes,
(iii) find the perpendicular distance from a point to a plane, and from a point to a line,
(iv) find the angle between a line and a plane, and the angle between two planes,
(v) find the shortest distance between two skew lines.
Complex Numbers
Candidates should be able to:
(a) carry out operations of multiplication and division of two complex numbers expressed in polar
form
( )
i
(cos i sin ) e r r
u
u u + ÷ , and interpret these operations in geometrical terms;
(b) understand de Moivre’s theorem, for positive and negative integer exponent, in terms of the
geometrical effect of multiplication and division of complex numbers;
(c) use de Moivre’s theorem to express trigonometrical ratios of multiple angles in terms of powers
of trigonometrical ratios of the fundamental angle;
(d) use expressions for sinu and cosu in terms of
i
e
u
, e.g. in expressing powers of sinu and
cosu in terms of multiple angles or in summing series;
(e) find and use the nth roots of unity, e.g. to solve an equation of the form i
n
z a b = + .
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 55
GCE Mathematics
Groups
Candidates should be able to:
(a) recall that a group consists of a set of elements together with a binary operation which is closed
and associative, for which an identity exists in the set, and for which every element has an
inverse in the set;
(b) use the basic group properties to show that a given structure is, or is not, a group (questions may
be set on, for example, groups of matrices, transformations, integers modulo n);
(c) use algebraic methods to establish properties in abstract groups in easy cases, e.g. to show that
any group in which every element is selfinverse is commutative;
(d) recall the meaning of the term ‘order’, as applied both to groups and to elements of a group, and
determine the order of elements in a given group;
(e) understand the idea of a subgroup of a group, find subgroups in simple cases, and show that
given subsets are, or are not, (proper) subgroups;
(f) recall and apply Lagrange’s theorem concerning the order of a subgroup of a finite group (the
proof of the theorem is not required);
(g) recall the meaning of the term ‘cyclic’ as applied to groups, and show familiarity with the
structure of finite groups up to order 7 (questions on groups of higher order are not excluded,
but no particular prior knowledge of such groups is expected);
(h) understand the idea of isomorphism between groups, and determine whether given finite groups
are, or are not, isomorphic.
56 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
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5.8 AS MODULE 4728: MECHANICS 1 (M1)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 and C2 is assumed, and candidates may be
required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit M1.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Forces and Equilibrium
Weight and mass: Weight mass g = ×
Limiting friction: F R µ =
Newton’s second law: F ma =
Kinematics
For linear motion with constant acceleration: v u at = +
2
1
2
s ut at = +
1
2
( ) s u v t = +
2 2
2 v u as = +
2
1
2
s vt at = ÷
For general linear motion:
d d
,
d d
s v
v a
t t
= =
Linear Momentum
Momentum of a particle: mv
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 57
GCE Mathematics
Force as a Vector
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the vector nature of force, and use directed line segments to represent forces (acting
in at most two dimensions);
(b) understand the term ‘resultant’ as applied to two or more forces acting at a point, and use vector
addition in solving problems involving resultants and components of forces (solutions involving
calculation, rather than scale drawing, will be expected);
(c) find and use perpendicular components of a force, e.g. in finding the resultant of a system of
forces, or to calculate the magnitude and direction of a force (knowledge of column vector or i, j
notation is not required, though candidates are free to use any such notation in answering
questions if they wish).
Equilibrium of a Particle
C3.1a C3.1b C3.3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) identify the forces acting in a given situation, and use the relationship between mass and weight;
(b) understand and use the principle that a particle is in equilibrium if and only if the vector sum of
the forces acting is zero, or equivalently if and only if the sum of the resolved parts in any given
direction is zero (problems may involve resolution of forces in direction(s) to be chosen by the
candidate, or the use of a ‘triangle of forces’);
(c) use the model of a ‘smooth’ contact and understand the limitations of the model;
(d) represent the contact force between two rough surfaces by two components, the ‘normal force’
and the ‘frictional force’, understand the concept of limiting friction and limiting equilibrium,
recall the definition of coefficient of friction, and use the relationship F R µ s or F R µ = as
appropriate;
(e) use Newton’s third law.
58 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Kinematics of Motion in a Straight Line
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the concepts of distance and speed as scalar quantities, and of displacement, velocity
and acceleration as vector quantities (in one dimension only);
(b) sketch and interpret ( , ) t x and ( , ) t v graphs, and in particular understand and use the facts that
(i) the area under a ( , ) t v graph represents displacement,
(ii) the gradient of a ( , ) t x graph represents velocity,
(iii) the gradient of a ( , ) t v graph represents acceleration;
(c) use differentiation and integration with respect to time to solve simple problems concerning
displacement, velocity and acceleration;
(d) use appropriate formulae for motion with constant acceleration.
Newton’s Laws of Motion
Candidates should be able to:
(a) apply Newton’s laws of motion to the linear motion of bodies of constant mass moving under
the action of constant forces (which may include friction); for example, a car pulling a caravan;
(b) model, in suitable circumstances, the motion of a body moving vertically or on an inclined
plane, as motion with constant acceleration and understand any limitations of this model;
(c) solve simple problems which may be modelled as the motion of two particles, connected by a
light inextensible string which may pass over a fixed smooth peg or light pulley (including, for
example, situations in which a pulley is placed at the top of an inclined plane).
Linear Momentum
Candidates should be able to:
(a) recall and use the definition of linear momentum and show understanding of its vector nature (in
one dimension only);
(b) understand and use conservation of linear momentum in simple applications involving the direct
collision of two bodies moving in the same straight line before and after impact, including the
case where the bodies coalesce (knowledge of impulse and of the coefficient of restitution is not
required).
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 59
GCE Mathematics
5.9 A2 MODULE 4729: MECHANICS 2 (M2)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4 and M1 is assumed, and candidates may
be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit M2.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Projectile Motion
Equation of trajectory:
2
2 2
tan
2 cos
gx
y x
V
u
u
= ÷
Work, Energy and Power
Gravitational potential energy: mgh
Kinetic energy of a particle:
2
1
2
mv
Work done by a force: cos Fd o
Power of a moving force: P Fv =
Collisions
Newton’s experimental law: separation speed approach speed e = ×
Centre of Mass
C3.3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the result that the effect of gravity on a rigid body is equivalent to a single force acting at
the centre of mass of the body;
(b) identify the position of the centre of mass of a uniform body using considerations of symmetry;
(c) use given information about the position of the centre of mass of a triangular lamina and other
simple shapes (including those listed in the List of Formulae);
(d) determine the position of the centre of mass of a composite rigid body by considering an
equivalent system of particles (in simple cases only, e.g. a uniform Lshaped lamina or a
hemisphere abutting a cylinder).
60 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
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Equilibrium of a Rigid Body
C3.3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) calculate the moment of a force about a point in two dimensional situations only (understanding
of the vector nature of moments is not required);
(b) use the principle that, under the action of coplanar forces, a rigid body is in equilibrium if and
only if (i) the vector sum of the forces is zero, and (ii) the sum of the moments of the forces
about any point is zero;
(c) solve problems involving the equilibrium of a single rigid body under the action of coplanar
forces, including those involving toppling or sliding (problems set will not involve complicated
trigonometry).
Motion of a Projectile
Candidates should be able to:
(a) model the motion of a projectile as a particle moving with constant acceleration and understand
any limitations of this model;
(b) use horizontal and vertical equations of motion to solve problems on the motion of projectiles,
including finding the magnitude and direction of the velocity at a given time or position, the
range on a horizontal plane and the greatest height reached;
(c) derive and use the cartesian equation of the trajectory of a projectile, including problems in
which the initial speed and/or angle of projection may be unknown.
Uniform Motion in a Circle
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the concept of angular speed for a particle moving in a circle, and use the relation
v re = ;
(b) understand that the acceleration of a particle moving in a circle with constant speed is directed
towards the centre of the circle, and use the formulae
2
re and
2
v
r
;
(c) solve problems which can be modelled by the motion of a particle moving in a horizontal circle
with constant speed.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 61
GCE Mathematics
Coefficient of Restitution; Impulse
Candidates should be able to:
(a) recall and use Newton’s experimental law and the definition of coefficient of restitution, the
property 0 1 e s s , and the meaning of the terms ‘perfectly elastic’ ( 1 e = ) and ‘inelastic’
( 0 e = );
(b) use Newton’s experimental law in the course of solving problems that may be modelled as the
direct impact of two smooth spheres or as the direct impact of a smooth sphere with a fixed
plane surface;
(c) recall and use the definition of impulse as change of momentum (in one dimension only,
restricted to ‘instantaneous’ events, so that calculations involving force and time are not
included).
Energy, Work and Power
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the concept of the work done by a force, and calculate the work done by a constant
force when its point of application undergoes a displacement not necessarily parallel to the force
(use of the scalar product is not required);
(b) understand the concepts of gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy, and use
appropriate formulae;
(c) understand and use the relationship between the change in energy of a system and the work
done by the external forces, and use in appropriate cases the principle of conservation of energy;
(d) use the definition of power as the rate at which a force does work, and use the relationship
between power, force and velocity for a force acting in the direction of motion;
(e) solve problems involving, for example, the instantaneous acceleration of a car moving on a hill
with resistance.
62 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
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5.10 A2 MODULE 4730: MECHANICS 3 (M3)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4, M1 and M2 is assumed, and candidates
may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit M3.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Kinematics
d
d
v
a v
s
=
Simple Harmonic Motion
2
x x e = ÷
2 2 2 2
( ) v a x e = ÷
2
T
t
e
=
sin( ) x a t e = or cos( ) a t e or, in general, cos( ) a t e c +
Elastic Strings and Springs
Hooke’s law:
x
T
l
ì
=
Elastic potential energy:
2
2
x
l
ì
Smallangle Approximations
2
1
2
sin , cos 1 , tan u u u u u u ~ ~ ÷ ~
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 63
GCE Mathematics
Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies in Contact
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand and use Newton’s third law in the context of problems involving the equilibrium of
two or more rigid bodies in contact, including examples with two freely jointed rods.
Elastic Strings and Springs
C3.3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use Hooke’s law as a model relating the force in an elastic string or spring to the extension or
compression, and understand the term ‘modulus of elasticity’;
(b) use the formula for the elastic potential energy stored in a string or spring;
(c) solve problems involving forces due to elastic strings or springs, including those where
considerations of work and energy are needed.
Impulse and Momentum in Two Dimensions
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the vector nature of impulse and momentum, and solve problems concerning
impulse and momentum for motion in two dimensions;
(b) solve problems that may be modelled as the oblique impact of two smooth spheres or as the
oblique impact of a smooth sphere with a fixed surface (the appropriate use of Newton’s
experimental law is included).
Motion in a Vertical Circle
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use formulae for the radial and transverse components of acceleration for a particle moving in a
circle with variable speed;
(b) solve problems which can be modelled as that of a particle, or a pair of connected particles,
moving without loss of energy in a vertical circle (including the determination of points where
circular motion breaks down, e.g. through loss of contact with a surface or a string becoming
slack).
64 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Linear Motion under a Variable Force
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use
d
d
x
t
for velocity, and
d
d
v
t
or
d
d
v
v
x
for acceleration, as appropriate;
(b) solve problems which can be modelled as the linear motion of a particle under the action of a
variable force, by setting up and solving an appropriate differential equation (restricted to
equations in which the variables are separable).
Simple Harmonic Motion
Candidates should be able to:
(a) recall a definition of SHM, understand the concepts of period and amplitude, and use standard
SHM formulae in solving problems;
(b) set up the differential equation of motion in problems leading to SHM, quote appropriate forms
of solution, and identify the period and amplitude of the motion;
(c) use Newton’s second law, together with the approximation sinu u ~ , to show that small
oscillations of a simple pendulum may be modelled as SHM, and understand the limitations of
this model;
(d) solve problems involving small oscillations of a simple pendulum.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 65
GCE Mathematics
5.11 A2 MODULE 4731: MECHANICS 4 (M4)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4 and M1 to M3 is assumed, and
candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit M4.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Relative Velocity
P Q Q R P R
+ = v v v
Angular Motion
For constant angular acceleration:
1 0
t e e o = +
2
1
0
2
t t u e o = +
1
0 1
2
( )t u e e = +
2 2
1 0
2 e e ou = +
2
1
1
2
t t u e o = ÷
Angular momentum: Ie
Kinetic energy:
2
1
2
Ie
Equation of motion: C Iu =
Work done by a constant couple: W Cu =
Relative Motion
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the concept of the displacement or velocity of one point relative to another, and the
representation of these quantities by vectors (including the use of
P Q Q R P R
+ = v v v , where
P Q
v denotes the velocity of P relative to Q, etc);
(b) use graphical and/or calculation methods to solve problems involving relative displacements
and velocities, including interception or the determination of the course for closest approach.
66 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
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Centre of Mass
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use integration to determine the position of the centre of mass of
(i) a straight rod of variable density,
(ii) a uniform lamina,
(iii) a uniform solid of revolution.
Moment of Inertia
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand and use the definition of the moment of inertia of a system of particles about a fixed
axis as
2
mr E , and the additive property of moment of inertia for a rigid body composed of
several parts (standard moments of inertia may be quoted from the List of Formulae unless a
proof by integration is specifically asked for);
(b) use integration to find the moment of inertia of
(i) a uniform rod about a perpendicular axis,
(ii) a uniform lamina bounded by one of the axes about that axis,
(iii) a uniform solid of revolution about the axis of revolution;
(c) use the parallel and perpendicular axes theorems (including cases where integration is also
required, e.g. to find the moment of inertia of a uniform cylinder about the diameter of one of its
ends).
Rotation of a Rigid Body
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the equation of angular motion C Iu =
for the motion of a rigid body about a fixed axis;
(b) understand and use the angular equivalents of the formulae for linear motion with constant
acceleration;
(c) understand the concept of angular momentum, and use conservation of angular momentum
(about a fixed axis only) to solve problems;
(d) use the formulae Ie and
2
1
2
Ie for the angular momentum and kinetic energy, respectively, of
a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis;
(e) understand the nature of a couple, and use the formula Cu to calculate the work done by a
couple of constant moment C in rotating through an angle u ;
(f) use considerations of work and energy in solving problems concerning mechanical systems
where motion of a rigid body about a fixed axis is involved;
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 67
GCE Mathematics
(g) show that small oscillations of a compound pendulum may be modelled as SHM, and determine
the period of such oscillations (the formula 2
I
T
mgh
t = may be quoted without proof in
answering questions unless a derivation of the SHM model is specifically requested);
(h) calculate the force acting at the axis when a rigid body rotates freely about a fixed axis.
Stability and Oscillations
Candidates should be able to:
(a) locate an equilibrium position for a simple mechanical system by considering positions where
the potential energy has a stationary value;
(b) determine whether the equilibrium is stable or unstable (problems in which the second
derivative of the potential energy is zero are excluded);
(c) differentiate an energy equation to obtain an equation of motion, in simple cases;
(d) find the (approximate) period of small oscillations of a mechanical system about a position of
stable equilibrium.
68 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
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5.12 AS MODULE 4732: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 1 (S1)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 and C2 is assumed, and candidates may be
required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit S1.
The specification content of this module includes some items that are part of GCSE Mathematics at
Intermediate Tier (e.g. mean, mode, median, interquartile range, stemandleaf diagrams, boxand
whisker plots). These are included for completeness; where any such items are involved in
examination questions, the main focus will be on interpretation rather than on elementary
calculations.
The specification content of this module is to be understood in the context of modelling reallife
situations, and examination questions may ask for comment and interpretation, including where
appropriate, crosschecking between a model and reality.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Representation of Data
Mean:
x
n
E
or
xf
f
E
E
Standard deviation:
2 2
2
( ) x x x
x
n n
E ÷ E
= ÷ or
2 2
2
( ) x x f x f
x
f f
E ÷ E
= ÷
E E
Representation of Data
C3.1a C3.1b C3.2 C3.3 N3.1 N3.2 N3.3 IT3.3 WO3.1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) select a suitable way of presenting raw statistical data, and discuss advantages and/or
disadvantages that particular representations of data may have (in addition to the representations
in (c) below, candidates should be familiar with pie charts, bar charts and frequency polygons);
(b) extract from a table or statistical diagram salient features of the data, and express conclusions
verbally;
(c) construct and interpret stemandleaf diagrams (including ordered and backtoback stemand
leaf diagrams), boxandwhisker plots, histograms and cumulative frequency graphs;
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 69
GCE Mathematics
(d) understand, use and interpret different measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and
variation (range, interquartile range, standard deviation), e.g. in comparing and contrasting sets
of data;
(e) calculate the mean and standard deviation of a set of data (including grouped data) either from
the data itself or from given totals such as x E and
2
x E , or ( ) x a E ÷ and
2
( ) x a E ÷ .
Probability
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the terms permutation and combination;
(b) solve problems about selections, e.g. finding the number of ways in which a team of 3 men and
2 women can be selected from a group of 6 men and 5 women;
(c) solve problems about arrangements of objects in a line, including those involving
(i) repetition (e.g. the number of ways of arranging the letters of the word ‘NEEDLESS’),
(ii) restriction (e.g. the number of ways several people can stand in a line if 2 particular people
must — or must not — stand next to each other);
(d) evaluate probabilities in simple cases by means of enumeration of elementary events (e.g. for
the total score when two fair dice are thrown) or by calculation using permutations and
combinations;
(e) use addition and multiplication of probabilities, as appropriate, in simple cases;
(f) understand informally the meaning of exclusive and independent events, and calculate and use
conditional probabilities in simple cases, e.g. situations that can be represented by means of a
tree diagram.
Discrete Random Variables
Candidates should be able to:
(a) construct a probability distribution table relating to a given situation involving a discrete
random variable X, and calculate the expectation, variance and standard deviation of X (the
notations E( ) X for expectation (also referred to as expected value or mean) and Var( ) X for
variance, are included);
(b) use formulae for probabilities for the binomial and geometric distributions, and model given
situations by one of these, as appropriate (the notations B( , ) n p and Geo( ) p are included);
(c) use tables of cumulative binomial probabilities (or equivalent calculator functions);
(d) use formulae for the expectation and variance of the binomial distribution, and for the
expectation of the geometric distribution.
70 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
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Bivariate Data
C3.1a C3.3 IT3.3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) calculate, both from simple raw data and from summarised data, the product moment correlation
coefficient for a set of bivariate data;
(b) understand the basis of Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation, and calculate its value
(questions set will not involve tied ranks);
(c) interpret the value of a product moment correlation coefficient or of Spearman’s rank
correlation coefficient in relation to the appearance of a scatter diagram, with particular
reference to values close to 1, 0, 1 ÷ ;
(d) understand that the value of a correlation coefficient is unaffected by linear transformations
(coding) of the variables;
(e) understand the difference between an independent (or controlled) variable and a dependent
variable;
(f) understand the concepts of least squares and regression lines in the context of a scatter diagram;
(g) calculate, both from simple raw data and from summarised data, the equation of a regression
line, understand the distinction between the regression line of y on x and that of x on y, and use
the fact that both regression lines pass through the mean centre ( , ) x y ;
(h) select and use, in the context of a problem, the appropriate regression line to estimate a value,
and be able to interpret in context the uncertainties of such estimations.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 71
GCE Mathematics
5.13 A2 MODULE 4733: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 2 (S2)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4 and S1 is assumed, and candidates may
be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit S2.
Continuous Random Variables
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the concept of a continuous random variable, and recall and use properties of a
probability density function (restricted to functions defined over a single interval);
(b) use a probability density function to solve problems involving probabilities, and to calculate the
mean and variance of a distribution (explicit knowledge of the cumulative distribution function
is not included, but location of the median, for example, in simple cases by direct consideration
of an area may be required).
The Normal Distribution
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the use of a normal distribution to model a continuous random variable, and use
normal distribution tables, or equivalent calculator functions (knowledge of the density function
is not expected);
(b) solve problems concerning a variable X, where
2
~ N( , ) X µ o , including
(i) finding the value of
1
P( ) X x > , or a related probability, given the values of
1
x , µ , o ,
(ii) finding a relationship between
1
x , µ and o given the value of
1
P( ) X x > or a related
probability;
(c) recall conditions under which the normal distribution can be used as an approximation to the
binomial distribution (n large enough to ensure that 5 np > and 5 nq > ), and use this
approximation, with a continuity correction, in solving problems.
The Poisson Distribution
Candidates should be able to:
(a) calculate probabilities for the distribution Po( ) µ , both directly from the formula and also by
using tables of cumulative Poisson probabilities (or equivalent calculator functions);
(b) use the result that if ~ Po( ) X µ then the mean and variance of X are each equal to µ ;
(c) understand informally the relevance of the Poisson distribution to the distribution of random
events, and use the Poisson distribution as a model;
72 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
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(d) use the Poisson distribution as an approximation to the binomial distribution where appropriate
( 50 n > and 5 np < , approximately);
(e) use the normal distribution, with continuity correction, as an approximation to the Poisson
distribution where appropriate ( 15 µ > , approximately).
Sampling and Hypothesis Tests
IT3.1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the distinction between a sample and a population, and appreciate the benefits of
randomness in choosing samples;
(b) explain in simple terms why a given sampling method may be unsatisfactory and suggest
possible improvements (knowledge of particular methods of sampling, such as quota or
stratified sampling, is not required, but candidates should have an elementary understanding of
the use of random numbers in producing random samples);
(c) recognise that a sample mean can be regarded as a random variable, and use the facts that
E( ) X µ = and that
2
Var( ) X
n
o
= ;
(d) use the fact that X has a normal distribution if X has a normal distribution;
(e) use the Central Limit Theorem where appropriate;
(f) calculate unbiased estimates of the population mean and variance from a sample, using either
raw or summarised data (only a simple understanding of the term ‘unbiased’ is required);
(g) understand the nature of a hypothesis test, the difference between onetail and twotail tests, and
the terms ‘null hypothesis’, ‘alternative hypothesis’, ‘significance level’, ‘rejection region’ (or
‘critical region’), ‘acceptance region’ and ‘test statistic’;
(h) formulate hypotheses and carry out a hypothesis test of a population proportion in the context of
a single observation from a binomial distribution, using either direct evaluation of binomial
probabilities or a normal approximation with continuity correction;
(i) formulate hypotheses and carry out a hypothesis test of a population mean in the following
cases:
(i) a sample drawn from a normal distribution of known variance,
(ii) a large sample, using the Central Limit Theorem and an unbiased variance estimate derived
from the sample,
(iii) a single observation drawn from a Poisson distribution, using direct evaluation of Poisson
probabilities;
(j) understand the terms ‘Type I error’ and ‘Type II error’ in relation to hypothesis tests;
(k) calculate the probabilities of making Type I and Type II errors in specific situations involving
tests based on a normal distribution or approximation, or on direct evaluation of binomial or
Poisson probabilities.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 73
GCE Mathematics
5.14 A2 MODULE 4734: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 3 (S3)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4, S1 and S2 is assumed, and candidates
may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit S3.
Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae
made available for use in the examination.
Expectation Algebra
E( ) E( ) aX b a X b + = +
2
Var( ) Var( ) aX b a X + =
E( ) E( ) E( ) aX bY a X b Y + = +
Continuous Random Variables
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use probability density functions which may be defined ‘piecewise’;
(b) use, in simple cases, the general result E(g( )) g( )f( )d X x x x =
}
, where f( ) x is the probability
density function of the continuous random variable X and g( ) X is a function of X;
(c) understand and use the relationship between the probability density function and the
(cumulative) distribution function, and use either to evaluate the median, quartiles and other
percentiles;
(d) use (cumulative) distribution functions of related variables in simple cases, e.g. given the c.d.f.
of a variable X, to find the c.d.f. and hence the p.d.f. of Y, where
3
Y X = .
Linear Combinations of Random Variables
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use, in the course of solving problems, the results that
(i) E( ) E( ) aX b a X b + = + and
2
Var( ) Var( ) aX b a X + = ,
(ii) E( ) E( ) E( ) aX bY a X b Y + = + ,
(iii)
2 2
Var( ) Var( ) Var( ) aX bY a X b Y + = + for independent X and Y,
(iv) if X has a normal distribution then so does aX b + ,
(v) if X and Y have independent normal distributions then aX bY + has a normal distribution,
(vi) if X and Y have independent Poisson distributions then X Y + has a Poisson distribution.
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Confidence Intervals; the t Distribution
Candidates should be able to:
(a) determine a confidence interval for a population mean, using a normal distribution, in the
context of
(i) a sample drawn from a normal population of known variance,
(ii) a large sample, using the Central Limit Theorem and an unbiased variance estimate derived
from the sample;
(b) determine, from a large sample, an approximate confidence interval for a population proportion;
(c) use a t distribution, with the appropriate number of degrees of freedom, in the context of a small
sample drawn from a normal population of unknown variance
(i) to determine a confidence interval for the population mean,
(ii) to carry out a hypothesis test of the population mean.
Difference of Population Means and Proportions
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the difference between a twosample test and a pairedsample test, and select the
appropriate form of test in solving problems;
(b) formulate hypotheses and carry out a test for a difference of population means or population
proportions using a normal distribution, and appreciate the conditions necessary for the test to
be valid;
(c) calculate a pooled estimate of a population variance based on the data from two samples;
(d) formulate hypotheses and carry out either a twosample ttest or a pairedsample ttest, as
appropriate, for a difference of population means, and appreciate the conditions necessary for
these tests to be valid;
(e) calculate a confidence interval for a difference of population means, using a normal distribution
or a t distribution, as appropriate.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 75
GCE Mathematics
2
_ tests
Candidates should be able to:
(a) fit a theoretical distribution, as prescribed by a given hypothesis, to given data (questions set
will not involve lengthy calculations);
(b) use a
2
_ test with the appropriate number of degrees of freedom to carry out the corresponding
goodness of fit test (classes should be combined so that each expected frequency is at least 5);
(c) use a
2
_ test with the appropriate number of degrees of freedom to test for independence in a
contingency table (rows or columns, as appropriate, should be combined so that each expected
frequency is at least 5, and Yates’ correction should be used in the special case of a 2 2 × table).
76 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
5.15 A2 MODULE 4735: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 4 (S4)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4 and S1 to S3 is assumed, and candidates
may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit S4.
Candidates will need to be familiar with, at least, the section on using the first few terms of the
Maclaurin series from FP2 and, in particular, be familiar with the series expansion of e
x
.
Probability
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the notation P( ) A for the probability of the event A, and the notations P( ) A B , P( ) A B · ,
P(  ) A B relating to probabilities involving two events;
(b) understand and use the result P( ) P( ) P( ) P( ) A B A B A B = + ÷ · , and extend it to deal with the
union of three events;
(c) use the result P( ) P( ) P(  ) P( ) P(  ) A B A B A B A B · = = and the ideas underlying Bayes’ theorem
to solve problems involving conditional probability (the formal statement of Bayes’ theorem
itself is not required).
Nonparametric Tests
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand what is meant by a nonparametric significance test, appreciate situations where such
tests are useful, and select an appropriate test;
(b) understand, in simple terms, the basis of sign tests, Wilcoxon signedrank tests and the
Wilcoxon ranksum test, and use normal approximations where appropriate in these tests;
(c) test a hypothesis concerning a population median using a singlesample sign test and a single
sample Wilcoxon signedrank test (problems in which observations coincide with the
hypothetical population median will not be set);
(d) test for identity of populations using a pairedsample sign test, a Wilcoxon matchedpairs
signedrank test and (for unpaired samples) a Wilcoxon ranksum test (problems involving tied
ranks will not be set).
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 77
GCE Mathematics
Probability Generating Functions
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the concept of a probability generating function and construct and use the
probability generating function for given distributions (including the discrete uniform, binomial,
geometric and Poisson);
(b) use formulae for the mean and variance of a discrete random variable in terms of its probability
generating function, and use these formulae to calculate the mean and variance of probability
distributions;
(c) use the result that the probability generating function of the sum of independent random
variables is the product of the probability generating functions of those random variables.
Moment Generating Functions
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the concept of a moment generating function for both discrete and continuous
random variables, construct and use the moment generating function for given distributions;
(b) use the moment generating function of a given distribution to find the mean and variance;
(c) use the result that the moment generating function of the sum of independent random variables
is the product of the moment generating functions of those random variables.
Estimators
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand that an estimator of a parameter of a distribution is a random variable, and
understand the meaning of ‘biased’ and ‘unbiased’ as applied to estimators (both continuous and
discrete distributions are included);
(b) determine in simple cases whether a given estimator is biased or unbiased, and find the variance
of an estimator;
(c) determine which of two unbiased estimators of a parameter is more efficient, by comparing their
variances, and understand why the more efficient estimator is generally to be preferred.
78 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Discrete Bivariate Distributions
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the joint probability distribution of a pair of discrete random variables, and find and
use marginal distributions;
(b) determine and use the distribution of one variable conditional on a particular value of the other;
(c) determine whether or not two random variables are independent;
(d) calculate the covariance for a pair of discrete random variables, and understand the relationship
between zero covariance and independence;
(e) use
2 2
Var( ) Var( ) Var( ) 2 Cov( , ) aX bY a X b Y ab X Y ± = + ± .
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 79
GCE Mathematics
5.16 AS MODULE 4736: DECISION MATHEMATICS 1 (D1)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 and C2 is assumed, and candidates may be
required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit D1.
The specification content of this module is to be understood in the context of modelling reallife
situations, and examination questions may ask for comment and interpretation, including where
appropriate crosschecking between a model and reality.
Algorithms
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the definition of an algorithm;
(b) appreciate why an algorithmic approach to problemsolving is generally preferable to ad hoc
methods, and understand the limitations of algorithmic methods;
(c) understand the meaning of the order of an algorithm, and determine the order of a given
algorithm in simple cases, including the algorithms for standard network problems;
(d) interpret and apply simple algorithms defined by flow diagrams or given as a listing in words;
(e) show familiarity with simple algorithms concerning sorting and packing, including
(i) bubble and shuttle sorts,
(ii) firstfit methods (firstfit and firstfit decreasing).
Graph Theory
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the meaning of the terms ‘arc’ (or ‘edge’), ‘node’ (or ‘vertex’), ‘path’, ‘tree’ and
‘cycle’;
(b) use the orders of the nodes in a graph to determine whether the graph is Eulerian or semi
Eulerian or neither;
(c) solve simple problems involving planar graphs, both directed and undirected.
80 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Networks
Candidates should be able to:
(a) recall that a network is a graph in which each arc is assigned a ‘weight’, and use networks as
mathematical models;
(b) apply Prim’s and Kruskal’s algorithms in solving the minimum connector problem to find a
minimum spanning tree (including the use of a matrix representation for Prim’s algorithm);
(c) find a solution to the travelling salesperson problem in simple cases, and in other cases
(i) determine an upper bound by using the nearest neighbour method,
(ii) use shortcuts where possible to improve on an upper bound,
(iii) use minimum connector methods on a reduced network to determine a lower bound;
(d) use Dijkstra’s algorithm to determine the shortest path between two nodes;
(e) solve simple cases of the route inspection problem for at most six odd nodes by consideration of
all possible pairings of the odd nodes.
Linear Programming
Candidates should be able to:
(a) formulate in algebraic terms a realworld problem posed in words, including the identification
of relevant variables, constraints and objective function;
(b) set up a linear programming formulation in the form ‘maximise (or minimise) objective, subject
to inequality constraints and trivial constraints of the form 0 variable > ’, and use slack variables
to convert inequality constraints into equations together with trivial constraints;
(c) carry out a graphical solution for 2variable problems, including cases where integer solutions
are required;
(d) use the Simplex method for maximising an objective function, interpret the values of the
variables and the objective function at any stage in the Simplex method.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 81
GCE Mathematics
5.17 A2 MODULE 4737: DECISION MATHEMATICS 2 (D2)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4 and D1 is assumed, and candidates may
be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit D2.
The specification content of this module is to be understood in the context of modelling reallife
situations, and examination questions may ask for comment and interpretation, including where
appropriate crosschecking between a model and reality.
Game Theory
Candidates should be able to:
(a) understand the idea of a zerosum game and its representation by means of a payoff matrix;
(b) identify playsafe strategies and stable solutions;
(c) reduce a matrix by using a dominance argument;
(d) determine an optimal mixed strategy for a game with no stable solution
(i) by using a graphical method for 2 n × or 2 n× games, where 1, 2 or 3 n = ,
(ii) by converting higher order games to linear programming problems that could then be
solved using the Simplex method.
Flows in a Network
Candidates should be able to:
(a) represent flow problems by means of a network of directed arcs, and interpret network
diagrams;
(b) find the optimum flow rate in a network, subject to given constraints (problems may include
both upper and lower capacities);
(c) understand the meaning of the value of a cut, use the maximum flowminimum cut theorem and
explain why it works;
(d) introduce a supersource or supersink in networks with more than one source or sink, and replace
a vertex of restricted capacity by a pair of unrestricted vertices connected by a suitable flow;
(e) use a labelling procedure, with arrows showing how much less could flow in each direction, to
augment a flow and hence determine the maximum flow in a network.
82 Section B: General Information © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Matching and Allocation Problems
Candidates should be able to:
(a) represent a matching problem by means of a bipartite graph;
(b) use an algorithm to find a maximal matching by the construction of an alternating path;
(c) interpret allocation problems as minimumcost matching problems;
(d) use the Hungarian algorithm to find a solution to an allocation problem, including the use of a
dummy row or column, use the covering method to check whether a matching is maximal, and
augment and interpret a revised cost matrix.
Critical Path Analysis
Candidates should be able to:
(e) construct and interpret activity networks, using activity on arc;
(f) carry out forward and reverse passes to determine earliest and latest start times and finish times,
or early and late event times;
(g) identify critical activities and find a critical path;
(h) construct and interpret cascade charts and resource histograms, and carry out resource levelling.
Dynamic Programming
Candidates should be able to:
(i) understand the concept of dynamic programming, working backwards with suboptimisation;
(j) use stage and state variables, actions and costs;
(k) set up a dynamic programming tabulation and use it to solve a problem involving finding a
minimum, maximum, minimax or maximin.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information 83
GCE Mathematics
6 Further Information and Training for Teachers
In support of these specifications, OCR will make the following materials and services available to
teachers:
 uptodate copies of these specifications;
 a full programme of InService Training (INSET) meetings;
 specimen question papers and mark schemes;
 past question papers and mark schemes after each examination session;
 a Report on the Examination, compiled by senior examining personnel, after each examination
session.
If you would like further information about the specification, please contact OCR.
84 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables
Pure Mathematics
Mensuration
Surface area of sphere =
2
4 r t
Area of curved surface of cone = slant height r t ×
Trigonometry
2 2 2
2 cos a b c bc A = + ÷
Arithmetic Series
( 1)
n
u a n d = + ÷
1 1
2 2
( ) {2 ( 1) }
n
S n a l n a n d = + = + ÷
Geometric Series
1 n
n
u ar
÷
=
(1 )
1
n
n
a r
S
r
÷
=
÷
for 1
1
a
S r
r
·
= <
÷
Summations
2
1
6
1
( 1)(2 1)
n
r
r n n n
=
= + +
¿
3 2 2
1
4
1
( 1)
n
r
r n n
=
= +
¿
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 85
GCE Mathematics
Binomial Series
1
1 1
n n n
r r r
+      
+ =
  
+ +
\ . \ . \ .
1 2 2
( ) ( )
1 2
n n n n n r r n
n n n
a b a a b a b a b b n
r
÷ ÷ ÷
     
