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**SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES
**

4.3 Limit of a Sequence: Theorems

These theorems fall in two categories. The …rst category deals with ways to

combine sequences. Like numbers, sequences can be added, multiplied, divided,

... Theorems from this category deal with the ways sequences can be combined

and how the limit of the result can be obtained. If a sequence can be written

as the combination of several "simpler" sequences, the idea is that it should be

easier ti …nd the limit of the "simpler" sequences. These theorems allow us to

write a limit in terms of easier limits. however, we still have limits to evaluate.

The second category of theorems deal with speci…c sequences and techniques

applied to them. Usually, computing the limit of a sequence involves using

theorems from both categories.

4.3.1 Limit Properties

We begin with a few technical theorems. They do not play an important role in

computing limits, but they play a role in proving certain results about limits.

Theorem 291 Let r be a number such that \c 0, [r[ < c, then r = 0.

Proof. See problems at the end of the section.

Theorem 292 If a sequence converges, then its limit is unique.

Proof. We do a proof by contradiction. Assume that a

n

÷ 1

1

and a

n

÷ 1

2

.

Given c 0 choose ·

1

such that : _ ·

1

== [a

n

÷1

1

[ <

c

2

. Similarly, choose

·

2

such that : _ ·

2

== [a

n

÷1

2

[ <

c

2

. Let · = max (·

1

, ·

2

). If : _ ·,

then

[1

1

÷1

2

[ = [1

1

÷a

n

+a

n

÷1

2

[

_ [a

n

÷1

1

[ +[a

n

÷1

2

[

<

c

2

+

c

2

= c

By theorem 291 , it follows that 1

1

÷1

2

= 0, that is 1

1

= 1

2

.

Theorem 293 If a sequence converges, then it is bounded, that is there exists

a number ' 0 such that [a

n

[ _ ' for all :.

Proof. Choose · such that : _ · ==[a

n

÷1[ < 1. By the triangle inequality,

we have

[a

n

[ ÷[1[ _ [a

n

÷1[

< 1

Thus, if : _ ·, [a

n

[ < 1 + [1[. Let '

1

= max ([a

1

[ , [a

2

[ , ..., [a

N

[). Let ' =

max ('

1

, 1 +[1[). Then, clearly, [a

n

[ < '

4.3. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS 111

Theorem 294 If a sequence converges, then \c 0¬· : :, : _ · ==

[a

n

÷a

m

[ < c

Proof. Given c 0, we can choose · such that :, : _ · == [a

n

÷1[ <

c

2

and [a

m

÷1[ <

c

2

. Now,

[a

n

÷a

m

[ = [a

n

÷1 +1 ÷a

m

[

= [(a

n

÷1) ÷(a

m

÷1)[

_ [(a

n

÷1)[ +[a

m

÷1[ by the triangle inequality

<

c

2

+

c

2

= c

The above theorem simply says that if a sequence converges, then the dif-

ference between any two terms gets smaller and smaller. It should also be clear

to the reader that if a

n

÷1, then so does a

n+k

where / is any natural number.

The above theorem can be used to prove that a sequence does not converge

by proving that the di¤erence between two of its terms does not get smaller and

smaller.

Example 295 Find limcos :¬

We suspect the sequence diverges, as its values will oscillate between -1 and

1 . We can actually prove it using theorem 294. We notice that for any :,

[cos 2:¬ ÷cos ((2: + 1) ¬)[ = 2. For the sequence to converge, this di¤erence

should approach 0. Hence, the sequence diverges.

Theorem 296 Suppose that (a

n

) converges. Then, any subsequence (a

n

k

) also

converges and has the same limit.

Proof. Suppose that a

n

÷1. Let /

k

= a

n

k

be a subsequence. We need to prove

that given c 0, there exists · such that / _ · == [/

k

÷1[ < c. Let c 0

be given. Choose · such that :

k

_ · == [a

n

k

÷1[ < c. Now, if / _ ·, then

:

k

_ · therefore

[/

k

÷1[ = [a

n

k

÷1[

< c

This theorem is often used to show that a given sequence diverges. To do so,

it is enough to …nd two subsequences which do not converge to the same limit.

Alternatively, once can …nd a subsequence which diverges.

Example 297 Study the convergence of cos :¬

The subsequence cos 2:¬ converges to 1, while the subsequence cos (2: + 1) ¬

converges to ÷1. Thus, cos 2:¬ must diverge.

In the next two sections, we look at theorems which give us more tools to

compute limits.

112 CHAPTER 4. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES

4.3.2 Limit Laws

The theorems below are useful when …nding the limit of a sequence. Finding the

limit using the de…nition is a long process which we will try to avoid whenever

possible. Since all limits are taken as : ÷ ·, in the theorems below, we will

write lima

n

for lim

n!1

a

n

.

Theorem 298 Let (a

n

) and (/

n

) be two sequences such that a

n

÷a and /

n

÷/

with a and / real numbers. Then, the following results hold:

1. lim(a

n

±/

n

) = (lima

n

) ±(lim/

n

) = a ±/

2. lim(a

n

/

n

) = (lima

n

) (lim/

n

) = a/

3. if lim/

n

= / ,= 0 then lim

a

n

/

n

=

lima

n

lim/

n

=

a

/

4. lim[a

n

[ = [lima

n

[ = [a[

5. if a

n

_ 0 then lima

n

_ 0

6. if a

n

_ /

n

then lima

n

_ lim/

n

7. if lima

n

= a _ 0 then lim

_

a

n

=

_

lima

n

=

_

a

Proof. We prove some of these items. The remaining ones will be assigned as

problems at the end of the section.

