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# Presented to the

## LIBRARY of the UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

from
the estate

of

VERNON

R.

DAVIES

TREATISE

ALGEBRAICAL GEOMETRY.
BY THE

REV.

S.

W. WAUD,

M.A.,

F. AST.

S.,

NEW

EDITION.

LONDON:
EDWARD LAW,
(SUCCESSOR TO

ROBERT BALDWIN,)

1858.

CONTENTS.
PART
I.

CHAPTER
Aft
1.

I.

INTRODUCTION.
Page

2.

3.
4. 5.
6. 7.

by Algebra

## of expressing the size of an area of expressing the volume of a solid

.....
. .

2
3

General signification of an equation when referring to Geometry Particular cases where the equation refers to areas and surfaces

... ...
.
>

4
4 4

8.

Equations of the second and third order refer to some Geometrical Theorem The solution of an equation leads either to numerical calculations, or to Geometrical Constructions

.......
-c2,

9.

10, 11.

The Geometrical

V 12 VI
.

12.

Method

is

13. If

any expression
ci
,

is

of the form

~~~~*~~

Va Va2
j

"I" ^>

^ c>

>

and must be
7

## expressed prior to construction

CHAPTER

II.

DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
4.

Geometrical Problems
terminate
:

may

classes,

## Determinate and Inde-

an example of each

15.
16.

Rules which are generally useful in working Problems * To describe a square in a given triangle :fl
.

...
..

8 8

17.

## In a right-angled triangle the lines drawn from the acute angles

bisection of the opposite sides are given, to find the triangle

to the points of
. .

18.

To

by the two
.

parts
i

may
.

be equal

to

a given square.

roots

a2

iv
Art.
19.

CONTENTS.
Page

Through a given

point

M
to

:

## dr.iw a straight line of given length

various solutions

20.

Through

the

same point
it

draw a

sum

.

two portions of
21.

its

To

## find a triangle such that

a continued progression

.........
CHAPTER
III.
LINE.
.

13

22.

Example

## of an Indeterminate Problem leading to

JT

quantities

and

y.

Definition of a locus

.....
. .
. .

14

## 23. Division of equations into Algebraical

and Transcendental
.

.14
15

24.
25.

Some
The

## position of a point in a plane determined.

Equations to a point,
s

a,

y=6;

or

(y-6)

+ <>-) =
to

Geometry
27. 28.

The

29.

To

## ...... ..... = .....

applied

...
.

15

the

position of points in

16

and examples
a

.17
18

two points
2

D8

(a-a') +(6-6')
2 ')

to oblique

axes
cos.
.

D8
31. 33.

'/

The

o')

19

.19
b

35.

The

loci of the

equations y

b,

and y

36.

Examples of

loci

line

41.

y\

a and

20
21

first

order

22

22

is

J"i)

23

The

is

42.

To

## find the equation to a straight line

finite portion

of a given line

43. If

= etx-\-b y = ax + b

be a given straight

........ ...........
through a given
point,

and bisecting a
to

25

## line, the straight

line parallel

it

is

25

44.

The

co-ordinates of the

intersection of two

given lines

y=ux-\-b, and

If a third line,

whose equation

is

a,

ff

6",

tersection, then

(y45. If t
tan. (I

'6)

- (*b.

"6)

lines

]

- /) =

eoe.(*-/)s

+ ""'

26

CONTENTS.
Art.

v
Page

46.

The equation

to a lino,

line,
'

is*

## 47. If two lines y

-'=nFr/
a.

*o
each other, we

27

have

1 -|- a. a.'

+
0,

and y

'

b'

are perpendicular to

a,

y =r

-f-

and y

-f- b'

.*-'.

.27
6,

## 48. If/? be the perpendicular from a given point then

(a-j

yj) on the

^^-j,
A/l+
49.
!

.....
...
M

line y = a ^ +

23

The

length of the straight line drawn from a given point, and making a given angle with a given straight line, is

29
perpendiculars from the angles of a triangle on the opposite sides meet in . one point . . . . . , 51. If the straight line be referred to oblique axes, its equation is
50.
.

The

.29
30

=-

sin. 6

sin. (

+
u

x +

b.

6}

.....
is

The tangent of

+
/3

(+)
+ a

cos.

u
is

The

sin.

(1

cos. u)

sin..

+
-

/K*

cos.

.)

*>
line is

## The length of the perpendicular from a given point on a given

_
.

(yi

*i

& ) si "2

<"

31

52. If

upon the sides of a triangle, as diagonals, parallelograms be described, having their sides parallel to two given lines, the other diagonals of the
parallelograms will intersect each other in the same point
.

.31

CHAPTER

IV.

53. 54.

The

## object of the transformation of co-ordinates

.32

If the origin be changed, and the direction of co-ordinates remain the same, b a + Y, x y

= +

where x and y are the original co-ordinates, X and Y the new ones 55. If the axes be changed frcm oblique to others also oblique,

33

sin.

sin.

Ay
x

= {X

sin.

XA w4-Ysin. YA u\
sin.

t/

Vl
Art.

CONTENTS.
Pa*e

=X

sin. 6

+Y

sin. f,

34
f>8.

y
a.

sin.
6

...
between

34

60.

To

## transform an equation between co-ordinates

r polar co-ordinates

x and y,

into another

and

6.

=a
y

35

sm. a

## 61. If the original axes be rectangular,

x
62.

=b+r = a + r cos.
sin.
J
(

6,

6.

35

To

express r
4
-f-

and

in

terms of x and
(y

y,

tan.

i -1

6)

"
. .

r 2 =r (x

a)

+
V

(y

6)

2 (#

fl)

(y

6) cos. u.

.35

6

## and the pole

y *

at the origin,

= tan. -

= sin"
r2

- =cos. ~

x
'

=*
CHAPTER
V.

ON THE CIRCLE.
64, 65.

Let a and b be the co-ordinates of the centre, and r the radius, then the
equation to the circle referred to rectangular axes a )2 r* (x (y 6)2
is

generally

37

If the origin
If the origin

is

at the centre,

y
is

+* =r
is

the axis of x,

= 2rx - x*.
.
.

66. 67.

68. Exceptions,

yy'

.38 .39
is

69.

The

70.

(*>

- a) = r8

The tangent

## parallel to a given line,

y
s

....
A
straight line cannot
.
.

39

33

6, is

y
71.

= ax

r */

49

To

and a

circle.

points

.40

CONTENTS.
Art.

vii

(y

- *)

+ (*

- a) + 2 (y is

ft)

(x

Examples,
73, 74.

The

The

...
a) cos.

Page

=r

40

or w 2

{6

sin. 6

a cos.

4}

r = 0, + a +6
2 2

r2

0.

.41

CHAPTER

VI.

## DISCUSSION OK THE GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND ORDER.

75.

The Locus
4a

of the equation

oy

+ bxy +
. .

ca; 2

+ rfy +
. .

<?#
.

+/=
.

0,

depends
.

on the value of 6 2
76. 6 2
c negative
;

4 a c.
the Locus
is

.42
x

an

rf

4
real

c)

xz

4 a

/=

+ 2 (6 d

2a

e)

+
43

are real

and unequal,
is

Examples
77. b*

4ac
real

positive;

the

Locus
;

## unequal, or are imaginary

an Hyperbola if #1 and xz are real and but consists of two straight lines if x\ and x^ are
. . .

and equal.

78.

62

4ac

## Examples the Locus

0,

.....
2a
e is real
;

46

is

a Parabola

when

bd

but

if

bd

2ae

straight line, or
or negative
.

is

the locus consists of two parallel straight lines, or of one 2 4 af is positive, nothing, imaginary, according as rf
'
'

"
.
.

.48
.
.

.'

49

CHAPTER

VII.

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL. EQUATION OF THE SECOND ORDER.

80. Reduction of the equation to the form
81. General notion of a centre of a curve.

a^ 2
The

+ bdy + ca/
1

+/'

=o

.50
centre,

ellipse

## whose co-ordinates are

Zedbe
51
82. Disappearance of the

term

xy

## by a transformation of the axes through an

angle

6,

determined by
tan. 2 6

84.

The reduced

equation
a'

is a'

= a 6c y"* + c'x'
c

...

52

+/'

rr 0, where

=1

'=

'

>v

54

viii

CONTENTS.
Page

Art.

## 86. Definition of the axes

. preceding articles when referred to oblique axes 89, 90. Examples of Reduction 91. Reduction of the general equation when belonging to a Parabola

54
. .

87, 88.

The

.55
57

.60
.61
61

## 92. Transferring the axes through

an angle

6,

where tan. 24

b
.

93.
9-1.

The

. coefficient of ar* or y* disappears Transferring the origin reduces the equation to one of the forms,

,,Y'

e'.r"

0,

orcV'-r- d'y"

=0
.

62
.
.

63

95, 97.
98.

The preceding

articles

when

is

.
'

a parabola

.63 .63

CHAPTER
100.

VIII.

THB ELLIPSE.

The

.....
is
'

66 67

101, 102.
103. 104.

Symmetry
sq.

## of the curve with regard to

:

its

axes

The The

. A' ; : sq. on B C I sq. on A C . the rectangle A M, ordinate of the Ellipse has to the ordinate of the circumscribing circle the constant ratio of the axis n-inor to the axis major . .

on

MP

68

68

106.

A third SP =
To
The The The

## proportional to the axis major and minor

Eccentricity,- Ellipticity
:

is

Rectum

69

106-108.

The Focus;
a -f er,

The
109.
110.

rectangle

HP = a

## find the locus of a point P, the

is

points
111.
1

constant

..........
sum
2 is

A S, - ex; SP

S A'

= sq. on B C + HP = A A'
x a?
is
;

69
.

70

70
.

13. 14.

rectangle

a*y y'

+6

a* 6s

71

when the

curve

72

CT, C M

=r the square on
circle

AC
.

consequently

## for the ellipse

and circumscribing

..'
.

C T is
.
.

the same

73
.
.

115.
1 1

6.

117.

The

rectangle

C M,

## M T = the rectangle A M, M A'

73

tangents at the two extremities of a diameter are parallel equation to the tangent at the extremity of the Latus Rectum

.73

is

8.

directrix.

The

distances of any point from the focus and from the direc'.

trix are in

119.

The length

.....
b*r

.74

## of the perj>end5cular from the focus on the tangent,

tr

i-.+^*'-.
a

- e*>-T^=~r'

The rectangleS y,
120.

Hz = the square on BC

The

121.

tan.

..... .....
.
.

75 75

## equal angles with the focal distances,

f

SPT =

= tan. II P Z.

Definition of Foci

78

CONTENTS.
Art.

ix

Page

122.

ab

125. If
126.

CE

is

drawn
to

## parallel to the tangent,

meeting

H P in

E, then
"

PE

A.

78

The equation

the normal

-=*y'
;

/"

127.

CG

zre2 ^; CG'

= -

MG= -

x'

PG =

The

rectangle

P G, P Gf

= the rectangle S P, H P
;

.79
79

130. All the diameters of the ellipse pass through the centre

y =. K.X
131.

<?,

a2 y

+ b*x =

0, are the

There

is

an

infinite

tan. 6 tan.
ff

-a
62
2
.

.....
; .
.

,80
.

*,&,*
134.
2
fli

81

+i = a + 6
2

(&'

6)
:

= ab

136. 137.

sq.

on

QV

.........
.

/.

V-".
I

.82
82
83

the rectangle

P V, VP'

: I

sq.

on

CD

sq.

on

CP
is

ellipse

## being referred to conjugate axes, the equation to the tangent

2
i

^'

&i

**'

= flW

....
. .

84

138.

being referred to its axes, the tangent diameter the two equations are,
ellipse
:

is

a 2 y y'
a*

-\~

b2

x x'

i2,

y y'

-\-

b z x x'

0,

139.
140.

The The

square upon

..... .....
y
.
.

.84
85

## perpendicular from the centre on the tangent,

141, 142.

The product of the tangents of the angles which a pair of supplemental chords makes with the axis major is constant,

-=143.

The tangent

62

,AR.V=- a*b*
.

86

.87
87

The equation

y
146.

ar

2
1

The

147.

The

=
1

"*

~ e *)
e 2 (cos. 6)*

+ u cos.

..... = ......
,
2

O)

a a 6a

87

88

x
Art.

CONTENTS.

148.

The

= ^^
I

C COS. r

149.

The

2 a (1
1

e 2 ) cos. 6
e

7-5(^cos. e)

151 152.

rr

(r

+ O,

nd r

+ =
r'

CHAPTER

IX.

THB HYPERBOLA.
153, 154.

The

## general equation to the Hyperbola

is,

Py*-Q*=-l;
155-7. Discussion of the equation
:

or

ay*

-&***=-**
sq.

...
sq.

90

The
158.

sq.

on

MP

rectangle

A M,

MA'.*:

on

BC

on

AC

91

The

y
159.

- x2 = - a2

The

6 2 into

-6

160.

## The Latus Rectum

161-3.

conjugate axes The focus ; the eccentricity: the square on The rectangle A S, S A'

........... ........
is

.....

92

by changing
92

92

164.
165.

SP
To

is

points

constant
to the

........
is

..... ....
.
.

93 93

93

16

1.

The equation

tangent

a*yyi
167.
1

-b*xx'= .

a2 62
.

The equation
to

....
.

93

94

68.

## the tangent, at the extremity of the Latus Rectum,

is

a.

The
169.

distances of any point from the focus and from the directrix are in a
.
.

constant ratio

.....
sq.

94

The

The
170.
171.

rectangle

S y,

Hz =

on

BC

'

.
' .

.
'

95

The

locus of y

is

;'

.96
,

tan.

SPT = -cy

96

172.

The

ab

CONTENTS.
Art.

x,

174. If

CE
The

175-7.

## be drawn parallel to thetangent and meeting equation to the normal is

H P in E, then P E=A C

Page

98

V
a

The
178, 9.

rectangle

P G, PG'

= the rectangle S P, H P
is
,

93

The

;

all

meet
98

the curve
180,
1.

line,

whose tangent

diameters,

...
.
.

There

is

an

infinite

tan. 6 tan.

f =r
or
is
.

99

182.

The

ai 6i
2 2

## 183. a!2 184.

185.
i

b?

=
(/

a2

6}
I

b*

61 sin.

= ab
a2

187.

The sq. on Q V the rectangle P V, VP' The conjugate diameter is parallel to the

...... .........
:

.100
100
101

'-.

.*

.*

sq.

on

CD

sq.

on

CP

102

188.

## == The sq. on C D = the rectangle SP, HP

#V b*x*x'

tangent. a 2 6 2 the

The

equations are
"

a?yy'

b*xx'

## tangent. the conjugate

189. If

PF

be drawn perpendicular on

......
'.
.
'.

102

102

D, then

190

2. If

a.

and

a.'

a, <&

rr

## the angle between sup-

1 03 . Conjugate diameters are parallel to sup. chords 193. There are no equal conjugate diameters in general. In the equilateral hyper. bola they are always equal to each other . . . 103 . .

plemental chords.

194

6.

The Asymptotes.

The equation
. . .

## curve, with the exception of the terms involving inverse powers of x.

linear asymptotes
.

197.

The hyperbola
lineal

is

the only one of the Hues of the second order that has a recti-

asymptote

..........
.

......
carvei
.

Curvi-

104

105

198.

Method

of reducing an equation into a series containing inverse powers of a . variable. The asymptotes parallel to the axes

xy
3.2

-j-y*=rO
2
j

......
.

.105
106

## 200. Referring the curve to

its

centre

a2 y 2
a2 y2
the asymptotes

_ #2 _ _ a s 6 - 6 x2 =
2

t

he

the asymptote

107

is

90

.........
xz
;

107

. . . .

## asymptote cuts the curve in one point only

107

xii
Art.

CONTENTS.
Page
.

204. Examples of tracing hyperbolas, and drawing the asymptotes . . 206. Reduction of the general equation of the second order to the

1US

ty
207.

= A*

a (tan.

f)

+6 tan. 4 + c=zO
V
2
,

To

209. Examples.

## 211. Given the equation

= a, the curve rectangular .110 to find the equation referred to rectangular axes, xy =
is
.

.....
.

......
.
. .

form

109

.110

and
212.

## to obtain the lengths of the axes

.112

From

the equation a 2 y2

4 2 o; 8

... .....
on the

U3
.114

213.

The

.

is
*.

'

214.

The

## and the asymptotes are

. . 114 . equal to each other and to the semi-conjugate diameter 215. Given the conjugate diameters to find the asymptotes. If the asymptotes are . . . . .114 given, the conjugate to a diameter is given

216.

The equation

to the

the triangle

CT'
217, 8.

= 2a/, CT = 2^;
rectangle

CTT'=
.

ab

115

The two
are equal.

The

S Q,
is

Q S'

= sq. on C D
cos. 6)

.115
.

219.

The

=.

a2 6 2
.

116

220.

The
The

= e*
1

"

^ ~
z
,
.

116

(cos. 6}

221.

## focus, the pole, r

a 0*

~^
.

e cos. 6

......
...
.
.

116

222.

rr'=-r + r;

+ '=

116

223, 4.

The conjugate hyperbola. The locus of the extremity of the conjugate diameter is the conjugate hyperbola. The equation is

Vin

6 2 #2

=a

b*.

the forms

= 0*6*

or a

= **

'

117

CHAPTER

X.

THE PARABOLA.
225, 6.
2'27. 2'28.

The

and vertex
.

is

y
.

= px
. .

118

.118

The equation
vertex,

to the parabola

.
.

.
. .

by putting
its

AS = m

.118
.119

229.

The

abscissa and

ordinate.

Rectum,

is

Rectum

CONTENTS.
Art
230.
231. 232.

xiii

To

The

to the

....... = +
SP

Page

119

.120
120

The equation

tangent

is

....

233,

4.

The subtangent

M T = 2 A M, A y
y

......
+m
.

M P.

The tangent

at the vertex

120
is

235.

The equation

to the

distances of
.

.121
. .

236.

The

Directrix.
.

The
.

.
.

directrix are
.

equal
237.

'"""."'

'.

121

SP
238. 9.

The locus

of y is the axis

:
:

....
meets that
.

=Vm r
121
line

the directrix on

240.

on the

directrix

122

to the

focal distance

.

axis, tail.

SPT =

/'

-j-j.

.122

241.

The

is

y-y'
242.

= -/^(*-x')
:

123

The subnormal

is equal to

## half the Latus Rectum

V4mr * -.--., -. SP, and PG number of diameters, all parallel to the axis to another of the same form referred 244. 5. Transformation of the equation . .. new origin and to new axes 4SP . is y*=j/x', the new parameter p> 246. The new
243.

SG =

123
l'J.3

infinite

to a

.124
.

equation

I2

is

given

248.

249.

## The ordinate through the focus The equation to the tangent

..... = ...... =
when
the position of the

new

origin

and axes
125
.

4S

P
;

## the parameter at the origin

,

I2fi

'

......

;*.;;

..;,.

12(

a parameter meet at right angles in 250. Tangents drawn from the extremities of 12 6 . .. v (v . the directrix

'.';

251.

The

is

sin.

f)*=p (V

+ wcos.O)

.127

252.

The

pole,

(sin. 0)*

(sm.

253.

The

## focus, the pole,

254.

rS =-

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XL
THE SECTIONS OF A CONE.
Art.

## 255. Definition of a right cone 256. The section of a cone by a plane,

........
.
. .
.

Page

128

257

264. Discussion of the cases arising from various positions of the cutting

plane 265.

...........
means
of a string.
.

130

On
8.

## 266. Tracing the Ellipse by

267

The

elliptic

compasses.

Another method

2C9. Tracing the hyperbola by means of a string 270. Tracing the parabola by means of a string . 271 3. Description of the ellipse by points

## ..... .133 ......

132 132
. . .

134

..
.

.
.
.

134

.134
.

274
277
279.

the hyperbola by points. The rectangular hyperbola 135 To describe the parabola by points . ;' . . .136 From the position of the directrix and focus, and focal ratio, to find the equa6. Description of
8.
:

280.

From
The

## the equations to the ellipse, to deduce those of the hyperbola and

parabola
281.

...........
is

^ + (l-e*)*-2f;rO+e)=0

.137
137

r=
2 1+ecos.t

282

4. Practical

to the parabola

2856.
287
8.

Tangents

289

292.

An

section

## and the axes

........ ..........
.
.

.... ........
to the ellipse

.....

138
138
139 139

139

293. If through any point within or without a conic section two straight lines making a given angle be drawn to meet the curve, the rectangle contained by the segments of the one will be in a constant ratio to the rectangle contained by the segments of the other
.
;

140

.......
its

alternate
.

141

CHAPTER

XII.

## ON CURVES OF TUB HIGHER ORDERS.

295.

A systematic examination
To
find a point

of

all

curves

is

impossible
line,

.,

142

296.

P without

a given straight

## such that the distances of the

.

point from the extremities of the given line are in a given ratio

43

CONTENTS.
Art-

xv
Page

to

two given

lines,

## and the distance

143

298.

between the feet of the perpendiculars is constant, to find the locus of P . given line moves between two given lines, to find the locus of a given

point in the

moving

line

''""'.
line,

143

299.

To

find a point

without a given

## such that the lines drawn from

to
.

the extremities of the given line shall make one angle double of the other 300. Four problems producing loci of the second order, not worked . .

144

.145
.

301.

From the

extremities of the axis major of an ellipse, lines are drawn ends of an ordinate, to find the locus of their intersection .
find the locus of the centres of all the circles

to the
.

145

302.

To

line,

## 303. Descartes' Problem

304.

..... ......
drawn tangential
to a given
2

The

Cissoid of Diodes, y

2a
.

146

.;..,

147
149

x
x~)

305.

To

y = -^_(b

151

306.
307.

## The Witch of Agnesi, y

2a/-"=
.

...

.152
.

308.

309.

To trace the locus of the equation y3 # 2 (2 a a?) To trace the locus of the equation ay 2 = a^ + mj?2 cubical parabola, ay z = x3 , . The cubical parabola, a s y = x3 . ..
.
:

152

+ nx +/>
.

The semi.

.153
.
.

'.

310.
311.

The

trident, y =

^^
ax

".

...
.

154
154

312. 3.

y

ary

+ a*y = n x -f p

.155

-,.
.

156

314.
316. 317.

2 2 y )

a2

-y ) (x*
2

r*

a2

cos.

24

.159
160

equation y

=bx

b*

a?

._

.161
two

## that the rectangle of the distances from

. . given points shall be constant 318. To trace the locus of the equation y* -\-x z y z duction of a third variable . .

+ 2y +
3
.

.,.,'... =
a;8

P to

162

by

the intro-

...
;

.163

319.
320.

To To

5 a

a:

+ =
a-

.,.
.
.

164

.

322, 3.

165

The number
order
points
is

n.

^
2i

hence a curve

may

## be made to pass through

n.

167
section passing
.

324.

, through four given points . 326. If the sum of the indices of x and y be the same in every term, the

Example of a conic

168

loci are
. 1

69

327

170

xvi

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

XIII.

Art.

Page

331. There

may
may

order
332. There

171
be

## mth and nth

orders

exceptions

172

333. Method of drawing a curve to pass through the points of intersection, and
. . . .'"' . thereby to avoid elimination 334. Example. From a given point without an ellipse, to draw a tangent to
. Generally to any conic section To draw a normal to a parabola from any point 338. The construction of equations by means of curves

.172
it.
.

.....
. .
.

173
1

336

7.

74

.175
.

339.

To

## construct the equation y*

+ py + qy* + ry-\-s=Q
3
.

by means of a
. .

circle

and parabola

76

340.
341.

342.

343.
344.

To construct the roots of the equation a-4 + 8*3 + 23a:2 -f32.r+16 The construction of equations of the third order. Examples To find two mean proportionals between two given lines . To find a cube double of a given cube To find any number of mean proportionals between two given lines
.

=
.

177

.177

.178
. .

179
179

## means of the conchoid

.
.

.179

.180

CHAPTER XIV
TRANSCENDENTAL CURVES.
348,
9.

curve,

350.
351.

## The Logarithmic The Catenary, y

= a*

( e*

-f<?-*

........ ...
;

Mechanical curves

.181
181

.182
182

## 352. Trace the locus of the equation y

353. Trace the locus of the equation
to this curve
;

a"*.
x*>
.

y =.

The The
.

figure is in

curve
.

the letter
.

B
.

A Y, where the
.
:

## cuts that axis

..""
.

354.

355.

The curve of sines, y = sin. x . . . J . The locus of the equation y x tan. x. The figure belongs The correct figure is given in the Errata .

..
'

192
.

183

356.

Cycloid,

tan.

' . .

357. 8. 359.

= a vers.

^TaaT

~r*

..... .....
to Art. 352.
.
. .
.

184
184

185

The

y=a =at+ma
x-=a
vers. 4

sin. 4)
.

107

360.

The

when
b

m
6

r=

(a

+ 6) cos.
-{-

mb mb

cos.

y =: (a

b) sin.

sin.

.r

the Ilypocycloid

when m

=
-

1,

:=

a-b
cos

b~

(a

i) sin. I

mb
4

sin.

!&
orr
J,
.

18

## 361. Tiie Cardioide

= 4a

3
(

--

=
.

190
191

362. Varieties of the Ilypotrochoid . 363. The involute of the circle ; the figure

is

not correct.

See Errata.

364.

366.
367.

.

=a
,

6
,
.
,

..
.

."

193
.

-.
,

,...,.-.
"

194

".

.'

194
.

368.

9.

b) j
.

=a
.

fj a r
.

r2
.

=b
.

94 94

## 370. Spirals formed by twisting a curve round a circle

371.

The Logarithmic

Spiral, r

=a

V
.

. ,
.

.195
.

a sin. 2f 372. Tracing a curve from its polar equation r 373. Investigating a question by means of polar co-ordinates

195

.196

xviii

CONTENTS.

PART

II.

## APPLICATION OF ALGEBRA TO SOLID GEOMETRY.

CHAPTER

I.

INTRODUCTION.
Art.

Page
.
.

374.

The system of co-ordinates in one plane not sufficient for surfaces . 375. The position of a point referred to three co-ordinate planes 376. 7, 8. The projection of a straight line on a plane is a straight line.
the line,
its

197
197

If

A B he
.

projection

on a plane

or line is

AB

cos. 6

.198

379.

The The

projection of the diagonal of a parallelogram on a straight line is equal to 198 the sum of the projections of the two sides upon the same straight line
.

380.

cos. 6

.200

CHAPTER

II.

## THE POINT AND STRAIGHT

381.

LINE.

The equations to a point, - c) x = a, y = b, z = c or (x - a) + (y &)* -J- (z 382, 3. The algebraical signs of the co-ordinates determined.
;

200

sponding
384.
385.

## to various positions of points

......
is

Equations corre201

Two
To

known

201

## from the origin,

y
2

<P

= x* +
2

z*

201

386.

7.

which a straight line through the origin /3, y, be the three angles makes with the co-ordinate axis,
If u,
(cos.

d
388.

2
a.

(cos.
/3

y)

1,
.

-h Z COS. y.

202

The

&=
389.

Or

xtf

-f (y

- yi ) 2 +
b

- *i) 8
o)

-202

The

## equations to the straight

line,

x
392
396.
5.

a.

a,

b,

=-

(x

203
b.
. .

To

Equations to the line corresponding to various values of a, G, a, find the point where a straight line meets the co-ordinate planes

204
205

CONTENTS.
Art.

xix
Page

398.

The

x
399.

a-i

(z

*!),

yi

ft

(z

zj
(a-j

205
y\ z\)
(a"2

The

y2 2a)>

400.

a.

= az
V.

-\.

a,

=
.

/3

-\- b,
'

are
. .

.207

(a'
)

among
b}

the coefficients
(,'
),

is

('

/})

(b'

## and then the co-ordinates

Z
402.
cos.
I

of intersection are

of

~ aT

_&IS ~

&'b

'*~''

__.a'
.

a!a

-a!

'

207

a straight line
t

## makes with the

,

co-ordinate axes,
cos.

x=
The

cos.

ly

=
2

Iz

=
.
.

(cos. /a?)

2

1.

-.,*'

207

403.

= cos. Ix

cos. /'a;

+ +

cos.

ly

cos. /'y

cos.

Iz

cos.

/'.z.

208

## 405. If the lines are perpendicular to each other,

. . , j3^ + r 1/j RU Ii>rfl 4 a straight line passing through a given point (ai y\
f
,
.

l=0

209

407.

To

## and meeting a given

line at right

angles

.....

#j),

?n

CHAPTER

III.

THE PLANE.
408.

The equation
or or
ar

or

a:

or mx + ny + pz = zzi =. + y cos. rfy + 2 cos. ds d, x sin. P + y sin. Py + z sin. P z =r cos. P, y z y cos. P, 2 + ^ cos. P, xy = d.

to a plane,

XX!

+ yyi +

rf ,

1,

cos.

dx

a?

rf,

-f-

a-

21C

413.

## The angles which a plane makes with the

xy

co-ordinate planes,
"*
.

cos. P,

VW +
2

cos.
2

P, x z

+/>

V W + +P 2
2 2

cos. P,

yz

21 2

V7M a + 2+P8
*
..

414.

The

xx +yyi
l

zz l

0.

,.'>

-212
V
.

416. 417.

212

The The

## traces of a plane are found

by

putting x, y, or z

=
-\-

0.

'

.213

mx

ny

-\-

p z

\, is

S i)=0.

213

b 2

xx

CONTENTS.
Pag.

419.

The

g z

l= ma ma.
1

ma CT .

nfl nft

+p

^
n b

and plane
a.

, '

= gz

-fa,

214

421.

422.

To To

.215

and
.

parallel to
.

another

.215
.

4235
426.

To

three planes,

four planes

215

The

relation

among

## the coefficients of a straight line and perpendicular

plane
'

.=-,0=-.
P P
428.

V*

.216
to

The equation
given
line,

to a plane passing

through a given

point,

and perpendicular

429.

The

plane

*-*! = -(*p
430.

*,)>

- yi = - O P

*0-

v ,,*

-217

The

Vm +
2

431.

To

origin,

433.

cos. 6

planes,
'_

=
cos.

= cos. P, yz
437.

cos. P',

+
I

P,

xz

cos.

F, xz

cos.

P,

xy

cos. P',

xy.

218
o Q
i

|

among

the coefficients

is,

__-_

straight line

and plane,

CHAPTER

IV.

## THE POINT, STRAIGHT LINE, AND PLANK, REFERRED TO OBLIQUE AXES.

438.
439.

The The
</

the same equations to the point remain distance of a point from the origin,

220

.*

2 +y*+z +2;ry

cos.

XY+2#
(xyz)

cos.

X Z +2y

cos.

Y Z.
cos.

220

440.

The

8

(*i y\ *i),

d= (* 2 (*

a:,)

(y

y,)*

*i) (*

*i) cos.

## ~ *0* + 2 (x - x) (y -yO + X Z+2 (y y,) (z zfi cos. Y Z.

X Y.
.
.

2150

CONTENTS.
Art.

xx i
Page

441.
442. 443. 444.

The equations to the straight line remain The angle between two lines The equation to a plane
.
.

........ ...
the

same

220
221

.221
222
.

The

relation
.

among
.

the coefficients

:

plane
445.

.^ t.<

;i

f
.

straight line,

222

CHAPTER

V.

## THE TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORIUNATES.

447.

To

transform an equation referred to one origin to another, the axes remaining ~" ' '
'

parallel

.*

".'

'.'

;'

223

448.

To

transform the equation referred to rectangular axes to another also referred to rectangular axes

Y+w^Z-j

m*

-f-

n2

1 \
1

Y+/>2 ZJ
450.
451.

I m m 2 +n

. .

223
224
225

Hence

three

## m^+n^+p^=\) mim2+nmz -tp lp2 =Q) other systems for X Y Z in terms of x y z

transformation from oblique to other oblique axes. . . 452. Another method of transformation from rectangular to rectangular axes, wz2 et% Z, m a. -f- mi ot,\ Y X

The

z
453.

=m X+
X (cos.
Y

mi

Y+
:

m%

Z.

^ ;- v
:

-!* tt't

c-

.'

2 25

The

## terms of three angles

6 sin. 6

^
i
-v//

sin.
sin.

<p

-}-

cos.

cos. p)
<\$) <p)
<p)

+ Y (cos. y = X (cos.
-f

cos.

<p

sin. -^ cos.

Z Z

sin. 6 sin.

tp,

4 sin.

cos. cos.

^
ip

cos. -^ sin.

(cos. 6 cos.
sin.

v/'

sin. 4 cos.
.

<p,

= X sin.

^ + Y
:

sin. ^ cos.

\$ +

cos. 4

225

made by a plane

## passing through the origin

x
y
*

= X cos. + Y sin.
<p

<p

cos. i

X sin.

<p

-f.

Y cos.
.

cos. 6

Ysin.0

.....
is

227

when
0,

## the cutting plane

perpendicular to the

plane of x z,
456.

= Y cos.

To

M, b, c to x, y,

z respectively

......,

y =.

...

xxii

CONTENTS
CHAPTER

VI

Art.

Page
8.

457,

The equation

to

a surface

is

. .

=
.

228 228

460

4.

The

## equation to the surface of a sphere

(

X _ a ) + (y - 6) 8 + or*2 -f y 8 + 2 = r 2
to

= ......
2

c)

r,

229

465.

The

229

466.

a sphere,
(y
!

On -a)
467.

## O -a) + (y, - b) or *xi + yyi +

- 6) +

(z,
.

c) (z

c)
.

=r

2
,

=r

468.
469.

The equation to the sphere referred to oblique axes The equation to a right cone, a:2 + y2 = e 2 z 2 . The equation to the common paraboloid of revolution

....
.

.230
230

.230

x*+y*=pz
470.

.231
. .

The

i

+ y.f ~v
by
2

..

231

471.

The

*8

-^

*2

=-

6s

232

=:/(z)

.
.

.
.

.
.

232

4736.

by a plane

.232

CHAPTER

VII.

477,
8.

There

to

the central

form.

abc

z.

cd*

=
if

.233
233

possible

the equation be
.
.

481. There

is

+ My
i

+ Nz =
'

234
.

483.
484.

The The

'.

235

Ellipsoid:

ff

+ 1! + ^1 =
:

236

486.

The Hyperboloid

of one sheet

^+^--^ =
a* o*
c"

489.

.....
1

.237
238

The Hyperboloid

of two sheets

a*

- 1o*

^c*

.239

CONTENTS.
Art.

Page
.. .

## 491. This surface has also a conical asymptotic surface

492.

240

The

general non-central equation of the second order can be deprived of the terms xy, xz,yz; and then of three other terms ; so that its form becomes

'-

w*

T=.
.
.

z2

240
24

494.

The

Elliptic Paraboloid

-+

y=x

496.

## The Hyperbolic Paraboloid

-=x
= Ix
-{-

vmay
.

241

498.

The

from those

equations to the Elliptic and Hyperbolic Paraboloids to the Ellipsoid and Hyperboloid .
ly.

be obtained
.

242
.

243

CHAPTER

VIII.

## CYLINDRICAL AND CONICAL SURFACES.

501. Generation of surfaces by the motion of lines 502.

To

by the motion of a straight and passing through a given straight line a Plane
find the surface generated
;

.... ....
.

243
244

503.

The

y
505.

/J*

= 0(o:

z)

.....
xy
.

245

The

## base on equation to a cylinder, with a circular

equation to a right cylinder

(x-*z-xtf + (y-fiz-yif = i*
Or-*,)
a

.246
246

507.

The
The
The

+ (y-yi) = r,*=0
2

508.

equation to a cylinder,

whose base

(y-fiz? = p(x-*z)
510.

.......
is

.....
xy

a parabola on

247

^rJ*
z
512.
c

= *x z
c

^
c
2

247

The

xy
r*
.

.248

514.

5!
a2
516. 517.

^ +

*!
b*

= f! c

....
.

248
.

The

dy*

= px z
8

249

=*

*8

cos '<

249

519.

-()
521.

250

The cono-cuneus
,2 z*

of Wullis
a2
..

-s

250

522.

The

any straight

line another,

251

parallel to

xy

xxiv
Art.

CONTENTS.
The
avis of

523.

x one

directrix,

## and the thread of a screw the other

524.

straight line passes through two stfaight lines and a given curve, to find the

surface

...... ......

252

525.

A A

straight line, parallel to a given plane, passes through two given curves, to

## find the surface

..........
CHAPTER
IX.

253
.

026.

straight line passes through three given straight lines, to find the surface

253

## ON CURVES OF DOUBLE CURVATURE.

527
530.
531.
9.

The meaning of the term curve of double curvature The curve arising from the intersection of a sphere and cylinder The curve arising from the intersection of a cone and Paraboloid

....
.
.

may

be traced.

Example 256
.

533
536.

5.

To

find out

when the

256

To

by the equations

7+T=
538.

'>7

+7=

'
;

',
Examples

'

'

To

## describe a Curve of double curvature

by

points.

ALGEBRAICAL GEOMETRY.
PART
I.

CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION.
1.

I.

THE

is

## the Investigation of Geometrical

Theorems and Problems by means of Algebra. Soon after the introduction of algebra into Europe, many problems in plane geometry were solved by putting letters for straight lines, and
then working the questions algebraically this process, although of use, did not much extend the boundaries of geometry, for each problem, as heretofore, required its own peculiar \nethod of solution, and therefore could give but little aid towards the investigation of other questions. It is to Descartes that we owe the first general application of algebra to geometry, and, in consequence, the first real progress in modern mathematical knowledge; in the discussion of a problem of considerable antiquity, and which admitted of an infinite number of solutions, he employed two variable quantities x and y for certain unknown lines, and then showed that the resulting equation, involving both these quantities, belonged to a series of points of which these variable quantities were the co-ordinates, that is, belonged to a curve, the assemblage of all the solutions, and hence called ^ the Locus of the Equation." It is riot necessary to enter into further details here, much less to point out the immense advantages of the system thus founded. However, in the course of this work we shall have many opportunities of explaining the method of Descartes and we hope that the following pages will, in some degree, exhibit the advantages of his system.
;
;

2. In applying algebra to geometry, it is obvious that we must understand the sense in which algebraical symbols are used. In speaking of a yard or a foot, we have only an idea of these lengths by comparing them with some known length ; this known or standard The unit may be any length whatever: thus, if length is called a unit. it is an inch, a foot is considered as the sum of twelve of these units, and may therefore be represented by the number 12 ; if the unit is a yard, a mile may be represented by the number 1760. But any straight line B fig. (1) may be taken to represent the unit B an exact contains the line of length, and ifanother straight line C

number

(a) of times,

C C

D D

is

is

linear units,

## and omitting the

INTRODUCTION.
In
fig.

(1)

A.

D=
Ji

3 times

B, or

CD

3.

n
If C D does not contain A B an exact number common measure E, fig (2) let, then, C D = A B = n E, then C D has to A B the same ratio

c
of times, they

times

may have

E, and

that

that

m
n

has to

n, or that

## has to unity '

hence

mE CD=

has to

n E,

or

times

AB

=6.
fig.

In

(2)

C D =43

of

A B =
3

common measure, we must recur to considerations analogous to those upon which the theory of incommensurable quantities in arithmetic is founded. We cannot express a number like 2 by integers or fractions consisting of commensurable quantities, but we have a distinct idea of the magnitude expressed by 2, since we can at once tell whether it be greater or less than any proposed magnitude expressed by common quantities ; and we can use the symbol *J 2 in calculation, by means of reasoning founded on its being a limit to which we can approach, as nearly as we please, by
If the lines

A B

and

have no

common

quantities.

suppose E to be a line contained an exact number of times in A B, fig. (2), but not an exact number of times in C D, and take a whole number, such that m E is less than C D, and (ra -f 1) E greater than C D. E and (m -f 1) E will Then the smaller E is, the nearer be to C D; because the former falls short of, and the latter exceeds, C D, by a quantity less than E. Also E may be made as small as we please ; for if any line measure A B, its half, its quarter, and so on, ad wfinitwn, will measure A B. as a quantity which, Hence we may consider though not expressible precisely by means of any unit which is a measure

Now

CD

of

B,

may

commensurable with E, exactly as J 2 is a limit between quantities commensurable with unity. We conclude, then, that any line C D may be represented by some one
is

Hence C

be approached as nearly as

we

## limit between quantities

of the letters a, b, c, &c., these letters themselves being the representatives of numbers either integral, fractional, or incommensurable. 3. If upon the linear unit we describe a square, that figure is called the

## square unit. Let C D F E,

fig. (1), be a rectangle, having the side C containing N, &c., and the side C (a) linear units C M, containing (6) linear units C O, P, &c., divide the rectangle into square units by drawing lines parallel to C through the points M, N, &c, and to through the points O, P, &c. Then in the there are (o) row

square units,

many rows

in the second row the same, and there are as as there are units in C E, therefore altogether there are (6 Xfl) contains (a 6) square units, or square units in the figure, that is,

OPRQ
CF

upper

COQD

CD

INTRODUCTION.
is

"

equal in magnitude to (a 6) square units ; suppressing the words square units," the rectangle C F is equal to a b. If C D 5 feet and C E 3 feet, the area C F contains 1 5 square

feet.

1VJ

INTRODUCTION
Algebraic expressions

homogeneous equations, a x

:

## most simolv under the form of

=
+ +
f

x*
x'

ax =r be ax9

box

=
+

def
defjc

ax* -f hex*

=
&c

ghkl

x'" -f

axm

~l

bcx'*~*

= pqrs

... to

terms.

In the
equations

first
;

linear units

place, each equation may be understood as referring to be put instead of the words * the linear units,' the thus, if

may be

written

x times
x9 times
(x*

L = a times L, L + ax times L,

or

(.r*-f-

ax) times

L =

be times L,

ghkl times L, and so on. The defx) times solution of each equation gives x times L in terms of (0, 6, c, . . ) times x are merely numbers, having L; and thus the letters a, 6, c, reference to lines, but not to figures. This will be equally true it' L is not expressed, but understood; and it is in this sense that we shall interpret all equations beyond those of the
ax*
box*
. .
.

L=
.

third order.
to represent The same reasoning would equally apply if we assumed the square or cubic unit, only it would lead to confusion in the algebraic representation of a line. 6. Again, these equations may, to a certain extent, have an additional

interpretation.

For if we consider the letters in each term to be the representatives of drawn perpendicular to each other, the second equation refers to areas, and then signifies that the sum of two particular rectangles is equal to a third rectangle the third equation refers to solid figures, and siglines
;

## nifies, that the

referring to areas to another referring to lines, without any violation of principle; for, considering the second equation as referring to areas, the rectangles can be exhibited in the form of squares ; and if the squares upon two lines be equal, the lines themselves are equal, or the equation is true for linear units. 7. It follows as a consequence of the additional interpretation, that every equation of the second and third order will refer to some geometrical theorem, respecting plane or solid figures; for example, the second 2 a (a x) is the representation of the equation, when in the form j; well-known problem of the division of a line into extreme and mean

is

## equal to a fourth solid.

ratio.

By omitting the second and third terms of the third equation, and giving the values of 2, a, and a to d, e and/) respectively, we obtain the algebraic representation of the ancient problem of the duplication of the cube. 8. The solution of equations leads to various values of the unknown quantity, and there are then two methods of exhibiting these values ;
first,

by giving to a, 6, c, &c., their numerical values, and then performing any operation indicated by the algebraic symbols.

CONSTRUCTION OF QUANTITIES.
Thus,
if a = 4, b we may have x
5,

x
,r

## and c = 9, = a + c 6 = 8 times the linear unit. = ab = 20 :r 2 2 of the linear unit,

-

We
This

6 times the linear unit. \/#c v36 can then draw the line corresponding to the particular value of x.

is the most practical method. Again, we may obtain the required line from the algebraical result, by means of geometrical theorems; this method is called the Construction of Quantities' it is often elegant, and is, moreover, useful to those who wish to obtain a complete knowledge of Algebraical Geometry.
* ;

## THE CONSTRUCTION OF QUANTITIES.

9.

Let x

=a+

b.

In the straight line A X, let A be the point from whence the value of x is to be measured
take then

/>
the value of x.
6,

AB = and B C AC = A B + BC =
,

6,

+
B
.*:

is

Let j?=r a

b, in

BA

take

D=
b
:

then

BD = a-b.

Let x

ab
,

then x

la

c,

c
is a fourth proportional to the three given quantities c, 6, and a ; hence the line whose length is expressed by x,
is

and x

## a fourth proportional to three lines,

whose respective lengths are c, 6, and a. From A draw two lines A C D, ABE, forming any angle at A take A B c, B E a, and A C 6, join B C, and draw D E parallel B C ; then, A B A C : : B E C D, or c b a C D /.CD is the

=
:

: :

required value of x.

abc

Let x r=
de
similarly for
j?

construct,

=
or

be
,

and then x
abed
or

ay j

abc
r- , or d*

ab*
=r-,

i~
,

d*

cP

efg

Let x
then the
10.

abc

+
g/i

def

abc
1

def

\$-, construct

## each term separately, and

gh

gh

sum

of the terms.

Let x

=
=

In the straight line A B take A C 6 and C B upon A B describe a semicircle, from C draw C E perpendicular to A B, and
,

## Since x* ab, a? between a and 6.

Jab
is

a mean proportional

meeting the

circle in

C and C B, (Euproportional to clid, vi. 13, or Geometry, ii. 51,) and therefore C E is the required value of x.
mean

E A

then

CE

is

CONSTRUCTION OF QUANTITIES.
The same
property of right-angled triangles

may
;

## ployed in the construction of the equation x

take

AC

6,

and
per-

draw C

E perpendicular to AC
AE
;

and equal
.

to a, join

AE

and draw

EB

pendicular to

then

CB=
x9

Let x
tution

V/>

cd,

= ab +
=

cd

(b

ay by

substi-

## construct y, and then x

is

is equal to the sum of the This sum may be reduced to a single rectangle, and rectangles ab, cd. the rectangle converted into a square, the base of which is the required value of x. Euclid, i. 45, and ii. 14; or Geometry, i. 57, 58.

Again, x

line,

the square

## \ay. upon which

Let

AB

= a,

x=

b*

frcm

pendicular to of x.

B draw B C ( A B AC is
;

Let x

## perpendicular to the required value of x.

c)

D(=
Let x

v fl2

2
,

from

C draw AC, A D is

Ja*-b*

=
+
b

is

but one)

and a
ft,

last figure

AB =
ft

a,

and

AE=

we have

BE
6
8

=
z

v
9

b*.

## Let x and then

=
,r.

a8

-f

c2

d8 }, find y

=
-r

+
and

and

=
-

c'

*=\/
^r

find

o
.

cr

"8

>

22

68

aml

(i

then

ay a2

11. Of course the preceding methods will equally apply, when instead of the letters we have the original numbers, the linear unit being understood as usual.

Thus.r= Vl2
hence (see

last figure

\/3.4 is a mean proportional between 3 and 4; but one) take A C equal four times the unit, and C B

## equal three times the unit,

CE

is

the value of

or since

12

Vl6

V4 8
is

the hypothenuse

2 2 by constructing a right-angled triangle of which four times the linear unit, and one side twice that unit :
,

## the remaining side zz

Similarly
the form

x=

VT=:
6
8

\/4~+ 4
c
2
.

22

8
,

which

is

of

Va f +

CONSTRUCTION OF QUANTITIES.
Let x

=
=

T
V-J3

\/2

-f-

1.

let

B,

0, and

C D

## each be equal to the linear

unit, then

Let x

2
I

P.

then

is

the

hypothenuse of a right-angled

triangle,

is

## half the unit.

Let x

V/-'> 4
3

thi s

ma y

De constructed as the

last.

Let x =.

A/ ^

/
9

and so on

for all

## numbers, since any

finite

number can be decomposed into a series of numbers representing the squares upon lines. If the letter a be prefixed to any of the above quantities, it must be introduced under the root. 12. In constructing compound quantities, it is best to unite the several parts of the construction in one figure.

in

Thus

if

=
;

fr',

the line

AX

in

and D'

AD apd A D'
:

## are the values required

for

This construction
cuts the line
13.
fails

- Va 2

2
.

when

AX

this is

greater than a, for then the circle never inferred also from the impossibility of the roots
6
is

Since theorems in geometry relate either to lines, areas, or solids, the corresponding equations must in each case be homogeneous, and will remain so through all the algebraic operations. If, however, one of the lines in a figure be taken as the linear unit and be therefore represented

by unity, we

such as x

=Va
X
1,

6,&c., in which,

prior to

## construction, the numerical unit

must be expressed;

thus

these

quantities

must

be written

\a x

1,

## and then constructed as above.

DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.

CHAPTER

II.

DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
14. GEOMETRICAL Problems may be divided into two classes, Determinate and Indeterminate, according as they admit of a finite or an infinite number of solutions. If A B be the diameter of the semicircle E B, and it be required to find a point C in A B such, that draw

B to meet ing C E perpendicular to shall be the circumference in E, equal to half the radius of the circle,

CE

this is

## a determinate problem, because

E B. circumference The determinate class is by no means so important as the indeterminate, but the investigation of a few of the former will lead us to the easier comprehension of the latter ; and therefore we proceed to the discussion of determinate problems. 15. In the consideration of a problem, the following rules are useful. 1. Draw a figure representing the conditions of the question. 2. Draw other lines, if necessary, generally parallel or perpendicular to those of the figure.
3.

there are only two such points in B, each at an equal distance from the centre. Again, if it be required to find a point out of the line such, that joining EA, B, the inB shall be a right angle, this is an indeterminate cluded angle problem, for there are an infinite number of such points, all lying in the

E AE

AB

Call the
lines

known
by the

lines

by the

letters

a, 6,

c,

&c.,

## and some of the

unknown

as equally known, and from the 4. Consider geometrical properties of figures deduce one, two, or more equations, each containing unknown and given quantities. 5. From these equations find the value of the unknown quantities. 6. Construct these values, and endeatour to unite the construction to
the original figure. 16. To describe a square in a given triangle be the required squar Let

ABC.

## DEFG C H K the altitude

of the triangle.

The question is resolved into finding the point H, because then the position of

D E,

is

de-

termined.

Let C

K
:

a,

AB=
::
: :

## then by the question,

andDE AB or D E 6 bx :. D E =
:

CH
x

b, C H = x D E = H K,
: :

CK,
a,

and

HK =

DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
bx
.'.

=a

a third proportional to the quantities (# -f- 6) and a. so that to 6, join K, is the required value of x. 17. In a right-angled triangle the lines drawn from the acute angles to the points of bisection of the opposite sides are given, to find the
is

Thus #

MK

LM =

triangle.

Let

C E

a,

Then

the square

l

r,

2/

whence y ss db
the sides take

Make any
==
,

right angle A,

and

OLI

one of

AF
FH

with centre

and

and 2

a, describe

## circles cutting the I parallel to

and H, respectively ; draw other side produced in Hence A D, then 2 I is the required value of y. ; and therefore C and A B are found, and the triangle is determined. 18. To divide a straight line, so that the rectangle contained by the two parts may be equal to the square upon a given line 6.

Let

AB

= AP =
or

Then

the rectangle

A
.*.

P,
2
a?

P B
x)

x (a

= ax =
a
i

6*

* =-=-

V-f

/~a?

6'

10

DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
Upon

AB

describe

a semicircle, draw

BC

A E

It'

DE
;

6)

## and B, from parallel to and P' are the required points.

is

perpendicular to E draw D P,

is

greater than
is

the value of x

irrational,

in

problem

impossible
x,

A Q, Q B
x (x

Q may
6

be found

B produced,

s
.

Let

AQ =

.-.

- a) =
2

From
draw

the centre

draw the
to

line

RQ

perpendicular

O R,
6
2

then

;

R, from
for

11

OQ=OC=

\J(

and therefore

AQ =
-|-

+ ^/ _+&*.
j

--

^/

+
6
2

which ^ whi

negative

in the

form

I\A --

-f

the

magnitude

tude,

## of this quantity, independent of the negative sign, or is evidently B Q or A Q'.

its

absolute magni-

duced, or

" to find a the problem had been point Q in either A B pro2 6 ", we B that the rectangle AQ, produced, such, to be in B A the solution by assuming the point might have commenced b\ Q' #, we should have x (a -f x) produced as at Q' thus letting

Now

if

BA

Q = Q
first

and x

= ---+
b

it

A/ JL
=
-

_|_

,,

## of which two roots the

or

-J-

||-

V/-J-

is

the

Absolute value

of

the negative root in the last question ; hence the negative root of the last question is a real solution of the problem expressed in a more general form, the negative sign merely pointing out the position of the second Both roots may be exhibited in a positive form by measuring point Q'.

FA =

F being greater than b not from A, but from a point F, x, we find c, and F Q or F Q'

for letting

The celebrated problem of dividing a given straight line in extreme and mean ratio, is solved in the same manner letting A P x we have the
rectangle

B,

BP

the square

upon

A P,

or a

(ji,

x)

x9

whence

~j-

## here the negative root, which gives a

DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
point to the
nerally
*.

II

left

of A,

is

## a solution of the problem enunciated more ge-

19. Through a point equidistant from two straight lines A A' and B' at right angles to each other, to draw a straight line P Q, so that the part intersected by A' and B 15' may be of a given length 6.

PQ

From
Let

M draw the perpendicular lines M C, M D. M D - a, D Q = x> C P = y then P Q = P M + M Q, or 6 - V + f+ <Ja* + = and from the similar triangles P C M, M D Q. a
t

a-

whe

a*

0.

A R

sy

a'

recurring equation, and then construct the four problems ; but since the roots of an equation of four dimensions are not easily obtained, we must, in general, endeavour to avoid such an equation, and rather retrace our steps than attempt its Let us consider the problem again, and examine what kind of a solution.

We

might solve

this

## roots, as in the last

result

we may

expect.

* Lucas de Borgo, who wrote a book on the application of this problem to architecture and polygonal figures, was so delighted with this division of a line, that he called it the Divine Proportion.

12

DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.

S M, R' S' M, may Q, Since, in general, four lines P Q', fulfilling the conditions of the question, the two former, in all cases, though not always the two latter, we may conclude that there will is similarly situated with be four solutions ; but since the point respect to the two lines A', B B', we may also expect that the resulting lines
be drawn

FM

will

one

A' and B B'. Thus, be similarly situated with regard to line P Q, there will be another P'MQ' such that O Q' O Q. P' to O R'. Hence, Again O S will be equal to O S', and O

if

there be