+ = + + + + + + e
  
\ . \ . \ .
,
where
!
C
!( )!
n
r
n
n
r r n r
 
= =

÷
\ .
2
( 1) ( 1) ( 1)
(1 ) 1 ( 1, )
1.2 1.2.3
n r
n n n n n r
x nx x x x n
r
÷ ÷ ÷ +
+ = + + + + + < e
Logarithms and Exponentials
ln
e
x a x
a =
Complex Numbers
{ (cos i sin )} (cos i sin )
n n
r r n n u u u u + = +
i
e cos i sin
u
u u = +
The roots of 1
n
z = are given by
2 i
e
k
n
z
t
= , for 0 k = , 1, 2, …, 1 n ÷
Maclaurin’s Series
2
f( ) f(0) f (0) f (0)
2!
x
x x ' '' = + + + …
( )
f (0)
!
r
r
x
r
+ + …
2
e exp( ) 1
2!
x
x
x x = = + + + …
!
r
x
r
+ + … for all x
2 3
ln(1 )
2 3
x x
x x + = ÷ + ÷ …
1
( 1)
r
r
x
r
+
+ ÷ + …( 1 1) x ÷ < s
3 5
sin
3! 5!
x x
x x = ÷ + ÷…
2 1
( 1)
(2 1)!
r
r
x
r
+
+ ÷ +
+
… for all x
2 4
cos 1
2! 4!
x x
x = ÷ + ÷…
2
( 1)
(2 )!
r
r
x
r
+ ÷ + … for all x
86 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
3 5
1
tan
3 5
x x
x x
÷
= ÷ + ÷…
2 1
( 1)
2 1
r
r
x
r
+
+ ÷ +
+
… ( 1 1) x ÷ s s
3 5
sinh
3! 5!
x x
x x = + + + …
2 1
(2 1)!
r
x
r
+
+ +
+
… for all x
2 4
cosh 1
2! 4!
x x
x = + + + …
2
(2 )!
r
x
r
+ + … for all x
3 5
1
tanh
3 5
x x
x x
÷
= + + + …
2 1
2 1
r
x
r
+
+ +
+
…( 1 1) x ÷ < <
Hyperbolic Functions
2 2
cosh sinh 1 x x ÷ =
sinh 2 2sinh cosh x x x =
2 2
cosh 2 cosh sinh x x x = +
1 2
cosh ln 1 ( 1) { } x x x x
÷
= + ÷ >
1 2
sinh ln 1 { } x x x
÷
= + +
1
1
2
1
tanh ln ( 1)
1
x
x x
x
÷
+  
= <

÷
\ .
Coordinate Geometry
The perpendicular distance from ( , ) h k to 0 ax by c + + = is
2 2
ah bk c
a b
+ +
+
The acute angle between lines with gradients
1
m and
2
m is
1 1 2
1 2
tan
1
m m
m m
÷
÷
+
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 87
GCE Mathematics
Trigonometric Identities
sin( ) sin cos cos sin A B A B A B ± = ±
cos( ) cos cos sin sin A B A B A B ± =
1
2
tan tan
tan( ) ( ( ) )
1 tan tan
A B
A B A B k
A B
t
±
± = ± = +
For
1
2
tan t A = :
2
2
sin
1
t
A
t
=
+
,
2
2
1
cos
1
t
A
t
÷
=
+
sin sin 2sin cos
2 2
A B A B
A B
+ ÷
+ =
sin sin 2cos sin
2 2
A B A B
A B
+ ÷
÷ =
cos cos 2cos cos
2 2
A B A B
A B
+ ÷
+ =
cos cos 2sin sin
2 2
A B A B
A B
+ ÷
÷ = ÷
Vectors
The resolved part of a in the direction of b is
a.b
b
The point dividing AB in the ratio : ì µ is
µ ì
ì µ
+
+
a b
Vector product:
1 1 2 3 3 2
2 2 3 1 1 3
3 3 1 2 2 1
ˆ sin
a b a b a b
a b a b a b
a b a b a b
u
÷  

× = = = ÷


÷
\ .
i
a b a b n j
k
If A is the point with position vector
1 2 3
a a a = + + a i j k and the direction vector b is given by
1 2 3
b b b = + + b i j k , then the straight line through A with direction vector b has cartesian equation
3 1 2
1 2 3
( )
z a x a y a
b b b
ì
÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
88 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
The plane through A with normal vector
1 2 3
n n n = + + n i j k has cartesian equation
1 2 3
0 where n x n y n z d d + + + = = ÷a.n
The plane through noncollinear points A, B and C has vector equation
( ) ( ) (1 ) ì µ ì µ ì µ = + ÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ + + r a b a c a a b c
The plane through the point with position vector a and parallel to b and c has equation
s t = + + r a b c
The perpendicular distance of ( , , ) o  ¸ from
1 2 3
0 n x n y n z d + + + = is
1 2 3
2 2 2
1 2 3
n n n d
n n n
o  ¸ + + +
+ +
Matrix Transformations
Anticlockwise rotation through u about O :
cos sin
sin cos
u u
u u
÷  

\ .
Reflection in the line (tan ) y x u = :
cos 2 sin 2
sin 2 cos 2
u u
u u
 

÷
\ .
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 89
GCE Mathematics
Differentiation
f( ) x f ( ) x '
tan kx
2
sec k kx
1
sin x
÷
2
1
1 x ÷
1
cos x
÷
2
1
1 x
÷
÷
1
tan x
÷
2
1
1 x +
sec x sec tan x x
cot x
2
cosec x ÷
cosec x cosec cot x x ÷
sinh x cosh x
cosh x sinh x
tanh x
2
sech x
1
sinh x
÷
2
1
1 x +
1
cosh x
÷
2
1
1 x ÷
1
tanh x
÷
2
1
1 x ÷
If
f( )
g( )
x
y
x
= then
2
d f ( ) g( ) f( ) g ( )
d {g( )}
y x x x x
x x
' ' ÷
=
90 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Integration (+ constant; 0 a > where relevant)
f( ) x f( ) d x x
}
2
sec kx
1
tan kx
k
tan x ln sec x
cot x ln sin x
cosec x
1
2
ln cosec cot ln tan( ) x x x ÷ + =
sec x
1 1
2 4
ln sec tan ln tan( ) x x x t + = +
sinh x cosh x
cosh x sinh x
tanh x ln cosh x
2 2
1
a x ÷
1
sin ( )
x
x a
a
÷
 
<

\ .
2 2
1
a x +
1
1
tan
x
a a
÷
 

\ .
2 2
1
x a ÷
1 2 2
cosh or ln ( ) { }
x
x x a x a
a
÷
 
+ ÷ >

\ .
2 2
1
a x +
1 2 2
sinh or ln{ }
x
x x a
a
÷
 
+ +

\ .
2 2
1
a x ÷
1
1 1
ln tanh ( )
2
a x x
x a
a a x a a
÷
+  
= <

÷
\ .
2 2
1
x a ÷
1
ln
2
x a
a x a
÷
+
d d
d d
d d
v u
u x uv v x
x x
= ÷
} }
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 91
GCE Mathematics
Area of a Sector
2
1
2
d A r u =
}
(polar coordinates)
1
2
d d
d
d d
y x
A x y t
t t
 
= ÷

\ . }
(parametric form)
Numerical Mathematics
Numerical Integration
The trapezium rule:
1
0 1 2
2
d {( ) 2(
b
n
a
y x h y y y y ~ + + + +
}
…
1
)
n
y
÷
+ }, where
b a
h
n
÷
=
Simpson’s rule:
1
0 1 3
3
d {( ) 4(
b
n
a
y x h y y y y ~ + + + +
}
…
1 2 4
) 2(
n
y y y
÷
+ + + + …
2
)
n
y
÷
+ },
where
b a
h
n
÷
= and n is even
Numerical Solution of Equations
The NewtonRaphson iteration for solving f( ) 0 x = :
1
f( )
f ( )
n
n n
n
x
x x
x
+
= ÷
'
Mechanics
Motion in a Circle
Transverse velocity: v ru =
Transverse acceleration: v ru =
Radial acceleration:
2
2
v
r
r
u ÷ = ÷
92 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Centres of Mass (for uniform bodies)
Triangular lamina:
2
3
along median from vertex
Solid hemisphere, radius
3
8
: r r from centre
Hemispherical shell, radius
1
2
: r r from centre
Circular arc, radius r , angle at centre
sin
2 :
r o
o
o
from centre
Sector of circle, radius r , angle at centre
2 sin
2 :
3
r o
o
o
from centre
Solid cone or pyramid of height
1
4
: h h above the base on the line from centre of base to vertex
Conical shell of height
1
3
: h h above the base on the line from centre of base to vertex
Moments of Inertia (for uniform bodies of mass m )
Thin rod, length 2l , about perpendicular axis through centre:
2
1
3
ml
Rectangular lamina about axis in plane bisecting edges of length 2l :
2
1
3
ml
Thin rod, length 2l , about perpendicular axis through end:
2
4
3
ml
Rectangular lamina about edge perpendicular to edges of length 2l :
2
4
3
ml
Rectangular lamina, sides 2a and 2b , about perpendicular axis through centre:
2 2
1
3
( ) m a b +
Hoop or cylindrical shell of radius r about axis:
2
mr
Hoop of radius r about a diameter:
2
1
2
mr
Disc or solid cylinder of radius r about axis:
2
1
2
mr
Disc of radius r about a diameter:
2
1
4
mr
Solid sphere, radius r , about a diameter:
2
2
5
mr
Spherical shell of radius r about a diameter:
2
2
3
mr
Parallel axes theorem:
2
( )
A G
I I m AG = +
Perpendicular axes theorem:
z x y
I I I = + (for a lamina in the  x y plane)
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 93
GCE Mathematics
Probability and Statistics
Probability
P( ) P( ) P( ) P( ) A B A B A B = + ÷ ·
P( ) P( ) P(  ) A B A B A · =
P(  ) P( )
P(  )
P(  ) P( ) P(  ) P( )
B A A
A B
B A A B A A
=
' ' +
Bayes’ Theorem:
P( ) P(  )
P(  )
P( ) P(  )
j j
j
i i
A B A
A B
A B A
=
E
Discrete Distributions
For a discrete random variable X taking values
i
x with probabilities
i
p
Expectation (mean): E( )
i i
X x p µ = = E
Variance:
2 2 2 2
Var( ) ( )
i i i i
X x p x p o µ µ = = E ÷ = E ÷
For a function g( ) X : E(g( )) g( )
i i
X x p = E
The probability generating function of X is G ( ) E( )
X
X
t t = , and
E( ) G (1)
X
X ' = ,
2
Var( ) G (1) G (1) {G (1)}
X X X
X '' ' ' = + ÷
For Z X Y = + , where X and Y are independent: G ( ) G ( ) G ( )
Z X Y
t t t =
94 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
Standard Discrete Distributions:
Distribution of X P(X = x) Mean Variance P.G.F.
Binomial B( , ) n p (1 )
x n x
n
p p
x
÷
 
÷

\ .
np (1 ) np p ÷
(1 )
n
p pt ÷ +
Poisson Po( ) ì
e
!
x
x
ì
ì
÷
ì ì
( 1)
e
t ì ÷
Geometric Geo (p) on 1, 2, …
1
(1 )
x
p p
÷
÷
1
p
2
1 p
p
÷
1 (1 )
pt
p t ÷ ÷
Continuous Distributions
For a continuous random variable X having probability density function f
Expectation (mean): E( ) f( ) d X x x x µ = =
}
Variance:
2 2 2 2
Var( ) ( ) f( ) d f( ) d X x x x x x x o µ µ = = ÷ = ÷
} }
For a function g( ) X : E(g( )) g( ) f( ) d X x x x =
}
Cumulative distribution function: F( ) P( ) f( ) d
x
x X x t t
÷·
= s =
}
The moment generating function of X is M ( ) E(e )
tX
X
t = and
E( ) M (0)
X
X ' = ,
( )
E( ) M (0)
n n
X
X = ,
2
Var( ) M (0) {M (0)}
X X
X '' ' = ÷
For Z X Y = + , where X and Y are independent: M ( ) M ( ) M ( )
Z X Y
t t t =
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 95
GCE Mathematics
Standard Continuous Distributions:
Distribution of X P.D.F. Mean Variance M.G.F.
Uniform (Rectangular) on [ , ] a b
1
b a ÷
1
2
( ) a b +
2
1
12
( ) b a ÷
e e
( )
bt at
b a t
÷
÷
Exponential e
x ì
ì
÷
1
ì
2
1
ì
t
ì
ì ÷
Normal
2
N( , ) µ o
( )
2
1
2
1
e
2
x µ
o
o t
÷
÷
µ
2
o
2 2 1
2
e
t t µ o +
Expectation Algebra
Covariance: Cov( , ) E(( )( )) E( )
X Y X Y
X Y X Y XY µ µ µ µ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
2 2
Var( ) Var( ) Var( ) 2 Cov( , ) aX bY a X b Y ab X Y ± = + ±
Product moment correlation coefficient:
Cov( , )
X Y
X Y
µ
o o
=
If X aX b ' = + and Y cY d ' = + , then Cov( , ) Cov( , ) X Y ac X Y ' ' =
For independent random variables X and Y
E( ) E( ) E( ) XY X Y =
2 2
Var( ) Var( ) Var( ) aX bY a X b Y ± = +
Sampling Distributions
For a random sample X
1
, X
2
, …, X
n
of n independent observations from a distribution having mean
µ and variance
2
o
X is an unbiased estimator of µ , with
2
Var( ) X
n
o
=
2
S is an unbiased estimator of
2
o , where
2
2
( )
1
i
X X
S
n
E ÷
=
÷
96 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
For a random sample of n observations from
2
N( , ) µ o
~ N(0, 1)
/
X
n
µ
o
÷
1
~
/
n
X
t
S n
µ
÷
÷
(also valid in matchedpairs situations)
If X is the observed number of successes in n independent Bernoulli trials in each of which the
probability of success is p , and
X
Y
n
= , then
E( ) Y p = and
(1 )
Var( )
p p
Y
n
÷
=
For a random sample of
x
n observations from
2
N( , )
x x
µ o and, independently, a random sample of
y
n observations from
2
N( , )
y y
µ o
2
2
( ) ( )
~ N(0, 1)
x y
y
x
x y
X Y
n n
µ µ
o
o
÷ ÷ ÷
+
If
2 2 2
x y
o o o = = (unknown) then
2
2
( ) ( )
~
1 1
x y
x y
p
x y
n n
X Y
S
n n
t
µ µ
+ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
 
+ 

\ .
, where
2 2
2
( 1) ( 1)
2
x x y y
p
x y
n S n S
S
n n
÷ + ÷
=
+ ÷
Correlation and Regression
For a set of n pairs of values ( , )
i i
x y
2
2 2
( )
( )
i
xx i i
x
S x x x
n
E
= E ÷ = E ÷
2
2 2
( )
( )
i
yy i i
y
S y y y
n
E
= E ÷ = E ÷
( )( )
( )( )
i i
xy i i i i
x y
S x x y y x y
n
E E
= E ÷ ÷ = E ÷
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 97
GCE Mathematics
The product moment correlation coefficient is
2 2 2 2
2 2
( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
{ }{ }
i i
i i
xy
i i
xx yy
i i i i
i i
x y
x y
S
x x y y
n
r
S S
x x y y x y
x y
n n
E E
E ÷
E ÷ ÷
= = =
    E ÷ E ÷ E E
E ÷ E ÷
 
 
\ . \ .
Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient is
2
2
6
1
( 1)
s
d
r
n n
E
= ÷
÷
The regression coefficient of y on x is
2
( )( )
( )
xy
i i
xx i
S
x x y y
b
S x x
E ÷ ÷
= =
E ÷
Least squares regression line of y on x is y a bx = + where a y bx = ÷
Distributionfree (Nonparametric) Tests
Goodnessoffit test and contingency tables:
2
2
( )
~
O E
i i
E
i
v
_
÷
¿
Approximate distributions for large samples:
Wilcoxon Signed Rank test:
( )
1 1
4 24
~ N ( 1), ( 1)(2 1) T n n n n n + + +
Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (samples of sizes m and n , with m n s ):
( )
1 1
2 12
~ N ( 1), ( 1) W m m n mn m n + + + +
98 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
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C
U
M
U
L
A
T
I
V
E
B
I
N
O
M
I
A
L
P
R
O
B
A
B
I
L
I
T
I
E
S
n
=
5
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
n
=
6
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
n
=
7
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
n
=
8
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 99
GCE Mathematics
0
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1
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C
U
M
U
L
A
T
I
V
E
B
I
N
O
M
I
A
L
P
R
O
B
A
B
I
L
I
T
I
E
S
n
=
9
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
n
=
1
0
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
n
=
1
2
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
100 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
0
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C
U
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A
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A
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P
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B
A
B
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S
n
=
1
4
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
n
=
1
6
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 101
GCE Mathematics
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C
U
M
U
L
A
T
I
V
E
B
I
N
O
M
I
A
L
P
R
O
B
A
B
I
L
I
T
I
E
S
n
=
1
8
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
n
=
2
0
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
102 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
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C
U
M
U
L
A
T
I
V
E
B
I
N
O
M
I
A
L
P
R
O
B
A
B
I
L
I
T
I
E
S
n
=
2
5
p
x
=
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
1
9
2
0
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 103
GCE Mathematics
0
.
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104 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
CUMULATIVE POISSON PROBABILITIES
ì 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
x = 0 0.9900 0.9802 0.9704 0.9608 0.9512 0.9418 0.9324 0.9231 0.9139
1 1.0000 0.9998 0.9996 0.9992 0.9988 0.9983 0.9977 0.9970 0.9962
2 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999
3 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
ì 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90
x = 0 0.9048 0.8187 0.7408 0.6703 0.6065 0.5488 0.4966 0.4493 0.4066
1 0.9953 0.9825 0.9631 0.9384 0.9098 0.8781 0.8442 0.8088 0.7725
2 0.9998 0.9989 0.9964 0.9921 0.9856 0.9769 0.9659 0.9526 0.9371
3 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997 0.9992 0.9982 0.9966 0.9942 0.9909 0.9865
4 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9996 0.9992 0.9986 0.9977
5 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9997
6 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
ì 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90
x = 0 0.3679 0.3329 0.3012 0.2725 0.2466 0.2231 0.2019 0.1827 0.1653 0.1496
1 0.7358 0.6990 0.6626 0.6268 0.5918 0.5578 0.5249 0.4932 0.4628 0.4337
2 0.9197 0.9004 0.8795 0.8571 0.8335 0.8088 0.7834 0.7572 0.7306 0.7037
3 0.9810 0.9743 0.9662 0.9569 0.9463 0.9344 0.9212 0.9068 0.8913 0.8747
4 0.9963 0.9946 0.9923 0.9893 0.9857 0.9814 0.9763 0.9704 0.9636 0.9559
5 0.9994 0.9990 0.9985 0.9978 0.9968 0.9955 0.9940 0.9920 0.9896 0.9868
6 0.9999 0.9999 0.9997 0.9996 0.9994 0.9991 0.9987 0.9981 0.9974 0.9966
7 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9997 0.9996 0.9994 0.9992
8 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998
9 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
ì 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90
x = 0 0.1353 0.1225 0.1108 0.1003 0.0907 0.0821 0.0743 0.0672 0.0608 0.0550
1 0.4060 0.3796 0.3546 0.3309 0.3084 0.2873 0.2674 0.2487 0.2311 0.2146
2 0.6767 0.6496 0.6227 0.5960 0.5697 0.5438 0.5184 0.4936 0.4695 0.4460
3 0.8571 0.8386 0.8194 0.7993 0.7787 0.7576 0.7360 0.7141 0.6919 0.6696
4 0.9473 0.9379 0.9275 0.9162 0.9041 0.8912 0.8774 0.8629 0.8477 0.8318
5 0.9834 0.9796 0.9751 0.9700 0.9643 0.9580 0.9510 0.9433 0.9349 0.9258
6 0.9955 0.9941 0.9925 0.9906 0.9884 0.9858 0.9828 0.9794 0.9756 0.9713
7 0.9989 0.9985 0.9980 0.9974 0.9967 0.9958 0.9947 0.9934 0.9919 0.9901
8 0.9998 0.9997 0.9995 0.9994 0.9991 0.9989 0.9985 0.9981 0.9976 0.9969
9 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9997 0.9996 0.9995 0.9993 0.9991
10 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9998
11 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999
12 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 105
GCE Mathematics
CUMULATIVE POISSON PROBABILITIES
ì 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90
x = 0 0.0498 0.0450 0.0408 0.0369 0.0334 0.0302 0.0273 0.0247 0.0224 0.0202
1 0.1991 0.1847 0.1712 0.1586 0.1468 0.1359 0.1257 0.1162 0.1074 0.0992
2 0.4232 0.4012 0.3799 0.3594 0.3397 0.3208 0.3027 0.2854 0.2689 0.2531
3 0.6472 0.6248 0.6025 0.5803 0.5584 0.5366 0.5152 0.4942 0.4735 0.4532
4 0.8153 0.7982 0.7806 0.7626 0.7442 0.7254 0.7064 0.6872 0.6678 0.6484
5 0.9161 0.9057 0.8946 0.8829 0.8705 0.8576 0.8441 0.8301 0.8156 0.8006
6 0.9665 0.9612 0.9554 0.9490 0.9421 0.9347 0.9267 0.9182 0.9091 0.8995
7 0.9881 0.9858 0.9832 0.9802 0.9769 0.9733 0.9692 0.9648 0.9599 0.9546
8 0.9962 0.9953 0.9943 0.9931 0.9917 0.9901 0.9883 0.9863 0.9840 0.9815
9 0.9989 0.9986 0.9982 0.9978 0.9973 0.9967 0.9960 0.9952 0.9942 0.9931
10 0.9997 0.9996 0.9995 0.9994 0.9992 0.9990 0.9987 0.9984 0.9981 0.9977
11 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9998 0.9997 0.9996 0.9995 0.9994 0.9993
12 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9998
13 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999
14 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
ì 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.60 4.70 4.80 4.90
x = 0 0.0183 0.0166 0.0150 0.0136 0.0123 0.0111 0.0101 0.0091 0.0082 0.0074
1 0.0916 0.0845 0.0780 0.0719 0.0663 0.0611 0.0563 0.0518 0.0477 0.0439
2 0.2381 0.2238 0.2102 0.1974 0.1851 0.1736 0.1626 0.1523 0.1425 0.1333
3 0.4335 0.4142 0.3954 0.3772 0.3594 0.3423 0.3257 0.3097 0.2942 0.2793
4 0.6288 0.6093 0.5898 0.5704 0.5512 0.5321 0.5132 0.4946 0.4763 0.4582
5 0.7851 0.7693 0.7531 0.7367 0.7199 0.7029 0.6858 0.6684 0.6510 0.6335
6 0.8893 0.8786 0.8675 0.8558 0.8436 0.8311 0.8180 0.8046 0.7908 0.7767
7 0.9489 0.9427 0.9361 0.9290 0.9214 0.9134 0.9049 0.8960 0.8867 0.8769
8 0.9786 0.9755 0.9721 0.9683 0.9642 0.9597 0.9549 0.9497 0.9442 0.9382
9 0.9919 0.9905 0.9889 0.9871 0.9851 0.9829 0.9805 0.9778 0.9749 0.9717
10 0.9972 0.9966 0.9959 0.9952 0.9943 0.9933 0.9922 0.9910 0.9896 0.9880
11 0.9991 0.9989 0.9986 0.9983 0.9980 0.9976 0.9971 0.9966 0.9960 0.9953
12 0.9997 0.9997 0.9996 0.9995 0.9993 0.9992 0.9990 0.9988 0.9986 0.9983
13 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9998 0.9997 0.9997 0.9996 0.9995 0.9994
14 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998
15 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999
16 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
106 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
CUMULATIVE POISSON PROBABILITIES
ì 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50
x = 0 0.0067 0.0041 0.0025 0.0015 0.0009 0.0006 0.0003 0.0002 0.0001 0.0001
1 0.0404 0.0266 0.0174 0.0113 0.0073 0.0047 0.0030 0.0019 0.0012 0.0008
2 0.1247 0.0884 0.0620 0.0430 0.0296 0.0203 0.0138 0.0093 0.0062 0.0042
3 0.2650 0.2017 0.1512 0.1118 0.0818 0.0591 0.0424 0.0301 0.0212 0.0149
4 0.4405 0.3575 0.2851 0.2237 0.1730 0.1321 0.0996 0.0744 0.0550 0.0403
5 0.6160 0.5289 0.4457 0.3690 0.3007 0.2414 0.1912 0.1496 0.1157 0.0885
6 0.7622 0.6860 0.6063 0.5265 0.4497 0.3782 0.3134 0.2562 0.2068 0.1649
7 0.8666 0.8095 0.7440 0.6728 0.5987 0.5246 0.4530 0.3856 0.3239 0.2687
8 0.9319 0.8944 0.8472 0.7916 0.7291 0.6620 0.5925 0.5231 0.4557 0.3918
9 0.9682 0.9462 0.9161 0.8774 0.8305 0.7764 0.7166 0.6530 0.5874 0.5218
10 0.9863 0.9747 0.9574 0.9332 0.9015 0.8622 0.8159 0.7634 0.7060 0.6453
11 0.9945 0.9890 0.9799 0.9661 0.9467 0.9208 0.8881 0.8487 0.8030 0.7520
12 0.9980 0.9955 0.9912 0.9840 0.9730 0.9573 0.9362 0.9091 0.8758 0.8364
13 0.9993 0.9983 0.9964 0.9929 0.9872 0.9784 0.9658 0.9486 0.9261 0.8981
14 0.9998 0.9994 0.9986 0.9970 0.9943 0.9897 0.9827 0.9726 0.9585 0.9400
15 0.9999 0.9998 0.9995 0.9988 0.9976 0.9954 0.9918 0.9862 0.9780 0.9665
16 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9996 0.9990 0.9980 0.9963 0.9934 0.9889 0.9823
17 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9996 0.9992 0.9984 0.9970 0.9947 0.9911
18 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9997 0.9993 0.9987 0.9976 0.9957
19 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997 0.9995 0.9989 0.9980
20 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9996 0.9991
21 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9996
22 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999
23 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999
24 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 107
GCE Mathematics
CUMULATIVE POISSON PROBABILITIES
ì 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00
x = 0 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
1 0.0005 0.0002 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
2 0.0028 0.0012 0.0005 0.0002 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
3 0.0103 0.0049 0.0023 0.0011 0.0005 0.0002 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
4 0.0293 0.0151 0.0076 0.0037 0.0018 0.0009 0.0004 0.0002 0.0001 0.0000
5 0.0671 0.0375 0.0203 0.0107 0.0055 0.0028 0.0014 0.0007 0.0003 0.0002
6 0.1301 0.0786 0.0458 0.0259 0.0142 0.0076 0.0040 0.0021 0.0010 0.0005
7 0.2202 0.1432 0.0895 0.0540 0.0316 0.0180 0.0100 0.0054 0.0029 0.0015
8 0.3328 0.2320 0.1550 0.0998 0.0621 0.0374 0.0220 0.0126 0.0071 0.0039
9 0.4579 0.3405 0.2424 0.1658 0.1094 0.0699 0.0433 0.0261 0.0154 0.0089
10 0.5830 0.4599 0.3472 0.2517 0.1757 0.1185 0.0774 0.0491 0.0304 0.0183
11 0.6968 0.5793 0.4616 0.3532 0.2600 0.1848 0.1270 0.0847 0.0549 0.0347
12 0.7916 0.6887 0.5760 0.4631 0.3585 0.2676 0.1931 0.1350 0.0917 0.0606
13 0.8645 0.7813 0.6815 0.5730 0.4644 0.3632 0.2745 0.2009 0.1426 0.0984
14 0.9165 0.8540 0.7720 0.6751 0.5704 0.4657 0.3675 0.2808 0.2081 0.1497
15 0.9513 0.9074 0.8444 0.7636 0.6694 0.5681 0.4667 0.3715 0.2867 0.2148
16 0.9730 0.9441 0.8987 0.8355 0.7559 0.6641 0.5660 0.4677 0.3751 0.2920
17 0.9857 0.9678 0.9370 0.8905 0.8272 0.7489 0.6593 0.5640 0.4686 0.3784
18 0.9928 0.9823 0.9626 0.9302 0.8826 0.8195 0.7423 0.6550 0.5622 0.4695
19 0.9965 0.9907 0.9787 0.9573 0.9235 0.8752 0.8122 0.7363 0.6509 0.5606
20 0.9984 0.9953 0.9884 0.9750 0.9521 0.9170 0.8682 0.8055 0.7307 0.6472
21 0.9993 0.9977 0.9939 0.9859 0.9712 0.9469 0.9108 0.8615 0.7991 0.7255
22 0.9997 0.9990 0.9970 0.9924 0.9833 0.9673 0.9418 0.9047 0.8551 0.7931
23 0.9999 0.9995 0.9985 0.9960 0.9907 0.9805 0.9633 0.9367 0.8989 0.8490
24 1.0000 0.9998 0.9993 0.9980 0.9950 0.9888 0.9777 0.9594 0.9317 0.8933
25 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997 0.9990 0.9974 0.9938 0.9869 0.9748 0.9554 0.9269
26 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9995 0.9987 0.9967 0.9925 0.9848 0.9718 0.9514
27 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9994 0.9983 0.9959 0.9912 0.9827 0.9687
28 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997 0.9991 0.9978 0.9950 0.9897 0.9805
29 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9996 0.9989 0.9973 0.9941 0.9882
30 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9994 0.9986 0.9967 0.9930
31 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997 0.9993 0.9982 0.9960
32 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9996 0.9990 0.9978
33 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9995 0.9988
34 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998 0.9994
35 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9997
36 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9998
37 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999
38 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000
108 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION
If Z has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1 then,
for each value of z, the table gives the value of ( ) z u , where:
( ) P( ) z Z z u = s
For negative values of z use ( ) 1 ( ) z z u ÷ = ÷ u .
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
ADD
0.0 0.5000 0.5040 0.5080 0.5120 0.5160 0.5199 0.5239 0.5279 0.5319 0.5359 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
0.1 0.5398 0.5438 0.5478 0.5517 0.5557 0.5596 0.5636 0.5675 0.5714 0.5753 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36
0.2 0.5793 0.5832 0.5871 0.5910 0.5948 0.5987 0.6026 0.6064 0.6103 0.6141 4 8 12 15 19 23 27 31 35
0.3 0.6179 0.6217 0.6255 0.6293 0.6331 0.6368 0.6406 0.6443 0.6480 0.6517 4 7 11 15 19 22 26 30 34
0.4 0.6554 0.6591 0.6628 0.6664 0.6700 0.6736 0.6772 0.6808 0.6844 0.6879 4 7 11 14 18 22 25 29 32
0.5 0.6915 0.6950 0.6985 0.7019 0.7054 0.7088 0.7123 0.7157 0.7190 0.7224 3 7 10 14 17 20 24 27 31
0.6 0.7257 0.7291 0.7324 0.7357 0.7389 0.7422 0.7454 0.7486 0.7517 0.7549 3 7 10 13 16 19 23 26 29
0.7 0.7580 0.7611 0.7642 0.7673 0.7704 0.7734 0.7764 0.7794 0.7823 0.7852 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27
0.8 0.7881 0.7910 0.7939 0.7967 0.7995 0.8023 0.8051 0.8078 0.8106 0.8133 3 5 8 11 14 16 19 22 25
0.9 0.8159 0.8186 0.8212 0.8238 0.8264 0.8289 0.8315 0.8340 0.8365 0.8389 3 5 8 10 13 15 18 20 23
1.0 0.8413 0.8438 0.8461 0.8485 0.8508 0.8531 0.8554 0.8577 0.8599 0.8621 2 5 7 9 12 14 16 19 21
1.1 0.8643 0.8665 0.8686 0.8708 0.8729 0.8749 0.8770 0.8790 0.8810 0.8830 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
1.2 0.8849 0.8869 0.8888 0.8907 0.8925 0.8944 0.8962 0.8980 0.8997 0.9015 2 4 6 7 9 11 13 15 17
1.3 0.9032 0.9049 0.9066 0.9082 0.9099 0.9115 0.9131 0.9147 0.9162 0.9177 2 3 5 6 8 10 11 13 14
1.4 0.9192 0.9207 0.9222 0.9236 0.9251 0.9265 0.9279 0.9292 0.9306 0.9319 1 3 4 6 7 8 10 11 13
1.5 0.9332 0.9345 0.9357 0.9370 0.9382 0.9394 0.9406 0.9418 0.9429 0.9441 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 10 11
1.6 0.9452 0.9463 0.9474 0.9484 0.9495 0.9505 0.9515 0.9525 0.9535 0.9545 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1.7 0.9554 0.9564 0.9573 0.9582 0.9591 0.9599 0.9608 0.9616 0.9625 0.9633 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 8
1.8 0.9641 0.9649 0.9656 0.9664 0.9671 0.9678 0.9686 0.9693 0.9699 0.9706 1 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 6
1.9 0.9713 0.9719 0.9726 0.9732 0.9738 0.9744 0.9750 0.9756 0.9761 0.9767 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 5
2.0 0.9772 0.9778 0.9783 0.9788 0.9793 0.9798 0.9803 0.9808 0.9812 0.9817 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4
2.1 0.9821 0.9826 0.9830 0.9834 0.9838 0.9842 0.9846 0.9850 0.9854 0.9857 0 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4
2.2 0.9861 0.9864 0.9868 0.9871 0.9875 0.9878 0.9881 0.9884 0.9887 0.9890 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3
2.3 0.9893 0.9896 0.9898 0.9901 0.9904 0.9906 0.9909 0.9911 0.9913 0.9916 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
2.4 0.9918 0.9920 0.9922 0.9925 0.9927 0.9929 0.9931 0.9932 0.9934 0.9936 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
2.5 0.9938 0.9940 0.9941 0.9943 0.9945 0.9946 0.9948 0.9949 0.9951 0.9952 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
2.6 0.9953 0.9955 0.9956 0.9957 0.9959 0.9960 0.9961 0.9962 0.9963 0.9964 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
2.7 0.9965 0.9966 0.9967 0.9968 0.9969 0.9970 0.9971 0.9972 0.9973 0.9974 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
2.8 0.9974 0.9975 0.9976 0.9977 0.9977 0.9978 0.9979 0.9979 0.9980 0.9981 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
2.9 0.9981 0.9982 0.9982 0.9983 0.9984 0.9984 0.9985 0.9985 0.9986 0.9986 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Critical values for the normal distribution
If Z has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1 then, for each value of p, the table
gives the value of z such that:
P( ) Z z p s = .
p 0.75 0.90 0.95 0.975 0.99 0.995 0.9975 0.999 0.9995
z 0.674 1.282 1.645 1.960 2.326 2.576 2.807 3.090 3.291
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 109
GCE Mathematics
CRITICAL VALUES FOR THE tDISTRIBUTION
If T has a tdistribution with v degrees of freedom then,
for each pair of values of p and v, the table gives the value
of t such that:
P( ) T t p s = .
p 0.75 0.90 0.95 0.975 0.99 0.995 0.9975 0.999 0.9995
v = 1 1.000 3.078 6.314 12.71 31.82 63.66 127.3 318.3 636.6
2 0.816 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 14.09 22.33 31.60
3 0.765 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 7.453 10.21 12.92
4 0.741 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 5.598 7.173 8.610
5 0.727 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 4.773 5.894 6.869
6 0.718 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 4.317 5.208 5.959
7 0.711 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 4.029 4.785 5.408
8 0.706 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 3.833 4.501 5.041
9 0.703 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 3.690 4.297 4.781
10 0.700 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 3.581 4.144 4.587
11 0.697 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 3.497 4.025 4.437
12 0.695 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 3.428 3.930 4.318
13 0.694 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 3.372 3.852 4.221
14 0.692 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 3.326 3.787 4.140
15 0.691 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 3.286 3.733 4.073
16 0.690 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 3.252 3.686 4.015
17 0.689 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.222 3.646 3.965
18 0.688 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.197 3.610 3.922
19 0.688 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.174 3.579 3.883
20 0.687 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.153 3.552 3.850
21 0.686 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.135 3.527 3.819
22 0.686 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.119 3.505 3.792
23 0.685 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.104 3.485 3.768
24 0.685 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.091 3.467 3.745
25 0.684 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.078 3.450 3.725
26 0.684 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.067 3.435 3.707
27 0.684 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.057 3.421 3.689
28 0.683 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.047 3.408 3.674
29 0.683 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.038 3.396 3.660
30 0.683 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.030 3.385 3.646
40 0.681 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704 2.971 3.307 3.551
60 0.679 1.296 1.671 2.000 2.390 2.660 2.915 3.232 3.460
120 0.677 1.289 1.658 1.980 2.358 2.617 2.860 3.160 3.373
· 0.674 1.282 1.645 1.960 2.326 2.576 2.807 3.090 3.291
110 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
CRITICAL VALUES FOR THE
2
_ DISTRIBUTION
If X has a
2
_ distribution with v degrees of freedom then, for
each pair of values of p and v, the table gives the value
of x such that:
P( ) X x p s =
p 0.01 0.025 0.05 0.9 0.95 0.975 0.99 0.995 0.999
v = 1 0.0
3
1571 0.0
3
9821 0.0
2
3932 2.706 3.841 5.024 6.635 7.8794 10.83
2 0.02010 0.05064 0.1026 4.605 5.991 7.378 9.210 10.60 13.82
3 0.1148 0.2158 0.3518 6.251 7.815 9.348 11.34 12.84 16.27
4 0.2971 0.4844 0.7107 7.779 9.488 11.14 13.28 14.86 18.47
5 0.5543 0.8312 1.145 9.236 11.07 12.83 15.09 16.75 20.51
6 0.8721 1.237 1.635 10.64 12.59 14.45 16.81 18.55 22.46
7 1.239 1.690 2.167 12.02 14.07 16.01 18.48 20.28 24.32
8 1.647 2.180 2.733 13.36 15.51 17.53 20.09 21.95 26.12
9 2.088 2.700 3.325 14.68 16.92 19.02 21.67 23.59 27.88
10 2.558 3.247 3.940 15.99 18.31 20.48 23.21 25.19 29.59
11 3.053 3.816 4.575 17.28 19.68 21.92 24.73 26.76 31.26
12 3.571 4.404 5.226 18.55 21.03 23.34 26.22 28.30 32.91
13 4.107 5.009 5.892 19.81 22.36 24.74 27.69 29.82 34.53
14 4.660 5.629 6.571 21.06 23.68 26.12 29.14 31.32 36.12
15 5.229 6.262 7.261 22.31 25.00 27.49 30.58 32.80 37.70
16 5.812 6.908 7.962 23.54 26.30 28.85 32.00 34.27 39.25
17 6.408 7.564 8.672 24.77 27.59 30.19 33.41 35.72 40.79
18 7.015 8.231 9.390 25.99 28.87 31.53 34.81 37.16 42.31
19 7.633 8.907 10.12 27.20 30.14 32.85 36.19 38.58 43.82
20 8.260 9.591 10.85 28.41 31.41 34.17 37.57 40.00 45.31
21 8.897 10.28 11.59 29.62 32.67 35.48 38.93 41.40 46.80
22 9.542 10.98 12.34 30.81 33.92 36.78 40.29 42.80 48.27
23 10.20 11.69 13.09 32.01 35.17 38.08 41.64 44.18 49.73
24 10.86 12.40 13.85 33.20 36.42 39.36 42.98 45.56 51.18
25 11.52 13.12 14.61 34.38 37.65 40.65 44.31 46.93 52.62
30 14.95 16.79 18.49 40.26 43.77 46.98 50.89 53.67 59.70
40 22.16 24.43 26.51 51.81 55.76 59.34 63.69 66.77 73.40
50 29.71 32.36 34.76 63.17 67.50 71.42 76.15 79.49 86.66
60 37.48 40.48 43.19 74.40 79.08 83.30 88.38 91.95 99.61
70 45.44 48.76 51.74 85.53 90.53 95.02 100.4 104.2 112.3
80 53.54 57.15 60.39 96.58 101.9 106.6 112.3 116.3 124.8
90 61.75 65.65 69.13 107.6 113.1 118.1 124.1 128.3 137.2
100 70.06 74.22 77.93 118.5 124.3 129.6 135.8 140.2 149.4
© OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables 111
GCE Mathematics
WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST
P is the sum of the ranks corresponding to the positive differences,
Q is the sum of the ranks corresponding to the negative differences,
T is the smaller of P and Q.
For each value of n the table gives the largest value of T which will lead to rejection of the null
hypothesis at the level of significance indicated.
Critical values of T
Level of significance
One Tail 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005
Two Tail 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.01
n = 6 2 0
7 3 2 0
8 5 3 1 0
9 8 5 3 1
10 10 8 5 3
11 13 10 7 5
12 17 13 9 7
13 21 17 12 9
14 25 21 15 12
15 30 25 19 15
16 35 29 23 19
17 41 34 27 23
18 47 40 32 27
19 53 46 37 32
20 60 52 43 37
For larger values of n, each of P and Q can be approximated by the normal distribution with mean
1
4
( 1) n n + and variance
1
24
( 1)(2 1) n n n + + .
112 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
WILCOXON RANK SUM TEST
The two samples have sizes m and n, where m n s .
m
R is the sum of the ranks of the items in the sample of size m.
W is the smaller of
m
R and ( 1)
m
m n m R + + ÷ .
For each pair of values of m and n, the table gives the largest value of W which will lead to
rejection of the null hypothesis at the level of significance indicated.
Critical values of W
Level of significance
One Tail 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.05 0.025 0.01
Two Tail 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.1 0.05 0.02
n m = 3 m = 4 m = 5 m = 6
3 6 – –
4 6 – – 11 10 –
5 7 6 – 12 11 10 19 17 16
6 8 7 – 13 12 11 20 18 17 28 26 24
7 8 7 6 14 13 11 21 20 18 29 27 25
8 9 8 6 15 14 12 23 21 19 31 29 27
9 10 8 7 16 14 13 24 22 20 33 31 28
10 10 9 7 17 15 13 26 23 21 35 32 29
Level of significance
One Tail 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.05 0.025 0.01
Two Tail 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.1 0.05 0.02 0.1 0.05 0.02
n m = 7 m = 8 m = 9 m = 10
7 39 36 34
8 41 38 35 51 49 45
9 43 40 37 54 51 47 66 62 59
10 45 42 39 56 53 49 69 65 61 82 78 74
For larger values of m and n, the normal distribution with mean
1
2
( 1) m m n + + and variance
1
12
( 1) mn m n + + should be used as an approximation to the distribution of
m
R .
© OCR 2010 Appendix B: Mathematical Notation 113
GCE Mathematics
Appendix B: Mathematical Notation
1 Set Notation
e is an element of
e is not an element of
{
1 2
, x x , …} the set with elements
1 2
, x x , …
{x: …} the set of all x such that …
n( ) A
the number of elements in set A
C the empty set
E the universal set
A' the complement of the set A
the set of natural numbers, {1, 2, 3, …}
the set of integers, {0, ±1, ±2, ±3, …}
+
the set of positive integers, {1, 2, 3, …}
n
the set of integers modulo n, {0, 1, 2, …, 1 n ÷ }
the set of rational numbers, : ,
p
p q
q
+
¦ ¹
e e
´ `
¹ )
+
the set of positive rational numbers, { } : 0 x x e >
0
+
set of positive rational numbers and zero, { } : 0 x x e >
the set of real numbers
+
the set of positive real numbers, { } : 0 x x e >
0
+
the set of positive real numbers and zero, { } : 0 x x e >
the set of complex numbers
( , ) x y the ordered pair x , y
A B ×
the cartesian product of sets A and B , i.e. { } ( , ) : , A B a b a A b B × = e e
_
is a subset of
c is a proper subset of
union
· intersection
[ , ] a b the closed interval { } : x a x b e s s
[ , ) a b the interval { } : x a x b e s <
114 Appendix B: Mathematical Notation © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
( , ] a b the interval { } : x a x b e < s
( , ) a b the open interval { } : x a x b e < <
y R x y is related to x by the relation R
~ y x
y is equivalent to x , in the context of some equivalence relation
2 Miscellaneous Symbols
=
is equal to
=
is not equal to
÷
is identical to or is congruent to
~
is approximately equal to
~
is isomorphic to
·
is proportional to
<
is less than
is less than or equal to, is not greater than
>
is greater than
is greater than or equal to, is not less than
·
infinity
p q .
p and q
p q v
p or q (or both)
~ p
not p
p q ¬
p implies q (if p then q )
p q :
p is implied by q (if q then p )
p q ·
p implies and is implied by q ( p is equivalent to q )