1. We prove lim(a

n

+/

n

) = (lima

n

)+(lim/

n

). The proof of lim(a

n

÷/

n

) =

(lima

n

) ÷ (lim/

n

) is left as an exercise. We need to prove that \c 0,

¬· : : _ · == [a

n

+/

n

÷(a +/)[ < c. Let c 0 be given, choose ·

1

such that : _ ·

1

== [a

n

÷a[ <

c

2

. Choose ·

2

such that : _ ·

2

==

[/

n

÷/[ <

c

2

. Let · = max (·

1

, ·

2

). If : _ ·, then

[a

n

+/

n

÷(a +/)[ = [(a

n

÷a) + (/

n

÷/)[

_ [a

n

÷a[ +[/

n

÷/[ by the triangle inequality

<

c

2

+

c

2

= c

2. We need to prove that \c 0, ¬· : : _ · == [a

n

/

n

÷a/[ < c. Since

a

n

converges, it is bounded, let ' be the bound i.e. [a

n

[ < '. Choose

·

1

such that : _ ·

1

== [a

n

÷a[ <

c

2 ([/[ + 1)

. Choose ·

2

such that

4.3. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS 113

: _ ·

2

==[/

n

÷/[ <

c

2 (' + 1)

. Let · = max (·

1

, ·

2

). If : _ · then

[a

n

/

n

÷a/[ = [a

n

/

n

÷a

n

/ +a

n

/ ÷a/[

= [a

n

(/

n

÷/) +/ (a

n

÷a)[

_ [a

n

[ [/

n

÷/[ +[/[ [a

n

÷a[

< '

c

2 (' + 1)

+[/[

c

2 ([/[ + 1)

<

c

2

+

c

2

= c

3. See problems

4. We need to prove that [a

n

[ ÷ [a[ that is \c 0, ¬· : : _ · ==

[[a

n

[ ÷[a[[ < c. Let c 0 be given, choose · such that : _ · ==

[a

n

÷a[ < c (since a

n

÷a) . If : _ ·, then we have:

[[a

n

[ ÷[a[[ < [a

n

÷a[ by the triangle inequality

< c

5. We prove it by contradiction. Assume that a

n

÷ a < 0. Choose · such

that : _ · =[a

n

÷a[ < ÷

1

2

a. Then,

a

n

÷a < ÷

1

2

a

=a

n

<

1

2

a

=a

n

< 0

which is a contradiction.

6. We apply the results found in parts 1 and 5 to the sequence a

n

÷/

n

.

7. See problems

Remark 299 Parts 1, 2 and 3 of the above theorem hold even when a and /

are extended real numbers as long as the right hand side in each part is de…ned.

You will recall the following rules when working with extended real numbers:

1. ·+·= ··= (÷·) (÷·) = ·

2. ÷·÷·= (÷·) ·= ·(÷·) = ÷·

3. If r is any real number, then

(a) ·+r = r +·= ·

114 CHAPTER 4. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES

(b) ÷·+r = r ÷·= ÷·

(c)

r

·

=

r

÷·

= 0

(d)

r

0

=

· if r 0

÷· if r < 0

(e) ·r = r ·=

· if r 0

÷· if r < 0

(f ) (÷·) r = r (÷·) =

÷· if r 0

· if r < 0

4. However, the following are still indeterminate forms. Their behavior is

unpredictable. Finding what they are equal to requires more advanced tech-

niques such as l’Hôpital’s rule.

(a) ÷·+· and ·÷·

(b) 0 · and ·0

(c)

·

·

and

0

0

Remark 300 When using theorems from this category, it is important to re-

member previous results since these theorems allow us to write a limit in terms

of other limits, we hopefully know. The more limits we know, the better o¤ we

are.

Example 301 If c ,= 0, …nd lim

c

n

. We know from an example in the previous

section that lim

1

n

= 0. Therefore

lim

c

:

= c lim

1

:

= c 0

= 0

Example 302 Find lim

1

n

2

. In the previous section, we computed this limit

using the de…nition. We can also do it as follows.

lim

1

:

2

= lim

1

:

1

:

=

lim

1

:

lim

1

:

= 0 0

= 0

Remark 303 From the above example, we can see that if j is a natural number,

lim

1

n

p

= 0.

4.3. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS 115

Example 304 Find lim

n

2

+3n

2n

2

+1

.

This problem involves using a standard technique you should remember. We

show all the steps, then we will draw a genaral conclusion. We begin by factoring

the term of highest degree from both the numerator and denominator.

lim

:

2

+ 3:

2:

2

+ 1

= lim

:

2

1 +

3

n

:

2

2 +

1

n

2

= lim

1 +

3

n

2 +

1

n

2

Now,

lim

1 +

3

:

= lim(1) + 3 lim

1

:

= 1

and

lim

2 +

1

:

2

= lim(2) + lim

1

:

2

= 2

Since both the limit of the numerator and denominator exist and the limit of the

denominator is not 0, we can write

lim

:

2

+ 3:

2:

2

+ 1

=

lim

1 +

3

n

lim

2 +

1

n

2

=

1

2

Remark 305 The same technique can be applied to every fraction for which

the numerator and denominator are polynomials in :. We see that the limit

of such a fraction will be the same as the limit of the quotient of the terms of

highest degree.

4.3.3 More Theorems on Limits

In example 285 , we used an approximation to simplify the problem a little bit.