OP, and we
take

## the perpendicular from

(?/),

upon the

line

R R
In

if

for the

unknown

quantity

the lines

we can have only two different values of this line, one referring to S R and S' R', the other to PQ and P' Q'; hence the resulting
this case the

equation

is

6a2
Again, since

0.

MR
S R,

M R' we
for the either
itself

## section of the line

may take M H, H being the point of biunknown quantity, and then also we may
of two dimensions, or else reducible to

#;

.-.MR = ,r+
:

MS=x :

^-,

and

MR MD
MS O D
:

::

RSS O = +

::

RS RO =
:

06

## but the square upon

square upon

RO +

square upon S O,

.-.

= M

an expression of easy construction ; the negative value of x is useless of the remaining two values that with the positive sign is always real, and refers to the lines S R, MS'R'; the other, when real, gives the lines P Q, P' Q' ; it is imaginary if 6* is less than 8 2 , that is,

joining

OM

and drawing

PM Q

perpendicular to

O M,

if

is

less than

This question is taken from Newton's Universal Arithmetic, and is given by him to show how much the judicious selection of the unknown The principal point to be quantity facilitates the solution of problems. attended to in such questions is, to choose that line for the unknown quantity which must be liable to the least number of variations.
20. Through the point M in the sum of the squares upon P M and
-iven line 6.

MQ shall

last figure

## to draw P Q so that the be equal to the square upon

DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
Making the same substitutions we shall obtain the equations
a
9
.'.

13

2xy

xy

= a,
,

a?

+
6,

and x

+y=
it \

6,

or x

=i

whence x

dt

/_

To
,

cutting

A A'

in

two points L, L/

## with centres L, L' and radius

circles cutting A A' again in four points: these are the required points. 21. To find a triangle such that its sides A C, C B, B A, and perpendicular B D, are in continued geometrical progression.

ABC
::

Take any

line

AB

let

BC
::

AC:CB
then

CB:BA
D

= BA:BD;
j?,

ABC

B,

are

is

the square
.'.

upon
2
,

AC

## = the square upon

a*jt*

BC+

the square

upon

AB

= #* + a

or x*

a ==

0,

whence x

=
impossible, since
;

## of these roots t\vo are

2

2 and of the \/5 is greater than a' remaining two the negative one is

useless.

In

AB

produced take

BE

=a V

(11), and

EF

=
;

uponAF

describe a semicircle,

|-0

EG

then

E G=
a?

V5)|=

</-

is

CHAPTER

1J1.

## THE POINT AND STRAIGHT

22.

LINE.

DETERMINATE problems, although sometimes curious, yet, as they lead to nothing important, are unworthy of much attention. It was, however, to this branch of geometry that algebra was solely applied for some time alter its introduction into Europe. Descartes, a celebrated French

-I

GEOMETRICAL SIGNIFICATION

philosopher, who lived in the early part of the seventeenth century, was He applied algebra to the consideration the first to extend the connexion. of curved lines, and thus, as it were, invented a new science.
ple example.
to the

Perhaps the best way of explaining his method will be by taking a simSuppose that it is required to find a point P without a given and P 13 shall be equal line AB, so that the sum of the squares on

AP

let fall

Let have

AM =

x,

MP

=: y, and

AB

## the perpendicular P on A B. =: a ; then by the question, we

The square on
or
8

A B = the square on A P + the square on P B. = the squares on AM, M P the squares on P M, MB,
-f-

=
.'.

(x* -f

y*) -f

(a

ct)

e
?/

2 j*
2 j;
.

2ax +

a*

7/

=^ a x
this

Now
finite

number of

,

T or

AM
&c.,

## any value, such as 2

we may, from

the equation,

find corresponding values of y or P, each of them determining a sepawhich satisfies the condition of the problem. rate point

Let C, D, E, F, &c., be the points thus determined. the values of y may be increased by taking values of
above-mentioned and
finite

The number of
x between those
shall

this to

an

infikite extent,

thus

we

have an

in-

number of

## points C, D, E, F, &c., indefinitely near to each other,

so that these points ultimately form a line which geometrically represents the assemblage of all the solutions of the equation. This line C F, whether curved or straight, is called the locus of the equation.

DE

indeterminate problems resolve themselves into inand it is this branch of the subject which is by far the most important, and which leads to a boundless field for research*. 23. For the better investigation of loci, equations have been divided into two classes, algebraical and transcendental. An algebraical equation between two variables x and y is one which
all
;

In this manner

vestigations of loci

can be reduced to a finite number of terms involving only integral powers of r, y, and constant quantities: and it is called complete when it contains all the possible combinations of the variables together with a constant term, the sum of the indices of these variables in no term exceeding the degree of the equation ; thus of the equations

ay
8 2/

bx
-f-

+ bxy +

ex*

dy + ex

+/-

the

a complete equation of the first order, and the next is a plete equation of the second order, and so on. Those equations which cannot be put into a finite and lational
first is

comalgelor

called

transcendental,
iii.

article Locus.

## and the Index,

OF AN EQUATION.

15

they can only be expanded into an infinite series of terms in which the power of the variable increases without limit, and thus the order of the

equation

is

infinitely great, or

transcends
a", are

all finite

orders.

are named after their equations, thus the locus of an equation of the first order is a line of the first order; the locus of an equation of the second order is a line of the second order the locus of a transcendental equation is a transcendental line or curve. Algebraical equations have not corresponding loci in all cases, for the equation may be such as not to admit of any real values of both x and y; is an example of this kind, where, whatthe equation y s x2 a2 ever real value we give to j?, we cannot have a real value of y there is therefore no locus whatever corresponding to such an equation. 24.
;

## y The loci of equations

sin. x,

and y

transcendental equations.

=0

## THE POSITION OF A POINT

IN A PLANE.

25. The position of a point in a plane is determined by finding its situation relatively to some fixed objects in that plane ; for this purpose suppose the plane of the paper to be the given plane, and let us consider as

## the intersection also the angle between parallel to AY, and

is

known

of two lines x
;

them

AN evidently known if A M and shown, ex absurdo^ that there is such that its distance from the line*, AM
;

PN

X and y Y of unlimited length, and from any point P, in this plane, draw P

parallel to

then the position of the point P For it may be easily are known. hut one point within the angle

AX,

AY

and

AX

is

and
equal

YAX P M re-

## called the ordinate

AM

and

MP

P;

AN,

or

its

M P,

is

X Y

are together the co-ordinates of P ; a? is called the axis of abscissas, y the axis of ordinates. The

point

The

is

## axes are called oblique or

is rectangular, according as an oblique or a right angle. In this treatise rectangular axes as the

YAX

most simple
ployed.

will generally

be emQl
tf,

P'

and P the ordinate y, then if on and measuring these lengths A P we find the first equal to a and the second equal to 6, we have,
Let the abscissa

AM =

## to determine the position of this point P, the b x , y

two equations
them, when taken together,

## sufficient for this object,

we

call

the equations to this point. The same point may also be defined by the equation

a and y ==

b.

16

## POSITION OF A POINT IN A PLANE.

in general any equation which can only be satisfied by a single real value of each variable quantity x and y t refers to a point whose situation is determined by the co-ordinates corresponding to these values. 26. In this manner the position of any point in the angle can be determined, but in order to express the positions of points in the angle A x, some further considerations are necessary. In the solution of the problem, article (18), we observed that negative quantities may be geometrically represented by lines drawn in a certain An extension of this idea leads to the following reasoning. direction. When we affix a negative sign to any quantity, we do not signify any cluinge in its magnitude, but merely the way in which the quantity is to Thus the absolute magbe used, or the operation to be performed on it. 5 is just as great as that of -f- 5 5 means that 5 is to but nitude of 5 that it is to be added. As the sign is applied be subtracted, and will have in each of these to quantities variously estimated, the sign various cases a corresponding meaning, necessarily following from that of

And

YAX

0. a+a means, we must always have to be a quantity estimated in such a manner that the altering it by the operation indicated by + a reduces the result This is properly the meaning of the sign to nothing. it depends ; entirely on that of the sign -j- in every case. The symbol of positive quantity is used in a variety of ways; but in every instance the above principle shows in what way the negative quan-

the sign

tity

## must, as a necessary consequence of the meaning of the positive

quantity, be used.

Thus, if we placed a mark on a pole stuck vertically into the ground, at some point in the pole which was baie at low water and covered at high water, and scored upwards the inches from that mark, we might express the height of the surface by the number of inches above the mark, posisurface was above the mark; but at low water when the tively, when the surface is below the mark, 11 inches for instance, we should call the 11 because when 11 inches were added to the height, (that is, height when the surface of the water was advanced 11 inches upwards, which is the direction in which the positive quantities are supposed to be reckoned,) the surface would be just at the mark, and would be no inches in height
;

## reckoning from the mark.

to advance directly from a given point p miles in the 6 hours of a day, and to go back in the next 6 hours <y miles ; at the end of the 12 hours his advance from the given point v^uld be 10, and q 6, he will advance Thus, suppose p q) miles. (p But suppose he recedes 10 miles, then his advance 6) or 4 miles. (10 will in the 12 hours be (10 10) or 0: he will be jjst where he was at first. Suppose he recedes 15 miles, at the end of the 12 hours he will be 5 miles behind the original point. Here we say behind^ because the movement in the direction of the original advance was considered to be forward. And it is clear that in this case, from an advance of 10 miles, and a recess that is, it requires a further advance of 5 5 of 15, the advance is miles to make the man exactly as forward as he was at starting. Now let us consider a fixed point A, and a line measured from it by positive quantities in the direction A X. Suppose the line to be described by the motion of a point from A along A X; and after the point has been ^ g v carried forward (that is, towards X) linear units, as to B, let it be carried
first

Suppose a man

## POSITION OF A POINT IN A PLANE.

back n linear
the length of
that

17

AG

units, as to will be

Again, suppose n to become == m is, let the point be carried back exactly to A ; then the advance of the will still be measured point along
;

(m

## then altogether the advance of the point or n) linear units.

AX
=z

by (m

11)

m-

0.

that is, let B C exceed A B ; the advance ; of the point will be expressed by (m n) still ; but this will now C be a negative number, showing by X B how many linear units the point must be advanced in order to bring it forward to the original starting point A. Now any line C may be considered to be determined by the motion of a point either simply along C, or along first A B and then B C.

Once more,

let

n exceed

We

tion

A X as po-itive

see, therefore, if

we begin by reckoning distances from A in the direcquantities, we are compelled to consider distances from)

negative quantities. Conversely again, having designated positive quantities by lines in one direction from a given point, suppose the calculation produces a negative

result,

to assign to

it ?

The

## negative result shows

result

how much

positive quantity is required to bring the whole nothing. positive quantity, by the hypothesis, is distance in the original direction ; therefore the negative quantity shows

to

Now

measured

how much

distance measured in the original direction is required to bring the result But if there be a distance from A, such that a linear units in to nothing. the original direction must be subjoined to bring the result to nothing, dis(that is, to reduce to nothing the distance from A,) it is clear that this

tance must be that of a linear units measured in a direction from opposite That is, the negative quantity must be repreto the original direction. sented by lines drawn in the direction opposite to that in which the lines representing the positive quantities are drawn. It is immaterial in which direction the line is drawn which we consider but when chosen, negative quantities of th same kind must be positive
:

taken in the opposite direction. 27. We are now able to express the position of points in the remaining angles formed by the axes, by con-

A X to

sidering

all lines

in

the direction

be positive and those in A x and similarly all to be negative those drawn in the direction will be considered positive, and therefore those in A y will be nega:

AY

tive.

We

of co-ordinates.

x,

+ + -

01

x,
*,

F in

the angle

X A y, +

18

## EQUATION TO THE STRAIGHT

Hence
the equations to a given point

LINE.
a,
a,

............... ..............
If,
;

P Q
P'

are
.

x
j?

= = -

y y

= =

6
6

Q'..j?=
.

a,
a,

y=r

&

= the abscissa AM remaining the same, the ordinate MP diminishes, 28. and when M P the point P approaches to the axis A X nothing, P
*

is

is

are

x ==
Similarly

a,

y
y

=
P
b
:

or

+
-

fl

(x

= =
0.

0.

when
x

the point
0,

is

z

## AY, its equations

0.

are

or (y

b)

xz

If both

AM

and

Ex.
the

The point whose equations are x = 4, y = 2, is situated in = 4 times the linear unit from the angle X Ay, at a distance
1.

M P vanish, x = 0, y =

we have
:

## the equations to the origin A,

or y* -f

x%

situ+ 2)* = + 3) + AL = 2, LQ' = 3, from the axes. in the line 3 Ex. 3. The point whose equations are x = 0, y = A y, at a distance = 3 times the linear unit. in A #, at a Ex. 4. The point whose equation y + (x + a) = 0,

axis of y,

and

M P' =

AM

## twice that unit from the axis of x.

8

Ex. 2. The point whose equation is (y ated in the angle xAy, at distances

(a?

is

is

is

is

29.

if

To

find

## and Q. Let the axes be rectangular and

let the

equations to a. y P be x

= =

a', v

= =

b
b'
;

NQ=

AM

6',

draw

QS

parallel to

AX.

Then

the square

upon

QP

the square

upon

QS +

the square

upon P S

and
also

QS = N
:.
2

If

Q
Q

be

in the

')

PS=PM-QN
2

b'
8

If

## be at the origin we have a'

/.

and

//

=
'

D =
2

b\ or

D=

Va a +6 8

AX A Q = perpendicular to Q S then the square upon Q P the square on P S + twice the rectangle Q S, S R
QN
;

o>, 30. If the angle between the axes be oblique and also let S parallel to ; Y, and parallel to

draw

PM
Q

and
S

P R

be drawn

the square on

and,

LINE.

19

=
-

a 6

a',

V,

/.

;

')

(6
a'

is
2

D =

at the origin,

a*

6') cos.

w
b'

0,

and

0,

## THE LOCUS OF AN EQUATION OF THE FIRST

DEGREE.
To find the locus of an equation of the first unknown quantities. The most general form of such an equation is,
31.

Ay +
and

Bo?

+ C=
;

0,

ory

=:

BC
x

## ---, ory~ c*x + 6 A

if

-r-=:<x

B A

Let AX, A Y be the rectangular axes, then a point in the locus will be determined by giving to x a particular value as 1,2, 3, &c. ; let A M, P and A N, N Q be the respective co-ordinates of two points P and Q thus

simple form y =

=b

we

## will in the first place consider the

equation in

its

most

otx.

determined

since

ocx,

we have

andNQ = .AN MP AM NQ AN therefore the triangles A M P, A N Q are similar, and the angles MAP, N A Q, equal to one another hence the two lines A P, A Q coincide. If a third point R be taken in the locus, then, as before, A R will coincide with A P and A Q.
/.
:

: :

## Consequently all the lines drawn from A to the several points of

the locus coincide ; that is, all the points P, Q, R, &c., are in the

same

straight line

A R,

and by

giving negative values to x we can determine the point S, &c., to be in the same straight line Hence the A produced.

straight

line

RA

S produced

both ways indefinitely, being the assemblage of all the points dea a?, termined by the equation y

is

20

## EQUATION TO THE STRAIGHT LINE.

In considering the equation y ax 6, we observe that the new ordiAate y always exceeds the former by the quantity b ; hence taking in the axis E F parallel to S R, equal to 6, and drawing the line the line E F is the locus required. Hence the equation of the first order belongs to the straight line.

AY

AE

explain the nature of the equation more clearly, we will take the To find the equation to a straight line F, that is, 1<> find the relation which exists between the co-ordinates, xand y, of each of
32.

To

converse problem.
points.

H
;

its

A be the origin of co-ordinates, A X, A Y the axes from A draw A R parallel to H F, and from any point P' in the given line draw P' P M perpendicular to A X and cutting A R in P. Let A M = *, M P' = y, and A E = 6
Let
;

then

M P' = P M =
+

-f

P'

= AMtan. PAM + AE
= x tan. F G X +
or
a, fore the equation
6
;

ax

6,

if tan.

FGX
E G A,

If

AG=
jr

we have

A E = A G.

tan.

to the straight

line

may

## or 6 a , and therebe written under the form

oc

a.

FGA =

33. In general, therefore, the equation to the straight line contains two E or is the the former is the distance constant quantities 6 and ordinate of the point in which the line cuts the axis of y, the latter is the tangent of the angle which the line makes with the axis of x, for the angle hence (he angle
;

PAM:

tan.

FGA=

tan.

PAM

y =*

the tangent of the It is to be particularly observed that, in calling angle which the line makes with the axis of x, we understand the angle and not F x. F

GX

and b may be either b, the quantities one positive and the other negative let us then examine the course of the line to which the equation belongs in each Now it is clear that the knowledge of two points in a straight line case. is sufficient to determine the position of that line; hence we shall only find the points where it cuts the axes since they are the most easily obtained.

and b positive ;

.*.

y=ra,r-f6;
b
;

Let x
y
join
2.

= =
B
;

/.

y
i

in

AY
;

take

.*.

in

a
is

x take

AB =
b

D BD
=
;

produced

/.

a x

Let x

/.

y
x

b, in

Ay

take
take

AC =
CX

y
join

0;
;

/.

=
Oi

h,

AX

AE=

OE

C E produced

is

LINE.

fll

3.

or

.'.

Let x

7/

join
4.
or

= = 0; DE D E
;
.*. .'.
;

y
a?

= -

ax

-\-

in

AY

take

6;
;

;inAXtakeAE=
is
;
.".

produced

;
.'.

=
take take
,r

Let x

6 6

in

Ay
A

ax 6 AC =
6

y
join

=
;

.'.

x =.

a
is

in

AB =

B C
y

BC

produced

## the required locus.

35.

The
6

quantities a and 6

may

also

change

in absolute value.

;t a #; and the loci are two straight lines passing through the origin and drawn at angles with the axis of x whose respective tangents are or.

Let

0;

.*.

i
y

Let

.'.

Ox

.'.

IT

and x

the former of

these results shows that every point in the locus is equidistant from the x axis of x, and the latter (or 0) that every value of x satisfies the original equation ; hence the loci are two straight lines drawn through and C both parallel to the axis of x.

It

## has been stated (28), that the system of equations

;

6,

refers to a point

we

6,

x
is

refers to

straight line
yet
it

## hence, although the equation

generally omitted,

must be considered as

Let a

may be
becomes

written

y
x

ax
\

aa

nj

or

=,r+a,

which when

or

=
=
,

a,

23

## EQUATION TO THE STRAIGHT LINE

or more simply the equation it a denotes two straight lines parallel to the axis of y and at a distance a from that axis.
.

x=

Again

let

both a

0,
;

and 6

and

.'.

the equation y

= ax +

b
is

becomes y

=
,

and hence, y =r

0,

=
Oy

the axis of x.

If or rr

and

6=0,

-r

.*.

x =:

and y

Hence

the equation

j?

## denotes the axis of y.

36. By the above methods the line to which any equation of the first order belongs may be drawn. In the following examples reference is made to parts of the last figure.

Ex.
take

1.

3y

5x

=
o
;

let

x =r

0,

.'.

=
3

on the axis

AY

let

again

0,

.*.

x ==

on the axis
hence the

A x take A B

=r 5

of the unit,

is

and

## the locus required.

C E. and the line passes through or the tangent of the angle which the line makes with the the origin ; also axis of x 1, therefore that angle 45; hence the straight line drawn through the origin and bisecting the angle Y A X is the required locus. Ex. 4. 5 y 2 x 0. The line passes through the origin as in the last example, but to find another point through which the line passes, let x 5 2 .*. hence take A E 5, and from E draw E P (= 2) y perpendicular to AX; then the line joining the points A, P is the locus
Ex.
2.

10 y

21 x

## a line situated like

.*.

Ex.

3.

let

rr 0,

=
+

required.

Ex.
Ex.

5.

ay

bx

a line
;

y* the axis of x.

6.

j?

two straight
4 AD = 3

## drawn through A, and parallel to B C. lines making angles of 60 with

of the unit,

Ex.

7.

3y

=
2

0; take
is

a line through

drawn
Ex.

parallel to
8.

AX

the locus.
;

&+
+

take

AE =

1,

and

AB

through E and B parallel to A Y are the required loci. Ex. 9. y *2x 4. The equation to a straight

=r 2, the lines
line

drawn

may be put
=

## under the convenient form-~H

and when x

the quantities b and a are respectively the distances of the origin from the intersection of the Hue with the axes of y and x.
0,

= b,

1,

## and since when y

0,

Thus Ex.

9. in this

form

is

^-

|-

1,

take

rr 4, and

AE = 2,

E, this line produced is the required locus. join 37. If the equation involve the second root of a negative quantity its locus will not be a straight line, but either a point or altogether imaginary :

## PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT LINES.

thus the locus of the equation
co-ordinates are
real value to
sc

23

2x

is

and y

a, for

no other

real value of

## a point whose x can give a

is a */ y ; but the locus of the equation y }- x imaginary, for there are no corresponding real values of a? and y. (24) 38. We have thus seen that the equation to a straight line is of the

1=0

+ b, and that its position depends entirely upon a and b. a given line we understand one whose position is given, that is, that By a and b are given quantities when we seek a line we require its position, so that assuming y =: oe x 6 to be its equation, oc and 6 are the two indeterminate quantities to be found by the conditions of the question : if only one can be found the conditions are insufficient to fix the position of the
form y == a x
;

line.

By

a given point

## co-ordinates are given

we

shall generally use the letters x l and y t for the co-ordinates of a given point, and to avoid useless repetition, the point whose co-ordinates are x, and y l will be called " the point a?,, y^." Similarly the line whose equation is

ax

+
+

6 will be called

"

the line

ce

b."

y and y

## If in the same problem == a x b andy a' x

use the equations to two straight lines as that x 6', it must be carefully remembered are not the same quantities in both equations ; we might have used

we

arid~Y being the a'X the equations y oe x b', b, and variable coordinates of the second line, but the former notation is found to be the more convenient.
39.

Y=

We

regret

much

-7-

we

## cannot employ an homogeneous equation as

1.

In algebraical

geometry the formulas most in use are very simple, much more so indeed than they would be if homogeneous moreover the advantage of a uniform system of symbols and formulas is so great to mathematicians that it should not be violated without very strong reasons. To remedy in some degree this want of regularity, the student should repeatedly consider the meaning of the constants at his first introduction to the subject of straight
:

lines.

PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
40.
point.

LINES.
a given

To

## find the equation to a straight line passing through

be x l y,, and point being given its co-ordinates are known ; let them ax b ; we signify that this the equation to the straight line be y line passes through the point x l y lt by saying that when the variable abscissa x becomes x it then y will become y l hence the equation to the line

The

let

=
:

becomes

ax
2/1

/. 6

+
iji

a *i

we have

y zz ccx
or

Xi

y - y

(x

(x

XL)

21

## PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT LINES

The
shortest

method of eliminating- 6 is by subtracting the second equaand this is the method generally adopted. Since a, which fixes the direction of the line, is not determined, there may be an infinite number of straight lines drawn through a given point this
tion

from the

first,

is

a (x j?, 0, and .*. y y j^); .*. be on the axis of y, x^ y y l =2 a x. If either or both of the co-ordinates of the given point be negative, the proper substitutions must be made thus if the point be on the axis of x x l and ; and in the negative direction from A, its co-ordinates will be therefore the equation to the line passing through that point will be

if it

and

y
41.

= a (x + =

xj.

To

## through two given

points

#!, 3/1

and #2 ,

2/ 2 .

a x b Let the required equation be y (1) then since the line passes through the given points, we have the equations
2/i

2/ 2

= =

J?i

+
+
(x

b 6

(2)

x,

(3)

## Subtracting (2) from (1)

y
Subtracting (3) from (2)

2A

y, =:

*,)

(4)

2/2

=
we have
finally

## Substituting this value of a in (4),

The two conditions have sufficed to determine a and 6, and by their elimination the position of the line is fixed, as it ought to be, since only one straight line can be drawn through the same two points.
This equation
will

assume

different

forms according
T,

to

the particular

on the axis of

we have

y%

y -2/1=
if
it

if it

.*.

y^^
o? 2

-*^i
;

(x

j?^;

and

3/2

and

=:0

This

last

equation

is

## must be of the form y=or.r(31) where

also thus obtained; the line passing through the is the tangent

PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
of the angle which the line

LINES.
and
this line

25

to

axis of x,
.*.

passing

## through the point

x^ y^ a must be equal

y=
-*

x.

If a straight line pass through three given points, the following relation must exist between the co-ordinates of those points:
(yi **

- *i y.) -

(2/1

*3

- *i
line

2/ a )

(2/2

*3

ys)

= o.
^y
and
,

42.

point

, ,

to a

straight

finite portion

line
l

>

is

43.
line.

To

Let y

= ax + = + y
a'j?

b
b'

## (1) be the given line

(2)

required line

then since the lines are parallel they must of x or a'~ or /. the required equation is

(3)

## with the axis

y^ccx +
Of

b'

course b' could not be determined by the single condition of the parallelism of the lines, since an infinite number of lines may be drawn but if another condition is added, b' will be parallel to the given line then determined thus if the required line passes also through a given
;

## point Xi jh, equation (2)

is

y
.'.

2/1

'

(?

*0
l

(3) becomes y

ss

a (x

x^
lines

C B, E D. This consists in finding the co-ordinates of the point O of intersection. Now it is evident that at this point they have the same abscissa and ordinate; hence if in the equations to two lines we regard x as representing the
44.

To

## two given straight

same abscissa and y the same ordinate, it is in fact saying that they are the co-ordinates X, of the point of intersection O.

26

PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
Let y

LINES.

ax

-\-

b
b'

be the equation to

CB

then

&ndya'x + at O we have Y =

ED = a' X + X+ ,.x =
b

^
ab
-.

6'

and
Ex.
1.

Y= X
1

-f 6

=
-

b'

a
\-

6'

a'

b
.

b r=

To
y

= 3x +
x

and y

2x

-4=

0.

Ex.

2.

To
y

## find the intersection of the lines

and 3y - 2x = 1. X If a third line, whose equation is y a" x + b", passes through the point of intersection, the relation between the coefficients is

=
1

(a
45.

6'

-a'

6)

(a b"

a"

b)

(a b"

a"V)

0.

To

## and cosine of the angle betwen two given

.straight lines.

Let y

=
=

a.

x x

y
and
tan.

a.'

+ b be + 6'

the equation to

CB

ED
make
(0 respectively with the axis of

&

## the angles which they

tan.

then

DOB =

EOC
I

= tan.

00

=
l
I

+ tan.0tan.0'
I
2

ecu'
'

also cos.

DOB =
sec.

DOB
DOB
x

Vl + (tan.
cos.

D OB)

+ V(1+O (1+a' 2)

and

sine

DOB =

tan.

DO B =
making a given angle with

46.

To

## find the equation to a straight line

line.

another straight

~
1

= a x + b be the given line C B, = oc'x + b required line E D, = tangent of the given angle DOB. = tan. DEC = tan. (B C X Then BOD) tan. B C X - tan. BOD " + tan. B C X tan. BOD +
Let y

ft

'

ft

'

/3

'

in the

second equation,

## through a given point

j? lt

y,,

the equa-

tion

is

r~rrpW*

PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
If be considered the given point but another (the dotted line in the

LINES.
line

27

figure)
is

DOE

C, and

its

equation

## so that both lines are included in the equation

For example, the two straight lines which pass through the point and cut B C at an angle of 45 are given by the equations

Also the equation to the straight line passing through the axis of x at an angle of 135 is

D
(*

and cutting
- ^),
is

~ y ory+
47.

y
*

= =y +
l

ft (or

a\.

*t)

tan.

135

(x

ar,)

=-1

is

/3

infinitely great

a
1

~~

^
of3

J1

==

or

ce

=
oc

ocx

to

given line y

6, is

=
'

b'.

This

may be

cot.

we have
hence
in

drawing
tan.

OE OEX=

perpendicular to
tan.

OEC

OCX ~

a
to

the equations to

two straight

lines

## which are perpendicular

one another

versely, if in the equations to two straight lines, these lines are perpendicular to one another.

=
oc

^
a'

and, con-

0,

If the

## x y^ perpendicular line pass also through a given point

v

its

equation

is

2/1

0?

*i)

and, of course, this equation will assume various forms, agreeing with the line drawn through the position of the point x^ y\ ; thus, for example, the ax 6, is one whose equation is origin perpendicular to the line y

=
48.

-I

cr,

for here

both x l and y

0.

To

## find the length of a perpendicular from a given point

line

(^

3/1)

on a given straight

B.

28

PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
Let y
then

LINES.

or

-j-

b
-

B,

y^ r=

(x

x^

(2)

is

pendicular line

D O E,

Let p

= DO

## then if and we have p*

be the co-ordinates of

(X - xj*

(Y

determined

ytf
(1)

(29)

from (2)

Y =r y,
...

(X

xj

= X -f 6
y,

from

_|

(X

Xl)

ax

6,

ax

6), also

y,

(X -

a^

.-.

f= =

(X

(X

*,)' + (Y - *,y + -

i/0

(x

=
The
superior sign
line,
is

to be

taken

when

is

above the

given straight

and the

6=0;

:.

p=
.'.

-.

## If the origin be the given point, #1

and y^

There
to

is another way of obtaining the expression for p. 6 applies to all points in ax Since the equation y

Q, where

and

= C O B, + M D or y, cuts COB; M Q = a ^ + Now D O = D Q sin. D Q O, MQ=y ax but DQ = D M = sin. CQM = cos. Q C M = sin. DQO sec. Q C M
/.
6.
l

it

must

6,

## PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT LINES.

1

29

+
.*.

(tan.

QCM)
p

DO

or

yi =y
l

ax
-

VI +

-=
b

a
t

r.

or

=,

if

D was

below the

line.

E had been drawn making a given angle whose tan49. If the line ft with the given line C O, the distance might be found for instead of equation (2) we shall have
gent was

DO

(46):
hence, following the

same

steps as above,

we

shall find

This expression

is

Let y

sin.

DO
6
'

a -T!
\/l

50.

The equation

may
:

## be used with advantage in the

demonstration of the following theorem If from the angles of a plane triangle perpendiculars be let fall

on the opposite

sides,

these per-

B
A,

D,

B and C on

let

BD
be

that

A F.
of y.

Let

,

a?,

to

AC y~
- y, =

x (41)

to

D, y
C, y

= a (x - ay) =
(x

(x- *8 ) (47)

to

B
y

- *,)

(-11)

or

30

.'.

to

A E,

=
f

ax

=
.

X,

tfo

## for the intersection

O of B D and A E
Xi

we have, by equating
Xi

the values of y,

X\$

.*.

xl

j?t

*a =: x^x

iT 8

x\

.".

x^x

Xi

X 3 and x

j^,

the abscissa of the point is found to be that of C. In the same manner it may be proved that if perpendiculars be from the bisections of the sides, they will meet in one point.
that
is,

drawn

Similarly
in the

ABC.

we may prove that the three straight lines F C, KB, and A L, 47th preposition of Euclid, meet in one point within the triangle

have hitherto considered the axes as rectangular, but if they be 51. oblique, the coefficient of x, in the equation to a straight line, is not the tangent of the angle which the line makes with the axis of x. the angle between the axes, Let a)

We

then

sin. (<i> x 0) b remains, as before, the distance of the origin from the intersection of the line with the axis ofy: hence the equation to a straight line referred to

the line

axis of

(33);

oblique axes

is

sin.

is

of the form

= ax +

b all

## preceding articles which do

equally true

riot affect

the ratio

of -

sin. (u>

-- -6)

will

be

Thus,

To

the axes are oblique. and 44, require no modification. find the tangent (/3) of the angle between two given straight lines.
articles 40, 41, 42, 43,

when

Le '
from a

=
1

sin.
-

sin.
<x

tan.

6'=

- -f

(w
, '

a>

we have
hence

tan. 6

0)

1-f-

a
sin.

a cos. w

and,
(ex

similarly,

sin.

ft

a') sin.

w w

tan.

-f-

cos.

(0-0')=

At

line.

To
Xi

## through a given point

y l\$ and making
Let
/3

a given angle with a given straight be the tangent of the given angle,

y
y

a.

+
o>

6,

y l z: a' (#

cos.

line.

From

f

we have
a
sin.
/3

(!-{-

w)

w)

## and the required equation is a sin.

ti>

(3

(l+a

cos. w)

OBLIQUE CO-ORDINATES.
If the lines be perpendicular to each other
,

31

(3

==
fa>

1-fof COS.

a + cos.

o>

is

1+ct
or

cos.

o> o>

+cos.

To

## from a given point upon a given

straight line.

Instead of equation (2), in article 48, we must use the equation just found, and then proceeding as usual we shall find

sn,

~
It will be concluded from an observation of these formulas, that oblique axes are to be avoided as much as possible ; they may be used with adwhere points and lines, but not vantage angles, are the subjects of discussion. As an instance, we shall take the following theorem. 52. If, upon the sides of a triangle as diagonals, parallelograms be described, having their sides parallel to two given lines, the other diagonals of the parallelograms will intersect each other in the same point. Let B C be the triangle, A X, A G, the given lines, E B C, C

AY

HA IB
will

D E, F G,

and

HI

jc l

AY

## the oblique axes

the co-ordinates of

To

## find the equation to

let it

DE
be y

ax

y2
.*-

=
-

ax
y*
V*

+ +

&
6 at
<*

D
*i)

y
2/i

O-

Oa-^i)
l)

at

E
(1)

...

y -yt

= ^Ll-(a-*

,12

TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES.
find the equation to

To

F G;

= ax + b + 6 at F y^ = - y* = * y = a* at G
y
3/ 2

a?,

To

H
y

j;

y,=

+
?/!

6 at 11

jr t

at I

in (1)

## and (2) we find

X=

also equating the values ofy in (2) and (3) we find the same value for ; hence the abscissa for intersection being the same for any two of the lines, they must all three intersect in the same point.

## Similarly we straight lines be

may prove
drawn
to

that if from the angles of a plane triangle the bisections of the opposite sides, they will

meet

in

one

point.

CHAPTER

IV.

## THE TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES.

it is

Before we proceed to the discussion of equations of higher orders, necessary to investigate a method for changing the position of the coordinate axes. The object is to place the axes in such a manner that the equation to a given curve may appear in its most simple form, and conversely by the introduction of indeterminate constants into an equation to reduce the number of terms, so that the form and properties of the corresponding locus may be most easily detected. An alteration of this nature cannot in the least change the form of the curve, but only the algebraical manner of representing it; thus the general equation to the straight line y ax when the origin is on a x -\- b becomes y the line itself. Also on examining articles 46 and 51 we see that the simplicity of an equation depends very much on the angle between the axes.
53.

TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES.
Hence
in

33

many

## tion of the axes

cases not only the position of the origin but also the direcmay be altered with advantage. The method of perform-

ing these operations is called the transformation of co-ordinates. 54. To transform an equation referred to an origin A, to an equation referred to another origin A', the axes in the latter case being parallel to those in the former.

Let

## A x, A y be the original axes A'X, A'Y the new axes

~
-j
T>J

x
\

original co-ordinates of

IT

~ Yi new co or di n ates of P

then

To

A[

## tne co-ordinates of the

is,

new y
#

origin

A',

== b

tf

+ Y, +X

substituting these values for y and x in the equation to the curve, we have and referred to the origin A' the transformed equation between

transform the equation referred to oblique axes, to an equauon referred to other oblique axes having the same origin.
55.

Let

A x, A y
AX,
jjLp
A
TVT

## be the original axes,

be the

AY
2
-*-*

new

axes,

original -jo-ordinates of P.

^ p T V^>

"V

new

co-ordinates of

34

TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES.
Let the angle #

Draw
theny

= MP = MQ

NR

Ay

parallel to

w,
j?
;

P M, and

sin.ANR
sin.

sin

NPQ
NQP
0')

ARN
0)
{<>

H
sin.

sin.

(w
sin.

sin. (a;
sin.

sin.

+Y
sin.
d)

sin. 0'

X
56.

sin.

(o>

0) -f
sin.

Y
w

sin.

(QJ

&

original
= X

axes be
sin.

oblique,

## and the new rectangular, or

-f
sin.

Y
w
0)

cos.

.'

X sin.
57.
/.

(q>

Y
(-)

cos,

(a;

0)

sin.

Let the original axes be rectangular, or w x X cos. e + Y cos. Let both systems be rectangular, or w
/.

= X sin.

= 90.
and
Q'

-f

sin. 0',
0'

58.

## =X + Y cos. x = X cos. Y sin.

y
sin."

= 90
0,

= 90

59. These forms have been deduced from the first, but each of them may be found by a separate process. The first and last pairs are the most useful. Perhaps they may be best remembered if expressed in the following manner. Both systems oblique, the formulas (55) become

{X

sin.

X A* + Y

sin.

Y \x\ J

i-

sm.

xAy

x=
Both systems

{Xsin.

J

## rectangular, the formulas (58)

y
x

= X cos. X A x -f Y cos. Y A

cos.

XAy

-f

Y cos. Y

^r sin. x \y become Ay
a?.

If the situation of the origin be changed as well as the direction of the axes, we have only to add the quantities a and 6 to the values of x and y however, in such a case, it is most convenient to perform respectively
;

## each transformation separately.

If the new axis of falls below the original axis of x, the an^le must be considered as negative, therefore its sine will be negative and its cosine Hence the formulas of transformation will require a slight alpositive.
teration before applied to this particular case.

TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES.
Since the values of x and y are in all cases expressed by equations of the order, the degree of an equation is never changed by the transformation of co-ordinates. 60. Hitherto we have determined the situation of a point in a plane by its distance from two axes, but there is also another method of much use. Let S be a fixed point, and S B a fixed straight line ; then the point P is also evidently determined if we know the length S P and the angle P S B. If S P =. r and P S B 0, r and 9 are called the polar co-ordinates of P. S is called the pole, and SP the radius vector, because a curve may be supposed to be described by the extremity of the line S P revolving round S, the length of S P being variable. The fixed straight line S B is
first

Draw S

into another

YAX

D
10.

parallel to

A X,

angle

BS D

= 0,

Let

AM

C S

=
(0

6,

+r

sin,

0)

y=b
x

sin. sin.
sin.

w
(w

=a+
w

a)

0)

sin.

## 61. Let the original axes be also

rectangular, or
.-.

7T
;

y=6+rsin.0J x = a+ rcos. 0J
the origin

(3)

and

if

v x

= r sin. = r cos.

and

6=0.

Of

in

terms of

a?

and y:
,n

## from (1) we have a x sin.jw

,

. b

(0+0)1
.

ta sin. (9

JV = sm + 0)

wcot

(e

0)-cos. u;

L^

:.

tan. (0 -f 0)

=
x
1

(y

I) sin.

01

(y
(y

6) cos.

0= tan.'
1

6) sin.

w w

-f (y
to

6) cos. wj

where the symbol tan." a is equivalent whose radius is unity, and tangent a."
also r2

the words

"a

circular arc

(x

a)

(y

by*

-f 2 (x

a) (y

6) cos. w.

(30)

36

TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES.
63.
If the axes are rectangular, or

=
= 0,
y

the pole

at.

therefore a
therefore

and

= 0,
6

and also

we have

tan. 0,

and

and

r'

= =

tan.

- 1

x
x*

(29)

From

tan.

0=
sin.

y -

we have

cos.

^Y+^^i T VTT~F
/ .
;

!_

1
=

and
tf

= cos.

tan.

may

or

cos.

CHAPTER

V.

ON THE CIRCLE.
64.

FOLLOWING

## the order of this treatise, our next subject of discussion

would be the loci of the general equation of the second degree ; but there is one curve among these loci, remarkable for the facility of its description and the simplicity of its equation this curve, we need scarcely say, is the circle; and as the discussion of the circle is admirably fitted to prepare the reader for other investigations, we proceed to examine its analytical cha:

racter.

The common definition of the circle states, that the distance of any point on the circumference of the figure from the centre is equal to a given
line called the radius.

If a and 6 be the co-ordinates of the centre, x and y those of any point on the circumference, and r the radius, the distance between those points hence the equation to the circle is b Y + (* is )* } ( 29 ) { (y

XJ

65.

To

obtain this equation directly from the figure, be the origin, let

A A X, A Y the
IN

rectangular axes,

## KT>X~~ 'Hthe co-ordinates of the centre,

= 6J

THE CIRCLE.

37

M p^ v
BOQC
to the axis of x.

## those of any point

on the circumference

a line parallel
the

Then

square upon

upon

OQ,
also

OQ=AM-AN=*
(y6)2

a;
(1)

or

a)

## passes through the centre, the equation (1)

If the axis

ofx or

that of

becomes

respectively

If the origin be at any point of the circumference as E, we have then 2 the equation of condition 2 6 2 =: r ; expanding (1) and reducing it by means of this condition, we have

If the origin

is

at

B, B
or

O
'

* 2 y H~ x

2rx
*

2rx
*

we have

=0

and

ar
;

x* (4).

...

at the centre

y*
all

and
(5).

+X =r

O, we have

6=0 and

are

## (5 ). useful, but those most required are (1), (4),

66. Equation (1), if expanded, is 2 r2 62 0. r2 2 6y a2 2 ax 2/ This differs from the complete equation of the second order ('23) in z having the coefficients of a? and y unity, and by having no term containing

the product x y. Any equation of this form being given, we can, by comparing it with the above equation, determine the situation of its locus, that is, find the position of the centre, and the magnitude of the corresponding circle.

Ex.

1.

y
here b

j;

+
a

2,

= 4,
9

8x and
6*

0.

<z

-+ 6

r2

= -

/. 7*

=a +

25.

38

THE CIRCLE.
Let
In

perpendicular but downwards, and equal to 2 then O is the centre of the circle. With centre O and radius 5 describe a circle; this is the locus required. The points where it cuts the axis of x are determined by putting y ;
to

A be the origin of co-ordinates, AX, A Y the axes. AX take AN = 4 times the linear unit, from N draw NO
;

A X,

.-.*- 8*
.'.

= 0;
=
4

x
-j-

4
1

hence

AB=

V2
find

N/1T; and A C

\/~2L

Similarly putting x
67.

0,

we
(x

2

=
7'

and

AE
is

5.

The

shortest

## into the form (y

- 6) 2
3

way of describing

the locus

9.

For example,

the equation

x-

cy

+ dx +

0,

c2

d8 and
o
8
,

c
8

d*

d*

where we observe
centre,

directly that

-- and -2
&
is

and
2.

that

]
3/

{
8

--- e}
+
4i/

Ex.

+
+

*8

JF

4#-8 =
2

8,
2/

4.4 2/ +
2

or (y

2)

is

l

2,

and the

4.

Ex.3.
4.

3/*

5.

## = r= N /J= 3, r = 4. + 0; a=-2, 6y + 4,r = - --, 6 = -, ^ = T' 63/ +6T -21 /-8 r + 14 = 0; o 4 1*

2/

+ 2^-4 /-4
2

r-fl=:03

1,

ft

1,

fi

6. 7.

+^+
2

43/

- 3^=0;

-|,

6=
6

-2,

2/M-^
last

4y+2j:

0;
is

rr-l,

= 2,

= |-r= \/"57
r

to calculate the length of the radius, for the circumference of the circle passes through the origin of co-ordinates, as do the loci of all equations which want the last or constant term.
8.

In these

## two examples there

no occasion

if

9.

10.

y a y

+ +
4-

a?

x2
*

- 6*

6x

= 0; =

= 0, b ~ 2, r = = - 3, b 0, r = 3. + 8 = 0; a- 3, 6 = 0, r=
;

a a

2.

1.

In th

last three

## examples the centre of the circle

is

on the axes.

THE CIRCLE.

39

68. We have seen that the equation to the circle referred to rectangular axes does not contain the product xy, and also that the coefficients of y* and xz are each unity ; we have, moreover, seen that generally an equation of the second degree of this form has a circle for its locus, but there are

## some exceptions to this last rule. For example, the equation y8

2
<r

Sy

12 x

4-

52

is

is not a circle, apparently of the circular form ; its locus, however, 6 and y but a point whose co ordinates are x 4, for it may be put 2 2 under the form (y 4) -f- (x 6) =: 0, the only real solution of which 4 ; and this will always be the case when r2 is x 6 and y 0, hence a point may be considered as a circle whose radius is indefinitely small.

9 x* 0, may be put under Again, the equation y 4y -f 2# 2 8 the form (y 4 ; but there are no possible values of 2) + {x -j- I) x and y that can satisfy this equation, therefore the locus is imaginary. (24).

69.

To

at the centre,

## Let the origin of co-ordinates be

the circumference.

and

x', y'

any point on

Then

*/,

y' is

y -

y' = a (x

x')

x', y' is

y> -

xf

## but the tangent being perpendicular to the radius,

we have ex

--

(47.)

'

y'*~

r
2

xx'
.

=
The equation yy
1

thus found, may be easily remembered, from the similarity of its form to that of the equation to the circle, it x* r2 by changing i/ 2 or yy into y y' being obtained at once from y* and x* or x x into x x'.
x'
,

=r?

If

we take

is

6)

8
-f-

(x

8 a)* =: r ,

il'-b

= -+

y^

## and the equation

to the tangent is

70.

=r

To

straight line.

+ b be + xx'=r
j?

## the given line, the required tangent, in which

#',

f y are unknown.

40

THE CIRCLE.
Since these lines are parallel,

-y

"'

Hence by

=
*;

x
y

* H

-r

we have

71.

To

## find the intersection of a straight line

and

circle

Let the centre of the circle be the common origin, and let the equations 2 r2 ; at the point of intersection, y and x must be y a.r + 6, and y 2 + r x* x + &), be the same for both. r2 (

whence

.r

-6V{r (l+
8

)-6
;

a-

there being two values of x, we have two intersections be constructed, and the points of intersection found.

these values

may
will

circle.

the
1

a 8)
is less

line

If

## than 6* the line will not meet the

Ex
Ex.

1.

J
-f-

** =r 25,

2. 3.

y
y
2

x*
8
a?

Ex.

-f

= = 25

y
?/

*
ar

x
j?

=
-

4 and
5 and
line

2t>,

-3, y 0, y

==

3 and 4

and 5

4y

-f So, =-

25

The

touches the

circle.

may observe that the coirbh ation of an equation of the first order with any equation of two dimensions will, as above, give an equation of and hence there can be only two intersecthe second order for solution tions of their loci.
;

We

72. If the axes be oblique and inclined to each other at an angle equation to the circle is

o>,

the

and j/ 2 hence
circle

_ 6) 4. (^ __ a y + 2 (y - 6) (x a) cos. = r + x* + '2xy cos. w = r, if the origin be at the centre the equation y + cxy + a? + dy + # + f 0, belongs
2

u>

(30)
to the

in

cosine

-.

is

one whose

Comparing
2a

it

2 cos. w

## with the general equation to the circle, 2 o cos. w 26 c,

we
rf,

find

2 6 cos. w r=

<?,

o8
a

whence, by elimination,

we

obtain

= -2e d

6*

2a 6
erf

cos.

=-

w -

= /;
ce.
,

2 d
^

and

ce.d
:

-e*

^_4

nee the co-ordinates of the centre and the radius being known, the s can be drawn. 1 =-. x Ex. 1. ; y xy -f- * y 1 ; .-. w 2 cos. u 60; hence this equation will give a circle if

+ +

THE CIRCLE.
the axes be inclined at an angle of

a =:

11 -,

4,

60;

= =

2
-

The equation

to this circle,
is

when
8

## referred to the centre as origin, and

to rectangular axes,

obviously y
2
,z

x*

r*

4
.

Ex.
This
centre

2.

8
2/

+ \/T.*2/ +
a circle
if

-9 = 0.

will give
is at

45,

the

Of

must be

to,

or greater than,

i 2,

for cos.

is

y'-b
x
f

-O
a
b)

a) ____ (41)
is
.

## and the equation

to the

tangent

,.

(y'

(x'

a) cos. w

and reducing as in article 69 we have the equation to the tangent / - b} - &) + (x a) -f (x (y 6) cos. w + (y/ (y' a) (x a) (y r\ 6) cos. w (y

73.

To

## find the polar equation to

the circle.

Let the pole be at the origin S, and the angle P S (= 0) be measured from the axis of x.

Let and

^P = } be S N = a

octangular co-ordinates of

N0=

6
c,

SO =

y=u
tf

sin. 0,

=
2

cos.a, and

a=c
6

6=c

sin. a.

y +
*

2by - 2 ax
8

a*

+
~

= 0,
cos.

we have
?/

(sin. 0)

-|-

w2
c

(cos. 0)
2

2 cu
c
2

sin.

sin.
2

2cu
r*

cos.

-f

(cos.
{

+
sin.

(sin.

=
}

0,

or

z/*

2cw
or

sin.

cos

cos.
o
2

0,

uz

-2cu cos.
is

- *) + (0

- r*

=
a

0.

74.
c

If
.

a and - 2

and

{

cos.
}

6 sin.

-f

-f

a2

r2

= 0.

42

## DISCUSSION OF THE EQUATION OF

we have a8
0)

If the origin be on the circumference fore the equation to the circle becomes
If the axis of

6*

=r

2
,

and

there-

= 0, = 0.

2

is

Whence u

=a

cos.

db

Vr2

(sin.0)

O.

CHAPTER

VI.

75.

THE most
a, 6,
c,

2
.r

is

ay+ bxy + c
where

+ dy +

ex

+/=
to

## Let the equation be solved with respect

y
J;

=" =

~~

y and x

separately, then

_^|fJ-7{(6

_4ac)

3/

+2(6 '-2crf)+
<

- 4

/}

(2).

account of the double sign of the root in (1), there are, in general, two values of y; hence there are two ordinates corresponding to the same abscissa: these ordinates maybe constructed whenever the values of x render the radical quantity real but if these values render it nothing, there is only one ordinate, and if they make it imaginary, no corresponding ordinate can be drawn, and therefore there is no point of the curve correHence, to know the extent ;md limits of sponding to such a value of x. the curve, we must examine when the quantity under the root is real,