there exists
¬
for all
3 Operations
a b +
a plus b
a b ÷
a minus b
, , . a b ab a b ×
a multiplied by b
, , /
a
a b a b
b
÷
a divided by b
1
n
i
i
a
=
¿
a
1
+ a
2
+ … +a
n
© OCR 2010 Appendix B: Mathematical Notation 115
GCE Mathematics
1
n
i
i
a
=
[
1 2
a a × × …
n
a ×
a
the positive square root of a
a
the modulus of a
! n
n factorial
n
r
 

\ .
the binomial coefficient
!
!( )!
n
r n r ÷
for n
+
e
or
( 1)...( 1)
!
n n n r
r
÷ ÷ +
for ne
4 Functions
f( ) x
the value of the function f at x
f : A B ÷
f is a function under which each element of set A has an image in
set B
f : x y
the function f maps the element x to the element y
1
f
÷
the inverse function of the function f
gf
the composite function of f and g which is defined by
gf ( ) g(f( )) x x =
lim f( )
x a
x
÷
the limit of f( ) x as x tends to a
, x x o A
an increment of x
d
d
y
x
the derivative of y with respect to x
d
d
n
n
y
x
the n th derivative of y with respect to x
f ( ), f ( ) x x ' '' , …,
( )
f ( )
n
x
the first, second, ..., n th derivatives of f( ) x with respect to x
d y x
}
the indefinite integral of y with respect to x
d
b
a
y x
}
the definite integral of y with respect to x between the limits
x a = and x b =
V
x
c
c
the partial derivative of V with respect to x
, x x , … the first, second, ... derivatives of x with respect to t
116 Appendix B: Mathematical Notation © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
5 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
e
base of natural logarithms
e , exp
x
x
exponential function of x
log
a
x
logarithm to the base a of x
e
ln , log x x
natural logarithm of x
10
lg , log x x
logarithm of x to base 10
6 Circular and Hyperbolic Functions
sin, cos, tan
cosec, sec, cot
}
the circular functions
sin
1
, cos
1
, tan
1
cosec
1
, sec
1
, cot
1
}
the inverse circular functions
sinh, cosh, tanh
cosech, sech, coth
}
the hyperbolic functions
sinh
1
, cosh
1
, tanh
1
cosech
1
, sech
1
, coth
1
}
the inverse hyperbolic functions
7 Complex Numbers
i
square root of 1 ÷
z
a complex number, i (cos i sin ) z x y r u u = + = +
Re z
the real part of z , Re z x =
Imz
the imaginary part of z , Imz y =
z
the modulus of z ,
2 2
z x y = +
arg z
the argument of z , arg , z u t u t = ÷ < s
* z
the complex conjugate of z , i x y ÷
8 Matrices
M
a matrix M
1 ÷
M
the inverse of the matrix M
T
M
the transpose of the matrix M
det or M M
the determinant of the square matrix M
© OCR 2010 Appendix B: Mathematical Notation 117
GCE Mathematics
9 Vectors
a
the vector a
AB
the vector represented in magnitude and direction by the
directed line segment AB
ˆ a
a unit vector in the direction of a
, , i j k
unit vectors in the directions of the cartesian coordinate axes
, a a
the magnitude of a
, AB AB
the magnitude of AB
a.b
the scalar product of a and b
× a b
the vector product of a and b
10 Probability and Statistics
, , , etc. A B C
events
A B
union of the events A and B
A B ·
intersection of the events A and B
P( ) A
probability of the event A
A'
complement of the event A
P(  ) A B
probability of the event A conditional on the event B
, , , etc. X Y R
random variables
, , , etc. x y r
values of the random variables , , X Y R etc
1 2
, x x , …
observations
1 2
, f f , … frequencies with which the observations
1 2
, x x , … occur
p( ) x
probability function P( ) X x = of the discrete random variable X
1 2
, p p , … probabilities of the values
1 2
, x x , … of the discrete random variable X
f( ), g( ) x x , …
the value of the probability density function of a continuous random
variable X
F( ), G( ) x x , …
the value of the (cumulative) distribution function P( ) X x of a
continuous random variable X
E( ) X
expectation of the random variable X
E(g( )) X
expectation of g( ) X
Var( ) X
variance of the random variable X
G( ) t
probability generating function for a random variable which takes
the values 0, 1, 2, …
118 Appendix B: Mathematical Notation © OCR 2010
GCE Mathematics
B( , ) n p
binomial distribution with parameters n and p
2
N( , ) µ o
normal distribution with mean µ and variance
2
o
µ
population mean
2
o
population variance
o
population standard deviation
, x m
sample mean
2 2
ˆ , s o
unbiased estimate of population variance from a sample,
2 2
1
( )
1
i
s x x
n
= ÷
÷
¿