In this particular example, the approximation was not really necessary, it was

more to illustrate a point. Sometimes, if the problem is more complicated, it

may be necessary to use such an approximation in order to be able to …nd the

condition : has to satisfy. In other words, when we try to satisfy [r

n

÷1[ < c,

we usually simplify [r

n

÷1[ to some expression involving :. Let 1

1

(:) denote

this expression. This gives us the inequality 1

1

(:) < c which we have to solve

for :. If it is too hard, we then try to …nd a second expression we will call 1

2

(:)

such that 1

1

(:) < 1

2

(:) < c. 1

2

(:) should be such that solving the inequality

1

2

(:) < c is feasible and easier. In order to achieve this, several tricks are used.

We recall some useful results, as well as some theorems below.

116 CHAPTER 4. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES

Theorem 306 (Bernoulli’s inequality) If r _ ÷1, and : is a natural num-

ber, then (1 +r)

n

_ 1 +:r.

Theorem 307 (binomial theorem) (a +/)

n

= a

n

+:a

n1

/+

:(: ÷1)

2

a

n2

/

2

+

:(: ÷1) (: ÷2)

3!

a

n3

/

3

+... +:a/

n1

+/

n

.

Corollary 308 (1 +r)

n

= 1 + :r +

:(: ÷1)

2

r

2

+

:(: ÷1) (: ÷2)

3!

r

3

+ ... +

:r

n1

+r

n

.

In particular, when r _ 0, then (1 +r)

n

is greater than any part of the right

hand side. For example, we obtain Bernoulli’s inequality: (1 +r)

n

_ 1 + :r.

We could also write (1 +r)

n

_

:(: ÷1)

2

r

2

or (1 +r)

n

_

:(: ÷1) (: ÷2)

3!

r

3

.

And so on. This is useful to get approximations on quantities like 3

n

. We

rewrite it as

3

n

= (1 + 2)

n

Theorem 309 (squeeze theorem) If a

n

÷ 1, c

n

÷ 1 and a

n

_ /

n

_ c

n

,

then /

n

÷1

Proof. We need to prove that \c 0¬· : : _ · == [/

n

÷1[ < c. Let c 0

be given. Choose ·

1

such that : _ ·

1

== [a

n

÷1[ < c or ÷c < a

n

÷ 1 < c.

Similarly, choose ·

2

such that : _ ·

2

== ÷c < c

n

÷ 1 < c. Let · =

max (·

1

, ·

2

). If : _ · then

a

n

_ /

n

_ c

n

==a

n

÷1 _ /

n

÷1 _ c

n

÷1

==÷c < a

n

÷1 _ /

n

÷1 _ c

n

÷1 < c

==÷c < /

n

÷1 < c

==[/

n

÷1[ < c

Theorem 310 If 0 < a < 1 then a

n

÷0

Proof. Let r =

1

a

÷1. Then, r 0 and a =

1

1 +r

. For : _ 1,

a

n

=

1

(1 +r)

n

_

1

1 +:r

by Bernoulli’s inequality

<

1

:r

To show that a

n

÷0, we need to show that [a

n

[ < c, for any c whenever : _ ·,

that is

a

n

< c ==

1

:r

< c

==:

1

rc

4.3. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS 117

So, given c 0, ·, =

1

rc

will work.

We look at a few more examples, to see how all these results come into play.

Example 311 Find lim

2:

2

+ 1

:

2

+ 1

using the de…nition

Of course, we can …nd this limit by using the theorems on limits. Here, we do

it using the de…nition, as asked. We think the limit is 2. We want to show that

for every c 0, there exists · such that : _ · ==

2:

2

+ 1

:

2

+ 1

÷2

< c. First,

we simplify the absolute value.

2:

2

+ 1

:

2

+ 1

÷2

=

÷1

:

2

+ 1

=

1

:

2

+ 1

<

1

:

2

<

1

:

if : 1

So, we see that if

1

:

< c, which happens when :

1

c

, then we will have

2:

2

+ 1

:

2

+ 1

÷2

< c. So, · =

1

c

will work.

Example 312 Find lim

1

:

2

+ 2: ÷4

We think the limit is 0. We need to prove that for every c 0, there exists ·

such that : _ · ==

1

:

2

+ 2: ÷4

**< c. We begin by noticing that
**

:

2

+ 2: ÷4 = :

2

+ 2 (: ÷2)

:

2

if : 2

Therefore, if : 2,

1

:

2

+ 2: ÷4

=

1

:

2

+ 2: ÷4

<

1

:

2

<

1

:

If : max

2,

1

c

, then

1

:

2

+ 2: ÷4

< c. So, · = max

2,

1

c

will work.

Remark 313 The two examples above could have been done using the tech-

niques discussed in the previous subsection, that is without using the de…nition.

118 CHAPTER 4. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES

Example 314 Prove that lim

4

n

:!

= 0

The trick we use is worth remembering. We will use the squeeze theorem. We

note that

0 _

4

n

:!

=

4 4 4 ... 4

1 2 3 ... :

_

4

3

3!

4

:

since

4 4 ... 4

4 5 ... : ÷1

_ 1

But lim

4

3

3!

4

n

= 0 hence the result follows by the squeeze theorem.

Example 315 Find lim

4

n

2:

We suspect this sequence diverges to in…nity. We need to prove that

4

n

2:

grows

without bounds, that is for every ' 0, there exists · such that : _ · ==

4

n

2:

'. First, we notice that

4

n

2:

=

(1 + 3)

n

2:

:(: ÷1) 3

2

2

2:

by using the binomial theorem

9 (: ÷1)

4

We can see that

9 (: ÷1)

4

' ==: ÷1

4'

9

==:

4' + 9

9

so, · =

4' + 9

9

will work.

Remark 316 We used the binomial theorem to deduce that (1 + 3)

n

_

:(: ÷1) 3

2

2

.