;

On

nothing, or imaginary.

This

will

(b*

## depend on the algebraical sign of the quantity 4a c) a; 8 + 2 (6 d - 2 a e) x + d2 - 4 af

In an expression of this form, a value may be given to ar, so large that the sign of the whole quantity depends only upon that of its first term, or 4 ac, since x* is always positive for any upon that of its coefficient b* real value of x.
For, writing the expression in the form

m (x* +

x
w,

+ m )leto be the

stitutinp r

and
tn

then sub-

(q

1) for

or,

the expression

becomes

1

43

m m
and

>

true for any

m
r
;

is

positive,

...

is

## hence the sign

of the ex-

When tf is negative, real values may be given to x, either positive or negative, greater than rt r, which will render y imaginary. The curve will then be limited in both the positive and negative directions of
or.

4c

When

&

4 a c

is

positive,

all

## render y real, and therefore the curve tions of x.

Lastly,

values of x not less than r will is of infinite extent in both directhe quantity

when

is

nothing,

## under the root

becomes
2
If b

(bd-2ae)

4af.

2 a e be positive, real positive values may be given to #, which shall render y real ; but if a negative value be given to x greater
than
rW
(
.

CL

"

"

Ct

6)

is

imaginary

direction.

## x positive and limited

the opposite

But
that
is,

if

2ae be negative, exactly opposite results will follow, bd the curve will be of indefinite extent in the direction of x negative
in the opposite direction,

and limited

## find similar results.

curves corresponding to the equation of the second degree, therefore be divided into three distinct classes.
1.

The

may

b* b*

2.
3.

4ac

2

but unli-

4 a c negative.

b2

4 ac

and

let

jc l

## and xz be the roots of the equation _ 4 a C) x* + 2 (b d - 2 a e) x (&*

b'>{
I

d*

af=

0.

Then

equation (1) or

b*+d_ + ~~
2a

4ac
2

(x

bd
2
6
2

-2ae
4 ac

x+

*
b*

becomes by substitution

b*

_ 4ac

NEOATIVK.

Let Let
one of

A be the origin of co-ordinates, AX, AY the oblique axes. H H' be the line represented by the equation y = a x -f
its

I,

MO
*i)

line

x between x and
l

ora .

Along the
(j?
o*8 )},

MO

take

OP

and
,r

O P'
/

each equal to
(*-.TI) (a?-*,)

/*

(*

then

## MP = MO + OP = a + + MP'=MO - OP'=ax + lline

VJ-fi </{-p

(*-*>)
2

O-* )}
render
bisects
all

If we repeat this construction for all the real values of x which the root real we obtain the different points of the curve.

The
chords

H'

is

P P'

which are

## called a diameter of the curve, for parallel to the axis ofy.

it

the

The reality oi'y depends on the reality of the radical quantity, which last jr 2 depends on the form of the factors (x x^ and (x ), that is, on the roots *i and xz Now these may enter the equation in three forms real and unequal real and equal or both imaginary.
.

Case 1. Let x and xy be real and unequal, take A B j? a , x it A B' then if x x l or x* the quantity vanishes, and the orx^ yii (x dinate to the curve coincides with the crdinate to the diameter, therefore the and B' 11' parallel to drawing through B and B' two lines B curve cuts the diameter in and R'.

(xx^

AY

x
(x

For x
For

all
l

values of x between
positive

is

and x

x and xa there are two real values of y, for xs is negative, and therefore p. (x xj
l

J? 2

) is positive.

all values of x xz or j^, p (j?-^) (x xs ) is negative, the root being impossible cannot be constructed, hence there is no real value of y corresponding to such values of x, and therefore the curve is entirely confined between the two lines and B' R'.

>

<

BR

line

Similarly by taking equation (2) in (75), Q Q' is a diameter ; that the curve cuts
lines parallel

we
it

shall

in

drawing

to

AX

is

:

through

## and Q' the curve

confined

between those

parallels.

have thus determined that the curve exists and only exists between certain parallel lines its form is not yet asceitained. We might by giving

We

ac NEGATIVE.
l

45

a variety of values to x between x and ,r a determine a variety of points P, Q, &c., and thus arrive at a tolerably exact idea of its course, but independently of this method, its form cannot much differ from that in the figure, for supposing- it to be such as in fig. (2) a straight line could be drawn cutting it in more points than two which is impossible (71).

is

## called the Ellipse.

If we require the points where the curve cuts 0, then the X, put y roots of the equation co? 2 -f ex are the abscissas of the points of intersection, and the curve will cut the axis in two points, touch it in one, or never meet it, according as these roots are real and unequal, real and

+f

equal, or imaginary. Similarly putting where the curve meets the axis of y.

we

if

any,

Case

2.

Let the

roots
.*.

x and x a be
l

real

and equal,

a x

-f- /

which

is

are Xi

=
+

(x

- x^

^-

IJL

## x^ therefore the locus

is

the poin
.

whose co-ordinates
Case
x
to
3.
l

and ocx

-2ae-bd
t,

or
b
'-

and

Zed-be
b*

4 ac
real value

4 a c

(x
1

can be given to

make

x^)

(x

x^)

negative,
*J
1

for

the

## roots are of the form

p
p* of x.
-\-

x (# #0 (x-xj) 2px (x db/?) (jalways positive for a real value <f Hence in this case the radical quantity being impossible there is no
<i

V-

and
2

/.

which quantity

is

locus.

have not examined the equation of # in terms of y at length, for the dependent on those of the former. By comparing equations (1) and (2) in (75), we soe that c stands in one equation where
results of the latter are

We

a stands

in the other, and therefore that the radical quantities are contemporaneously possible, equal, or impossible, provided that a and c have the same sign, which is the case when b* 4ac is negative.

y= x - afy + v

l7

V - fjf(y-yd
{

(y-jfi)}

## there are then three cases.

Case 1. #! and xz real and unequal. The locus is called an ellipse, its boundaries are determined from x^ xz y^ and y2 its diameters are drawn from y / and x ax a' y + V, and its intersections with the axes in the original equation. found by putting x and y successively ==
,
,

Case

2.
3.

j^
l

and xt

real

and equal

the locus

is

a point.

Case

Ex.

1.

1.

Fig

1.

A B = 2, A B'=
Ex.
2. y*

4,

AC
x*

=4y

s/T,

+ xy

4-

The curve
A

C'=
These

].

'7

and

2 '7 nearly;

determine

its

course.

46

IP

ac POSITIVE.
=r 0.

Ex. Ex.

3.

+
-

2xy

8
.r

j?

Case

1.

4. y*
5.

Ex.
Ex.
Ex.

6.

2 2
JT

2jr2/+2tf

2?y

+2;r=0.

Case
1.

1.

19

=
0.

0.

Case
3.

2.

The

in-

## tersection of the diatneters in

7.
2
j/

Ex.
2
?/

1.

4 T

-f-

2
,r

j?

Case

be observed that no accurate form of the curve is here found, that will be hereafter ascertained, all that we can at present do, is to obtain an idea of the situation of the locus.
It is to

77.

Second

class, b*

4 a c positive.

in (76) the

equation becomes
=. a x

Let

Let
jr t
;

is

I.

Then as
Case
1.

## before there are three forms of the roots x^ and

xa

and

r2 be real

draw

R,

B'R

parallel to

and unequal, let A B =: a^and AY, the curve meets the diameter

A B'
in

jr

a,

and

1.

B'

R'.

The
real

T2 but

radical quantity is imaginary for all values of x beyond these limits, hence no part of the curve

l

pnrallels

B R,

it

## extends to infinity beyond them.

ft

4ac

POSITIVE.

47

for x in terms of y, we may draw the diameter determine the lines C Q, C' Q' parallel to A between which no part of the curve is found, and beyond which x is always possible. From this examination it results that the form of the locus must be something like that in fig-. I, consisting of two opposite arcs with branches pro-

## Taking the equation

QQ' and

ceeding to infinity. This curve is called the Hyperbola. We must observe that the second diameter does not necessarily meet the curve, for the contemporaneous possibility or impossibility of the radical quantities depends on the signs of a and c, and these may be different in
the hyperbola
;

real

may have

possible

and the

Case

2. x^

and xt

and equal.
I

y
this is the

= a x -f

(x
lines.

#,)

Vju

l

Case

## radical quantity Also since p (x

x and xz imaginary ; whatever real values be given to x the is real, and therefore there must be four infi'nite branches. xj (x xs can never vanish, (76, Case 3.) the diameter H' never meets the curve, but we may draw the other diameter as in
3.
~)

## the first case.

If neither diameter meets the curve, yet they will at least determine where the curve does not pass, we must then find the intersections with

the axes.

mine the

it

to the
(j?

forms

+ x-a'y +
ax

I
l'

J2)}

(7/-y2 )}

## there are then three cases.

Case 1. x l and xz real and unequal. The locus is an hyperbola, its boundaries determined from x v #2 y and ?/2 tne diameters are drawn from / and x =z a! ax y y + V, and its intersections with the axes found by putting x and y separately equal nothing. Case 2. and <r2 real and equal. The locus consists of two straight lines which intersect each other. Case 3. x\ and xa impossible. The locus is an hyperbola, draw the

if

Ex.

1.

- 3xy +
to the

xz

0.

Case

Fig.

1.

The

origin being

The equations

AB =

92
5

diameters are

and y

A B'=
v
5

## 2 AC'= ~-= AC = V 5' V5

Case 1. The two diameters pass 0. 2 2 xy x* Ex. 2. y* through the origin and make an angle of 45 with the axes, the second 1 and A B the curve inter1 Q Q' never meets the curve, A B'

at distances

2.

48

- 4ac

=
4

0.

## Ex.3. Ex.4. Ex.5.

4y
y

y- 4xy - 8a5j?
e

- txy -3x* + %y +
8
2

Qxy

+
+
y

- 2y + 40* - 26=
2,r
1

16

0.

= 0.

0.

Case Case
2.
j?

1.
1.

Case

The

to

y
Ex.
6.
2/2

## the two straight 2 -r - 1=0.

lines

are

=
2.

equations
0,

and

+
-

3 jry
4

2 i8
<r

Ex.7. Ex.8.

y~
8

2/

jy + 3xy

-f

10*

2 y -f 3 or -f 1 - 10 0.

= 0.

Case

2.

+i +

+x=
-

0.

## Case 3. Fig. Case 3. Fig. 3.

Here neither diameter meets the curve ; but the curve passes through the origin and cuts the axis of a? at a distance 1, and that of y also at 1. a distance x* - 2 y 5 x 3 0. Ex. 9. y* Case 3. The diameters are parallel to the axes, but the curve never meets that

is

=
Class,

Ex.

10.

a*

= 0.
Third

Case

3.

78.

b*

= 0.

Let

2a

d _ ._

r>d

2ae
2 a2

2a

And

let

a: 1

af=z

0.

The
Let

locus of

## v be positive, then if x=x the root vanishes ; or if A B rr x

ax

\-

is

a diameter
l

H' as

before.

/v

and B R be drawn parallel to A Y, the curve cuts the diameter in R. As x increases from x to
l

increases to OD, hence there are two arcs R Q, Q' extending to infinity. If x be less than xlt y is impossible, or no part of the curve
GO,

extends to the negative side of B. __^ A x Let v be negative, then the results are contrary, and the curve only extends on the negative side of B ; this case is represented by the dotted curve. This curve is called the Parabola.

d*

and the locus consists of two parallel straight lines ; and, according as 4 a/is positive, nothing, or negative, these lines are both real, or
unite into one, or are both imaginary. In discussing a particular example, reduce
it

to the

form

ax

J{v

(-T-J?,)}

THE CENTRE.
Case
1.

49

## the diameter meter.

v positive or negative. The locus is called a parabola; draw and find the points where the curve cuts the axes and diav

Case

2.

0.

The
is

## locus consists of two parallel straight lines, or

one straight

Ex.1.

Ex.2.
Ex.3.
Ex.
Ex.
4. 5.

Ex.

6.

y*-2xy + x *-2y - \ - 0. Case 1. 2xy + 2 - 2y - 2,r= 0. Case 1. Case 1. y* + 2xy + x* + 2y + x + 3 = 0. y 2xy + x* - 1 = 0. Case 2. Two parallel straight lines. ~ 2x y + x* + 2 y - 2 x+ 1=0. Case 2. One straight line. y* Case 2. Imaginary locus. y* + 2xy + x* + 1 = 0.
2/2
,r

line,

or

imaginary.

79. Before we leave this subject, it may be useful to recapitulate the results obtained from the investigation of the general equation

ay*
If
b*

+ bxy +

ex*

+ dy

-4-

ex

+ /=:
fol-

4ac
varieties

:

is

lowing
1.

=
d

o,

and

circle.

(72.)
(b

2.
3.

2 a e)-

(6

4 a c) (d a
(&*

a/).
(d
3

Locus

a point.

(bd

2ffp)

less

than

4c)
is

4 a/).

Locus ima-

ginary.

If& 2
variety.
1.

a

(bd

- 2e)
%

=
a
c

(62

ac) (d

4 a/).

Locus two

straight

lines.

1.

= 0,

the locus

is

2.
3.

bd bd
b

2 ae z= 0.

Locus two
and d z
4
less

## parallel straignt lines.

0.

2oe = 0,
2

in

Locus imaginary. another relation between the coefficients would be obtained Apparently each variety, by taking the equation of x in terms of y; but on exathan 4 a/.
is

ae

= 0,

o/=

Locus one

straight line.

and d2

mination, it will be found that in each case the last relation the former.

involved in

50

CHAPTER

VII

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND ORDER

80. IN order to investigate the properties of lines of the second order more conveniently, we proceed to reduce the general equation to a more

simple form, which will be effected by the transformation of Taking the formulas in (54.)

co-ordinates.

y
and substituting
a(y'
(*'

=. y'

n,

and x

= tf + m
we have
c(,r'

in the

general equation,

n)

6 (*>

m)

(y' -f-

+ m) +
1

(y'

M)

+
+

m)

+/=0;
b x' y' + c x'* + (2 a n + b m + d) y' + + bmn + cm* + dn + emf=Q.

or arranging

ay'*
of

+
8 7i

(2 c

m+

ft

e)

at liberty to
last

As we have introduced two indeterminate quantities, m and ??, we make two hypotheses respecting the new co-efficients in
equation
/.
;

are the

let,

and

y' each

2 an
find

-f

0,

and

whence we

by elimination,

-2<ze
62

2c7/i+6;t

+ e=0;
62

-4ac'

and n

= 2cd-be
4
c

0.

tion,

may be

## obtained from the equa-

or, since

2 a n

+ m -f- d =
ft

0,

and

2cm +

6n-f-e

0,

Multiply the first of these two equations by n t and, adding the results, we have

m;

dn + em =0;
. .

7i

+
^
<

71

-j-

m =
8

d n

-f

em
;

hence /'

d n

-f-

em
-r-dn -fern

+/=
n,

dn + em +/, J
<&

which,

m
-

and
4

becomes

_
is

+
b*

c d*

ac
a*

'

The reduced

equation

6 x' y'

ay" +

/'

0.

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

point A, which is the the centre of the curve, because
81.

51
is

The

new

origin

of co-ordinates,

called

## every chord passing through

bisected in that point.

it

is

AMP,

every point P in the curve, whose co-ordinates are x and y, there, is another point P', whose co-ordinates are x and y, or A M' and M' P' hence, by comparing the right angled triangles, AM' P', we see that the
for
;

For the last equation remains the same when x and y are substituted for + x and -f y hence,
:

## vertical angles at therefore, the line

of

Whenever, x and
its

straight line bisected in A. therefore, the equation remains the same on the substitution x and -f- y respectively, it belongs to a locus y for

## A are equal, P A P' is a

and

referred to

centre.

If the equation be of an even order, this condition will be satisfied if the sum of the exponents of the variables in every term be even ; thus, in the general equation of the second order, a y 2 6 xy c j2 dy e x -\the sum of the exponents in each of the three first terms 0, is 2, and in the two next terms is 1 changing the signs of x and y, the or for one point P, there is not equation does not remain the same another point P' opposite and similarly situated with respect to the origin ; But the equation ay* hence that origin is not the centre of the curve. b x y c x* 0, refers just as much to the point P' as to P, and thus the origin is here the centre of the curve. If the equation be of an odd order, the sum of the exponents in each term must be odd, and the constant term also must vanish; for if both these conditions are not fulfilled, the equation would be totally altered by x and x and putting y respectively. Therefore a locus y for may be referred to a centre if it be expressed by an equation which, by transformation, can be brought under either of the two following condi-

+f

tions

(1) Where the sum of the indices of every term is even, whether there be a constant or not, as a y 2 -f- b x y c x* 0. (2) Where the sum of the indices in every term is odd, and there is no 0. constant term, as a y 3 + b x y* c x* y -f- d x3 -j- e y Now it has been stated (59) that no equation can be so transformed that the new equation shall be of a lower or higher degree than the ori-

+/=

+fx =

Hence, if the original equation be of an even degree, the ginal one. transformed equation will be so too, and the locus can be transferred to a centre only where the equation can be brought under the first condition ; but if the original equation be of an odd degree, the transformed equation also will be of an odd degree, and the locus can only be transferred to a centre when the equation can be brought under the second condition. Hence we have a test, whether a locus with a given equation can be referred to a centre or not. If the axes can be transferred so that (1) The original equation being of an even degree, the co-efficients of all the terms, the sum of whose exponents is odd, vanish. (2) The original equation being of an odd degree, the co-efficients of all the terms, the sum of whose

E2

52

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

exponents is even, and also the constant term, vanish, then the locus may be referred to a centre, and not otherwise. Now in the transformation which we effect by making y y' + w, and x' -\- m, we can destroy only two terms; we cannot therefore bring, x by any substitution, an equation of higher dimensions than the second under the necessary conditions, unless from some accidental relation of the original co-efficients of that equation. But in the case of equations of the second degree, we can always bring them under the first condition, unless the values of the indeterminate quantities, and n, are found to be impossible or infinite. In curves of the second order, we see that the values of and n are 2 4 a c real and finite, unless 6 ; consequently the ellipse and hyperbola have a centre and the parabola has not hence arises the division

of these curves into two classes, central and non-central. 4 a c b d In the case where 68 0, and at the same time 2 a e be vanish, the equation becomes that to a straight line, as or2cd nppears on inspecting the equations (1) and (2) in (75). should vanish, the equation beIf by the transformation the term c^2 comes of the form ay* + 6 x y 0; whence

f =
or
if

6
/v

/6

4#c

}-

;

is

reduced
is

to

two straight

lines
is

ac

## negative, the locus

may have their general equation still further reduced by causing the term containing the product of the variables to vanish, which is done by another transformation of co-ordinates. Taking
the formulas in (58) let

Let

y'
x'

=
==

x"
jf''

sin.

y"

cos. 0,
sin. 0,

cos. d

y"

## substituting in the equation

a(ar''sin.4+y 'cos 6}*
:.

+ f = 0, we have + b(x"in 4+y"cos.4)(V'cos t-y"s\n.6)-{ c(x"co*.6 -y'^m.^+f-Q 6 sin. e cos. + c (sin 0) + x"* {a (sin. 0) + y"* {a (cos. 0) b sin. 6 cos. + c (cos. 0)
a
y'*

b x' y'

ex'*

x'

y" (2 a

sin.

cos.

0+6
y"

(cos. 0)*

b (sin. 0) s

2 csin. 0cos. 0}

Let the
.'.

co-efficient of of'
cos.

== 0,

2 a

sin.

9 2

6 (cos. 0) 8

b (sin. 0)*
s

2 c

sin.
8

cos.
}

= 0,

or (a

c)

sin.

9 cos.
c)

.*.

(a -

## + 6 {(cos. 0) - (sin. 0) sin. 20+6 cos. 20 = 0:

.

=r 0,

and dividing by

cos.

20,

we have
tan.

20= ~a,

Here
one (58)
an angle
;

is

hence,

the angle which the new axis of x makes with the original if the original rectangular axes be transferred through
,

0,

## such that tan. 2 Q =:

the

transformed equation

will

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

referred to

53

have no term containing the product x" y", that is, the equation, when its new rectangular axes, will be reduced to the simple form
a'

y"*

c'*" 8

+/'

().

a tangent is capable of expressing ah values from to CD , positive or negative, it follows that the angle Q has always a real value, whatever be the values of #, 6, and c, and thus it is always possible to destroy the term containing xy. The values of sin. 2 Q and cos. 2 are thus obtained from that of tan. 2 ;
83.

As

V
And
Since

(tan. 2 0)

^
0. tan.

sin.

= cos. 2

20

=
V
(a

c)

6*

than 90, xand therefore sin. 2 positive, the sign of the radical quantity must be taken positive or negative, according as b is itself negative or positive. 84. To express the co-efficients a' and c' of the transformed equation in terms of the co-efficients in the original equation. Taking the expressions for the co-efficients in article (82) we have

must be

less

a'
c'

a (cos, 0) s a (sin. 0) 2
2

sin.

cos.

2 -f c (sin. 0)

+
2

b sin. Q cos.

c (cos. 0)

2
,

.'.

= =

(cos 0) }

(a

c) cos.

206
,

sin.

but cos.

20=

and

sin.

20

=
V(ab*

V(a-c) +
8

## hence substituting, we have

(a

c?
s

V (a

c)

+
c)

6
2

V (a -

(a

&8

or

a
a'

Also
/.

c/

c'

= =

V (a a
-j-

c)

ft

c,

a'
c'

= l {a + c = ^ {a + c
is

V(a-c) 2 +

68 .}

Hence

## the final equation

The upper or lower sign to be taken as the sign of 6 in the original equation

all
is

through

according

negative or positive

85.

Hitherto

in this

chapter

## we have been making

number of altera-

original equation: the following figures will show the corresponding alterations which have been made in the position of the curve. The ellipse is used in the figure, in preference to the hyperbola solely on account of its easier description.

tions in

the/orm of the

(,-!

Fig. 1. We have here the original position of the curve referred X and A Y, and the corresponding equation is angular axes

to rect-

Fig.
.

2.

The

origin

is

m=

4ac

and n

= 2cd-be
6s

## The new axes A' X' and A' Y'

equation to the curve
is

## are parallel to the former axes,

and the

ay'*

bx'y'

+ cx'*+f =

0.

Fig. 3. The origin remains at A', but the curve is referred to the new rectangular axes A' X" and A' Y", instead of the former ones A' X' and A' Y'. The axis A' X' has been transferred through an angle X' A' X" into the position A' X'', the angle X' A'X", or 0, being determined by the

equation tan.

26=:

## and the equation

to the

curve

is

now

a'y"*+
86. In the ellipse and hyperbola the word " axis" is used in a limited sense to signify that portion of the central rectangular axis which is

bounded by the

curve. the lengths of the axes, put x" and y" successively 0, we then obtain the points where the curve cuts the axes, or, in other words, we have the lengths of the semi-axes. In the equation

To

find

a'y*
Let y"
Let #"
In

cf

x* +/'
0,

0,

= =

0,

/.

c'

x"*

+f =

and

*''

= =
C

0,

.'.

a'

y"*

+f =

0, a-.I

-/'
a'

y"

fig.

AC
r

a', </,

^/

and A' B

putting for

and/',

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

of the original co-efficients (80, 84) we axes both comprehended in the formula,

55

<*

2__

a
Let the

(a

__ - +
c)

fa
\

+
62

c d*

de

6
1

4 ac
0,

equation

a' y"*

cf

x'

+ /'

Then,

if

the curve

is

an

ellipse,

we must have

4ac
f

negative,
(

or, since 6 r=

we must have
both positive

/v

7/)

negative,

and

therefore

and

J
a'

-^-

## thus both axes meet

d
and
are negative, would give

## the curve, (the case where both

J
an imaginary locus).
If the curve
is

J
an hyperbola, 6
2

4 a
or

c is positive,

and therefore
(

^-J

("-77) must
and the other

be positive,

one of the

values,

positive,

77

negative

hence,

one of the axes in the hyperbola has an impossible value, and therefore does not meet the curve. The relative lengths of the axes will depend entirely on the magnitude o.
a'

87. Hitherto the original co-ordinates have been rectangular, but if they were oblique, considerable alterations must be made in some of the

formulas. Articles 80 and 81 are applicable in all cases, but 82, 83, and 84, must be entirely changed ; the method pursued will be nearly the same as in the more simple case ; but on account of the great length of some of the operations, we cannot do more than indicate a few steps, and give the
results *.

To

,

__ x" sin.

+
sin.

f
co

sin. 6'

__

x"

sin.

(w-0)
sin.
1

+ y"
i*>.

sin.

(w
z

0')

## Substituting in the equation

* ay +

6 x'

cx' -f /'

=
8 >

0,

we have
!

m
{

a
(

(sin. 0')

+ +

6 sin.

0' sin.

0'

c (sin.

w w

0')

(sin.
I

w)

x"*

(sin. 0)

6 sin.

sin.

-f c (sin.

0)

>

(__
* This
at the
article, and the following first reading of the subject.

(sin. faQ*

56

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

-r"

+
2 c

" 2 y" {2 a 1

sin. 0. sin. 0* 4-

## 6 sin. 0' sin.

1

w-0 +
0.

b sin.

sin.

w-0

4-

sin.

w -

0. sin.

0' >
J

- 4<i>)

f=

(sin.

Let the co-efficient of x" y" 0; expanding sin. w dividing by cos. 0. cos 0' we shall obtain the equation

0, sin.

0'

and

!a
(0'

tan.

w 4- c (cos. w) } 2 tan. #. tan. 4- { b 2 c (sin. w) a 0. 4- tan. 0'} a value of d' Whence for any given value of
b cos.

&

2 c cos. w

sin. w.

0) axes to

and consequently of be found, so that there are an infinite number of pairs of which if the curve be referred, its equation may assume the form

may

Let us

now examine
:

rectangular

For

this

## purpose we must have

0'

and therefore

tan. 0'

By substituting
tan. 0',
sin. w.

we have
2
tan.

this value of tan. 0' in the equation containing tan. 2 2 {a 6 cos. tu 4. c (cos. w) } 4- { 2 c cos. no

and
6
}

20
tan.

1-

2 c

(sin. wY =

0.

c sin.

2 w

6 sin.

w
o>

b cos.

4- c cos. 2

There are two angles which have got the same tan. 2 u separated from each other by 180, therefore there are two angles 0, which would satisfy the above equation ; however, as they are separated by an angle of 90,
the second value only applies to the new axis of y". Hence there is only one system of rectangular axes, and their position is fully determined by the last formula.

*88.

To

and

c' in

## terms of the co-efficients of the

original equation, the new axes being supposed rectangular. Taking the co-efficients in the general transformed equation given above, putting
0'

4. 0,
8

and multiplying by

(sin. u>)

we

have,

a! (sin.
c'

w)

(sin.
:.

w)

= =

a a

(cos. 0)*
8

6 cos.

cos.
sin.
8

(sin. 0)

+
0'}

6 sin.

w w

4- c (cos.
4- c (sin.
8

w w-

0)*

0)*
cos.
2

(' -

c') (sin.

w)

=a

{(cos. 0)

- (sin. 0) } - b { cos.
w

-4>

sin. 0sin.

c{(cos.

0)

(sin.

0)

= a cos. 20 = [a 6 cos.
a

6 cos. (w 4- ccos.

2 0) 4- c cos. (2 w

- 2 0)

o>

2w}

cos.

b cos.

method

in (83)

c sin. 2

4- c cos.

2 w

b sin.

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

Where
or

57
cos. 2u>}
>
.

M=
=
(a'
.*.

V { + b -f ^ { (a 4- c - 6
2
2

-2

6 (a
8

+
2

c) cos.

&>

ac
2
t>;)

cos. a>)

-f (6

c) (sin.

Hence (a'-c')
and

(sin. <u)

M
6 cos.

c') (sin.

2 w) =: a

+c
}

a'

6 cos.

w w

+
+

M M

2 (sin. w
1
2

and

c' ==.

b cos.
is

c 4-

(sin.

w)

Hence

## the final equation

b*-4ac
And

^J

the 6 sin. w is positive sign is to be used according as c sin. 2 w or negative, since 2 is assumed to be positive. These analytical transformations may be geometrically represented as in In figures (1), (2), and (3) we must suppose the axes AX, AY, (85). and also the axes A/X' and A' Y', to contain the angle w. The article (86) will equally apply when the original axes are oblique ; the value of the square on the semi-axis is,

(sin, to)

/a e*

+
61

dt

b cos.

'

4ac~~

89, shall conclude the discussion of the central class by the application of the results already obtained to a few examples.

We

## The original axes rectangular.

ay + bxy
1

+
'

ex*

+ dy +

ex

+ f=

(I)

=
2

formulas to be used.
TO

ae

cd-

b e

dn + em
2

^Jcj/

ae*

+
68

cd*

- bde
(5)

-4r

-t-/'=0

'

= x" =y

sin.

4-

cos.

0-^sin.
tan.

,

26=

_-

(6)

58

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

(7)
cf

=
-!{

c ip

M}
is

(8)

M=

it

*J (a

e)

6 2 , it according as 6

-f

*"'='

'

(2) and (3) determine the situation of the centre, and together with (4) reduce the equation to the form (5) (6) determines the position of the rectangular axes passing through the centre, (7) and (8) enable us to reduce the equation to its most simple form (9) and the co-efficients of y"* and x"* inverted are respectively the squares upon the semi-axes measured along the axes of y" and x".
;
:

Ex.

1.

a 3/

m= -l;n=
tan.

xy +

x-

+ x-\^Q;

locus an ellipse.

-!;/'= -2;
and 0=

y'*-x'y'+ x'*-2
2

=Q
is

:.20

= 90
a'

45;
c'

negative,

and

/.

M= +

and

y
*"=
1

or

y* +
and 4 3

The squares on
selves are

V3
Ex.
2.

and,/2,

## and therefore the lengths

4 and -7=

V3'

3y

4xy + 3x*+y
is

1.

= 0;

locus an ellipse.

Ex.
3.

by"*

+ xm =

The axes

are 2 and

2#

ry

Ex.
4.

is

## -2y 4j?-}-3r=0; locus an ellipse. Q _ Q - -- /2 y'' -- -^/ g a/'* =

I

p.

-{

1.

5y

4-

6,ry

5,r8

- 22y
rf

- 2 6*

29

+ m

+=
V2
y" ^-5

= 0; -8

locus an ellipse.

5 y

f*

tan.

20

:=:

GO

*
.

Q =r

45;

y ==

'

x"

+ v" +J(_

and

1 = x"

V2

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

r

59

I (*" +
5.

3/")

y/a --_

..//a

g-L +
12 y

- (*" - y")
P*

-8 =

or

4 y m + xm =
2

Ex.

2 1/

2x y
2

j?

12

.r

locus an ellipse.

Ex.6.
Let y

22/

+ # -My-2 x 6=0;
a?

locus an ellipse.
is

y'+7i and
M)

= j?'+m,
m)
2

(jc>+

- = 4 n-2m-6= 0.
1

## and Let w+l hence the transformed equation

and no further transformation
is

m-l =

/. is

7^=1
2

and TZ=:

and

/'=

9;

2y +#'
Ex.7, y 8
10

/2

=9
The
axes are 6 and
locus an hyperbola.

requisite.

xy + x* + y + x+l=Q;
6y'
f *

- 4r //2 +
4i/

-^-

Ex.8.

4z/ --8

-ry-4

2
j?

+ 28^

= 0. 15 = 0; locus an hyperbola.
is

the axes are each \] 2 , that which axis of x" alone meeting the curve.

Here

## measured along the new

Ex.

9.

y
is

2 xy

x*

locus an hyperbola.
is

origin necessary.
tan.

The

*90.

## 20=1 .'.20=45; The axes oblique.

values of m, n, and
tan.

## M=/^ '=V^ f remain

r

c'=-j~2, y'*~x>*=J~Z.

The

20=

- --c sin. 2

6 cos.

c cos.

5 w 2
1

=
</

6 cos.

2 (sin w) 2

=
2

{2

6 cos. a,-f

c^M} -^A-^.
+
c) cos.
ia

M=
Ex.
1.

^
y*

(a -f 6

+
-{

c2

2 6 (a

+
.

2 a c cos. 2

}.

as c sin. 2

b sin

w
;

is

-- x y

x*

y + x

=
.'.2

the angle

between the

,n= --^, o

--; o

tan

20=1

=45; M = + (l -

60

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

reduced equation
is

The

The curve

is

2 1. 3 (2 - J* > y"' (' V2) *"* an ellipse, and the squares upon the semi-axes are

Ex.

2.

2 y + 16 x y

16

2
.r

-f

3-2

y + 64

,r

28

0.

The

angle

60.

The form
since tan.

of the equation

is

now

7 y'

16

x' y'

16 x' 2

36

the reduction to rectangular axes is effected by merely and 60, transferring the axis ofy' through 30; hence, putting the formulas (56) of transformation become

200,

0=0.

w=

*, V
3

and

.=

_
it

f
\/3
becomes

4y"*+
Hence
Ex.
3.

}6x"*

- 36r=0;
w

ellij-se
2
-r

are 3 and 6.
;

3
?t

xy +

+ =0
1

the angle
.
.

= 60.
30;

m =0,
'

= 0,

tan.

20
f

=
1,

^/3,

M=

-r

4.

5, c' rr

-- ,f
3

=^

is

57/0

--^*"'=

I-

The curve
first

is

## an hyperbola, of which the axes are 2

V3

and

tne
a;''

The second

of these, which is the greatest, is measured along the new axis of axis never meets the curve.

91. It was observed, at the end of art. 81, that the curves corresponding to the general equation of the second order were divided into two classes, one class having a centre or point such that every chord passing through it is bisected in that point, and another class having no such This fact was ascertained from the inspection of the peculiar point. and n introduced into the values of the two indeterminate quantities equation by means of the transformation of co-ordinates, and for the purpose of destroying certain terms in the general equation. The values of and n were found to be infinite, that is, there was no centre when the relation among the three first terms of the co-efficients of the general 4 a c 0. equation was such that b* This relation 6 8 4 a c being characteristic of the parabola, it follows that the general equation of the second order belonging to a parabola is not capable of the reduction performed in art. (80) ; that is, we cannot destroy the co-efficients of both x and y, or reduce the equation

to the form c x*

ci

+/=

a y*
0.

x y

c x*

+/=

## 0, or, finally, to tht

form a y*

Although, however, we cannot thus reduce the parabolic equation, we are yet able to reduce it to a very simple form, in fact to a much more simple form than that of either of the above equations. This will be effected by a process similar to that already used for the general equation, We shall commence by transferring- the axes only in a different order. through an angle 0, and thus destroy two terms in the equation, so 2 that it will be reduced to the form we shall then transfer the axes parallel to themselves, and by that means destroy two other terms, so that the final equation will be of the form

ay + dy +
x
o

ex+f=0;

a
92.

y* ~f~ e

Taking

y =: x

x'

sin.

x' cos. e

y' cos. 9
y' sin. Q

2

+
2
j

e.

+ /=

0,

(cos.

y'

6 sin.

+c

a

.r'

2
-j-

rfcos. 4 |#'

+ rfsiu. 6

(sin.

c (cos. *

2 c

sin. t cos. 6

Let the

## co-efficient of x' y'

(

=
+
6 {(cos. 0)* 6 cos.

V 2

r>)

sin
(

cos. c) sin.

or

20 +

- (sin. 20=0,

0)

0,

and
Hence,
if

tan.

20= a
will

as in (82.)

=2

## have no term containing the product

of the variables

that

is, it will

be of the form

a' y'*

-f

c' *'

-f d' y' -f

e x'

+/=

0.

But, since this last equation belongs among first terms must be such that the general con2 holds good. In this case, since 6' 4 a c dition 6 0, we must that is, the transhence either a' or c' must have - 4 a' c' , ; formation which has enabled us to destroy the co-efficient of the term f x'* or y'*. containing x y will of necessity destroy the co-efficient of either And this will soon be observed upon examining the values of the cothe co-efficients of the three

efficients

of

x'*

and y

*.

let 6

is,

= - 2 V^T.
1 1

From

tan.

we have

cos.

r=

62

a
c

since sin. 2 9

must be
.

positive,

and b

is itself

negative

hence

cos.

/ = \/
I

-f cos. 2 6

-3
cos.

\/j(l

/ _) = ^-i-,
c\

2 9

,

sin.

__

a a a a
c c
-j- c

c c

^a + 2oc-j-c
a

a-f-ca+c c a Vac
a

o-j-c

~~

2 a c

-\-

+ c"

a-f-c

c
is

And
(a

now

va+c
is

And

it

manifest that

article, the

## if 6 had been positive reduced equation would have been

all

the

way through

this

{a

e)

+.

v a

y'
c

,'

v a

+ /= +

0.

-f c

parallel

94. In order to reduce the equation still lower, let us transfer the axes n n and x' to themselves by means of the formulas y' y r" (54.)

+m

'

+
d')

d'

y' -f

(y" -f ")

-f- ^'

(y"

or

0'^+

(2a'n

y"

## f = becomes + e (" -f w ) H-/= o, e' or" + a' n + d' n + e'm+/=0.

e'

x' -\-

'

And since we have two independent quantities, ra and n, we can make two hypotheses respecting them ; let, therefore, their values be such that the co-efficient of y' and the constant term in the equation eac h

that

is, let

2a'n +

d'

= 0, and a' n* +
d'
7

whence n r=
and the reduced equation
is

2 a

d'

c'

d'

-.

now
y
"

of the form

of

'

x"

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

and
e'
it is

63
-f d' \?
-f-

manifest that

x* -f

f =.

had been positive, the equation would have been reduced to the form
if

c' a/

+
o

m and n would
c'
i

dV =
e
2
^i
'

>

## be found from the equations

am

__

ti r\

4 c'f r

95. The following- figures will exhibit the changes which have taken place in regard to the position of the locus corresponding to each analytical change in iheform of the equation
:

Y
Y
X
Y'

X
In
the curve
is

fig.

1,

is

A X
0.

and

A A

Y, and

the equation

ay*
In
angle
fig.

x y

c x*

+ dy +

+ f=

2,

X',

Y', the

X A

X'

or

is,

a'y'*
If 6
is

for 6 negative,

+
+

d'y'

e'

+/=
+f=

0.

## positive, the curve

its

angles to

would originally have been situated present position, and the reduced equation would be
c' at*
f d' y' -f e

at right

0.

changed from A to A', the coordinates of A' being measured along A X' and A Y', and their values determined by the equations
In
the position fig. 3,
of the origin
is

for b negative,

d' = -^r

and

d'*-4a'f ^ ^ &l
."

for 6 positive,

==

e'

e'*

4
,

and n

c'

f
.

is
e'

## for 6 negative, a' y"* -f-

x"

0.

for 6 positive,

c' a/'

-f d' y" s=

0.

96*. If the original axes are oblique, the transformation of the general The values equation must be effected by means of the formulas in (55). of a, b', and c' will be exactly the same as in (87). We may then let 6' 0, and also find tan. 2 6 when the axes are rect-

64

in

(87),

we

shall find

that there

is

## but one such

The same value of 9 which destroys the term in x' y' will, as in (93), 2 also destroy the term in x'* or y' ; hence the reduced equation will be t' x' b sin. w positive, a' 0. for csin. 2 w -f- d' y'
y'*

for c sin. 2

<a

sin. o

negative,
a', c', d',

c'

e'.

+ +

e'

+/ = + / r=

0.

97.

To

## find the values of

1

and

The

values of a' and c are best deduced from those in art. (88), Since 6 8 6 sin. w positive 4 a c 0, we have for c sin. 2 w

= M=a a' = {a
a

b cos.

b cos.

+c + c}
J

cos.

2 9 r=
d)

---b cos.

(sin. a>)

c cos.

a>

a - b cos.

a>

Also a

=
(d

--siri.

Jc

__

and

cos. 6

/ /a = \/ V

6 cos.

+c (cos. ta)
ia
-^

b cos.

cos.

__

e cos.

w)

and

e'

-d
sin.

+
e.

e sin. (w
:

sin.

sin
ta

e cos.

(w

0)

J{a

bcos.w

c (cos. w)

2
}

>^c

(sin.

w)

sin.

o>

tj

{a

6 cos.

c }

0)

a)

(d

cos. w) A/C
fj

J {a
b cos.

b cos.

+ c (cos.

w)

[a
d'y'

c }

2

is

now

of the form

a'2/'

e'

x'

+/=0;
a', c',

For
d',

c sin. 2
e'

6 sin.

& cos.

M,

and

are

M=
a'=
</

(a

+
c)

c)

== (a

6 cos.

w)
c}
'

(sin.
sin.

and
d'

cos.

ecos. w)

hence

(d -

Jc
J
{
"

J
>-

ab
"

a
^

b cos.

w
~

+
"

cincl

^""

__ (d

ecos. w) ......
-

^ {a
.

6 cos.

sin.

^
.

## and the reduced equation

is

now

of the form

(tv"*
The

d'y'

e'x>

+/=0.

transformation required to reduce the equations still lower is performed exactly as in (94) ; and, by making the angle between the original

## REDUCTION OF THE GENERAL EQUATION.

axes oblique, the figures in (95) will exhibit the changes in the pasziion of the curve. 98. shall conclude the discussion of this class of curves by the application of the results already obtained to a few examples.

We
1.

Ex.

3/

Qjry

+
A

9 x*

+
o
'

10 y
;

0; locus a parabola.
the tables.

tan. 29 =r
b is negative
.'.

-- =
ci

--

hence

may be found by

by (93)

a'
/.

=
10

a -f
2
z/'

10,
y'

c'

0, d'

= JlO
a:'

and

e'

r= 3 \/To,

Also by (94) n =r

- 2
is

VIO

4- 3

VIo

-f
-

=
;

and

m=

2>/10

VlO

and the

final

equation

io

Ex.

2.

i/

^:0;

locus a parabola.

0.

Ex.3.
form y
-f-

\/2/+ x d
y
2

*J

=
2

=
+

Vd;

2 dy
it

the

2 *J x y

or

xy

a?

c? ,r

d2

## and the locus

is

a parabola because
52

satisfies the

condition

4 a c

=
d

0.

By

in the figure

we

PBCQ

and y

=x

to the

diameters

BE
A
.r',

and
i/',

C F.
are the

new

axes,

or

being 45.

'

2, d'

= 0,

c'

2d

J2

o,

m = --= 2^2
new

## the last two quantities are to be measured along the

axes, therefore

take

A A'=
2
final

VI

and A'
is

is

the

new

origin.

The

equation

-dxV2
Ex. 4
or

- 4.0./=

y=

+
0.

-f-

2 /".r

The

locus

is

a parabola, since

6*

66

THE ELLIPSE.
Let y
.'.

;/'
'

+
...

n,

and x =

x'

y>

c Or'

/*" +

(2
e

m /-f

c) a'

n =0.

Let 2

m/+

=
...

0,

71
.

and

=
e
2
,

99.
9

is

/
The axes
oblique.
2

&
;

y'

= 0.
60.

Here, c

Sjry+jc sin. 2 w

6 #

## the angle between the axes being

positive.

b sin.

o> is

M=

3,

a'

4,

c'

= 0,

d' s= 6,

c'

= 3

2 V~3~,

m= -

4 v2

CHAPTER

VIII

THE ELLIPSE.
100. IN the discussion of the general equation of the second order, we have seen that, supposing the origin of co-ordinates in the centre, there is but one system of rectangular axes to which, if the corresponding ellipse be referred, its equation is of the simple form

or,

where the

coefficients

P and

8

(86, 87.)

We now

this

## equation the various properties of

the ellipse. To exhibit the coefficients in a better form ; let curve ; JT, y, the rectangular axes meeting in C ;

X Y

C be the C M = x,
l

centre of the

M P =: y.

Then

at the points

the axes,

we have

=
=

0,

Qj*=:l,

.'.

x=

0,

Py=

1,

/.

y=

VP
'

THE ELLIPSE

A'

:mand C A

=
B'

## also in the axis of

y take

C B =

VP
B

and

-VF
6,

then the curve cuts the axes at the points A, A', B, and B'.

Also

if

A =

a and C
,

6,

we have

and

P =

becomes

b*

a2
101.
tion.

We

is

## limited in every direc-

The points A, A', B, and B' determine those limits. equation we have
(1),

From

the last

and x

from (1)

#, y is impossible, and from (2) if y is greater than 6, x is also impossible ; hence straight lines drawn through greater than the points A, A', B and B' parallel to the axes, completely enclose the
if

is

curve.

A.gain from (1) for every value of x less than a we have two real and less than C A' we have equal values of y, that is, for any abscissa C two equal ordinates MP, P', the sign determining their opposite

directions.
to + a these values of y decrease from b Also as x increases from hence we have two equal arcs B P A', B' P' A' exactly similar and

to 0,

opposite to one another. to z* is positive, and the [f 00 be negative, and decrease from same values of y must recur, hence there are two equal and opposite
,

F2

63
arcs

THE ELLIPSE.
B
A, B'A.
Therefore the whole curve
is

## divided into two equal

parts by the axis of x. From (2) the curve appears in the equal parts by the axis of y hence
:

same way
it

is

## to be divided into two said to be symmetrical with

respect to those axes. Its concavity must also be turned towards the centre, otherwise it might be cut by a straight line in more points than two, which is impossible

102.

From

the equation

8 a:

(a

we have

hence C
case
that can

C P becomes
0, in

when x is greatest, that is, when x in which , also equal to a, hence C or C A' is the greatest line be drawn from the centre to the curve. Again C is least when
is

greatest

the least line axes A' and B B' are thus shown to be the greatest and least lines that can be drawn through the The greater A A' is called the axis major, or greater axis, or centre. transverse axis, and B B' the axis minor or lesser axis.
to b,
is

## which case C that can be drawn from

becomes equal
to the curve.

hence

CB

The

103. The points A, B, A' and B' are called the vertices or summits of the curve. Any of these points may be taken for the origin, thus let be the origin, C the axis of r, and let the axis of y be parallel to C B,

and

A M = x'.

Then #

= C M = AM - AC = ^

## or suppressing the accents,

ij*

(2 a x

j? )

x (2 a -

x).

This

last

The square upon M P the rectangle A M, M A' : the square upon A C. Hence the square upon the ordinate varies as
:

equation

is

## geometrically expressed by the following proportion. the square upon B C : :

the rectangle contained
the axis of x,
2
,r ),

by the segments of the axis major. If the origin be at C, C A' the axis of y and
putting x for

CB
-r^

we have,
origin

y and yfor
g

x, the equation

(&

and

if the

be

at

B, y

^(Zbx-x*).

104. If the axes major and minor were equal to one another, the equa8 8 a* .r , which is that to a circle tion to the ellipse would become y whose diameter is 2 a, hence we see as in (79) that the circle is a species

Ao we advance we shall have frequent occasion to remark the of ellipse. analogy existing between these two curves. Let A Q A' be the circle described upon A A' as diameter, and Q or Y be an ordinate corresponding to the abscissa C or #, let P (?/) be the corresponding ordinate to the ellipse, then we have

THE FOCUS.

3,'

:.

::

b:a

circle the

thus the ordinate to the ellipse has to the corresponding- ordinate of the constant ratio of the axis minor to the axis major.

wholly without the ellipse, except at Similarly if a circle be described on the axis minor, it is wholly within the ellipse except at B and B'. Thus the elliptic curve lies between the two circumferences.
circle is

Since b

THE FOCUS.
105.

THE
x

equation y*
I

(2

ax

#*)

may

/

2 7/

xz

2 a

in

2 62
is

called the

Rectum.

Since

2a

the Latus

Rectum

is

## a third proportional to the

axis major

and minor.
axis

To find from what point in the be drawn equal to the Latus Rectum.
106.

## major a double ordinate and

Here 4 y*
...

s I

or

i^ (a* - x*) = i^
b*

_*or x9

=
=

a*

b9
b*
.

and x

i <Ja*
= -V

and radius a describe a circle cutting the axis major in the c= points S and H, then we have C H

With centre

+ ja t

b*

and

CS

-6

a
,

are the points through either of which if an ordinate at thus S and L S L' be drawn, it is equal to the Latus Rectum ; henceforward then we shall consider this line as the Latus Rectum or principal parameter of the
ellipse.

thus determined are called the Foci, for a The two points S and reason to be hereafter explained.
107.

The

fraction

## which represents the

ratio of

CS

to

CA

70

THE FOCUS.

is called the excentricity, because the deviation of this curve from the circular form, that is, its ex-centric course, depends upon the magnitude of this ratio.

the letter
e,
8

is

we have

=
is

and

its

the form

y z=(l-e
108.

(-*).
ellipticity
;

The

line

S C

is

ae

we

;

## Also since a2 hence ;

value, as above, a2 e 62

The

rectangle

A S,
r',

S A?

## = The square upon

+
1

C.
in the curve.

To find Let S P = r,
109.

HP
.-.

r=

r2

=
(x
2

(y

a
2

y'Y
8
9

/.

## (a -a') .(29) we have y' = and

.

#'

<?,

3/2

e)

=r (1

a2

- e ) (a8 - * ) + (x + e) - ^ - e a2 + e ^ + x 9 + 2 a ex +
tf

a* e*

.*.

e,r

similarly

HP=

ej?.

In all questions referring to the absolute magnitude of S P or we must give to x its proper sign ; thus if P is between B and A, the absolute e,r, because x is itself negative. magnitude of S P is a / 2<z P, we have ; By the addition of S P and that is, the sum of the distances of any point on the curve from the foci

HP

SP+ HP =

= AA

is

equal to the axis major This property is analogous to that of the any point from the centre is constant.

circle,

## where the distance of

110. This property of the ellipse is so useful, that we shall prove the To find the locus of a point P, the sum of whose distances converse. is constant or equal 2 a. from two fixed points S and

Let S

H=

H
P

2c, bisect

H
;

in C,
let

rectangular axes

C A', C B

M == x,

## which point assume and P =r

to be the origin of

then S

=
2a,

=
)

orSP=:2a-HP
x

3/

=4o*a
(c

4 a

V (c 4,

## hence, transposing and dividing by

we have

x)*

ex

THE TANGENT.
s= a4
2

71

a* c2
2

+
8 8

c y?

a8

8
a?

=O and y* =

c ) (a

*)

(a

- x8 )
c*,

Hence the locus is an ellipse whose axes are 2 a and 2 whose foci are S and H.

and

THE TANGENT.
111.

To
at y'

Let

## be the point P be any other point

any point.

Q
two points
(41)
is
'

PQ

throijgh these

y'

y
t
.

(x - #0,

Now this cutting line or secant will come to the position TPT' or just touch the curve when Q comes to P, and the equation will 1 become the equation to the tangent x' and y" when af' y.

PQ

PT

PQ

In

term
f

yl
f

y'l
f

becomes

-,

but

its

value

may yet be

found,

x y

f ,

we have

a*y'*
/.

+b*x
2

lz

a
y"}

(y'
(y'

or

(y'

"
.

y'
x'

## + 6 (*" + y"} + 6* (*' 2

y"

*" 8 )

x") (x'
"

x"}

0,

y" x"
:=

a2

y'

b* x'

when

= ^ and

'r

.*.

The equation

to the tangent is

By

multiplication

cfyy

a*y"

=
a2 6 2
.

6'j?^'

72

THE TANGENT.

is yf and In the figure C P is y', and x and y are the co-ordinates of any point in T PT'. The equation to the tangent is easily recollected, since it may be obtained 2 2 8 2 6 x from that to the curve s y s 6 by putting yy' for y* and xx'

for

8 .T .

is a tangent is evident, since a straight line cannot cut 112. That the curve in more points than two, and here those two have gradually coalesced ; it may, however, be satisfactory to show that every point in P except P is without the curve.

PT

is

Let x and y be the co-ordinates of any point R then if a"y* + b* x* 8 2 the point R is without the curve. For, join the greater than # 6
l
l

with the centre of the ellipse by a line cutting the curve in Q, x and y be the co-ordinates of Q, then if a*y*-\- 6 2 x* is greater 8 than a 6 or than a 2 y* -f 62 ^, we have 6 2 (x? - j?2 ) greater than a2 (y 2 2 but 6 is less than a, therefore x* x* must be greater than s/i ) z 2 yf, or xf + y* greater than x* + y , and therefore C R greater than y
point

R
2
;

and

let

CQ

(29), or

is

we have

/.
8

az y iz

or a (y'
/.

## - 2a*yy' + &V - 2b*xx' = - a 6* - y) + 6 2 (>' - xY = + 62 x* -a* 62

2
2

a2

/+

2
,r

=
.

a2

a2

(y'

V
y)

b (x f

a-)

2 which is greater than a2 6 But y and x are the co-ordinates of any point in the tangent therefore in the particular generally any point on the tangent is without the curve = x', that is at P, we have the equation case where y y', and x a8 y 2 + 6 2 x3 := a2 6 2 therefore at that point the tangent coincides with the
;
;
,

curve.

## be the origin, the equation to the curve

is

62

(2 a

xz } or a z y* -f

6 2 x*

2 a b*x ==
is

0,

to the tangent,

a*yy'

tfxx

ab* (x

a/)

=
y

to the

= mx
nxx'.

tangent

is

y y'

(x

#')

Generally,

if

0,

## the equation to the tangent

is

-~
y

- 2
c,r'

ex'

by

+
*

rf

or (2 ay' -f bx'

d)

(2

6y'

3/

^+ 2/= 0.

THE TANGENT.
then,

73

Again let y =: a x + d be the equation to a tangent to the ellipse a2 6 s and elimicomparing this with the equation a?y y' -f b* xx' 8 2 2 6 2 we have + b*x 12 nating x' and y' by means of the equation y'

a2

= d\

and

this is the
oe

+
To

114.

necessary relation among the co-efficients of the equation it is a tangent to the curve. find the point where the tangent cuts the axes.

d when

## In the equation a? y y'

b*

x x'

put y
6
8

,'.b z

xx

:= a2 6 e ,

and

a?

a2 x

and
Since

= C T' = hence we have y' The rectangle C T, C M = The square upon A C, The rectangle CT', MP = The square upon B C
;

~ CT

similarly

CT(

) xf J

y',

it

is

## the same for

all

ellipses

which have the same axis major, and same abscissa for the point of contact ; and, as the circle on the axis major may be considered as one of these ellipses, the distance C T is the same for an ellipse and its circumscribing
circle.

Again, since
at the

CT =

a2
is
f independent of the sign of y the tangents,
,

The equation

two extremities of an ordinate, meet in the same point on the axis. to the lower tangent is found by putting y' for y' in the

general equation to the tangent (111). from the foot of the ordinate to the point 115. The distance where the tangent meets the axis of r, is called the subtangent.

MT

Intheellipse,MT=:CT116.
of

*'

=a

The equation
;

to the
0,
.".

and

.'.

y'

62

ax
;

a2

and x

is

perpendicular to

,

y'

is

perpendicular
s
,

The

## equation to the tangent

2 being a y

&

x y?

or

If P C be produced to meet the curve again in P', the signs of the co-ordinates of P' are both contrary to those of P ; hence the co-efficient

6 ---

x'

ay

P', or the

tangents at