probability density function of the standardised normal variable
with distribution N(0, 1)
u
corresponding cumulative distribution function
µ
product moment correlation coefficient for a population
r
product moment correlation coefficient for a sample
Cov( , ) X Y
covariance of X and Y
Foreword
This booklet contains OCR’s specifications for Advanced Subsidiary GCE (AS) and Advanced GCE (A Level) Mathematics, and associated certification titles, for teaching from September 2004. It has been revised to take account of the changes to the GCE Mathematics Aggregation Rules from January 2008 and the introduction of the A* award for A Level Certifications from June 2010. Prior to 2008 GCE Mathematics and Further Mathematics were aggregated using the ‘least best’ method. Under this system candidates were awarded the highest possible grade for GCE Mathematics using the lowest possible uniform mark total and then the best grade for Further Mathematics using the remaining unit results. Candidates were able to decline awards if they planned to improve their grades in the future. From January 2008 a candidate wishing to improve their grade is no longer able to decline the original award; instead candidates make an entry for at least one of the GCE Mathematics’ units and make an entry for certification. GCE Mathematics and Further Mathematics are now aggregated by first establishing the best possible combination of grades and then selecting the unit combination which gives the highest uniform mark total for the GCE Mathematics. From June 2010 the A* grade was introduced to reward exceptional performance at A Level. For GCE Mathematics the A* grade is awarded based on performance in the Core 3 and Core 4 units. For Further Mathematics A Level the award of A* will be based on the results of the best three A2 units. Advanced Subsidiary GCE units are assessed at a standard appropriate for candidates who have completed the first year of study of a twoyear Advanced GCE course. A2 units are assessed at a standard appropriate for candidates who have completed a twoyear Advanced GCE course. Advanced Subsidiary GCE forms the first half of Advanced GCE in terms of teaching time and content. However, the Advanced Subsidiary can be taken as a ‘standalone’ qualification. In these specifications, the term module is used to describe specific teaching and learning requirements. The term unit describes a unit of assessment. Each teaching and learning module is assessed by an associated unit of assessment. These specifications meet the requirements of the Common Criteria (QCA, 1999), the GCE Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level QualificationSpecific Criteria (QCA, 2003) and the relevant Subject Criteria.
CONTENTS
Section A: SPECIFICATION SUMMARY Section B: General Information
1 Introduction
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Rationale Certification Title Language Exclusions Key Skills Code of Practice Requirements Spiritual, Moral, Ethical, Social and Cultural Issues Environmental Education, European Dimension and Health and Safety Issues Avoidance of Bias
5 10
10
10 11 11 12 13 14 14 14 14 14
1.10 Calculators and Computers
2 3
Specification Aims
2.1 3.1 3.2 Aims Application to AS/A2 Specification Grid Units of Assessment Structure Rules of Combination Final Certification Availability ReSits Unit Combinations Question Papers Coursework
15
15
Assessment Objectives
16
16 17
4
Scheme of Assessment
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9
19
19 19 21 23 25 25 26 29 30 30 31 31
4.10 Special Arrangements 4.11 Differentiation 4.12 Grade Descriptions
© OCR 2010
Contents GCE Mathematics
3
5
Specification Content
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 AS Module 4721: Core Mathematics 1 (C1) AS Module 4722: Core Mathematics 2 (C2) A2 Module 4723: Core Mathematics 3 (C3) A2 Module 4724: Core Mathematics 4 (C4) AS Module 4725: Further Pure Mathematics 1 (FP1) A2 Module 4726: Further Pure Mathematics 2 (FP2) A2 Module 4727: Further Pure Mathematics 3 (FP3) AS Module 4728: Mechanics 1 (M1) A2 Module 4729: Mechanics 2 (M2)
33
34 37 40 44 47 50 53 56 59 62 65 68 71 73 76 79 81
5.10 A2 Module 4730: Mechanics 3 (M3) 5.11 A2 Module 4731: Mechanics 4 (M4) 5.12 AS Module 4732: Probability and Statistics 1 (S1) 5.13 A2 Module 4733: Probability and Statistics 2 (S2) 5.14 A2 Module 4734: Probability and Statistics 3 (S3) 5.15 A2 Module 4735: Probability and Statistics 4 (S4) 5.16 AS Module 4736: Decision Mathematics 1 (D1) 5.17 A2 Module 4737: Decision Mathematics 2 (D2)
6
Further Information and Training for Teachers
83
Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables Appendix B: Mathematical Notation
84 113
4
Contents GCE Mathematics
© OCR 2010 Oxford, Cambridge and RSA Examinations
SECTION A: SPECIFICATION SUMMARY
COURSE OUTLINE
These specifications have been developed in line with the requirements of the revised Subject Criteria for Mathematics (QCA, 2003), while continuing to provide a straightforward assessment scheme that allows for a variety of different courses to be followed. The modules in the scheme cover the following areas: Core Mathematics (modules 4721 to 4724); Further Pure Mathematics (modules 4725 to 4727); Mechanics (modules 4728 to 4731); Probability and Statistics (modules 4732 to 4735); Decision Mathematics (modules 4736 and 4737).
SPECIFICATION CONTENT
The content defined in the QCA Subject Criteria as ‘core’ material for Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics is included within Core Mathematics C1 and C2 (modules 4721 and 4722), and that for Advanced GCE Mathematics is included within Core Mathematics C3 and C4 (modules 4723 and 4724).
SPECIFICATION UNITS
All units are externally assessed by a written examination of duration 1 hour 30 minutes; further details are shown in the table below. The weighting of each unit is 33 1 % if contributing to 3 Advanced Subsidiary GCE certification and 16 2 % if contributing to Advanced GCE certification. 3
Entry Code 4721 4722 4723 4724 4725 4726 4727 4728 4729 Unit Code C1* C2 C3 C4 FP1 FP2 FP3 M1 M2 Unit Name Core Mathematics 1* Core Mathematics 2 Core Mathematics 3 Core Mathematics 4 Further Pure Mathematics 1 Further Pure Mathematics 2 Further Pure Mathematics 3 Mechanics 1 Mechanics 2 Level AS AS A2 A2 AS A2 A2 AS A2 Entry Code 4730 4731 4732 4733 4734 4735 4736 4737 Unit Code M3 M4 S1 S2 S3 S4 D1 D2 Unit Name Mechanics 3 Mechanics 4 Probability and Statistics 1 Probability and Statistics 2 Probability and Statistics 3 Probability and Statistics 4 Decision Mathematics 1 Decision Mathematics 2 Level A2 A2 AS A2 A2 A2 AS A2
* indicates the unit in which no calculator may be used.
© OCR 2010 Section A: Specification Summary GCE Mathematics
5
SCHEME OF ASSESSMENT
Units at AS Level have been designed for candidates following the first year of a twoyear Advanced GCE course. Units at A2 Level have been designed for candidates following the second year of a twoyear Advanced GCE course.
Assessment is by means of three units of assessment for Advanced Subsidiary GCE and six units of assessment for Advanced GCE. Units C1, C2, FP1, M1, S1 and D1 are designated as AS units, while C3, C4, FP2, FP3, M2, M3, M4, S2, S3, S4 and D2 are designated as A2 units. The following combinations of units are available for certification.
Certification Title and Number Units Required
Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics (3890) Advanced Subsidiary GCE Pure Mathematics (3891) Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics (3892) Advanced GCE Mathematics (7890) Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics (7891) Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (7892)
C1 and C2, together with one of M1, S1, D1 C1, C2 and FP1 FP1 together with two other units which may not include any of C1, C2, C3, C4 C1, C2, C3 and C4, together with either two from M1, S1, D1 or M1, M2 or S1, S2 or D1, D2 C1, C2, C3, C4, FP1 and either FP2 or FP3 FP1 together with FP2 or FP3 or both, plus three or four other units, as appropriate
QUESTION PAPER REQUIREMENTS
For each unit in the scheme, the Question Paper consists of a number of questions of different lengths and mark allocations. The total mark for each paper is 72. Candidates attempt all questions. Each question paper has a duration of 1 hour 30 minutes. Question papers are designed to have a gradient of difficulty, with the more straightforward questions towards the beginning of the paper, and more demanding questions towards the end. Where appropriate there is also a gradient of difficulty within individual questions. No calculator may be used in answering unit C1; for all other units candidates may use a scientific or graphical calculator. Computers and calculators with computer algebra functions are not permitted in any of the units. Calculators are subject to the rules in the document Instructions for Conducting Examinations, published annually by the Joint Council for Qualifications (www.jcq.org.uk).
COURSEWORK REQUIREMENTS
There is no requirement for coursework associated with any of the units in these specifications.
6
Section A: Specification Summary GCE Mathematics
© OCR 2010
Core Mathematics 4 (C4) (A2 Unit 4724) Algebra and graphs. Algebra. MODULE CONTENT SUMMARY Core Mathematics 1 (C1) (AS Unit 4721) Indices and surds. Mathematical induction. Polynomials. Polar coordinates. it should be emphasised that. Roots of polynomial equations. However. Complex numbers. Sequences and series. Core Mathematics 3 (C3) (A2 Unit 4723) Algebra and functions. Further Pure Mathematics 1 (FP1) (AS Unit 4725) Summation of series. Differentiation and integration. there are no rules concerning either the order in which units should be taken or indeed which units should be taken in Year 12 and which in Year 13.UNIT COMBINATIONS The scheme of assessment has been designed to recognise the different stages of maturity of students following a two year GCE course. it is recognised that the needs of Centres differ and the scheme of assessment also includes other approaches within its structure and rules of combination set out in Sections 4.2 and 4. Integration. Numerical methods.7. Hyperbolic functions. AS Further Mathematics has been designed to broaden the mathematical experience of students and be independent from the A2 units of the Advanced GCE Mathematics course. Coordinate geometry and graphs. Differential equations. © OCR 2010 Section A: Specification Summary GCE Mathematics 7 .3. Numerical methods. Examples of common assessment patterns are given in Section 4. Trigonometry. Core Mathematics 2 (C2) (AS Unit 4722) Trigonometry. Further Pure Mathematics 2 (FP2) (A2 Unit 4726) Rational functions and graphs. Differentiation and integration. while the natural order would be to take AS units in Year 12 and A2 units in Year 13. Vectors. Nevertheless. Differentiation. Matrices. Differentiation and integration.
Energy. 2 tests. Rotation of a rigid body. Probability and Statistics 1 (S1) (AS Unit 4732) Representation of data. Probability. Impulse and momentum in two dimensions. Complex numbers. Elastic strings and springs. Bivariate data. Motion in a vertical circle. Probability and Statistics 3 (S3) (A2 Unit 4734) Continuous random variables. The normal distribution. Coefficient of restitution and impulse. Groups. Equilibrium of a rigid body. Linear momentum. The Poisson distribution. Sampling and hypothesis tests.Further Pure Mathematics 3 (FP3) (A2 Unit 4727) Differential equations. Centre of mass. Linear combinations of random variables. Probability and Statistics 2 (S2) (A2 Unit 4733) Continuous random variables. work and power. 8 Section A: Specification Summary GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . Stability and oscillations. Mechanics 3 (M3) (A2 Unit 4730) Equilibrium of rigid bodies in contact. Simple harmonic motion. Mechanics 1 (M1) (AS Unit 4728) Force as a vector. Mechanics 4 (M4) (A2 Unit 4731) Relative motion. Motion of a projectile. Uniform motion in a circle. Vectors. Linear motion under a variable force. Mechanics 2 (M2) (A2 Unit 4729) Centre of mass. Equilibrium of a particle. Moment of Inertia. Kinematics of motion in a straight line. Newton’s laws of motion. Discrete random variables. Confidence intervals and the t distribution. Difference of population means and proportions.
Estimators. © OCR 2010 Section A: Specification Summary GCE Mathematics 9 . Dynamic programming. Decision Mathematics 2 (D2) (A2 Unit 4737) Game theory. Critical path analysis. Graph theory. Decision Mathematics 1 (D1) (AS Unit 4736) Algorithms. Discrete bivariate distributions. Nonparametric tests. Probability generating functions.Probability and Statistics 4 (S4) (A2 Unit 4735) Probability. Linear programming. Networks. Matching and allocation problems. Moment generating functions. Flows in a network.
Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics (six units). Each teaching module is assessed by an associated unit of assessment. 10 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . The broad objectives in designing the scheme have been to include a sufficient range of mathematical topics to allow schools and colleges to devise courses to suit the varied requirements of a broad range of students. with each module representing about 45 hours of contact time.SECTION B: GENERAL INFORMATION 1 Introduction 1. 4721 to 4724). Advanced GCE Mathematics and Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics (nine units). Advanced Subsidiary GCE Pure Mathematics (three units). or directly into employment. while at the same time avoiding administrative complexity and maintaining comparability between different options. Titles listed in the bullet points above cover certification in the subjects ‘Mathematics’. Overview of Scheme Mathematics forms part of the suite of OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE modular specifications in which a single Advanced Subsidiary GCE comprises three teaching modules and a single Advanced GCE comprises six teaching modules. Advanced GCE Mathematics and Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (twelve units). Mechanics (four units. 4736 and 4737).1 RATIONALE The aim in preparing these Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE specifications has been to promote the teaching and learning of mathematics post GCSE in schools and colleges by providing a scheme that meets all the requirements of recent criteria while at the same time maintaining as far as possible features that have proved popular in recent past specifications. 4728 to 4731). Advanced GCE Mathematics (six units). The 17 units in the scheme cover the areas of Core Mathematics (four units. Students who successfully complete courses based on these specifications will have a suitable basis for progression to further study in mathematics or related subjects. Probability and Statistics (four units. Further Pure Mathematics (three units. ‘Pure Mathematics’ and ‘Further Mathematics’ and consequently the necessary combinations of modules meet in full the relevant requirements of the Subject Criteria for Mathematics (QCA. and Decision Mathematics (two units. 4725 to 4727). The scheme allows for certification of the following: Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics (three units). Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics and Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics (six units). 4732 to 4735). 2003).
ocr. In other units the use of a scientific or graphical calculator is permitted.3 LANGUAGE These specifications.uk. The language used in all question papers will be plain. The specifications are intended to build on the knowledge.The requirement of the subject criteria for assessments of specifications in Mathematics and Pure Mathematics to include one unit of the assessment which must be answered without the help of a calculator is met by forbidding all calculating aids in the examination on the first Core paper (Unit C1) in the scheme. free from bias and appropriate to the qualification. clear. OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Mathematics OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Pure Mathematics OCR Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Further Mathematics OCR Advanced GCE in Mathematics OCR Advanced GCE in Pure Mathematics OCR Advanced GCE in Further Mathematics (3890) (3891) (3892) (7890) (7891) (7892) 1. are available only in English.org. and all associated assessment materials.2 CERTIFICATION TITLE These specifications will be shown on a certificate as one or more of the following. and such use is encouraged wherever appropriate. Students embarking on an Advanced Subsidiary GCE or Advanced GCE course of study are expected to have achieved at least grade C in GCSE Mathematics and to have covered all the material for Intermediate Tier GCSE*. The specifications provide opportunities for the use of calculators and computers to enhance the learning process and to help develop mathematical understanding. understanding and skills established at GCSE. The mathematics content for the old Intermediate Tier GCSE can be found in the document Assumed Knowledge for GCE Mathematics. published on the OCR website. * GCSE Mathematics no longer has an Intermediate Tier. 1. www. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 11 .
No Advanced Subsidiary GCE qualification within these specifications may be taken with any other Advanced Subsidiary GCE having the same title. Every specification is assigned to a national classification code indicating the subject area to which it belongs. No Advanced GCE qualification within these specifications may be taken with any other Advanced GCE qualification having the same title.4 EXCLUSIONS Candidates for Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Further Mathematics are expected to have obtained or to be obtaining concurrently the Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Mathematics or the Advanced GCE in Mathematics. will have only one grade (the highest) counted for the purpose of the School and College Performance Tables. Candidates may not enter a unit from these Mathematics specifications and a unit with the same title from other Mathematics specifications. Advanced GCE in Pure Mathematics may not be taken with any other Advanced GCE qualification within these specifications. Candidates for Advanced GCE in Further Mathematics are expected to have obtained or to be obtaining concurrently an Advanced GCE in Mathematics.1. Centres should be aware that candidates who enter for more than one GCE qualification with the same classification code. The classification codes for these specifications are: Mathematics Further Mathematics Pure Mathematics 2210 2330 2230 12 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . Advanced Subsidiary GCE in Pure Mathematics may not be taken with any other Advanced Subsidiary GCE qualification within these specifications.
the following matrix indicates those Key Skills for which opportunities for at least some coverage of the relevant Key Skills unit exist at Level 3. For each module.1. For these content areas. Working With Others.5 KEY SKILLS These specifications provide opportunities for the development of the Key Skills of Communication. the document Key skills and GCE Mathematics on the OCR website provides guidance to teachers in identifying those parts of their teaching programme most appropriate to developing Key Skills. Improving Own Learning and Performance and Problem Solving as required by QCA’s subject criteria for Mathematics. Application of Number. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 13 . Information Technology. Module Communication Application of Number Information Technology Working with Others Improving Own Learning and Performance Problem Solving C1 C2 C3 C4 FP1 FP2 FP3 M1 M2 M3 M4 S1 S2 S3 S4 D1 D2 4721 4722 4723 4724 4725 4726 4727 4728 4729 4730 4731 4732 4733 4734 4735 4736 4737 Throughout the specification content in Section 5 the symbol is used in the margin to highlight where Key Skills development opportunities are signposted.
6 CODE OF PRACTICE REQUIREMENTS All qualifications covered by these specifications will comply in all aspects with the revised GCE Code of Practice for courses starting in September 2004. MORAL. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES Students are required to examine arguments critically and so to distinguish between truth and falsehood. 1.9 AVOIDANCE OF BIAS OCR has taken great care in the preparation of these specifications and assessment materials to avoid bias of any kind. when this inevitably raises moral. particularly in statistical work. 14 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . ETHICAL. EUROPEAN DIMENSION AND HEALTH AND SAFETY ISSUES OCR has taken account of the 1988 Resolution of the Council of the European Community and the Report Environmental Responsibility: An Agenda for Further and Higher Education.7 SPIRITUAL.1. 1. Such issues are not assessed in examination questions. 1. social and cultural issues.8 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION.10 CALCULATORS AND COMPUTERS Candidates are expected to make appropriate use of graphical calculators and computers. They are also expected to interpret the results of modelling exercises and there are times. ethical. 1993 in preparing these specifications and associated specimen assessment materials. 1.
develop an awareness of the relevance of mathematics to other fields of study. acquire the skills needed to use technology such as calculators and computers effectively.2 Specification Aims 2. develop abilities to reason logically and recognise incorrect reasoning. use mathematics as an effective means of communication. take increasing responsibility for their own learning and the evaluation of their own mathematical development. unstructured problems.1 AIMS The aims of these Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE specifications are to encourage students to: develop their understanding of mathematics and mathematical processes in a way that promotes confidence and fosters enjoyment. to generalise and to construct mathematical proofs. recognise how a situation may be represented mathematically and understand the relationship between ‘real world’ problems and standard and other mathematical models and how these can be refined and improved. to the world of work and to society in general. recognise when such use may be inappropriate and be aware of limitations. read and comprehend mathematical arguments and articles concerning applications of mathematics. extend their range of mathematical skills and techniques and use them in more difficult. develop an understanding of coherence and progression in mathematics and of how different areas of mathematics can be connected. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 15 .
including discussion of assumptions made and refinement of such models. including the construction of extended arguments for handling substantial problems presented in unstructured form. read critically and comprehend longer mathematical arguments or examples of applications. recognise and understand given representations involving standard models. concepts and techniques in a variety of contexts. AO2 construct rigorous mathematical arguments and proofs through use of precise statements. use the results of calculations to make predictions. select and use their knowledge of standard mathematical models to represent situations in the real world. Candidates should demonstrate that they can: AO1 recall. or comment on the context. AO4 comprehend translations of common realistic contexts into mathematics. AO3 recall. select and use their knowledge of mathematical facts. 16 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . give answers to appropriate accuracy. The Assessment Objectives for Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE are the same. and its limitations. where appropriate. present and interpret results from such models in terms of the original situation. AO5 use contemporary calculator technology and other permitted resources (such as formula booklets or statistical tables) accurately and efficiently.3 Assessment Objectives 3. understanding and skills prescribed.1 APPLICATION TO AS/A2 These specifications require candidates to demonstrate the following assessment objectives in the context of the knowledge. logical deduction and inference and by the manipulation of mathematical expressions. understand when not to use such technology.
D1 and D2 involves the application of mathematics. C3 and C4. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 17 . The content of the Advanced GCE subject criteria for Mathematics is included within units C1. 5%. 30%. Entry Code Unit Code C1 C2 C3 C4 FP1 FP2 FP3 M1 M2 M3 M4 S1 S2 S3 S4 D1 D2 Weighting of Assessment Objective Unit Name Level AO1 AO2 AO3 AO4 AO5 4721 4722 4723 4724 4725 4726 4727 4728 4729 4730 4731 4732 4733 4734 4735 4736 4737 Core Mathematics 1 Core Mathematics 2 Core Mathematics 3 Core Mathematics 4 Further Pure Mathematics 1 Further Pure Mathematics 2 Further Pure Mathematics 3 Mechanics 1 Mechanics 2 Mechanics 3 Mechanics 4 Probability and Statistics 1 Probability and Statistics 2 Probability and Statistics 3 Probability and Statistics 4 Decision Mathematics 1 Decision Mathematics 2 AS AS A2 A2 AS A2 A2 AS A2 A2 A2 AS A2 A2 A2 AS A2 3437 2632 2834 2834 2837 2635 2837 1217 1217 1217 1825 1217 1217 1217 1825 1217 1217 3437 2632 2834 2834 2837 2635 2837 1217 1217 1217 1825 1217 1217 1217 1825 1217 1217 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2232 2232 2232 1825 2232 2232 2232 1825 2232 2232 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 1115 1115 1115 510 1115 1115 1115 510 1115 1115 0 1115 610 610 05 510 05 510 510 510 05 510 510 510 05 0 0 Units C1 and C2 include the content of the Advanced Subsidiary GCE subject criteria for Mathematics. 5% respectively. All combinations of units that can lead to certification for Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics include one ‘applied’ unit. and all combinations of units that can lead to certification for Advanced GCE Mathematics include two ‘applied’ units.3. S1 to S4. 10%. The figures are the ranges of marks (out of a total of 72 for each unit) within which the number of marks relating to each Objective fall. The specification for each of the units M1 to M4. Each valid combination of units that can lead to certification for Advanced Subsidiary GCE or Advanced GCE Mathematics gives overall percentages that satisfy the requirement of the Subject Criteria that the figures for AO1 to AO5 should be 30%.2 SPECIFICATION GRID The relationship between Assessment Objectives and units of assessment is shown in the grid below. C2.
This ensures that any combination of units that can lead to certification in Mathematics or in Pure Mathematics at either Advanced Subsidiary GCE or Advanced GCE will satisfy the requirement in the QCA Subject Criteria that one assessment unit is calculatorfree. 18 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .For unit C1 candidates are not allowed the use of any calculation aids.
4 Scheme of Assessment 4. There are no restrictions on the sequence in which units may be taken. The table below shows all the units in the overall scheme. Mechanics (4728 to 4731).1 Recommended Order The units of the scheme are arranged into groups as follows: Core Mathematics (4721 to 4724).2 STRUCTURE 4. Entry Code 4721 4722 4723 4724 4725 4726 4727 4728 4729 Unit Code C1* C2 C3 C4 FP1 FP2 FP3 M1 M2 Unit Name Core Mathematics 1* Core Mathematics 2 Core Mathematics 3 Core Mathematics 4 Further Pure Mathematics 1 Further Pure Mathematics 2 Further Pure Mathematics 3 Mechanics 1 Mechanics 2 Level AS AS A2 A2 AS A2 A2 AS A2 Entry Code 4730 4731 4732 4733 4734 4735 4736 4737 Unit Code M3 M4 S1 S2 S3 S4 D1 D2 Unit Name Mechanics 3 Mechanics 4 Probability and Statistics 1 Probability and Statistics 2 Probability and Statistics 3 Probability and Statistics 4 Decision Mathematics 1 Decision Mathematics 2 Level A2 A2 AS A2 A2 A2 AS A2 * indicates the unit in which no calculator may be used. followed by a further three units if they are seeking an Advanced GCE award. 4. Within each group. and that questions in the later unit may require knowledge and use of the earlier material.2. except that while Further Pure Mathematics 2 and Further Pure Mathematics 3 both depend on Further Pure Mathematics 1 they do not depend on each other. Similarly. ‘Dependency’ of one unit on another means that in the assessment of the later unit the specification content of the earlier unit is assumed. ‘applied’ modules are dependent on certain Core and Further Pure Mathematics modules. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 19 . as detailed at the start of the content list in each case.1 UNITS OF ASSESSMENT Candidates take three units for Advanced Subsidiary GCE. Further Pure Mathematics (4725 to 4727). Probability and Statistics (4732 to 4735) Decision Mathematics (4736 and 4737). later units are dependent on earlier ones.
of core content and/or methods from earlier stages of the relevant application area. about 50% of the marks will be of a synoptic nature. It is important to appreciate that there are no rules concerning the order in which units are taken or concerning which units are taken in each year.2 Weighting For all certifications. 4.4 Assessment Routes Students who are intending to complete no more than six units over the course of two years will normally complete three AS units during Year 12 and certificate for Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics. Synoptic assessment in mathematics addresses students’ understanding of the connections between different elements of the subject. 4. for the ‘natural’ pattern described above. understanding and skills learned in different parts of the Advanced GCE course through using and applying methods developed at earlier stages of study in solving problems.7. there are advantages concerning the efficiency of teaching groups and it should be possible to arrange the teaching of the nine. each unit carries 331/3% of the total marks when contributing to Advanced Subsidiary GCE certification and 162/3% when contributing to Advanced GCE certification. much of the content of later modules builds on that of earlier ones. Many of these students will then continue their study of Mathematics in Year 13 and take three A2 units and finally certificate for Advanced GCE Mathematics at the end of Year 13. However. In the Core Modules C1 to C4.e.3 Synoptic Assessment The subject criteria for mathematics require that any combination of units valid for the certification of Advanced GCE Mathematics (7890) or Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics (7891) must include a minimum of 20% synoptic assessment.2. i. There are no requirements concerning synoptic assessment relating to the certification of Advanced Subsidiary GCE or to Advanced GCE Further Mathematics. Making and understanding connections in this way is intrinsic to learning mathematics.4. 20 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . and the synoptic assessment that also occurs within Unit C2 and within two ‘application’ units (in the case of Advanced GCE Mathematics) or two Further Pure Mathematics units (in the case of Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics) will ensure that the 20% requirement of the criteria is satisfied. so that the assessment of C3 and C4 in particular has a large synoptic element. While this would be the natural pattern for such students. to a greater or lesser extent. It involves the explicit drawing together of knowledge.and twelveunit students such that as many as six of these units can be taught in groups which also contain students who are following a sixunit programme. many other patterns exist and some examples of assessment routes are given in section 4. the units contributing are equally weighted.2. In the assessment units for C3 and C4. All ‘application’ modules make use.2.
C3.3.3. C2 and D1 4. C2 and S1 C1. (Note that units included in Advanced GCE Mathematics may not also be included in Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics.3. C2 and M1 C1. C4.2 Advanced GCE Mathematics (7890) Candidates take: C1. S1.) © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 21 .1 Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics (3890) Candidates take one of the following combinations: either or or C1.3 Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics (3892) Candidates for AS GCE Further Mathematics will be expected to have obtained. C2. D1 M1 and M2 S1 and S2 D1 and D2 4.4. C3 and C4 together with: either or or or any two from M1. Candidates take: FP1 together with two other units which may not include any of C1. C2.3 RULES OF COMBINATION 4. either AS or A Level Mathematics. or to be obtaining concurrently.
C2.3. 4.6 Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics (7891) Candidates take the three units listed above for Advanced Subsidiary GCE Pure Mathematics. C2 and FP1 A qualification in AS Pure Mathematics may not be obtained in the same series in combination with any qualification in Mathematics or Further Mathematics. They also take one of the following combinations: either or C3.3.3. A further three units are required which must include (unless already included in AS Further Mathematics) either FP2 or FP3.4 Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (7892) Candidates for Advanced GCE Further Mathematics will be expected to have obtained. or to be obtaining concurrently. (Note that units included in Advanced GCE Mathematics may not also be included in Advanced GCE Further Mathematics.5 Advanced Subsidiary GCE Pure Mathematics (3891) Candidates take the following combination: C1. Centres should contact OCR to check requirements in these cases. C4 and FP2 C3. Candidates may enter for OCR Advanced GCE Further Mathematics having obtained Advanced GCE Mathematics with a board other than OCR. Candidates take three units as described above for Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics. C3. C4. The six units must include at least three which are assessed at A2 standard. 22 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .4. an Advanced GCE in Mathematics. C4 and FP3 A qualification in Advanced GCE Pure Mathematics may not be obtained in the same series in combination with any qualification in Mathematics or Further Mathematics.) 4. and may not include any of C1.
1 Certification To claim an award at the end of the course. principal learning and project code of practice. available on the JCQ website. GCE. using procedures laid down by Ofqual in the document GCSE. Units that contribute to an award in Advanced GCE Mathematics may not also be used for an award in Advanced GCE Further Mathematics: Candidates awarded certificates in both Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics and Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics must use unit results from a minimum of six different teaching modules. For example. Candidates who are awarded certificates in both Advanced GCE Mathematics and Advanced GCE Further Mathematics must use unit results from a minimum of 12 different teaching modules Candidates are strongly advised to recertificate any previously entered GCE Mathematics qualifications whenever a certification entry is made for a GCE Mathematics qualification. candidates’ unit results must be aggregated. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 23 . The relationship between total Uniform Mark and subject grade follows the national scheme. This allows the grades awarded to be optimised according to the GCE Mathematics Aggregation Rules.4. Candidates may request certification entries for: either or or Advanced Subsidiary GCE Advanced GCE Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE in the same series provided they have entered the appropriate AS and A2 units detailed in section 4.4 FINAL CERTIFICATION Each unit is given a grade and a Uniform Mark. Candidates who are awarded certificates in both Advanced GCE Mathematics and Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics must use unit results from a minimum of nine different teaching modules. 4.3. Recertification of all previously entered qualifications unlocks all units and allows the optimisation of the pair of grades awarded.4. if a candidate certificates for A Level Mathematics the units used towards that qualification are ‘locked’ into Mathematics. This does not happen automatically and Centres must make separate ‘certification entries’. only the unused units are available for use in Further Mathematics. If the candidate then enters for AS or A Level Further Mathematics in a subsequent series.
the subject results are at that stage provisional to allow enquiries on results. the highest possible UMS in AS Mathematics. Note: In the aggregation process. the best possible grade for AS Further Mathematics.4. the best possible grade for Further Mathematics. in decreasing order of priority: the best possible grade for AS Mathematics. Advanced GCE qualifications are awarded on the scale A* to E or U.4 Extra Units A candidate may submit more than the required number of units for a subject award.4.g. If the only certifications being requested are Advanced Subsidiary GCE Mathematics at the same time as Advanced Subsidiary GCE Further Mathematics then the valid combination of units will be chosen that gives.4. e.5 Enquiries on Results Candidates will receive their final unit results at the same time as their subject results.4. the highest possible UMS in Mathematics. in order to achieve the best set of grades for a candidate as described above. it is possible that AS GCE Further Mathematics may include some A2 units. 4. If certification for Advanced GCE Mathematics is made at the same time as the request for Further Mathematics certification then the valid combination of units will be chosen that gives. in decreasing order of priority: the best possible grade for Mathematics. seven instead of six for an Advanced GCE. Enquiries concerning marking are made at the unit level and so only those units taken at the last sitting may be the subject of such appeals. Advanced Subsidiary GCE qualifications are awarded on the scale A to E or U (unclassified). In these cases the optimum combination of units will be chosen in accordance with the GCE Mathematics Aggregation Rules.4. 4.2 Order of Aggregation When a candidate has requested awards in both Mathematics and Further Mathematics. OCR will adopt the following procedures in accordance with the GCE Mathematics Aggregation Rules. Enquiries are subject to OCR’s general regulations. In common with other Advanced GCE results. 4.3 Awarding of Grades The Advanced Subsidiary has a weighting of 50% when used in an Advanced GCE award. 24 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .
All units are available in both the January and June sessions with the exception of S4 and M4 which are only available in June.6 RESITS 4.5. 4. in January and June. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 25 .3 Shelflife of Units Individual unit results.5. 4. have a shelflife limited only by that of the specification.5. 4.6.4.2 Certification Availability All GCE Mathematics qualifications are available for certification in both the January and the June sessions. 4.5 AVAILABILITY 4.2 Resits of Advanced Subsidiary GCE and Advanced GCE Candidates may take the whole qualification more than once.1 Resits of Units There is no limit to the number of times a candidate may resit a unit. The best result will count. prior to certification of the qualification.6.1 Unit Availability There are two examination sessions each year.