Often, when using this theorem, students do not know which term to keep, the

term in r, or r

2

, or r

3

,... The answer is that it depends on what we are trying

to achieve. Here, we wanted to show that

4

n

2:

' for any ', in other words,

4

n

2:

can be made as big as we want simply by taking : large enough. Since we

could not solve for :, we replaced

4

n

2:

by a smaller term. That smaller term

should have similar properties, in other words, the smaller term should also get

arbitrarily large. If we take the smaller term too small, it will not work. For

4.3. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS 119

example, it is true that

4

n

2:

1

2:

. However,

1

2:

cannot be made as large as

we want, so this does not help us. If instead of using (1 + 3)

n

_

:(: ÷1) 3

2

2

(terms of second degree), we had used (1 + 3)

n

_ 1 + 3:, then we would have

obtained

1 + 3:

2:

' ==2:' < 1 + 3:

== 2:' ÷3: < 1

== :(2' ÷3) < 1

== : <

1

2' ÷3

So, this does not work. This tells us that

1+3n

2n

' only for a few values of :.

This is why we used terms of higher degree.

Example 317 Find lim

_

: + 2 ÷

_

:

lim

_

: + 2 ÷

_

:

= lim

_

: + 2 ÷

_

:

_

: + 2 +

_

:

_

: + 2 +

_

:

= lim

2

_

: + 2 +

_

:

=

2

lim

_

: + 2 +

_

:

= 0

Remark 318 In many proofs or problems, di¤erent versions of the triangle

inequality are often used. As a reminder, here are the di¤erent versions of the

triangle inequality students should remember.

[[a[ ÷[/[[ _ [a ÷/[ _ [a[ +[/[

and

[[a[ ÷[/[[ _ [a +/[ _ [a[ +[/[

Finally, we give a theorem which generalizes some of the examples we did

above.

Theorem 319 All limits are taken as : ÷·.

1. If j 0 then lim

1

:

p

= 0.

2. If j 0 then lim

n

_

j = 1.

3. lim

n

_

: = 1.

4. If j 1 and c ¸ R then lim

:

j

n

= 0.

120 CHAPTER 4. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES

5. If [j[ < 1 then limj

n

= 0

6. \j ¸ R, lim

j

n

:!

= 0.

Proof. We prove each part separatly.

1. We can use the de…nition. Let c 0 be given. We show there exists

· 0 : : _ · ==

1

:

p

÷0

< c. We begin with what we want to achieve.

1

:

p

÷0

< c ==

1

:

p

< c

== :

p

1

c

== :

1

p

_

c

So, we see that if · is the smallest inetger larger than

1

p

p

**, the result will
**

follow.

2. See problems

3. Let r

n

=

n

_

: ÷1. Proving the result amounts to proving that limr

n

= 0.

From r

n

=

n

_

: ÷1, we can write

n

_

: = r

n

+ 1

: = (r

n

+ 1)

n

Using the binomial theorem, we see that if : _ 2

: _

:(: ÷1)

2

r

2

n

Thus

r

2

n

_

2

: ÷1

It follows that for all : _ 2 we have

0 _ r

n

_

r

2

: ÷1

Since lim

q

2

n1

= 0, it follows using the squeeze theorem that limr

n

= 0.

4. Here again, we will use the binomial theorem. Since j 1, we can write

j = 1 +¡ with ¡ 0. Therefore, if / is a positive integer such that / c,

we have

j

n

= (1 +¡)

n

:(: ÷1) ... (: ÷/ + 1)

/!

¡

k

4.3. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS 121

Now, if : 2/, then / <

1

2

:. It follows that : ÷/ +1

1

2

: +1

1

2

:. It

follows that

:(: ÷1) ... (: ÷/ + 1)

/!

:

k

2

k

/!

and therefore

0 _

:

j

n

_

2

k

/!

¡

k

1

:

k

Since

lim

n!1

2

k

/!

¡

k

1

:

k

=

2

k

/!

¡

k

lim

n!1

1

:

k

= 0

It follows from the squeeze theorem that lim

:

j

n

= 0

5. See problems (hint: write j = ±

1

q

and use part 4 of the theorem with

c = 0).

6. See problems.

4.3.4 Exercises

1. Prove that

5

n

:!

÷0.

2. Prove that

:!

:

n

÷0.

3. Finish proving theorem 319.

4. Consider (r

n

) a sequence of real numbers such that lim

n!1

r

n

= r where

r 0, prove there exists an integer · 0 such that : _ · ==r

n

0.

5. Consider (r

n

) a sequence of real numbers such that r

n

_ 0 for any :. If

r is a partial limit of (r

n

), prove that r _ 0. Prove the same result if

r = limr

n

. Use this to show that if r

n

_ j

n

then limr

n

_ limj

n

.

6. Consider (r

n

) a sequence of real numbers and let r ¸ R. Prove the two

conditions below are equivalent.

(a) r

n

÷r as : ÷·.

(b) [r

n

÷r[ ÷0 as : ÷·.

7. Consider (r

n

) a sequence of real numbers and let r ¸ R. If limr

n

= r,

prove that lim[r

n

[ = [r[.

122 CHAPTER 4. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES

8. Consider (r

n

) a sequence of real numbers and let r ¸ R. Suppose that

limr

n

= r. De…ne j

n

= r

n+p

for some integer j. Prove that limj

n

= r.

9. Given that a

n

_ /

n

for every : and that lima

n

= ·, prove that lim/

n

=

·.

10. Suppose that (a

n

) and (d

n

) are sequences of real numbers such that

[a

n

÷/

n

[ < 1 for every :. Prove that if · is a partial limit of (a

n

)

then · is also a partial limit of (/

n

).

11. Two sequences are said to be eventually close if \c 0, ¬· 0 : : _

· ==[a

n

÷/

n

[ < c.