and

F are parallel
117.

To

## (43). find the equation to the tangent at the extremity of the

to the tangent
is

Latus

Rectum.

The equation

generally

7-i

THE TANGENT.
1

At L, x
.*.

ae and

y'

a
8

a2 v

6*

-a

s 8 6 x a e =r a 6

=: a

JF.

/.

MQ =

S P.
where
this particular

118.

lo

## tangent cuts the

axis, let

to

From T draw T R perpendicular to A C, and from P draw P R parallel A C then, taking the absolute values of C M and C T, we have
;

Consequently, the distances of any point P from S, and from the line are in the constant ratio of e : 1. is called the directrix; for, This line knowing the position of this line and of the focus, an ellipse of any excentricity may be described, as will hereafter be shown. If x a. Thus the tangent, at the extremity of the 0, we have y Latus Rectum, cuts the axis of y where that axis meets the circumscribing

T R,

TR

circle.

By producing Q
The
119.
tangent.

Q P, Q P'

rectangle

that

To

## perpendicular from the focus on the

Let S y, H 2, be the perpendiculars on the tangent PT. Taking the expression in (48.) we hare

Where
y
r= a x is also

y, =r

is

and x v ae are co-ordinates of the point S, and the equation to the line P T. But the equation to P

THE TANGENT.

f5

And

Let S

or

ed

r,

and

H P or

e a?

=2 -r=

r',

2a-r
Similarly,
if

p',

we have

p'
2

=
;

By

multiplication

we have pp'
y,

s= 6
2

Hence,
C.

The
120.

rectangle S

To

## or z in the last article.

2 n 2 2 The equation to the curve at P is a* 6 2 y + 6 a/ (1) 2 2 The equation to the tangent at P is (2). a?yy'+b*xx'=i a 6 The equation to the perpendicular S y (the co-ordinatss of S being - c, 0) is y = a (x + c) and this line being perpendicular to the tangent

(2),

we have a

## and therefore the equation

to

Sy

is

If we eliminate y' and x' from (1) (2) and (3), we shall have an equation involving x and y ; but this elimination supposes x and y to be the same for both (2) and (3), and therefore can only refer to their intersection. Hence, the resulting equation is the locus of their intersection.

From

y'
' (3)

bz

y x

x'

a*

=
c

b*
-.

62
a*

x
from (2)
;

a/

and

y'

(x

c)

r-.

x (x

-f- c)

76

THE TANGENT.
Substituting these values of x' and
a*b* y
8

y',

in (1),

we have
a?

+
.-.

(,r
2

+
2

e)

a? b*
8

{y -f

(*

+ c)
8

}*

6*
2

y -f
2

(*

+
9

c)

r= {y 2
4

& + c)}*
c)

Or,
'

a'

y
2

Cr -|-c)

=
2/

y
8

2 x (x

+
c)

y -f
8

{/+

C*

+ 0'}

4
2/
4

+ +

{2.r

O+
2
2/

+c
9

+ c) + *>(* + c)
a:

(x

2
2/

*2

(*

c)

8 -f ^

(ar

-|-c)

This

is

is a.

is

From
may

## the equation to S y, combined with that to

CP

x \

we

prove that

C P and S y meet

in the directrix.

121.

To

find the

focal distance
2

SP
b*
-.

tangent

P T.
is

The

## equation to the tangent

6 = ---

x'
,

x
c,

-\

The

equation to S

passing through S

0) and

(,i

} is

And

tan.

SPT = tan.

(P S C

- PTC) =

X ' +C "
y'

a* y'
*

a'-f-c

68

tan.

PT to tan. H PT
;

this

for c in the

to the equation

HPT =

-b*
;,

hence, tan.

HPz =
SPT,

tan.

(180

HPT) = -

tan.

HPT =

HPz

## tangent makes equal angles with the focal distances.

a property of light that, if a ray proceeding from H in the direction be reflected by the line z P y, the angle S Py of the reflected ray will equal the angle HPz. Now, in the ellipse, these angles are equal;
It is
II

THE TANGENT.
if

77

a light be placed at H, all rays which are reflected hence, by the ellipse will proceed to S. Hence, these points, S and H, are called foci.

is

;

Sy
:.

=p = b ^y
Hz
::

and
:

= p' =

Sy

rf

to the angle

HP 2.*

Py

arid

Py

equal

u,

## from the centre, on

here

0,

^
6
8

0,

= -- x
-

and d =.
y'

___
nW C

__
4

/Ji ,6 _ X/ jl-f

2
)
-

a2

62

/2

j (a
a b
e a.')

>

yl%

Jrb .^ }

ab
(a

ex')

* The following geometrical method of drawing a tangent to the ellipse, and proving that the locus of the perpendicular from the focus on the tangent is the circumscribing circle, will be found useful.

Let Join S

A P A' be
P and
;

P
y

K
P

= PS

bisect the angle

the ellipse,

any point on

it.

KPS

by the line

z,

Py

in y.

## any other point

than 2 a
except
;

1. Py is a tangent to the ellipse; for if R be in the line P y, we have S It + R H = K R + R H, greater than K H, greater

hence,

R and

## every other point in z

ellipse.

Py

is

without the

% parallel to S y, and join Cy ; 2. The locus of y is the circumscribing circle. Draw P y are equal, we ha.ye the angle S y P a right then, because the triangles S P y, z are perpendicular to the tangent. Also, since S y y, and angle, or S y and P H) C A. C H, we have C y parallel to S C (S P H, and Cy 4 meet the circle again in Let Z z =. the square on B C. 3. The rectangle S y, because the angle y z O is a right angle, and that the points y and join C ; then, are in the circumference of the circle, the line y C O must be a straight line, and are equal ; and the rectangle and a diameter. Hence, the triangles C S y, A' the square on the rectangle Z H, z the rectangle S y, H,

= KH =
H

=K

HO

OHO

BC

(108).

4.

Let

SP=r, HP=2a
triangles,

-SP= 2a:

r,

Sy=^,andH,8 =
II

p',

then p*
p'

For by similar
5

Sy

.*.

and, as above,

...

^-

78
123.

THE NORMAL.
To
find the locus of

a2
*
tt

y'

yy

+ +
JF
.

y
x
.

x'

= =

a2

(1).

a* //

(2).

a8

V
.

## (3), the equation to

?/.

Proceeding*, as in (120.), to eliminate x' and y', we 2 2 2 #8 ) 8 j the locus is an b* y* -{- a jp = (y at the extremities of the axes, and bulging out ellipse something like the lowest of figures 2 in page 44. We

equation

124.

To

C P makes
fa*

## with the tangent,

we have

the equation

to

P, y

=
is

yl

and to Zj x;
found

P T, y
-

= -

yl

x
;

/,
;

hence tan.
125.

CPT

=
sin.

.,

From C u

r r'

Cy

C y u we have
y

=r a sin.

y u

.'.

sin.

V
Also from

Cyu

=
Jr
r'

H
4

= H
rj /

sin.

HPz

we have
.'.

V/

=
u

sin.

H P2

sin.

H Px =
,

b
i

-7

.*.

angle

Cy

angle

H P 2,

and

Cy

is

parallel to

H P.
HP

in

Hence, if C E, we have

PE = Cy =

## be drawn parallel to the tangent

AC.

T, and meeting

THE NORMAL.
126. The normal to any point of a curve is a straight line drawn through that point, and perpendicular to the tangent at that point. To find the equation to the normal P G.

The equation

to a straight line

## through the point

(x

) is

y
This
line
8

y'

a (x

x')

must be perpendicular
6
af

to the tangent
tf
.

whose equation

is

_ a*y'

to the

normal

is

127.

To

THE DIAMETERS.
Let y
.'.

C G.

Hence

e*

(a

e *')

e.

S P.

The
mal,
is

M G,
x
1

Its value is

=
a?

x'.

128.

From

## the above values of

M G, C G and C G' we
a2

* ^ I a a Vi

6 2 x'*

\
( J

a2

* VlI a v

6 T - ** 2

and similarly

G'

=
f

,^77^ consequently,

the rectangle S P, HP. G, P G' =: r r rectangle, ; hence, at the extremity greatest value of the normal is when x' of the axis minor, we have the greatest value of the normal =s 6. Similarly, the least value of the normal is at the extremity of the axis major, the

The The

Also, S G'

=
b

## or half the Latus

Rectum

(105.).

~
P
i/,

V77', and

G G' =

^b
;

V7?

.-.

G G' =
or

e.

G'.
tri-

If a perpendicular

angles

PG

L, S

and

## G L be drawn from G upon S P H P 2, are similar hence

HP,

the

PL

PG.^-, r

or=PG

^-r

r1

the

Latus Rectum.

129. Since the tangent makes equal angles with the focal distances, the normal, which is perpendicular to the tangent, also makes equal angles with the focal distances. This theorem may be directly proved from the above value :: SC I +
; I

ae -

e* 3?

hence, the

HG CG: HC CG ofCG;forSG a - ex' a e + e x' a+ e x' S P HP; Euclid, VI. 3, or angle S P H is bisected by the line P G.
2
\
'.

: :

Geometry,

ii.

50

*.

THE DIAMETERS.
130,
parallel chords.
*

## A diameter was defined We shall now

The
absolute values of

in (76.) to

prove that

all

See 109.

and

## H P are here taken.

90

THE DIAMETERS.

are straight lines, and that they pass through the centre, which last ciris evident, since no line could bisect every one of a system of parallel chords without itself passing through the centre. a * 4- c be the equation to any chord ; Let y

cumstance

a 9 y*

b* x*

=
a (x

68

## Transfer the origin to the

bisecting

y becomes y
putting

y' for

-f y'

y and x

-j-

x1

for

,r,

point x' y' of the chord, by then the equation to the chord

x9 )

c or
2

y t= a #, since

2 b* (x the equation to the curve becomes 2/') (y To find where the chord intersects the curve, put a

i/

J/
2

+
x
6
2
;

.r')

-f-

also
se-

a2

6*.

for

in the

cond equation
or,

/.

a 8 (a *
*
2

+
2

I/')

+
7

2
2

O+
a/)
j?

or')

=
2

a2

(a a

6 )

a y

+
0.

a y'*

2
/>

j/

a8

8
.

## But since the x must be equal

term of the
last

origin is at the bisection of the chord, the two values of to one another, and have opposite signs, or the second

equation must

.a8 ay'

& 2 x'

0.
;

This equation gives the relation between x' and y' and, since it is inax c ; dependent of c, it will be the same for any chord parallel to y hence, considering x' and y' as variable, it is the equation to the assemblage of all the middle points, or to their locus. This equation is evidently that to a straight line passing through the

centre.

## Conversely, any straight line passing through the centre

is

a dia-

A pair of diameters are called conjugate when each bisects all the chords parallel to the other. Hence, the axes major and minor are conjugate diameters, and the 2 2 8 a* b\ which we have generally employed, is that 6 x* equation a ^ to the ellipse referred to its centre and rectangular conjugate diameters. If the curve be referred to oblique co-ordinates, and its equation remains of the same form, that is, containing only j^, y*, and constant quantities, for each value of one cothe new axes will also be conjugate diameters

meter. 131.

ordinate will give two equal and opposite values to the other. shall, therefore, pass from the above equation to another referred to oblique conjugate diameters, by determining, through the transformation of co-ordinates, all the systems of axes, for which the equation to the ellipse preserves this same form. 6 2 <ra a* b* ; the formulas for transformLet the equation be o 2 y*

We

+
/

y
2
rt

## = x' sin. Q + y' sin. x = x cos. 6 + y' cos.

1

6',

Bf t

:.

O'

sin.

+ +
6
s

sin. 0')*

+
8

b
9

0'

COR e
-

+ y' cos.
8

0')
8

=
8

/A
8

8 8 or {a (sin. Q7 )

sin. 0'

-f-

{a

2 {a* sin 6

6 cos.

## (sin. 0) -f 6 cos. 0'} x' y'

(cos. 0)

,r'

a8

b*.

In order that this equation may be of the conjugate form, it must not but since we have introduced two indeterminate ; and 0', we are enabled to put the co-efficient of X* ff ' quantities, ; hence we have the condition
contain the term a/ y'

a* sin.

sin

-f-

cos

cos. 0'

1HE DIAMETERS.
or dividing by a cos.
2

81

cos. 0',
f tan. 0. tan. Q

oa

-.

Now this condition will not determine both the angles 6 and &f but for any value of the one angle it gives a real value for the other and hence there is an infinite number of pairs of axes to which, if the curve be re
, ;

ferred, its equation is of the required conjugate form. If, in the next figure, we draw making any angle 9 with

CP

A',

and

CD making an angle O
and

(whose tangent

is

cot.

0) with

C A',

then

CP

are conjugate diameters. Also since the product of the tangents is must be drawn in negative, if C P be drawn in the angle A' C B, C the ang-le B C A.

C D

132. There
in the case
let

is no occasion to examine the above equation of condition where 6 or Q' but G, for then we hare the original axes us examine whether there are any other systems of rectangular axes. cos. 0, and cos. 0' sin. 0, Let 8' 90 + e, :. sin. 6'

## hence the equation of condition becomes

(a*

&*) sin.

cos.

0,
,

2 s we must have by the nature of the ellipse, a cannot == 6 90, both which values give the original axes again hence 0, or G This rethe only system of rectangular diameters is that of the axes.

and 6

since,

## mark agrees with

article 87.

observe in the above transformation that, although we have and 0', it does not follow that introduced two indeterminate quantities we can destroy two terms in the transformed equation, unless the values
of these quantities are real: for example,
if

We may

we attempt
a

to destroy

any

## other term as the second,

there

we

find tan.

1>

a value to which

is no corresponding angle 0; hence, in putting the co-efficient of 0, we adopted the only possible hypothesis. x'y' 133. The equation to the curve is now

{a

(sin. 0')

+ b* (cos.

0')

}y +
2

a8

(sin.

0)

6 (cos. 0) 2 }

a?'

b*.

0, we have the distances from 0, and x' If we successively make y' the origin to the points in which the curve cuts the new axes; let these distances be represented by a^ and b lt the former being measured along the axis of a?', arid the latter along the axis of y' ; then we have

y'
x'

= =

0, 0,

/. {
/.

a* (sin. 0)
2

2 2

{a

(sin. 0')

+6 +6

s
3

(cos. 0)

}
2

af
8

(cos. 0') } 6 t

= a b\ =a 6
2
2

And

becomes

bf

or,

a*

Where

## a? V, new conjugate diameters

y'

6^

y =
8

are 2

a and 2

64 .

82
134.

THE DIAMETERS.
From
the transformation
a,*

we obtain
8

8

V {a
a* sin.
or,
1

(sin. 0')'
sin. 0'

+
6
2

(cos. 0') }

=a 6 =a6
2
8

(I),
(2),

-f

cos.
/

cos. 0' s= 0,
-

tan.
8

tan.

= -8

(
j

3'

Putting

(sin. 0)
2 2

## for (cos. 0)* in (1),

we have

a,

(a
2

6s )
6*)

(sin. 0)

and

tf

(a

/.

(cos. 0)

= =

a8 6 8
*
CT

- a^

6,
,

a2

a 2 62

(tan. 0)*

=
a^

~
6*
8

Putting 6j for o, in this expression, we have the value of (tan. found from (2)

0')

as

hence by multiplication,
(tan.0)*
.'. ( tan .eO2

(a

or,

.-.

- o8
t

fll

a2
a8

a4

-6 =
4

= (a, - 6) (^ - 6 = a, 6^ of 6 - 6 a? V
- 6,)
8 2

),
2

6t

-f 6*

V+
8

8
t

a2

68
-f-

8
fe,
,

V),

=
that
is,

(a

6 )

the

sum

the sum of the squares upon the conjugate diameters of the squares upon the axes.

is

equal to

135. Again, multiplying (1) and (2) together, and (3) by then subtracting the results, we have
a,
2

itself,

and
e

6j

a4

(sin. 0)
;

(sin.

+b
8

(cos. 0)
2 8

(cos. 0')

-f

a*6
b
4

(sin. 0)

(cos. tf)*}
8

+
a
4

a9 6*
6
4
,

(sin. 0')

(cos. 0)

a 4 (sin 0) 8

(sin.

2 a8 6*

sin.

## sin. 0" cos.

THE DIAMETERS.
a 6s
2
2

83
sin. 9' cos. 6 cos.

## { (sin. 0')* (cos.

0)

2
2

(sin.

0)

(cos. 0')

=
a a
8

sin.

d7

a4
6
8
;

4
,

or,
or,

a,
2

&!

{ sin.
2

tf'

cos,

sin.

cos. 0' }

a* 6

a,

6t
/.

{ sin. (0'

6) }

b v sin. (Q'

= =

b.

is the angle between the conjugate diameters C P hence drawing straight lines at the extremities of the conjugate diameters, parallel to those diameters, we have, from the above equathe rectangle A C B E, and therefore tion, the parallelogram P the whole parallelogram thus circumscribing the ellipse is equal to the

Now

0'

PCD,

and

CD;

CDT =

rectangle contained by the axes *. If the extremities of the conjugate diameters be joined, it is readily seen that the inscribed figure is a parallelogram, and that its area is equal to half that of the above circumscribed parallelogram. We may remark, in passing, that the circumscribed parallelogram, having its sides parallel to a pair of conjugate diameters, is the least of all parallelograms circumscribing the ellipse arid that the inscribed parallelogram, having conjugate lines for its diameters, is the greatest of all inscribed
;

parallelograms. 136. Returning to article (133.), the equation to the curve, suppressing the accents on a/ and y', as no longer necessary, is

In the

figure,

CP

=
mr

a lf

D = ^ CV=
Q,

x and
t

VQ

rp

* The theorems in articles 134 and 135 may be proved also in the following manner : Referring the curve to its rectangular axes, as in article (138.), let the co-ordinates of P be x' and y''; then the equation to C D is a*yy' -j- b 2 x x' 0, and eliminating 2 2 2 z b z x* = a * ), we have of and y between this equation and that to the curve (a y the co-ordinates C and D N, fig. 135, of the intersection of C D with the curve, C
-

and

N DN =

hence we have

a2

6s

a2

Mso

the triangle

PCD =

the trapezium

PMN D

the triangles

l Zao

T Z

## therefore the parallelogram

PCDT=

b.

notice has been taken of the positional value of the abscissa entirely a question of absolute values.

No

C N,

since this is

G2

84

THE DIAMETERS.
Putting the equation into the form

we have
137.

the square

the square

upon C

## upon the ordinate Q V the square upon C P.

:

the rectangle

PV, VP':i

as in (111.)

The equation to the tangent at any point Q (x y') found exactly 8 is a, y y' + b^ x x' = a? bf. The points T and T', where it cuts the new axes, are determined as in
;

(114.)

whence

CT = ^,

CT'

^;

at the

## two extremities of a chord meet

138. Let the ellipse be

in the

now

referred to

diameter to that chord (114.). its rectangular axes, and let the

co-ordinates of

be x'
is

y',

## then the equation to

CP

is

~~

j?,

and the

equation to

C
u

tan. &'

6 --- cot. 6 = -a a
8

b*
8

d
r
y'
=r,

or,

a*yy'

+
P
x

b*
is

x'

=
62
;

0.

## But the equation

hence

to the

tangent

at

a*yy'

68

x'

CD or the
this

From

diameter conjugate to C P is parallel to the tangent at P. circumstance the conjugate to any diameter is often defined

drawn through the centre, and parallel to the tangent at the extremity of the diameter. The equation to the conjugate diameter is readily remembered, since it is the same as that to the tangent without the last term, and therefore may be deduced from the equation to the curve, as at the end of article 111. The three equations are
to be the line

a* y* 4. 6*
*

x2
b*

=
x

a8

6 s,

to the curve,

y'
y'

os y

+ +

d
x'

=r a* 6 8 , to the tangent,

0,

to the conjugate.

The equation
co-ordinates are

to the tangent

DT
i/

bo?

and

a ---^-

## (note 135), and parallel to

P,

is

or reducing

y x'

x y'

=
xtf

b.

And

the equation to

C P

is

y
These equations
with the equation

yf

0.

to the tangents and conjugate diameters, combined to the curve, will be found useful in the solution of

## problems relating to tangents.

SUPPLEMENTAL CHORDS.
139. Let j/ and y' be rectangular co-ordinates of
2

85

equation a,

+
2

&i

=
2

a8

+
2

&

2
,

we have
6
2

6t
1

*"

(a

y'

&

a;'

a3

x*

= a + b* - a? r= a + 6 ~ a* - " ~ 6 = a - eV*
2 2 2 '
2 2

## then, from the

a2

a:'

e#') (a

ex')

r r'.

That is, the square upon the conjugate diameter under the focal distances S P and H P.
140.

D=

the rectangle

Draw

## PF perpendicular upon the PF, C D = ab,

ab

conjugate diameter

C D,

then

ab

= - Vrr7 and P G' =-|hence, The rectangle P G, P F = The square on B C, and The rectangle P G', P F = The square on A C, and The rectangle P G, P G' = The square on C D
It

was shown

in (128.) that

PG

SUPPLEMENTAL CHORDS.
141. Two straight lines drawn from a point on the curve to the extremities of a diameter are called supplemental chords. They are called if that diameter be the axis major. principal supplemental chords P' two Referring the ellipse to its axes, let P P' be a diameter, Q P, 1 chords ; then, if x' y' be the co-ordinates of P, #', y

supplemental

QP
is

is

y'
y'

a (x

x'},
x'}.
,

## and the equation

to

P'

a' (x

At the point of intersection, y and x are the same for both equation 2 3 a?' y'* =.- act' (x ) ; being the co-ordinates of Q ; hence., y*
but a?y*
-j-

62
&

o?
2

and a2 y'*

= a 6 at Q, x = a b at P
2
2 2
1

that is, The product of the tangents of the angles, which a pair of supplemental chords makes with the axis major, is constant.

P=
is

u,

and p

## the perpendicular from the centre on the tan-

86

SUPPLEMENTAL CHORDS.
t

If the curve was referred to any conjugate diameters, 2 o and 2 6,, we should find exactly in the same manner that the product of the tangents of the angles, which a pair of supplemental chords makes with any axis
1

8
.

a,, is

constant,

and equal

to

-^ a
\

The
to
its

equation to a chord

QP

being y
is

y'

=
--

a
-

(j?

x ),
-f-

the equation

supplemental chord

Q P'

+ y'

(#

#')

'= a .' . In the circle b 1, which proves that in the circle the supplemental chords are at right angles to each other, a well-known property of that figure. The converse of the proposition
is

thus proved.
a'

Let

A C A'

be any diameter,

(1),

=
to

-^,then

the

equation to
a'

A R is
9

a (x

a^

A'

is

(x - ff

= -- b
let
;

- aO (x

(2).

## To find the intersection

for (1)

of the lines

AR

and A'R,

y and x be
hence,
!*)

the

same

and

(2),

and eliminate a by

multiplication

y*

= --l

(x*

or

a? y
l

b^

,r

is

142.
is

The equation a

a' ==

---

is

## remarkable, as showing thai a

a'

the same, not only for different pairs of chords drawn to the extremities of the same diameter, but also for pairs of chords drawn to the extremities of any diameter ; hence, if from the extremity of the axis major we can

AR
:

parallel to

P',

## the supplemental chord

R A'

will
is

this is possible in all cases, except when one chord be parallel to Q P axis. parallel or perpendicular to the 143. To find the angle between two supplemental chords. Let x, y be the co-ordinates of Q, and x' y' those of P,

y -y'
Then
tan.

y+y'
a
8

PQ
26*

P'

=
x

or

- ~

x'y

a * -ft 8

y.

- y'f
,

y'x
'

For the

..

we have

x'

a, y'

tan

A RA

__.
a8
6s

f. y

## obtuse, which is also evident, since the circumscribing: circle.

This value of the tangent being negative, the angle all the points on the

A R A'

is

alwayt

## THE POLAR EQUATION.

87

As y increases, the numerical value of the tangent decreases, or the angle increases (since the greater the obtuse angle, the less is its tangent) b. hence, the angle is a maximum when y is, that is, when y This shows that the angle ABA' is the greatest angle contained by the principal supplemental chords, and therefore by any supplemental chords. r Also, its supplement B A B is the least angle contained by any supplemental chords. The angle between the chords being thus limited by the angles A'BA, BAB', of which the former is greater, and the latter less, than a right angle, chords may be drawn containing any angle between these limits. This is done by describing a segment of a circle,

containing the given angle, upon any diameter, except the axis, and joining the extremities of the diameter with the points of intersection of the Also, from the value of tan. P Q P', it appears that, ellipse and circle. if the angle be a right angle, the two chords are perpendicular to the
axes.

144. It

was shown

in (131.)

that if Q

and

Q'

## were the angles which

conjugate diameters
but
a,

the axis major, tan. Q. tan. Q' , a* of the angles which two supplemental chords being tangents

make with

make
a
a!
;

with the

same
tan.

axis,

we have a we have

a' rr

/.

tan. Q

tan. 0'

hence,

if

a,

tan. Q'

a'
is

or

if

one diameter be
to the supple-

parallel to

## any chord, the conjugate diameter

parallel

mental chord. 145. Since supplemental chords can be drawn containing any angle within certain limits, conjugate diameters parallel to these chords may be drawn containing any given angle within the same limits. Also, since the angle between the principal supplemental chords is between the conjugate diameters is also always obtuse, the angle In obtuse, and is the greatest when they are parallel to A B and A B'. this case, being symmetrically situated with respect to the axes, they are equal to one another. The magnitude of the equal conjugate diameters is found from the

PCD

equation

0^+ bf
#i
2
;

a8

+6

8
,

.*.

a^

The equation

#8

this

is

to rectatigular

to the circle,

## THE POLAR EQUATION.

146. Instead of an equation between rectangular co-ordinates x and y, obtain one between polar co-ordinates u and 9. Let the curve be referred to the centre C, and to rectangular axes, and be x' and y', the angle which the !et the co-ordinates of the pole x parallel to the axis of x\ radius vector P, or u makes with a line

we may

we have

= y' -f u sin.
x'

x =.

cos. 6

## THE POLAR EQUATION.

also a*?/*
.*.

&** 8

a8

*>

2
5

1 by substitution, a* (y

+ u sin. 0)*
62
;

cos. 0)

=a

## Whence M may be found

Q and constant quantities.

in

terms of

/. af

=
a
2

and
2

y'

a2
a 2 (sin.

u* (sin. 0) 8
6
2
2

= 0, +6

w8

(cos. 0)

=
2

a8 6*

a8
2
2

0)

(cos. 0)

(sin. 0)

+
8

(a

a 2 e8 )
8
'

(cos. 0)

a2
148.

a2

(cos. 0)
:

(cos. 0)

=
8

=
c

c,

and M becomes
r cos. 0) 2
8 8

a2
2
.'.

(r sin. 0)

-f
8

+
-

=
2

a2

s
;

r 2 (sin. 0) 2
r
8 8

or,

a8 6 8

## r (cos. 0) (sin. 0) 8 62 c c. b* since a 68

+ +
r

6 2 r 2 (cos. 0)*

2 6 2 r c cos.
c r

+
-

62 c2

62

a8

(cos. 0)

2 6

r c cos.

=s

or,

a2

== c2 r2 (cos. 0) 8

+
2

2 6s r
8 )
;

c cos.

b*

a
6
s

= =

(c r cos.
c r cos.

a a

+6 +6 (l
2

e2 )

a (11

e )

c cos.

ae. cos.

e cos.

149. Let any point on the curve be the pole: Expanding the terms of the polar equation in (146.), and reducing by a* 6 f we have means of the equation a* y * + 6 8 .r"
r

a2 y f
"

sin.

&
2

-\- b*

cos.
8
'

a* (sin. 0)

+
""

(cos. 0)
a,
e ) cos.
'

If the pole

is

at

A, we have y'
2
g
fr

= 0, and a/ = _
2 a (1
1
2

_ =
150.

cos.

a(sin.0)M-

6 (cos.0)

-e
is

(cos. 0)

When

the focus

is

Let S

r,

then

=
a
a

0,

+
+
a

(S
(

M -

S C)
ae)
.

=
-'.

r cos. 6

+e

r cos.

a & and

r =
1

-f c cos.

## THE POLAR EQUATION.

,M>

This is the equation generally used in astronomy, the focus S being the place of the sun, and the ellipse the approximate path of the planet.

Let a (1

e )

=
may be
l
e cos.

= p,

where

is

:

Then

.

## written under the following; forms

P.

l-e

+2e{

cos.

If 6 be measured, not from S A, but from a line passing through and making an angle a with S A, the polar equation is

S,

-f~ e

cos -

a)
S

151. If

## S meet the curve again P,

then r

-let
1

F=

r',

e cos.

"

'

e cos. (TT

0)

e cos.

ea

(cos. 6}*

i of the rectangle under the rectangle S P, S P' r= principal and focal chord. parameter
or the
152.

Let
6
.

CD,

or

6,,

## be the semi-diameter parallel to

8

SP,
.

then (147.)
./

~
1

0-e
2
fi

-)

_a
2
1

(co?.

6))*

p
e
2 a

(cos. 6)

that

is, a focal chord at any point P, major and diameter to that chord.

is

## a third proportional to the axis

90

THE HYPERBOLA.

CHAPTER

IX.

THE HYPERBOLA.
153. IN the discussion of the general equation of the second order, we observed that, referring the curve to the centre and rectangular axes, the equation to the hyperbola assumed the form

where the
Let
(

co-efficients

-r
f J

## be negative, then the equation becomes

8
/

+
2

or

2/

=-

1.

proceed to investigate this equation, and to deduce from it all the properties of the hyperbola. 154. Let the curve be referred to its centre C, and rectangular axes P x, and x, Y y, meeting in C ; C y ; then, at the point where the curve cuts the axes, we have

We now

M=

=
*

0,

Q
0,

= ,

1,

.'.

CA

and CA'

--=

## end the curve

is

x in and A: Since the value of y cuts the axis the other axis never meets the curve ; nevertheless we points, B and B', in that axis, whose distances from

impossible,
off

mark

two
zz

are

CB

THE HYPERBOLA.
Also
if

91

CA

s=

and

C B

6,

we have

Q =

there-

ar

6*

becomes
2

62

-*--i. a
=
8
i/

or a 2

x*

- a8

f
;

oiy = ^(*
155.

-a)

From

we have

From

## (1) if<rbe less than

a,

drawn through
between these

is

impossible;

if,

therefore, lines be
is

and

A', parallel to

C Y, no

## part of the curve

found

lines.

hence, we have two arcs A P, P', exactly equal and oppoeach other, and extending themselves indefinitely. z If x be negative, x being positive, the same values of y must recur ; hence, there are again two equal and opposite arcs which form another branch extending from A' to OD ; thus the whole curve is divided into two equal parts by the axis of x. From (2) it appears to be divided into two equal parts by the axis of y ; hence it is symmetrical with respect to the axes; and its concavity is turned towards the axis of ,r, otherwise it might be cut by a straight line in more points than two, (71.) 156. If P be any point on the curve, we have
to ;t CD
;

Again, for every value of x, greater than a, we have two real and equal values of y ; that is, for any abscissa C M, greater than C A, we have two equal and opposite ordinates, P'. P, Also as x increases from a to CD, these values of y increase from

site to

c p
hence

=
a"
a'
is,

which case hence C A, or C A', is the least line that beco-mes also equal to a A' is the can be drawn from the centre to the curve thus, the axis least line that can be drawn through the centre to meet the curve. The other axis, B B', never meets the curve. 2 In the equation Q x* =r 1, the imaginary axis may be greater or less than the real one, according as Q is greater or l"ess than P ; hence the appellation of axis major cannot be generally applied to the real axis A' the transverse axis, and In this treatise we shall call of the curve. B B' the conjugate axis. 157. The points A, A' are called the vertices, or summits of the curve* either of these points may be taken for the origin by making proper subis

CP

least

when x

is least,
;

that

when x

=:

in

C P

Py

stitutions.

Let

be the origin,

AM

=r x'

Then

j^CM^CA + AM

x'

-,

92

THE FOCUS.
...

(,,

fl

(a

*>)

_
2
,r

*}

{2 a

*>

or-},

or,

suppressing accents, y*
last

(2 a x

==

x (2 a

+ ^).

This
tion
:

equation

is

I

the square

upon

MP A C.

rectangle

A M, M A'
is

the square

upon

BC

## If the origin be at A', the equation

158. If

if

9 (cr

2 a

.T).

x* 6, the equation to the hyperbola becomes y* called the equilateral hyperbola, and has, to the hyperbola, the same relation that the circle has to the ellipse.

a =:
is

a*

this

curve

common

159. The analogy between the ellipse and hyperbola will be found to be very remarkable the equations to the two curves differ only in the s a8 6 s we put 6 x sign of 6* for if, in the equation to the ellipse a* y* 1 2 we have the equation to the hyperbola hence we might 6 for 6 conclude that many of the algebraical results found in the one curve will s and in 6 in those results be true for the other, upon changing 6* into fact this is the case, the same theorems are. generally true for both, and may be proved in the same manner for this reason we shall not enter at length into the demonstration of all the properties of the hyperbola, but merely put down the enunciations and results, with a reference at the end of each article to the corresponding one in the ellipse, except in those To cases where there may be any modification required in the working. prevent any doubt about the form of the figure, we shall insert figures in those places where they may be wanted and, with this assistance, we
; ;

no

difficulty.

THE FOCUS.
160.

The equation
x

y*

(2 a x

I

y*

I
-

x8

in

26*

is

called the

## principal parameter, or the

Latus Rectum
the

Since

- =26*
a 4 6 2 a

Latus Rectum

is

a third proportional to

## the transverse and conjugate axes.

161. To find from what point in the transverse axis a double ordinate can be drawn equal to the Latus Rectum,

Here

4
*, or

f>

(*'

-)=;
4 64

Join
then

B V a8 -j- 6s ; with centre C and radius B, then a circle cutting the transverse axis in the points S and H,

AB

de

we have

C S

= Va

-|-

6 2,

and

H = - Vo

-f 6*

LS

The two
162.
is

points

The

fraction

ratio of

CS

to

C A,

which

is

## evidently greater than

unity,

be represented by the

letter e,

we have Va 2
1,

62

=a

e,

whence

=
perbola

.'.

=
2

e2

to the hy-

may

## be put under the form

2

2/

=
2

(*

1) (**
6

~
2

)2

163. (a
e

Since a
)_;

ft

e\

we have

a?

(a e

Or

the square upon B C. the rectangle S, S A' 164. To find the distance from the focus to any point

a)

in the

curve,

## proceeding exactly as in (109.)

we

find

ex -

o,

HP=ea? +
that
is

a;

the difference of the distances of any point in the curve from the foci is equal to the transverse axis. 165. Conversely, To find the locus of a point, the difference of whose is constant or equal 2 a. distances from two fixed points S and

Hence

HP-SP = 2 =
H = 2 + e*, and
c,

AA',

If

S
8

the locus

is

## an hyperbola, whose axes arc 2 a and

whose

foci are

S and H. (110.)

THE TANGENT.
166.

To

The

find the equation to the tangent at any point required equation obtained as in (111.) is

(#'

- a8

68.

94

THE TANGENT.

This form is easily recollected, since it may be obtained from the equa2 tion to the curve a 9 y9 a2 6 ? , by putting y y f for y*, and x x6 x* 9 for r .

167.

To

0,
.'.

Let y

-^-

=CT

similarly

= C T' =
y

hence

we have
The
rectangle

Since

## and The rectangle a*\ (

C T, C M = C T', M P =
less

upon upon

AC
B

C.

C T

is

always

than

C A,

the branch

PA

## cuts the transverse axis between

C and A.
(115.)

The subtangent

MT=

x'

-- =

"*

The tangent at the extremity A of the transverse axis is perpendicular to that axis (116.). If P C be produced to meet the curve again in P ;, the tangents at P will be found to be parallel (116.). and 168. To find the equation to the tangent at the extremity of the Latus

Rectum,
Generally the equation to the tangent
is

y
at L,

v'

6a

x x'

'.

a*

69

x a

r=

a9

6*.

THE TANGENT.

95

Also

SP

C T

hence

## .-.MQ = SPfrom T draw T R

perpendicular to

C, and

from

P draw P R

parallel to

C, then

we have

Consequently, the distances of any point * are in the constant ratio of e l 1* The line is called the directrix.

## from S, and from the

line

T R,

If x a ; hence the tangent at the extremity of 0, we have y the Latus Rectum cuts the axis of y at the point where the circle on the transverse axis cuts the axis of y. 169. To find the length of the perpendicular from the focus on the tangent. Let S y, z be the perpendiculars on the tangent P T.

TR

in (48.)

we have

v 1

here y l r=

and

x^

e are

is

the equation to

Py

## co-ordinates of the point S, and y but the equation to P y (166.) is also

=
-Jf-

*-f
6 of
s

"
b*

S?

and

<*=a)

ae

b* (e x'

6s (e

j?'

o)
2

/
"
2

e- j?'

fi2 <*'

a:'

96

THE TANGENT.
r

LetSP= r,andHP = 2a +
Similarly
if

=r'.-.

= b */^-,or =6 v / 2a+r
2
.

= p',

we have p"
r

=
;

By

multiplication

we have p p
y,

b*

hence

The
170.

rectangle S

H
P

z r: the square

upon
1

C.

To

to the curve at
is

## The equation The equation

a* y'*
is

b* y'

=.

x'

a* 6

to the tangent at

P
is

a*

=
c)

a8

6*.

The equation

to

S y

=-.

a? y' j- (x

By
tion

we

Hence
meter. 171.

the locus of y

is

tangent

To find P T.

6* s!

S
6
2
,

P makes

with the

The equation
to

to the

tangent
(x

is

y =.
x'),

-x

--

## and the equation

is,

y'

=
"

-2
x
tan.

hence
y'
x'

PT =
'

tan.

(P S

X - PTX)
6 2 x'*

b**'

c
6* x'

a2

y'

a? y'*
a* y' x'

6' c

y'

a* c

y~+

b* x' y'~

a*y' *'-c

_ ~
Similarly tan.

6' (c yf

/.

a*)

y' c(cx'

a2 )

_ "

68
'

c y'

H PT =

s
:,

the angles

SPT,

HPT

are equal

thus the tangent makes equal angles with the focal distances. Produce S P to S', then it is a property of light, that if a ray probe reflected by the line TPT', the angle S' PT' of the ceeding from reflected ray will equal the angle Now, in the hyperbola, the.se angles are equal ; hence if a light be placed at H, all rays which are incident on the curve will be reflected as if diverging from S ; or if a body of rays proceeding to S be incident on the curve, they will converge to H. are called foci. Hence these points S and This important property of the curve is also thus proved from article

HPT.

(169.),

Sy

=p-

!>V,

and

=// =

~;

THE TANGENT.
. .

J);

Sy

H,r

::

r'

::

SP H
:

P;

.*.

angle S

Py

=H

z,

## and the tangent makes

from the centre on the

equal angles with the focal distances *. 172. To find the length of the perpendicular tangent.

Cu

here y,
173.

=
To

=
C

=
is

b* x'
,,

b*

and d ==

r , .-.

C u

to

The equation

yt
t

x,

## eliminating x' y'

from

this

equation, and the equation to the tangent, we find as in (123.), the re2 9 9 3 b* sulting equation to be a x* (x -f- y ) , which cannot be disy* cussed at present. 174. From the equation to the tangent, and that to C P, we find, as

in (124.),

x' y'

* The following geometrical method of drawing a tangent to the hyperbola, and proving that the locus of the perpendicular fram the focus on the tangent is the circle on the transverse axis, will be found useful.

Let

AP
;

point on it P take

angle S
join
.

PK

P K = PS;

S K, cutting P y in y. P y is a tangent to the hyper1 bola; for if R be any other point in the line P y, we have H R - S R II R - K R is less than H K ^Geom. i. 10) less than 2 a, hence R, and every

be the hyperbola, P any join S P and H P, and in bisect the by the line P y z, and

other point in Py, is without the curve. 2. The locus of y is the circle on the transverse axis : draw z parallel to S y, and join Cy; then, because the triangles S P y, P y are equal, we have the angle S yP a right angle, or S y and z are perpendicular to the tangent.

Also since S y
II

y,

and S C

C H, we have C y

parallel to

K, and

K=

i- (H

P - S

P) =r

A.

3. The rectangle S y, H z =. the square on B C. Let z H meet the circle again in O, and join C O then the line O C y is a straight line and a diameter, hence the C S y, C H O are equal, and the rectangle S y, H z r= the rectangle II O, triangles H z =. the rectangle A', H A the square upon B C.
;

4.

Let

SP

H HPr=2 r,
S y
I

=
.'

jo

And

=
-

p',

then p*

for

by

similar triangles,

S P

II

P,

.'.

p = -

p\ and, as above,

p'

i*

j>*

rrr

4- r
i!

98

THE NORMAL.
From C
w

=
a

C y

sin.

Cy
sin.

w,

we have
.'
.

Also from
b

V r r' Hz = HP

Cyu

sin.

Cyu

=
Vr
r'

-.

sin.

H P 2,
/.

we have
sin.

J -- = / r

sin.

H P *, H

H P* =

Vr

4=
r>

.'.

And if C E in E, we have

P 2 and C y is parallel to P. angle angle C y u be drawn parallel to the tangent PT, and meeting

PE = Cy = AC.

H P

THE NORMAL.
175.

The equation
to

7-

y')> anc^

/
perpendicular
the tangent
I

y
\

=
cf

b* tf **

--b*

\
1

is

y
11'

-y = '

1F7

<

0.

To

find

176.

MG=

x'

-a
8

and S

G=

e.

P.

From

## the above values of

C G, C

G', and
r1 ,

M G', we

may demon
that

trate that

P G =
rectangle

-s/TPT

PG'

=
b
r'

Jr

and consequently

The

G,

P
'

G' r= r

=
6

the rectangle

S P,

P.

Also S G'

=
o

G'

-- v', and

.-.

G G'=

e.SG'.

177. Since the tangent makes equal angles with the focal distances, the normal, which is perpendicular to the tangent, also makes equal angles with the focal distances, one of them being first produced as to H'.

This theorem may be directly proved from the above value of C G for 8 ae e x' a e a/ a :: SP : a e :: ex' : :: & x' H P, hence the angle S P H' is bisected by the line P G.

SG

HG

THE DIAMETERS.
178. It may be proved as for the ellipse (130.), that all the diameters of the hyperbola pass through the centre, and that any line through the

THE DIAMETERS.
centre
a?
ot

99

is

a diameter.
68

If
c.

parallel to

= =

+
to

is

the equation

## be the equation to any chord, all chorda

179. In the ellipse all the diameters must necessarily meet the curve; but this is not the case in the hyperbola, as will appear by rinding the coordinates of intersection of the diameter and the curve. Let y ft x be the equation to a diameter C P, and substitute this value of y in the equation to the curve.

greater than

if

a8
,

/3

is

is, if /3

is

andif/3

=
B and

## the diameter meets the curve only at

an

infinite distance.

The

limits of the

determined; through A,
in

intersecting diameters are thus B' draw lines parallel to the axes meeting
,

and

## E', then tan.

ECA

and

tan.

E'

CA

hence

CE

and C E' produced are the lines required. Hence, in order that a diameter meet the curve, it must be drawn within the angle E C E'; thus the
line

respect to these lines C E, C E', since the axis bisects the angle C E'. 180. The hyperbola has an infinite number of pairs of conjugate diaThis is proved by referring the equation to other axes by means meters.

## of the formulas of transformation (57.)

y
x
hence the equation
9

a9 y2
6
s

## = x' sin. 6 + y' sin. = y/ cos. 6 + y cos. 6 x* = a 6 becomes

0',
j

0'

{a

(sin. 0')

sin.

2 (a2

2 2 6 (cos. 0)*} (cos. 0') } y' {a* (sin. 0) a* b*. 62 cos. sin. 0' cos. 0'} x' y'
9

jc

I'l

'2

100

THE DIAMETERS.
1

In order that
of
i)

*'

this equation

68 cos. Q cos.
0'

let

the co-efficient

0,
.%

a2

sin.

6 sin. Of

0,

or,

a2

Hence
infinite

for

any value of

0,

we have a

real value of
if

0',

that

is,

there

is

an
its

number of
is

equation

## of the required conjugate form.

If tan. 6 be less

than

tan. 0'

## must be greater than

that

is,

if

one diameter C P, in the last figure, meets the curve, the conjugate diameter C D does not; therefore in each system of conjugate diameters one
Also, since the product of the tangents is positive, both imaginary. angles are acute, or both obtuse ; in the figure they are both acute, but for the opposite branch they must be both obtuse. 181. As in article (132.), it appears that there can be only one system of rectangular conjugate diameters. 182. The equation to the curve is now
is

{a

(sin. 0')

## 6 (cos. 0') 8 } y' 2

{a

(sin. 0)

6 s (cos. 0) 2 }

8
-r'

a?

b*.

and j/ 0, we have the distances from which the curve cuts the new axes; but as we already know (180.) that one of these new axes never meets the curve, we must represent one of these distances by an imaginary quantity. Let the axis of x' meet the curve at a distance a v from the centre, and
If

we

## successively make y' the origin to the points in

= 0,

let

the length of the other semi-axis be bi connected with the symbol 1, that is, let the new conjugate diameters be 2 a^ and 2 6 t If

then

we have
y x

= =

/. /.

{a
{a
2

(sin. 0)
8

6 2 (cos. 0)

}
2

a?
}

a* b\

(sin. 0')

(cos. 0')

6, )

= -

a 2 6%

And

## the transformed equation

becomes

or,

y'*

b? .r'

=z

2
,

6 t2

183.

From
2

the transformation
8
2

we

8
8 2

!{' (sin.
2

0)
2
6>')

6,
2

{a
sin.

(sin.

## - 6 (cos. 0) } = ~ - P (cos. 00'} = +

6
2

(1),
2

&

(2),

sin

0'

cos.
'

cos. 0'

0,

or,

tan.

tan. 0'
.

Following the steps exactly as in article (134.), or, which amounts to 8 s 2 for 6 , and 6 for bf all through that the same thing, putting 6j article, we arrive at the result

THE DIAMETERS.
or, the difference

101

of the squares upon the conjugate diameters is equal to the difference of the squares upon the axes. 184. Again, multiplying (1) and (2) together, and (3) by itself, then subtracting the results, and reducing, as in the article (135.), we have
a t 6 l sin. (0'
0)

b.

and C

Now Q' - is the angle PCD between the conjugate diameters C P D hence, drawing straight lines at the extremities of the conjugate
;

diameters, parallel to those diameterSj we have, from the above equation, the T the rectangle A' C B E, and hence the whole parallelogram P C parallelogram thus inscribed in the figure is equal to the rectangle contained by the axes*. 185. Returning to article (182."), the equation to the curve, suppressing the accents on a/ and as no longer necessary, is y',

The theorems
:

its

may

## be proved also in the following man-

ner

s bear' and y '; then the is o y y' b z x x' = 0, and eliminating x equation to and y between this equation and that to the curve (a2 y 2 A 2 x z =. a 2 6 2 ) we have the co-ordinates C N and D N, independent of the sign *J 1, with which they are

CD

both affected,

CN =
Hence we have

-JL, and
b

DN =

*
-

triangle

PCM

PCD =

the trapezium

PM ND
-

+ the

triangle

DCN

the

## -/w-^y + y'- L *y-*V_~*'y

2ab
therefore the parallelogram

y'*.-

PCDT

c= a

6.

102

THE DIAMETERS.

r= In the last figure, C P a,, C Putting the equation into the form
2/5

6,,

CV

= x and Q V = y
(*

^ (*
8

O = ;(*- "0
:

+
P'
1

i>

we have

C D

the square

the square

upon Q V upon C P.

the rectangle

P V, V

: :

the square

upon

186.

its

point

Q
V.
A,

(x y

) is

-i

ordinates of

axes

B, and

let

the co-

be x'

y y

r
,

C P

being y
6

= ~- x, the
w
g
,

equation to

CD

is

tan.

9
b*

=
x

x
x'

cot.

a-,

or,

a*yy' But
#8 y
hence
at P. b9

0.

y'

is

x'

=
C
is

a8
P,

1>* ;

C D,

is

parallel to

the tangent

The

a?
b*.

the

same as

## f 188. Let x' and y be the rectangular co-ordinates of 6 2 , we have 6 t8 a8 equation af

P; then from

the

s=
a*

a' 2

a?'

a8

(e *'

(p x'

+
the

=r

r'

That is, the square upon the conjugate diameter under the focal distances S P and H P.

D=

rectangle

189. If P F be drawn perpendicular from P upon the conjugate (see the last figure but one,) we have the rectangle P F, C
(184-).
.-.

D=

C D,
a
6,

PF

-fLJL
i

=
P

-. V
G'

ab
a8

fll

6s

= -^-i* v rr

Also

PG

VTT;
P P P

and
G,

4- >i~^ b
B C
;

Hence

the rectangle

And
And

the rectangle

G',

the rectangle

G,
u,

= = P G' =
PF PF

the square on
the square on the square OB

AC

C D.
centre on the tan-

* If the distance

C P r=

and p

## = the perpendicular from the

gnt,

this equation is

THE ASYMPTOTES.

Iu3

SUPPLEMENTAL CHORDS.
190. Two straight lines drawn from a point on the curve to the extremities of a diameter are called supplemental chords ; they are called principal supplemental chords if that diameter be the transverse axis.

The equations

to a pair of

chords are
f

=
=

(*
*' (x

<*')

y
Whence a
a'

y'

#')

## as in (141.); hence the product of the tangents of

the angles which a pair of supplemental chords makes with the transverse axis is constant; the converse is proved as in 141. 191. The angle between two supplemental chords is found from the ex-

pression

R be

## principal supplemental chords

drawn

to any point

tan.

AR
A

A'

= -r-^f! 6
(a
8

to

A' is always acute, and diminishes from a right angle angle A' R' increases at the same time from a the supplemental angle right angle to 180; hence, the angle between the supplemental chords
;

The

A R

containing any angle between these limits, by describing on any diameter, except the axes, a segment of a circle containing the given angle, an'l then joining the extremities of the diameter with the point where the circle intersects the hyperbola. And therefore principal supplemental chords parallel to these may be drawn. 192. Conjugate diameters are parallel to supplemental chords (144.)
;

## may be any angle between Chords may be drawn

and 180.

and therefore they may be drawn containing any angle between and 90. 193. There are no equal conjugate diameters in the hyperbola, but in that particular curve where b a, we have the equation a? - b3 a? - bf ;

hence the conjugate diameters c and 6 t are always equal to each other.
t

The equation

## to this curve, called the equilateral hyperbola, is

a:

= - o.

THE ASYMPTOTES.
194. have now shown that most of the properties of the ellipse apply to the hyperbola with a very slight variation there is, however, a whole class of theorems quite peculiar to the latter curve, and these arise from the curious form of the branches extending to an infinite distance ;
:

We

it

tan

6'

## in (180.), that as tan.

104

THE ASYMPTOTES.
,

approaches to
il

tan. 6'

approaches also to

and

Or

thus, as a point

recedes along the curve from the origin, the conjugate diameters for that point approach towards a certain line C E, fig. (179.), and finally at an infinite distance come indefinitely near to that line. now proceed to show that the curve itself continually approaches to But as this the same line C E, without ever actually coinciding with it. species of line is not confined to the hyperbola, we shall state the theory

We

CPP'

## be a curve whose equation has been reduced to the

form

And

let

TB

S be the

line

whose equation

is

y
For any value of x we can
ordinate

=ax +
from
to

b.

find

this last

equation a corresponding
point

M Q,

M Q, we determine a
line.

in the

curve

similarly

## we can determine any number of corresponding

curve and straight

points

Since
JB

## decreases as x increases, the line P' Q'

will

be

less

than

Q,

and the greater x becomes, the smaller does the corresponding P' Q' become ; so that when x is infinitely great, P' Q' is infinitely small, or the
curve approaches indefinitely near to the line TBS, but yet never actually is called an asymptote to the curve, from three meets it hence Greek words signifying " never coinciding."
:

TBS

B S is y The equation to the asymptote tion to the curve, with the exception of the
power of a:.

=ax+

6,

or

is

the equa-

## term involving the inverse

196. The reasoning would have been as conclusive if there had been more inverse powers of x and in general if the equation to a curve can
;

## be put into the form

&c.

+mjf+nx*+aj!+b+

-f

-f

&c

THE ASYMPTOTES.
Then
the equation to the curvilinear asymptote
is

105

&c.

+ m

x3

n n

-x*

a x
ax

-f 6

## Also the equation y

&c.

+ m 3? +

x*

-\

-- gives a curve

series of curves,

## much more asymptotic than "

each
is

the preceding equation, and hence arises a more nearly coinciding" with the original curve. 197. Let us apply this method to lines of the second order, whose
(75.)

general equation

y =
*

- 4

2 (b d -

- 4 a/}

mx +

n x

+P

>

b y substitution,

2a
6

-r-

d
'

constant terms
*
\

2 a

powers of x
is

Hence

## the equation to the asymptote

- -

bx

+
a

V{* + i^}
V6 8 - 4ac
f

bx

6rf

2a

2a

{<

- 4ac

2oc)

s 4 a c is negative in the ellipse, and therefore there is no locus 6 2 4 ac to the above equation in this case ; also if 6 0, the equation

Now

to the asymptote, found as above, will contain the term V#, and therefore will belong to a curvilinear asymptote ; hence the hyperbola is the admits of a rectilinear asymptote. only one of the three curves which It appears

from the

## two asymptotes, and that

Also these asymptotes

the

diameter y

bx +d 2a
;

bisects them.

## pass through the centre

for giving to
b

x the value
2 c d
b*

--,

we have

be
4 ac

2a

and these values of x and y are the co-ordinates of the centre (80.). 198. I the equation want either of the terms #* or y*, a slight operation will enable us to express the equation in a series of inverse

powers of

or x

thus

if

the equation be
6

x n

-f ex* 4-

dy

+ f=

0,

106

THE ASYMPTOTES.
CJ
y
-,

we have

ex+f =
:

c a*

+f

+
x

+/

bx
c e

f \f x J\

d
i

Hence

## found by multiplying and neg-

lecting inverse

powers of *,

is

cd

other asymptote is determined by the consideration that if, for any value of J?, we obtain a real infinite value of y, that value of x determines the position of an asymptote. d oo ; hence a line drawn paHere when bx 0, we have y
finite

The

rallel to

## the axis of y, and through the point x

=
o

is

the required

asymptote.
If the equation be

ay*

+ bxy+dy + ex+ /=

0,

ay

-j-

=
6
is

and by

-f e

## parallel to the axis of y.

bxy + dy + ex +/=0,
the equations to the asymptotes are
6

4-

= 0,

and

## being parallel to the axis of y,

and the

latter pa-