3. A Level 6 units over two years: Advanced GCE Mathematics (Decision option) Year 12 Year 13 Units taken C1 C2 D1 C3 C4 D2 Possible Certifications AS AS. while the natural order would be to take AS units in Year 12 and A2 units in Year 13. A Level 6 units over two years: Advanced GCE Mathematics (mixed Statistics and Mechanics option) Year 12 Year 13 Units taken C1 C2 S1 C3 C4 M1 Possible Certifications AS AS. it is recognised that the needs of Centres differ and the scheme of assessment also includes other approaches within its structure and rules of combination set out in Sections 4.7 UNIT COMBINATIONS The scheme of assessment has been designed to recognise the different stages of maturity of students following a two year GCE course. there are no rules concerning either the order in which units should be taken or indeed which units should be taken in Year 12 and which in Year 13.2 and 4. 6 units over two years: Advanced GCE Mathematics (mixed Statistics and Decision option) Year 12 Year 13 Units taken C1 C2 S1 C3 C4 D1 Possible Certifications AS AS. The illustrations below give a number of the more common assessment patterns. AS Further Mathematics has been designed to broaden the mathematical experience of students and be independent from the A2 units of the Advanced GCE Mathematics course. A Level 26 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . it should be emphasised that. 6 units over two years: Advanced GCE Mathematics (Mechanics option) Year 12 Year 13 Note: Units taken C1 C2 M1 C3 C4 M2 Possible Certifications AS AS. Nevertheless. However.4. A Level Statistics and Decision Mathematics options can be constructed in a similar way.
g. Note 2: * or FP2. A Level. AS Further AS. A Level. Note 2: * or FP3. AS Further Six of the nine units (e. AS Further AS. AS Further. 12 units over two years: Advanced GCE Mathematics + Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (balanced option) Year 12 Year 13 Units taken C1 C2 S1 M1 D1 FP1 C3 C4 S2 M2 D2 FP3* Possible Certifications AS. 12 units over two years: Advanced GCE Mathematics + Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (Statistics and Mechanics) Year 12 Year 13 Units taken C1 C2 C3 C4 S1 M1 FP1 FP2* S2 S3 M2 M3 Possible Certifications AS.g. AS Further. A Level.g. A Level. C1 C2 S1 C3 C4 S2) could be cotaught with students who are taking only six units. A Level Further Note 1: This pattern of assessment does not have the advantage of being able to coteach some of the units with students who are taking only six units. C1 C2 M1 C3 C4 M2) could be cotaught with students who are taking only six units. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 27 . 9 units over two years: Advanced GCE Mathematics + AS Further Mathematics Year 12 Year 13 Note: Units taken C1 C2 S1 M1 D1 FP1 C3 C4 M2 Possible Certifications AS. AS Further AS. A Level AS.9 units over two years: Advanced GCE Mathematics + AS Further Mathematics Year 12 Year 13 Note: Units taken C1 C2 S1 M1 D1 FP1 C3 C4 S2 Possible Certifications AS. C1 C2 M1 C3 C4 M2) could be cotaught with students who are taking only six units. A Level Further Note 1: Six of the 12 units (e. AS Further Six or more of the nine units (e.
A Level AS. A Level Mathematics. 28 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .12 units over two years: Advanced GCE Mathematics + Advanced GCE Further Mathematics (Pure and Mechanics) Year 12 Year 13 Units taken C1 C2 C3 C4 M1 S1 FP1 FP2 FP3 M2 M3 M4 Possible Certifications AS. or are obtaining concurrently. A Level. either AS Mathematics or A Level Mathematics. AS Further. or are obtaining concurrently. Candidates may not certificate for A Level Further Mathematics unless they have already obtained. Candidates may not certificate for AS Further Mathematics unless they have already obtained. AS Further 6 units over one year: Advanced GCE Mathematics (Statistics option) Year 12 Note: Units taken C1 C2 C3 C4 S1 S2 Possible Certifications AS. The following examples illustrate possible options for students who decide not to continue with Mathematics in Year 13. A Level Further Note: This pattern of assessment does not have the advantage of being able to coteach some of the units with students who are taking only six units. 6 units over one year: AS Mathematics + AS Further Mathematics Year 12 Units taken C1 C2 S1 M1 D1 FP1 Possible Certifications AS. A Level Mechanics and Decision Mathematics options can be constructed in a similar way.
M2. precise and appropriate mathematical language. FP2. and carrying a total of 72 marks. 4.8. S4 and D2 are designated as A2 units. M3. of duration 1 hour and 30 minutes. and more demanding questions towards the end. C2.8. Centres may disadvantage their candidates by entering them for a unit examination before they are ready. FP1. C4.8 QUESTION PAPERS The examination on each unit is by means of a single written paper. S3. FP3. M1. Where appropriate there is also a gradient of difficulty within individual longer questions. with the more straightforward questions towards the beginning of the paper. S2. The order in which the questions are printed in the paper will generally correspond to increasing numbers of marks for questions. as described in Assessment Objective 2. while units C3. S1 and D1 are designated as AS units. Candidates should attempt all the questions. Question papers are designed to have a gradient of difficulty. 4. Units C1. M4.4.1 Use of Language Candidates are expected to use clear.2 Standard Candidates and Centres must note that each A2 unit is assessed at Advanced GCE standard and that no concessions are made to any candidate on the grounds that the examination has been taken early in the course. Each question paper consists of a number of questions of different lengths and mark allocations. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 29 .
8.10 SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS For candidates who are unable to complete the full assessment or whose performance may be adversely affected through no fault of their own. Typically candidates are expected to achieve about four fifths of the marks available to achieve a grade. In such cases advice should be sought from OCR as early as possible during the course. and calculators with computer algebra functions.5 Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables A booklet (MF1) containing Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables is available for the use of candidates in all unit examinations. Calculators are subject to the rules in the document Instructions for Conducting Examinations. These formulae include all those specified in the subject criteria together with others of comparable significance relating to noncore modules. each examination paper will be designed so that 50% of the marks are available to grade E candidates. Details of the items included in this booklet are contained in appendix A. 75% to grade C and 100% to grade A. 30 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . Those formulae which candidates are required to know. Thus some variation from the design grades can be expected in the Award.8. 4. They make allowance for examination performance and for any features of a particular paper that only become apparent after it has been taken. teachers should consult the JCQ document Access Arrangements. Reasonable Adjustments and Special Consideration.org. C 60%. published annually by the Joint Council for Qualifications (www. D 50% and E 40%. For all other units candidates are permitted to use scientific or graphical calculators.jcq.4. giving design grades of: A 80%.3 Thresholds At the time of setting. are not permitted in answering any of the units. 4. and which are not included in the booklet of Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables. are listed within the specification of the first module for which they may be required. Computers.uk).4 Calculators No calculating aids may be used in answering Unit C1.9 COURSEWORK There is no requirement for assessed coursework for any of the units in these specifications. B 70 %. 4.8. 4. The actual grading is carried out by the Awarding Committee.
Candidates make appropriate and efficient use of contemporary calculator technology and other permitted resources. Shortcomings in some aspects of the examination may be balanced by better performance in others.12 GRADE DESCRIPTIONS The following grade descriptions indicate the level of attainment characteristic of the given grade at Advanced GCE. If errors are made in their calculations or logic. Candidates manipulate mathematical expressions and use graphs. The Advanced Subsidiary GCE is awarded on the scale A to E or U (unclassified). They give a general indication of the required learning outcomes at each specified grade. When confronted with unstructured problems they can often devise and implement an effective solution strategy. They correctly refer results from calculations using the model to the original situation. these are sometimes noticed and corrected. They correctly refer the results of calculations back to the given context and usually make sensible comments or predictions.11 DIFFERENTIATION In the question papers. Candidates recall or recognise almost all the standard models that are needed. and select appropriate ones to represent a wide variety of situations in the real world. sketches and diagrams. and select appropriate ones to use in a wide variety of contexts. Grade A Candidates recall or recognise almost all the mathematical facts. The grade awarded will depend in practice upon the extent to which the candidate has met the assessment objectives overall. The Advanced GCE has an additional grade of A* at the top end to reward exceptional performance. They present results to an appropriate degree of accuracy. differentiation is achieved by setting questions which are designed to assess candidates at their appropriate level of ability and which are intended to allow all candidates to demonstrate what they know. They make intelligent comments on the modelling assumptions and possible refinements to the model. all with high accuracy and skill. 4. They can comment meaningfully on the mathematical information. and are aware of any limitations to their use. Candidates comprehend or understand the meaning of almost all translations into mathematics of common realistic contexts.4. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 31 . They can distil the essential mathematical information from extended pieces of prose having mathematical content. They use mathematical language correctly and proceed logically and rigorously through extended arguments or proofs. concepts and techniques that are needed. they are not designed to define that content. The descriptions should be interpreted in relation to the content outlined in the specification. understand and can do. they give sensible interpretations of their results in the context of the original realistic situation.
and usually select appropriate ones to use in a variety of contexts. and sometimes select appropriate ones to use in some contexts. they try to interpret their results in the context of the original realistic situation. Candidates usually make appropriate and efficient use of contemporary calculator technology and other permitted resources. They sometimes use mathematical language correctly and occasionally proceed logically through extended arguments or proofs. They sometimes correctly refer results from calculations using the model to the original situation. concepts and techniques that are needed. 32 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . They give some useful comments on this mathematical information. They sometimes make intelligent comments on the modelling assumptions and possible refinements to the model.Grade C Candidates recall or recognise most of the mathematical facts. and usually select appropriate ones to represent a variety of situations in the real world. Grade E Candidates recall or recognise some of the mathematical facts. Candidates recall or recognise most of the standard models that are needed. sketches and diagrams. They attempt to comment on this mathematical information. They usually present results to an appropriate degree of accuracy. They distil some of the essential mathematical information from extended pieces of prose having mathematical content. and are sometimes aware of any limitations to their use. They occasionally notice and correct errors in their calculations. Candidates sometimes comprehend or understand the meaning of translations into mathematics of common realistic contexts. they sometimes give sensible interpretations of their results in the context of the original realistic situation. all with some accuracy and skill. When confronted with unstructured problems they sometimes devise and implement an effective and efficient solution strategy. They sometimes correctly refer the results of calculations back to the given context and attempt to give comments or predictions. Candidates manipulate mathematical expressions and use graphs. all with a reasonable level of accuracy and skill. They often correctly refer results from calculations using the model to the original situation. Candidates often make appropriate and efficient use of contemporary calculator technology and other permitted resources. Candidates manipulate mathematical expressions and use graphs. concepts and techniques that are needed. Candidates recall or recognise some of the standard models that are needed. sketches and diagrams. They use mathematical language with some skill and sometimes proceed logically through extended arguments or proofs. Candidates comprehend or understand the meaning of most translations into mathematics of common realistic contexts. They often correctly refer the results of calculations back to the given context and sometimes make sensible comments or predictions. They distil much of the essential mathematical information from extended pieces of prose having mathematical content. and sometimes select appropriate ones to represent a variety of situations in the real world. They often present results to an appropriate degree of accuracy.
‘sufficient’. disproof by counterexample may be set. ‘because’. . and that topics may be tested in the context of solving problems and in the application of Mathematics. In A2 units. consisting of logical deductions and precise statements involving correct use of symbols and connecting language. ‘necessary’. questions that require proof by contradiction. ‘is implied by’. ‘identically equals’. and notations such as . candidates are expected to understand the nature of a mathematical proof. terms such as ‘equals’. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 33 . and should be understood and used accurately. In all examinations candidates are expected to construct and present clear mathematical arguments. In addition. ‘therefore’. In particular. ‘implies’.5 Specification Content It should be noted that individual questions may involve ideas from more than one section of the relevant content.
5. Algebra Solution of ax 2 bx c 0 is x b b 2 4ac 2a Discriminant of ax 2 bx c is b 2 4ac Coordinate Geometry Equation of the straight line through ( x1. y1 ) with gradient m is y y1 m( x x1 ) Straight lines with gradients m1 and m2 are perpendicular when m1m2 1 Equation of the circle with centre (a. Candidates should know the following formulae.1 AS MODULE 4721: CORE MATHEMATICS 1 (C1) Preamble No calculators are permitted in the assessment of this unit. b) and radius r is ( x a) 2 ( y b) 2 r 2 Differentiation If y x n then dy nx n 1 dx If y f( x) g( x) then dy f ( x) g( x) dx 34 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination.
y y1 m( x x1 ) and ax by c 0 . e. gradient and midpoint of a linesegment. including rationalising denominators of the Polynomials Candidates should be able to: (a) carry out operations of addition.Indices and Surds Candidates should be able to: (a) understand rational indices (positive. (e) solve by substitution a pair of simultaneous equations of which one is linear and one is quadratic. and multiplication of polynomials (including expansion of brackets. (c) understand and use the relationships between the gradients of parallel and perpendicular lines. (b) recognise the equivalence of surd and index notation (e. (b) carry out the process of completing the square for a quadratic polynomial ax 2 bx c . (d) interpret and use linear equations. in one unknown. to determine the number of real roots of the equation ax 2 bx c 0 . b) and radius r. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 35 . (f) recognise and solve equations in x which are quadratic in some function of x. and use this form. (e) understand that the equation ( x a ) 2 ( y b) 2 r 2 represents the circle with centre (a. (d) solve quadratic equations. e. negative and zero). subtraction. collection of like terms and simplifying). the coordinates of two points on it. x 3 5x 3 4 0 .g. and use laws of indices in the course of algebraic applications. e. a a . given the coordinates of its endpoints. (b) find the equation of a straight line given sufficient information (e. to locate the vertex of the graph of y ax 2 bx c . or one point on it and its gradient). 2 1 Coordinate Geometry and Graphs Candidates should be able to: (a) find the length. and linear and quadratic inequalities. (c) find the discriminant of a quadratic polynomial ax 2 bx c and use the discriminant. 1 2 3 a a ).g. particularly the forms y mx c . form a b .g. 2 2 3 (c) use simple properties of surds such as 12 3 .g.g.
(iv) y f( x) . where a is a constant. rates of change. Differentiation Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the gradient of a curve at a point as the limit of the gradients of a suitable sequence of chords (an informal understanding only is required. y f( x a) .(f) use algebraic methods to solve problems involving lines and circles. (ii) y k x . the perpendicular from the centre to a chord bisects the chord. (d) apply differentiation (including applications to practical problems) to gradients. but identification of points of inflexion is not included). the perpendicularity of radius and tangent). sums and differences. understanding of the correspondence between a line being tangent to a curve and a repeated root of an equation). 36 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . where n is a positive or negative integer and k is a constant. including the use of the equation of a circle in expanded form x 2 y 2 2 gx 2 fy c 0 (knowledge of the following circle properties is included: the angle in a semicircle is a right angle. (h) sketch curves with equations of the form (i) y kx n . (b) understand the ideas of a derived function and second order derivative. y a f( x) . and interpret geometrically the algebraic solution of equations (to include. tangents and normals. f ( x ) . b and c are constants. y f(ax) . and the technique of differentiation from first principles is not included). and express the transformations involved in terms of translations. reflections and stretches. in simple cases. use points of intersection of graphs to solve equations. f ( x ) . (g) understand the relationship between a graph and its associated algebraic equation. and use the notations dy d2 y and . not necessarily all distinct. increasing and decreasing functions. where a. dx dx 2 (c) use the derivative of x n (for any rational n). and the location of stationary points (the ability to distinguish between maximum points and minimum points is required. (iii) y ax 2 bx c . (i) understand and use the relationships between the graphs of y f( x) . where f( x) is the product of at most 3 linear factors. where k is a constant. y f( x) a . together with constant multiples.
5. Candidates should know the following formulae.2 AS MODULE 4722: CORE MATHEMATICS 2 (C2) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Module C1 is assumed. none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination. Algebra The remainder when a polynomial f( x) is divided by ( x a ) is f(a ) ab c b log a c Laws of logarithms: log a x log a y log a ( xy ) x log a x log a y log a y k log a x log a ( x k ) Trigonometry In triangle ABC: a b c sin A sin B sin C Area 1 ab sin C 2 tan sin cos cos 2 sin 2 1 radians is 180 For a sector of a circle: s r A 1 r 2 2 © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 37 . and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit C2.
45 . cos30 1 3 . Sequences and Series Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the idea of a sequence of terms. 2 (c) understand the definition of a radian. cosine and tangent of 30 . cosine and tangent functions to the form of their graphs. (d) use the formulae s r and A 1 r 2 for the arc length and sector area of a circle. 2 (h) find all the solutions. and of equations (for example. 2 (e) relate the periodicity and symmetries of the sine. and use definitions such as un n 2 and relations such as un 1 2un to calculate successive terms and deduce simple properties. tan(kx) c . within a specified interval. (b) use the area formula 1 ab sin C . a quadratic in sin x ) which are easily reducible to these forms. (b) understand and use notation. 60 e. (n 1) n 1 {f ( x) g( x)}dx f( x) g( x) c Area between a curve and the xaxis is Area between a curve and the yaxis is a y dx d b (for y 0 ) c x dy (for x 0 ) Trigonometry Candidates should be able to: (a) use the sine and cosine rules in the solution of triangles (excluding the ambiguous case of the sine rule). (d) use the formulae for the nth term and for the sum of the first n terms to solve problems involving arithmetic or geometric progressions (including the formula 1 n(n 1) for the sum of 2 the first n natural numbers). cos (g) use the exact values of the sine.g. cos(kx) c . 38 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .Integration x n dx 1 n 1 x c. (c) recognise arithmetic and geometric progressions. and use the relationship between degrees and radians. of the equations sin(kx) c . (f) use the identities tan sin and cos 2 sin 2 1 .
(e) use the trapezium rule to estimate the area under a curve. (c) sketch the graph of y a x . (f) use the expansion of ( a b) n where n is a positive integer. where a 0 . 0 x 1 1 2 dx and 1 2 x dx . (b) solve problems involving the evaluation of a constant of integration. to determine whether the trapezium rule gives an overestimate or an underestimate. and use the laws of logarithms (excluding change of base). and the formula for the sum to infinity of a convergent geometric series. the curve through ( 1. to find the equation of dy 2x 1 . including the recognition and use of the notations n and n! (finding a general term is not included). (e. or between two curves or between a line and a curve. and integrate x n (for any rational n except 1 ). r Algebra Candidates should be able to: (a) use the factor theorem and the remainder theorem. (e) use logarithms to solve equations of the form a x b .g.g. in simple cases. and similar inequalities. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 39 . 2) for which dx (c) evaluate definite integrals (including e. (d) use integration to find the area of a region bounded by a curve and lines parallel to the coordinate axes. together with constant multiples.(e) use the condition r 1 for convergence of a geometric series. and understand how different values of a affect the shape of the graph. sums and differences. Integration Candidates should be able to: (a) understand indefinite integration as the reverse process of differentiation. and use sketch graphs. (b) carry out simple algebraic division (restricted to cases no more complicated than division of a cubic by a linear polynomial). (d) understand the relationship between logarithms and indices.
Candidates should know the following formulae.3 A2 MODULE 4723: CORE MATHEMATICS 3 (C3) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 and C2 is assumed.g( x) then If y f( x) dy f ( x) g( x) f( x) g( x) then dx g( x) {g( x)}2 dy dx 1 dx dy 40 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . Trigonometry sec 1 cos 1 sin cosec cot 1 tan sec 2 1 tan 2 cosec2 1 cot 2 sin 2 A 2sin A cos A cos 2 A cos 2 A sin 2 A 2cos 2 A 1 1 2sin 2 A tan 2 A 2 tan A 1 tan 2 A Differentiation and Integration If y e kx then If y ln x then dy k e kx dx dy 1 dx x dy f ( x)g( x) f( x) g( x) dx If y f( x). and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit C3.5. none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination.
(i) understand exponential growth and decay. and find the inverse of a oneone function in simple cases. dt dx dt Connected rates of change: e kx dx 1 kx e c k 1 dx ln x c x Volumes of revolution about the axes: Vx y 2 dx a b V y x 2 dy c d Algebra and Functions Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the terms function. (e) use and recognise compositions of transformations of graphs. (g) understand the relationship between the graphs of y f( x) and y f( x) . domain. inverse function and composition of functions. such as the relationship between the graphs of y f( x) and y a f( x b) . (f) understand the meaning of x and use relations such as a b a 2 b 2 and x a b a b x a b in the course of solving equations and inequalities. (h) understand the properties of the exponential and logarithmic functions e x and ln x and their graphs.If y f(g( x)) then dy f (g( x)) g( x) dx dy dy dx . © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 41 . (c) determine whether or not a given function is oneone. and find the composition of two given functions. where a and b are constants. (b) identify the range of a given function in simple cases. range. (d) illustrate in graphical terms the relation between a oneone function and its inverse. including their relationship as inverse functions. oneone function.
(f) integrate e x and 1 . e3 x 2 .) 42 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . cos 1 x . and select an identity or identities appropriate to the context. (iii) the formulae for sin 2 A . (b) understand the relationship of the secant. together with constant multiples.Trigonometry Candidates should be able to: (a) use the notations sin 1 x . sums. (c) use trigonometrical identities for the simplification and exact evaluation of expressions. showing familiarity in particular with the use of (i) sec2 1 tan 2 and cosec 2 1 cot 2 . Differentiation and Integration Candidates should be able to: (a) use the derivatives of e x and ln x . rotated about the xaxis. cos 2 A and tan 2 A . for example. dx dy (e) apply differentiation to connected rates of change. (2 x 1)8 . sums. and relate their graphs (for the appropriate domains) to those of sine. (d) understand and use the relation dy dx 1 . (c) differentiate products and quotients. cos( A B) and tan( A B) . and in the course of solving equations within a specified interval. and differences.g. sine and tangent. together with constant multiples. (h) use definite integration to find a volume of revolution about one of the coordinate axes (including. tan 1 x to denote the principal values of the inverse trigonometric relations. (b) differentiate composite functions using the chain rule. x (g) integrate expressions involving a linear substitution. e. the region between the curves y x 2 and y x . and use properties and graphs of all six trigonometric functions for angles of any magnitude. and differences. (ii) the expansions of sin( A B) . (iv) the expression of a sin b cos in the forms R sin( ) and R cos( ) . cosine and tangent. cosecant and cotangent functions to cosine.
to determine a root to a prescribed degree of accuracy (knowledge of the condition for convergence is not included. and use a given iteration. and use the notation for. (c) understand how a given simple iterative formula of the form xn 1 F( xn ) relates to the equation being solved. a sequence of approximations which converges to a root of an equation. (d) carry out numerical integration of functions by means of Simpson’s rule. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 43 . or an iteration based on a given rearrangement of an equation.2 IT3.3 Candidates should be able to: (a) locate approximately a root of an equation. but Candidates should understand that an iteration may fail to converge). by means of graphical considerations and/or searching for a signchange.Numerical Methods C3. (b) understand the idea of.3 IT3.
5.b a b cos Equation of a line through a parallel to b is r a tb 44 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . C2 and C3 is assumed.( xi yj zk ) ax by cz a.4 A2 MODULE 4724: CORE MATHEMATICS 4 (C4) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1. Candidates should know the following formulae. and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit C4. none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination. Differentiation and Integration If y sin kx then If y cos kx then 1 dy k cos kx dx dy k sin kx dx cos kx dx k sin kx c sin kx dx k cos kx c 1 f (g( x)) g( x) dx f(g( x)) c Vectors xi yj zk x 2 y 2 z 2 (ai bj ck ).
and identify the quotient and remainder (which may be zero). (ii) (ax b)(cx d ) 2 . 2 or tan x . (d) use the expansion of (1 x) n where n is a rational number and x 1 (finding a general term is not included. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 45 . and carry out the decomposition. f( x) x 1 (g) recognise when an integrand can usefully be regarded as a product.g. in cases where the denominator is no more complicated than (i) (ax b)(cx d )(ex f ) . Differentiation and Integration Candidates should be able to: (a) use the derivatives of sin x . but adapting the standard series to expand. x sin 2 x . (b) divide a polynomial. (c) extend the idea of ‘reverse differentiation’ to include the integration of trigonometric functions (e.g. (e) understand the use of a pair of parametric equations to define a curve. (b) find and use the first derivative of a function which is defined parametrically or implicitly. ln x (the relationship between integration by parts and differentiation of a product should be understood). e. and where the degree of the numerator is less than that of the denominator. (d) use trigonometric relations (such as double angle formulae) in order to facilitate the integration of functions such as cos 2 x . (f) convert the equation of a curve between parametric and cartesian forms.Algebra and Graphs Candidates should be able to: (a) simplify rational expressions. together with sums. (e) integrate rational functions by means of decomposition into partial fractions (restricted to the types of partial fractions specified above in Algebra and graphs). x 2 e x . by a linear or quadratic polynomial. including factorising and cancelling. (c) recall an appropriate form for expressing rational functions in partial fractions. cos x and tan x . (f) recognise an integrand of the form x k f ( x) . for example. and integrate. 2 1 x 2 1 is included). of degree not exceeding 4. and use a given parametric representation of a curve in simple cases. (h) use a given substitution to simplify and evaluate either a definite or an indefinite integral (the relationship between integration by substitution and the chain rule should be understood). cos x and sec 2 2x ). for example. and use integration by parts to integrate. differences and constant multiples.
First Order Differential Equations Candidates should be able to: (a) formulate a simple statement involving a rate of change as a differential equation. (h) find the angle between two lines. and the point of intersection of two lines when it exists. including the introduction if necessary of a constant of proportionality. and use the scalar product to determine the angle between two directions and to solve problems concerning perpendicularity of vectors. and interpret these operations in geometrical terms. position vectors and displacement vectors. Vectors Candidates should be able to: x (a) use standard notations for vectors. (b) find by integration a general form of solution for a differential equation in which the variables are separable. (c) use unit vectors. (g) determine whether two lines are parallel. and identify the magnitude of a displacement vector AB as being the distance between the points A and B. xi yj zk . (c) use an initial condition to find a particular solution of a differential equation. intersect or are skew. a. AB . (d) interpret the solution of a differential equation in the context of a problem being modelled by the equation. (e) calculate the scalar product of two vectors (in either two or three dimensions). (d) calculate the magnitude of a vector. 46 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . y . i. z (b) carry out addition and subtraction of vectors and multiplication of a vector by a scalar. (f) understand the significance of all the symbols used when the equation of a straight line is expressed in the form r a tb .e.
(b) use the method of differences to obtain the sum of a finite series. and carry this out in simple cases.5. by direct consideration of the sum to n terms. (c) recognise. . r 2 . to find the nth power of the matrix 1 1 .g.5 AS MODULE 4725: FURTHER PURE MATHEMATICS 1 (FP1) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 and C2 is assumed. when a series is convergent. Algebra r 1 n(n 1) 2 r 1 n For ax 2 bx c 0 : For ax3 bx 2 cx d 0 : . e. Candidates should know the following formulae. Proof by Induction Candidates should be able to: (a) use the method of mathematical induction to establish a given result (not restricted to summation of series). and find the sum to infinity in such cases. b a c a b c d . 0 1 © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 47 . a a a Matrices ( AB) 1 B 1A 1 Summation of Series Candidates should be able to: (a) use the standard results for r . (b) recognise situations where conjecture based on a limited trial followed by inductive proof is a useful strategy. r 3 to find related sums. and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit FP1. none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination.
(d) represent complex numbers geometrically by means of an Argand diagram.g. ‘argument’. for a polynomial equation with real coefficients. arg( z a) . ‘conjugate’. z a z b . (e) find the two square roots of a complex number. Complex Numbers Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the idea of a complex number. any nonreal roots occur in conjugate pairs. ‘modulus’. multiplication and division of two complex numbers expressed in cartesian form ( x i y ) . ‘imaginary part’. z a k . and use the fact that two complex numbers are equal if and only if both real and imaginary parts are equal. (b) carry out operations of addition. (f) illustrate simple equations and inequalities involving complex numbers by means of loci in an Argand diagram. e. 48 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . and understand the geometrical effects of conjugating a complex number and of adding and subtracting two complex numbers. (b) use a given simple substitution to obtain an equation whose roots are related in a simple way to those of the original equation.Roots of Polynomial Equations Candidates should be able to: (a) use the relations between the symmetric functions of the roots of polynomial equations and the coefficients (for equations of degree 2 or 3 only). (c) use the result that. subtraction. recall the meaning of the terms ‘real part’.
(c) understand and use the result. evaluate determinants and find inverses of nonsingular matrices. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 49 . or 3 equations in 3 unknowns. (e) formulate a problem involving the solution of 2 linear simultaneous equations in 2 unknowns. ‘stretch’ and ‘shear’ will be required). that ( AB) 1 B 1A 1 . (b) recall the meaning of the terms ‘singular’ and ‘nonsingular’ as applied to square matrices. (ii) recall how the area scalefactor of a transformation is related to the determinant of the corresponding matrix. and vice versa. for nonsingular matrices. and recognise the terms null (or zero) matrix and identity (or unit) matrix. ‘reflection’. for 2 2 and 3 3 matrices. (f) understand the cases that may arise concerning the consistency or inconsistency of 2 or 3 linear simultaneous equations. subtraction and multiplication. ‘enlargement’. and solve consistent systems. and. and in particular (i) recognise that the matrix product AB represents the transformation that results from the transformation represented by B followed by the transformation represented by A. (iii) find the matrix that represents a given transformation or sequence of transformations (understanding of the terms ‘rotation’. as a problem involving the solution of a matrix equation. relate them to the singularity or otherwise of the corresponding square matrix. (d) understand the use of 2 2 matrices to represent certain geometrical transformations in the xy plane.Matrices Candidates should be able to: (a) carry out operations of matrix addition.
and in which the degree of the numerator may exceed the degree of the denominator. and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit FP2. none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination. (c) understand and use the relationship between the graphs of y f( x) and y 2 f( x) .5. C3. C4 and FP1 is assumed. (ii) any restrictions on the values taken by the function.6 A2 MODULE 4726: FURTHER PURE MATHEMATICS 2 (FP2) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1. including in particular (i) asymptotic behaviour (understanding of oblique asymptotes. (b) determine the salient features of the graph of a rational function for which the numerator and denominator are of degree at most 2. 50 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .4. C2. is expected). Hyperbolic Functions cosh x 1 (e x e x ) 2 sinh x 1 (e x e x ) 2 tanh x sinh x cosh x Rational Functions and Graphs Candidates should be able to: (a) express in partial fractions a rational function in which the denominator may include a factor of the form ( x 2 a 2 ) in addition to linear factors as specified in section 5. Candidates should know the following formulae. as well as asymptotes parallel to the axes.
Polar Coordinates
Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the relations between cartesian and polar coordinates (using the convention r 0 ), and convert equations of curves from cartesian to polar form and vice versa; (b) sketch simple polar curves, for 0 2 or or a subset of either of these intervals, and identify significant features of polar curves such as symmetry, least/greatest values of r, and the form of the curve at the pole (knowledge that any values of for which r 0 give directions of tangents at the pole is included); (c) use the formula
1 2
2
r d for the area of a sector in simple cases.
Hyperbolic Functions
Candidates should be able to: (a) recall definitions of the six hyperbolic functions in terms of exponentials, and sketch the graphs of simple hyperbolic functions; (b) derive and use identities such as cosh 2 x sinh 2 x 1 and sinh 2 x 2sinh x cosh x ; (c) use the notations sinh 1 x , cosh 1 x , tanh 1 x to denote the principal values of the inverse hyperbolic relations, and derive and use expressions in terms of logarithms for these.
Differentiation and Integration
Candidates should be able to: (a) derive and use the derivatives of sin 1 x , cos 1 x , tan 1 x ; (b) derive and use the derivatives of sinh x , cosh x , tanh x , sinh 1 x , cosh 1 x , tanh 1 x ; (c) use the first few terms of the Maclaurin series of e x , sin x , cos x and ln(1 x) ; (d) derive and use the first few terms of the Maclaurin series of simple functions, e.g. sin x , cos3x , e x sin x , ln(3 2 x) (derivation of a general term is not included); (e) integrate , and use appropriate trigonometric or a x x a x a2 hyperbolic substitutions for the evaluation of definite or indefinite integrals (the substitution t tan 1 x is included); 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1
,
1 , a x2
1
and
1
(f)
derive and use reduction formulae for the evaluation of definite integrals in simple cases;
(g) understand how the area under a curve may be approximated by areas of rectangles, and use rectangles to estimate or set bounds for the area under a curve or to derive inequalities concerning sums.
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Numerical Methods
C3.3 IT3.2 IT3.3
Candidates should be able to: (a) understand, in geometrical terms involving ‘staircase’ and ‘cobweb’ diagrams, the convergence (or not) of an iteration of the form xn 1 F( xn ) to a root of the equation x F( x) ; (b) use the facts that, for an iteration xn 1 F( xn ) which converges to , successive (small) errors e n are such that: (i) en 1 F( )e n , if F( ) 0 , (ii) en 1 is approximately proportional to e 2 (in general) if F( ) 0 ; n (c) understand, in geometrical terms, the working of the NewtonRaphson method, and appreciate conditions under which the method may fail to converge to the desired root; (d) derive and use iterations based on the NewtonRaphson method, and understand that this method is an example of an iteration of the form xn 1 F( xn ) with F( ) 0 .