(a) Prove that if two sequences (a

n

) and (/

n

) are eventually close and if

a number r is the limit of the sequence (a

n

) then r is also the limit

of the sequence (/

n

).

(/) Prove that if two sequences (a

n

) and (/

n

) are eventually close and if

a number r is a partial limit of the sequence (a

n

) then r is also a

partial limit of the sequence (/

n

).

12. Determine if the sequences below have limits. In each case, if a limit 1

exists, given c 0, …nd · such that : _ · ==[r

n

÷1[ < c.

(a)

: ÷1

: + 1

(b)

3:

2

+ 1

:

2

+ 1

(c)

5:

3

+: ÷4

2:

3

+ 3

(d)

:

3

: + 1

(e)

4:

2

+ 1

:

3

+:

(f)

1

:

2

+

2

:

2

+... +

:

:

2

(g) (÷1)

2n1

1 ÷

1

2

n

(h)

1 ÷

1

2

1 ÷

1

3

1 ÷

1

4

...

1 ÷

1

:

(i)

5

n

2:

(j) Prove that if a 1 then a

2

a

_

a 1

(k) Prove that

:

2

n

÷0,

:

2

2

n

÷0,

:

3

2

n

÷0,

:

4

2

n

÷0

4.3. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS 123

13. Prove theorem 291

14. Finish proving theorem 298

15. Let (r

n

) and (j

n

) be two sequences. Assume further that limr

n

= r and

j is a partial limit of (j

n

). Prove that r+j is a partial limit for (r

n

+j

n

).

16. State and prove similar results for subtraction, multiplication and division.

17. Give an example of two divergent sequences (r

n

) and (j

n

) such that

(r

n

+j

n

) is convergent.

18. Give an example of two sequences (r

n

) and (j

n

) such that r

n

÷0, j

n

÷

· and:

(a) r

n

j

n

÷0

(b) r

n

j

n

÷c where 0 < c < ·

(c) r

n

j

n

÷·

(d) (r

n

j

n

) is bounded but has no limit.

19. Let (r

n

) be a sequence of real numbers such that r

n

÷0. Prove that

r

1

+r

2

+... +r

n

:

÷0

20. Let (r

n

) be a sequence of real numbers such that r

n

÷ r for some real

number r. Prove that

r

1

+r

2

+... +r

n

:

÷r

21. Show by examples that if [r

n

[ ÷[r[ then r

n

does not necessarily converge.

If it does converge, it does not necessarily converge to r.

22. Prove that [r

n

[ ÷0 ==r

n

÷0.

23. Show by examples that if (r

n

) and (j

n

) are divergent sequences then

(r

n

+j

n

) is not necessarily divergent. Do the same for (r

n

j

n

)

24. Show that if (r

n

) ÷0 and (j

n

) is bounded then (r

n

j

n

) ÷0.

25. Prove that if (r

n

) is a sequence in a set o _ R, then every …nite partial

limit of (r

n

) must belong to o.

26. Prove that if o _ R and r ¸ o then there exists a sequence (r

n

) in o such

that r

n

÷r.

27. Let o _ R. Prove that the following conditions are equivalent:

(a) o is unbounded above.

(b) There exists a sequence (r

n

) in o such that r

n

÷·.

Example 297 Study the convergence of cos n The subsequence cos 2n converges to 1. Now. then so does an+k where k is any natural number. n jan am j < Proof. The above theorem can be used to prove that a sequence does not converge by proving that the di¤erence between two of its terms does not get smaller and smaller. it is enough to …nd two subsequences which do not converge to the same limit. any subsequence (ank ) also converges and has the same limit. then 8 > 09N : m. Suppose that an ! L. there exists N such that k N =) jbk Lj < . the sequence diverges. L+L L) = am j 111 N =) Lj < 2 am j = jan = j(an j(an 2 + 2 (am L)j Lj by the triangle inequality L)j + jam < The above theorem simply says that if a sequence converges. Theorem 296 Suppose that (an ) converges. cos 2n must diverge. In the next two sections. we look at theorems which give us more tools to compute limits. We notice that for any n. Hence. Then. Thus. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS Theorem 294 If a sequence converges. then the difference between any two terms gets smaller and smaller. We need to prove that given > 0. then nk N therefore jbk Lj = jank < Lj This theorem is often used to show that a given sequence diverges. Proof. Let bk = ank be a subsequence. m N =) jan and jam Lj < jan 2 . once can …nd a subsequence which diverges. Now. Choose N such that nk N =) jank Lj < . . Alternatively. jcos 2n cos ((2n + 1) )j = 2. Given > 0.3. as its values will oscillate between -1 and 1 . We can actually prove it using theorem 294. Example 295 Find lim cos n We suspect the sequence diverges. To do so. this di¤ erence should approach 0. It should also be clear to the reader that if an ! L. while the subsequence cos (2n + 1) converges to 1. we can choose N such that n. Let > 0 be given. if k N . For the sequence to converge.4.