199. Lastly,

if

the equation be b x

+/=

0,

the asymptotes are then the axes themselves, its centre and asymptotes as axes.

is

referred to

The

from the

equation y

~- ~
b

by substitution.

cc,

## = oo as a: increases 0, y we have the branch Y X.

;

THE ASYMPTOTES.

107

For x negative, y is negative; and as x increases from toco, y decreases from QD to hence another branch y tf, equal and similar lo the ; former. 200. To find the equation to the asymptotes from the equation to the hyperbola referred to its centre and axes,

Hence

## the equation to the asymptotes

is

~x.

To draw these lines, complete the parallelogram on the principal axes (see the figure, art. 179.) ; the diagonals of this parallelogram are the loci of the last equation, and therefore are the asymptotes required : thus C and C E', when produced, are the asymptotes.

The equation
axes,
is

## to the asymptotes, referred to the centre

and rectangular
equation to the

readily remembered, since it is the same as the curve without the last term ; the two equations are

as

2
7/

b*

x3
8
a?

=
rr
-.

a8

62 , to the curve,
,

a* y*

to the asymptotes.

a*

2
2/

&!

xs
#2

2
!

## b*, to the curve,

,

a* y'
201. If &

&,

to the asymptotes.

equation to the hyperbola referred to its centre and 2 a2 , therefore the equation to the asymx* rectangular axes is y 2 x* x ; hence these asymptotes cut the 0, or y ptotes is 7/
#, the

= = i

## axes at an angle of 45, or the angle between them

is

90;

hence the

equilateral hyperbola is also called the rectangular hyperbola. and rectangular axes, the 202. If the curve be referred to its vertex equation to the curve is

-i + ->

## and, expanding and neglecting inverse powers of x, the equation to the

asymptotes

is

108

THE ASYMPTOTES.
we take
the equation to any line
(

203. If

c
J

parallel to

the asymptote, and eliminate y between this equation and the equation to the curve, we find only one value of x ; and thus a straight line parallel to the asymptote cuts the hyperbola only in one point. 204. In article (77.) it was stated that, in some cases, the form of the curve could not be readily ascertained : thus, when the curve cuts neither

diameter, there might be some difficulty in ascertaining its correct position: the asymptotes will, however, be found very useful in this respect: for

example,

if

the equation

is

xy
;

x9

1
,

or

=x +

-i

we have
mates

and when x becomes very great, y approxiA Y and TBS, in figure (194), will of the curve ; and since the curve never cuts the represent the asymptotes S and the axes, its course is entirely confined within the angle of the cwrre is at once deteropposite angle T B A ; hence the position
for

=
;

0,

GO

to

hence the

lines

YB

mined, as

in figure

(194).

Ex.

2.

(x

2)

(*

1) (x

3),

or

=r

<HlP
x

(*
<&

~
Y

3)

In the first place we ascertain that the curve is an hyperbola by the test _ 4 a c being positive ; then draw the rectangular axes A X, A : tt where the curve cuts the axes, find the
s

points

Let x
Let y

= =

0,

.'.

0,

/.

y x

also

= - f = A B, = 1 = A C, x = 3 = A D,

AE =
To

## Again, to find the asymptotes, we have

2, the line

PEG,

y drawn perpendicular

=
to

co for

A X,

is

## find the other,

we have

-3)
2

(*-!)(*-

3)

O-DOr-SV

2\~

-*;

.(,-4

THE ASYMPTOTES.
a?

109

4 x

-f

+, & c

+,

&c.

x hence the equation to the asymptote is y 2, and therefore this line must be drawn through the point E, making an angle of 45 with A X. We can now trace the course of the curve completely for all values of x less than I, y is negative, hence the branch B C ; for x greater than to CD, hence the 1, but less than 2, y is positive and increases from branch C F ; for x greater than 2, but less than 3, y is negative, hence the branch G D ; and for x greater than 3, y is positive and approx2, hence the branch from imating to x extending to the second
;

asymptote. For negative values of x, y is negative, and increases from to co, |2 ; hence the curve extends x approximating also to the value downwards from B towards the asymptote. 2 a). Here x a and y Ex. 3. y (x x x (x a, are a) the equations to the asymptotes. The figure is like the last, supposing

=
*

that

and

coincide.

Ex. 4

=a gives y =
y*

x~
co
:

+
1

x*.

The
a \8
x

axis of

is

## one asymptote, since

2

Also

y
hence y

/
x(

=,r + 2a

x -{- 2 a gives the other asymptote. 205. In order to discuss an equation of the second order completely, we have given, in Chapter VII., a general method of reducing that equation to its more simple forms. In that chapter we showed that the equation, when belonging to an c x* 0. (84.) hyperbola, could be reduced to the form a y* 2 Now the same equation can be reduced also to the form xy A; and ; as this form is of use in all discussions about asymptotes, we shall proceed to its investigation. 206. Let the general equation be referred to rectangular axes, and let it be

+f

Let x x' -f m, and y n, and then, as in article (80.), put y' the co-efficients of x' and y' each ; by this means the curve is referred to its centre, and its equation is reduced to the form

ay'*
Again,
to destroy the

bx'y'

ex'*

+/'=0.
,

and y' z take the formulas of transformation from rectangular to oblique co ordinates (57.). f x" sin. 6 -f y" sin. 0', y =r
co-efficients of x' z
'x'

=
2

x" cos.e

/'cos.

0';

then, by substituting

central equation

becomes
8

y" {a
J- .r" 2

(sin. 6')

cos. Q

+
4

c (cos.

6>',

{a

(sin. 0)

-f b sin.

c (cos. 0) 8 }

110

THE ASYMPTOTES.
x" y" {2 a
sin. 0'sin.
-\

+
fore

-6

(sin. cos. }

## cos. + sin. 0'cos. 0) + + /' = 0.

0'

2 c cos.

0'

There are two new indeterminate quantities 0and tf introduced therewe may make two suppositions respecting the co-efficients in the z transformed equation 0, hence, letting the co-efficients of x"* and y" we have cos. a (sin. 0) 8 + 6 sin. + c (cos. 0) 8 (1),
; ;

(sin. 0')
first

6 (sin.

Bf)

(cos. 0')

+ +

c (cos. 0') 8
,

(2).

Dividing the

## of these two equations by (cos. 0) 8

2

we have

a
hence

(tan. 0)

+
_

6 tan.

0;

2a

the similarity of the equation (1) and (2), it is evident that we / shall arrive at the same value for tan. ; hence, letting one of the above or both the new axes are de values refer to 0, the other will refer to ;

From

termined

in position
is

The equation
207.
>':=

now reduced

6' off

0.

To

= 0.
sin. 0'cos. 0)
/

2a

0' cos.

6 (sin.

cos. 0'

2 c cos 0'cos.

0,

= cos.
From

tan.
.

6 (tan.

tan. 0)

2 c

0,

we have

tan. 0'

tan.

tan. 0'

=
;

and therefore

cos.

cos. 0'

=
J

_
V
(

a
c)*

1
J

!>

2 (

V (a

- 4ac -

Hence

is

we must
find
6
8

## and then, following the above process, we

_
y =

V 6*
2 (a

4Gc

2 c cos.
6 cos.
a;)

oi

c (cos. w)
8

V
{(*

(ft

+c -

6 cos. w) 8

4 a c)
(6
s

___
4

ac)

(sin.

a)

}*

following examples relate to the reduction of the general equation referred to rectangular axes, to another equation referred to the

209.

The

asymptotes.

THE ASYMPTOTES.
Ex
1.
i/'

Ml

10 x y

a*

=*0,

m =

-!-,

./'

=|-;

tan.

fl=

Ex.

2.

4 y8

8 xy

a;

28 x
2,

0,

b'= - 8V2T/'=:
/.

- 8 *J~Tx" y"

0,

or,

4V2
xyz=

Ex.

3.

-- -- =
1

1,

or

axes are here parallel to the asymptotes (198.) : in order to transfer f the origin to the centre, let y x' + m, hence we have y + n and x

The

m=

o,

?i

6,

## and the reduced equation of y' = a

is
6.

210. If 6 and 6 f be the angles which the asymptotes make with the original rectangular axes, we have from the equation (206.),

(tan. 0)
.'.

b tan.

-f-

= 0,
=

Now

## = in this case = ptotes a, the cnrve equation, we have c = - x* = V 2. Ex.

tan. 0. tan. 0'
is

when

a,

7 1, or, equation becomes tan. B. tan. fl hence by (47.), the angle between the asym0; 90 ; and thus whenever, in the general hyperbolic

this

is

a rectangular hyperbola.

4.

2/

The curve is a rectangular hyperbola, and is referred to its centre and also taking the two values of tan. in (206.), we have rectangular axes
;

tan.

0=1,

and

tan. 6'

= -

hence

45

and

0'

= -

45, and

## the formulas of transformation

become

=J
and

2,

In this example the curve is placed as in the next figure, and at first was referred to the axes C X and C Y, but now is referred to the asymptotes C x and C y, supposing C y and C a: to change places, and the 90. angle x C y

r,2

THE ASYMPTOTES.
xy

A- , to find the equation re211. Conversely given the equation ferred to the rectangular axes, and thence to deduce the lengths of the axes For this purpose we use the formulas of transformation from oblique to

x' sin.
:

+
sin.

y' cos.
,
<i>

0)
sin.

y' cos,
it)

(cj

0)

x y
2

&*,

we have
(w

a?" sin.
-4-

sin
sin.

(w
0)

0)

y'
sin.

cos. cos.

cos.

0)
2

(w

(w

u))

Let the
.*.

sin.

=
2

0,

cos.

(w

0)
.'.

sin.

cos.

(w

## 0), or sin. (u>

2 0)

o>

0,

and

hence the new rectangular axis of >r, determined by the angle 0, bisects the angle w between the asymptotes ; this agrees with the remark at the end of (179.).

The transformed

equation, putting

=
;.

60
,

is

=^
j

(sin. (i)

or, putting

sin. -

cos.

for sin

w, and dividing
r
'

-;

Comparing

## this with the equation

1,

we have

(t

2 k cos.

and

2 k

sin.

hence the lengths of the semi-axes are determined. If the equation had been xy + ax + l>y+cz=:Q,
to
its

first refer

the curve

and then proceed as above. 2 212, To deduce the equation x y from the equation referred to the centre and rectangular axes.
centre,

to the curve

Let

C X, C Y C r, C y

## be the rectangular axes,

the asymptotes, or the
1

new

axes,

_
v
P

## lne IICW co-ordinates of P.

,[

THE ASYMPTOTES
VJ

113

Then taking the formulas of transformation from rectangular to oblique axes (57),

x' sin.

+
9

0',

x
and substituting
in the

x? cos.

+ y' cos.
b*

2 equation a

y
2

x9

a2 6 2 we have
,

a (x
or,

sin.

+ /
8

sin. 0')
2

&

(-*'
2
2/'

cos.
2

+
/

2

= a2
6
2
.

a2
2

6*,
2
,

{a

(sin. 0')

## & (cos. 0')*}

sin.

{a (sin.0)
cos.

6 (cos. 0)

} *'

2 { a 2 sin

&-

6 cos.

} a/ y'

In order that this equation may be of the required form, it must not contain the terms in a/ 2 and y' 2 ; but since we have introduced two indeterminate quantities, we can make the two suppositions that the co-efficients of these terms shall ;

.'.

(sin. 0')

62 (cos. 0') 8

= =

0,

a (sin.0)

(cos. 6)
tan.

r= 0,
,

From

we have

and as we

0', it

values of

and

&'

=
H
)

that

is, if

tan

## refers to the axis of*, then tan. 0( ==

refers

to the axis of y,

tan.

=
its.

jr,

in

order

asymptotes

is

now
2

2 {a 2
or,

sin.

sin. 0'

6 s cos.

## cos. 0'} x' y'

2 cos.

cos. 0'

{a

tan.

tan. 0'

2
}

<r'

=-a 6 y = - a* 6*
?
,

we have

114

THE ASYMPTOTES

===== = -====- =

COB.

*;

If 6

is

x y

a2
.

213.

parallel to

drawn

CN,
*
'

the area

## the asymptotes is 2 0; if therefore be =r x C sin. 2 6 zr xy . 2 sin.

PN R
'

PR

as

+
4
the

j }

b^ VoM- p

a
"

ab
2

Va

-f 6

Thus

all

parallelograms constructed

upon co-ordinates

and

## parallel to half the rectangle in the

semi-axes.

214. Let CS, C S' be the asymptotes to the curve referred to conC P, C (a t 60, then if P T be parallel to C D, it is a jugate diameters TPT' is also a double ordinate to the asymptote, tangent at P (1S7.) ;

## for the equation to

CS

is

it

#,

and when x == a lt y=

6..

Hence

the parts of the tangent contained between the point of , or contact and the asymptotes are equal to each other, and to the semi-conjugate diameter.

PT= PT

215. Join

D T,
to

then

DP

is

arallelogram
line

and

parallel

DP

also because

CD

is

equal

parallel

to the

asymptote

## THE POLAR EQUATION

115

C S'. Hence, if the conjugate diameters be given, the asymptotes may always be found by completing the parallelogram upon the conjugate Also, if the asymptotes be diameters, and then drawing the diagonals. given, a conjugate diameter to C P may be found by drawing P R parallel to C S' and taking P double of P R. If the asymptotes be given, a tangent maybe drawn by taking double of C R, and joining P T. If the position of the focus is known, the length of the conjugate axis is equal to the perpendicular, from the focus on the asymptote. 216. To find the equation to the tangent P T, when referred to the

CT

asymptotes as axes,

## Let .r', y r be the co-ordinates of P, and J^f point on the curve.

"
'

y''

co-ordinates of another

?
fc

~7'

and y "

A:

IP

y'-y" _
y
^7 ( x

y'
r

x')

e equation to a secant.

When

x"

## x we have the equation

to the

tangent

This equation to the tangent is readily obtained from the equation to 2 the curve (xy k* or xy xy =: 2& ) by putting x'y and xy' successively for xy, and then adding the results.

Let y

/.

C T'

2 a/
.

and C

=r 2 y'

= 2 NP
2

The

triangle

CTT'

2J. 2 y'

sin.

TCT =2#Vsin.
;

6,

The two parts S Q, S'Q' of any secant S Q Q' S comprised between the curve and its asymptote are equal for if the diameter C P V V Q' from the equation and its conjugate C D be drawn, we have

(213.) 217.

VQ =

to the curve

y = it
x, ^]

J x*

- af

/.

to the

asym-

ptotes

(y
\

=
ai

we have

VS = VS
VS,

SQ=S'Q'.
-we

218. If

and y

## are the ordinates

VQ respectively,

have

Thus

the rectangle S Q,

Q S' =

the square

upon C D.

12

16

## THE POLAR EQUATION.

Let the curve be referred to the centre C, and to rectangular axes 1 B, and let the co-ordinates of the pole O be x and y', O being situated anywhere in the plane of the curve and P any point on the curve, the angle which the radius vector O P or u makes with a as in (146.),

219.

C A, C

jr.

Then we have by
f

(61.)

f

-f-

also,
.
.

2
j/

8
8

62 6

o;

=r
f

a2

b*
2

(T/ -f

sin. 0)

(x

.*.

## + u cos. 0) = x = 0, and y' =

1

0,

6*

a2
221. Let the focus
. .

*6 8

(sin. 0)

_ ~~
0)
2

a8
e
2

(e

1)

6* (cos.

(cos. 0)

1.

S be
y'

the pole,

= 0, x =
b
2

fi

and u becomes

r,

and following
~~

## the steps in (148.),

we

find

_ ~~
a
If the angle

a(e*
1

1)

c cos.

cos

P=

0,

we have

^ a(e'-l) +
1

e cos.

It may easily be obtained from the equation generally used. r cos. 0) er the equation r a, a, fig. (161):= e (a e

This

is

1 -f- e

cos.

222.

If -^-

a (e*

1)

we have

= 21 +
.

=
ecos,0

S P, and

if

## S meet the curve again

in

P',

we have

the rectangle S P, S

= -j-

(PS-f-SP')

-j

PP

''

The

= 2^

where

b t is the dia-

223. There
If
f

is

article

TJT J

be negative in

is

Py

Q jc*

=1

## THE CONJUGATE HYPERBOLA.

or a 2 y 9
b*

1U
If

x2

=
A

a''

if

P =

-,

and

is the real or transcourse of this curve, we shall find that verse axis, and A', or 2 a, is the conjugate axis, and that the curve extends indefinitely from B to B', so that it is, in form, like the hyperbola already investigated, but only placed in a different manner. Both curves are represented in the next figure ; the real axis of the one being the conjugate or imaginary axis of the other. It is evident from the form of the equations that both curves have got

= B B' = 2 b
Q

we examine

the

common
perbola

E C E', FC F'.

APE,

it is

## C be two conjugate diameters to the original hyrequired to find the locus of D.

Le t C

M = af M P = y' C N = *, N D = y then a? bf = a - 6
t ,

2
;

.'.

x'*

+
is

2 y'* =c r

y*

a2

## but the equation to

"

a4

(x*

2/

a2

6),

2 6* x'* a2 6 8 and Substituting these values in the equation a y'* 6s x* a2 6 2 hence the locus of is the conreducing, we have a* y~ jugate hyperbola, and hence arises its name. By changing the sign of the constant term in the equation to any hyperbola, referred to its centre, we directly obtain the equation to its Both curves are comconjugate, referred to the s '.me axes of x and y. prised in the form

118

THE PARABOLA.

CHAPTER

X.

THE PARABOLA.
225. THE equation to the parabola referred to rectangular axes, has e' x been reduced to the form a'y* (94.). From this equation we proceed now to deduce all the important proper-

tics of

the parabola.

Let

p,

:.

y*

a xes

A be the origin ; A X, A the we have y then for x 0, and the curve passes through the origin A.
Let
;

y,

For each positive value of x there are two equal and opposite values of which increase from to co, according as x increases from to CD ; hence there are two equal arcs, A P and A P', proceeding from A, without any limit. This curve is symmetrical with respect to its axis AX, and
its

turned towards that axis, otherwise it could be cut by a points than one. For every negative value of x, y is imaginary. 226. The point A is called the vertex of the parabola; A X, A Y the alone is called the Axis of principal axes; but, generally speaking, the parabola. Thus the equation to the curve referred to its axis and
concavity
is

straight line in

more

AX

vertex

is

y*

^.px.

The rectequation we have The square upon the ordinate angle under the abscissa and a constant quantity ; or the square upon the ordinate varies as the abscissa. 227. The last property of this curve points out the difference between the figures of the hyperbola and parabola; both have branches extending to infinity, but of a very different nature ; for the equation to the hyperthis

From

bola

is

y*

(a

a*)
2

or

x*

x )

),

and

## therefore, for large

values of x, the values of y increase nearly as the corresponding values of x8 or y varies nearly as x ; hence the hyperbolic branch rises much more
rapidly than

When x
y
a?,

is

x. that of the parabola, whose ordinate varies only as very great, the former takes nearly the course of the line

,r,

is

## not much increased by an increase of

and therefore the curve tends rather towards parallelism with the axis of*. 228. The equation to the parabola may be derived from that of the ellipse by considering the axis major of the ellipse to be infinite.

THE FOCUS.
Let

19

## be the centre, and S the focus of an ellipse whose equation

is

Let

m =AS

A C
.*.

*J a*

b*,

(fig.

106.)

2 a in

:.

y*

/ 4

-2m
2

8
;

a be considered to vary, this will be the equation to a series of which the distance A S, or m, is the same for all, but (he axis major different for each thus giving to a any particular value, we have a corresponding ellipse. Let now a be infinite, then, since all the other 4 m x hence the ellipse has graterms vanish, the equation becomes y z
if

Now

ellipses, in

dually approached to the parabolic form, as its axes enlarged, and finally coincided with it when the axis major was infinite *. In the same manner the equation to the parabola may be derived from that to the hyperbola.

THE FOCUS.
229.
rabola.

The
is

quantity p, which

is

parabola,

## called the principal

the co-efficient of x in the equation to the parameter, or Latus Rectum of the pa-

Since p

y*
,

is

## a third proportional to any

abscissa and

corresponding ordinate. we have used the equation y* 4 x for the parabola, merely to avoid fractions with numerical denominators ; it appears that many of the operations in this chapter are similarly shortened, without for p ; hence we shall use losing any generality, by merely putting 4 x in most of the following articles, recollecting 4 the equation y* that all the results can be expressed in terms of the principal parameter, by
its

In

article (228.)

= m

putting

for

wherever

occurs.

230.

To

which

is

equal to the

.'.

,

The point S

is

The
Let

A
t

S may be

## also thus determined

::

/.

* If # is very small when compared with a, the equation to the ellipse is very nearly that to a parabola; and this is the reason that the path of a comet near its perihelion appears to be a portion of a parabola.

120

THE TANGENT.
To
S
find the distance of

231.
J^et
.'.

any point
;

in the
*,

f

P
(y

=
-

r,
a
a
;

.*.

THE TANGENT.
232.

To

any point

(a/, y')

of the
y')

(a/,

A
S
2 2
cr',

jc"

/2

.'

2/'

2/'

(,r

Thus

becomes
4

-*0;

y',

or

\ y y'

=
is

y'

y y' 2
/.

1*

=
x
2

2
)

77*

(#

a/),
1

m
y

(x
y'

= 4 mx +
(a-

?/i (j:

a7

m
m

J^).

This equation

by writing y
233.

y' for

8
,

and x

of for

,r

-f x.

To

0,
.*.

Let y

,r

-t-

x'

AM

Hence

MT

is

A M.

THE TANGENT.
Let x
234.

121

0,

.'.

= 2m- =
-,

=
-|-

A Ay=

M P.
+

The equation

to the
?/'

## becomes 2 m x 0, or x =. is the equation But x =

at the vertex A, j/

and

f 2 m (x tangent being y y <r'), we have each 0, therefore the equation to the tangent

=
;

to the axis

A Y;

Hence
axis of y.

## the tangent at the vertex of the parabola coincides with the

find the equation to the tangent at the extremity of the princi-

235.

To

pal parameter.

yy
At

we have
/.

## =2m(x + x') x' = m, and jf = 2 my ~ 2m {x + m),

f

9>

2 m,

E22L,
If the ordinate

M
=r x

1C

(231.),

/.

MQ = S P.
Let

or

M Q cut
where
/.

the parabola in P,
this particular

we have S P

+m

236.

To

## tangent cuts the axis of x.

From
rallel to

T draw A X, then

y=0, T R perpendicular

j?=AT =
to

m=
A T,

AS.

X, and from

draw

PR

## taking the absolute value of

we have

pa-

Consequently the distances of any point P from S, and from the line R, are equal to one another. This line, R, is called the directrix ; for knowing the position of this line and of the focus, a parabola may be described. This tangent cuts the axis at an angle of 45. (35. Ex. 3:)

237.
tangent.

To

in (48.)

y from

## Taking the expression

we have

But from the figure 232, we have y l for the co0, and x^ a x -f- 6 is the equation to the line ordinates of the point S, and y P T ; also the equation to P is

=m

:.

a
2

= 2m
m
xf

y-,

and b

= 2mx y-,
r

2m "*
S

(m

(m

x')

= Vm

**,

if

P r= r

12-2

THE TANGENT.
the square

Hence
238.

on S y
or,

the rectangle
:

S
l

P, S

S P

S y

: :

Sy

S A.

To

## find the locus of y in the last article.

The equation
Hence

to the tangent

PT,

fig.

232,

is

=2m j-

(x

x')

the equation to S

y passing through

pendicular to

T,

is

= -

2m

(of

m).
put x

To
this

find

where

## this line cuts the axis of y,

0,

/.

J-, but

is the point where the tangent at P cuts the same axis (233.) ; hence the tangent and the perpendicular on it from the focus meet in the axis AY, or the locus of y is the axis AY. 239. Again, to find where ihe perpendicular S y cuts the directrix, put

.==_,

:.

= -jL<,-m)=-jLt- m
MP
;

- m =
-)

if,

hence a tangent being drawn at any point but this is P, the perpendicular on it from the focus cuts the directrix in the point where the perpendicular from P on the directrix meets that directrix. 240. To find the angle which the tangent makes with the focal distance
the ordinate

The equation
and

to the tangent
to the focal

PT

is

y
S

=
P

j- (j;

x').

The equation

distance

P <=

(=

0,

m)

x' t y') is

And

tan.

PT

tan.

(P S

X - P T X)

y'
a/

m
x'

2m
y
1

M
?n
2

G
2

x.

(*'

2 in (x'

- m) _

m x' - 2 m x' +
jf_

m)

+ 2 m/

(of

m)

m)

_ 2_ m _
But

-H^L
/.

M P = MT

tan.

P T M,

tan.

PT

M = -f-j,

/.

tan.

PT

## THE NORMAL THE DIAMETERS.

123

Thus

tan. T' P Q, if P Q be drawn parallel to the axis of x. rr tan. S T P the tangent at P makes equal angles with the focal distance, and with a parallel to the axis through P. This important theorem may also be deduced from the property in It is there proved that the absolute value of is article 233.

hence we have
angle

## ST = S A + AT = m + x = S P T = angle S T P = angle Q P T'.

AT

AM,

S P, and

therefore

the

If a ray of light, proceeding in the direction Q P, be incident on the parabola at P, it will be reflected to S, on account of the equal angles

QP'I', SPT: similarly ail rays coming in a direction parallel to the axis, and incident on the curve, would converge to S; and if a portion of the curve revolve round its axis, so as to form a hollow concave mirror, all rays from a distant luminous point in the direction of the axis would be concentrated in S. Thus, if a parabolic mirror be held with its axis pointing to the sun, a very powerful heat will be found at the locus.
Again,
if

## a brilliant light be placed in the focus of such a mirror,

all

the

rays, instead of being lost in every direction, will proceed in a mass parallel to the axis, and thus illuminate a very distant point in the direction of that
axis.

This property of the curve has led to the adoption of parabolic mirrors in many light-houses.

THE NORMAL.
To find the equation to the normal P G, at a point P jc The equation to a straight line, through P, is y ), and y = or (j? .is this line must be perpendicular to the tangent whose equation \sy =
241.
1 r

j-

(JT

j/),

we have a

=.

y'

2m

mal

is

y -

y'

=
.*.

-^
x -

(r

*').

242.

To

Let y

## find the point

J=

where the normal cuts the axis of #. G is constant and equal m, or the subnormal

2

-v/2/'

r.

Hence

PG

## between the principal

THE DIAMETERS.
243. It was shown in article 81, that the parabola has no centre. Since for every positive value of x there are two equal and opposite values of y the axis of x is a diameter, but that of y is not; hence the axes cannot be called conjugate axes. The parabola has an infinite number of diameters, all parallel to the axis ; to prove this,

Let y =.

ax
2
2/

1

x!
r,

tions

become y

=a

and (y

+ y')* = p (x +

y of

r')

124

THE DIAMETERS.
find

To

## where the chord intersects the curve, put a x for y

in the

second

equation.

or a 2 * 2

+ (2a/-p)r-rV

-/>tf'=0
;

But since the origin is at the bisection of the chord, the two values of x must be equal to one another, and have opposite signs hence the second 2 ay' term of the last equation must 0, p = 0.

.".

it

is

independent of

b, it will

= ax +

hence

~-

is

the

## and this equation and conversely.

244.

equation to the locus of all the middle points of a system of parallel chords, is evidently that to a straight line parallel to the axis ;

To

## transform the equation into another referred to a

new

origin

and to new axes, and so that it shall preserve the same form, Let x a -f- x' cos. 6 + y r cos. 6f

and
have

= y = b

-j-

y' sin.

0',

(57.)

= px and
ap
(1),
(2),

arranging,

we

+ of (2 6
And
as this equation

+
sin.

p cos.

z 0) -j- b

p cos. 0)

0.

must be of
2

the form
.
.

= p x,
.

we must have

(sin.0)

zrO

## sin. 0. sin. 6'

=
0'
.

2 6

sin. 6'

- p cos.

=
.

(3),
.

b*-ap =
Jlence the equation becomes
2
3/'

(4).

(sin.
r=:

6'y
2
j/'

-j-

(2 b

sin.
2

cos. 0) #'

or since e

0,

(sin. 0')

px

= 0.

245. On the examination of the equations (1) (2) (3) and (4), it appears from (1) that the new axis of x' is parallel to the original axis of from (1), of course (2) is destroyed, and thus the x ; and being equations of condition are reduced to three : but there are four unknown quantities, hence there are an infinite number of points to which, if the origin be transferred, the equation may be reduced to the same simple
f<;rm.

take the remaining three quantities a, b and 0', in any order, the same results. Suppose a is known, then from (4), b* p a, this equation shows that a must be taken in a positive direction from A, and also that the new origin must be taken on the curve itself, or the new origin is at some point P on the curve, as in the next figure

We may

and arrive

at

From
but this

(3)

we have

tan.

nr\

-^j-

fo

P T to

is exactly the value of the tangent of the angle which a tangent the curve makes with the Axis (240.) : hence the new axis of y is a tangent to the curve at the new origin P.

THE DIAMETERS.

125

The results are therefore these, the new origin is at any point P on The axes are one (P X') parallel to the the curve (see the next figure). axis X, and the other (P Y') is a tangent at the new origin P. Lastly, from the form of the equation, the new axis of or is a diameter.

246.

The equation
2

is

/ =
8

^
2

of

## = p'x where p' = =

TT-Jr]

P
Ql

(cosec. 0')

=
=

(1

+
P

cot.0')

= p( 1 +

4 a

4 S

(231.)

new parameter at P is four times the focal distance S P. The equation to the parabola, when we know the position and direction of the new axes, is readily obtained from the original equation
Hence
the

247.

Y'

P X'
Also,

X',

P Y'

the

new

axes, angle

let

AN =
a,
,

And PV

AM =
=
x'

.,
.

f,

Then y

= QN

r=

sin.

cos. 6.

## Substituting these values in the equation

2
1

=px
cos 0)

we have
.'.

(6
/s

y' sin.
2

6>)

=p
sin.

(a

+y
6

2/

(sin. 0)

(26

cos. 0)

+
2

62 6

=p

-f-

but 6 2

= p a, and

tan.

= tan. P T M = -^ =
.*.

p = -^

2 6

sin.

p
2

cos.

0=0,

is

2

y'

(sin. 0) 6*

==

p x'.
2

=
2

we have

(cos. 0)

4 a8
4 ga

&a

and

(sin. 0)

E=

126

THE DIAMETERS.
'

.".

=p2
*'

y'

rr (4 a

P) *'

fa

4-

4-

P'

^ where // =
rectangle

4 S P.
the

248.
focus:

the

under

To

find

the

## length of the ordinate which passes through

the

Here, x

PV=ST=SP=:r
.-.

Hence,

QQ'

/.

= p,r:=4r.r=4r

2r

4 S P.

the ordinate through the focus is equal to four times the focal distance S P, is equal to the parameter at the point P.

Thus

Hence, generally, if the origin of co-ordinates be at any point P on the the parabola, and if the axes be a diameter and a tangent at P, parameter to the point P is that chord which passes through the focus. 249. The equation to a tangent at any point (#' y'), referred to the

new axes

P X', P

Y',

is

Let y
Let x

=
.

.*.

## twice the abscissa.

= -^

<//

x1

= |- =
V

the ordinate.

For y put y, then we have the equation to the tangent at the other Q' ; hence it may be proved that tangents extremity Q' of the ordinate Q at the two extremities of a chord meet in a diameter to that chord.
250. If the chord Q V Q' pass through the focus, as in the figure, the 2 SP 2 r, and r' co-ordinates of Q are y' r, also

= PV = SP =

p'

4 r

## hence the equation to the tangent at Q, or y y'

(x

#')

becomes - y x

y = x +

+ r,

P, that
rectrix.

is,

r, and similarly the equation to the tangent at Q' is and these lines meet the axis P X' at a distance r from tangents at the extremity of any parameter meet in the di-

is

(a
'

a') sin. to
'

= (1 +
-

-tan.

1 ) sin. -

ai

(since

and a

1;

90.
at the

127

251.

To

## find the polar equation to the curve.

:

Let the co-ordinates of any point O be J/ and y', and let 9 be measured from a line O x, which is parallel to the axis of the curve

Then by
the figure,

(61.), or

by inspection of

we have

y
x

= =

+
-f-

sin.

cos.

r

x and y

in the

equation y* =r

x,

we have

(y

sin. 0) *

(x'

cos. 0)

' .
.

y"

u y'
8

sin.

+
^?

u* (sin. 0)

or,

(sin. 0)

= p cos.

2
cos. 9

?/'

sin. 0,

y'*
'

y' sin.

(sin.

1
0")

And

if

## the vertex be the pole,

we have

y'

=
'

= p
253. Let the focus S be the pole,

cos.
2

(sin.0)
.

'.

+
2

sin.

1

r2 (sin. 6)

1-

4
8

pr

cos. 0,

or

r2 (sin. 0)

2
f>'

(cos. 0)

=
+
or r

j-

+
(

/?

r cos.

r2 (cos. 0)

/.

=
.

-^

r cos.

^2

r cos. 0;
is

22

cos.
article (231).

The

also easily

deduced from

Let angle

ASP=

0,

thenr

r __

r cos. 0;

"21

__

_
+

cos.

(CO,

V i

128

## THE SECTIONS OF A CONE.

PS
meet the curve again
in P',

254. If

we have S
2
1

P
1

21
-P 4
1

cos.

(TT

_P ~~
0)

cos.

'

p s,

s p'

(cos. 0)*

= L. 4

(s

P+ sP

--, '
4

P P'.

CHAPTER

XI

255. IT
is

well

known

## that the three curves, the ellipse, the hyperbola,

and parabola, were originally obtained from the section of a cone, and that hence they were called the conic sections. We shall now show the manner in which a cone must be cut by a plane, in order that the section may be one of these curves. A right cone is the solid generated by the revolution of a right-angled triangle about one of its perpendicular sides. The fixed side, O H, about which the triangle revoive^, is called the axis and the point O, where the hypothenuse of the triangle meets the axis, is
;

## above the vertex,

If the revolving hypothenuse be produced another cone, having the same axis and vertex. Any point in the hypothenuse of the triangle describes a circle; hence, the base of the triangle describes a circular area called the base of
it

will describe

the cone.

Section

## axis are called vertical sections

planes which pass through the vertex and along the these are, evidently, triangles. ;

## THE SECTIONS OF A CONE.

129

If a plane pass through the cone in any direction, the intersection of it The nature of the with the surface of the cone is called a conic section. ine thus traced will be found to be different, according to the various It is our purpose to show, positions of the cutting plane. generally, to what class of curves a section must necessarily belong ; and, afterwards, to point out the particular species of curve due to a given position of the
cutting plane. the vertex, 256. Let O B Q C be a right cone, the axis, B C Q the circular base, P A the line in which the cutting plane meets the surface of the cone; being the point in the curve nearest to the Let O B C A be a vertical plane passing through the axis yertex O. and perpendicular to the cutting plane P A M. the intersection of these planes, is a straight line, and is called the axis of the conic section, the curve being symmetrically placed with

OH

OH AM,

regard to

it.

FM

Let F P D, its

## be a section parallel to the base, intersection with the vertical plane

it

is

and the Since both this last plane P the intersection of the two C, pendicular to the vertical plane O B former is perpendicular to the vertical plane, (Euc. xi. 19, or Geometry iv. 18,) and, therefore, to all lines meeting it in that plane. Hence

FP D

## OB H C A, is a diameter. cutting plane P A M are per-

therefore a circle,

and

F D and to A M. O A M, which is the inclination of the cutting plane to the side of the cone, = a, and let the Z A O B = /5, draw A E parallel to B H and M L parallel to O B. Let A M = x M P = y, and A O = a.
is

MP

perpendicular to

Then by

The square on

## M P = the rectangle M A sin. MAD and M D = sin. M D A

AO
:

F M,
sin.

MD
<x
'

ft

cos.

Also,

FM=EA-ALO E A =90 to
,

sin.

sm.

AOE O EA
90

AM
:

sin.

sin.

AML ALM
if

But angle
duce
(

angle

ALM =

-f

and

we
180

pro-

ML
0)
;

meet

O A,

we

AML =

hence

FM

= a-sin
cos
.

ft

sin.

_
j

(a

/>)

cos.

y
sin.

sin. ft

(a

ft)

cos.

^,

cos.

cos.

or y'

=7
/

sin.

_
-

. '

TTT. i
cos.

sin

sin

(a

|J

130

it

## which equation being of the second degree,

the cone are curves of the second degree. 2 Comparing this with the equation y =:
ellipse,

## follows that the sections of

2

p x -f q .z , which represents a parabola, or an hyperbola, according as q is negative, nothing, or positive ; we observe that the section is an ellipse, a parabola, or an To sin. (a /3) is positive, nothing, or negative. hyperbola, according as we shall suppose the cutting plane to move investigate these various cases, to 180 about A, so that a may take all values from
an

257. Let a

0,
is

.'.

= 0, and

this is the

equation to the

## straight line which

the axis of x.

And this appears, also, from the figure ; for when a 0, the cutting is in plane just touches the cone, and hence the line of intersection A the position O.

258. Let a
lines

ft

## figure the angles

OE

and

AM

AOE
meet

and
in

The curve is an ellipse. In the being together less than 180, the A', or the sectional plane cuts both sides of the

OAM

cone.

259. Let

M be the

## centre of the ellipse, then

FM = AEandMD

AE,

.*. The square on the axis minor The rectangle A E, A' G. Also by drawing perpendiculars from A and E upon A' G, it may be proved that The square on the axis major The square on A G + The rectangle

A'G.
.*.

And
angle

The

AG.

AK
is

E A
if

A',\hen

AK

## be drawa making the angle

the latus rectum of the section.

EAK =

the

And

A A'

in the focus

a circle be inscribed in the triangle A' A O, it will touch the line of the section. (Geometry, Appendix, prop. 21.)

260. Let a

131

90

- -,
is

then

gsin

-Jg +/j)

__

## that to a circle, the cutting plane being parallel to

1

AN

261. Let a -j- /3 0, and the curve is a 180, /. sin. ( a -f- ft) The plane, continuing to turn, has now come into the position parabola. Q, the axis being parallel to O F, or the cutting plane parallel to a side of the cone.

AN

The equation
If

to the

parabola

is

y*

4 a
(

sin. )

AK AN

AL

262. Let at + ft be greater than 180 .*. sin. (a + /3) is negative, and the curve is an hyperbola; The cutting plane is now in the position A L R; in this case the lines A L, E O must meet if produced backwards, or the plane cuts both cones, and the curve consists of two branches, one on the surface of each cone. As in the ellipse, it may be proved that the square on the conjugate axis the rectangle A E, A" G' ; that A G' is the distance between the foci, that A K is the latus rectum, and that the circle touching A' O, O A and

be drawn making the angle E the angle K, then the latus rectum of the section, and the circle which touches O, and in the focus of the parabola. F, will touch

AK

AK =

AO

is

AN

touches 263. We

AL

at the focus.

may

also suppose

a
or

to

have a

## different values, or the cutting

:

plane to meet the cone in some other point than A, for example

Let a

.*.

sin.

sin. (

(3}

Since
will

sin.

a and

cos.
sin. (a

are positive,
/3).

## the rationality of this equation

depend upon

the radical quantity is impossible, and the and y =: 0, or the section is a point ; only solution of the equation is x = this is the case when the cutting plane passes through the vertex O, and is PA'. parallel to any elliptic section If a we have two straight lines which cut /3 is greater than 180 each other at the origin. In this case the cutting plane is drawn through L R, and the intersection with the cone is two straight O, parallel to
If a
ft

is

less

than 180

lines

meeting

in

this discussion, that the conic sections a point, a straight line, two straight lines which intersect, a circle, an ellipse, an hyperbola, and a parabola or all the curves of the second degree and their varieties, with the exception of two parallel lines, which is a variety of the parabola. The three latter sections, the ellipse, hyperbola, and parabola, are those which are usually termed "conic sections," and which have been the study and delight of mathematicians since the time of Plato. In his school they were first discovered; and his disciples, excited, no doubt, by the many beautiful properties of these curves, examined them with such

We
:

may

O. conclude from

K2

132

## CONIC SECTIONS BY CONTINUED MOTION.

industry, that in a very short time several complete treatises on the Of these, the best still extant is that of conic sections were published. It is in eight books, four of which are elementary ; Apollonius of Perga. and four on the abstruser properties of these curves. The whole work is well worth attention, as showing- how much could be done by the ancient analysis, and as giving a very high opinion of the geometrical genius of

the age.

Apollonius gave the names of ellipse and hyperbola to those curves Hyperbola, because the square on the ordinate is equal to a figure "exceeding" (" virtppocXXov ") the rectangle under the abscissa and latus B. i. p. 13. rectum by another rectangle. " defective" Ellipse, because the square on the ordinate is (" eXXeiTroi/") 14. with regard to the same rectangle. p. the name of parabola to that curve is not known who It gave probably Archimedes, because the square of the ordinate is equal (" leapafiaXXov ")

and latus rectum. Thus, the ancients viewed these curves geometrically, in the manner as we are accustomed to express them by the equations
to the rectangle of the abscissa
:

same

y*
2
j/

- p* = p x.

2 a

## DESCRIPTION OF THE CONIC SECTIONS BY CONTINUED MOTION.

conic sections being curves of great importance, not only mathematical properties, but also from their usefulness in the arts and sciences, it becomes necessary that we should be able to describe these curves with accuracy. Now, a curve may be drawn in two

265.

The

from

their

either by "mechanical description" or by "points." As an instance of the first method we may mention the circle, described by the compasses, or by means of a string fastened at one end to the centre, and the other carried round by the hand, the hand tracing the curve. This " that mechanical method, or, as it is sometimes culled, by continued motion," is not always practicable: no curve is so simple, in this respect,

ways,

as the circle; hence we are often obliged to have recourse to the second method, or that by points: this is done by taking the equation to the curve and from some property expressed geometrically, finding a number of points, all of which belong to the curve, and then neatly joining these We shall commence with the points with a pen or other instrument. mechanical description of these curves. 266. To trace an ellipse of which the axes are given :

Let
centre

A
B

A',

with

AC

circle cutting

A A' in S

## describe a and H, these

and H.

Place pegs at S Let one extremity of a string be held at A, and pass the string round H back again to A, and ther.e join its two ends by a
points are the foci.

## CONIC SECTIONS BY CONTINUED MOTION.

Knot, so that

133

its length shall be just double ; place a pen or other it round the points S pointed instrument within this string;, and move and H, so that the string- be always stretched ; the pen will trace out the For if P be one of its positions, we have required ellipse.

of A H

/.

SP +

PH = A A'.
elliptic

267. Another method is by means of an instrument called the compasses, or the trammel.

Let

Xx

and

Yy

## be two rulers with

grooves in them, and fastened at right Let B P be a angles to each other. third ruler, on which take B P equal the to the semi-axis major, and At B a peg is so semi-axis minor. fixed that the point B with the peg a similar peg is can move along fixed at A. By turning the ruler B P

PA

Yy

round, a pen placed at P will trace out the curve. Suppose C to be the point where the axes meet, x and P y, the rectanis drawn parallel to C gular co-ordinates of P, and suppose that B

CM =

M =

and meeting

M in N,

then

AM

==

B N,

and
the square on

The square on

AP=

the square on

PM +
2
,

AM

or I 9

-\

-- #

The following is also a very simple method of describing the ellipse. are two rulers, each equal to half a ruler of any length, C F, F These rulers are fastened together by a the sum of the semi-axes. turns round a pivot at C ; F P is taken moveable joint at F, and Let the point slide equal to half the difference of the semi-axes. Draw x, then the point P will trace out the curve. along the line
268.

X x is

FC

FD

and

PM

perpendicular to

C X, and

let

M=

x,

and

MP=
;

y, then

The square on
or

FG =
a

the square on

FD +

the square on

DG

ti

134

## CONIC SECTIONS BY POINTS.

For a description of the Elliptograph, and other instruments for describreaders to the treatise on Practical Geo~ ing ellipses, we must refer our account is given of all the instruments, metry, where an extremely good and also the advantages and disadvantages of each are well exhibited
269. To trace the hyperbola by continued motion, let A A' be the
transverse axis, S between the foci,

H the distance H P K a ruler movable about H. A string, whose length is less than H K by A A' is
fastened to
;

is

## K and S when the ruler moved round H, keep the string

P

stretched, and in part attached to the ruler by a pencil as at ; then, since S is constantly the same, the point and the difference of will trace out the curve. If the length of the string be S K, a straight line perpendicular to

HP

if

H K,

the opposite

## 270. To trace the parabola by continued motion. Let S be the

the directrix. Apply focus, and a carpenter's square O C D to the ruler BC, fasten one end of a thread whose length is C O to O, and the slide other end to the focus S
;

BC

C O along B C, keepthe square ing the thread tight by means of a pencil P, and in part attached to
the square.

Then

since

S P

C, the point

will

describe a parabola.

## Description of the Conic Sections by Points.

271. Given the axes of an ellipse to deLet A A' be the axis scribe the curve. With centre S. the foci. major, S and less than A A', describe and any radius A a circle, and with centre H and radius A' describe a second circle, cutting the former in two points Panel P' ; then since

-V...
'

'V.

SP

+ P H = A M + M A' = A A', P

is

a point in the required curve ; and thus any number of points may be found, and the curve described.

272. Given a pair of conjugate diameters to describe the curve. Let A', BB', be the conjugate

1)

diameters.

and

parallel to

A C, and
B

Through

draw

BD

AC

parallel to

## through A draw C. Divide A

into the

equal parts as lines to the dividing points in AD, and from B' draw lines to the dividing points in P, Q, of these lines are points in the ellipse.

## same number of three. From B draw

AC;

the intersections

For
let

135

be the origin

CA
is

=a
y

l5

CB

= 6n
x
;
(t-i

Then

the equation to

BP
is

bi

to

B P
7

b^

x.

Hence

P,

B'P make
therefore

is

=
t

and

is

constant;

af
ellipse

in the four

figure.

273.
points
:

The

following

is

## perhaps the best method of tracing the

by

equal and parallel to the conjugate diameter. Through B draw paA' and equal to rallel to A'. In any multiple of B produced, take the same multiple of B. Divide B C into any number of c a 2 i B 4. into the same number of equal parts. equal parts, and Through draw lines to the points of division in B C, and through A' draw lines to the points of division in the intersections of corresponding lines ; will give points in an ellipse whose conjugate diameters are A' and B. The proof is the same as in the last case.

Let and A

A A'
B

be a diameter

BC

## 274. Given the axes of an hyperbola to trace the curve.

the foci, which are given A' be the transverse axis, S and Let A', describe a greater than points; with centre S and any radius describe a second circle, cutting and radius A' circle, and with centre the former in two points P and P, these are points in the required curve.

AM
M

## The proof is much

Again,
left,
if,

the same as that for the ellipse (271.) in article 273, C was taken to the right of instead of the as in the figure, the intersections of the corresponding lines will give

an hyperbola.
275.

To

## describe the rectangular hyperbola

by

points.

Let C A, C B be the equal semi-axes with any centre O in C B produced and with radius O A, describe a circle ; draw OP perpendicular to C O meeting the
circle in

Let C on C

P, then
#,

O =

on

is

square on

CA

the square
;

OA

the

or y*

= x*

a*.

136

C X, C Y

P
-I?

## in the curve, to describe the curve

by points.

Tn rough P draw any line S P S' terminated by the asymptotes in it take S'Q SP; then Q is a point in the curve (217), and similarly any number of points may be found.

## Together with the asymptotes, another condition must always be given

to enable us to trace the curve, for the position of the asymptotes only gives us the ratio of the axes, and not the axes themselves.

277.

To

when

## the principal parameter

take AB = p\ with any AY be the rectangular axes; in AX and radius C B describe a circle B D M, cutting A Y in D and A X in M, draw D P and M P
centre

in

## perpendicular to spectively ; then P curve. c= a?, Let

AY

and

AX

re-

is

a point in the

AM

the square on

MP =
x.

y\ then

the rectangle

BA, AM,
or y*

=p

278. Given the angle between the axes and any parameter p' to describe the curve.

Let

AB
B

A X, Y A y be the axes,
Through

## draw CB parallel to Through A draw any

the parameter.

AX.
line

AY

FAG,
draw

meeting

take

DP

B C in F; in A D = B F, and
parallel

to

AX,
P
is

AG

Draw MP
let

parallel to

AY,

and

## AM = and M P = y, thenMP: MA :: AB :FB,

JT,

or

at

: :

p'

y;

:.

=p

x.

279. Given the position of the directrix of the conic sections by points.

T R and the

## CONIC SECTIONS BY POINTS.

S T perpen Jicular to T R, then produced will be the axis of the curve. Let e I 1 be the r atioof the distance of any point P in the curve from the focus and from the directrix ; hence if A S

137

. Draw

TS

a point in the curve. in AX, and with centre Take any point S and radius equal to e times T M, describe a circle ; draw P perpendicular to X, and meeting the circle in P, then P is a point in the curve. Let be the origin of rectangular co-ordinates, A P == y, #,
:: e
:

AT

is

A A

M M= M

AS=m, and

AT =r then SPrre.TM^e.PR
;

or y*
:.

x*

2
(I

x
2

m*
2

y*

-e )*
/.

= e* x* + 2 e m x + m - 2m* (1 + e) =
;

2
;

which
Let

is

be

less

than unity,

y*

(1

e2 )

\ v

J.

~ C

x
z

x*

[.

Comparing

this

(2

ax

r9 ),

we have
2 a

is

an

ellipse

1

and 2
6

Let

8
.'.

i/

(e

1)

|
-

&

+ m \/
-

is

## an hyperbola, whose axes are -

and 2

--

Let

the curve

4 x; .'. y* a parabola, whose principal parameter is 4 m. 280. The general equation to all the conic sections being
e

be equal to unity,
is

= m
_
2

(i

__

e ) a?

mx

(1

e)

0,

it follows that if we find any property of the ellipse from this equation' true for the hyperbola and parabola, making the necessary it will be changes in the value of e:

Thus
yy
yyf

## the equation to the tangent

' f

is

+ (i _ e ) xx - m (1 + _ (e _ i) a _ m (\ +
s
j;'

e}

(x
(j7

e)
)

+ jf) = + a/) i=

0, for the

hyperbola,

and yy'

(x

a:

138

## TANGENTS TO THE CONIC SECTIONS.

Also most of the results found in Chapter VIII. <ir the ellipse will be 6 2 for 68 ; and will be true for the true for the hyperbola, by putting parabola by transferring the origin to the vertex of the ellipse, by then
puttingfor a,

and m* -

for 6 s

## and then making

1.

Thus
in the

the equation to the tangent at the extremity of the Latus ellipse, when the origin is at the vertex, is

Rectum

y
or,

+
-

(x

a) (117),
ex,

=
1

a(l -,

e) -j-

for

a put
/.

and then

let e

e
-\- #,

=m
e.

as in (235).

281. If S
traced
is

easily

r, and found :

A S P r=
=:

SP
or

PR =
(m

e(TS

-f

S M),
;

r cos. 0)

m
t

(1 -f e)
e cos.

Or

since

(1

e)

## and hyperbola, and

= 2 m for the

parabola, we have (putting p for the principal parameter) the genera polar equation to the three curves,

V
282.

To draw a tangent at a given point P on the ellipse. Draw the ordinate M P, and produce it to meet the circumscribing

Q, from Q draw a tangent to the circle meeting the axis major produced in T, join PT; this line is a tangent to the ellipse (114). Again, taking the figure in the note appended to Art. 121, join S P, to K, so that HP, and produce PH; join SK; the line Py bisecting S K is a tangent. 283. To draw a tangent to the ellipse from a point T without the curve.
circle in

HP

PK =

(2)

## TANGENTS TO THE CONIC SECTIONS.

Draw
the line

139