52
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A2 MODULE 4727: FURTHER PURE MATHEMATICS 3 (FP3)
Preamble
Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1, C2, C3, C4 and FP1 is assumed, and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit FP3. Candidates should know the following formulae, none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination.
Differential Equations
An integrating factor for dy P( x ) dx P( x) y Q( x) is e dx
Vectors
The plane through a with normal vector n is (r a).n 0
Complex Numbers
If z ei then: 1 1 cos z 2 z sin 1 1 z 2i z
Differential Equations
Candidates should be able to: (a) find an integrating factor for a firstorder linear differential equation, and use an integrating factor to find the general solution; (b) use a given substitution to reduce a firstorder differential equation to linear form or to a form in which the variables are separable; (c) recall the meaning of the terms ‘complementary function’ and ‘particular integral’ in the context of linear differential equations, and use the fact that the general solution is the sum of the complementary function and a particular integral; (d) find the complementary function for a first or second order linear differential equation with constant coefficients;
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n 0 or r a b c . e. 54 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . (b) understand de Moivre’s theorem.g. Complex Numbers Candidates should be able to: (a) carry out operations of multiplication and division of two complex numbers expressed in polar form r (cos isin ) r ei . Vectors Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the significance of all the symbols used when the equation of a line is expressed in x a y b z c the form . and from a point to a line. e. calculate a b in component form. and find. (ii) find the line of intersection of two nonparallel planes. or intersects a plane.g. in cases where a and b are expressed in component form. is parallel to a plane. and in other cases find the appropriate coefficient(s) given a suitable form of particular integral. (iii) find the perpendicular distance from a point to a plane. (d) use expressions for sin and cos in terms of ei .(e) recall the form of. (d) use equations of lines and planes to solve problems concerning distances. (f) use initial conditions to find a particular solution to a differential equation. (c) use de Moivre’s theorem to express trigonometrical ratios of multiple angles in terms of powers of trigonometrical ratios of the fundamental angle. (iv) find the angle between a line and a plane. in terms of the geometrical effect of multiplication and division of complex numbers. and find the point of intersection of a line and a plane when it exists. (c) recall the definition. p q r (b) understand the significance of all the symbols used when the equation of a plane is expressed in any of the forms ax by cz d or (r a). a particular integral for a first or second order linear differential equation in the cases where ax b or a ebx or a cos px b sin px is a suitable form. angles and intersections. in expressing powers of sin and cos in terms of multiple angles or in summing series. (e) find and use the nth roots of unity. of the vector product of two vectors. and interpret the solution in the context of a problem modelled by the differential equation. and interpret these operations in geometrical terms. in geometrical terms. and. to solve an equation of the form z n a i b . and in particular (i) determine whether a line lies in a plane. (v) find the shortest distance between two skew lines. for positive and negative integer exponent. and the angle between two planes.
transformations. for example. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 55 . for which an identity exists in the set. (f) recall and apply Lagrange’s theorem concerning the order of a subgroup of a finite group (the proof of the theorem is not required). (b) use the basic group properties to show that a given structure is. and determine whether given finite groups are. integers modulo n). find subgroups in simple cases. or are not. or are not. but no particular prior knowledge of such groups is expected). (e) understand the idea of a subgroup of a group. e. isomorphic. a group (questions may be set on. (g) recall the meaning of the term ‘cyclic’ as applied to groups. or is not. to show that any group in which every element is selfinverse is commutative. and show that given subsets are. and show familiarity with the structure of finite groups up to order 7 (questions on groups of higher order are not excluded. (d) recall the meaning of the term ‘order’. as applied both to groups and to elements of a group. (c) use algebraic methods to establish properties in abstract groups in easy cases. (proper) subgroups. and determine the order of elements in a given group.Groups Candidates should be able to: (a) recall that a group consists of a set of elements together with a binary operation which is closed and associative. (h) understand the idea of isomorphism between groups. groups of matrices. and for which every element has an inverse in the set.g.
a dt dt Linear Momentum Momentum of a particle: mv 56 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . Candidates should know the following formulae. and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit M1. none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination.5. Forces and Equilibrium Weight and mass: Limiting friction: Newton’s second law: Weight mass g F R F ma Kinematics For linear motion with constant acceleration: v u at s ut 1 at 2 2 s 1 (u v)t 2 v 2 u 2 2as s vt 1 at 2 2 For general linear motion: v ds dv .8 AS MODULE 4728: MECHANICS 1 (M1) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 and C2 is assumed.
© OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 57 . or to calculate the magnitude and direction of a force (knowledge of column vector or i. or the use of a ‘triangle of forces’). (d) represent the contact force between two rough surfaces by two components. recall the definition of coefficient of friction.Force as a Vector Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the vector nature of force. will be expected). or equivalently if and only if the sum of the resolved parts in any given direction is zero (problems may involve resolution of forces in direction(s) to be chosen by the candidate. in finding the resultant of a system of forces. and use directed line segments to represent forces (acting in at most two dimensions). Equilibrium of a Particle C3. rather than scale drawing. e. understand the concept of limiting friction and limiting equilibrium.3 Candidates should be able to: (a) identify the forces acting in a given situation. and use the relationship between mass and weight. (e) use Newton’s third law. and use vector addition in solving problems involving resultants and components of forces (solutions involving calculation. (c) find and use perpendicular components of a force. (b) understand the term ‘resultant’ as applied to two or more forces acting at a point. though candidates are free to use any such notation in answering questions if they wish).g.1a C3. the ‘normal force’ and the ‘frictional force’. j notation is not required.1b C3. (b) understand and use the principle that a particle is in equilibrium if and only if the vector sum of the forces acting is zero. (c) use the model of a ‘smooth’ contact and understand the limitations of the model. and use the relationship F R or F R as appropriate.
v) graphs. (b) sketch and interpret (t . (ii) the gradient of a (t . velocity and acceleration as vector quantities (in one dimension only).Kinematics of Motion in a Straight Line Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the concepts of distance and speed as scalar quantities. x) graph represents velocity. (c) solve simple problems which may be modelled as the motion of two particles. and of displacement. (d) use appropriate formulae for motion with constant acceleration. and in particular understand and use the facts that (i) the area under a (t . (c) use differentiation and integration with respect to time to solve simple problems concerning displacement. including the case where the bodies coalesce (knowledge of impulse and of the coefficient of restitution is not required). (b) model. v) graph represents displacement. x) and (t . for example. Newton’s Laws of Motion Candidates should be able to: (a) apply Newton’s laws of motion to the linear motion of bodies of constant mass moving under the action of constant forces (which may include friction). a car pulling a caravan. as motion with constant acceleration and understand any limitations of this model. in suitable circumstances. connected by a light inextensible string which may pass over a fixed smooth peg or light pulley (including. velocity and acceleration. (b) understand and use conservation of linear momentum in simple applications involving the direct collision of two bodies moving in the same straight line before and after impact. situations in which a pulley is placed at the top of an inclined plane). the motion of a body moving vertically or on an inclined plane. v) graph represents acceleration. (iii) the gradient of a (t . Linear Momentum Candidates should be able to: (a) recall and use the definition of linear momentum and show understanding of its vector nature (in one dimension only). 58 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . for example.
9 A2 MODULE 4729: MECHANICS 2 (M2) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4 and M1 is assumed. Projectile Motion Equation of trajectory: y x tan gx 2 2V 2 cos 2 Work. (b) identify the position of the centre of mass of a uniform body using considerations of symmetry. a uniform Lshaped lamina or a hemisphere abutting a cylinder). Energy and Power Gravitational potential energy: Kinetic energy of a particle: Work done by a force: Power of a moving force: mgh 1 mv 2 2 Fd cos P Fv Collisions Newton’s experimental law: separation speed e approach speed Centre of Mass C3. Candidates should know the following formulae. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 59 . (c) use given information about the position of the centre of mass of a triangular lamina and other simple shapes (including those listed in the List of Formulae).5. e. and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit M2. none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination. (d) determine the position of the centre of mass of a composite rigid body by considering an equivalent system of particles (in simple cases only.3 Candidates should be able to: (a) use the result that the effect of gravity on a rigid body is equivalent to a single force acting at the centre of mass of the body.g.
including problems in which the initial speed and/or angle of projection may be unknown. 60 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . and use the relation v r . including finding the magnitude and direction of the velocity at a given time or position. (b) use the principle that. r (c) solve problems which can be modelled by the motion of a particle moving in a horizontal circle with constant speed. (c) solve problems involving the equilibrium of a single rigid body under the action of coplanar forces. including those involving toppling or sliding (problems set will not involve complicated trigonometry). Motion of a Projectile Candidates should be able to: (a) model the motion of a projectile as a particle moving with constant acceleration and understand any limitations of this model. (b) understand that the acceleration of a particle moving in a circle with constant speed is directed v2 towards the centre of the circle. Uniform Motion in a Circle Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the concept of angular speed for a particle moving in a circle.3 Candidates should be able to: (a) calculate the moment of a force about a point in two dimensional situations only (understanding of the vector nature of moments is not required). the range on a horizontal plane and the greatest height reached. a rigid body is in equilibrium if and only if (i) the vector sum of the forces is zero. and (ii) the sum of the moments of the forces about any point is zero. under the action of coplanar forces. (b) use horizontal and vertical equations of motion to solve problems on the motion of projectiles. (c) derive and use the cartesian equation of the trajectory of a projectile. and use the formulae r 2 and .Equilibrium of a Rigid Body C3.
the property 0 e 1 . so that calculations involving force and time are not included). (b) use Newton’s experimental law in the course of solving problems that may be modelled as the direct impact of two smooth spheres or as the direct impact of a smooth sphere with a fixed plane surface. for example. Energy. force and velocity for a force acting in the direction of motion.Coefficient of Restitution. (c) recall and use the definition of impulse as change of momentum (in one dimension only. and use the relationship between power. Impulse Candidates should be able to: (a) recall and use Newton’s experimental law and the definition of coefficient of restitution. and use appropriate formulae. restricted to ‘instantaneous’ events. and use in appropriate cases the principle of conservation of energy. and calculate the work done by a constant force when its point of application undergoes a displacement not necessarily parallel to the force (use of the scalar product is not required). the instantaneous acceleration of a car moving on a hill with resistance. (b) understand the concepts of gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy. (c) understand and use the relationship between the change in energy of a system and the work done by the external forces. (d) use the definition of power as the rate at which a force does work. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 61 . Work and Power Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the concept of the work done by a force. and the meaning of the terms ‘perfectly elastic’ ( e 1 ) and ‘inelastic’ ( e 0 ). (e) solve problems involving.
in general. none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination. and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit M3. a cos(t ) Elastic Strings and Springs Hooke’s law: T x l Elastic potential energy: x2 2l Smallangle Approximations sin . Candidates should know the following formulae. tan 2 62 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .10 A2 MODULE 4730: MECHANICS 3 (M3) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4. Kinematics av dv ds Simple Harmonic Motion 2 x x v 2 2 (a 2 x 2 ) T 2 x a sin(t ) or a cos(t ) or. cos 1 1 2 .5. M1 and M2 is assumed.
and understand the term ‘modulus of elasticity’. (b) use the formula for the elastic potential energy stored in a string or spring. moving without loss of energy in a vertical circle (including the determination of points where circular motion breaks down. (b) solve problems which can be modelled as that of a particle. Elastic Strings and Springs C3.Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies in Contact Candidates should be able to: (a) understand and use Newton’s third law in the context of problems involving the equilibrium of two or more rigid bodies in contact. including examples with two freely jointed rods. or a pair of connected particles. (b) solve problems that may be modelled as the oblique impact of two smooth spheres or as the oblique impact of a smooth sphere with a fixed surface (the appropriate use of Newton’s experimental law is included). (c) solve problems involving forces due to elastic strings or springs. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 63 . Motion in a Vertical Circle Candidates should be able to: (a) use formulae for the radial and transverse components of acceleration for a particle moving in a circle with variable speed. Impulse and Momentum in Two Dimensions Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the vector nature of impulse and momentum. through loss of contact with a surface or a string becoming slack).g. and solve problems concerning impulse and momentum for motion in two dimensions. including those where considerations of work and energy are needed.3 Candidates should be able to: (a) use Hooke’s law as a model relating the force in an elastic string or spring to the extension or compression. e.
quote appropriate forms of solution. to show that small oscillations of a simple pendulum may be modelled as SHM. or v for velocity. and understand the limitations of this model. by setting up and solving an appropriate differential equation (restricted to equations in which the variables are separable). and use standard SHM formulae in solving problems. and identify the period and amplitude of the motion.Linear Motion under a Variable Force Candidates should be able to: (a) use dx dv dv for acceleration. (d) solve problems involving small oscillations of a simple pendulum. 64 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . Simple Harmonic Motion Candidates should be able to: (a) recall a definition of SHM. (b) set up the differential equation of motion in problems leading to SHM. together with the approximation sin . as appropriate. and dt dt dx (b) solve problems which can be modelled as the linear motion of a particle under the action of a variable force. understand the concepts of period and amplitude. (c) use Newton’s second law.
etc).5. where P vQ denotes the velocity of P relative to Q. (b) use graphical and/or calculation methods to solve problems involving relative displacements and velocities. Candidates should know the following formulae. including interception or the determination of the course for closest approach. Relative Velocity P vQ Q vR P vR Angular Motion For constant angular acceleration: 1 0 t 0t 1 t 2 2 1 (0 1 )t 2 2 12 0 2 1t 1 t 2 2 Angular momentum: Kinetic energy: Equation of motion: Work done by a constant couple: I 1 2 I 2 C I W C Relative Motion Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the concept of the displacement or velocity of one point relative to another. none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination. and the representation of these quantities by vectors (including the use of P vQ Q v R P v R .11 A2 MODULE 4731: MECHANICS 4 (M4) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4 and M1 to M3 is assumed. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 65 . and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit M4.
and use the formula C to calculate the work done by a couple of constant moment C in rotating through an angle . (e) understand the nature of a couple. Moment of Inertia Candidates should be able to: (a) understand and use the definition of the moment of inertia of a system of particles about a fixed axis as mr 2 . of a rigid body rotating about a fixed axis.g. and use conservation of angular momentum (about a fixed axis only) to solve problems. (d) use the formulae I and 1 2 I 2 for the angular momentum and kinetic energy. (c) use the parallel and perpendicular axes theorems (including cases where integration is also required. (f) use considerations of work and energy in solving problems concerning mechanical systems where motion of a rigid body about a fixed axis is involved. (b) understand and use the angular equivalents of the formulae for linear motion with constant acceleration. (c) understand the concept of angular momentum. (iii) a uniform solid of revolution about the axis of revolution. (b) use integration to find the moment of inertia of (i) a uniform rod about a perpendicular axis.Centre of Mass Candidates should be able to: (a) use integration to determine the position of the centre of mass of (i) a straight rod of variable density. Rotation of a Rigid Body Candidates should be able to: (a) use the equation of angular motion C I for the motion of a rigid body about a fixed axis. e. and the additive property of moment of inertia for a rigid body composed of several parts (standard moments of inertia may be quoted from the List of Formulae unless a proof by integration is specifically asked for). to find the moment of inertia of a uniform cylinder about the diameter of one of its ends). respectively. (iii) a uniform solid of revolution. (ii) a uniform lamina bounded by one of the axes about that axis. (ii) a uniform lamina. 66 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .
(d) find the (approximate) period of small oscillations of a mechanical system about a position of stable equilibrium. Stability and Oscillations Candidates should be able to: (a) locate an equilibrium position for a simple mechanical system by considering positions where the potential energy has a stationary value. (h) calculate the force acting at the axis when a rigid body rotates freely about a fixed axis. in simple cases.(g) show that small oscillations of a compound pendulum may be modelled as SHM. and determine I may be quoted without proof in the period of such oscillations (the formula T 2 mgh answering questions unless a derivation of the SHM model is specifically requested). © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 67 . (b) determine whether the equilibrium is stable or unstable (problems in which the second derivative of the potential energy is zero are excluded). (c) differentiate an energy equation to obtain an equation of motion.
1 N3. median.12 AS MODULE 4732: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 1 (S1) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 and C2 is assumed.1b C3. (b) extract from a table or statistical diagram salient features of the data. and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit S1. Candidates should know the following formulae. boxandwhisker plots. including where appropriate.g. These are included for completeness. The specification content of this module is to be understood in the context of modelling reallife situations. mean.1 Candidates should be able to: (a) select a suitable way of presenting raw statistical data.3 N3.1a C3.3 IT3. Representation of Data Mean: x xf or n f Standard deviation: ( x x ) 2 x 2 x 2 or n n ( x x ) 2 f x 2 f x2 f f Representation of Data C3.3 WO3. the main focus will be on interpretation rather than on elementary calculations.2 C3. and examination questions may ask for comment and interpretation. candidates should be familiar with pie charts. (c) construct and interpret stemandleaf diagrams (including ordered and backtoback stemandleaf diagrams). The specification content of this module includes some items that are part of GCSE Mathematics at Intermediate Tier (e. mode. none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination. and express conclusions verbally. 68 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . interquartile range. and discuss advantages and/or disadvantages that particular representations of data may have (in addition to the representations in (c) below.5. stemandleaf diagrams. where any such items are involved in examination questions.2 N3. bar charts and frequency polygons). histograms and cumulative frequency graphs. crosschecking between a model and reality. boxandwhisker plots).
mode) and variation (range. in simple cases. and calculate the expectation. for the total score when two fair dice are thrown) or by calculation using permutations and combinations. (c) solve problems about arrangements of objects in a line. variance and standard deviation of X (the notations E( X ) for expectation (also referred to as expected value or mean) and Var( X ) for variance. (d) evaluate probabilities in simple cases by means of enumeration of elementary events (e. p ) and Geo( p) are included). situations that can be represented by means of a tree diagram. as appropriate. (e) use addition and multiplication of probabilities. median. (d) use formulae for the expectation and variance of the binomial distribution. (b) solve problems about selections. (e) calculate the mean and standard deviation of a set of data (including grouped data) either from the data itself or from given totals such as x and x 2 .g.(d) understand. e.g. Probability Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the terms permutation and combination. the number of ways of arranging the letters of the word ‘NEEDLESS’). as appropriate (the notations B(n. (ii) restriction (e. in comparing and contrasting sets of data.g.g. (c) use tables of cumulative binomial probabilities (or equivalent calculator functions). or ( x a ) and ( x a) 2 . © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 69 . are included).g. Discrete Random Variables Candidates should be able to: (a) construct a probability distribution table relating to a given situation involving a discrete random variable X. use and interpret different measures of central tendency (mean. interquartile range. (b) use formulae for probabilities for the binomial and geometric distributions. and for the expectation of the geometric distribution. and model given situations by one of these. standard deviation).g. finding the number of ways in which a team of 3 men and 2 women can be selected from a group of 6 men and 5 women. (f) understand informally the meaning of exclusive and independent events. including those involving (i) repetition (e. e. e. the number of ways several people can stand in a line if 2 particular people must — or must not — stand next to each other). and calculate and use conditional probabilities in simple cases.
y ) .1a C3. both from simple raw data and from summarised data.1 . (e) understand the difference between an independent (or controlled) variable and a dependent variable. understand the distinction between the regression line of y on x and that of x on y. with particular reference to values close to 1. both from simple raw data and from summarised data. 70 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .Bivariate Data C3. and use the fact that both regression lines pass through the mean centre ( x . and calculate its value (questions set will not involve tied ranks). in the context of a problem. the equation of a regression line.3 Candidates should be able to: (a) calculate. 0. (d) understand that the value of a correlation coefficient is unaffected by linear transformations (coding) of the variables. (g) calculate. the appropriate regression line to estimate a value. (h) select and use.3 IT3. and be able to interpret in context the uncertainties of such estimations. (c) interpret the value of a product moment correlation coefficient or of Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient in relation to the appearance of a scatter diagram. (b) understand the basis of Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation. (f) understand the concepts of least squares and regression lines in the context of a scatter diagram. the product moment correlation coefficient for a set of bivariate data.
with a continuity correction. and use normal distribution tables. and given the value of P( X x1 ) or a related probability. or a related probability.13 A2 MODULE 4733: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 2 (S2) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4 and S1 is assumed. The Normal Distribution Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the use of a normal distribution to model a continuous random variable. and use the Poisson distribution as a model. 2 ) . but location of the median. and use this approximation. and recall and use properties of a probability density function (restricted to functions defined over a single interval). where X ~ N( . (ii) finding a relationship between x1 . (c) understand informally the relevance of the Poisson distribution to the distribution of random events. for example. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 71 . The Poisson Distribution Candidates should be able to: (a) calculate probabilities for the distribution Po( ) . in solving problems. Continuous Random Variables Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the concept of a continuous random variable. given the values of x1 . both directly from the formula and also by using tables of cumulative Poisson probabilities (or equivalent calculator functions).5. . . (c) recall conditions under which the normal distribution can be used as an approximation to the binomial distribution (n large enough to ensure that np 5 and nq 5 ). including (i) finding the value of P( X x1 ) . or equivalent calculator functions (knowledge of the density function is not expected). in simple cases by direct consideration of an area may be required). and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit S2. and to calculate the mean and variance of a distribution (explicit knowledge of the cumulative distribution function is not included. (b) use the result that if X ~ Po( ) then the mean and variance of X are each equal to . (b) use a probability density function to solve problems involving probabilities. (b) solve problems concerning a variable X.
using either direct evaluation of binomial probabilities or a normal approximation with continuity correction. (g) understand the nature of a hypothesis test. ‘alternative hypothesis’. (iii) a single observation drawn from a Poisson distribution.(d) use the Poisson distribution as an approximation to the binomial distribution where appropriate ( n 50 and np 5 . (d) use the fact that X has a normal distribution if X has a normal distribution. (k) calculate the probabilities of making Type I and Type II errors in specific situations involving tests based on a normal distribution or approximation. using the Central Limit Theorem and an unbiased variance estimate derived from the sample. (e) use the normal distribution. approximately). and appreciate the benefits of randomness in choosing samples. using either raw or summarised data (only a simple understanding of the term ‘unbiased’ is required). 72 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . (ii) a large sample.1 Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the distinction between a sample and a population. and use the facts that E( X ) and that Var( X ) 2 n . Sampling and Hypothesis Tests IT3. (f) calculate unbiased estimates of the population mean and variance from a sample. (c) recognise that a sample mean can be regarded as a random variable. (h) formulate hypotheses and carry out a hypothesis test of a population proportion in the context of a single observation from a binomial distribution. or on direct evaluation of binomial or Poisson probabilities. but candidates should have an elementary understanding of the use of random numbers in producing random samples). approximately). is not required. ‘significance level’. and the terms ‘null hypothesis’. ‘rejection region’ (or ‘critical region’). the difference between onetail and twotail tests. (e) use the Central Limit Theorem where appropriate. as an approximation to the Poisson distribution where appropriate ( 15 . (b) explain in simple terms why a given sampling method may be unsatisfactory and suggest possible improvements (knowledge of particular methods of sampling. (i) formulate hypotheses and carry out a hypothesis test of a population mean in the following cases: (i) a sample drawn from a normal distribution of known variance. (j) understand the terms ‘Type I error’ and ‘Type II error’ in relation to hypothesis tests. using direct evaluation of Poisson probabilities. with continuity correction. such as quota or stratified sampling. ‘acceptance region’ and ‘test statistic’.
14 A2 MODULE 4734: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 3 (S3) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4.d. (iv) if X has a normal distribution then so does aX b . (ii) E(aX bY ) a E( X ) b E(Y ) . of a variable X. (iii) Var(aX bY ) a 2 Var( X ) b 2 Var(Y ) for independent X and Y. the general result E(g( X )) g( x )f( x )dx . in simple cases. the results that (i) E(aX b) a E( X ) b and Var(aX b) a 2 Var( X ) . where Y X 3 .d.g.f. S1 and S2 is assumed.d. to find the c. where f( x) is the probability density function of the continuous random variable X and g( X ) is a function of X.5. Linear Combinations of Random Variables Candidates should be able to: (a) use. (d) use (cumulative) distribution functions of related variables in simple cases. and use either to evaluate the median. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 73 . none of which is included in the List of Formulae made available for use in the examination. of Y. and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit S3. Candidates should know the following formulae. (b) use.f.f. given the c. (vi) if X and Y have independent Poisson distributions then X Y has a Poisson distribution. (c) understand and use the relationship between the probability density function and the (cumulative) distribution function. quartiles and other percentiles. e. and hence the p. in the course of solving problems. (v) if X and Y have independent normal distributions then aX bY has a normal distribution. Expectation Algebra E(aX b) a E( X ) b Var(aX b) a 2 Var( X ) E(aX bY ) a E( X ) b E(Y ) Continuous Random Variables Candidates should be able to: (a) use probability density functions which may be defined ‘piecewise’.
as appropriate. as appropriate. and appreciate the conditions necessary for these tests to be valid. for a difference of population means.Confidence Intervals. (c) calculate a pooled estimate of a population variance based on the data from two samples. Difference of Population Means and Proportions Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the difference between a twosample test and a pairedsample test. from a large sample. using the Central Limit Theorem and an unbiased variance estimate derived from the sample. (ii) a large sample. and select the appropriate form of test in solving problems. and appreciate the conditions necessary for the test to be valid. 74 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . (c) use a t distribution. an approximate confidence interval for a population proportion. (b) determine. in the context of a small sample drawn from a normal population of unknown variance (i) to determine a confidence interval for the population mean. (b) formulate hypotheses and carry out a test for a difference of population means or population proportions using a normal distribution. using a normal distribution. with the appropriate number of degrees of freedom. (ii) to carry out a hypothesis test of the population mean. (d) formulate hypotheses and carry out either a twosample ttest or a pairedsample ttest. using a normal distribution or a t distribution. (e) calculate a confidence interval for a difference of population means. the t Distribution Candidates should be able to: (a) determine a confidence interval for a population mean. in the context of (i) a sample drawn from a normal population of known variance.
(b) use a 2 test with the appropriate number of degrees of freedom to carry out the corresponding goodness of fit test (classes should be combined so that each expected frequency is at least 5). (c) use a 2 test with the appropriate number of degrees of freedom to test for independence in a contingency table (rows or columns. 2 tests Candidates should be able to: (a) fit a theoretical distribution. to given data (questions set will not involve lengthy calculations). should be combined so that each expected frequency is at least 5. and Yates’ correction should be used in the special case of a 2 2 table). as prescribed by a given hypothesis. as appropriate. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 75 .
Wilcoxon signedrank tests and the Wilcoxon ranksum test. (c) use the result P( A B ) P( A) P( B  A) P( B ) P( A  B ) and the ideas underlying Bayes’ theorem to solve problems involving conditional probability (the formal statement of Bayes’ theorem itself is not required). and select an appropriate test. and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit S4. appreciate situations where such tests are useful. and extend it to deal with the union of three events. (d) test for identity of populations using a pairedsample sign test. and the notations P( A B ) . the section on using the first few terms of the Maclaurin series from FP2 and. and use normal approximations where appropriate in these tests. (b) understand. be familiar with the series expansion of ex. the basis of sign tests.5. in particular. (c) test a hypothesis concerning a population median using a singlesample sign test and a singlesample Wilcoxon signedrank test (problems in which observations coincide with the hypothetical population median will not be set). (b) understand and use the result P( A B ) P( A) P( B ) P( A B ) . in simple terms. Probability Candidates should be able to: (a) use the notation P( A) for the probability of the event A. Candidates will need to be familiar with. P( A  B ) relating to probabilities involving two events. Nonparametric Tests Candidates should be able to: (a) understand what is meant by a nonparametric significance test. at least. 76 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . a Wilcoxon matchedpairs signedrank test and (for unpaired samples) a Wilcoxon ranksum test (problems involving tied ranks will not be set). P( A B ) .15 A2 MODULE 4735: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS 4 (S4) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4 and S1 to S3 is assumed.
Estimators Candidates should be able to: (a) understand that an estimator of a parameter of a distribution is a random variable. (b) use the moment generating function of a given distribution to find the mean and variance. Moment Generating Functions Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the concept of a moment generating function for both discrete and continuous random variables. (c) use the result that the moment generating function of the sum of independent random variables is the product of the moment generating functions of those random variables. by comparing their variances. construct and use the moment generating function for given distributions. (c) determine which of two unbiased estimators of a parameter is more efficient. and understand why the more efficient estimator is generally to be preferred. and understand the meaning of ‘biased’ and ‘unbiased’ as applied to estimators (both continuous and discrete distributions are included). (b) use formulae for the mean and variance of a discrete random variable in terms of its probability generating function. and find the variance of an estimator. binomial. (b) determine in simple cases whether a given estimator is biased or unbiased. (c) use the result that the probability generating function of the sum of independent random variables is the product of the probability generating functions of those random variables. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 77 .Probability Generating Functions Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the concept of a probability generating function and construct and use the probability generating function for given distributions (including the discrete uniform. geometric and Poisson). and use these formulae to calculate the mean and variance of probability distributions.
(d) calculate the covariance for a pair of discrete random variables. (c) determine whether or not two random variables are independent. (e) use Var(aX bY ) a 2 Var( X ) b 2 Var(Y ) 2ab Cov( X . Y ) . 78 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .Discrete Bivariate Distributions Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the joint probability distribution of a pair of discrete random variables. (b) determine and use the distribution of one variable conditional on a particular value of the other. and find and use marginal distributions. and understand the relationship between zero covariance and independence.