Then.2 Limit Laws The theorems below are useful when …nding the limit of a sequence. N =) jan + bn (a + b)j < . Let > 0 be given. We prove (lim an ) 9N : n such that jbn lim (an + bn ) = (lim an ) + (lim bn ). then 2 (a + b)j = j(an jan 2 < + a) + (bn aj + jbn 2 = b)j bj by the triangle inequality jan + bn 2. Finding the limit using the de…nition is a long process which we will try to avoid whenever possible. it is bounded. Let N = max (N1 . The remaining ones will be assigned as problems at the end of the section. if an 0 then lim an bn then lim an 0 lim bn an bn = lim an a = lim bn b 7. if lim an = a p p p 0 then lim an = lim an = a Proof. We need to prove that 8 > 0. Choose N2 such that n N2 =) 2 bj < . in the theorems below. N2 ). If n N . 1.3. n!1 Theorem 298 Let (an ) and (bn ) be two sequences such that an ! a and bn ! b with a and b real numbers. Since an converges.112 CHAPTER 4. choose N1 n N1 =) jan aj < . lim jan j = jlim an j = jaj 5. let M be the bound i. We need to prove that 8 > 0. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES 4. Choose N2 such that 2 (jbj + 1) . The proof of lim (an bn ) = (lim bn ) is left as an exercise. Since all limits are taken as n ! 1. if an 6. we will write lim an for lim an . We prove some of these items. 9N : n N =) jan bn abj < . Choose N1 such that n N1 =) jan aj < . if lim bn = b 6= 0 then lim 4.e. lim (an bn ) = (lim an ) (lim bn ) = a b 2. lim (an bn ) = (lim an ) (lim bn ) = ab 3. jan j < M . the following results hold: 1.

If n an b + an b b) + b (an bj + jbj jan + jbj abj a)j aj 113 N then 2 (M + 1) abj = jan bn = jan (bn <M jan j jbn 2 (M + 1) 2 = 2 (jbj + 1) < 3. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS n N2 =) jbn bj < jan bn . 1 1 = ( 1) ( 1) = 1 1 1 = ( 1) 1 = 1 ( 1) = 3. Let > 0 be given. then we have: jjan j jajj < jan < aj by the triangle inequality N =) N =) 5. 2 and 3 of the above theorem hold even when a and b are extended real numbers as long as the right hand side in each part is de…ned. Choose N such 1 a. choose N such that n jan aj < (since an ! a) . Let N = max (N1 . If n N . We prove it by contradiction. 1 a 2 ) an < 0 bn . that n N ) jan aj < 2 an a< 1 a 2 ) an < which is a contradiction. Then. then (a) 1 + x = x + 1 = 1 . We need to prove that jan j ! jaj that is 8 > 0.3. 9N : n jjan j jajj < . 6. We apply the results found in parts 1 and 5 to the sequence an 7. N2 ). Assume that an ! a < 0. You will recall the following rules when working with extended real numbers: 1.4. See problems 2 + 4. See problems Remark 299 Parts 1. If x is any real number. 1 + 1 = 1 2.

it is important to remember previous results since these theorems allow us to write a limit in terms of other limits. …nd lim n . We know from an example in the previous 1 section that lim n = 0. we hopefully know. s (a) 1 + 1 and 1 1 (b) 0 1 and 1 0 1 and (c) 1 0 0 Remark 300 When using theorems from this category. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES 1+x=x 1= 1 x x (c) = =0 1 1 x 1 if x > 0 (d) = 1 if x < 0 0 (e) 1 x=x 1= 1 if 1 if x>0 x<0 1 if 1 if x>0 x<0 (f ) ( 1) x=x ( 1) = 4. we can see that if p is a natural number. We can also do it as follows. . Their behavior is unpredictable. Finding what they are equal to requires more advanced techniques such as l’ Hôpital’ rule. 1 lim np = 0. lim 1 n2 = = = = 1 n 1 lim n 0 0 lim 0 1 n lim 1 n Remark 303 From the above example. the following are still indeterminate forms. the better o¤ we are. However. In the previous section. c Example 301 If c 6= 0.114 (b) CHAPTER 4. we computed this limit using the de…nition. Therefore lim c n = c lim = c = 0 0 1 n 1 Example 302 Find lim n2 . The more limits we know.

This gives us the inequality E1 (n) < which we have to solve for n.3. lim n2 + 3n 2n2 + 1 = = Now. several tricks are used. when we try to satisfy jxn Lj < . . if the problem is more complicated. We recall some useful results. In order to achieve this. it may be necessary to use such an approximation in order to be able to …nd the condition n has to satisfy. Sometimes. In other words. we usually simplify jxn Lj to some expression involving n. the approximation was not really necessary. 4. In this particular example.3 More Theorems on Limits In example 285 .4. it was more to illustrate a point. 2n2 +1 This problem involves using a standard technique you should remember. We begin by factoring the term of highest degree from both the numerator and denominator. lim 1 + 3 n = = and lim 2 + 1 n2 = = lim (2) + lim 2 1 n2 lim (1) + 3 lim 1 1 n lim lim 3 n2 1 + n 1 n 2 2 + n2 3 1+ n 1 2 + n2 Since both the limit of the numerator and denominator exist and the limit of the denominator is not 0. Let E1 (n) denote this expression. then we will draw a genaral conclusion. We show all the steps. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS 2 115 Example 304 Find lim n +3n . If it is too hard.3. we used an approximation to simplify the problem a little bit. we can write lim n2 + 3n 2n2 + 1 = = 3 lim 1 + n 1 lim 2 + n2 1 2 Remark 305 The same technique can be applied to every fraction for which the numerator and denominator are polynomials in n. E2 (n) should be such that solving the inequality E2 (n) < is feasible and easier. we then try to …nd a second expression we will call E2 (n) such that E1 (n) < E2 (n) < . We see that the limit of such a fraction will be the same as the limit of the quotient of the terms of highest degree. as well as some theorems below.