T P C P' through the centre, fig. 1. ; draw a conjugate then the question is reduced to finding a point in CP, and T Q' may through which a chord Q V Q' is to be drawn, so that be tangents. is the required Take C V a third proportional to C T and C P, then point (136). C describe circles CO, P'R, draw Again, with centre T and radii TP', any line T O R, cutting these circles in O and R ; join P O, and draw then it may be proved by similar triangles that C is a parallel to P O is the third proportional to C T and C P, and therefore required point. 284. If the axes, and not the ellipse, are given, take S and the foci, A' describe a circle, and with centre T and S and radius fig. 2, with centre radius describe another circle, cutting the former in the points and and H K' ; from T draw the lines T Q and and SK', K'; join S and and SK' in the K', these lines meet S perpendicular to
diameter to

CP

TQ
V

RV

TH

HK

HK

TQ

required points

and

Q and Q'. The proof will readily appear upon joining H Q and referring to the note, page 77. 285. To draw a tangent to the hyperbola at a given point P on the H Q', SP and H

curve.

P take S P, and join SK; P, note, page 97; in is the required tangent. 286. To draw a tangent from a given point T without the curve. The two methods given (283) for the ellipse will apply, with the necessary alteration of figure, to the hyperbola. 287. To draw a tangent to the parabola at a given point P on the curve.
Join
the line

PK =

PY

bisecting

SK

Draw
take

A T = A M,
To draw

an ordinate

join

PT

to the axis, fig. 232, and in the axis produced this line is a tangent (233) j or take S ;

T=

P, and join

P T.
a tangent to a parabola from a given point
to the axis,

288.
curve.

without the
in

Draw
P, take then

a diameter

and

ordinate

Q V Q'

## and cutting the curve

to the abscissa

V,

and focus be given, but not the curve; with centre T and radius T S describe a circle, cutting the directrix in the points R and R', join R S and R' S draw R Q and R' Q' parallel to the axis, and then TQ and T Q' perpendicular to R S and R' S (239). 289. An arc Q P Q' of a conic section, being traced on a plane to find and also the axes and focus of the to which of the curves it belongs
If the directrix
; ;

TQ

TQ'

## are the required tangents (249).

section.

Draw a line L through the middle of two parallel chords, and another line L' through the middle of other two parallel chords, if the lines L, L are is a parabola, if they meet on the concave side of the parallel, the curve curve it is an ellipse, if on the convex side it is an hyperbola. (130. 243.)
290. Let the curve be an ellipse, the point where the lines L I/ meet is the centre C ; let P P' be a diameter, its conis thus found ; describe a jugate circle on P P' as diameter, and draw R,

CD
D

CB

Q, and perpendicular to PP'; join draw B parallel to R Q, meeting a line parallel to Q V, passing through C ; then C is the conjugate diameter (136).

140

INTERSECTING CHORDS.
;

To find the length and position of the axes draw P F perpendicular on C D, and produce it to E, making P E = C D, join C E, and bisect C E in H join P H then from the triangle C P E we have the side C E in terms of C P and C D = ,J{a? -j- bf 2 a ^ sin. (0' 0)} =
; ;
t

{a

6*

2 ab} s= a

.*.

H =

also

triangle

we have

PH

= a+
is

hence

P H + H E

is

the small-axis

major, and

PH

HE

## the semi-axis minor.

is the direction of the axis-major. then C 291. If the arc Q P Q' be an hyperbola, the conjugate diameter may be found by a process somewhat similar to that for the ellipse ; the asympThe direction of the axes bisects totes may then be drawn by Art. 215. the angle of the asymptote, and their length is determined by drawing a a tangent PT, and perpendicular P M, to the axis, and taking and mean proportional between (167).

In

HP

take

H K = H E,

CM

CA

CT

292. If the arc be a portion of a parabola, to Q V, and then draw P S, the angle T'PV; repeat this construction for another point P', then the junction of PS and P'S determines the focus (240); the axis is parallel to PV, and the vertex is found by drawing a perpendicular

SPT=

on the

axis,

shall

TM

(233).

293. theorem.

We

## conclude the subject of conic sections with the following

any point within or without a conic section two straight lines other, be drawn to meet the curve, the rectangle contained by the segments of the one will be in a constant ratio to the rectangle contained by the segments of the other.
If through

## making a given angle with each

Case 1. The ellipse and hyperbola. be two semi-diameters parallel to the chords POP', Let CD, Q O Q' then, wherever chords parallel to these be drawn, we shall always have the following proportion The rectangle PO, OP': the rectangle Q O, O Q :: the square on C D : the square on C E.

CE

be the origin of oblique axes Let the curve will be of the form

OX, O Y

## then the equation to

INTERSECTING CHORDS.

141

Let x
-,

.*.

a y*

+ dy +/= 0,

we have

The

rectangle

Q O, O Q' =
P
O,

i;

## Similarly the rectangle

O P'

=
c

:. the rectangle

Q O, O Q

f
:

the rectangle

P O, O P'

f f ::::: a
c

Now, let the origin be transferred to the centre without changing the direction of the axes, then the form of the equation is
ay*

+ bxy +

Let x

.*.

the square on

## + /' = f and C E = =?c

x2

(81).

the

square on
: :

D=

.'.

C
.'.

the square on

CE
!

the square

on

CD

the rectangle PO, OP' II the square on the rectangle Q O, O Q' the square on C D. : do not meet the curve ; but in In the hyperbola fig. (2), C E and C order to show that these lines are semi-diameters, let the axis of y be ca-rried round till it becomes conjugate to C D, then the formulas for trans-

C E

formation

in

## (55) become for

.

9=0,
x'

sin. sin.

&
w
,

y'

sin.

(w
7 sin.

0') y .

y'

If these values of x and y be substituted in the general central equation 0, the above, and it be reduced to the conjugate form by putting b' transformed equation is of the form a' y z -\- c xz -\0, where

f=

and/

and

is

## the square on the semi-diameter

along the axis of x (86) ; hence the theorem is true for the hyperbola. Case '2. The Parabola fig. (3.) As before, we have the rectangle P O, : the rectangle Q O,

OP

and Q O Q' ; be the parameters to the chords to the focus, the axes remaining parallel to PO, and Q O, by which transformation c and a are not altered. Now in this case, the chords passing through the focus, we have the

OQ'

::

Let

P and Q

POP'

transfer the

origin

-ectangle

PS, S
:

P'

the rectangle

S,

S Q';
P'

::

-|P

^Q

(254)

and

also as c
::

;
:

Q.

P 0, O

the rectangle

Q O,

OQ'

::

"294.

If the point

as well as

and

## Q', or the lines

be without the curves, and the points P P' coincide become tangents, we have for the ellipse

and hyperbola,

142

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.

## The square on square on C E ;

For
hence

OP

the square

on
::

OQ

::

the square on

CD

the

or
the parabola
;

OP: OQ

CD

CE.

O P : the square on O Q S P ; S Q be proved that, if a polygon circumscribe an ellipse, the may And the same algebraical product of its alternate segments are equal. theorem will apply to tangents about an hyperbola; the tangents commencing from any point in the asymptotes.
The square on
: :
;

it

CHAPTER

XIJ.

## ON CURVES OF THE HIGHER ORDERS.

295. HAVING completed the discussion of lines of the second order, we should naturally proceed to the investigation of the higher orders ; but the bare mention of the number of those in the next or third order (for they

amount to eighty) is quite sufficient to show that their complete investigation would far exceed the limits of an elementary treatise like the present. Nor is it requisite: we have examined the sections of the cone at great length,
because, from their connexion with the system of the world, every proso with the higher perty of these curves may be useful; but it is not orders ; generally speaking they possess but few important qualities, and may be considered more as objects of mathematical curiosity than of practical utility.

third order is chiefly remarkable from its investigation having been Of the eighty species now known, seventyundertaken by Newton. him eight others, which escaped his searching two were examined by eye, have since been discovered. " EnuThose who wish to study these curves, may refer to Newton's " or to the work of Stirling upon the meratio Linearum tertii Ordinis

The

first

same

subject.

Of the

## in the higher orders

fourth order there are above five thousand species, and the number is so enormous as to preclude the possibility of their

general investigation in the present state of analysis. systematic examination of curves being thus impossible, all that we can do is to give a selection, taking care that amongst them shall be found all the algebraical or transcendental curves which are most remarkable either for their utility or history. We shall generally introduce them as examples of indeterminate pro-

blems, that
variables.

when
It

of problems leading to final equations, containing two then trace the loci of those equations, and explain, necessary, anything relating to the construction or properties of
is,

We

shall

the curves.
to give any general rules for the working of these those given for determinate problems will here serve equally well but, in both cases, experience is the only sure guide. In the solution of these problems we shall not always follow the same, nor even the easiest,

would be useless
;

questions
;

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
method; but we
observer
shall

143

AB,

manner, so that an attentive any particular case. We commence with problems leading- to loci of the second order. 296. Given the straight line A B (= a) to find the point P without

endeavour

to vary the

may

learn

how

to act in

so that

AP PB
:

::

1.

AM =

Let

## be the origin of rectangular co-ordinates, B a x, y, and .*x,

MP =

then

AP

M = PB m
::
2
:

AX

and A

the axes,

/. x*

or (1

- m

+ ^ :: m + y* = m (a - *) + m y* + (1 m x* + 2 m a x m
2/

V (a-x)
2

r=

(),

or y*

+
(I

?>i

## fying- the conditions of the circle (66).

This equation shows that there are an infinite number of points satisproblem, all situated on the circumference of a
this circle

To draw
If

in

x take

A
;

=
1

and with

centre.

m
1,

describe a circle

m=

## reverting to the original equation

1

we have x

which

is

the equation to a straight line drawn through the bisection of B, and Y. parallel to 297. If perpendiculars be drawn to two lines given in position from a point P, and the distance between the feet of the perpendiculars be a con-

stant quantity a, required the locus of P. Let the intersection of the given lines be the origin of rectangular axes, a x be the equation to take one of the lines for the axis of x, and let y

## the other; then the equation to the line passing through

(x

},

and
then

perpendicular to the

line

j?,

is

y'

=
05

(x

a;')

from these two equations the co-ordinates of the point where their loci meet, that is, the co-ordinates of the foot of the perpendicular are readily x f* obtained and then the final equation found, by art. 29, is y''2
;

a*

which belongs

to a circle

whose centre

is at

the intersection

of the

lines.

298. given straight line B C moves between two straight lines, A B, C, so that its extremities B C are constantly on those lines to find the curve traced out by any given point P in B C.
;

144

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
the lines

Let

A
y,

B,

AC

## be the axes of y and

<r,

A M = x,

BP
;

MP =
and
let

= PC=

a,
6,

B AC
then

be a right angle

AM:BP::MC:PC,

or a2

2
j/

62 x-

a*

b\

A.

the equation to an ellipse whose centre is A and axes 2 a, 2 b. If a ladder be,, placed against a wall, and its foot drawn along the ground at right angles to the wall, any step will trace out a quarter of an ellipse, and the middle step will trace out a quadrant of a circle. If the co-ordinate axes be inclined at an angle 0, we have

which

is

>

B, A C, so that the triangle A B C is constant, the curve traced out by a point P which divides B C in a given ratio is an hyperbola. 299. Given the line A B (= c) to find a point P without A B, such and P B, the angle P B A may be double of P A B. that drawing

b* x* 2 a b cos. 6 x y a? y* a2 6 2 0, the equation to an ellipse (76). It is easy to see that from this problem arises a very simple mechanical method of describing the ellipse. If a straight line B C of variable length move between two straight lines

Whence

which

is

PA

Let

A be

the origin

A X, A Y
is

The

equation to
to

AP
is

and that
but /

BP

= x, y = a! (x
a.

## the rectangular axes

(1)
c)
;

= tan. PBX =

tan.

PBA=

tan.

PAB

2 a
;

2 a

a2

(*

')

(2)

3 x* Eliminating a between the equations (1) and (2), we have y* 2 c ar, hence the locus of P is an hyperbola ; comparing its equation
it

r=

(a?

2 c
2 a x),

we

## find the axes to be

and

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
,

45

at

C where

V3

AC =

## AOP = 2ABP = 4PAB=2POB,

BPA.
This problem

By this hyperbola, a circular arc may be trisected ; for if P B be the arc to be trisected, describe the as above, and let hyperbola the curves intersect in P; then if be the centre of the circle, the ano-le & or the arc P B is one-third of

DP

may

oc,

Let

AM =

M P = y,

and angle

PA B

Then

tan. 6

c

2 tan 6
'

(tan. 0)

'

or
1

2
?/

3 xs

2 c

x.

On

examination

it

will

## be seen that the above two methods of solution

are identical.

The following problems give loci of the second order. From the given points A and B, (fig. 1,) two straight lines given in position are drawn, M R Q is a common ordinate to these lines, and M P
300.
1.
is

taken in

M RQ

mean

proportional to

MQ

and

M R;

required the

locus of P.

(2)

M
2.

A common
;

X A Y, so line A X

carpenter's square C B P, (fig. 2,) moves in the right angle that the point C is always in Y, and the right angle B in the required the locus of P.

3. If the base and difference of the angles at the base of a triangle be given, the locus of the vertex is an equilateral hyperbola 4. To find a point P, from which, drawing perpendiculars on two gives straight lines, the enclosed quadrilateral shall be equal to a given square.

301. Let
join

AQ

A Q and
C

A' be an ellipse, A A' the axis major, Q Q' any ordin&te, A' Q' required the locus of their intersection P.
;

Let

C
Then

M=

the equation to

## M P = y, C N = and N Q = y'. AQ y = a x + c = aa + c; which at A = a (x + a), y

x,
x',
is

is

/.

146

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.

At

it

becomes y

a (r f

a)

.'.

Hence

the equation to

AQ
A'Q'
2

is

y
y

(*

),

(U
(2)

And

similarly that to

is

y
,

(*-),
(x
62
;

/,)

Also a 2
Eliminating
x'

y'

6 2 *' 2

=
y'

o2
(2),

(3)

## and y' between (1) and

we have
a?

y=
Substituting in (3)

J?

and

=1

we obtain
x*

x*

or

a2 y 2

6 2 c8

68 ,
is

which

is

## the equation to an hyperbola,

whose centre

C, and transverse

axis 2 a.

The method of elimination used in this problem is of great use ; the have the equations to principle admits of a clear explanation. and A'Q'; putting x and y the same for both equations intimates that P in one particular case of interand x and y are the co-ordinates C

We

AQ

and y r intimates that x and y are also the co-ordinates of intersection, and therefore that the resulting always
section
;

## but the elimination of

x'

equation belongs to the locus of their intersection. 302. To find the locus of the centres of all the circles drawn tangential to a given line AX, and whose circumferences pass through a given point

Q (a 6).
Let S
x,

Q
y

## M be one of these circles,

the co-ordinates of
its

## referred to rectangular axes Atf,

Ay.

centre P,
its

x\ y'

any point on

circumference.

Then

the equation to

S Q M

is

-*)
but passing through Q,
it

^;
*)

(65)

becomes

(6

<v)

_|_

(a

## and, being tangential to

A X, we

hare r

= y,

DESCARTES PROBLEM.

147

or x*

2 a x

2 by

+ oM

62

= 0.

This

is

It

may be

of
( ,

r= 2 b

_V

Hence

if

we
b y,

circle.
If,

is

E, which

is

## the centre of the least

circle,

instead of the circle passing through a given point, a parabola is again the locus of P.

it

touch a given

303. Let B, B C, C D, and (fig. 1, p. 148) be four straight lines given in position, to find the locus of a point P, such, that drawing the lines P E, P F, P G, and P B, B C, *C D, making given angles with the rectangle P G, P H. and A, we may have the rectangle P E, P F

DA

Let
lines

## be the origin of rectangular axes

ordinates of

/3, /3',

ft"

and

/3

P E, P F,
JTL

&c.,

make with

x and y the coX, ; the cosecants of the angles which the B, B C, &c. Then the equation
y

OY
~

10

* *

ut

~^

toB C

to

DC

to

148

## conic section, the particular species of which depends on the situation of

the given lines.

problem may be expressed much more generally. Suppose number of lines to be given in position, required a point from which, drawing lines to the given lines, each making a given angle with them, the rectangle of two lines thus drawn from the given point may have a given ratio to the square on the third, if there are three ; or to the rectangle of the two others, if there are four: or again, if there are five lines, that the parallelopiped composed of three lines may have a given ratio to the parallelopiped of the two remaining lines, together with a
This
3, 4, 5 or a greater

third given line, or to the parallelopiped composed of the three others, if there are six : or again, if there are seven, that the algebraical product of four may have a given ratio to the algebraical product of the three others

and a given line, or to the four others, if there are eight, and so on. This was a problem which very much perplexed the ancient geometricians. Pappus says, that neither Euclid nor Apollonius could give a

He himself knew that when there are only three or four lines solution. the locus was a conic section, but he could not describe it, much less could he tell what the curve would be when the number of lines were more When the number of lines were seven or eight, the ancients than four. could scarcely enunciate the problem, for there are no figures beyond solids, and without the aid of algebra, it is impossible to conceive what
the product of four lines can mean.
It was this problem which Descartes successfully attacked, and which, most probably, led him to apply algebra generally to geometry. The

following solution

is

## that given by Descartes, with a few abbreviations:

(fig.

A B, A D, E Fand G H
D

## 2) are the given lines,

F D, B, making point from which are drawn the lines B (= tf) and B C A, C FE, and C H G. given angles C B A, C to which all the others will be referred. (= y) are the principal lines Suppose the given lines to meet C B in the points R, S, T, and A B in c and A G d. Let A E the points A, E and G.
C C
C
and

CH

the required

C R = a x + y and C D = BR = a.AB=*; C S = y + a' also B S = a'.B E = a' (c + x ); ". B G = also B T = CF = {y + a' (c + x) C T = y + a" (d - x) and C H = 0" y + " (d
/.

Then

since

all

## the angles of the triangle

.'.

ABR

are

known, we have
ft

(a x

+
;

y)

(c

+ x)
x)
}

and
x): then

13'

} ;

:.

a" (d

DESCARTES' PROBLEM.
since the rectangle

149

B,

CF

r=

the rectangle

CD, C H, we

have the

equation

This equation Descartes showed to belong to a conic section which he He also gave the following numerical example described.
:

LetEA = 3,AG=5,AB=rBR, B
'

BE

GB = BT

CD = J-CR, CF = 2CS, CH = |- C T, the angle A B R = 60, and the rectangle C B, C F = the rectangle C C H. By the above
(j

I),

to be

art.

to

circle.

Q

in

(72)

we have

## the co-ordinates of the centre

and

-3
1

and

Vl9

304. Let
indefinite

AQB

be a semi-circle of which

AB

is

meeting

## to B, straight line perpendicular in R; take and the circle in

the diameter,
ix

BR

AP= Q

AQ

B an a straight line
required the

R;

locus of P.

Let

A be

and

AB

the axis of x.
parallel to

AB

2 a,

AM =

Jf,

M P = y,

and draw

QN

MP

(2)

then since

AP = Q
:

R, we have

AM
:

==

B N,

and
that
is, a?
:

AM
y
::

MP::AN
a
x)
:

NQ;
a

(2

#) x

(65)

2 a

and y

2 a

150

THE

CISSOID.

The

## following table gives the corresponding values of x and

THE CISSOID.
Substitute these value? in the equation y
2 9

=
2 a

2a
sin.

oc

.'.

(sin. 0)

(cos. 0)

2a

whence r

tan 6

r cos.0

Ex. If a perpendicular be drawn from the vertex of a parabola to a tangent, the locus of their intersection is the cissoid.
305. If C be a point in the diameter A B of the circle A Q B, and Q in any ordinate, join B Q, and draw C P parallel to B Q, meeting

MQ
P

Lei

AM =

a?,

MP
A B
thenB

=r y,

=
::

a,

AC =

6;

M MQ
:

M P,

or

(a

x)

Vax
(6

x*

: :

(6

x)

y,

.-.

x)

Hence

## the following table of values

152

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.

P of the parabola, always Ex. A point Q is taken in the ordinate equidistant from P, and from the vertex of the parabola; required the locus of Q.
306.
lo

MQ

is

:
*.

P, so that

MP MQ

AB AM
:

AQ

B, and

MQ

is

produced

## to find the locus of P.

Let

ABX
axes.

and

AY be the rectangular
x,

AM =

Then

A B = 20; MP MQ
:

::

A]B

AM

or

<J

2 a x
2 a

x* ::

2 a:
8
<r ,

2 a x

2a -

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.

153

2 a, y increases positive ; but when x is negatively to infinity, since the third root of a negative quantity is negative and possible. Again, y is positive for all negative values of #, and increases to oo ; also for each value of #, there is only one real value 3 of y, the other two roots of an 0, being always imequation y db 1
;

Let or and B

=
for

or

=2 < 2 a,

/.

is

>

possible.

Expanding

the equation
3

we have
r

/l-2_a_
is

2 a

4a

.*.

## the equation to the asymptote

=
take

2a 3

(195).

In

A Y take A C =

and

in

AX

AE =

?A join o
;

C E,

this

produced is an asymptote to the curve. 8 Ex. Find the locus of the equation, y* + #3 3 3 a* x a? y 308. To trace the curve whose equation is a y* r
line

## and of the equation

3

<r

+ m# +
a

nx

+ p.

Case (1). Suppose the roots of this equation to be real and unequal, and to be represented by the letters b, and c, of which a is less than b and 6 less than c, then the equation is of th*1 form
,

154

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.

Let
axes

AB

be the origin,
:= a,

AC=

AX, AY,
6,

the

and

c;

(2) (5) and (7) the curve from (3) ; passes through B, C, and and (6) no part of the curve is found and B, or C and between from ; (4) there are two branches between B and C from (8) and (9) the curve proceeds from to oo , and from (10) no part of the curve is on the left of A. If the roots had been negative, the curve would have the same form, but would be rather differently situated with regard to the origin.

From

Case

(2). If

(#-

or

(x

V/
C

c
5

in the

is

nearly

the

same

as above,

when
and

point.

become

## in the latter, supa conjugate

Case (3). If two of the roots be impossible, shaped part of the curve from D.
Case (4).

we have
a y9

## only the bell-

If the three roots be equal, the equation is consists of two branches proceeding figure from B with their convexity towards the axis. This curve is called the semi-cubical parabola ; its equation is the most simple when the origin is at the vertex z B ; that is, putting x instead of x a, when a y

(j

a)

The

now

remarkable as being the first curve This curve which was rectified, that is, the length of any portion of it was shown to be equal to a number of the comis

mon

rectilinear unit.
8

x n x X 309. The equation o y ;;, can be traced exactly the accompanying figure applies to the case when as in the last article If two of them be equal, the three roots are positive, real, and unequal. one of the semi- ovals disappears; if three are equal, both disappear: in 2 3 8 8 .r , if (x this case the equation is of the form a y a) , or a y the origin be transferred to B ; the curve is then called the cubical
:

+m

parabola.

is

310. If the equation be a x y =: x8 x9 -f- n r + p, the axis of y an asymptote, and there is a branch in the angle YA<r; the rest

+m

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
of the curve
is

155

like

that in the

from
vary.

to

come

to

Ay

last figure, supposing the lower branch as the asymptote, the form will vary as the roots

We

## shall take the case

where y =

a;

-a
ax

156

THE CONCHOID.
/2+ a
y
*y

= n
2

p,

- -

7i

2 X

If the denominator of this expression had been constant, the equation would have belonged to an ellipse, hyperbola, or parabola, according as n was negative, positive or nothing; hence if such constant quantity be " hyperreplaced by the variable quantity 2 #, the conic section becomes bolized" by having an infinite branch proceeding to the axis of y as an

asymptote.

infinite

it

Newton,

last article
;

appears that

all

## curves of the third order have

necessarily be the case, for every equation of an odd degree has at least one real root, so that there is always one real value of y corresponding to any real value of x.

branches

and

this

must

The conchoid of Nicomedes. Let X x (fig. 1) be an indefinite straight line, which draw the straight line A C B perpendicular
312.

A
to

number of

straight lines

AE P, A E P'

&c.

take

EP

## B, then the locus of

If in

always equal to

is

the conchoid.

we take E P' E P the locus of ~& is called the inferior both conchoids form but one curve, that is, both are expressed by the same equation. C B is called the modulus, and x the base or rule ;
conchoid
;

EA

M =s x, M P = y,
:

then
or
:.

EP
b
:

P
: :

M
-f-

A P A N,
(

y
8

+
6*

3/)

y,

y* x*

+y

(a

(a

y?,

.'.

x ==

+
is

We

>

a,

= a, or <

a.

THE CONCHOID.
Case
1. 6

57

>

a.

158

THE CONCHOID.

## Unless the curve could be described by continued motion, the solution

P ; in fixed pin, which is inserted in the groove of a third ruler P ; a fixed pin at E, which is inserted into the groove of x of the ruler any given length ; then, by the constrained motion a pencil at P will trace out a conchoid, and another pencil fixed in would trace out the inferior curve.
is

would be incomplete. Nicomedes therefore invented the following simple machine for describing it. Let x X be a straight ruler with a groove cut in it; C D is another ruler fixed at right angles to x X ; at A there is a

A E

AP
is

PEA, EA

This curve was formerly used by architects ; the contour of the shaft of a column being the portion B P P" of a conchoid.

The
Let

is

thus found

(fig. 1,

## page 156) be the

.*.

pole,
6,

y+

=? r cos.

= PA B = and x = r sin.
AP
r,

9.

Substituting these values in the equation, and reducing, we arrive at the a sec. Q b. polar equation r The polar equation may, however, be much more easily obtained from have the definition of the curve.

We

= AP = AE + EP = AC sec. CAE +
AEP,

CB

sec.

+
X

6.

313. The following method of obtaining the equation to the conchoid will be found applicable to many similar problems. Let any number of lines, C in diffig. 1, be drawn cutting ferent points E, &c. ; from each of these points as centre, and with / radius 6 describe a circle cutting the line in P and P ; the locus of the point P is the conchoid. Let be the origin of the rectangular co-ordinates. B the axis of y, and in the figure. parallel to C Let the general equation to the line a x, where a is in E P be y determinate :

A EP

AX

THE LEMNISCATA.
Then
y' == a, and x'

159

The

6, is

## for its centre

and

or

(y

a]

And

have the

eliminating a between this equation, and that to the line final equation to the curve,

A E P,

we

(y

- */.'/

ax

In general if the line C be a curve whose equation is (#), the y == co-ordinates of the point E are found by eliminating x and y from the

equations y

a;/' (a),

## a x, and y and the equation

{y

(x)

hence we find x

= /'

(a),

and

to the circle is

-//()}.+ {*-/'()} =
is

6,

And

## the general equation to the curve

314. perpendicular is drawn from the centre of an hyperbola tangent, find the locus of their intersection.

upon a

The equation
The equation

to the tangent is

2 a* 6 .

(1)
is

on

it

## from the centre

a/

In order to get the equation to their intersection, we must eliminate and y r from these two equations and that to the hyperbola; from (1)
find

and (2) we

_ -

a**
'

*
6

_ "
x'*

- 6'y
-

a? b*,

we have

O +
2

s 8
7/

y-

a 2 *2

0,

which

is

## an equation of the fourth degree.

160

THE LEMNISCATA.
shall only investigate the figure in the case when 6 the hyperbola is equilateral, in which case the equation
2

We
when a2

a, that
8

is

(.t

is (,r

V*)*

a 2/

).

/.

+
{

(2 r
t

a2 ) y2

4 -f J

a2

2
J?

0,

and y

^+^
o

\/ 2 x*
y
is

-|^|.

If the sign of the interior root shall only examine the equation

be negative,

impossible; hence

we

here

is

impossible,

if

8
j;

-j

-- >
is

if

x4
4

a*

*8

-f

is

4
is

if-r

> 2 a* ^ >a *
8 2
,

-f-

if a; is

> +

a;

## hence we have the following table

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
The equation a (y )* (x curve referred to a different origin.
2

161

a)

(2 a x

## Ex. Trace the locus of the equation y 2

316. abscissa

x*

a tangent to a circle Q an ordinate to the Q, and taken a mean proportional between A Q; required the locus of P.

AM,

AM; M P

fig.

1, is
is

AC

Let
let the

AM

=r x, and

= =

6,

and

MP=

the rectangle
a

AM,

M Q.

To

find

M Q,

we have
(y
2 6

or y*

.'.

+
s
,'.

## the equation to the circle

6,

j?

}.

Since 6
of x

<

6,

B is a limit to the curve, and when straight line C B C' perpendicular to x 6, the ordinate to the curve is equal to the extreme ordinate of the circle, that is, to the tangent B C.

- x8 is< 6*, there are four values of to each y and no value of y to x negative hence if A B
;

positive value
6, fig. 1,

the

Between x 0, and x 6, we have four values of y, which give the two dotted ovals of fig. (1). To make the question more general we shall suppose the line A B to be
a chord of the
circle, figs. (2) (3) (4).
circle,

to the centre of the the origin, the equation to the curve will be
if 6
"~L
j

Then

## and a are the co-ordinates

and

f /

/ L%

"~o

and we have four cases depending on the values of 6 and a ; hence we have four curves of different forms, yet partaking of the same character and generation.
Case
(1).

Case
Case

(2).
(3).

a and
6

A E

+ V

6'.

0, fig. (3).
fig.

Case

(4).

b negative,

## (4), the equation is

162

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.

for

There are two values of y for x positive, and x negative, and V 8 4- & 8 - that is,

<2
A
is

<

<

In

transition of

## apparent, hut that the and (4)

M and M Q, and also between A M and M Q'. Moreover P may be in QM produced as well as in M Q, thus we have the double oval, (1.) On the of A the abscissas A M will be negative, and the ordinates M Q
A
fig.

fig.

(1)

## and P' are determined by mean proportionals between

left

hence no possible mean proportional can exist, or no part of the ; curve can be on the left of A. and In fig. (2) A and Q determine the points P and P'; but Q' give only an imaginary locus. Fig. (3) requires no comment. In fig. (4) the reasoning on fig. (2) will explain the positive side of A ; on the left of the abscissa and both ordinates are negative ; therefore two mean proportionals can be found, or four points in the curve for each
positive

AM

abscissa.

Such curves may be invented at pleasure, by taking the parabola or other curves for the base instead of the circle. 0. 2 a x y2 a x8 Ex. To find the locus of the equation y* 317. To find a point P', such that drawing straight lines to two given

points

S and H, we may have the rectangle S P, Join the points S and H, and bisect S H in C

HP
let

rectangular axes, S S P, U P, a b.

i=

2 a,

M.

x,

~
x,

## constant. be the origin of and let the rectangle

Then

since

M=
2

a
(a
8

<r,

and

H M=
8

we have

{y
or

+
or,

+ xY } {y
+

-f (a

x)*}
2

a2
8

6*,
2

(/

-f

* 8 -f a2

2 a x) (y 8
r2
{
/.

{y

hence

= Let y = Let x =
y

+ J
0,

+ - (*
x

a8 } 2

+ x + a -2 a .r)=a - 4 d> x* =: a 6*
;

>\

4-

x9

V^ + 4?].
8

Va

(a

6)

(1).

0,

1.

Let a be
li

less

than

6.

Then from
points

(I)
B'.

we have

the points

A and

A',

## and from (2) we have the

and

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
Also by comparing the values of y
(2)
*J 2

163

we

## shall find that

MP

is

in the original equation and in equation greater than C B as long as x is greater than

a (2 a

6)

## thus the form of the curve must be like that of the

figure

APBA'B'A.
and takes the form of

As b increases, the oval becomes flatter at the top, the outer curves.

2. Let a 6, then we have the dotted curve passing through C ; also 2 2 2 since the equation becomes (j?2 2 a2 (or2 3/ ) j ) the locus is in this case the lemniscata of Bernouilli.

3. Let a be greater than 6. Then from (1) we have two values of #, and from value ofy hence the curve must consist of the two
;

## (2) an impossible small oval figures

round S and H.
little ovals decrease and when 6 0, we have the S and H themselves for the locus. These curves are called the ovals of Cassini, that celebrated astronomer having imagined that the path of a planet was a curve like the exterior

As

6 decreases, the

points

one

in the

above

figure.

The

.r

8 2

i2

## a* x*, found in art. (123), gives a

1.

318. There are some cases in which it is useful to introduce a third x3 : 0, x* y* 2 y3 variable; for example, if the equation be y* it requires the solution of an equation of three or four dimensions, in

+
;

## to avoid this difficulty,

assume x

?/

y,
/.
4

y y

or,

+ w y* f 2 y + w y +22 2
.,

u* y*

=
-j-

0,

u3

=
u.

0,

2
,

i/.*

+
.

and x

n*

2
;

we can
y

find

## a series of corresponding values

for

x and

y.

3
2
1

= = = =
-

2 TV 2
1

8
4

A
*

=0
|

2 3 4
&c.

= =
&c.

3ff

= = =

2 i

7i

H -H
&c.

164

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
Y

r
= 0, =

A X, A Y

Also when y

be the axes

## the table for

Let 0, hence the curve passes through A. along the axis of y take values equal to those in and from the points thus determined draw lines equal to
;

the corresponding values in the table for x (these are the dotted lines in the figure) ; by this method we obtain a number of points in the curve sufficient to determine its course.

This example is taken from the " Analyse des Lignes Courbes, by G. Cramer. Geneva. 1750," a work which will be found extremely useful in

319.

To

## trace the curve

whose equation

is

5 a a?y*

x5

0.

Let x be very small .*. x6 being exceedingly small may be omitted, and the equation becomes y 6 5 a x* y2 or y8 5 a x*, which is the to a semi-cubical parabola PAP' fig. (1.) and if y be very equation 9 9 5 ay which gives the parabola Q A Q' ; hence small, we have x near the origin the curve assumes the forms of the two parabolic branches. Again when x is infinitely great, x* may be neglected in comparison with x* and the equation becomes ^ x hence for x posior .*. y tive, we have an infinite branch in the angle X A y, and for x negative an

infinite

:

YA

x.

To

## find the asymptote

rr

xb

5 a x*

y,

**-

-'?-.*'?--}

INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.

65

2
<r

+2

ft
.

-f, &c.

when y

Therefore the equation to the asymptote is y + x == a ; this being drawn and the branches A P', A Q' produced towards it, we have nearly a correct idea of the curve. 5 5 a2 a;2 y + # If the equation be y* 0, the curve will be traced

in the

If the equation be y - a* x* y* 0, we have fig. (3) ; 6 will give fig. (4). Arid the equation y a* a;2 y* xe 4 a2 x y Ex. Find the locus of the equation y* x* =0. For the above method of tracing curves of this species, see a treatise on the Differential Calculus, by Professor Miller. Cambridge, 1832. 320. B C is a straight line of given length (2 6), having its extremities always in the circumferences of two equal circles, to find the locus of the middle point P of the line B C. Let the line joining the centres O,O' of the circles be the axis of x, and let the origin of rectangular axes be at A, the bisecting point of O O'.
6

same manner,

fig. (2).

+&

Let x y be

the co-ordinates of B.

c.

'*.../'

A O = A O' O B = O' C =
the equation to to

a,
c,

B is C is

y* -f (x

also (y

- y')

'*
2

+ +

(X +
(x

of
a

a2 ) 2
2

From
\f

and xf

y*

we must
*

## eliminate the four quantities y>

+ x - x'* - 2 a (x + x') 0, X- 2aX = or (y _ y Y + (a (6), fz + 2 y y + 2 x x' - 4 Y + 4 X from (4) and (5) y* + f + ^ + x from (3) + y" + * + ^/ - 2 y y' 2 x' 4 6 from (1) and (2) 2 y + 2 + 2 * + 2 x'* - 4 a (#-/)= 4 c - 4 a 6 + a - c ), 4 a (* - A') 4 (Y i X /. by substitution
'

_
')

a?')

i/

a?

8
,

2/'

=r.

166

ALGEBRAIC CURVES.
or (x

*')

=Y + X +
2
2

m*
,

if

m*

a2

-r-

6'

c,

y -

y'

{2 a

(x

x')}
--

=
x'

2 a

Y + X + m
2

## Substituting these values of x

and y
*
f

y' in (3),

we have
2

2 a

+X + m
*

T^ + Y
g 2
)

Y +

X8 a

m8
j
j

4 6

or 4 a

X*

(Y

+X +m X +
s
8

fH^ \

**

'X 2

+ Y2 + ~2a~~
:

0.

This equation, being of the sixth dimension, and the highest terms when X being both positive, the curve must be limited in every direction is very small, there are four values of Y also when X 0, we have Y 0; hence the curve is a species of double oval, or lemniscata. If the circles be unequal, and P be any point in the line B C, the curvt

will be of the

same

## nature, but the investigation

is

much

longer.

(2)

very beautiful contrivance of Walt to reduce a circular to a rectimotion is well known to every one. Suppose the point B to be the extremity of an engine-beam, moveable about its centre O, this beam is required to moved a piston-rod always in the same vertical position it is plain that this motion cannot be obtained by fixing the piston-rod to B, or to any point in O B. Suppose now, a beam O'C, called the radius-rod, to move about a centre O', and join the extremities B, C, by a bar B C ; the extremity of the piston-rod is fixed to the middle of the beam B C, and its motion, according to the above demonstration, is in a portion of the curve, such as the dark part of the lemniscate in the first figure, and

The

linear

consequently the rod itself continues much more in the same vertical line than if attached to B. The comparative lengths of the rods necessary to render the motion as nearly vertical as possible are stated in most works on the steam-engine, and in the Mechanics' Magazine. For a more complete but very different method of finding the equation to the

above curve, see 4< Prony, Hydraulique.' 321. We have no space for the disc ission of any higher algebraic it mu?t but in fuct we have not '.he meafis curves, if it were necessary
: ;

ALGEBRAIC CURVES.

167

have been already seen that many of the preceding- curves have not been drawn with mathematical exactness ; for unless we took the trouble of tracing them by points, we could not easily determine their curvature ; we shall therefore pass to the consideration of the general equation of the nth dimension, and then proceed to the intersection of algebraic curves*. 322. The general equation of the rath degree, with all its terms complete, is

y
it

+ (ax + b)y n

~l

(ex*

+ dx +

e)

n ~*

+ f x + gxsum

contains all the possible combinations of x and y, so that the the exponents in no one term exceeds n.

of

The number of terms is 1+2 + 3+.. ..+(n + 1), or is the sum of an arithmetic progression, whose first term and common difference is unity, and the number of terms is n + 1 therefore the sum of this
.

series

is -

(n

+
2

2)

+ ^-(n

1)
-.

## The number of independent

y"
if

constants is (dividing by the co efficient of necessary) one less than the number of terms in the equation, that is,

(n+2)
323.

(*+l)

(n+3)
2

An

it

n th degree may
is,

given points as
for giving to

## has arbitrary constants, that

their values at each

through

pass through as / o\ i^ ^

many

points,

x and y

## one of the given points, we have

different equations,

## by which the values of the constants may

be determined.

For example,

* We must refer our readers to our treatise on the Differential Calculus for information on the curvature of lines. It must not, however, be imagined that algebraic geometry is incapable of exhibiting the form of curves the following method of determining the curvature is an instance to the contrary. Let yi, y%, and y a be three consecutive ordinates, at equal distances from each other then drawing a corresponding figure, it will be seen that the curve is concave or convex
; ;

to the axis,

according as y2
2

is

> or <
3
,

"^

## as an example, take the cubical para-

x then the curve is convex, if 2 x3 is whose equation is a y (x 1) 3 3 is x3 + 6#, which it is, and therefore the curve is convex. The -{- I) distances at which the ordinates are drawn from each other must depend on the conbola,

(x

>2

<

stants in the equation. Again, to determine the angle at which a curve cuts the axis of x, transfer the then the tangent to the curve at that point and the curve itself origin to that point make the same angle with the axis ; but the value of the tangent of the angle which
;

is

then

o
:=
-,

v

value whatever

.-.

= =
,

when

= 0, therefore
art.

a 3 r= T8 (2 a
x}
2
;

## Again, take the example in

307
<r

at

A we have x d =

and at

B we

have

2 a

*:*
_-jj

a = 4 tp

hence the curve cuts the axis of x in both cases at an angle of 90.

168

ALGEBRAIC CURVES.
general equation to the conic sections, dividing by the co-efficient
8
!/

The

-f

bry

+ c a* +

dy +

!+/=

0,

in

## which there are

five co-efficients,

## and therefore a conic section may pass

five given points ; substituting the co-ordinates of the given points separately for x and y we obtain five equations from which the constants can be determined, and thence we have the particular curve required ; it

through

4c is negative, (79.) 324. The elimination is long, but the trouble may be much lessened by assuming one of the given points for the origin, and two lines drawn from the origin to other two given points for the axes. For example, if it be required to pass a conic section through four
will

## be an ellipse, hyperbola, or parabola, according as 68

positive, or nothing.

AB

## E, join given points B C be the axis of y and A

BC

and

D E,

and

let

them meet

in

let

the axis of x,

Y
yz
ya
,

Let

AC = AD =

a?!

AB = AE =

Assume

the equation to be

A
we have
2
,

IT777
=. 0;

for

y,
y.'

-j-

dy

-j-

/
y,
y.,.

and
/.

+ dy.-f/sO;
+
i> 2

0,
e

(y,

-f

y 2 ), and/ =
),

Similarly for

c (.r,

and/ =

CJT,

j- g

## equating the values of/, we have

Substituting and dividing by

c =r ^i-2- . TI J?8

y ya
l

we have

an equation involving only one unknown co-efficient 6. There are some restrictions depending on the situation of the given thus no more than two can be in the same points line, or else
; straight the conic section degenerates into two straight lines. The five given points are the same as five conditions expressed analytically ; four are sufficient if the curve is to be a for b* 4 c

If the curve has a centre, whose equivalent to one. position is given, three other conditions suffice, because we may assume the equation 2 8 to be c j: 0. If the position of two y

parabola

0, is

bxy conjugate diameters be given, only two more conditions are requisite. Newton, in his Universal Arithmetic, gives excellent methods for describing, by continued motion, a conic section passing through five given

+/=

points.

ALGEBRAIC CURVES.

169

325. If it be required to pass a curve, whose species is not given, through a number of given points, we may with advantage assume the equation to be of the form a + b x + c x* + d x3 +, &c. y

elimination of the constants is more regular, and therefore easier in this equation than in any other: such curves are called parabolic (the three first terms giving the common parabola) and consist of a series of For the eliminasinuosities, such as in (309), which are easily traced. tion of the constants, see Lagrange, or Lardner's Algebraic Geometry,

The

art.

617.

326. We saw in article (79) that the general equation of the second order sometimes gave straight lines for the loci; such will be the case whenever any equation is reducible into rational factors of the first degree so that we must not always conclude that an equation of the 7iih If the equation be reorder has a curve of the n th order for its locus. ducible into factors of lower degrees, there will be a series of lines corresponding to those factors ; thus if an equation of the 4th degree be composed of one factor of two degrees, and two factors of the 1st degree, the loci are a conic section and two straight lines ; and hence a general equation of any order embraces under it all curves of inferior orders if any of the factors be impossible, their loci are either points, or imaginary. If the sum of the indices of x and y be the same in every term, the loci are either straight lines or points ; for an equation of this species will have
;
:

the form

+ ay

n~

by"-*x*

+ l* n =

0,

let

a,

/3,

y, &c.,

## then the equation

.

will

be

0,

each factor of which being 0, its corresponding locus is evidently a straight line ; if the roots of the equation be impossible, the corresponding loci are points.

Ex.
lines

y*

2xy

sec.

xz

whose equations

are

y =. x

0.

The
'

cos.

## x tan. 45 \ and are inclined

(

-f-

and

to the axis of

at angles of

45

327. Since the general equation includes all equations below it, the true for the lower properties of the curve of n dimensions will generally be orders, and also for certain combinations of the lower orders ; thus, a true for a conicproperty of a line of the third degree will be generally section, or for a figure consisting of a conic section and a straight line,

Moreover the lower orders of curves have and hence the properties of generally some analogy to the higher curves, inferior orders often lead to the discovery of those of the superior. 328. From the application of the theory of equations to curves, an immense number of curious theorems arise, which may be seen in the
or for three straight lines.

170

ALGEBRAIC CURVES
:

works of Waring and Maclaurin the most important. If two straight lines, AX,
cut a curve of
points
that

we have

## only room for two or three of

AY
the

n dimensions,

in

yy

A P, Q, A R, &c. respectively, and A S, A T, x lt oc #3, &c. respecU, &c. and move tively, then if

PQR,&c., STU,

&c., so &c. =r y^ #,

AX

AY

parallel
.

to

themselves,
.

we
&c.
:

shall

## always have y^.y^. y3 . j?3 &c., in a constant

o- 8

ratio.

AX, AY,
n

Let the equation to the curve be referred to the origin A, and to axes by means of the transformation of co-ordinates, and suppose

the equation to be

(ax +

Lety = x=
The
roots of (1)

n c x + d + cx + d x ~ + n~ + y + b y are A S, A T, A U, &c.
l .
.

n~

~l

kx
0. 0.

+ =
I

0.

+ = + = fey
kx
I

(1)

(2)
.

,r 2

xz

&c.

The

## roots of (2) are

.'

A P, A Q, A R,
.

&c.
x*

y
&c.

= c &c. =
I

y-y*

3/3,

c.

xl

the transformation of the axes, parallel to themselves, never alters n n the co-efficients of y and x ; hence the above ratio is constant for any and of A Y. parallel position Article 293 is an example of this theorem. diameter was defined in (76) to be a straight line, bisecting a 329.

Now

system of parallel chords; more generally it is a line, such that if any one of its parallel chords be drawn, meeting the curve in various points, the sum of the ordinates on one side shall equal the sum on the other ; P' Q &c. R Q -f R/ Q thus, in the figure, if P Q &c., and the same be true for all lines parallel to P R, then B Q is a diameter. To find the equation to the diameter B Q let the equation to the curve,

referred to

AX

and a

parallel to

Q, &c.

dx
and by substitution we have 6 + n y) y y'* + (a x + Let

e)

M Q = w,

PQ = y',
f

y--f.,&c.

0.

y' -f u,

"~ l

.ax +

ft

=o

## THE INTERSECTION OF CURVES.

By
sum

171

the definition the sum of the values of y' must equal nothing, and that is the co-efficient of the second term in the last equation with its
.*.

sign changed,

ax

+6+

nu

= 0,
b
,

or

ax +

and

this is the

Agaii.. uy the
c

## equation to the diameter B Q. same reasoning, the equation

x2

dx

-f-

\u.ax +

n.

u* r=

is that to a conic section drawn so that the sum of the products of the values of y, taken two and two together, shall equal nothing. might proceed on with the co-efficient of the fourth term. These curves are sometimes called curvilinear diameters.

We

330. The method of finding the centre, if any, of a curve, is given in (81) ; the operation is too long to apply it to a general equation of high dimensions, and therefore we shall take an example among the lines of the third order as fully illustrating the subject. ey a x3 Let the equation be x y z b x3 c x under which rf, form are comprehended most of the curves of the third order. Let x === x n ; the transformed equation is m, y y

+
y

2
z/

+
(n

'2

nxy

-j-

3am

-f2

= + m y* + (2 n m +
26m
c)

e)

a x3
2
ra
;

-|-

cm
in

(3 a

en

m + 6) x* am 6m
3 2

order that the curve may have a centre, the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and last or constant term must each n .'. 0, m ; 0, 6=0, d 0, so that the corresponding curve has a centre, which is the origin, only when the co-efficients 6 and d are wanting.

CHAPTER

XIII.

## ON THE INTERSECTION OF ALGEBRAIC CURVES.

331. THE intersection of a straight line with a line of the nih order is found by eliminating y from the two equations ; hence the resulting equation in terms of x will be of the nth order, and therefore may have n real roots thus there may be n intersections there may be less, since some of the roots of the resulting equation may be equal to one
;
:

another, or

some

impossible.
;

Generally speaking, a curve of n dimensions may be cut by a straight line drawn in some direction in n points but the curve, in its most general form, must be taken ; otherwise certain points as conjugate and multiple

172

## THE INTERSECTION OF CURVES.

points, must be considered as evanescent ovals or evanescent branches of the curve, and thus a line passing through such points is equivalent to two or more intersections. 332. The intersections of two lines of the mth and nth orders are found also by eliminating y from both hence the resulting equation may n intersections ; there are often be of the m/ith order, or there may be zz will give points of less, for not all the real roots of the equation intersection: for example, if we eliminate y from the equations
;

= 2 ax
;

x*

and #2
is

= 2 a (x >

6)

we

find

*] 2