16 AS MODULE 4736: DECISION MATHEMATICS 1 (D1) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 and C2 is assumed. ‘node’ (or ‘vertex’). (b) appreciate why an algorithmic approach to problemsolving is generally preferable to ad hoc methods. (c) understand the meaning of the order of an algorithm. ‘tree’ and ‘cycle’.5. (b) use the orders of the nodes in a graph to determine whether the graph is Eulerian or semiEulerian or neither. (d) interpret and apply simple algorithms defined by flow diagrams or given as a listing in words. Graph Theory Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the meaning of the terms ‘arc’ (or ‘edge’). and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit D1. and understand the limitations of algorithmic methods. Algorithms Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the definition of an algorithm. ‘path’. including where appropriate crosschecking between a model and reality. and examination questions may ask for comment and interpretation. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 79 . both directed and undirected. including (i) bubble and shuttle sorts. The specification content of this module is to be understood in the context of modelling reallife situations. (ii) firstfit methods (firstfit and firstfit decreasing). (c) solve simple problems involving planar graphs. (e) show familiarity with simple algorithms concerning sorting and packing. and determine the order of a given algorithm in simple cases. including the algorithms for standard network problems.
(b) apply Prim’s and Kruskal’s algorithms in solving the minimum connector problem to find a minimum spanning tree (including the use of a matrix representation for Prim’s algorithm). (iii) use minimum connector methods on a reduced network to determine a lower bound. including the identification of relevant variables. interpret the values of the variables and the objective function at any stage in the Simplex method. (c) find a solution to the travelling salesperson problem in simple cases. and in other cases (i) determine an upper bound by using the nearest neighbour method. (c) carry out a graphical solution for 2variable problems. subject to inequality constraints and trivial constraints of the form variable 0 ’. 80 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . (b) set up a linear programming formulation in the form ‘maximise (or minimise) objective. (d) use Dijkstra’s algorithm to determine the shortest path between two nodes. including cases where integer solutions are required. constraints and objective function. Linear Programming Candidates should be able to: (a) formulate in algebraic terms a realworld problem posed in words. and use networks as mathematical models. and use slack variables to convert inequality constraints into equations together with trivial constraints. (ii) use shortcuts where possible to improve on an upper bound. (d) use the Simplex method for maximising an objective function.Networks Candidates should be able to: (a) recall that a network is a graph in which each arc is assigned a ‘weight’. (e) solve simple cases of the route inspection problem for at most six odd nodes by consideration of all possible pairings of the odd nodes.
The specification content of this module is to be understood in the context of modelling reallife situations. (d) determine an optimal mixed strategy for a game with no stable solution (i) by using a graphical method for 2 n or n 2 games. (e) use a labelling procedure. where n 1. (d) introduce a supersource or supersink in networks with more than one source or sink. (c) reduce a matrix by using a dominance argument. use the maximum flowminimum cut theorem and explain why it works. and interpret network diagrams. and candidates may be required to demonstrate such knowledge in answering questions in Unit D2. with arrows showing how much less could flow in each direction. Game Theory Candidates should be able to: (a) understand the idea of a zerosum game and its representation by means of a payoff matrix. 2 or 3 . Flows in a Network Candidates should be able to: (a) represent flow problems by means of a network of directed arcs. (b) identify playsafe strategies and stable solutions. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 81 . (b) find the optimum flow rate in a network. to augment a flow and hence determine the maximum flow in a network. and examination questions may ask for comment and interpretation. and replace a vertex of restricted capacity by a pair of unrestricted vertices connected by a suitable flow. subject to given constraints (problems may include both upper and lower capacities).5. (c) understand the meaning of the value of a cut.17 A2 MODULE 4737: DECISION MATHEMATICS 2 (D2) Preamble Knowledge of the specification content of Modules C1 to C4 and D1 is assumed. (ii) by converting higher order games to linear programming problems that could then be solved using the Simplex method. including where appropriate crosschecking between a model and reality.
working backwards with suboptimisation.Matching and Allocation Problems Candidates should be able to: (a) represent a matching problem by means of a bipartite graph. including the use of a dummy row or column. (h) construct and interpret cascade charts and resource histograms. 82 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . Dynamic Programming Candidates should be able to: (i) (j) understand the concept of dynamic programming. (g) identify critical activities and find a critical path. use stage and state variables. and carry out resource levelling. (f) carry out forward and reverse passes to determine earliest and latest start times and finish times. using activity on arc. (d) use the Hungarian algorithm to find a solution to an allocation problem. (b) use an algorithm to find a maximal matching by the construction of an alternating path. and augment and interpret a revised cost matrix. Critical Path Analysis Candidates should be able to: (e) construct and interpret activity networks. minimax or maximin. actions and costs. maximum. or early and late event times. use the covering method to check whether a matching is maximal. (k) set up a dynamic programming tabulation and use it to solve a problem involving finding a minimum. (c) interpret allocation problems as minimumcost matching problems.
OCR will make the following materials and services available to teachers: uptodate copies of these specifications. compiled by senior examining personnel. past question papers and mark schemes after each examination session. © OCR 2010 Section B: General Information GCE Mathematics 83 . a full programme of InService Training (INSET) meetings. If you would like further information about the specification. specimen question papers and mark schemes. a Report on the Examination.6 Further Information and Training for Teachers In support of these specifications. after each examination session. please contact OCR.
Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables Pure Mathematics Mensuration Surface area of sphere = 4 r 2 Area of curved surface of cone = r slant height Trigonometry a 2 b 2 c 2 2bc cos A Arithmetic Series un a ( n 1) d S n 1 n( a l ) 1 n{2a ( n 1) d } 2 2 Geometric Series un ar n 1 Sn a (1 r n ) 1 r S a 1 r for r 1 Summations r 2 1 n(n 1)(2n 1) 6 r 1 n r 3 1 n2 (n 1)2 4 r 1 n 84 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .
for k 0 . 1.Binomial Series n n n 1 r r 1 r 1 n n n ( a b) n a n a n 1b a n 2b 2 a n r b r b n 1 2 r n n! where n C r r !(n r )! r (n ) . (1 x)n 1 nx n(n 1) 2 n(n 1) (n r 1) r x x 1. n ) Logarithms and Exponentials e x ln a a x Complex Numbers {r (cos isin )}n r n (cos n isin n ) ei cos i sin The roots of z n 1 are given by z e 2 k i n .2 1. n 1 Maclaurin’s Series f( x) f(0) x f (0) x2 xr f (0) … f ( r ) (0) … 2! r! x2 xr … … for all x 2! r! e x exp( x) 1 x ln(1 x) x x 2 x3 xr … ( 1) r 1 … (1 x 1) 2 3 r sin x x x3 x5 x 2 r 1 … for all x … (1) r 3! 5! (2r 1)! x2 x4 x2r … (1) r … for all x 2! 4! (2r )! Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics cos x 1 © OCR 2010 85 . …. 2.2.3 r ( x 1.
tan 1 x x x3 x5 x 2 r 1 … (1) r … (1 x 1) 3 5 2r 1 sinh x x x3 x5 x 2 r 1 … … for all x 3! 5! (2r 1)! x2 x4 x2r … … for all x 2! 4! (2r )! cosh x 1 tanh 1 x x x3 x5 x 2 r 1 … … (1 x 1) 2r 1 3 5 Hyperbolic Functions cosh 2 x sinh 2 x 1 sinh 2 x 2sinh x cosh x cosh 2 x cosh 2 x sinh 2 x cosh 1 x ln{x x 2 1} sinh 1 x ln{x x 2 1} ( x 1) 1 x tanh 1 x 1 ln 2 1 x ( x 1) Coordinate Geometry The perpendicular distance from (h. k ) to ax by c 0 is ah bk c a 2 b2 m1 m2 1 m1m2 The acute angle between lines with gradients m1 and m2 is tan 1 86 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .
then the straight line through A with direction vector b has cartesian equation x a1 y a2 z a3 ( ) b1 b2 b3 © OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 87 .Trigonometric Identities sin( A B) sin A cos B cos A sin B cos( A B ) cos A cos B sin A sin B tan( A B) tan A tan B 1 tan A tan B ( A B (k 1 ) ) 2 For t tan 1 A : sin A 2 1 t2 2t . cos A 1 t2 1 t2 sin A sin B 2sin A B A B cos 2 2 A B A B sin 2 2 A B A B cos 2 2 A B A B sin 2 2 sin A sin B 2cos cos A cos B 2cos cos A cos B 2sin Vectors The resolved part of a in the direction of b is a.b b The point dividing AB in the ratio : is a b a1 a2 a3 b1 a2b3 a3b2 b2 a3b1 a1b3 b3 a1b2 a2b1 Vector product: a b a i ˆ b sin n j k If A is the point with position vector a a1i a2 j a3k and the direction vector b is given by b b1i b2 j b3k .
B and C has vector equation r a (b a) (c a) (1 )a b c The plane through the point with position vector a and parallel to b and c has equation r a sb t c The perpendicular distance of ( .The plane through A with normal vector n n1i n2 j n3k has cartesian equation n1 x n2 y n3 z d 0 where d a. ) from n1 x n2 y n3 z d 0 is n1 n2 n3 d 2 2 2 n1 n2 n3 Matrix Transformations cos Anticlockwise rotation through about O : sin sin cos cos 2 Reflection in the line y (tan ) x : sin 2 sin 2 cos 2 88 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .n The plane through noncollinear points A . .
Differentiation f( x) tan kx f ( x ) k sec 2 kx sin 1 x 1 1 x2 1 1 x2 cos 1 x tan 1 x 1 1 x2 sec x tan x cosec 2 x sec x cot x cosec x sinh x cosh x tanh x sinh 1 x cosec x cot x cosh x sinh x sech 2 x 1 1 x2 1 x 1 2 cosh 1 x tanh 1 x 1 1 x2 If y f( x) dy f ( x) g( x) f( x) g( x) then g( x) dx {g( x)}2 © OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 89 .
Integration (+ constant. a 0 where relevant) f( x) f( x) dx 1 tan kx k ln sec x ln sin x ln cosec x cot x ln tan( 1 x) 2 ln sec x tan x ln tan( 1 x 1 ) 2 4 cosh x sinh x ln cosh x sec 2 kx tan x cot x cosec x sec x sinh x cosh x tanh x 1 a x 2 2 x sin 1 a ( x a) 1 a x2 2 1 1 x tan a a x cosh 1 or ln{x x 2 a 2 } a x sinh 1 or ln{x x 2 a 2 } a 1 x2 a2 1 a2 x2 1 a x2 2 ( x a) 1 1 ax x tanh 1 ln ax a 2a a 1 xa ln xa 2a ( x a) 1 x a2 2 u dv du dx uv v dx dx dx 90 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .
3 where h ba and n is even n Numerical Solution of Equations The NewtonRaphson iteration for solving f( x) 0 : xn 1 xn f( xn ) f ( xn ) Mechanics Motion in a Circle Transverse velocity: v r Transverse acceleration: v r v Radial acceleration: r 2 r 2 © OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 91 . where h 2 b ba n Simpson’s rule: a y dx 1 h{( y0 yn ) 4( y1 y3 … yn1 ) 2( y2 y4 … yn2 ) }.Area of a Sector A 1 2 r 2 d (polar coordinates) A 1 2 dx dy x y dt dt dt (parametric form) Numerical Mathematics Numerical Integration The trapezium rule: b a y dx 1 h{( y0 yn ) 2( y1 y2 … yn1 ) }.
length 2l . angle at centre 2 : 2r sin from centre 3 Solid cone or pyramid of height h : 1 h above the base on the line from centre of base to vertex 4 Conical shell of height h : 1 h above the base on the line from centre of base to vertex 3 Moments of Inertia (for uniform bodies of mass m ) Thin rod. radius r . radius r . length 2l . about perpendicular axis through end: 4 ml 2 3 Rectangular lamina about edge perpendicular to edges of length 2l : 4 ml 2 3 Rectangular lamina. about a diameter: 2 mr 2 5 2 mr 2 3 Spherical shell of radius r about a diameter: Parallel axes theorem: I A I G m( AG ) 2 Perpendicular axes theorem: I z I x I y (for a lamina in the xy plane) 92 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . sides 2a and 2b . radius r : 1 r from centre 2 Circular arc. about perpendicular axis through centre: 1 m(a 2 b2 ) 3 Hoop or cylindrical shell of radius r about axis: mr 2 Hoop of radius r about a diameter: 1 mr 2 2 1 mr 2 2 Disc or solid cylinder of radius r about axis: Disc of radius r about a diameter: 1 mr 2 4 Solid sphere. radius r . radius r : 8 r from centre Hemispherical shell.Centres of Mass (for uniform bodies) Triangular lamina: 2 3 along median from vertex 3 Solid hemisphere. angle at centre 2 : r sin from centre Sector of circle. about perpendicular axis through centre: 1 ml 2 3 1 ml 2 3 Rectangular lamina about axis in plane bisecting edges of length 2l : Thin rod.
Probability and Statistics Probability P( A B ) P( A) P( B) P( A B) P( A B ) P( A) P( B  A) P( A  B) P( B  A) P( A) P( B  A) P( A) P( B  A) P( A) P( A j ) P( B  A j ) P( Ai ) P( B  Ai ) Bayes’ Theorem: P( A j  B ) Discrete Distributions For a discrete random variable X taking values xi with probabilities pi Expectation (mean): E( X ) xi pi Variance: Var( X ) 2 ( xi ) 2 pi xi2 pi 2 For a function g( X ) : E(g( X )) g( xi ) pi The probability generating function of X is G X (t ) E(t X ) . and E( X ) G X (1) . where X and Y are independent: G Z (t ) G X (t ) G Y (t ) © OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 93 . Var( X ) GX (1) GX (1) {G X (1)}2 For Z X Y .
Standard Discrete Distributions: Distribution of X P(X = x) Mean Variance P. where X and Y are independent: M Z (t ) M X (t ) MY (t ) 94 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . Binomial B(n.G. p ) Poisson Po( ) n x n x p (1 p ) x e np np (1 p ) (1 p pt ) n e (t 1) x x! 1 p 1 p p 2 Geometric Geo (p) on 1. 2. … p (1 p) x 1 pt 1 (1 p)t Continuous Distributions For a continuous random variable X having probability density function f Expectation (mean): E( X ) x f( x) dx Variance: Var( X ) 2 ( x ) 2 f( x) dx x 2 f( x) dx 2 For a function g( X ) : E(g( X )) g( x) f( x) dx Cumulative distribution function: F( x) P( X x) x f(t ) dt The moment generating function of X is M X (t ) E(etX ) and E( X ) M X (0) .F. Var( X ) M (0) {MX (0)}2 X For Z X Y . n E( X n ) M (X ) (0) .
D. Y ) XY If X aX b and Y cY d . Mean 1 (a 2 Variance 1 (b a) 2 12 M. Y ) For independent random variables X and Y E( XY ) E( X ) E(Y ) Var(aX bY ) a 2 Var( X ) b 2 Var(Y ) Sampling Distributions For a random sample X1. b] 1 ba b) ebt e at (b a )t Exponential 1 e x 2 1 1 t e t 1 2t 2 2 2 2 Normal N( . Y ) E(( X X )(Y Y )) E( XY ) X Y Var(aX bY ) a 2 Var( X ) b 2 Var(Y ) 2ab Cov( X . ) 2 e 1 2 x 2 Expectation Algebra Covariance: Cov( X . Y ) ac Cov( X .F. …. then Cov( X . Y ) Product moment correlation coefficient: Cov( X . where S 2 ( X i X ) 2 n 1 © OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 95 .G. X2.Standard Continuous Distributions: Distribution of X P. with Var( X ) 2 n S 2 is an unbiased estimator of 2 . Xn of n independent observations from a distribution having mean and variance 2 X is an unbiased estimator of . Uniform (Rectangular) on [a.F.
a random sample of 2 n y observations from N( y . 1) ny 2 2 If x y 2 (unknown) then ( X Y ) ( x y ) 1 2 1 Sp nx n y ~ tnx ny 2 . y ) ( X Y ) ( x y ) 2 x nx 2 y ~ N(0. and Y . x ) and. 1) ~ tn1 (also valid in matchedpairs situations) If X is the observed number of successes in n independent Bernoulli trials in each of which the X probability of success is p . then n E(Y ) p and Var(Y ) p(1 p) n 2 For a random sample of nx observations from N( x .For a random sample of n observations from N( . independently. 2 ) X / n X S/ n ~ N(0. where S 2 p 2 2 (nx 1) S x (n y 1) S y nx n y 2 Correlation and Regression For a set of n pairs of values ( xi . yi ) S xx ( xi x ) 2 xi2 (xi ) 2 n (yi ) 2 n S yy ( yi y ) 2 yi2 S xy ( xi x )( yi y ) xi yi (xi )(yi ) n 96 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .
2 1 mn(m n 1) 12 © OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 97 . with m n ): W ~ N 1 m(m n 1).The product moment correlation coefficient is (xi )(yi ) ( xi x )( yi y ) n 2 2 2 {( xi x ) }{( yi y ) } 2 (xi ) (yi ) 2 xi yi2 n n xi yi 6 d 2 n(n 2 1) r S xy S xx S yy Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient is rs 1 The regression coefficient of y on x is b S xy S xx ( xi x )( yi y ) ( xi x )2 Least squares regression line of y on x is y a bx where a y bx Distributionfree (Nonparametric) Tests Goodnessoffit test and contingency tables: (Oi Ei ) 2 ~ 2 Ei Approximate distributions for large samples: Wilcoxon Signed Rank test: T ~ N 1 n(n 1). 4 1 n(n 1)(2n 1) 24 Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (samples of sizes m and n .
0000 0.1160 0.0754 0.0004 0.05 0.3277 0.9999 1.3017 1.9527 0.0000 0.9547 0.7 0.9896 0.5033 0.0000 0.9998 1.4294 0.1586 0.8683 1.0444 0.0156 0.3771 0.6488 0.5551 0.9819 0.0039 0.9988 0.9984 0.9999 1.9922 1.1138 0.7379 1.0000 n=5 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 0.3428 0.4 0.0000 1/6 0.6 0.0046 0.0000 0.0000 0.9898 1.8999 0.0000 1.9999 1.1678 0.0102 0.0000 0.2326 0.9987 0.1648 0.8471 0.0084 0.0257 0.0000 0.0022 0.0000 1.0050 0.9998 1.0000 0.5443 0.0113 0.9672 0.9953 0.0000 0.0003 0.9848 1.0000 1.3164 0.1998 0.0006 0.0000 0.0002 0.3671 0.3366 1.0000 0.9822 0.9812 0.7447 0.0029 0.0000 0.85 0.55 0.4415 0.7447 0.25 0.1445 0.0706 0.45 0.9950 0.4202 0.05 0.65 0.9424 1.1962 0.0308 0.7396 0.6836 0.9996 1.9996 1.0001 0.6794 1.6367 0.1064 0.0885 0.0000 0.2553 0.8267 0.1 0.9973 0.0333 0.0007 0.8049 0.0000 0.0000 0.6846 0.9262 0.9 0.9993 1.2557 0.0357 0.0000 1.8857 0.0004 0.0632 0.0002 0.0185 0.0000 0.7102 0.0000 0.4 0.3349 0.7734 0.0085 0.9832 1.0024 0.3215 0.1348 0.0000 n=8 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0.0824 0.3302 0.0540 0.8948 0.3 0.0000 1.0000 1.7351 0.9891 0.2 0.0000 1.0000 0.7443 0.0490 0.0376 0.2834 0.0033 0.0000 2/3 0.0002 0.9987 0.6471 0.0453 0.2649 1.5 0.0005 0.95 0.8976 0.0005 0.2621 0.1061 0.9998 1.0000 2 0.9246 1.9961 1.9915 0.9962 0.2266 0.5 0.0000 1.9954 0.4019 0.0000 n=6 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0.35 0.0503 0.0625 0.0000 0.9688 1.7627 1.7209 1.0000 0.4718 0.0000 0.9887 0.9999 1.0328 0.6809 0.5 0.9958 0.8520 0.8826 0.9 0.0010 0.9502 0.0000 5/6 0.9830 0.1529 0.9996 1.4609 0.0000 1.0313 0.0000 0.0041 0.9983 1.9693 0.0007 0.8 0.9964 0.0000 0.85 0.0022 0.9994 1.0000 0.8131 0.0000 1/3 0.0000 0.9990 1.0129 0.9115 0.9377 0.0000 0.7564 0.0000 0.75 0.2627 0.1636 0.0000 0.0170 0.0410 0.25 0.75 0.9993 1.1 0.9999 1.0572 0.0000 0.6047 0.9987 0.9743 0.9727 0.5931 0.0000 1.0000 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 3 4 5 6 7 0.9185 0.0012 0.0000 0.9914 0.4482 0.8059 0.0000 0.0467 0.6630 0.9842 0.9667 0.6563 0.9122 1.0000 0.75 0.5314 0.9993 1.9971 0.6634 0.0000 0.8319 1.0046 0.9723 1.8824 1.1335 0.35 0.1035 0.3633 0.55 0.9368 0.9999 1.2 0.45 0.8 5/6 0.8208 0.0002 0.0004 0.0692 0.0576 0.8840 1.9777 0.0000 0.0000 © OCR 2010 .2373 0.8862 0.8665 1.9497 1.5798 0.8936 0.0047 0.1001 0.5801 0.0000 0.0000 0.65 0.4059 0.45 0.9460 0.0090 0.0000 0.0001 0.9962 0.7438 0.3438 0.25 0.98 CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES 0.9999 1.0000 1/3 0.9996 1.0001 0.3917 0.9295 0.2725 0.9998 1.7901 0.0879 0.0000 0.9624 0.8002 0.5722 0.7275 1.1052 0.0000 0.9590 0.3672 0.0000 0.0000 0.9917 1.5323 0.0000 0.0319 0.9982 1.7166 0.1691 0.8 0.7662 0.9967 0.9947 1.0000 0.5391 0.6 0.8263 0.5716 0.0000 0.3370 0.0000 0.0000 1.5585 0.15 0.8125 0.1869 0.1737 0.05 0.0000 1/6 0.1143 0.0078 0.7799 0.15 1/6 0.2634 0.9681 1.1176 0.6698 0.7366 0.4284 0.0000 0.0000 1.8939 0.4686 1.0000 1.5339 0.0002 0.8688 0.0104 0.7414 0.0000 0.9998 1.7648 0.0000 1.8220 1.15 0.5905 0.0563 0.0000 0.9786 0.8999 1.1001 0.9871 0.0000 0.0352 0.4095 1.0000 2/3 0.0738 0.0181 0.5318 0.9998 1.9996 1.0556 0.0178 0.0000 0.0000 0.9941 0.4278 0.0288 0.4 0.0000 0.9984 1.4770 0.9619 0.0870 0.3953 0.5695 1.1694 0.0381 0.2097 0.2352 0.0000 1.0226 0.9294 0.0000 n=7 p 0.85 0.0000 1.0027 0.2333 0.6554 0.0000 0.4661 0.0042 0.9974 0.6983 0.0000 0.2604 0.1951 0.9996 1.3 0.0002 0.0004 0.9963 1.8906 0.0000 1.4682 0.0121 0.9692 0.35 0.0188 0.0038 0.35 0.0266 0.1941 0.3446 0.2553 0.0273 0.0000 0.9533 1.0059 0.0001 0.8652 0.55 0.0579 0.0058 0.8038 0.8503 0.6826 0.6229 1.65 0.55 0.1733 0.9942 0.0000 1 0.4557 0.8965 0.2898 0.0000 1.6706 0.9712 0.7969 0.1480 0.0000 1.0000 0.9844 0.5000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0705 0.0038 0.0000 0.8414 0.5 0.9 0.0017 0.0069 0.0453 0.0000 0.9734 0.0878 0.9042 0.2099 0.9130 0.0000 0.8555 0.7903 1.9999 1.0000 0.0000 0.0020 0.4677 0.0026 0.7674 1.2632 0.0989 0.0013 0.1317 0.95 0.0159 0.9815 1.1024 0.9645 0.1 0.0000 5/6 0.9774 0.4199 0.5767 0.8309 0.4437 0.0013 0.9420 0.0001 0.3196 0.9995 1.6723 1.0152 0.0623 0.5706 0.0000 0.9913 0.0000 0.3529 0.95 x = 0 0.0000 1.0253 0.0000 0.0000 0.7064 0.3294 0.4233 0.85 0.8740 0.0000 1/3 0.0197 0.0000 0.7667 0.3154 0.9910 0.0355 0.7368 0.1 0.2201 0.8322 1.5217 1.1631 0.9844 1.0000 0.9988 1.0000 0.0036 0.0000 0.7 0.9986 1.0000 1/6 0.0000 0.9547 0.6328 0.7 0.9510 1.6 0.3206 0.2262 1.9121 0.9995 1.05 0.4449 0.0000 0.8306 0.0000 0.0002 0.9375 0.0001 0.1260 0.0223 0.0214 0.9999 1.0000 0.1174 0.0053 0.9978 0.3174 0.8369 0.0000 1.6572 0.0000 1.6083 0.0000 1.0007 0.9931 0.9803 0.0498 0.0016 0.9954 0.9037 0.0778 0.6804 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3512 0.0307 0.1312 0.9222 1.0000 1.0580 0.0000 0.1792 0.0277 0.0037 0.5230 0.9916 1.9988 0.0000 0.1094 0.0014 0.9747 0.7 0.0000 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.45 0.9308 0.0086 0.2436 0.3529 0.9415 1.9011 0.0156 0.6785 0.1497 0.6651 1.3 0.0000 1.9428 0.75 0.0390 0.2562 0.0001 0.9556 0.0815 0.7765 0.0001 0.4 0.0000 0.65 2/3 0.9610 1.0000 1.0000 0.9959 1.0000 0.9444 0.9421 0.1875 0.5000 0.4069 0.0087 0.0000 0.5282 0.9643 0.2 0.0000 0.5941 0.0000 0.0473 0.0000 0.4305 0.2031 0.0585 0.0067 0.0000 1.9976 1.0000 0.0041 0.0004 0.9980 0.0000 0.9648 0.0000 0.0000 0.5981 1.5563 1.2586 0.9998 1.0000 1.6 0.9978 0.3191 0.0109 0.25 0.4783 0.8364 0.7738 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 2/3 0.0000 5/6 0.9959 1.3 1/3 0.9824 0.0000 0.0000 0.2791 0.0000 1.9437 0.0083 0.0168 0.9176 1.6471 0.0012 0.0004 0.0012 0.9879 0.1681 0.0280 0.8352 0.8 0.9999 1.0018 0.1780 0.2235 0.7373 0.0013 0.0000 0.0000 0.0958 0.95 0.9720 1.2936 0.9 0.4967 0.0000 0.0176 0.9933 0.2 0.6329 0.0001 0.15 0.5518 0.0016 0.0963 0.2338 0.9997 1.
0000 0.0039 0.0056 0.2241 0.3 0.3512 0.5618 0.9 0.9984 0.1020 0.9997 1.0000 1.5 0.0002 0.0000 0.9917 0.0000 1.0339 0.0000 0.1345 0.2616 0.0000 0.4744 0.1117 0.6126 1.9999 1.9986 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.1 0.0000 0.0017 0.0001 0.4 0.9740 1.0000 0.0730 0.5833 0.3907 0.0000 0.6177 0.0000 0.0000 1.8658 1.3993 0.7 0.1576 0.9470 0.1495 0.75 0.0000 1.0781 0.9996 1.0000 1.8926 1.9955 0.3504 0.9877 0.6496 0.0025 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0001 0.0000 0.0035 0.8655 0.0000 0.0095 0.0000 0.4845 0.1513 0.0274 0.0000 0.65 0.8 0.0000 0.15 0.2316 0.6331 0.0024 0.4731 0.9900 0.0000 0.9987 0.0498 0.0091 0.0000 1.0000 0.9804 0.6503 0.0106 0.0000 1.9154 0.0000 0.6778 0.0000 1.0000 1/3 0.0000 5/6 0.4005 0.7382 0.6230 0.0000 0.9910 0.2703 0.0898 0.7747 0.0000 0.0000 0.0038 0.9998 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.1777 0.6652 0.0079 0.7 0.9999 1.0003 0.0000 0.9972 0.0001 0.9745 0.0000 1.0000 0.6315 0.8283 0.0000 0.9996 1.5987 0.9998 1.9051 0.7472 0.0000 0.7946 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.9994 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.6093 0.0000 0.8031 1.0001 0.4628 0.0000 0.25 0.35 0.5000 0.9999 1.0473 0.0404 0.9999 1.9917 0.8822 0.3823 0.9219 0.1657 0.0173 0.9427 0.5269 0.9952 0.0008 0.55 0.9999 1.5155 0.1 0.9456 0.9909 0.9957 0.1184 0.0003 0.7340 0.0000 n = 12 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0.0000 1.9718 1.0000 0.9999 1.0000 0.9865 1.65 0.0008 0.0000 0.9726 0.0000 0.9921 0.9954 1.9336 0.9894 0.0001 0.0000 1.0000 0.6513 1.0197 0.2248 0.9944 0.2539 0.9997 1.9999 1.0000 1.45 0.0000 0.0000 1.8223 0.0988 0.9452 0.6228 0.0000 0.0004 0.0007 0.5 0.0010 0.0000 0.9997 1.9661 0.8748 0.3669 0.0153 0.9298 0.0000 0.3222 0.9997 1.0001 0.1 0.0000 0.9983 0.0001 0.3872 0.4167 0.9996 1.0540 0.8062 0.0000 0.0000 2/3 0.7869 0.0000 0.2824 0.0000 0.9999 1.9978 0.0000 1.8883 0.0000 1.0547 0.0000 0.9615 0.0000 0.0000 5/6 0.9940 1.3874 0.0000 0.7237 0.0005 0.0256 0.9672 0.0083 0.2642 0.7358 0.0000 1.2991 0.2440 0.9990 0.9847 0.0000 0.1342 0.0195 0.85 0.0317 0.9012 0.0000 1.1448 0.0064 0.9987 0.2666 0.9747 0.0000 0.2127 0.0022 0.0001 0.6 0.0573 0.0949 0.1211 0.9140 0.9917 0.0000 0.9 0.6187 0.0011 0.0464 0.0000 0.0000 1.7251 0.0005 0.05 0.0009 0.1409 0.0194 0.8385 1.1503 0.8791 0.0100 0.0022 0.0014 0.0006 0.0000 0.0056 0.8816 0.0000 0.0000 0.4596 1.3931 0.1662 0.9923 1.3758 0.9144 0.9806 0.9249 1.0000 0.0702 0.0000 1/3 0.2749 0.6956 0.9500 0.9999 1.0001 0.0000 1.9536 0.0233 0.9576 0.0000 0.0861 0.0000 1.0856 0.8202 0.9857 0.0000 0.55 0.9295 0.4 0.3044 0.0000 1.0000 0.9288 0.9761 0.7461 0.0000 1.7361 0.0000 1.8416 0.1811 0.0385 0.0000 1.0000 0.8189 0.3487 0.7 0.6214 0.6089 0.0014 0.0000 1.7752 0.9520 0.8552 0.5044 0.0155 0.0011 0.05 0.9885 0.0000 0.0364 0.0000 n=9 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.0260 0.0000 1.4557 0.9990 0.0000 0.0000 0.3685 0.0000 0.2 0.0060 0.0000 1.0000 1.1209 0.0000 0.2607 0.2616 0.6128 0.0000 1.0101 0.9962 0.0031 0.1122 0.9995 1.0013 0.0994 0.0016 0.9943 1.9991 0.0834 0.9767 0.0530 0.0002 0.7748 0.0480 0.6302 0.0196 0.8891 0.0000 1/6 0.0000 2/3 0.0016 0.0000 0.0001 0.9579 0.15 0.0003 0.0000 1.1422 0.7176 1.1658 0.0000 0.9303 0.0123 0.5443 0.0000 0.0253 0.9460 0.0000 5/6 0.6242 0.3698 1.9976 0.0000 0.4435 0.0107 0.9803 0.05 0.0000 0.0001 0.0009 0.8507 0.8591 0.0000 1.0000 99 .6488 0.3 0.9636 0.3770 0.9966 0.9995 1.9102 0.0536 0.0115 0.0000 2/3 0.35 0.2318 0.0000 0.3373 0.4573 0.0000 1.85 0.6997 0.0003 0.9893 0.1969 0.0000 0.3786 0.0046 0.9916 0.0020 0.9899 1.9827 1.3828 0.0850 0.0356 0.0000 0.3813 0.0197 0.0043 0.0000 1.0000 0.1074 0.9994 1.0079 0.0090 0.4 0.0005 0.0000 0.4382 0.0084 0.0002 0.0002 0.45 0.0000 1.9965 0.0006 0.7873 0.1938 0.9888 0.9989 0.9999 1.0000 0.0135 0.0000 1.1493 0.1673 0.9804 0.0048 0.6007 0.0010 0.5593 0.5 0.9166 0.95 0.9999 1.0207 0.0028 0.0196 0.45 0.7334 0.0000 1.9998 1.0001 0.3003 0.9270 0.2485 0.0000 0.0922 0.8062 1.0328 0.0077 0.0000 0.0500 0.0000 1.© OCR 2010 CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES 0.9453 0.0000 0.8578 1.0046 0.0000 0.7297 0.2 0.9999 1.9961 0.0000 1.0000 0.2054 0.0000 0.0000 1.9996 1.9150 0.1582 0.9274 0.3348 0.7682 0.9139 0.0000 1.0000 0.1252 0.2252 0.0000 0.9999 1.0000 0.9644 0.0000 1.8 0.55 0.4956 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.7560 0.0000 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics n = 10 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0.0004 0.0193 0.1783 0.0001 0.8980 0.9812 0.0000 0.9807 0.9527 0.6172 0.0083 0.0001 0.4407 0.15 0.9999 1.9978 1.1717 0.95 0.9980 1.1798 0.9006 0.9740 0.1584 0.9975 1.9793 1.5565 0.9744 0.0424 0.0548 0.0000 0.7759 0.8343 0.6 0.0000 1.8418 0.5174 0.0000 0.0112 0.5583 0.0766 0.6 0.0028 0.2618 0.0000 0.1615 0.0006 0.8327 0.9983 0.0017 0.9921 0.0188 0.0000 0.9901 0.4862 0.0000 1.8338 0.9614 0.8960 0.9596 1.2131 0.6069 0.0260 0.9997 1.9437 1.0000 0.9969 0.8789 0.4417 0.0000 1.3226 0.4826 0.0003 0.9464 0.3614 0.9972 0.0282 0.2528 0.9944 0.9992 0.0705 0.0751 0.7384 0.9803 0.5404 0.0000 0.9999 1.0000 0.9936 0.3772 0.6590 0.9862 1.9502 0.0000 0.9313 1.2763 0.0000 1.1431 0.9999 1.7393 0.9984 0.8505 0.4925 0.8342 0.0000 1/6 0.0000 0.8424 0.0000 0.0008 0.9994 0.5256 0.2639 0.9805 0.0138 0.0000 1.9234 0.5372 0.0083 0.5995 0.5638 0.0000 1.7684 1.0239 0.35 0.0000 0.6386 0.0712 0.0000 1.7515 0.0424 0.5138 0.0250 0.2 0.0000 1.0000 0.9986 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0143 0.1178 0.0255 0.4362 0.0000 0.6627 0.0544 0.9990 1.9957 0.8497 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0099 0.9992 1.0128 0.95 0.9683 1.0004 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9992 1.0000 1.0000 1.9989 0.9998 1.0000 0.0000 1.3 0.0057 0.9961 0.0032 0.0000 0.6774 0.5427 0.0846 0.9993 0.9991 0.9905 0.0000 0.8878 1.0034 0.3410 0.0000 0.2660 0.8569 0.25 0.0001 0.0000 1.1938 0.0010 0.0000 1.0013 0.9004 0.9576 0.65 0.0000 0.9804 0.0045 0.0196 0.0000 0.9 0.7384 0.8217 0.0726 0.0386 0.1719 0.9995 0.9511 0.0860 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.9872 0.9845 0.6533 0.9954 0.75 0.9750 0.0001 0.3911 0.0000 0.8 0.0000 0.8487 0.0004 0.0000 1.1040 0.0000 0.2253 0.0039 0.0000 1.4013 1.0000 1.0000 1.0687 0.75 0.9968 0.0000 0.5075 0.0563 0.0000 1/6 0.85 0.0000 1.0697 0.0000 1/3 0.1109 0.0489 0.8040 0.7009 0.3497 0.8281 0.3467 0.9078 0.1960 0.0421 0.0043 0.25 0.0000 0.0664 0.0996 0.0000 0.
9999 1.0000 1.8108 0.9958 0.1971 0.1 0.0000 0.1979 0.9994 0.0000 1.1501 0.0005 0.0000 1.0000 0.7728 0.0035 0.0000 0.8328 0.7728 0.8392 0.5846 0.0004 0.9841 0.0003 0.0011 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9713 0.0175 0.0000 1.9560 1.0002 0.0000 0.9966 1.0671 0.0000 0.9571 0.0426 0.0071 0.0000 0.1407 0.0000 0.6 0.1937 0.9961 0.0000 0.9886 0.9983 0.0000 1.5469 0.7207 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.8416 0.8661 0.45 0.0098 0.7415 0.0040 0.8063 0.0287 0.4481 0.7040 0.35 0.4755 0.0000 0.6433 0.0583 0.9976 1.0779 0.0015 0.1051 0.8334 0.9930 0.9998 1.0000 0.8 0.9991 0.9406 0.0002 0.9500 0.9424 0.5981 0.55 0.1010 0.1672 0.7795 0.7414 0.0001 0.9884 0.9771 0.1530 0.0016 0.0000 0.9985 1.9900 1.0541 0.0000 0.0000 0.9951 0.9993 0.6881 0.0000 1.0000 1.3018 0.1584 0.0000 1.0315 0.6448 0.0000 0.9908 0.0000 0.0933 0.9719 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9997 1.0081 0.0000 1.3521 0.9685 0.0000 1.2612 0.0000 0.0016 0.0817 0.0070 0.7388 0.1659 0.0205 0.0022 0.0000 0.0000 0.1594 0.4205 0.2108 0.0000 1.0000 1.9979 0.4158 0.0000 0.0994 0.0049 0.2 0.0017 0.0000 0.3 0.9729 0.9971 0.0000 1.7982 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9368 0.7374 0.0000 0.2793 0.0003 0.9602 0.0041 0.0000 1.9830 0.0000 0.8029 0.2626 0.0690 0.0000 0.6982 0.9967 0.9851 0.9999 1.0000 0.0170 0.0000 n = 14 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 0.1666 0.9999 1.0000 0.2272 0.4900 0.5147 0.1241 0.0000 0.9006 0.0000 0.0149 0.7541 0.0066 0.0000 1.0000 0.0003 0.0267 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0001 0.0000 0.9938 0.6302 0.3552 0.5 0.4877 0.0000 0.0791 0.9929 0.0000 0.9985 0.75 0.3518 0.0000 1.0070 0.0000 0.6340 0.0475 0.0000 0.9885 0.0000 0.0839 0.0191 0.0000 0.0056 0.1608 0.5519 0.7161 0.0853 0.0000 1.0000 1.0383 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.3 0.0467 0.85 0.0898 0.0001 0.0000 1.7441 0.0378 0.0000 0.8021 0.0000 1.0075 0.2205 0.1339 0.2272 0.1836 0.1897 0.9978 0.9997 1.9985 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.8759 0.0000 0.2839 0.0000 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics n = 16 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0.95 0.0796 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.9999 1.9830 0.9996 1.9616 0.0000 1.0009 0.0000 1.9925 0.0000 1.9365 0.0000 1.9997 1.0000 0.9984 0.9999 1.9809 0.1853 0.9940 0.9934 0.0000 1.100 CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES 0.2585 0.0000 1.0000 1.0001 0.4018 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.8341 0.0000 1.1117 0.0000 1.0115 0.0000 1.5272 0.0000 1/3 0.0000 1.0114 0.5132 0.8247 0.9976 0.0000 0.0191 0.0000 1.4227 0.9817 0.0000 1.0009 0.0002 0.6627 0.0000 0.0000 1.0083 0.4859 0.0000 0.6047 0.0013 0.0000 0.0159 0.1465 0.5795 0.1976 0.9998 1.2839 0.0000 1.9574 0.0137 0.0000 0.0000 0.9930 0.9743 0.1134 0.0033 0.7892 0.0000 1.9894 0.0000 1.8577 0.0000 0.7108 0.15 0.0000 0.1189 0.3075 0.9960 0.0000 1.7 0.7805 0.9310 0.0000 1.6 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0178 0.0229 0.0000 1.0000 1.8949 0.9533 0.3402 0.9935 0.0000 © OCR 2010 .9809 0.6405 0.0486 0.2559 0.9329 0.0024 0.0001 0.0000 0.8406 0.0000 1.0000 0.0001 0.3102 0.65 0.9999 1.0000 1.3660 0.1265 0.0000 0.0000 0.4539 0.85 0.4050 0.9617 0.9559 0.0441 0.0008 0.0000 0.0274 0.0174 0.0000 1.0000 1.55 0.9204 0.2120 0.0000 1.0000 0.4868 0.0000 0.0033 0.0257 0.0000 1.0000 1.8990 0.0000 1.2018 0.0000 0.0429 0.0632 0.9102 0.0271 0.0000 0.0000 1.9993 0.9998 1.5629 0.0000 0.9822 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.45 0.8866 0.9183 0.0635 0.8 0.0000 0.0021 0.8535 0.1423 0.8735 0.3373 0.0000 0.0065 0.0000 0.9525 0.7899 0.0001 0.0000 0.9067 0.0183 0.0033 0.0004 0.5950 0.0000 1.0000 0.0022 0.1892 0.7291 0.2586 0.9967 1.5614 0.0000 0.0010 0.0576 0.0000 0.9999 1.0000 0.9765 0.0000 0.9994 0.7880 0.2195 0.0000 0.4 0.2101 0.25 0.9997 1.0451 0.0010 0.9998 1.0000 0.0170 0.0039 0.9699 0.0021 0.0000 0.9622 0.5842 0.0000 0.9967 0.0004 0.0743 0.4728 0.0000 0.3595 0.9959 0.9919 0.8947 0.0000 0.6712 0.3391 0.0092 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.3119 0.0008 0.0000 0.0024 0.0022 0.0000 1.25 0.1 0.9995 0.0000 1.2811 0.0000 1/3 0.0062 0.0040 0.9944 0.7712 1.0009 0.0000 1.6898 0.0000 1/6 0.9997 1.9897 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.9316 0.0000 0.4 0.0000 1.1495 0.0000 0.0000 1.9719 1.9 0.3567 0.0000 1.9999 1.9989 0.9997 1.0029 0.0000 1.0000 1.9991 0.0000 0.2 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0003 0.9979 0.0000 0.4499 0.5141 0.0000 0.9998 1.0015 0.0000 1.4853 0.8024 0.0261 0.8972 1.0034 0.0000 1.0003 0.9984 0.05 0.9209 0.9726 0.0384 0.0000 1.9978 0.0106 0.9999 1.5245 0.0000 0.9514 0.9992 0.9459 1.9996 1.0001 0.0002 0.0000 0.9417 0.0100 0.9161 0.0000 5/6 0.0000 0.9990 1.3288 0.0003 0.4401 0.0000 1.0007 0.0000 1.9998 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.5599 1.9917 0.0103 0.0001 0.0744 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0281 0.75 0.0000 0.9960 0.0015 0.5982 0.0000 1.0000 1.9991 0.0000 0.8505 0.0000 1.0684 0.0000 0.9999 1.0003 0.0000 0.0000 2/3 0.9978 0.2960 0.1243 0.0001 0.9147 0.0000 0.0000 0.4154 0.1298 0.0000 1.0000 1.9863 0.0243 0.9899 0.8147 1.5501 0.0500 0.0000 0.1053 0.9990 0.4371 0.9349 0.9257 1.0007 0.0000 0.9733 0.0000 1.0060 0.0000 0.9549 0.8103 0.0101 0.0439 0.0116 0.8757 0.5461 0.0000 0.3953 0.9417 0.5100 0.0000 1.6479 0.9992 1.0281 0.9247 0.0002 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0594 0.2709 0.0398 0.65 0.0000 1.0235 0.4787 0.9932 1.0000 0.0000 0.0042 0.0000 0.0000 0.9826 0.0000 0.0583 0.6925 0.15 0.9221 1.0000 1.8883 0.4019 0.9 0.0000 2/3 0.0002 0.8499 0.0000 0.0011 0.8593 0.0000 1.9757 0.95 0.1753 0.0000 1.9965 0.0068 0.6598 0.9739 0.05 0.9561 0.0440 0.5213 0.0000 0.8470 0.0301 0.0000 0.8164 0.0000 0.0006 0.7189 0.6609 0.8702 0.0000 1.0000 0.0753 0.9989 0.0000 0.4386 0.9997 1.2459 0.0000 0.9902 0.7 0.7161 0.6482 0.0006 0.2892 0.9256 0.8811 0.9999 1.3698 0.35 0.0000 1.9987 0.0000 5/6 0.0000 0.9795 0.5773 0.9996 1.9825 0.1028 0.2288 0.0000 1/6 0.0000 0.0651 0.0001 0.4531 0.5 0.5123 1.0000 1.
0000 5/6 0.0000 1.0000 n = 18 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 0.6673 0.0000 1.0003 0.7473 0.0000 0.0419 0.3231 0.9918 0.4503 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.9794 0.2527 0.0001 0.2311 0.0000 0.0058 0.9520 0.7742 0.9998 1.0000 0.0000 2/3 0.0003 0.0002 0.0395 0.0163 0.0001 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 1.7500 0.0000 0.6713 0.0000 0.3327 0.5207 0.5203 0.0000 1.3523 0.0210 0.0000 1.2277 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.1728 0.0000 0.1515 0.45 0.0007 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.2375 0.0481 0.0006 0.1071 0.7 0.0014 0.0000 1.8671 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0082 0.0000 1.0000 1.8696 0.0000 0.0000 0.9985 0.0121 0.0142 0.9880 0.0003 0.9995 1.9924 0.0000 1.9997 1.7480 0.1275 0.0000 0.9987 0.0000 0.1077 0.6415 1.4148 0.8499 1.0000 0.6083 0.0000 1.0000 1.0056 0.9804 0.3704 0.0600 0.9975 0.0783 0.0000 0.0000 0.4797 0.0000 0.0214 0.0577 0.0000 1.0006 0.0000 1.0002 0.9829 0.9999 1.0016 0.4073 0.8982 0.8701 0.0000 0.9997 1.9629 0.9856 0.9824 0.9997 1.0015 0.9976 0.0000 0.0000 0.0008 0.0000 0.95 0.9764 0.0000 1.35 0.0000 1.1018 0.0015 0.9790 0.85 0.0000 1.9672 0.0000 0.0160 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0001 0.0000 1.55 0.9997 1.1218 0.0120 0.5665 0.0000 1.6943 0.9995 0.0000 1.9963 0.8983 0.0000 1.9999 1.2662 0.0000 0.0000 1.0009 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.5010 0.9987 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.5841 0.0000 0.3 0.5 0.0000 1.7338 0.0109 0.9999 1.9490 0.4164 0.9992 1.0000 1.0321 0.7283 0.9464 1.0000 0.0000 1.9797 0.7625 0.1133 0.0000 1.6 0.0000 0.5857 0.9997 1.5 0.0513 0.0000 1.0510 0.9998 1.7759 0.0000 1.0000 0.8610 0.3915 0.0000 1.0000 1.3972 0.0000 0.9781 0.0000 1.9999 1.9986 0.0000 1.6028 1.0991 0.0569 0.7624 0.5778 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0409 0.7546 0.0000 1.9245 0.1206 0.9985 0.0000 1.0000 0.0243 0.6010 0.0000 0.9900 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.9739 1.0000 1.0210 0.9990 0.0000 1.0480 0.0000 0.1017 0.9820 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.0433 0.0130 0.9987 0.1076 0.0000 0.7217 0.0000 0.8318 0.9938 0.9400 0.0002 0.0000 1.0010 0.9885 1.7689 0.0000 1.0000 0.0043 0.0206 0.0000 0.9968 1.1308 0.0432 0.6085 0.9949 0.0000 0.2241 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.8653 0.0000 0.0913 0.0000 0.0012 0.2642 0.0049 0.0000 1.4366 0.0000 0.2454 0.0000 0.8684 0.0000 1.0003 0.8354 0.0000 0.8593 0.0000 1.4044 0.0000 1.65 0.0982 0.9420 0.1353 0.0000 0.0000 0.4159 0.0001 0.0000 1.9846 0.0003 0.0000 0.9954 0.4049 0.0000 0.2088 0.0000 0.1304 0.5878 0.9793 0.1958 0.9991 0.5836 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 2/3 0.0059 0.0282 0.0051 0.15 0.7483 0.8782 0.0000 0.9988 0.8818 0.0000 1.5914 0.7164 0.9468 0.2 0.0000 1.0000 1.9811 0.0054 0.2493 0.0009 0.0000 0.1501 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 0.2520 0.0000 0.0919 0.3057 0.8867 0.9463 0.5973 0.9133 0.8744 0.0000 1.0016 0.0000 1/3 0.0183 0.9567 0.1299 0.9841 0.0000 0.9961 0.9932 0.75 0.2717 0.15 0.9605 0.0000 1.3828 0.0000 1.0207 0.0000 1.9999 1.6479 0.0026 0.0009 0.9974 0.0000 0.0000 5/6 0.0000 1.© OCR 2010 CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES 0.9994 0.9347 0.0113 0.0000 0.7553 0.9936 0.5497 0.0000 1.0000 0.9 0.9998 1.0328 0.8692 0.0371 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.9624 0.9058 0.0580 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.9423 0.0376 0.0000 1.0000 0.9987 0.8923 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0026 0.0376 0.4509 0.4119 0.0002 0.0000 0.9624 1.8794 0.9964 0.0326 0.9403 0.1316 0.5344 0.7028 0.9674 0.9087 0.0000 1.0001 0.9987 0.0000 0.8114 0.0444 0.9861 0.0000 0.0000 0.9999 1.8272 0.0000 1/6 0.0064 0.7723 0.6450 0.4656 0.1646 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.6080 0.9081 0.0013 0.9973 0.0000 0.0000 1/3 0.0692 0.9951 0.0039 0.0532 0.8924 0.9936 0.9396 0.2061 0.9979 0.0013 0.0000 1.0061 0.3385 0.9935 0.6769 0.7912 0.0000 1.5956 0.0000 0.9991 0.0002 0.8244 0.0000 1.9879 0.0000 1.9984 0.0000 0.0000 0.0100 0.4114 0.9404 0.5834 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9989 0.0007 0.0000 101 .0000 1.9947 0.9957 0.1182 0.7597 0.0000 0.3743 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9942 0.0003 0.1280 0.1347 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.55 0.0189 0.0000 0.0002 0.9962 0.0000 1.3915 0.9807 0.0033 0.0000 0.0388 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.4990 0.0000 1.7175 0.0000 1.0037 0.0113 0.0000 0.9984 1.0009 0.0000 1.0014 0.0942 0.0000 0.0000 1.9993 0.8485 0.0000 0.3 0.0000 0.9998 1.1 0.4222 0.2972 0.6172 0.5881 0.0000 0.8784 1.0000 0.1390 0.0068 0.0000 1.0000 0.0060 0.2252 0.0000 1.0000 1.7358 0.0000 0.0000 0.9419 0.0000 1.0000 0.0009 0.1330 0.9993 1.5886 0.9998 1.7767 0.0000 1.2142 0.0000 0.0012 0.0000 0.1702 0.2783 0.0171 0.0002 0.95 0.75 0.2632 0.6 0.3287 0.0015 0.0139 0.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.4122 0.85 0.65 0.2258 0.0000 0.0115 0.4793 0.0000 1.0000 0.6296 0.0000 1.9991 0.0013 0.9589 0.0755 0.4335 0.0000 1.2798 0.0028 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.5187 0.9612 1.0000 0.7202 0.9997 1.0000 0.05 0.9998 1.0004 0.0000 1.9870 0.0000 0.9891 0.0000 0.0000 1/6 0.0000 0.0065 0.0176 0.0013 0.0000 1.0000 1.0027 0.0159 0.4086 0.0597 0.0036 0.0000 1.1682 0.1407 0.0180 0.0000 1.9941 0.9018 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.6085 0.0604 0.9581 0.0000 0.9840 0.4813 0.0867 0.0000 1.0000 1.5951 0.0000 0.4143 0.0000 1.0411 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0024 0.0219 0.7687 0.9718 0.9997 1.7858 0.9999 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.1905 0.9568 0.0000 0.9998 1.5927 0.0000 1.0000 1.2313 0.0039 0.1216 0.0000 0.3550 0.6257 0.0011 0.9 0.0000 1.0000 0.4166 0.8725 0.0000 0.8929 0.0000 0.0144 0.0000 0.9837 0.0003 0.0000 0.1329 0.0000 1.0038 0.2500 0.7287 0.0553 0.05 0.2403 0.5634 0.0000 0.9986 0.9882 0.9994 0.8982 0.3585 0.0000 1.0000 0.2713 0.0000 0.0000 0.0049 0.0000 0.2233 0.5491 0.2836 0.1189 0.0000 0.0000 1.9946 0.0064 0.5852 0.4027 0.0000 1.1391 0.9308 0.1256 0.8298 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0261 0.0062 0.0000 1.9447 0.9991 0.0000 0.3990 0.0025 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0053 0.0565 0.0000 0.0000 1.0154 0.0002 0.9988 0.0000 0.0000 0.0046 0.0000 1.7735 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9217 0.0000 1.8670 0.7748 0.9998 1.0032 0.0004 0.9858 0.9961 0.2376 0.0000 1.9519 0.0003 0.9985 0.0581 0.4 0.0000 1.0196 0.2 0.0596 0.0000 0.0076 0.0000 0.0000 1.9997 1.7939 0.0000 0.2825 0.9940 0.7507 0.6615 0.0000 0.9757 0.0673 0.0000 1.8042 0.9972 0.0001 0.0000 1.0000 1.9790 0.0355 0.9786 0.9591 0.0000 1.3920 0.9887 0.25 0.9998 1.0203 0.1886 0.0000 0.9939 0.9327 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.8 0.0000 0.8 0.9431 0.0212 0.0537 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000 1.9887 0.8095 0.0000 1.9941 0.0000 0.9944 1.9967 0.0536 0.6477 0.0118 0.0653 0.0000 1.0000 0.7368 0.25 0.0005 0.0059 0.2517 0.35 0.1018 0.0576 0.9951 0.0000 1.9996 1.9997 1.0000 0.9645 0.0000 0.0000 1.9817 0.0000 0.0021 0.0000 0.0000 0.1756 0.0000 1.0013 0.0000 0.0000 1.9788 0.0000 1.9556 0.9435 0.8609 0.0001 0.0236 0.3917 0.9999 1.9424 0.9974 0.0000 0.0000 1.9999 1.0000 1.0000 1.2447 0.3521 0.0000 0.9996 0.0000 0.0000 0.45 0.0005 0.8720 0.0000 0.0000 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics n = 20 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 0.7 0.0000 1.8647 0.2265 0.0000 0.0000 0.9998 1.9991 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.4 0.9998 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9487 0.0000 1.0000 0.1 0.0193 0.9009 0.9679 0.8811 0.0000 1.0000 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.