Choose N1 such that n N1 =) jan Lj < or < an L < . choose N2 such that n N2 =) < cn L < . Let N = max (N1 . then bn ! L Proof. and n is a natural num1 Theorem 306 (Bernoulli’ inequality) If x s n ber. then (1 + x) 1 + nx. We rewrite it as n 3n = (1 + 2) Theorem 309 (squeeze theorem) If an ! L. If n N then an bn () () cn () an < an < bn Lj < L L< L bn bn L L cn cn L< L () jbn Theorem 310 If 0 < a < 1 then an ! 0 1 1 1. For n Proof.116 CHAPTER 4. we obtain Bernoulli’ inequality: (1 + x) s 1 + nx. We could also write (1 + x) 2 3! n And so on. . Then. Similarly. whenever n N. n (n 1) 2 n (n x + 2 n Corollary 308 (1 + x) = 1 + nx + nxn 1 + xn . N2 ). then (1 + x) is greater than any part of the right n hand side. n Theorem 307 (binomial theorem) (a + b) = an +nan n (n 1) (n 3! 2) an 3 3 b+ n (n 1) n a 2 2 2 b + b + ::: + nabn n 1 + bn . n (n 1) (n 2) 3 n (n 1) 2 n n x or (1 + x) x . We need to prove that 8 > 09N : n N =) jbn Lj < . x > 0 and a = . For example. 1) (n 3! 2) x3 + ::: + In particular. for any that is 1 an < () < nx 1 () n > x 1. when x 0. cn ! L and an bn cn . Let x = a 1+x 1 an = n (1 + x) 1 by Bernoulli’ inequality s 1 + nx 1 < nx To show that an ! 0. This is useful to get approximations on quantities like 3 . we need to show that jan j < . Let > 0 be given. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES 1.

1 will work.3. that is without using the de…nition. to see how all these results come into play. We need to prove that for every > 0. Here. Example 311 Find lim 2n2 + 1 n2 + 1 2 = 1 +1 1 = 2 n +1 1 < 2 n 1 < if n > 1 n n2 So. which happens when n > . n2 1 + 2n 4 = n2 1 + 2n 4 2 2) 1 < 2 n 1 < n If n > max 2. So. 2n2 + 1 using the de…nition n2 + 1 Of course. there exists N 1 such that n N =) 2 < . x 117 We look at a few more examples. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS So. So. Remark 313 The two examples above could have been done using the techniques discussed in the previous subsection. We want to show that 2n2 + 1 for every > 0. then we will have n 1 2 < . First. . = 1 will work. we can …nd this limit by using the theorems on limits. as asked. 1 . We think the limit is 2. given > 0. 1 n2 + 2n 4 We think the limit is 0. we see that if 2n2 + 1 n2 + 1 1 1 < . N = will work. We begin by noticing that n + 2n 4 Example 312 Find lim n2 + 2n 4 = n2 + 2 (n > n if n > 2 Therefore. N = max 2. then n2 1 + 2n 4 < . if n > 2. there exists N such that n N =) 2 < .4. N. we do it using the de…nition. n2 + 1 we simplify the absolute value.

there exists N such that n N =) 4n > M . Here. we notice that 2n Example 315 Find lim 4n (1 + 3) = 2n 2n n (n 1) 32 2 > by using the binomial theorem 2n 9 (n 1) > 4 We can see that 9 (n 1) 4M > M () n 1 > 4 9 4M + 9 () n > 9 so. That smaller term 2n should have similar properties. Since we 2n 4n could not solve for n. the term in x. N = 4M + 9 will work. If we take the smaller term too small. 4n 2n 4n We suspect this sequence diverges to in…nity. we replaced by a smaller term. it will not work. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES 4n Example 314 Prove that lim =0 n! The trick we use is worth remembering. to achieve. when using this theorem.. The answer is that it depends on what we are trying 4n > M for any M . that is for every M > 0. We need to prove that grows 2n without bounds.. in other words. students do not know which term to keep. the smaller term should also get arbitrarily large. or x2 . or x3 . For . 2 Often.118 CHAPTER 4. First. We note that 0 4 4 4 ::: 4 4n = n! 1 2 3 ::: n 43 4 4 4 ::: 4 since 3! n 4 5 ::: n 1 1 But lim 4 3! 3 4 n = 0 hence the result follows by the squeeze theorem.. we wanted to show that 2n n 4 can be made as big as we want simply by taking n large enough. We will use the squeeze theorem. 9 n n (n 1) 32 n Remark 316 We used the binomial theorem to deduce that (1 + 3) . in other words.

here are the di¤ erent versions of the triangle inequality students should remember. However. jjaj and jjaj jbjj ja + bj jaj + jbj Finally. we had used (1 + 3) 1 + 3n. pn . As a reminder.3.4. If instead of using (1 + 3) 2 n (terms of second degree). 4. 1. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS example. 2n This is why we used terms of higher degree. di¤ erent versions of the triangle inequality are often used. cannot be made as large as 2n 2n 2n n (n 1) 32 n we want. it is true that 119 4n 1 1 > . this does not work. lim n n = 1. np p 2. then we would have obtained 1 + 3n 2n > () () () M () 2nM < 1 + 3n 2nM n (2M 3n < 1 3) < 1 1 n< 2M 3 So. Theorem 319 All limits are taken as n ! 1. p 3. so this does not help us. p p Example 317 Find lim n + 2 n p p p p p p n+2 n n+2+ n p lim n + 2 n = lim p n+2+ n 2 = lim p p n+2+ n 2 p = p lim n + 2 + n =0 Remark 318 In many proofs or problems. If p > 1 and jbjj ja bj jaj + jbj 2 R then lim n = 0. If p > 0 then lim 1 = 0. we give a theorem which generalizes some of the examples we did above. If p > 0 then lim n p = 1. This tells us that 1+3n > M only for a few values of n.