always an intersection corresponding to the 2 a ( */2ab but this is not the case ; for then y* abscissa V 2 a b 6), 2 a, which is evident on drawing and therefore y is impossible, if b is the two curves ; hence after the abscissa is found, we must examine the corresponding ordinates in each curve ; if they are not real, there can be no intersection corresponding to such abscissa. 2 % 2 2 n 10 x - 16 If we have the two equations y 0, 0, y -f- 4 ,r 4 and x the elimination y gives the abscissas of intersection x 1, the second of which alone determines a, point of intersection.
hence, apparently, there

333. In finding the intersections of lines, we often fall upon a final equation of an order higher than the second, or arrive at an equation whose roots are of a form not readily constructed ; to avoid this difficulty a method is often used which consists in drawing a line which shall pass through all the required points of intersection, and thus determine their
situation.

* Let y (,r) (2), be the equations to two lines, (x) (1), and y then at the point of intersection they have the same ordinates and abscissas ; or calling and Y the co-ordinates of the point of intersection, we have

=/
X

Y =/
and

hence/(X)
and

(X), from

## their values constructed

But

since

(X)
.

(3)

we have by

or by multiplication or generally

## Y = 0(X) .... 2 Y = /(X) + (X) Y = / (X) (X) ....

.

(4)

(5) (6)
(7)

= F {/(X), 0(X)}

implying any function arising from the addition, subtraction, multiplication, &c. of (3) and (4). Now any one of these equations gives a true relation between the coof the point of intersection of (1) and (2); but by and ordinates and Y to vary, it will give a relation between a series of supposing is certainly one ; that is, points, of which the required point of intersection

X X

drawing the locus of (5) or (6) or (7), it must pass through the required point of intersection of (1) and (2). It is manifest that if one of the equations (5), (6), or (7), be a circle

The symbols F (.r), (T), <p (a-), serve to denote different functions of x, that indicate expressions into which the same quantity or enters, but combined in different ways with given quantities. But /" (#), /* (y), indicate similar formulae for both 2 y 2ay x and y ; thus, if /(*) 2 a x - x* t then/(y) or 2 b y ;/ / ,

is,

## THE INTERSECTION OF CURVES.

173

or straight line, it will be much easier to draw this circle or straight line than to find the intersection by means of elimination. Also we may often find the intersection of (1) and (2), when one of

them
is

is

We
to
it.

the simplest

a given curve, by drawing the locus of the other, when that other is a straight line. shall give a few examples to illustrate the subject.

and

this

method

334.

From

a given

point

without an

ellipse,

to

draw a tangent

Let the co-ordinates of Q be and ?i, and let X and Y be the co-ordinates of the point P, where
ra

the required tangent meets the curve. Then by (111) the equation to the tangent through P is

## az b\ a*2/Y + b*x X and since this passes through Q we

have

a2 n

Y
8

-f 6

mX =
X*

a8
2

9
f,

(1)
(2)

and

Y +

6*

a b\

From (1) and (2) we might, by elimination, find structed values would be the co-ordinates
point.

X and

CM,

MP

Y, and

## their conof the required

not the equation to any straight line, but only gives the and P ; but if we suppose X and Y to vary, it C will give the relation between a series of points, of which P is certainly one ; and therefore, if the line whose equation is (1) be drawn, it must pass through P, and consequently, with the ellipse (2), will completely fix
(1)
is

Now

relation

between

the situation of P.

To draw
Let

## the line (1),

.'.

X=
take
is

=
b*
,

Let

Y=
CA

/.

X=
;

in

Cy

C B

and

in

Cx

take

a?

join

B A

BA

7L

pro-

llfc

duced hence

if

The

it cuts the ellipse in two points P and P ; be joined, they are the tangents required. same method may be employed in drawing tangents to the para

## the locus of (1), and

QP

and

QP

bola and hyperbola. c x* -f d y e x To take the more general case, let a y* (1) be the equation to the curves of the second order referred to axes parallel to conjugate diameters. Then the equation to a tangent at a point x' y' is

ayy*

(y

2/0

+~

(*

174

or

(2ay>

+ d)

-f (2 c x'

e)x

dy'

ex'

(2).

Let

this

## w, then (2) becomes

(2 a y' -f d)
or,

n -f (2
d)
y' +

c a/ -f- e)

m+
e)/

dy'

-f e x'

(3),

(2

an

Now

(2 c

m+

+ dn +em=rO

(4).

xf and y'in (4) be considered variable, and construct the straight line, which is the locus of (4); this with the curve itself, determines the position of the secant line which joins the two points on the curve, whence
let

tangents are drawn to the point rn n. 335. Again, suppose the secant line (4) to pass through a given point m' ?i'; Then the equation (4) becomes =r e (2 a n d) n* (2 c (5), e) m' -f d n and of course the point n, whence tangents were originally drawn, must have a particular position corresponding to each secant line passing

+
-,

m+

+ m

and n variable in (5) through m' ri if therefore we make have the equation to the locus of the point n c m' d n'+ e m' a n' n (2 d) e) (2

we

shall

m m +

where

## and n are the variable co-ordinates.

the following theorem : if from any point secants be second order, and from the two points where each of these secants intersect the curve, tangents be drawn meeting each other, the locus of all such points of concourse is a straight line.

Hence we have

drawn

to a line of the

336.

To draw

## a normal to a parabola from a point

(0, 6,)

not on

the curve.

be the and 4 Let y8 x, be the equation to the curve, and let co-ordinates of the required point, then the equation to the tangent at the
point

= m
is

X Y,

by (232)
2

Yy =
and

m (X +

,r),

## therefore that to the

normal

at

XY

is

and since

it

passes through (a 6)

we have

'jj

Y
or,

XY -

also,

8 The elimination 8 m" o (3), an equation whose roots would give the three required ordinates. To avoid this equation we shall construct the locus of (1), which is the

## 2m) Y - 2m b = 0, =r4mX Y of X gives Y - 4 m (a 2 m) Y

(a
2
.

(I) (2)

The axis of x is one asymptote equation to an equilateral hyperbola. (198), and the other is parallel to the axis of y, and at a distance A C from A ; the equation to the hyperbola referred to its centre C and Y moreover the hyperbola cuts the axis of y in ; asymptotes is

2m

the point

D,

= 2mb where A D = X
may be

hence

this

curve

in the figure)

constructed.

## THE INTERSECTION OF CURVES.

175

We have drawn the figure, so that there shall be only one intersection If the curves of the curves, and hence only one normal is drawn from Q. touched, as at E, there would be two normals ; and if the hyperbola cut the parabola in the lower branch, there would be three normals drawn from Q. These cases correspond respectively to the equation (3), having one real root ; three real roots of which two are equal ; and, lastly, three
real

337. We must particularly observe that, in the construction of loci, those are to be selected which admit of the easiest description, and of all curves the circle is to be preferred ; hence, in the present case, we must look
carefully to see if
it

and unequal

roots.

is

possible,

## ^btain the equation to the circle required normal points.

by any combination of (1) and (2), to for by 333 this will pass ; through the

XY 2

(a

2m) Y
(a

-2m6Y =
4

0,

or,

X
...

4
2

mX (a
2

- 2 m)

mX

2
0,

mb Y =

X and

- 2 m) X- A Y 0,

Y -4mX =

from (2)
-|~

/.

Y +X 2

(a

+ 2m) X -

Y=

which

is

b

Although

a
r-

m and,

## and whose radius

is

lf a
J
(

+ m\*b*i + -.-r> j

this circle passes through the vertex of the parabola, yet that point is not one of the required intersections, but merely arises from the multiplication

of(l)by Y.
If the parabola and circle be drawn, the latter in various situations according to the position of Q, we shall see, as before, that there will be such practice will be found very useful. one, two or three intersections The problem of drawing a normal to an ellipse is of the same nature, only in this case there may be four intersections. 338. The intersection of curves has been employed in the last articles to avoid the resolution of equations resulting from elimination, but t,he so as to render curves generally subservient to principle may be extended,
:

the solution of equations ; for as two equations combined produce one whose roots give the intersection of their loci, so that one may in its turn be separated into two, whose loci can be drawn, and their intersection will dv.termine the roots of the one. " the construction of This method, known by the name of equations," before the present methods of approxi<vas much used by mathematicians

therefore

it

is

even
it.
:

now
x

=

we proceed

to explain

-\-

(1),

y^

a*

(2),

by

^-a.+ flzJ^O

(3).

176

## THE CONSTRUCTION OF EQUATIONS.

already know that the roots of (3) are the abscissas to the points of intersection of the loci (1) (2); but, conversely, it is manifest that the roots of (3) can be determined by drawing the loci of (1) and (2), and measuring the abscissas of intersection.

We

Hence if it be required to exhibit geometrically the roots of (3), let be decomposed into the two equations (1) and (2), and let C P Q B of be the locus of (1), and the circle (2), having the same origin and axes : draw the and A are ordinates P, NQ, then A the roots of (3).
it

EPQ
N

The method consists in parting any given equation into two others, and then drawing the loci of those two ; and as it is obvious that there are a great many equations which, when
combined together, may produce the given equation, so we may construct a great many loci, whose intersections will give the required roots thus, in the above case, the equation (3) may be
:

y,

and

ay

ax

+ ^-^

o,

and

the

## corresponding parabola and straight line being drawn, their intersections

will give the roots of (3).

In general the roots of an equation can be found by the intersection of any two species of curves whose indices, multiplied together, are equal to the index of the equation: thus, a straight line and a curve of the third order will give the solution of an equation of the third order and any two conic sections, except two circles, will give the roots of an of
;

## the fourth order.

equation

339. As equations of the third and fourth order are of frequent recurrence in mathematical researches, we proceed to the solution of the complete equation of the fourth order,

ry

0.

Here the circle and parabola, as curves of easy description, ought to be chosen, and assuming the equation to the parabola a artifice will
slight

circle.

Lety + |-y

(1);

## THE CONSTRUCTION OF EQUATIONS.

177

but
.*.

y /
V

+
q

pi/
2

+
\

qy*
2

+ ry + s =

0,

by subtraction

/?

47)y + ^-frw + s^
" -- y

## or from (1) '

~
('

T)

(*

a*

+*=

and from

(1), y*

0,

=
The
locus of (1)
is

(2).

the parabola

A E Q, the origin

being at

E(

BE =

- Y

and the co-ordinates rectangular. The locus of (2) is the circle Q P 11; the E D, D C of the centre, and the radius are readily determined from (2). The roots of the equation are drawn as if two, PM, were negative. If the circle Q N were positive, and other two R S, the cases of three or four equal touch the parabola, two roots are equal roots can only be discussed by the principles of osculation, but as two roots
co-ordinates

TU
;

are sufficient to depress the equation to one of the second order, we need If there be only two intersections, two not here consider those cases. and if there be no intersection, all four roots are roots are impossible
;

impossible. 340. In practice the operation is shortened by first taking away the second term of the equation ; for example, to construct the roots of the equation
s*

+
2,

Qo?
and
2/

+ 23^+ 32*+
-2/ +43/
2

16

= 0.

(1).

Let x s= y

## the reduced equation

4

is

-4 = 0.

(2).

Let y8
.'.

=x
x
l

(3)

2 by substitution #

+ by
2
j?

or,

2 -f r 2

(y

2)

(x

+ 4y - I) = 9
2

= 0, = 0,

(4).

Let P A Q be the parabola (3), whose parameter is unity, the co-ordinates of the centre C of the circle (4) are B 1, and B C 2, the radius 3. are Describing this circle, the ordinates B P and Q

the possible roots of (2) ; measuring these values we shall find = and 2 ; hence the possible roots of (2) are 1 and therefore those of (1) are 1 and 4.

QN

PB

1,

2,

and

341.

The

is

involved in that

178

equation

## of the fourth order.

resulting-

by y, and then proceed precisely as in the last The circle will always pass through the vertex of the parabola, bu article. this intersection gives the root y 0, introduced by multiplication, and has therefore nothing to do with the roots of the given equation. This

Y =

if

## necessary, multiply the

circumstance of the circle passing through the vertex of the parabola, is singularly convenient, as it entirely saves the trouble of calculating the radius to decimal places, which is often necessary in the preceding cases. 2; 0. 6j?2 - x 6 Let .r Ex.1. y

= +

/.

y*

13 y

12

= 0,
12 y
0.

or, y*

Let

':.

or,

## = y .'. x*- 13-r- 12y = 0, 12 y + x - 12 x = 0, y - 6)t + (x - 6)* = 72 (y

2

13 y 8

(1)

(-2).

The three roots of y, as given by the figure, are hence the values of x are 6, 1 and 1.
Ex.
Ex.
2.

4,

and

3;

8
j/

+ 6y +

= 0.
-

## There is one possible root nearly

=
V

^
2

4 y 3 y 1 0. There never can be any difficulty in constructing the loci of these equa lions ; having once drawn a parabola, whose parameter is unity, with tolerable exactness, it will serve for the construction of any number of such equations. As another example, we take the following question. 342. To find two mean proportionals between two given lines a and 6,
3.

:

lines
.'.

9 y =>a x

(1),
(2),

y
/.

x::x:
2

6,

/.

x*

=
6

=a

by
a8
6

x9 =. a?b

y, or y*

=
ax

## but by addition of (1) and (2),

+ x*

= 0,

Let

will give

The

PAQ be the parabola (1), then the intersection of the M P and A M, the two mean proportionals required. ~
other roots of the equation

circle

(3)

a* b

are impossible.

## THE CONSTRUCTION OF EQUATIONS.

179

This problem was one of those so much celebrated by the ancient mathematicians. Menechrne, of the school of Plato, was the first who gave a solution of it : his method being- particularly ingenious, as well as being the first instance known of the application of geometrical loci to plain problems, is well worth insertion. With a parameter a, draw the parabola (fig. 2), and on A describe the parabola with parameter b. perpendicular to A Then the rectangle #, A or #, P is equal to the square on P;

M N M P and N P are in continued proportion. AN or M P equal to the square Again, the rectangle M P, N P, and are in continued proportion
/.
,

PAQ PAR

6,

6,

is

on

NP

.*.

b,

a
.".

a,

6;

M P, N P,

and

6,

## are in continued proportion.

Menechme also gave a second solution depending on the intersection of a parabola and hyperbola. 343. To find a cube which shall be double of a given cube. Let a be a side of the given cube, then the equation to be solved is
y*

=
/.

2 a
2

3
,

or

4
?/

2 a*

= 0,
2

Let

The
is

2 ay = z = (2) by addition, y loci of (1) and (2) being flrawn, the ordinate P M of their intersection
8
3/

= ax
.*.

(1),

x*
2

2 a9 y

= 0,
xz

or,

2 ay

-f-

ax

the side of the required cube. This problem, like the former, occupied the attention of the early geometricians ; they soon discovered that its solution is involved in the pre2 a, the resulting equations are the same. ceding one ; for if 6 In this manner a cube may be found which shall be times greater than a given cube. 344. We may thus find any number of mean proportionals between

two given quantities a and 6. For if y be the first of the mean proportionals, they
lowing progression
:

will

form the

fol-

gression being 6

sixth

## term of the pro-

we have -^

b,

or

0.

a x t and then draw the Describe the parabola whose equation is y z The last curve consists of an a? b locus of the equation y x* X, .r, and therefore the hyperbolic branch in each of the angles ordinate corresponding to the real root is readily found. 345. Newton constructed equations by means of the conchoid of Nicomedes he justly observes that those curves are to be preferred whose mechanical description is the easiest ; and he adds, that of all curves, See the conchoid next to the circle is, in this respect, the most simple.

=0.

YA

YA

is

N2

180

straight line

KB,
n

and bisect

13.)

BA

in

with centre k

KC
lines

tween the

EY
A

## X = -^ join A X, C X and A X produced,

;

and beinscribe
it

equal to

A, so

that,

when produced,
show
x*
that,

passes

through

the
the
is

point K. geometrical proof follows to is equation for the length of root of the equation.

from

this construction,
0,

XY

q x

so that

XY
and

The conchoid
Let

is

employed

## to insert the line

EY

between

common suchthatEY

the modulus; then the the base, and be the pole, on the line C the point Y, description of the curve determines

AXE

CA

CX

C A.

= CA.

346. With regard to the higher equations, there is not much advantage in constructions, since it is extremely difficult to draw the curves with The method, however, is so far useful as enabling sufficient exactness. roots in any equation, as we can us to detect the number of
impossible sufficient accuracy to determine the generally trace the curves with ber of intersections, though not the exact points of intersection.

num-

## Ex. y5 - 3y +1 x ..... Let y 8

=
0,

0.

(1),

...

y j*_ 3 y

(2)

order,
roots,

the locus of (1) is a parabola Q, that of (2) is a curve of the third and there are three intersections ; and, therefore, three possible

PA

two
;

positive,
is

## and one negative.

uncertainty in the employment of curves in finding stated in (332), that real roots may correspond to imaginary intersections; so, on the contrary, imaginary intersections, or what is the
roots

347. There

some

we

same, the absence of intersections, does not always prove the absence of 15,r + 14 real roots; for example, if to prove the equation x* 14 x 8 (1), and therefore x f \b x we assume y2 (2), the The loci of (1) and (2) will not intersect, but yet two roots are possible. error was in choosing a curve (l), which proceeds only in the positive direction, when from the form of the equation it is apparent that there

+ +

are negative roots. Taking the circle and common parabola for the loci, 2. 1 and as in (340), we shall find the roots to be Hence, in general, to ascertain real roots it will be advisable to try more than two

curves.

## THE LOGARITHMIC CURVE.

181

CHAPTER

XIV.

TRANSCENDENTAL CURVES.
348. IT was stated in art. (23), that those equations which cannot be put into a finite and rational algebraical form with respect to the varisin. x ables, are called Transcendental ; of this nature are the equations y andy =r a". In Chapter XII. we have obtained the equations to curves, generally from some distinct Geometrical property of those curves ; but there are many curves whose equations thus obtained cannot be expressed
that in the ordinary language of algebra the description or generation of the curve
;

is,

## the equation resulting from

trical or

Logarithrnical quantities ; equations, are called Transcendental. shall here investigate the equations and the forms of the most celebrated of these curves, and mention a few of the remarkable properties belonging to them, although they can be only fully investigated by the higher calculus. 349. In this class will be found some curves, as the Cardioide, whose equations may be expressed in finite algebraic terms ; but these examples are only particular cases of a species of curves decidedly Transcendental, and which cannot be separated from the rest without injury to the general

## dependent upon Trigonomethese curves, from the nature of their

is

We

arrangement. Some of the Transcendental class have been called Mechanical curves, because they can be described by the continued motion of a point ; but
this

curves

name as a distinction is erroneous, for it is very probable that may be thus described by a proper adjustment of machinery.

all

## THE LOGARITHMIC CURVE.

is the 350. The curve Q B P, of which the abscissa logarithm of the corresponding ordinate P, is called the Logarithmic curve.

AM

A T
A M

M
if

Let P x, y, then x log. y t that is, the system of logarithms, y a*. To examine the course of the curve we find when # as r increases from to cc, y increases from 1 to CD

a be the base of

= 0, yr=#*=l;
;

to

oo,

AY

A B
A

182

## THE LOGARITHMIC CURVE.

of x, and on the left continually approaches that axis, which is therefore an asymptote. This curve was invented by James Gregory Huyghens discovered that in T, T is constant and equal to the if P T be a tangent meeting A

of the system of logarithms. Also that the whole area ( \\og.aj x extending infinitely towards x is finite, and equal to twice the T, and that the solid described by the revolution of the triangle P same area about X x is equal to \\ times the cone, by the revolution of

modulus

PQ

PT

X x.

## That such areas and

to those
series.

who

solids are finite is curious, but not unintelligible are accustomed to the summation of decreasing infinite

a~ , the curve is the same, but placed in the If the equation be y opposite direction with regard to the axis of y. 351. The equation to the curve called the Catenary, formed by suspending a chain, or string, between two points B and C, is
y

*(e

e-*)
x,

where and

A

M P = y,

1.

This equation cannot be obtained by the ordinary algebraical analysis ; it is evident that the curve may be traced from this equation, by adding together the ordinates of two logarithmic curves corresponding to the equations y =. t? and y =r e~".
but
i

a'.

(Fig. 1.)

S,

353.
.

To
I ;

trace
let

the curve

.*.

;

is

=
y

of.

Let x
1,

and x :=
increases

we have

less than 1;

also

increases

from

to

co,

to infinity

## THE CURVE OF SINES.

hence
if

183

A B

(fig.

2,)

and

AC =
x.

1,

we have

the branch

B PQ

corresponding to

posit-ive
.".

values of
(

Let x be negative

x)

~*
;

now

if

we

take for x

three consecutive values as 2, 2^, 3, it is evident that y will be positive, impossible, or negative ; hence the curve must consist of a series of isox. lated points above and below the axis For further information on this subject see a very interesting memoir " by M. Vincent, in the fifteenth volume of the Annales des Math." M. Vincent calls such discontinuous branches by the name " Branches Ponctuees ;" and he also shows, that in the common logarithmic curve there must be a similar branch below the axis of x, corresponding to fractional

THE CURVE OF
354.

SINES.

The curve

APE

\
AM =

Let

j?,

is

sin.

ar,

v =r

r sin. r

184

may be supposed
to arise

This curve

## from the development of circular

ordinates being

drawn corresponding

to the

In

## a similar manner the curve of cosines, of versed sines, of tan-

gents, &c., may readily be investigated. If the ordinates of the curve of sines be increased or diminished in a
sin. x) is the curve formed by the given ratio, the resulting curve (y simple vibration of a musical chord: hence this curve is called the Harmonic Curve. 355. The accompanying figure belongs to the curve whose equation is y xta.n. x. Such curves are useful in finding the roots of an equation as x tan. x a; tor, supposing the curve to be described, in A Y take B B draw a cr, and from line parallel to A X then the ordinates corresponding to the points of intersection of this straight line with the curve are the

~m

-^

^x

values of y, that

is,

of x tan. x.

356. Let

## be the centre of a circle

A Q BD
;

let

the ordinate

11

move uniformly from A to B C, and in the same time let the radius C Q, then the intersection P of C Q turning round C, move from C A to C B
and

RM
A

## traces out a curve called the Quadratrix.

Let

be the origin,

AM = M P = A C = Then AM:AC::AQ;AB,
x,

y,

r,

angle

ACQ=

6,

::

re
2

2r

But
:.

MP=M
(r

tan. 0,
7T

y
x

=
=

X
,

x) tan.

2r
.*.

which

is

When
from

0,

to r,

## increases, because the

as x increases the curve passes through ; tangent increases faster than the

angle
;

185

when x

= r = A C, y
2 r
is
7T

=-^;

the real

hence

if

CE

2 r
,

## the curve passes

; beyond r the tangent diminishes but is negathrough x ; .*. y is positive and diminishes until it finally tive, and so is r 2r when x is greater than 2 r the tanbecomes 0, when a? ; 3 r, the gent is positive, therefore y is negative and increases ; when x

as x increases

tangent

an asymptote through F. As x increases beyond 3 r the tangent decreases but is negative ; hence y is 4 r, y 5 r, y := 0, when a oo, and between positive; when x x =. 4 r and 5 r, y is negative therefore we have the branch between the asymptotes at F and H, and proceeding onwards we should find a The part of the curve to the left of A is series of branches like the last.
CD
;

.*.

= y =

;

oo

this gives
1

the

same

## as that to the right of

D.
;

This curve was invented most probably by a Greek mathematician of his object was to trithe name of Hippias, a cotemporary of Socrates sect an angle, or generally to divide an angle into any number of equal parts, and this would be done if the curve could be accurately drawn ; thus to trisect an angle A C Q, draw the quadratrix and the ordinate in the points and O, draw the ordinates P, trisect the line A

M
N

S,

OT

Then from

the equation

we

C S and C T trisect the angle A C Q. This curve was afterwards employed by Dinostratus to find the area or quadrature of the circle, and hence its name supposing the point E to be determined by mechanical description we have the value of TT 2 r and therefore the ratio of the cir, given by the equation C E
shall see that
:

is generated parallel respectively to A C and by drawing two lines through Q and B C, and finding the locus of their intersection its equation will be

cumference to the diameter of the circle would be known. There is another quadratrix, that of Tschirnhausen, which

y s=

r cos.

=
J

r sin.

7T

X
.

r sin.

2-r

THE CYCLOID
P F be made to roll in a given plane upon a straight circle the point in the circumference which was in contact with B at the commencement of the motion, will, in a revolution of the circle, describe a curve B D, which is called the cycloid. This is the curve which a nail in the rim of a carriage-wheel describes hence the the motion of the carriage on a level road in the air
357. If a

.ine

BCD,

PA

EPF
;

is

## called the wheel.

The curve

derives

its

name

circle formed." from two Greek words signifying The line B D which the circle passes over in one revolution is called the base of the cycloid if A Q C be the position of the generating circle in

"

186

THE CYCLOID.

is called the vertex and A C the axis of the the middle of its course, is equal to The description of the curve shows that the line B curve. the circumference of the circle, and that B C is equal to half that circumbe the position of the generating circle, Hence also if ference. and P the generating point, then every point in the circular arc the arc P F, and having coincided with B F, we have the line B F the arc E P or

EPF

PF

FC =

AQ;

li

li

Draw P N Q
Let

M parallel to the

base

D.

AC
Let

be the origin of rectangular axes, the axis of ,r, and O the centre of the

circle

A M = x, A O = a, M P = y, angle A O Q
PN

A Q C.

=r

## then by the similarity of position of the two

circles,
;

we have

= Q M,
aQ
a

and

PQ

= NM

that

is,

y x

=r

+
a

sin.

cos. &
is

= a (6 + sin. 6) = a vers. Q
J2
ax
x*

(1)
(2)

## The equation between y and x

and (2)
cos. e

found by eliminating

between (1)

= = = M
1

x
.'.

sin.

6 =r 2

and y

a a

}-

sin.

cos.

x'

But we can obtain an equation between x and y from (1) alone P from the equation, arc A Q + Q M.

that

is,

For

arc

AQ

=
=

is

is

## unity and vers. sin.

'

'.

r= o vers.

-f

J2ax

x*

THE CYCLOID.
If the origin
is

187
y, the equations are

at

B,

BR
a

= x and R P =
6

x = y =

a6

sin.

cos. 6.

shall not stop to discuss these equations, as the mechanical descrip of the curve sufficiently indicates its form. The cycloid, if not first imagined by Galileo, was first examined by him ; and it is remarkable for having occupied the attention of the most eminent mathematicians of the seventeenth century. Of the many properties of this curve the most curious are that the whole area is three times that of the generating circle, that the arc P is double of the chord of A Q, and that the tangent at P is parallel to the same chord. Also that if the figure be inverted, a body will fall from any in the same time ; and if a point P on the curve to the lowest point body falls from one point to another point, not in the same vertical line, its path of quickest descent is not the straight line joining the two points, but the arc of a cycloid, the concavity or hollow side being placed

We

tion

upwards.
358. Given the base of a cycloid to trace the curve.

be divided into twenty-two equal parts, and let them the middle point C ; from C draw the and on A C describe perpendicular line C A equal to 7 of these parts a circle A Q C. Along the circumference mark off the same number of equal parts, either by measurement or by applying the line B C to the In the figure the point Q is supposed to coincide with the circle C A. end of the fifth division from the top. Then the arc C Q being equal to the length C 5 measured on the base, if P Q be drawn parallel to the base, and equal to the remainder of the base, that is, to B 5 or A Q, it is evident that P is a point in the cycloid, and thus any number of points may be found. The ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle is generally taken as in this case to be as 22 to 7.

## Let the base B be numbered from

B and D towards

359. Instead of the point P being on the circumference of the circle, be anywhere in the plane of that circle, either within or without the circumference. In the former case the curve is called the prolate cycloid or trochoid, (fig. 1,) in the latter case the curtate or shortened
it

may

## cycloid, (fig. 2.)

188

CD

(2)

B is the base on which the generating circle rolls, O the centre of the generating circle, P the describing point when that circle is at F.
1

ARC

Draw P

NQM
j?,

;

A AM =
Let

## be the origin of rectangular axes,

y and x
.'.

a 9

+ ma

sin.

vers. 6.

the equations to the prolate, curtate, or common cycloid, is less than, greater than, or according as equal to, unity. If the vertex of the curve be the origin of co-ordinates in figs. (1)

These are

and

(2,)

we have K

O=
y

arc

AR + QM
.*.

a,

and

AO

= ma
sin.

also

MP=FC

QM

= ma6 +
X
vers.

= in
The curve whose
companion

a x

x*

equations are

0,

and x

vers. 6

is

called the

to the cycloid.

360. The class of cycloids may be much extended by supposing the base on which the circle rolls to be no longer a straight line, but itself a curve thus let the base be a circle, and let another circle roll on the zircti inference of the former; then a point either within or without the
:

THE EPICYCLOID.

189

circumference of the rolling circle will describe a curve called the epitrochoid ; but if the describing point is on the circumference, it is called the

on the inner or concave side of the base, the curve described by a point within or without the revolving circle is called the hypotrochoid ; and when the point is on the circumference it is called
the hypocycloid. To find the equation to the epitrochoid. Let C be the centre of its base D, and

## epicycloid. If the revolving circle roll

one of its positions :.CA the straight line passing through the centres of both circles at the commencement of the motion ; that is, when the generating point P is nearest to C or at A.
circle

DF

in

## the centre of the revolving

E
Let

ASM
C A be the axis C M = *, M P
of #,

y,
6,

C
Draw

D=

a,

DB =
b,

BP

=m

angle

AC B =
to

BN

every point in

## D F has coincided with the base A D, we have D F = a 0, and

parallel

to

M P,

and

PQ

parallel

EM.

Then, since

angle

DBF=

also angle

FBQ

angle

FBD
2
sin.

angle

QB D

Now

CM =

C B

cos.

BCN + PB

PBQ
TT

+ b6 (a b~

i~ )

AndMP

==

6 BN - BQ = (a + 6) sin.0 - mb cosY~- - y

or

JP

=r (a

+
+

6) cos. 6

mb

a
cos.

+
+ r

(1)
6

and y

(a

&) sin.

m6

a
sin.

190

THE EPICYCLOID.
to the epicycloid are
(

The equations
.;

found by putting 6

for

mb

in (1.)

a
x

+6)

cos.

6 cos.

+ -

and y

(a

6) sin.

06
+ mb
mb

a
sin.

+ -

The

## ns the system (1), or

.*.

manner equations to the hypotrochoid may be obtained in the same more simply by putting 6 for 6 in the equations (1.)

=
=

(a

6) cos.

cos.

-'1
sin.

and y

(a

6) sin.

6 for both b

The
and

mb

## equations to the hypoeycloid are found by putting

in

system
.*.

(1.)

(a

6) cos.

0+6
b

cos.

a
and y =. (a
6)
sin.

I
I

sin.

We have comprehended all the systems in (1), but each of them might be obtained from their respective figures. 361. The elimination of the trigonometrical quantities is possible, and
gives finite algebraic equations whenever

a and 6

0, sin. 0,

For then

cos. 0, cos.

^~-

&c., can
sin.
<j>,

## be expressed by trigonometrical formulas, in terms of cos.

<j>

and
cos.

where
sin.

is

common

submultiple of

and

and then

and

may be expressed in terms ot x and y. Also since the resulting equation in xy is finite, the curve does not make an infinite series ot convolutions, but the wheel or revolving circle, after a certain number of revolutions, is found, having the generating point exactly in the same position as at first, and thence describing the same curve line over again.
For example,
let

= 6, the equations to the epicycloid become = a (2 cos. - cos. 2 0) = a (2 sin. sin. 2 0) y x = a (2 cos. 2 (cos. 0) + 1) and y = 2 a sin. 0(1 cos. 0).
a
x
s
.'.

From

the

first

second we have

sin. 0,

of these equations we find cos. 0, and then from the 2 8 adding the values of (cos. 0) and (sin. 0) together

## and reducing, we have

3 a)*

/
4 4 a
(

o ^N

3
J

8 - a8 } 8 or {** 4 a8 { (x - a) s 0. y } This curve, from its heart-like shape, is called the cardioide. Let A be the origin ; that is, for x put x o in the last algebraical equation, and then by transformation into polar co- ordinates, the equation

+ /

to the cardioide

becomes

r ==

j*l

2 a (1

cos. 0).

362. If b

=r

## the equations (4) to the hypocycloid

become

a r= a cos.

and y and the hypocycloid has degenerated into the diameter of the circle In the same case the equations to the hypotrochoid become
;

A.

C E.

=
=

(1

- m)

sin.

0;
ellipse,

are a (1

## which by the elimination of 6 give the equation to an + in) and a (1 m).

whose axes

circle, the

363. If a thread coinciding with a circular axis be unwound from the extremity of the thread will trace out a curve called the involute
circle.

of the

APQRS

Thus suppose a thread fixed round the circle AB C D; then if it be unwound from A, the extremity in the hand will trace out the curve
the lines B P, DQ, C R, A S, which are particular positions ; of the thread, are also tangents to the circle, and each of them is equal to the length of the corresponding circular arc measured from A.

The curve makes an infinite number of revolutions, the successive branches being separated by a distance equal to the circumference of the
circle.

To
Let

A=

a,

C P

r=

r,

and angle
cos.

ACP=
or angle

## then from the triangle

BC

P,

we have B C

PC

P C B,
a'

PCB

cos.

BP = BA =
or

J (r*

a*)

cos.

cos.

'

192

ON
is

SPIRALS.

The
there

they

involute of the circle is usefully employed in toothed wheels ; for less waste of power in passing from one tooth to another when are of this form than in any other case.

In the figures (2) and (3) we have examples of two equal wheels and by turning one wheel the other wheel which have each two teeth will be kept in motion by means of the continual contact of the teeth. The dotted line of contact is, by the property of the this involute, a common tangent to the two wheels dotted line is the constant line of contact, and the force is the same in every part of a revolution.
; ;

teeth

Fig. (3) is another example ; and by making the smaller and more numerous we shall have toothed wheels always in contact, and therefore giving no jar or shake to the machinery. Again, in raising a piston or hammer, the involute of the circle is the best form for the teeth of the turning-wheel, as the force acts on the piston entirely in a vertical direction.

SPIRALS.

193

ON SPIRALS.
364. There is one class of transcendental curves which are called from their peculiar twisting form. They were invented by the ancient geometricians, and were much used in architectural ornaments.
spirals,

Of

spiral invented

:

## the most simple,

is

the

This spiral is thus generated Let a straight line S P of indefinite move uniformly round a fixed point S, and from a fixed line S X, and let a point P move uniformly also along the line S P, starting from S, at the same time that the line S P commences its motion from S X, then the
length

RA, commencing at S, point will evidently trace out a curve line S and gradually extending further from S. When the line S P has made one revolution, P will have got to a certain point A, and S P still continuing to turn as before, we shall have the curve proceeding on regularly through a series of turnings, and extending further from S. To examine the form and properties of this curve, we must express this method of generation by means of an equation between polar co-ordinates.
Let S

PQ

r,

A
is

6,

AS P

## then since the increase of r and 6

uniform, we have
four right angles
b
: :

S P

: :

angle

ASP:
be

'2

From this equation it appears that when S P has made two revolutions or 6 2 6, or the curve cuts the axis S 47r, we have r again at a and similarly after 3, 4, n revolutions it meets the aXis distance 2 S ; S at distances 3 Archimedes discovered that the 4, n times S A. area S P Q is equal to one-third of the area of the circle described with centre S and radius S A. 365. The spiral of Archimedes is sometimes used for the volutes of the capitals of columns, and in that case the following descriotion by points

RA

is useful.

194

SPIRALS.
1

S

in

on the diameter

C S A,
take

CA
-j-

A
Q A

and

take

S P

=
;

SA,

in

SC

S A, and

in

take S

R =

SA

## then from the equation

to the curve these points belong to the spiral ; by subdividing the radius and the angles in each quadrant we may obtain other points as in S the figure. In order to comple-te the raised part in the volute, another
spiral
in

366.

0".

Of

this class

we

cases where

=.

1,

and n

Q'

Let n

= 9

/.

SP =

r.

l
;

is

measured,

When

0, r

oo

as

## increases, r decreases very rapidly at first

and more uniformly afterwards; as 6 may go on increasing ad infinitum r also may go on diminishing ad infinitum without ever actually becoming hence we have an infinite series of convolutions round S nothing rd Describe a circular arc PQ with centre S and radius S P, then P Q a and since this value of a is the same for all positions of P, we must have P Q P' Q' = the straight line S C at an infinite distance, and therefore the curve must approach to an asymptote drawn through C parallel to S X.
:

This curve is called the reciprocal spiral from the form of its equation, since the variables are inversely as each other, or the hyperbolic spiral, from the similarity of the equation to that of the hyperbola referred to its
asymptotes
367. Let
(j?

=:

2
Ar

).

=
it

:.r

= aO

or r

a.
;

## the lituus or trumpet,

asymptote S X,

s in the figure is described a proceeding from the makes an infinite series of convolutions round S.

SPIRALS.
equation rd

195

368. If in the the constant quana, we have the equation (r 6) 6 = a; this curve commences its course like the reciprocal spiral ; but as 6 increases we have r 6 approximating to nothing, or r approximating to 6 ; hence the spiral, after an infinite number of convolutions, approaches to an asymptotic circle, whose centre is S, and radius 6.
tity, 6,

we always deduct

r* 369. Trace the spiral whose equation is 6 J ar 6; this curve has an infinite number of small revolutions round the pole, and gradually extends outwards to meet an asymptotic circle whose radius is a. 2 2 370. The spiral whose equation is (r 6 9 commences its a) course from a point in the circumference of the circle whose radius is a, and extends outwards round S in an infinite series of convolutions. This curve is formed by twisting the axis of the common parabola round the circumference of a circle, the curve line of the parabola forming the

spiral.

a is called the logarithmic curve whose equation is r logarithm of the radius vector is proportional to the angle V. CD we find that there are an to Examining all the values of from This curve is also called, infinite series of convolutions round the pole S. the equiangular spiral, for it is found by the principles of the higher analysis that this curve cuts the radius vector in a constant angle.
371.
spiral, for the

The

Descartes, who first imagined this curve, found also that the whole length of the curve from any point P to the pole was proportional to the radius vector at P. 372. It will often happen that the algebraical equation of a curve is much more complicated than the polar equation ; the conchoid art. 31 2
is

an example. In these cases it is advisable to transform the equation from algebraical to polar co-ordinates, and then traca the curve from the
2 the equation be (x? 2 a xy, there would be i/ ) the form of the curve from this equation ; ascertaining r sin. 6 (61) r cos. 6 and y

polar equation.

## For example, if much difficulty in

but
let

/.

= =

2a

cos. 6 sin. 0,
Q,

or r rr a sin. 2

Let A be the origin of polar co-ordinates A X the axis whence 6 is measured with centre A and radius a describe a circle BCD. Then (or Q we have r to 45, r increases from 0, as Q increases from
;

C)

196
to

SPIRALS.
a
;

increases from 45 (o 90, hence the hranch A PB. Again, as r diminishes, and we trace the branch diminishes from 1 to .*. B Q A. As 6 increases from 90 to 180, sin. '2 9 increases and decreases as before ; hence the similar oval in the second quadrant. By following:
sin.

26

from 180 to 360, we shall have the ovals in the third and fourth quadrant and since the sine of an arc advances similarly in each quadrant of the circle, we have the four ovals similar and equal.
;

In this case we have paid no regard to the algebraical sign of r we have considered to vary fr>m to 360, which method we prefer to that of giving 6 all values from to 180, and then making the sign of r to vary. If the equation had been (x* -f- y8 ) 2 2a*j:y, we should have found two equal and similar ovals in the first and third quadrant. The locus of the equation r sin. 0) is the same kind of a (cos. 6 and A C. figure differently situated with respect to the lines The equation to the lemniscata r9 a2 cos. 2 6 art. (314), may be

AX

problems we

## shall find that polar co-ordi-

very usefully employed. For example, Let the corner of the page of a book be turned over into the position B C P, and in such a manner that the triangle B C P be constant, to find the locus of P. Let A P r, angle P A C =r 0, and let the
nates

may he

area

= ABC =
AE B

2
;

ABE,
0,

PB E
angle

are equal,

we have

AE
/.

a right angle

and
or
2
?-

AE
==

=
a2

AB
2

cos f
0.

sin.

| Hence

,

.'.

a2
- sin.

0cos.

0,

the

locus

is

an oval

APBQ

as in the last

## distance from the focus

is

S P of a parabola so that its equal to the perpendicular from the focus on the
s\

is

is

a sec,

197

PART

II.

## APPLICATION OF ALGEBRA TO SOLID GEOMETRY.

CHAPTER

I.

INTRODUCTION.
374. IN the preceding part of this Treatise lines and points have always been considered as situated in one plane, and have been referred to two
lines called axes situated in that plane.

Now we may readily imagine a curve line, the parts of which are not situated in one plane ; also, if we consider a surface, as that of a sphere, for example, we observe immein such a surface cannot be in the same diately that all the points plane hence the method of considering figures which has been hitherto adopted cannot be applied to such cases, and therefore we must have recourse to
;

We

of figures.

how

## the position of a point in space

may

Let three planes Y, be drawn perpendicular Y, and be the interto each other, and let the three straight lines sections of these planes, and the common point of concourse.

ZAX, Z A
A
in

XA

AX, AY, A Z
and

From any

point

## space draw the lines

the planes

tively perpendicular to

X A Y, Z A X,
A

## PQ, PR, and PS

ZAY

respec-

then the

position of the point P is completely determined when these three perpendicular lines are known. P, then P Q, P R, and P S Complete the rectangular parallelepiped are respectively equal to A O, N, and A M. These three lines M, A N, and A O, or more commonly their equals Q, and Q P, are called the co-ordinates of P, and are denoted by M,

and
is

## z respectively. called the origin.

198

PROJECTIONS.
line
line

A X is called the axis of x, the line A Y is called the axis of A Z is called the axis of 2. The plane X A Y is called the plane of xy, the plane Z A X is called the and the plane Z A Y is called the plane of zy*. plane of 2
The
y,

and the

<r,

three perpendicular lines, PQ, P R, and PS, The three points, Q, R, and S are called the projections of the point P on the planes of xy, xz, and zy respec-

## on the three co-ordinate planes.

tively.

The method of projections is so useful in the investigation and description of surfaces, that we proceed to give a few of the principal theorems on the subject so far as may be required in this work.

PROJECTIONS.
376. If several points be situated in a straight line, their projections on any one of the co-ordinate planes are also in a straight line. For they are all comprised in the plane passing through the given and as straight line, and drawn perpendicular to the co-ordinate plane the intersection of any two planes is a straight line, the projections of the points must be all in one straight line. This plane, which contains all the perpendiculars drawn from different points of the straight line, is called the projecting plane; and its intersec;

line.

is

of the straight

377.
plane.

To

AB

## be the line meet this plane plane, and meeting it

Let.

AB

to in in

to

jection of

draw A A' and B B' perpendicular to the A' and B'. Join A' B' ; then A' B' is the pro-

be projected on
;

the plane

PQ R

produce

B.

* This system of co-ordinate planes may be represented by the sides and floor of a room, the corner being the origin of the axes, the Y is then represented by the floor of plane the room, and the two remaining planes by the two adjacent sides of the room.

PROJECTIONS.
Since A B and A' B' are in the same plane, they will meet in P. the angle B P B or the angle of the inclination of B to the plane r then B' draw and in the projecting plane parallel to A' B

199

Let
6,

AE

A' B'

= A E = A B cos. B A E = A B cos.

The same proof will apply to the projection of a straight line upon another straight line, both being in the same plane. 378. To find the length of the projection of a straight line upon another straight line not in the same plane.

D
JV

a
;

be the line to be projected C D the line upon which it is to be and B draw lines A A' and B B' perpendicular to From C D, then A' B' is the projection of A B. and P Q perpendicular to C D. Through A and B draw planes These planes contain the perpendicular lines A A' and B B'.

Let

AB

projected.

MN

From A draw

AE

and
is

## equal to the angle

perpendicular to the plane PQ, and therefore equal B E ; then the triangle having a right E B cos. B E, and angle B E of inclination between B and C ; hence

=A

=A

ABE

A' B'

= AB

cos. 0.

Also any line equal and parallel to A B has an equal projection A' B' on C D, and the projection of A B on any line parallel to C D is of the same
length as A' B'. 379. The projection of the diagonal of a parallelogram on any straight line is equal to the sum of the projections of the two sides upon the same
straight line.

Let

ABCD
C E

iiiciiu^d to the

diculcus or

AZ

AE= AC

cos.

AZ

## any straight From C and

line

B draw

through

CAZ

and

A is the A F is the

projection of projection of

AC AB

perpen-

upon upon

200

THE POINT.
or

AF = AB

cos.

upon

AZ

or

FE

B A Z. Also F E B C cos. D A Z

is

the projection of

BC

or

and

hence the projection of A C the sum of projections of A B and B C. 380. To find the projection of the area of any plane figure on a given
plane

AE = AF + FE; =

EDG

H.

Let A B C be a triangle inclined to the given plane E D G H at an angle of these planes ; 0; draw A E, CD, perpendicular to the intersection E then the triangle have equal bases A B, and its projection G H, but unequal altitudes C F, ;

ABC

/.

area

ABC:GKH

::
;

GKH

cos. 6

and

this

is

true for

## CHAPTER II. THE POINT AND STRAIGHT LINE.

381. WE have already explained how the position of a point in space determined by drawing perpendicular lines from it upon three fixed If, then, on measuring the lengths planes called the co-ordinate planes. of these three perpendicular lines or co-ordinates of P we find A M=ra5, N=6, and A O=c, we have the position of a point P completely determined by the three equations x=:a,
is

y=6

and

2=0

suf-

## ficient for that object,

they are called the equations to the point P. This point may also be defined as
8

in Art. (25)

only values that render this r expression real are <r=a, y=b, and

## (?-) + since the

by the equation

(y-&)

(*-c) =0,

z=c.

THE POINT.
382.

201

mined
thus or

AO

A z,

algebraical signs of the co-ordinates a?, y, and z, are deteras in Plane Geometry, by the directions of the co-ordinate lines is positive or negative according as it is drawn from along A Z that is, according as it is above or below the plane of and so
:

The

xy:

the following values of co-ordinates for a point in each of the eight compartments into which space is divided by the co-ordinate planes.
:

on

hence

we have

+ + x-y +
-f

z a point

P
.

.

XAYZ
XA7/Z
x

z
.

-f z

.
'
'

AyZ
Z

+ +x+ +x
x

yz
y
z
z

',.
J

,'

V
'"

x A Y

.'

^
.
.

XAY*
XAy z x Ky z

....

'.

x - y
383.

point also

may

## be situated in one of the co-ordinate planes, in

which case the co-ordinate perpendicular to that plane must thus, if the 0: point be in the plane of xy, its distance z from this plane must hence the equations to the point in the plane of xy are
;

x
or
(js

= a,y a) +
2

b, z

=
&)*

(y

= 0.

a,

= Q, z ~

And

if

## the point be in the plane of y z

Also,

if

yz

= 0, therefore

the point be on the axis ofj?, its distance from the planes the equations to such a point are