0000 0.0000 0.9982 0.0960 0.9999 1.0000 1.0000 0.9928 0.2735 0.0332 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.9680 0.0000 1.0175 0.0000 0.0001 0.0008 0.0001 0.0255 0.8908 0.5937 0.0000 0.0000 0.45 0.0016 0.7265 0.7576 0.0000 0.1120 0.0009 0.9282 1.0000 0.8173 0.1887 0.9984 0.0639 0.9988 0.9995 0.0000 1.1271 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.2280 0.0415 0.0000 0.0000 0.9826 0.0000 0.9560 0.2364 0.0000 0.0905 0.0000 0.0274 0.0000 1.9992 0.0000 1.9910 0.0255 0.9942 0.9095 0.0029 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.6424 0.4882 0.7720 0.0000 1.0090 0.7 0.9827 0.0695 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0004 0.9940 0.7712 0.9980 0.0539 0.0000 1.0174 0.0344 0.9396 0.0000 1.0000 1.5754 0.0021 0.0016 0.0000 1.0173 0.0000 0.9920 0.9038 0.9784 0.0000 1.9992 1.0000 0.0440 0.0718 0.75 0.9868 0.0000 1.0000 1.0001 0.0000 1.0000 0.9999 1.9287 0.0629 0.0002 0.0000 0.3231 0.0000 1.0000 1.25 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0086 0.0736 0.9 0.0097 0.9895 1.0003 0.0000 1.1494 0.0000 0.0000 1.9305 0.9656 0.0004 0.0000 1.8220 0.9944 0.0713 0.0095 0.9745 0.4 0.1536 0.8464 0.0447 0.0000 1.1254 0.3833 0.0000 0.0826 0.6939 0.9742 0.0000 0.9999 1.0000 1.0000 0.1340 0.0341 0.8852 0.9022 0.4668 0.0107 0.9985 0.0157 0.9998 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.9828 1.9726 0.0000 1.7863 0.0072 0.2137 0.0021 0.0000 1.0000 0.102 CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES 0.0005 0.85 0.9991 0.0043 0.9903 0.0000 1.1734 0.8385 0.9905 0.5371 0.0000 0.0294 0.0047 0.9999 1.8106 0.0000 0.0000 1.6184 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.9998 1.9997 0.0000 1.8462 0.9979 0.0000 1.9843 0.0000 0.0000 0.3843 0.0005 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.15 0.2424 0.55 0.9999 1.0003 0.0000 0.6157 0.9558 0.0000 0.0056 0.0056 0.0000 0.0035 0.3816 0.0000 1.0000 0.3576 0.0978 0.35 0.1935 0.0000 0.0000 0.9264 0.0000 1.1894 0.0000 0.0000 0.9532 0.8506 0.0000 1.6303 0.6167 0.0000 0.0000 0.7265 0.0962 0.0000 0.0000 1.3044 0.0000 1/6 0.0000 1.9999 1.0000 1.0604 0.0000 0.9461 0.0023 0.0000 0.4574 0.0000 0.0000 0.5289 0.0080 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9997 1.0000 1.9851 0.0000 1.0008 0.6 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0005 0.0000 1.9944 0.9996 0.0000 0.0980 0.9999 1.9977 0.0000 1.5426 0.7323 0.0000 1.0005 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.4629 0.0000 0.0093 0.9553 0.2288 0.9999 1.0000 1.4142 0.0000 1.7636 0.9069 0.0020 0.1091 0.0000 1.0149 0.3 0.0001 0.0001 0.0000 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .0931 0.0000 0.0012 0.65 0.9988 0.0000 1.0000 0.5376 0.9995 0.0000 1.0015 0.0442 0.0001 0.0000 0.0001 0.0001 0.0002 0.2537 0.0000 0.0002 0.9984 0.9371 0.0001 0.9966 0.0000 1.0000 0.9979 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.2340 0.0000 1/3 0.0000 1.4624 0.0000 0.9174 0.0000 0.6937 0.5000 0.0000 0.0000 0.8909 0.3703 0.6769 0.0000 n = 25 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 0.0000 0.0018 0.9996 0.9999 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0001 0.0000 0.9907 0.0105 0.7463 0.1615 0.9538 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.2215 0.9703 0.0012 0.0918 0.9668 0.0000 0.0000 1.8 0.7878 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.9745 0.8113 0.9971 0.0000 1.0000 0.0038 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.9666 0.0000 1.2735 0.0000 0.0000 0.6217 0.6821 0.0000 1.0095 0.0000 1.0034 0.0778 0.0172 0.0004 0.2 0.1538 0.9976 0.9984 0.5332 0.2712 0.3697 0.9953 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9999 1.2774 0.0000 5/6 0.9988 0.0000 0.0000 0.9893 0.5 0.0000 1.0016 0.9999 1.9996 0.9082 0.4063 0.0000 1.9222 0.0000 0.2200 0.0320 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0468 0.0000 1.9679 0.9018 0.0000 1.6297 0.9995 0.0000 1.8266 0.6593 0.0000 0.0334 0.0000 0.2677 0.9905 0.9999 1.9825 0.7660 0.9706 0.0000 1.7226 1.7785 0.6956 0.3407 0.9585 0.0216 0.3179 0.1780 0.0073 0.9965 0.0001 0.0462 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9659 0.0000 0.0132 0.0000 0.0000 0.3450 0.4207 0.5611 0.3783 0.0000 0.9995 1.9020 0.8065 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3063 0.0000 1.0982 0.4389 0.0000 0.9361 0.9997 0.0004 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.9996 0.9914 0.0070 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.4711 0.0164 0.0258 0.0005 0.8729 0.0321 0.0000 0.9927 0.4246 0.1 0.0000 1.0000 0.0060 0.0000 1.0000 0.95 0.0000 1.0000 0.1148 0.7800 0.0000 0.9998 1.0000 1.9957 0.0000 1.9930 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.3061 0.0000 1.1092 0.0000 1.0000 1.0024 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.8880 0.0000 2/3 0.0000 1.8660 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.5118 0.0000 1.1827 0.9995 0.0000 1.0058 0.05 0.0000 1.7288 0.9995 0.0000 0.0000 1.0001 0.0000 1.0297 0.8746 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.9040 0.0023 0.0005 0.6550 0.0000 0.2122 0.0000 0.0000 0.0012 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9977 0.0000 0.9962 1.5858 0.0000 0.0000 0.9836 0.5793 0.
7077 0.0020 0.0000 1.9918 0.0000 0.0000 1.8998 0.9993 0.9993 0.9994 0.5725 0.0000 0.3 0.0000 0.9162 0.9744 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.1526 0.0000 0.8340 0.0124 0.0000 1.9925 0.0000 1.0000 0.9999 1.0042 0.0000 0.6070 0.0214 0.9999 1.2860 0.0480 0.9998 1.0000 1.7106 0.0000 1.1878 0.0000 1.0081 0.0002 0.0000 0.9155 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.7854 1.0000 1.7145 0.0000 0.05 0.0000 1.0000 1.9905 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0029 0.0694 0.0000 1.0000 1.9742 0.0000 1.0000 1.1593 0.0001 0.3481 0.0000 1.0045 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0067 0.2327 0.0435 0.7304 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.4 0.0076 0.9967 0.0002 0.0000 0.15 0.0172 0.0000 1.0000 1.9998 1.0000 1.5757 0.2026 0.8486 0.0000 0.0025 0.0106 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.9699 0.85 0.9844 0.6736 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0611 0.9879 0.9767 0.0000 1.0021 0.2146 0.0000 1.8237 0.0000 1.0001 0.0000 0.0093 0.0004 0.0000 0.2552 0.9519 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.2923 0.8245 0.8192 0.0000 1.0000 1.0971 0.0006 0.0000 0.8122 0.9998 0.9576 1.25 0.4311 0.1966 0.0156 0.0002 0.9991 0.0000 1.9493 0.0000 1.0000 0.9895 0.9894 0.4112 0.8762 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.9645 0.0000 1.0019 0.0000 1.8332 0.0000 1.0000 1.5245 0.9980 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9306 0.0000 1.9997 1.9862 0.1808 0.0000 1.7448 0.1668 0.6474 0.0002 0.0000 0.0000 1.9922 0.5888 0.0295 0.0000 0.9985 0.0000 1.0000 0.9999 1.0000 0.0481 0.0000 1.9955 0.1227 0.0002 0.0000 0.9565 0.9878 0.0000 1.3592 0.4278 0.0000 0.0000 0.0075 0.9558 0.8713 0.0374 0.0355 0.9803 0.0000 1.0000 1.0121 0.0000 0.9980 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.9996 0.9933 0.9995 0.9979 0.7186 0.9705 0.6 0.5683 0.9988 1.0000 1.1137 0.0000 0.9722 0.0000 1.0000 0.0105 0.1287 0.0000 1.2915 0.0000 1.0078 0.0000 1.9102 0.0000 0.0766 0.0000 0.1837 0.9903 0.0138 0.5848 0.2 0.0000 1.0000 0.0031 0.1028 0.0029 0.9234 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.1057 0.7974 0.0000 0.0000 1.9984 0.0000 0.0000 1.0435 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9520 0.7802 0.95 0.9698 0.0007 0.0000 1.7 0.0000 1.1754 0.0000 0.0000 0.0169 0.0506 0.6519 0.0000 1.0000 1.9392 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 2/3 0.0000 0.9995 0.8407 0.0006 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9784 0.0000 1.0005 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0012 0.5078 0.3526 0.0002 0.9060 0.0000 1.0302 0.0000 1.0000 1.0033 0.0000 0.9268 0.9979 0.0000 0.2761 0.3575 0.0000 1.9989 0.0507 0.9981 0.0000 0.8737 0.4114 0.8163 0.0020 0.0000 1.9998 1.6425 0.0008 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.9907 0.0050 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.6783 0.9494 0.0494 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.0278 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.2696 0.0000 0.0301 0.0000 0.9999 1.8863 0.0000 0.0000 0.0004 0.0001 0.9924 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.5535 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0608 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.3552 0.4317 0.0000 0.35 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0014 0.7604 0.0838 0.9974 0.0000 1.0000 1.9998 1.0000 0.1595 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1660 0.0016 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.3836 0.7085 0.© OCR 2010 CUMULATIVE BINOMIAL PROBABILITIES Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics n = 30 p x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0.3264 0.0000 1.0216 0.4215 0.0212 0.9928 0.1263 0.0000 1.0009 0.2894 0.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.9788 0.0000 0.0007 0.1763 0.9348 0.9996 0.7753 0.8650 0.0011 0.0000 0.0714 0.8773 0.8405 0.0000 0.0000 1.5689 0.0000 0.0442 0.0000 0.0057 0.0000 0.65 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0233 0.2392 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0698 0.9831 0.7608 0.9506 0.0000 0.0000 1.0001 0.0001 0.0000 0.0000 0.0008 0.0000 1.5143 0.0000 1.0732 0.0000 1.9998 0.0000 0.0000 0.9876 0.5 0.0001 0.0000 1.0000 1.6448 0.4975 0.0033 0.0000 0.3452 0.9992 0.0197 0.0000 1.8246 0.4152 0.0000 1.2235 0.8972 0.9828 0.0005 0.9992 0.0000 1.0000 0.9021 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0188 0.9029 0.0000 0.0003 0.0000 1/6 0.0000 1.3930 0.5785 0.0652 0.0000 0.0000 1.7691 0.7765 0.0000 0.0000 1.9993 0.1002 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.9997 1.0000 1.9389 0.0007 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0083 0.75 0.4755 0.9991 0.0000 1.0015 0.0000 0.9969 0.0000 0.4857 0.0003 0.0000 0.0000 0.2855 0.0020 0.0000 0.9971 0.0000 0.0040 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.4922 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9666 0.4465 0.0000 0.6408 0.0000 103 .0000 1.9960 0.8644 0.0000 0.0256 0.0000 0.9999 1.0000 0.0002 0.0000 0.9997 1.0001 0.4243 0.0000 1.55 0.0000 0.0021 0.9302 0.1350 0.9958 1.0027 0.0000 1.0095 0.0000 5/6 0.1514 0.9994 0.9999 1.0000 1.9565 0.0000 0.9998 1.2309 0.0000 1.7140 0.9975 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0401 0.9414 0.1356 0.0000 1.0001 0.2198 0.9936 0.0258 0.0000 0.9999 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.4275 0.9971 0.9998 1.8474 0.9812 0.1 0.0000 0.0000 1.0940 0.0000 0.0000 1.0122 0.9599 0.4315 0.0000 1.9998 1.0000 1.0000 0.45 0.0000 0.9626 0.0000 0.1755 0.5886 0.9973 0.0000 1.0000 0.6548 0.9688 0.0082 0.0000 1.0009 0.0000 0.0000 0.0334 0.9 0.9999 1.0312 0.0000 0.1238 0.0000 1.5025 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.5722 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0586 0.0000 0.9917 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9786 0.8034 0.0000 0.0000 0.0026 0.0000 0.8 0.3217 0.0979 0.0000 0.0000 1.0072 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0064 0.7673 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0097 0.0000 0.0845 0.7239 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9980 0.6164 0.0002 0.0000 1.2247 0.8943 0.2396 0.0000 1.9286 0.0000 0.0000 1.5685 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.9950 0.0898 0.9967 0.0000 1.2814 0.9919 0.9943 0.0424 0.0000 1/3 0.9986 0.
9998 1.9998 1.9857 0.7408 0.7834 0.7576 0.6696 0.9569 0.9983 1.0000 1.8629 0.CUMULATIVE POISSON PROBABILITIES x=0 1 2 3 x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1.5249 0.5697 0.9985 0.9999 1.9998 1.9919 0.9796 0.9986 0.9258 0.0000 1.9098 0.9662 0.07 0.9958 0.0000 1.5918 0.9510 0.06 0.9993 0.9992 0.9985 0.9349 0.4460 0.0000 2.9802 0.1225 0.50 0.10 0.0000 1.8781 0.7787 0.09 0.0000 1.0000 1.9962 0.9865 0.6626 0.9999 1.0000 1.0000 1.9999 1.9900 1.9580 0.0000 0.0000 1.9068 0.9997 0.0000 1.9704 0.0000 1.0000 1.9896 0.0000 1.7725 0.8913 0.9998 1.9659 0.40 0.9996 1.0000 1.4695 0.0000 1.0907 0.0000 1.9967 0.00 0.0821 0.1827 0.0000 104 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .30 0.8088 0.8571 0.9999 1.9794 0.8442 0.9704 0.9700 0.9884 0.0000 1.7572 0.9996 0.9810 0.9713 0.0000 0.9756 0.9384 0.9946 0.0000 1.6227 0.9987 0.5184 0.02 0.9994 0.4060 0.0000 1.0743 0.2146 0.01 0.9969 0.4337 0.9976 0.7360 0.0000 1.9162 0.9997 1.9955 0.9197 0.9999 1.70 0.8194 0.9989 0.0000 1.7141 0.60 0.9991 0.0000 1.0000 1.9868 0.30 0.9999 1.9981 0.9998 1.0000 1.0550 0.30 0.0000 0.8912 0.80 0.50 0.9998 1.03 0.9139 0.8774 0.0000 1.6919 0.9814 0.9344 0.9901 0.9925 0.9231 0.0000 2.9825 0.0000 1.0000 0.9980 0.00 0.0000 0.9999 1.90 0.9512 0.9999 1.1003 0.8477 0.90 0.9966 0.80 0.0000 0.7037 0.9999 1.0000 1.9995 0.9906 0.9947 0.9997 1.8335 0.9769 0.0000 1.0000 1.9996 0.9999 1.4936 0.3084 0.9996 1.9999 1.9994 0.9212 0.9999 1.4493 0.9991 0.9963 0.9473 0.9982 0.9999 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9920 0.9977 0.9608 0.0000 0.2725 0.3679 0.9324 0.40 0.5578 0.20 0.3796 0.20 0.0000 2.0000 2.9953 0.05 0.1653 0.6268 0.0000 0.9981 0.6703 0.6990 0.2019 0.4628 0.9997 0.9992 0.3309 0.0000 0.0000 2.9955 0.0000 1.9941 0.9893 0.60 0.9998 1.0000 0.0000 1.9828 0.9999 1.4066 0.0000 0.9743 0.0000 2.9751 0.9974 0.0000 1.9994 0.9998 0.0000 2.3546 0.6065 0.9991 0.7306 0.9934 0.0000 1.5438 0.0000 1.70 0.0000 0.9643 0.0000 1.0000 1.9992 1.9379 0.9989 0.2487 0.8187 0.4932 0.40 0.9966 0.8386 0.7358 0.9978 0.9559 0.9970 0.0000 1.8747 0.0000 1.0000 1.9999 1.5488 0.20 0.9923 0.9631 0.8318 0.2466 0.9763 0.9998 1.0000 1.80 0.9990 0.9968 0.9997 1.9988 1.90 0.9997 1.2873 0.9989 0.9940 0.0000 2.0608 0.0000 0.9856 0.0000 1.10 0.9526 0.0000 0.1496 0.8088 0.6496 0.7993 0.9964 0.5960 0.9974 0.9998 1.6767 0.9999 1.2231 0.9996 0.8795 0.60 0.9942 0.2311 0.9048 0.9418 0.9985 0.4966 0.0000 0.9041 0.9275 0.04 0.9977 0.9921 0.0000 1.0000 1.9371 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.2674 0.1108 0.9999 1.1353 0.9433 0.9909 0.3012 0.9999 1.0000 1.50 0.0000 2.8571 0.0000 0.9994 0.9463 0.0672 0.9834 0.9995 0.70 0.9004 0.9636 0.9858 0.0000 1.9992 0.0000 1.0000 2.3329 0.9999 1.08 0.10 0.
0000 3.7199 0.0000 1.1712 0.0000 4.9786 0.9717 0.9214 0.9863 0.9840 0.9749 0.9999 1.9999 1.5321 0.6684 0.9966 0.0000 3.40 0.90 0.0000 1.2531 0.4735 0.80 0.9858 0.9905 0.9959 0.9988 0.20 0.0780 0.0000 4.9999 1.3772 0.9999 1.7064 0.0000 4.0000 3.CUMULATIVE POISSON PROBABILITIES x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 3.30 0.9546 0.0334 0.10 0.9889 0.0000 1.0000 3.0450 0.9910 0.4946 0.0202 0.9996 0.7806 0.9648 0.9998 0.1586 0.0000 3.9880 0.9986 0.8311 0.7908 0.1257 0.0136 0.9290 0.9832 0.4763 0.0000 1.9851 0.0000 1.0000 3.0000 1.9597 0.9361 0.4532 0.9933 0.3027 0.0000 1.8769 0.9490 0.2381 0.9554 0.0247 0.9997 0.9984 0.5803 0.9999 1.0000 1.7693 0.9421 0.4582 0.9998 0.60 0.9999 1.0000 1.9994 0.9995 0.9998 1.0000 1.4335 0.8436 0.9922 0.9960 0.9977 0.70 0.0498 0.6025 0.8006 0.9347 0.9999 1.0663 0.2102 0.80 0.9755 0.9942 0.9057 0.00 0.0000 3.0101 0.0000 1.9733 0.0000 1.0000 4.9971 0.5152 0.0224 0.2854 0.0000 1.9805 0.9721 0.0123 0.9489 0.0074 0.00 0.1851 0.1468 0.9998 1.8675 0.8576 0.9815 0.6335 0.9999 1.1074 0.0845 0.6288 0.8946 0.9943 0.8705 0.9997 0.9091 0.8156 0.3423 0.9952 0.1626 0.4142 0.8786 0.0273 0.9997 0.7254 0.0000 1.8441 0.3799 0.7982 0.9996 0.0183 0.6484 0.9999 1.6093 0.1425 0.5898 0.9931 0.10 0.0091 0.9994 0.9999 1.2238 0.9382 0.1523 0.9983 0.3208 0.6510 0.5584 0.0000 1.0000 1.0992 0.9881 0.9993 0.3097 0.8829 0.9999 1.6678 0.9442 0.9997 0.9919 0.6858 0.9995 0.4232 0.0000 1.8046 0.9161 0.3954 0.9989 0.9960 0.0563 0.9427 0.7851 0.8893 0.4012 0.0719 0.2793 0.9953 0.7029 0.9931 0.9999 1.0000 4.9952 0.20 0.8960 0.7767 0.6248 0.9999 1.9999 1.0000 1.8301 0.3594 0.9599 0.5132 0.9998 1.0000 4.9998 0.5366 0.9995 0.9990 0.1359 0.9966 0.0000 4.2942 0.9883 0.3397 0.3594 0.9973 0.9642 0.6872 0.2689 0.9986 0.50 0.0000 1.6472 0.9612 0.0916 0.0477 0.9769 0.8153 0.0000 1.9996 0.8995 0.0000 4.0000 1.9665 0.0082 0.0369 0.3257 0.9982 0.0302 0.40 0.5512 0.1333 0.0439 0.9778 0.9997 0.9896 0.9972 0.9993 0.1736 0.60 0.9990 0.9497 0.4942 0.0000 1.7626 0.8180 0.70 0.7442 0.9999 1.9917 0.0000 3.0000 1.9976 0.9994 0.0000 1.9683 0.30 0.9049 0.9981 0.8867 0.8558 0.0150 0.0000 1.9829 0.9943 0.0000 © OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 105 .0000 4.9987 0.9692 0.90 0.9980 0.0000 1.0000 3.9967 0.0518 0.9989 0.9996 0.9999 1.9953 0.1991 0.9901 0.9998 0.9991 0.9871 0.0166 0.9134 0.9802 0.9267 0.50 0.0611 0.9995 0.9983 0.7367 0.9986 0.0111 0.9182 0.9962 0.1847 0.9999 1.0000 4.9992 0.1974 0.0408 0.5704 0.9549 0.9992 0.7531 0.9978 0.1162 0.9997 0.
9862 0.0000 1.0818 0.00 0.9332 0.9980 0.0000 1.7166 0.0000 1.0000 5.9998 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 7.0000 1.0000 1.8881 0.9665 0.7520 0.9911 0.0000 1.9993 0.9995 0.0000 1.9970 0.0030 0.9574 0.0000 1.2414 0.9994 0.0003 0.5874 0.2562 0.0266 0.0000 1.0000 9.9999 1.9462 0.9208 0.0000 1.0000 1.8364 0.8622 0.0174 0.9945 0.3690 0.9976 0.9999 1.9658 0.8095 0.6453 0.0884 0.1912 0.0009 0.9980 0.1730 0.9319 0.6530 0.4530 0.9161 0.0996 0.9996 0.1496 0.5289 0.0000 6.0000 1.0000 1.0002 0.9986 0.0047 0.0000 1.7440 0.9682 0.8981 0.0000 9.0000 1.0212 0.9987 0.0000 1.0620 0.9998 0.9990 0.9964 0.0000 1.3007 0.5231 0.9996 0.9988 0.0113 0.5218 0.9827 0.1512 0.0000 1.2237 0.0067 0.0001 0.0000 1.4497 0.0000 6.0149 0.0744 0.9998 0.9984 0.0019 0.0430 0.9780 0.0000 7.0073 0.9970 0.0001 0.9872 0.6728 0.9585 0.0000 1.9573 0.00 0.8159 0.5925 0.8666 0.0296 0.3575 0.9992 0.0062 0.9997 0.9999 1.9957 0.50 0.9996 0.9980 0.7764 0.0000 1.CUMULATIVE POISSON PROBABILITIES x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 5.9863 0.0000 1.9996 0.0000 1.8487 0.7634 0.3856 0.9362 0.9934 0.9747 0.0000 1.50 0.0591 0.9999 1.8305 0.9730 0.9989 0.5246 0.6160 0.0000 1.9999 1.7622 0.9943 0.0025 0.3782 0.3134 0.4457 0.0000 1.9912 0.9998 0.0000 1.0000 1.50 0.9999 1.1118 0.9467 0.0403 0.0000 1.2851 0.9998 0.0000 1.8944 0.9918 0.9993 0.0424 0.3918 0.0093 0.9486 0.0000 1.9091 0.9661 0.8758 0.0000 1.0000 1.1247 0.9999 1.9889 0.3239 0.0550 0.4557 0.50 0.8774 0.1321 0.8030 0.9995 0.9261 0.9963 0.1157 0.0006 0.0000 1.1649 0.9999 1.0041 0.9947 0.2687 0.9015 0.4405 0.0138 0.9997 0.00 0.5987 0.9823 0.9954 0.0000 106 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .9999 1.9991 0.7291 0.00 0.5265 0.50 0.7060 0.0885 0.0404 0.0042 0.9799 0.8472 0.9955 0.0000 1.0000 8.6860 0.7916 0.9784 0.0301 0.0203 0.0000 1.0012 0.9726 0.0000 1.6063 0.0000 1.9897 0.2017 0.2068 0.9999 0.0008 0.2650 0.0000 8.9976 0.9929 0.00 0.6620 0.9890 0.0015 0.9400 0.0000 1.9840 0.9983 0.
7991 0.0000 1.9973 0.0261 0.0000 1.00 0.3328 0.0000 15.5793 0.0000 1.5681 0.0000 0.9993 0.7559 0.0000 0.9960 0.9594 0.0001 0.00 0.9869 0.9997 0.0000 1.6472 0.1658 0.0037 0.4657 0.0002 0.0000 0.00 0.0039 0.0000 1.9997 0.9987 0.0076 0.9993 0.0002 0.0002 0.9950 0.0005 0.8905 0.0000 1.0000 16.2081 0.0699 0.2867 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0002 0.0000 1.8989 0.0000 1.00 0.0433 0.0000 0.9907 0.9978 0.8055 0.00 0.0001 0.9165 0.7636 0.2745 0.7423 0.0028 0.9730 0.0000 0.8752 0.0000 1.9888 0.9998 0.9925 0.0126 0.1757 0.9953 0.9857 0.9897 0.9994 0.0000 1.0347 0.9999 1.9928 0.0000 0.0000 1.9907 0.0103 0.0375 0.9995 0.6815 0.0000 1.0000 1.0005 0.0000 1.0000 1.00 0.9997 0.0374 0.9977 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.3472 0.7931 0.8682 0.0000 1.0015 0.9939 0.9995 0.0018 0.9833 0.9989 0.8645 0.9999 1.9367 0.4644 0.9235 0.0142 0.0000 1.0000 © OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 107 .9998 0.0000 1.8826 0.0000 1.0917 0.9996 0.9513 0.0000 0.3405 0.0040 0.9859 0.9993 0.3532 0.0606 0.0540 0.0000 1.5730 0.2517 0.9823 0.3675 0.00 0.4686 0.3751 0.1426 0.2808 0.5606 0.8444 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.9990 0.0621 0.2424 0.CUMULATIVE POISSON PROBABILITIES x=0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 10.0000 1.6751 0.9984 0.9999 0.0002 0.0028 0.9999 1.0000 1.9990 0.7489 0.6968 0.0000 1.6694 0.9750 0.1550 0.2676 0.5622 0.9678 0.0000 0.0180 0.7255 0.0000 1.0010 0.0000 11.9718 0.4599 0.9924 0.0000 0.7720 0.9827 0.0220 0.0000 0.9996 0.00 0.0000 1.0151 0.9999 1.3632 0.0000 1.9994 0.0001 0.0000 12.0000 1.7916 0.9985 0.8195 0.9930 0.9777 0.9999 1.0000 1.0984 0.0000 0.9967 0.0203 0.2320 0.9999 0.0071 0.3715 0.0000 1.0998 0.0000 1.9988 0.0021 0.6641 0.9991 0.8272 0.6509 0.1270 0.5830 0.0000 1.0100 0.0259 0.0000 1.0786 0.0089 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 17.0000 1.0000 1.9967 0.8987 0.9998 0.1931 0.0000 1.0000 1.9912 0.0000 0.9882 0.0895 0.6887 0.9997 0.9999 1.9941 0.5640 0.6550 0.0458 0.9074 0.9441 0.1848 0.0000 1.0000 1.8122 0.4677 0.0000 1.9269 0.9626 0.4631 0.2920 0.2600 0.0000 1.0000 1.2009 0.0001 0.0293 0.0005 0.2148 0.0076 0.0029 0.9995 0.0000 14.0000 13.8540 0.0023 0.0316 0.9370 0.9633 0.4616 0.9978 0.1350 0.9805 0.0007 0.9805 0.5760 0.00 0.3784 0.0000 0.0107 0.9990 0.0304 0.0012 0.4695 0.9999 1.9938 0.8551 0.9982 0.9047 0.0003 0.9673 0.9997 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.9950 0.0000 1.9317 0.7363 0.0000 1.0847 0.8933 0.9554 0.0005 0.3585 0.9983 0.0000 1.0671 0.4579 0.0000 0.1301 0.00 0.9108 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 18.9959 0.0000 0.9469 0.0055 0.0000 1.9687 0.0054 0.7813 0.1094 0.9712 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0014 0.1497 0.0000 1.0000 0.9986 0.0000 0.9999 1.9514 0.6593 0.0000 1.9965 0.7307 0.0009 0.9884 0.9418 0.0000 0.8355 0.9999 0.1185 0.0000 0.8490 0.9960 0.5704 0.0549 0.9998 0.9521 0.0491 0.9170 0.0774 0.8615 0.0000 1.0000 1.9974 0.9998 0.9999 1.0183 0.9980 0.0000 19.4667 0.0154 0.9994 0.2202 0.9999 0.9748 0.9573 0.9302 0.0000 0.0000 1.0004 0.0049 0.9970 0.1432 0.0000 0.9998 0.9787 0.0011 0.5660 0.9848 0.9999 1.
9854 0.8365 0.4 2.6879 0.9554 0.6255 0.6 1.1 1.9678 0.9778 0.7764 0.7611 0.9826 0.8888 0.8770 0.5319 0.9968 0.9941 0.9817 0.9981 1 0.7823 0.9713 0.9192 0.6772 0.9963 0.9788 0.8315 0.9251 0.75 0.3 2.9887 0.6 2.7 0.9881 0.9207 0.8212 0.9927 0.6808 0.9979 0.8051 0.9893 0.6368 0.9830 0.9975 2.8186 0.9850 0.6985 0.9162 0.7642 0.9936 0.5987 0. z 0.6517 0.9582 0.9525 0.8264 0.5753 0.9984 6 0.7 2.9916 0.5040 0.2 1.3 0.7 1.8810 0.9911 0.9995 3.9842 0.5832 0.9898 0.5793 0.326 0.9969 0.9452 0.9962 0.9964 0.5714 0.9821 0.7704 0.8997 0.2 2.6628 0.8485 0.90 1.9982 3 0.9599 0.9 0 0.9965 0.9767 0.9515 0.9772 0.9932 0.9082 0.7967 0.9949 0.7123 0.7549 0.9943 0.9656 0.9726 0.8599 0.9946 0.9904 0.6443 0.6915 0. for each value of p.9959 0.9099 0.9984 5 0.6844 0.9345 0.9868 0.9979 0.5517 0.7157 0.9332 0.9890 0.9616 0. p z 0.9913 0.9878 0.9956 0.8944 0.9966 0.0 0.9909 0.9115 0.5199 0.9961 0.9 1.1 0.5948 0.7357 0.9147 0.9901 0.2 0.5160 0.3 1.6179 0.9871 0.9177 0.8289 0.5080 0.8621 0.9484 0.7422 0.8438 0.9474 0.9306 0.5 2.5398 0.9292 0.4 0.9864 0.9783 0.9732 0.9986 9 0.9505 0.9948 0.9394 0.6217 0.8729 0.8643 0.8665 0.9918 0.7734 0.7580 0. for each value of z.9976 0.995 2.9406 0.8078 0.9222 0.9591 0. the table gives the value of ( z ) .5000 0.8925 0.282 0.9066 0.9875 0.8749 0.6736 0.9744 0.99 2.9974 0.9972 0.576 0.9649 0.9985 8 0.9625 0.9957 0.9834 0.7995 0.9429 0.8980 0.9938 0.6480 0.7088 0.8340 0.9686 0.8907 0.8106 0.5120 0.9463 0.9279 0.8413 0.645 0.9970 0.674 0.5478 0.9418 0.6950 0.9495 0.9265 0.9564 0.7794 0.9920 0.7517 0.9857 0.5438 0.9983 4 0.9756 0.9952 0.9934 0.9896 0.8023 0.9973 0.7324 0.5910 0.9664 0.8686 0.8849 0.7389 0.8 2.8133 0.807 0.9980 0.960 0.6554 0.9370 0.9803 0.1 2.9319 0.9982 2 0.9985 7 0.5871 0.8531 0.9975 0.5 0.999 3.6141 0.9750 0.6 0.9981 0.6331 0.5 1.5359 0.7054 0.8554 0.9641 0.9978 0.7190 0.7454 0.THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION If Z has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1 then.9974 0.9977 0.7291 0.9761 0.8830 0.9032 0.9 2.9808 0.7673 0.7486 0.975 1.9940 0.6591 0.8461 0.6026 0.8 1.5636 0.9131 0.9925 0.090 0.9955 0.9357 0.9951 0.4 1.95 1.6064 0.9884 0.5239 0.9967 0.9671 0.9706 0.9838 0.9545 0.9945 0. where: ( z ) P( Z z ) For negative values of z use ( z ) 1 ( z ) .9922 0.9441 0.8389 0.9793 0.9960 0.7852 0.9382 0.9971 0.5557 0.6293 0.6103 0.9699 0.9573 0.9798 0.9931 0.8238 0.0 2.8508 0.8577 0.9608 0.6664 0.291 108 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .9846 0.7881 0.7257 0.5596 0.6700 0.9986 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ADD 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 8 7 7 12 12 12 11 11 16 16 15 15 14 20 20 19 19 18 24 24 23 22 22 28 28 27 26 25 32 32 31 30 29 27 26 24 22 20 36 36 35 34 32 31 29 27 25 23 7 10 14 17 20 24 7 10 13 16 19 23 6 9 12 15 18 21 5 8 11 14 16 19 5 8 10 13 15 18 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 6 6 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 9 12 14 16 19 21 8 10 12 14 16 18 7 9 11 13 15 17 6 8 10 11 13 14 6 7 8 10 11 13 5 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 7 6 5 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 8 10 11 7 8 9 6 7 8 5 6 6 4 5 5 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 Critical values for the normal distribution If Z has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1 then.7224 0.8159 0.9977 0.9236 0.9693 0.7939 0.9861 0.9812 0.8790 0.9049 0.6406 0.9719 0.8869 0.0 1.9929 0. the table gives the value of z such that: P( Z z ) p .9953 0.9906 0.9738 0.7019 0.9633 0.9015 0.5675 0.8 0.9535 0.7910 0.5279 0.8962 0.8708 0.
355 3.833 3.921 2.363 1.318 1.610 3.92 8.922 3.552 3.792 3.447 2. for each pair of values of p and .33 10.920 2.741 0.598 4.252 3.771 2.110 2.528 2.015 3.056 2.038 3.345 1.692 0.408 5.048 2.733 3.965 3.787 3.437 4.140 4.845 2.000 0.415 1.617 2.677 0.684 0.539 2.201 2.311 1.316 1.841 4.895 1.423 2.999 318.750 2.756 2.492 2.074 2.169 3.95 6.421 3.060 2.650 2.779 2.104 3.551 3.684 1.291 =1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 40 60 120 © OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 109 .714 1.699 1.776 2.500 2.740 1.734 1.325 1.353 2.3 22.042 2.135 3.120 2.228 2.296 1.679 0.90 3.000 1.221 4.182 2.688 0.467 3.764 2.66 9.307 3.831 2.508 2.878 2.473 2.358 2.886 1.313 1.718 0.086 2.030 2.765 0.687 0.032 3.807 0.727 0. p 0.315 1.435 3.390 2.706 1.09 7.333 1.571 2.131 2.119 3.497 3.689 0.552 2.771 1.977 2.015 1.052 2.041 4.576 0.704 2.408 3.71 4.330 1.683 0.326 0.980 1.323 1.60 12.959 5.646 3.CRITICAL VALUES FOR THE tDISTRIBUTION If T has a tdistribution with degrees of freedom then.373 3. the table gives the value of t such that: P(T t ) p .533 1.684 0.690 0.174 3.518 2.717 1.476 1.816 0.132 2.725 3.75 1.372 1.365 2.683 0.485 2.396 3.745 3.460 3.674 3.674 0.073 4.579 3.153 3.645 0.729 1.286 3.383 1.686 0.479 2.706 0.695 0.708 1.660 2.356 1.9975 127.143 2.697 1.3 14.703 0.686 3.262 2.303 1.047 3.898 2.397 1.365 3.160 3.660 3.768 3.440 1.222 3.610 6.501 4.850 3.208 4.943 1.350 1.707 3.602 2.197 3.812 1.078 3.297 4.067 3.725 1.078 1.718 2.707 3.965 4.860 1.852 3.232 3.947 2.688 0.691 0.306 2.021 2.683 0.326 3.372 3.686 0.341 1.703 1.064 2.753 1.385 3.697 0.747 3.160 2.090 0.700 0.860 2.971 2.250 3.093 2.337 1.604 4.99 31.671 1.787 2.029 3.915 2.998 2.080 2.9995 636.21 7.318 4.527 3.761 1.638 1.505 3.457 2.045 2.785 4.581 3.091 3.782 1.583 2.694 0.428 3.796 1.930 3.6 31.681 2.975 12.646 3.684 0.781 4.144 4.485 3.310 1.689 3.106 3.869 5.701 1.069 2.819 2.282 0.819 3.587 4.314 2.821 2.179 2.82 6.925 5.057 3.690 3.055 3.861 2.303 3.012 2.289 1.145 2.499 3.896 2.462 2.763 2.894 5.746 1.685 0.025 3.467 2.995 63.541 3.807 2.960 0.314 1.658 1.453 5.319 1.773 4.450 3.797 2.711 1.321 1.721 1.328 1.101 2.711 0.833 1.173 5.883 3.317 4.685 0.567 2.681 0.624 2.
22 27.51 22.47 20.390 10.605 6.12 16.02010 0.31 43.09 16.51 34.21 24.93 0.12 27.65 43.660 5.591 10.22 0.38 100.68 15.54 61.02 106.85 30.44 53.325 3.49 91.45 16.07 12.378 9.15 88.6 118.79 42.706 4.940 4.27 18.629 6.42 37.65 74.31 46.4 112.62 59.82 16.65 46.14 12.14 31.145 1.53 19.18 45.81 21.80 44.87 30.167 2.02 13.05 0.260 8.61 112.897 9.999 10.05064 0.3 124.49 26.4 =1 70 80 90 100 110 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 .2 116.40 42.231 8.31 50.67 66.48 36.93 40.3 128.635 9.89 63.210 11.8 0.00 26.8 137.30 29.54 24.99 6.571 7.80 34.17 35.991 7.024 7.40 86.841 5.36 23.78 38.564 8.815 9.36 14.95 22.98 44.CRITICAL VALUES FOR THE 2 DISTRIBUTION If X has a 2 distribution with degrees of freedom then.46 24.975 5.053 3.575 5.39 69.01 33.009 5.251 7.12 10.50 79.226 5.53 96.48 48.023932 0.85 14.14 30.99 17.61 18.779 9.77 25.83 13.73 26.5543 0.20 28.58 107.77 55.1 129.20 10.9 2.92 23.57 38.08 39.18 52.039821 0.34 71.8794 10.81 32.404 5.76 67.261 7.633 8.42 83.812 6.79 24.43 32.2 149.41 34.80 48.73 51.25 40.27 49.348 11.700 3.85 11.69 12.01 17.49 28.09 13.76 43.16 38.733 3.8312 1.69 76.34 24.92 18.19 31.34 13.08 90.77 79.82 31.51 16.91 34.75 18.76 57.2158 0.19 51.907 9.00 41.74 26.67 23.53 32.7107 1.59 12.488 11.247 3.20 34.237 1.06 0.53 36.229 5.5 0.64 42.107 4.00 33.28 18.30 27.75 70.95 3.17 74.95 23.34 13.48 20.892 6.236 10.59 25.84 14.690 2.48 21.07 15.6 118.09 21.68 25.26 32.62 30.53 101.74 60.31 23.1026 0.088 2.58 40.86 11.38 40.908 7.816 4.81 36.99 27.262 6.13 77.9 113.67 33.58 32.64 12.66 99.81 18.19 26.3518 0.71 37.3 140.1 135.3 124. the table gives the value of x such that: P( X x) p p 0.98 59.70 39.36 40.29 41.06 22.69 29.72 37.70 73.28 10.542 10.52 14.3 0.59 14.81 63.32 32.02 20.962 8.12 27.28 15.635 2.6 0.1148 0.8721 1.68 21.59 28.30 95.672 9.647 2.17 36.27 35.32 26.48 45.19 37.31 19.98 11.2 0.015 7.93 53.88 29.56 46.01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 40 50 60 0.41 29.16 29.03 22.55 20.55 19.031571 0.59 31.36 40.239 1.4844 0.180 2. for each pair of values of p and .408 7.558 3.025 0.76 28.92 35.26 51.995 7.86 16.2971 0.95 104.83 14.40 85.15 65.12 37.85 34.571 4.40 13.28 21.41 32.60 12.1 124.82 45.
025 0.02 0 2 0 3 1 5 3 8 5 10 7 13 9 17 12 21 15 25 19 29 23 34 27 40 32 46 37 52 43 0.05 0. 24 © OCR 2010 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics 111 .WILCOXON SIGNED RANK TEST P is the sum of the ranks corresponding to the positive differences. each of P and Q can be approximated by the normal distribution with mean 1 n(n 1) 4 and variance 1 n(n 1)(2n 1) .1 2 3 5 8 10 13 17 21 25 30 35 41 47 53 60 Level of significance 0. Critical values of T One Tail Two Tail n=6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 0.01 0.01 0 1 3 5 7 9 12 15 19 23 27 32 37 For larger values of n . For each value of n the table gives the largest value of T which will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis at the level of significance indicated.005 0.05 0. Q is the sum of the ranks corresponding to the negative differences. T is the smaller of P and Q.
where m n .05 m = 10 0.025 0. For each pair of values of m and n .1 0. 112 Appendix A: Mathematical Formulae and Statistical Tables GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . the table gives the largest value of W which will lead to rejection of the null hypothesis at the level of significance indicated.025 0.01 0.1 0.05 m=6 0. Rm is the sum of the ranks of the items in the sample of size m .05 0.05 0.1 0. the normal distribution with mean 1 mn(m n 1) 12 1 m( m n 1) 2 and variance should be used as an approximation to the distribution of Rm .02 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.01 0.05 0.02 19 20 21 23 24 26 17 18 20 21 22 23 16 17 18 19 20 21 28 29 31 33 35 26 27 29 31 32 24 25 27 28 29 Level of significance One Tail Two Tail n 7 8 9 10 39 41 43 45 0.01 0.01 0.05 m=9 0.025 0.025 0.WILCOXON RANK SUM TEST The two samples have sizes m and n .1 0.05 m=4 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 – 10 11 11 12 13 13 0.05 m=8 49 51 53 45 47 49 0.025 0.01 0.05 m=5 0.01 0. Critical values of W Level of significance One Tail Two Tail n 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6 6 7 8 8 9 10 10 0.02 0.05 m=7 36 38 40 42 34 35 37 39 51 54 56 0.02 66 69 62 65 59 61 82 78 74 For larger values of m and n .05 0.05 m=3 – – 6 7 7 8 8 9 – – – – 6 6 7 7 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 0.02 0.1 0.01 0.02 0.025 0.05 0.01 0.1 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.025 0.025 0. W is the smaller of Rm and m(n m 1) Rm .05 0.
…} the set of positive integers. 2. x : x 0 the set of positive real numbers and zero. …} the set of integers. y the cartesian product of sets A and B . ±3.e. …. {1. b B is a subset of is a proper subset of union intersection the closed interval x : a x b the interval x : a x b Appendix B: Mathematical Notation GCE Mathematics n 0 0 ( x. 1. {0. x2 . b) : a A. b] [ a. 3. 3. …} the set of integers modulo n . 2. ±2. … the set of all x such that … the number of elements in set A the empty set the universal set the complement of the set A the set of natural numbers. x2 . n 1 } p the set of rational numbers. A B (a. ±1. : p . x : x 0 the set of complex numbers the ordered pair x .Appendix B: Mathematical Notation 1 Set Notation { x1 . {1. b) © OCR 2010 113 . q q the set of positive rational numbers. …} {x: …} n( A) A is an element of is not an element of the set with elements x1 . x : x 0 set of positive rational numbers and zero. x : x 0 the set of real numbers the set of positive real numbers. 2. i. {0. y ) A B [ a.
ab. a/b b a divided by b ai i 1 n a1 + a2 + … +an 114 Appendix B: Mathematical Notation GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . a .b a plus b a minus b a multiplied by b a b. is not less than infinity p and q p or q (or both) pq pq ~p pq not p p implies q (if p then q ) p is implied by q (if q then p ) p implies and is implied by q ( p is equivalent to q ) pq pq there exists for all 3 Operations ab ab a b. in the context of some equivalence relation 2 Miscellaneous Symbols is equal to is not equal to is identical to or is congruent to is approximately equal to is isomorphic to is proportional to is less than is less than or equal to.( a. a. b] ( a . is not greater than is greater than is greater than or equal to. b) yRx y~x the interval x : a x b the open interval x : a x b y is related to x by the relation R y is equivalent to x .
. . ai i 1 n a1 a2 … an the positive square root of a the modulus of a a a n! n r n factorial the binomial coefficient or n! for n r !( n r )! n(n 1).(n r 1) for n r! 4 Functions f( x) f :A B f :x y f 1 gf lim f( x) the value of the function f at x f is a function under which each element of set A has an image in set B the function f maps the element x to the element y the inverse function of the function f the composite function of f and g which is defined by gf ( x) g(f( x)) the limit of f( x) as x tends to a an increment of x the derivative of y with respect to x xa x.. . … b © OCR 2010 Appendix B: Mathematical Notation GCE Mathematics 115 . derivatives of x with respect to t f ( x).. second.. f ( n ) ( x) y dx a y dx V x x x.. f ( x) . x dy dx dn y dx n the n th derivative of y with respect to x the first. n th derivatives of f( x) with respect to x the indefinite integral of y with respect to x the definite integral of y with respect to x between the limits x a and x b the partial derivative of V with respect to x the first.. second. …. ..
cosh.5 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions e e x . tan cosec. arg z . tanh cosech. z x 2 y 2 the argument of z . coth1 } } } } the circular functions the inverse circular functions the hyperbolic functions the inverse hyperbolic functions 7 Complex Numbers i z Re z Im z z arg z square root of 1 a complex number. x i y 8 Matrices z* M M 1 MT det M or M a matrix M the inverse of the matrix M the transpose of the matrix M the determinant of the square matrix M 116 Appendix B: Mathematical Notation GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . coth sinh1. exp x log a x ln x. tanh1 cosech1. sech1. cos1. Re z x the imaginary part of z . cot1 sinh. tan1 cosec1. the complex conjugate of z . log e x lg x. sech. log10 x base of natural logarithms exponential function of x logarithm to the base a of x natural logarithm of x logarithm of x to base 10 6 Circular and Hyperbolic Functions sin. Im z y the modulus of z . sec. cosh1. cot sin1. sec1. z x i y r (cos isin ) the real part of z . cos.
k a . j. Y . R. x2 . AB a. … Appendix B: Mathematical Notation GCE Mathematics A P( A  B) X . … E( X ) E(g( X )) Var( X ) G(t ) © OCR 2010 117 . … p( x) p1 . p2 . … of the discrete random variable X the value of the probability density function of a continuous random variable X the value of the (cumulative) distribution function P( X x) of a continuous random variable X expectation of the random variable X expectation of g( X ) variance of the random variable X probability generating function for a random variable which takes the values 0. f 2 . r . … f1 .9 Vectors a the vector a the vector represented in magnitude and direction by the directed line segment AB a unit vector in the direction of a unit vectors in the directions of the cartesian coordinate axes the magnitude of a the magnitude of AB the scalar product of a and b the vector product of a and b 10 Probability and Statistics AB ˆ a i. R etc observations frequencies with which the observations x1 . etc. x2 . x2 . y. x1 . … f( x). etc. 2. x. G( x) . C . B. A B A B P( A) events union of the events A and B intersection of the events A and B probability of the event A complement of the event A probability of the event A conditional on the event B random variables values of the random variables X . etc. a AB . 1. Y . g( x) .b ab A. … occur probability function P( X x) of the discrete random variable X probabilities of the values x1 . … F( x).
Y ) 118 Appendix B: Mathematical Notation GCE Mathematics © OCR 2010 . m ˆ s2 .B(n. 1) corresponding cumulative distribution function product moment correlation coefficient for a population product moment correlation coefficient for a sample covariance of X and Y r Cov( X . 2 ) binomial distribution with parameters n and p normal distribution with mean and variance 2 population mean population variance population standard deviation sample mean 2 x. 1 s2 ( xi x )2 n 1 probability density function of the standardised normal variable with distribution N(0. 2 unbiased estimate of population variance from a sample. p) N( .