We can use the de…nition. we see that if n n Thus x2 n It follows that for all n 2 we have 0 Since lim q 2 n 1 2 n (n 1) 2 xn 2 2 n r 1 2 n 1 xn = 0. SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES 5. p From xn = n n 1. Here again. If jpj < 1 then lim pn = 0 6. . Since p > 1. we will use the binomial theorem. if k is a positive integer such that k > . Proving the result amounts to proving that lim xn = 0.120 CHAPTER 4. n! Proof. We prove each part separatly. 1. we can write p n n = xn + 1 n = (xn + 1) n Using the binomial theorem. 4. See problems p 3. we see that if N is the smallest inetger larger than follow. lim pn = 0. we can write p = 1 + q with q > 0. Let xn = n n 1. n 1 np 0 < () () () np > 1 < np 1 1 n> p p 1 p p So. we have pn = > (1 + q) n (n 1) ::: (n k! n k + 1) qk . 8p 2 R. it follows using the squeeze theorem that lim xn = 0. the result will 2. Therefore. Let > 0 be given. We begin with what we want to achieve. We show there exists 1 N > 0 : n N =) p 0 < .

6. Prove that 2. Prove the same result if x = lim xn . (b) jxn xj ! 0 as n ! 1. Consider (xn ) a sequence of real numbers and let x 2 R. See problems.3. 1 q and use part 4 of the theorem with 4.4 Exercises 5n ! 0. prove there exists an integer N > 0 such that n N =) xn > 0. then k < 1 n. 4. 7. Consider (xn ) a sequence of real numbers such that xn 0 for any n. Consider (xn ) a sequence of real numbers and let x 2 R. It follows that n k + 1 > 2 n + 1 > 1 n. Prove the two conditions below are equivalent. 6. . nn 1. 5. if n > 2k. Prove that 3. prove that lim jxn j = jxj. If x is a partial limit of (xn ).4. Consider (xn ) a sequence of real numbers such that lim xn = x where n!1 x > 0. n! n! ! 0. prove that x 0. If lim xn = x. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS 121 1 Now. It 2 2 follows that n (n 1) ::: (n k + 1) nk > k k! 2 k! and therefore 2k k! 1 n 0 pn qk nk Since 2k k! n!1 q k lim 1 nk = = 2k k! 1 lim k n!1 nk q 0 n =0 pn It follows from the squeeze theorem that lim 5. Use this to show that if xn yn then lim xn lim yn . Finish proving theorem 319. (a) xn ! x as n ! 1. See problems (hint: write p = = 0).3.

SEQUENCES AND LIMITS OF SEQUENCES 8. 9. bn for every n and that lim an = 1. Prove that lim yn = x. n ! 0. Given that an 1. if a limit L exists. Prove that if 1 is a partial limit of (an ) then 1 is also a partial limit of (bn ). Determine if the sequences below have limits. 9N > 0 : n N =) jan bn j < . n ! 0 2n 2 2 2 . 12. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) n 1 n+1 3n2 + 1 n2 + 1 5n3 + n 4 2n3 + 3 n3 n+1 4n2 + 1 n3 + n 1 2 n + 2 + ::: + 2 n2 n n 1 2n 1 ( 1) 1 2n 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 4 ::: 1 1 n 5n 2n p (j) Prove that if a > 1 then a2 > a > a > 1 (k) Prove that n n2 n3 n4 ! 0. In each case. De…ne yn = xn+p for some integer p. Suppose that lim xn = x. …nd N such that n N =) jxn Lj < . (b) Prove that if two sequences (an ) and (bn ) are eventually close and if a number x is a partial limit of the sequence (an ) then x is also a partial limit of the sequence (bn ). Suppose that (an ) and (dn ) are sequences of real numbers such that jan bn j < 1 for every n.122 CHAPTER 4. 11. prove that lim bn = 10. given > 0. (a) Prove that if two sequences (an ) and (bn ) are eventually close and if a number x is the limit of the sequence (an ) then x is also the limit of the sequence (bn ). n ! 0. Consider (xn ) a sequence of real numbers and let x 2 R. Two sequences are said to be eventually close if 8 > 0.

Prove that jxn j ! 0 () xn ! 0. Let (xn ) be a sequence of real numbers such that xn ! 0. multiplication and division. Let (xn ) be a sequence of real numbers such that xn ! x for some real number x. yn ! 1 and: (b) xn yn ! c where 0 < c < 1 (d) (xn yn ) is bounded but has no limit. Finish proving theorem 298 123 15. Show by examples that if (xn ) and (yn ) are divergent sequences then (xn + yn ) is not necessarily divergent. If it does converge. it does not necessarily converge to x. Prove that x1 + x2 + ::: + xn 7! x n 21. then every …nite partial (c) xn yn ! 1 (a) xn yn ! 0 R and x 2 S then there exists a sequence (xn ) in S such R. Let S R. Prove that if S that xn ! x. 25. Prove theorem 291 14. LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE: THEOREMS 13. Prove that x1 + x2 + ::: + xn 7! 0 n 20. Prove that if (xn ) is a sequence in a set S limit of (xn ) must belong to S. 18. Give an example of two divergent sequences (xn ) and (yn ) such that (xn + yn ) is convergent. Do the same for (xn yn ) 24.4. State and prove similar results for subtraction. Give an example of two sequences (xn ) and (yn ) such that xn ! 0. Show that if (xn ) ! 0 and (yn ) is bounded then (xn yn ) ! 0. 16. 19. (b) There exists a sequence (xn ) in S such that xn ! 1. 22. . 26. 17.3. Show by examples that if jxn j ! jxj then xn does not necessarily converge. Let (xn ) and (yn ) be two sequences. 27. Assume further that lim xn = x and y is a partial limit of (yn ). 23. Prove that the following conditions are equivalent: (a) S is unbounded above. Prove that x + y is a partial limit for (xn + yn ).

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