,r

a;

y and

= 0, z =

and so on
384.
point

## on the other axes.

The

P on
in its

of the points Q, R, and S, in the last figure, are the projections the co-ordinate planes ; on referring each of these points to the
plane,

axes

own

we have
to

The equations

## on x y are x == a, y on x z are x a, z S on y z are y 6, z

= =

=b =c =c
RM A

Hence we see that the projections of the point P on two of the co-ordinate planes being known, the projection on the third plane is necessarily and are given, draw S Z, parallel to given : thus, if S and

also

NQ
is

of

and known.

MQ

respectively parallel to

AX

and

AY,

## and the position

385. To find the distance A P of a point from the origin of co-ordinates A. Let AX, AY, and A Z be the rectangular axes ; A Q y, a?, and P Q z, the co-ordinates of P.

M=

202

THE POINT.

7
/Y
The square on

AP=
or d8

the square on

AQ +

the square on

PQ
PQ
or,

= the squares on A M, M Q + = + y* +
ar*

the square on

z*.

386. Let a,

/3,

y, be the angles

which

AP

## makes with the

axis of

y,

and

z, respectively;

then #

.-.

d2

= AM = AP cos P A M =: d cos = MQ = AN = AP cos. PAN = dcos.0 z =PQ r= APsin. PAQ = dcos. y = # -f y z = d (cos. a) + d* (cos. + d
y
8 8

-j-

/. (cos.
2 387. Again d r=
.*.

a)
y*

+
z

j3) 2

(cos.

(cos. /3)
2

-f (cos. y)

y)

1.
/3 -f-

2
.r
-I-

-f-

= x d cos. a -f y d cos.
/3

cos.

a?

cos.

+ y cos.
Xi

z cos. y.

388.

To

between two

## points, let the co-ordinates of the points

P
zt;

and

be respectively x

and

then the distance between these points is the diagonal of a parallelepiped, the three contiguous sides of which are the differences of the parallel co-ordinates ; hence,

by the

last article

we have

If d l and rf2 be the distances of the points x l y l z v and j?a y 2 ^a respectively from the origin, the above expression may be put in the form

d8

d?

+ d* -

(x,

T2

y,

ya

+ z, z,).

## THE STRAIGHT LINE.

straight line may be considered as the intersection of two planes, and therefore its position will be known if the situation of these planes is known ; hence it may be determined by the projecting planes, and the situation of these last is fixed their intersections with the co-ordinate

389.

by

planes, that is, by the projections of the line upon the co-ordinate planes ; hence, the position of a straight line is geometrically fixed by knowing its projections ; and it is also algebraically determined by the equations to those projections taken conjointly. Taking the axis of z as the axis of abscissas the equation to the projection on the plane x z is of the form

x

203

ct

(31),

## and the equation

to the projection

on the plane of yz

As these two equations fix the position of the straight line in space, they are, taken together, called the equations to a straight line. be a portion of the 390. To illustrate this subject we shall let
straight line,

RS
y
:

its

projection on

z,

TU

PQ

its

projection on

y
z

z,

its

projection on x

And

let

equation to

TU

= a z + a,

be the equation to

R S,

and y ==

ft

+&

be the

S. the points in the plane P Q /3 z -f- 6 not only relates toTU, but also to Similarly the equation y all the points in the plane Q P. Therefore, the system of the two equations exists for all the powits in the straight line P Q, the intersection of the two projecting planes, artd
all

in the projecting plane P S has the same values of and S z and x that its projection S has, that is, the co-ordinates and hence there is the same relation between are the same as ; a expresses not z them in each case ; and therefore, the equation x S, but also of only the relation between the x and z of all the points in

QR

NW

WQ
=

AM

TU

PQ

are

az

The

## elimination of 2 between these two equations gives

of the and and this is the relation between the co-ordinates of any point Q in the line P Q ; and therefore, this last equaprojection on the plane xy. tion is that to the projection V

AM
-\-

MW

.r

r= a z

-f-

a and y =/3

bt a

is

the distance

204

THE STRAIGHT

LINE.
or a

## of the origin from the intersection of

6

= AL.
Let *

R S with A. X, AK = a

AK

similarly

/. z

=AO
(3

/.

O, but

AK

=AO

A O K = A O tan. Z O R /. is tangent of the angle which R S A Z, and similarly is tangent of the angle which UT makes wilh A Z.
tan.

makes with

392. The straight line will assume various positions according to the and /3 : however, it would be of very little use algebraical signs of tf, 6, to go through all the cases arising from these changes of sign, especially
culty.

as they offer nothing of consequence, and no one case presents any diffishall only consider the cases where the absolute value of a, 6, a

We

a z and y =. j3 z, and the two projections 0, then x pass through the origin, and therefore the line itself passes through the
origin
;

## the equation to the third projection

is

x.

then x a z and y Let a =: (3 z + 6, the projection on x z passing through the origin, the line itself must pass through the axis A Y perpendicular to cc z a z + a, y 0, the equations x similarly, if 6 (3 z belong to a line passing through the axis of <r, and if the equations are a x, y this (3 z }- by the straight line passes through the axis of z y last case may be represented by supposing (in the last figure) VV V to is of the form pass through A, then the equation to V y = atf, and the equation toOTUisy /3z +6; now, if two planes be drawn, one through T U perpendicular to y z, and the other through V perpendicular to xy, both planes pass through the point O, and therefore the line itself must pass through O. a z 393. Let/3 /. x 6, the line is in a plane parallel a, y to a: z and distant from it by the quantity b. If the last figure be adapted to this case we should have perpendicular to A Y, and therefore P Q N Q perpendicular equal and parallel to R S situated in the plane
:

=
:

UT
/3

W U
is

to to

xy. Let or

/.

x r=
c,

a,

=
+

6,

the line

in a plane parallel to

z.

Similarly z

<x'x

a! belong to

## line in a plane parallel to

straight line may also be situated in one of the co-ordinate planes as in the plane of y z ; for example, the equations to such a line arc 0. If the line be in the plane of xz the equations are b, x (3 z y

394.

xy.

= =

= = 0;
+

and

if

a' z

= 0.

## the line be in the plane of

xy

the equations

395. If the straight line be perpendicular to one of the co-ordinate planes, as x y for example ; a and (3 must each equal 0, and therefore the equations to this line are

x =z

a,

b, z

=
--

xz

are

* ~ a* y

## PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT LINES.

and the equations to a
line

205

perpendicular to y z are

396. planes
:

To

find

## the point where a straight line meets

the co-ordinate

a and y a. z Let x when it (3 z -f- b be the equations to the line x := a, y .*. meets the plane of xy we have z 6 are the equations

Similarly z ==

-^-,

j?

r=

--

-r

where the

line

## meets the plane of x

z,

and

=
a

y
*

~ -a

-f-

are the equations to the point where the line pierces the plane of 2 y. 397. There are four constant quantities in the general equations to a straight line, and if they are all given, the position of the line is

determined
z',

for

we have only

to give to

## completely one of the variables as z a value

and we have

x' and y' are also necessarily determined ; hence, taking xr , Y, and lastly, y') parallel to (see the last figure,) and drawing == ', the point a perpendicular thus determined drawing from and similarly, any number of points in the line are belongs to the line determined, or the position of the line is completely ascertained. Again,

or,

WQ

M W (=

AM

the straight line may be subject to certain conditions, as passing through a given point, or being parallel to a given line; or, in other words, conditions may be given which will enable us to determine the quantities oc, (3, a and 6, supposing them first to be unknown ; in this manner arises a series of Problems on straight lines similar to those already worked for
straight Hues situated in one plane (40, 50).

398.
point
:

To

## find the equations to a straight line passing through a given

Let the co-ordinates of the given point be x lt y l and z 1( and let the a yc=f3z-l-b. equations to the straight line bexz=.ccz Now since this line passes through the given point, the projections of the line must also pass through the projections of the point; hence the a passing through a\ and z^ we have jr l a zl <x z , projection x

.*.

a (z
y\.

z )
t

and

similarly

=
:

ft

(2

2,)

a and (3 being indeterminate, hence these are the equations required there may be an infinite number of straight lines passing through the
given point. If the given point be in the plane of x y, oc x .'. TJ

we have

z^

0,

= z\ y-fts0f)

206

PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
on the
x
axis of #,
TI

LINES.
Zj

we have
a z

=.

and y ^=
l

And

## the equation would assume various other forms according to the

position of the given point. 399. To find the equations to a straight line passing through two given points, Xi y l z t and x t y 2 z 2 . Since the line passes through the point x\ y l z l its equations are

x
y

x y
l

= a (z = P( Z -

z,)
2l ).

And
become

since

the

line

xy yz

z2

the

last

equations

## hence the equations to the required

line are

These equations will assume many various forms dependent on the If the first point be in the plane position of the given point, for example of y 2, and the second in the axis of j?, we have x^ 0, z 8 ; y2
:

= J=
,

c.-.,:

yi

(2 2i

8l ).

.'.

x -

Xl =

Xi

(2 -Z,) =

we have xt y* X
l

za

each
jr 1

0,

*i

z,
'

and y

=r

Vi
z.
i

-1

And

these equations

may

## be also obtained by considering that the pro-

jections pass through the origin, and therefore their equations are of the form x ss a z, y 5= /3 ^, and the first passing through a? t z t we have
cr

=
2*

and similarly

/3

=
Z,

400.
line.

To

## PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT LINES,

207

Since the lines are parallel their projecting planes on any one of the coordinate planes are also parallel, and therefore the projections themselves parallel ; hence, if the equations to the given line are

a?nz +
x

flr,

yr=/3z
y

6,
b'

az

+
zO

',

=
y,

+
/5

l

z^ its

equations

x
401.

a?!

(2

(2

zO

To

in

Two
is

## straight lines situated

two given straight lines, one plane must meet in general, but

this

not necessarily the case if the Vines be situated anywhere in space , hence there must be a particular relation among the constant quantities in the equation in order that the lines may meet : to find this relation, let the equations to the lines be

= az +

a)

= a' z +

a'}

For the point of intersection the projected values of the same in all the equations ; hence
a'

x,

y and

z must be

a
(X

<xz-\-a=az-\-a

and

z
Of

b'

b'

or,

(a

a)

(ft

/3)

(6'

6)

('

).

And

which must

exist

## amongst the constants

in order

that the

two

lines

may

meet.

Having thus determined the necessary relation among the constants, the co-ordinates of intersection are given by the equations
Z

'

a
r

^-r-7

=
b

b'-

J\$ 3&'-3'6
a

b'

x == az

oc

-a'

a
7

-a
a'

af a -a

402. To find the angles which a straight line (J) makes with the co-or dinate axes ; and thence with the co-ordinate planes : Let the equations to the given line be

x y

= =

a z
/3

-j- a -f6
t

## the equations to the parallel line through the origin are

x
also
let
:

=*

*,

=
(<r,

/3

r be the distance

of any point

## y, *) in this last line from the

origin

508

PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT

LINES.

But /, /y, and /* being the angles which either line makes with the axes of a , y and * respectively, we have from the second line
1

Also
line

(cos.

/#)

(cos.

lyf

(cos.

Izf

1 ;

## which any straight

makes with the rectangular axes. Since the system is rectangular, the angle which a line makes with any axis is the complement of the angle which it makes with the plane perhence the angles which a line makes with the copendicular to that axis
:

## ordinate planes are given.

403. To find the cosine, sine, and tangent of the angle between two given straight lines. Let the equations to the two straight lines be

a z

y=(3z +
These two
lines

a\ 6(

x
y

## = a' z + a' =pz+

meet ; but in either case two straight lines parallel
the problem
is

## their mutual inclination

meet, or they rqay not is the same as that of to them and passing through the origin ; hence find the angle between the lines represented by

may

reduced

to

the equations

Let

r
r,

= =

## the distance of a point

=
then

i (2) the distance between these points, the angle between the given lines,

......
+
r^

x y

## z in (1) from the origin,

*i yi *i

....

= (x - *!> + (y - y^ + (z (388) = x* + y + 2 + ^ + y, + - 2 (xx +yy + = r + /V - 2 Or *, + yyi + zz,) = x^ + yy z r r cos. Now tfj^ + yy, + 22l = Z' 2l + j3z /3', + z = (' + And r =
8

d*=

r2

-2rr
8

cos. 6

2l )

2l

z z,)

.*.

-j-

z,

2,

/3/3'

ss,

r,

209

## g' 33' ~V(' + 0* +

'

'

(a

_ The
also
/

-*'Pr +

Q-') +
2

Q8 -/?)

value of the cosine of the angle between two straight lines may be expressed in terms of the angles which the two straight lines and /! make with the co-ordinate axes.

For x
and
,TI

r cos. I z,

y
y
v

~r

cos. ly,

z r= r cos. /z,

r^cos.

x,

r t cos.

^ y,

zl

=r

cos.

/i

z,

cos.

cos l\y
-

cos
sin.

* cos.

/!

2.

## 404. If the lines are parallel, we must have

...

9 =. 0.

/3) -{-(_ o^ -f (/3 0, /3')^ an equation which cannot be satisfied unless by supposing a

p_ a

'

and

two of these conditions are the same as those already shown to determine the parallelism of two lines (400), and the third condition is only a necessary consequence of the other two, and
or/3'

= a'/3,

a', /3

/3',

the

first

therefore implies nothing further. 405. If the lines are perpendicular to each other,
.'.

we must have
z cos.

cos.

=
;

0.

aa'

+ /3/3'-f
/j

0.

Now, one

perpendicular to a second straight hence line, whenever it is in a plane perpendicular to this second line an infinite number of lines can be drawn perpendicular to a given line; and this appears from the above equation, for there are four constants involved in the equation to the perpendicular line, and only one equation between them. 406. If the lines also meet, we have then the additional equation,
;

## or, cos. I x cos. /! x -f- cos. / y cos. line in space is considered as

-\- cos. /

^x

(>'

a)

ft'

/3=

(&'

6) (a'

- a)

(401),

However, even yet an infinite number of straight lines can be drawn, meeting the given line at right angles, for an infinite number of planes can be drawn perpendicular to the given line, and in each plane an infinite number of straight lines can be drawn- passing through the given line. 407. To find the equation to a straight line passing through a given
point x l y l z l ^ and meeting a given line (1) at right angles. Let the equations to the lines be,

= az + a
a'

x,

a'

(3?

+
l

/80'
')

(' 0?i

(0

a' z

= - 6) (&'
l
ft'

(3)

(a

a')

=
f

or since a'

=x
(?)

and b f =. y l
z,

(3

2,

'

Zi

-a)

03

(y,

6) (a

a') ==

(4).

210

THE PLANE.
elimination of
'

The

and

/3'

2

"

## + Zl }/3 - (y. - 6) (1 + + 0, - ) - ( + 6) /3 - 6) ff + 81} ~ (*i - a) (1 {(yi - 6)0 + (^ - a) - (<* (y,

-a)
i

These values of

a' and /3 substituted in (2) give the final equation to the straight line, passing through a given point, and meeting a given straight line at right angles.

In particular cases other methods may be adopted, for example, to find the equations to a straight line passing through the axis of y at right angles to that axis here x l O l and z t = 0, therefore the equations to the line are
:

iT

but because the line is perpendicular to the axis of y we have ft 0, hence the required equations are x =: a 2, y y^. By assuming the axes of co-ordinates to be conveniently situated, this and many other problems may be worked in a shorter manner. This will be shown hereafter.

yyi = fc

a z

CHAPTER

III.

THE PLANE.
408.

A PLANE

may be supposed

to

## be generated by the motion of a

AO AO

line perpendicular to it. straight line about another straight the axe, B C a portion of a plane, Let be the origin, X, Y, the perpendicular from the origin upon this plane, any point in

AZ

then, according to the above definition, we suppose the plane P round AO, the angle to be formed by the revolution of a line like P being a right angle.
this plane
;

To
Let
a?,

and

let

AO =

and #

y^

z { those of
,

O,

d.

THE PLANE.
Then
the square

211
}

on

AP

the square on

AO

the square on

OP;

or

<r a?!

+y
Jj-

?/!

-{-

z *!

=
l

409.

Let ~ =

TW,

= n, and

=p,

And

it is

under

this

the plane.
d*

d*
a,

Let

6,

and
X

d2
zi

=
11

c,

## then the equation to the plane

Z c

is

\.

y\

this is intelligible form in which the equation to the plane can be put, the constants , b and c being equal to A B, and the respective distances of the origin from the intersection of the plane with the co-ordinate axes ; this is found by putting y and z both 0,

And

4+ b

i-

AC

hence

1,

or

AB=

a,

and

## similarly for the other lines.

410. Let the word " plane" be represented by the letter P, and let the angles which or d makes with the co-ordinate axes be represented by d x ; d y ; d z ; and let the angles which the plane makes with the same axes be denoted by P,r; Py; Pz; then, since is a is the right angle, and angle which the plane makes with A X,

AO

ABO

AOB

we have

or
cos.

= =

sin.

b sin.
c sin.

Px Py

may be put
z cos. z sin.

## + y cos. d y x sin. P x + y sin. Py +

dx
-f-

Pz

= d.
=

411. LetP,yz represent the angle which the plane makes with the co-ordinate plane y z, then since angle B. is equal to the angle of cos. P, y z, hence the inclination of the plane to y ^, we have cos. d x

OA

x
4
1 2.

cos.

P, y z

+ y cos.

P, x

z -4- z

cos. P, ,xy
(cos.

=
d
2)

d.
2

we

-f- (cos.

## yz/+ (cos. P xz)* ~|-(cos. ~P xy} z== 1 *.

A

d y) 2 -f

* If be the area of a plane P, the projections of this area on the co-ordinate planes are cos. P,yz', hence (A cos. P, x y) 2 cos. P, x z ; (A cos. represented by A cos. P, x y ; 8 2 2 (cos. P, xz? (cos. P, yz)*} P, xz? (A cos. P, yz) by {(cos. P, xy)* (412). This theorem, referring to the numerical values of the projected areas, is of use in finding the area of a plane between the three co-ordinate planes. Thus, if the equation

=A

+ =A
;

to a plane

be_fa
,

l>v

+ -^- + ~=l, we have by the last figure the area A B C = & area c b +6 ^ hence the area B C D = Vl (* b 4" and area A B D = ^-;
?*

## the above theorem.

The volume

of the pyramid

A CDB

;-=-.
P
2

212
413.

THE PLANE.
To

find the angles which a plane makes with the co-ordinate planes in terms of the co-efficients of the equation to the plane. Let the equation to the plane be

mx

-f

Now

ny

pz

1.
it

the equation to a plane expressed in terms of the angles which makes with the co-ordinate planes is given by (411.)

x cos. P, y z y cos. P, x z + z cos. P, xy hence equating co-efficients, we have cos. P, x z cos. P, y z cos. P,

= d,
xv

m =

and

cos. P,

= wi d =
nd

Cos. P,

oc

Cos. P.

= wd =
V/n 2

-+
7i
2

414. The equation to the plane will assume various forms according to the various positions of the plane. Let the plane pass through the origin, then d ; therefore, putting

(408), we have the equation to the plane passing through the origin ; but as the equation to the plane has been obtained on the supposition of d being finite, it becomes necessary to give an independent proof for this particular case. Let A O (= d) be the length of a perpendicular from the plane to a x, y, z, as before, the given point O; whose co-ordinates are x^ y i} ^ co-ordinates of any point P in the plane, then O -j- the square on A P ; the square on the square on O P

## in the equation, art.

or

cr,)

/.

+ (y - y ) + ( - *i) = d + x* -f - 2 (x x, + y y, + z *) -f d* = d\ or x Xi 4- y yi + z *i = 0.
8
t

2/

+*

2
.

So that the equation to the plane in this case is the same as the original equation without the constant term. 415. Let the plane be parallel to any of the co-ordinate planes, as x y
for

example, then a

GO

and 6

oo

y
'

~j-

## PROBLEMS ON THE PLANE.

213

becomes

y H

-- =

'

c,

=.

~ and y

-;

of these three equations the first signifies that every point in the plane is equidistant from the plane x y, and the other two signify that for this single value of z, every possible value of x and y will give points in the The two latter equations are generally omitted ; and we say that plane. ibr a plane parallel to x y the equation is z c ; similarly for the plane #, and for a plane parallel to y z the equation is parallel to x x it is x

b.

The equations
cc =..
;

to a co-ordinate plane, as
;

x y

## for example, are z

0,

or,

more

simply, x = 0.

416. The lines B C, B D, and C, where the plane intersects the The equations to co-ordinate planes, are called the traces of the plane. these traces are found, from the equation to the plane, by giving to .r, y t or z the particular values which they have when the plane intersects the co-ordinate planes. Let the equation to the plane be rn x then for the intersection B C we have the equations

ny+pz~\\
D

= 0, m x + ny
BD

=z\.
are respectively

## Similarly the equations to the traces

and C

y~0,mx + pz=l x =: 0, n y + p z =
1.

417.

To

## find the equation to a plane parallel to a given plane.

Let the given plane be m x + n y -f- p z =1, and the required plane be m' x -f- n' y I. p' z Then the planes being parallel, their traces on the co-ordinate planes must be parallel ; now their traces on x z are

mx+
. .

=
=:

l,m' x

-\-

p' z

1;

m =
p

m'

p"

j-,

or

m
p
P
becomes

,..,,, = n
;

similarly

Hence

## the required equation

ormx+ny +
In

pz

-^

this case the resulting equation contains one indeterminate constant and therefore shows that an infinite number of planes can be drawn

Three conparallel to a given plane, which is also geometrically evident. ditions are apparently given, since the three traces of one plane are parallel

to the three traces of the other plane ; but if the traces on two of the co-ordinate planes be parallel, the traces on the third co-ordinate plane
,.,

ire

necessarily parallel

for if

m =m
P

n
and

;%

n'
.

we have

P"

!>'

214

## PROBLEMS ON THE PLANE.

or

mx +

n y

1 parallel to

m' x

-j-

n y
1

1.

Thus, in

reality,

the three constants. only two conditions are given to determine 418. To find the equation to a plane parallel to a given plane, and passing through a given point x lt y it *
t.

be the required plane, then since the plane passes through T y z v we have

Let m' x

+ n' y

-j-

m
/.

Xi

n'

3/1

p' *i

=
,

m' (x

*,)

+ n' (y - yj -f p' (z
m'
r p'

*,)

0.

Also

=
p

m
p
9

and

n' 7 r

=
+
p

n p
p' (*

:.

p
or

P'(X- *0 +

p (y

- yO

*t)

*)

0;

(x

xj

n (y

yj

(z

= 0.

419.

To

Let

mx + ny + pz= Z X ~ % t ?1 y = fiz + 6j

find the intersection of a straight line and plane. Ibe the equation to the plane,

## of intersection are then, since the co-ordinates of the point

common, we

have

and

m(2-fa)+7i(/3*-r-&)-}-pz= 1, ma nb 1 ~~ m a + /3 + p' a nb a + n Q a +p
J?

y =

/3

+ 6=

/3

mafi+mab+pb _____
<x

--- 71

np

-f-

Thus

is

found.

420.

To

and plane be
infinite

parallel

## or coincide. If they are parallel, the values of

/.

a?,

y,

and
z

must be

oc

-f-

/3

+p
and

= 0.
must be indeterminate, or

a?,

y,

each

T
m

and

ma

7t6=0;
x and

line,

by

## for coincidence, the numerators of combining the last two equations.

Hence, to find the equation to a plane coinciding with a given straight we have the two conditions

ma+ m +
whence, by elimination,

=1,

n/3+/>

=
oc
,

0;

we have

=:

/3

+P b ^
'

ft

and n

= a

p a
b

ex

p -

## PROBLEMS ON THE PLANE.

therefore the equation to the plane
(fi
is

215

+
To

pb) x

(a

+p

a)

+p

(a Q

6)* =

a/3

&*,
lines.

## where p remains indeterminate.

421.
find the equation to a plane coinciding with

two given

= =

(lz

+ +
(1)
(2)

a\
bj

we have
'

## ma+ nb= m a' + n b' =

From
in

1
1

m m

+ +

7i/3

ft'

+ ?r=0 +p=

(3)
(4)

and (2) we have m and n, and these values being substituted (3) and (4), give two values of p, hence we have the equation of con(1)

dition

('
This equation

/3)

(a

a')

(<*'

a)

(6 -&')

0.

either if the lines are parallel (in which case f oc and /3' ot /3), or if they meet ; hence in either of these cases a plane may be drawn coinciding with the two lines ; the equation to this

is verified

plane

is

## found, from the values of m, n, and p, to be

(#

6)

(a!

a)y +

(a

a)

(3

(b'

- 6)

} z

=a

6'

of b.

422. If it be required to find the equation to a plane which coincides with one given straight line, and is parallel to another given straight line,

we have

## the three equations

m . + n + p = 1} for coincidence with ne line m' + 7i/3'+j!?:=0 for parallelism with the other
>

ft

n,

## and p, and then

substitute these values in the general equation to the plane. 423. To find the intersection of two given planes.

## Let the equations

to the

two planes be

n'y

+ p'z~
n' p)

1.

the elimination of z we obtain an equation between x and y, which belongs to the projection of the intersection of the planes on x y,

By

hence
is

(m p'

m' p) x

(n

= p'

the projection on x
Similarly

## of the required intersection.

n)

(m
is

n'

m'

(p n'

p' n) z =: n'

the equation to the projection on x z. But the equations to the projections of a line on two co-ordinate planes are called the equations to the line itself; hence the above two equations are the required equations to the intersection.

The
rately

(;i

(p m'

it

may be found
m' - m.

sepa-

m'

n' in)

mp)
1

z =:

424.

To

216

## PROBLEMS ON THE PLANE.

in the last article,

Let the intersection of the first and second, found as be expressed by the equations
x

ot

z *

y
and
let

=
first

/5

+ +
+ +

a
6,

## and third planes be denoted by the

'

equations

y
Then, finding the
\ve

= =

z
2

a'
6'.

/3'

lines from their four equations, have the values of j?, y, and z, corresponding to the point of intersection of the two lines, and therefore to the point of intersection of the three

intersection of these

two

planes.
point. 425. To find the relation among the coefficients of the equations to four planes so that they may meet in the same straight line.

in

among

one

## Let the equations be

mx+ny+pz=l
mix
m* x m x

+ + +

?i

?? 2

w y

+ p^ = +p *= +p ^ =
2 s

1
1

Then

the

first

## and second plane x

intersect in a line

oc

=
=

ft

+ +

a
b

The

first

and

x =r

ft z

+ +

6,

And

the

first

and fourth

in the line

Now,

## in order that these intersections all coincide,

we must have

And

article

the ralues of a, fa a and 6 are given in terms of m, n, p, &c., by (423), hence the relation among the co-efficients is found. The same relation exists among the co-efficients of any number o

planes meeting in one point. 426. To find the relation among the co-efficients of a straight line and plane, so that they may be perpendicular to one another. Let (j?! y t 2^ be the point in which the plane and line meet, then the

is

## m (x - x^+ n (y-y^ + p (z-2i) =

And
the equations to the line are
j?

(1)

= az +

a]

Also

let the equations to a line perpendicular to (2) and passing through the point (a, y ~ L ) in (2) be

## PROBLEMS ON THE PLANE.

X

217

'(2

Z,))

C)
we have
the

,.

But since these two lines are perpendicular to one another, cosine of the angle between them r= 0,
.'.

'

j3 /3'

(402)

to the last line (3), will give the relation among the co-ordinates of .r, y, and z, so that the point to which they refer is always in a locus perpendicular to the first given line ; hence
this
f substituting for ol and (3 we have the equation to the plane which locus of all the lines perpendicular to (2), this equation is
,

Now,

is

the

x
a
or a
(j?

Xi

z - z -#0 +

P
'

~ y

2/i

zl

., n + 1=0
z

(y

y,)+

*i

(4)

and

:=

co-efficients,

m
P

and

n
,

427. Hence,
cular to
it is
1

if the line

Or
it

if

## the plane be given, the equations to the straight line perpendicular to

are

From

the form
it

straight line,

of these equations to the plane and perpendicular appears that the trace of the plane is perpendicular to the

## projection of the line

upon

the

same co-ordinate

plane.

428. If the plane pass through a given point x l y l z^ and be perpendi=: j3 z -f 6) its equation is a z cular to a given straight line, (x , y

#0

+
+

(y

y^

z^

0.

429. If the straight line pass through a given point, and be perpendicular to a given plane (mx 1) its equations are ny pz

"~

JCl

+ ~ ~m

~~

430.
plane.

To
cEj

Zi

## from a given point on a given

be the co-ordinates of the given point, 1 the equation to the given plane. pz It was shown in Art. 413, that if d be the perpendicular distance of the origin from a plane, whose equation is

Let

m^ + ny +

218

## PROBLEMS ON THE PLANE.

mx + ny-tpz =
we have d

Vm +
2

n*

+ p*.

the equation to the plane, parallel to the given plane, and passing through the given point, is

Now,

m Or - xj + n mx or
m*i
d of
l

(y

p (*-*,)

(418).

Hence

the distance

## the origin from this plane is

.

V m + w + j9f
2

But

the distance of the given point from the given plane distance between the two planes, that is, d rfj

is

evidently the

mx

-f
l

ny

+pz

Vm +

ri -f p*.

431. To find the distance of a point from a straight line. Let the equations to the given line be ae <xz + ftz + 6, then the y equation to the plane passing through the given point x y z^ and perpen-

is

C*

*i)

ft

(y

ft)

z l =.

0.

Eliminating
line,

,r,

y,

and

z by

to the straight

we

find

## or, if this fraction

=
N>

we have

=M

*=N- +
2

- M ^N +6
,

'

These are the co-ordinates of the intersection of the given line, with the perpendicular plane passing through the given point ; and the required perpendicular line (P) is the distance of the given point from this intersection.

Hence P 8

= fo -

<r)

(y,

- y) +
8

(z,

z)*

= (r -a)
1

2
2

r-(y i

-6) +
2

z1

-^

## 432. If the given point be the origin,

we have x

y^ z ly each equal

433. To find the angle between two given planes. Let the equations to the planes be

mx + ny + pz=i
+
n y
v

-f

/?,

(1)
1

(2).

## PROBLEMS ON THE PLANE.

Then,

219

if from the origin we draw perpendiculars on each of these planes, the angle between these perpendiculars is equal to the angle between the planes let the equations to the two lines be
:

to (1),

we must have

ft

(426), and

similarly a'

-^L, ff

=
-

J^L.

Then

## two lines is found from the expression a a 1 + /3 /3' + 1

(403)

+
434. This value of cos. 6 means of Art. (413.)

7i

+p

may

## also be expressed in another

2 ^m^ + T*! +

ft.

form by

cos. cos. P, x cos. P', x cos. P, y cos. P', y -f cos. P, z cos. P', z. ; or cos. 0=cos. P, yz cos. P^yz cos. P, .ry cos. P xy. cos.P, a?2 cos. P', -rz 435. If the planes be perpendicular to each other, we have cos.

+ +

0=0.

.*.

mnii

+ raw,
m.
l -

-f

Hence,

if

mx + ny + p z =
n n.
l

ppt

0.
1,

the equa-

m + -- --

-z=:l,

## where two constants remain indeterminate.

436. If the planes be parallel, we have cos. and putting therefore the expression for cos. & equal to unity, we shall arrive at the results,

0=1;

771

n
the

=:

nil
7*1

and

Wl

W"t

L
;

as already obtained when two planes are parallel. 437. To find the angle between a straight line and a plane.

same

This angle is the angle which the line makes with its projection on the and therefore, drawing a perpendicular from any point in the line to the plane, is the complement of the angle which this perpendicular
plane
;

makes with the given line. Let the equations to the plane and the

line
1

be

mx + ny + pz =
J7

= a2 +a,y = /3s +
(z

6,

## then the equations to the perpendicular from any point

to the plane are

^y

Zi in

the line

zj, y

(z

Zi).

(429)

/.

cos. (IT

0)

sin.

=-

m a -f n p + p

OBLIQUE AXES.

CHAPTER
THE POINT, STRAIGHT
LINE,

IV.

## AND PLANE REFERRED TO

OBLIQUE AXES.
438. IF the co-ordinate axes are not rectangular but inclined to each Other at any given angles, they are then called ohlique axes. The equations to the point, Art. (381.) remain exactly the same as before, but the quantities a, 6, and c, are no longer the representatives of lines drawn perpendicular to the co-ordinate planes, but of lines respectively parallel
to the oblique axes.

439.
axes.

To

and

let

AQ

x, y, z,

be the co-

produced,

Now, Q
and

## AP=the sqs. on AQ and PQ + twice the rectangle AQ,QN. N =. P Q cos. P Q N = z cos. Z A Q

.'.

= A M cos. M A Z M Q cos. Y A Z (379) = * cos. XAZ 4-3/cos. YAZ cos. X Z the rectangle A Q, Q N = * y cos. Y Z) also the square on A Q = -f y + 2 xy cos. Y X,
AQ
cos.

ZA Q

-j-

(j?

-f-

2 ,r

/.

d*

cF

2
3/

zz

+ 2 xy cos. X Y +

2 x z cos.

XZ+

2yz

cos.

Z.

between two points when the axes are oblique Let x y z be the co-ordinates of one point, and x^ yi z the other point, . then the distance between these points is the diagonal of a parallelepiped, of which the sides are the differences of parallel co-ordinates (388) hence,
440.
find the distance
l

To

-^

'

d*

= (x - xtf +
-f

2 (x

(y

rj

(z

e
t

2 (x

*,)

2/0 (2

(y

,)

## 7/0 cos. cos. Z.

XY

441.
nates.

To

The

find the equation to a straight line referred to oblique co-ordistraight line must be considered to be the intersection of two
f

planes formed by drawing straight lines through the several points o the given straight line parallel respectively to the planes of x z, y z ; the traces of these planes on the co-ordinate planes are of the same form as for reel-

OBLIQUE AXES.
angular axes
itself are
;

221

that

is,

## and therefore to the

line

of the

form

xaz-^a
y

= /3*-r-

but the values of and /3 are not the tangents of any angles, but the ratio of the sines of the angles which each trace makes with the axes in i(s
plane (51).

The quantities a and 6 remain the same as when the straight line is referred to rectangular co-ordinates, and since the equations are of the same form as before, those problems which do not affect the inclination of
lines will

## remain the same as before.

442. To find the angle between two straight lines referred to oblique co-ordinates we shall follow the plan adopted in Art. 402. Let the equations to the parallel lines through the origin be

And

let rbe the distance of a point xy z in (1) from the origin, and r l the distance of a point jc l y l 2 t in (2) from the origin.

Then

if

d be
2

## the distance between these points, d*

2

we have

=r + 2 r r' cos. - 3/0 + (s -*0 + 2 (* - *i) (y ~ Sfi) cos. X Y = (x + (y -h 2O - #0 (z - z ) cos. X Z + 2 (y - yO (z - z,) cos. Y Z,
2
r-!

.r,)

2{(jr l y
.

-j-xyJcos.XY+faz+xzJcos.

XZ+

= xx^ +2/3/1

(y^z + y zO

cos.

YZ}

-J-

z^

+
,

yz^cos.'Y Z}

443.

To

## find the equation to a plane referred to oblique axes.

consider a plane as the locus of all the straight lines which can be drawn perpendicular to a given straight line, and passing through a given point in that given straight line. Let the equations to the given line be

We

x
3/

= z = /3z +
(z
(2

-f-

a
b

line

## passing through a point x^ y^ * M

- ^ = ol - yi = y
jt

/3'

*0
*i)

## But these two

angle

last lines

between them
'

90,

being perpendicular to each other, we have the or cos. 0=0; hence by the last article
:

and eliminating

and

222

OBLIQUE AXES.
*!

*
1

CO ,
*!

1^--

+ aT)
/

cos.

XZ

*i
orj ( a
_j_

+ f^Lll + \ * - *i

/3 ")

cos.

Y Z =
cos.

/3

C os.
t

YZ)
aud

(T/

(ft

this equation,

which

is

the locus of

all

## given straight line at a given point and at right angles,

tion to the plane.

444.

To

## find the conditions that a straight line be perpendicular to a

;

given plane

The method is the same as that in article 426. The equation to a plane passing through a point
line is
77i

Xi y^ z l in the

given

(r

- xj
j?

-f n (y
*

(2

0.

But

a, y

y8*-f 6
it is

last article
;

ft

we have

ft

/3

From
and
ft

these equations
in

we have

## the values of m, n>

or the values of

terms of m, n, p.
find the angle

445.

To

line.

mx-}- ny

+ pz =.

(1)

And
be

let

## the equations to a straight line perpendicular to the given plane

y
'

x= =

a'
ft'

s.

+ +

6<

and ft' have the values of and ft in the last article. where Also the angle between the lines (2) and (3) is given in article (442. ) y and the angle between the plane and the line (1) being the complement of the angle between the two lines (2) and (3) may be obtained.
angle between two planes. the lines perpendicular to the given planes, and passing through the origin are given by Article (444.) ; and the angle between these lines, which is the angle between the given planes, is given by
Article (442.)

223

CHAPTER

V.

## THE TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES.

to an equation 447. To transform an equation referred to an origin referred to another origin A', the axes in the latter case being parallel to those in the former.

if

The co-ordinates of the new origin being a, b, and c, it is evident that a point be referred to this new origin and to the new axes, that each original ordinate is equivalent to the new ordinate together with the corresponding ordinate to the new origin ; hence if or, y, z be the original coordinate of a point P, and X, Y, Z the new co-ordinates, we have
x

= a + X, y = 6 + Y, z = c + Z;
Z

we have

Substituting these values for x, y and z in the equation to the surface, referred to the the transformed equation between X, Y, and

origin A'.

448. To transform the equation referred to rectangular axes to an equation referred to oblique axes having the same origin. z be the original axes, Xiet -r, A y,

A A A X, A Y, A Z

the

new

axes,
1

M =* MQ = y QP = z

AM'^X
M' Q'

}
I

Q'P

=Y =Z

the

Then lines in the figure). (these planes are represented by the dotted are the respective projections of M', M' Q' and Q' P S and S, on A T, also

P draw
to

## planes parallel to yz,

or,

which

is

a?

and meeting

Ax

in S,

T and

TM

224

TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES.
(376)

/.

y
,r

Or,

## X y + Y cos. Yy + Z cos. Z y X 2 + Y cos. Y * + Z cos. Z 2 = m X -f W2 Y + m Z Y + Z I y= X +

z=\
?i

cos.

\
J

cos.

77!

// 2

^Z
X

wheie

?/i is

put

for cos.

X
8

<r,

&c.

have also, by art. 402, (he following" equation between the angles which one straight line, as A X, makes with the axes of *, y, 2.
(cos.

We

*)

(cos.

y)

+
1

(cos.

X *) =

1,

Hence

## the following system,

f
i

+ Pi =
1

>

2.

new system be rectangular, we have also the equations in (405), which signify that the new axes are perpendicular to each other ; hence the system
449. If the
urt.

mm + n n + pp m m + n n + pp
v l

=i r=
>

3.

Hence we observe that of the nine cosines involved in the system (I) three are determined by the system (2), and other three by the system (3) ; and therefore that there are only three arbitrary angles remaining. 450. In the place of these three systems the following three may also
be used:

m* f m? + * 2 7i 4. n 4.
p
t
I

7n 2

~r Pi

~, 2

"T PZ

2 7?2 _ 8 -

## X = m,r + ny + p z] Y0i%4r+%y+jV> Z = m x + y + P& = m n + mp + np =0| V

4.
2
?* 2

1"!
1

1
I

5.

TOI ni 4.
I

Wl j
-v

E,

4.

7/l

*J

"^2 ^2 ~r "^2 Pa

>

J^ T

6.

v,

"2/2

~" rtl

For, multiplying the values of r, y and 2 in (1) by T?J, ?i and p respectively ; then adding the results together, and reducing by means of (2) and (3), we have ny-}-pz', and repeating this operation with the other multipliers v p and in a ?i % p it we have the system (4). Also, since the distance of P from the origin is the same for both systems, 2 2 we have a?1 Y2 Z 2 ; putting here, for X, and Z, y* their values in (4), and then equating co efficients on both sides, we have

X~mjc + m
l

=X +

the two systems (5) and (6). Whenever we see the systems

(2)

## and (3), we may replace them

by (5) and (6) ; this may be proved independently of any transformation of co-ordinates, by assuming the quantities mnp, &Q. to be connected
as in (1).

451.
effected

The transformation from oblique axes to others oblique, is in the last figure upon the by drawing a perpendicular from

TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES.
plane of y
shall
*,

225

and by projecting

x,

X, Y, and

on

this perpendicular,

we

have

x
and

sin. #,

yz

=X

sin.

X, y 2

Y
y,

sin,

Y, y *

+Z

sin.

Z, y *

x and
j;

sin. y,
2,

z sin.

## = X X, + Y sin. Y, x z + Z #y = Xsin. X,a?y + Y sin. Y, ,ry + Z

a?

sin.

sin.

Z,

j?

2-,

sin.

Z,xy.

452. Another useful method of transformation from rectangular axes to others also rectangular, is the following:

to the axes of
1

~ az = /3*f y
--

X,Yand Z
a?!

be respectively

9-e*fr*t
I

and

let

m=
Vl
then by
art.

+
cos.

+P

77?!

Vl

-f

af

+A

777 a

=
Vl

+
&c.

/V

(402.) we have

X x = m a,
substitution,

eos.

X y =.

m(3, cos.

X x == m

Hence by

the first

art.

(448.) become

= maX + m

Y+m

a2

And

,*&&,&.
sition
:

unknown terms

may

## obtain a system involving only five

arbitrary constants by supposing the solid trihedral angle formed by the original co-ordinate planes to turn about the origin into a new po-

such a system has been ably discussed by ''Annales de Maths.," tome vii. p. 56.

M. Gergonne

in the

453. It appears throughout these articles that only three arbitrary and therefore it might be supposed quantities are absolutely necessary that formulas for transformation would be obtained involving only three angles such formulas have been discovered by Euler, and as they are
:

## generally useful in various branches of analysis,

vestigation.

we proceed

to their in-

plane of

the intersection of the original plane of xy with the new A to lie above the plane and suppose the plane xy A, which las.t we may assume to be the plane of the paper.

Let

A C be XY,

CXY
A

and radius unity, cutting Let a sphere be described with centre the axes in the points indicated by their respective letters.

all

226

TRANSFORMATION OF CO-ORDINATES.

Let C x = 0, C X =

and

XY

i//,

and

let

the angle

X C x between

the planes

xy

be called

0.

Then the object is to substitute in formula (1) art. (448.) the values of the cosines in terms of the new variables 0, i//, and 0.
This
is

effected by

nometry

for finding

## the included angle.

cos.
cos.

means of the elementary theorem in spherical trigoone side of a triangle in terms of the other two and In the triangles C X x and C Y ,r, we have
sin

X x = cos. 6

^ sin.
^/) sin.

sin.
//

t//)

cos.

= cos. Q cos.
Similarly cos.

sin. -^

cos.

X y and

cos.

cos.

ZCx

sin.

we

Zx =

cos.

ZC#

Z C sin. G r +
sin.

cos.

ZC
cos

cos.

Cx

r=
Similarly cos.

+ cos. 90
0.

sin. 0sin.

y, cos.
;

X *,

and

cos.

Y % may be

determined.

sin. ^/ sin.

(cos.

+ cos. ^ cos. 0)
sin.

+Y
y
=:

(cos. 6 cos.

sin. sin.

cos.

0)

sin.

sin.

i//

cos.

cos.

sin.

0)

cos.

;//

cos.

+
cos.

sin.

;//

sin.

0)

Z
*

sin.

## ~ X sin. 6 sin. ^ + Y sin.

cos.

;//

+ Z cos. 0.

are the formulas investigated, but in a different manner, by " Me'c. Cel." i. p. 58. They will be found in most works on this subject, but often with some slight alteration in the algebraic signs of

These

Laplace,

A C.

227

## THE INTERSECTION OF A SURFACE BY A PLANE.

454. The last system may be advantageously employed in finding the nature of the intersection of curve surfaces made by planes. If we propose to cut a surface, as a cone for example, by a plane, we should eliminate % from the equations to the surface and plane ; but this gives us the equation to the projection of their intersection on xy, not the equation to the intersection itself; and as the projection will not always suffice to determine the nature of a curve, it is requisite to find the equation to that curve
traced on the cutting plane.

are in the cutting plane. in the equation thus transBy putting Z formed, we shall have the intersection of the surface with the plane X Y,

may be done by a transformation of co-ordinates. Let the cutting plane be that of X Y, and the trace A C the axis of X, the surface will then be referred to new axes X, Y, Z, of which X and Y
This

which

is

## the intersection required.

intersection,

Now, as the present object is only to obtain the curve of we may at first put Z = 0, and then transform the equation.
Let therefore
formulas become

= 0,

CAX
cos. 6

or

i//

0,

## = X cos. + Y sin. = X sin. + Y cos. z= Y sin.

B.

cos. 6

These formulas may be separately investigated, with great ease, without deduction from the general case. See " Francceur," vol. ii. art. 369, or
"Puissant, Geometrie,"
art.

134.

455. In applying these formulas to a particular case, a little consideration will greatly alleviate the labour of transformation thus, in many cases, we may suppose the cutting plane lo be perpendicular to j? z, without at all diminishing the generality of the result, but only addC either ing much to its simplicity ; for in this case the trace
:

coincides with
ast formulas

Ay

or

## produced, and therefore

90;

hence the

become

x
z

= + Y cos. 6
Y sin.
0.

y=-X
These formulas may be readily investigated by drawing a figure 90 and and y A produced coincide, last, but letting A C, A 90, and then taking the original formulas (1) in art. 448.

like the

Y=

456. If in the above cases the origin is also changed, we must duce the quantities a, 6, c into the left side of the above equations.

iritro

Q2

228

THE SPHERE.

CHAPTER

VI.

## THE SPHERE AND SURFACES OF REVOLUTION.

457. CURVE surface as a sphere being given for discussion, we proceed as in plane geometry to find its equation from some known property of the surface ; and generally we arrive at a relation between three un-

known
/(r,

quantities x,

y, r)

?/,

0, or z

=f(x,

## to the surface, alone.

and

it

which relation is expressed by the symbol This equation is called the equation corresponds to all points of the surface, and to it
z,

and

y).

458. Conversely, an equation of the form/(r, y, z) where ,r, y, and z represent the co-ordinates of a point, refers to some surface. That it cannot belong to all the points in a solid may be thus shown. Let there be two equations /(r, y, 2) =r 0, and /' O, y, z) 0; giving to .r, y, and z the same values in both these equations, and then eliminating z, we have the equation to the intersection of the above loci (x y) 0, projected on the plane of cry: this equation is of the form and therefore it belongs to a line. Similarly the projections of the intersection on the other co-ordinate planes are lines ; but if the projections of a locus on three different planes are lines, the locus itself must be a line, Hence the intersection of the two loci of that is, it cannot be a surface.
,

and/'

(j?,

y, z)

being a

line,

## each of these equations

to a surface.

459. Surfaces as well as lines are divided into orders, and for the same and to allow us to unite the important properties of generality and simplicity in our investigations as far Hence a plane which is the locus of a simple equation as possible. between three unknown quantities is called a surface of the first order ; the locus of an equation of two dimensions between three unknown quanThe length, tities is called a surface of the second order, and so on. rather than the difficulty of the mathematical operations, renders this part Hence we shall omit many of the investigations of the subject tedious. which merely require manual labour, and rather dwell upon what we consider the important steps. much more serious difficulty arises from the state of the figures we cannot give complete graphical illustrations of this part of geometry, and a mind unaccustomed to the conception of solid figures cannot always comprehend the meaning of the corresponding analytical results. We have endeavoured to obviate this difficulty as much as possihle by descriptions of what the figures intend to represent, and to these descriptions we beg the particular attention of our renders, for we are convinced that this part of geometry is by no means difficult, if attention be paid to the form of the body but without this care it is quite unintelligible. We commence with the discussion of the Sphere.
object, to avoid the confusion of ideas

THE SPHERE.

2W

THE SPHERE.
460.

To
the

let x, 7. be the y, co-ordinates of any point on the surface, and a, 6, c the corresponding Then since the surface is such that the disco-ordinates of the centre. tance of any point in it from the centre of the sphere is constant or equal to a line r, called the radius, we have by art. (388.)

Let

find the equation to the surface of a sphere. surface be referred to rectangular axes, and

(*-a) +
2

(y

-&) + (*-c)
2

=r

2
.

will

to

the

/.

in the plane of

xy
2
.*.

.*.

c
2

=
z
2

0,
z

O-)
/.

+
8

(y

6)

=
r
2
.

r*.

=
a =.

and b

=
0,

x*

+2/

+ O -c) =
.*.

tion is

=c=

## and the equa-

And

this is the

463.

The general

equation to the surface of the sphere most generally used. equation upon expansion becomes

#2

a 4. z

by

- 2bz

+^a~

r2

= 0.
may be

And

## hence the sphere corresponding to any equation of

this

form

described as for the circle, art. 67. 464. The sections of a surface made by the co-ordinate planes are called the principal sections of the surface, and the boundaries of the principal sections are called the traces of the surface on the co-ordinate
planes.

The equation to a trace is determined by putting the ordinate perpendicular to the plane of the trace in the general equation. Thus, to find the curve in which the sphere cuts the plane of x y, put 2 0, and then we have the equation to the points where the plane and sphere meet, which in this case is

Hence the section on x y is a circle as long as x and y have real valuer And, similarly, the other traces are circles. The theorem that the intersection of any plane with a sphere is a circle. is best proved geometrically, as in Geometry, 6. v. 19.
465.

To
l l

## find the equation to the tangent plane to a sphere.

Let x y Zi be the co-ordinates of the point on the surface through which the tangent plane passes, and let the equation to the spherical surface be

(x

a)*

+ +

(2/-&)
n

(2

(z

c)

=r
2,)

s
;

(*

is

*0

(y

- yO +

0.

to the

(a b c

230

## THE TANGENT PLANE.

z\

(z

20

y,

*i

is

since every line in the tangent plane, and therefore the plane itself, perpendicular to the radius at the point of tangence, we have from the

And

p
Hence

Zl

*!

becomes

or,

fo

a)

- xj +
s

(yi

6) (y

2/J

(^ 2

c) (2

- 2l =
)

(#!) +
or,
(#!

(?/!- 6)
6) (y t

(2
6)

c)

2
,

a) (ji

a)

(^

(2 t

c) (2!

c)

=
8
.

r*.

(*!

this equation,

-)(*-)
is

+
is

(y,

6) (y

- 6) +
z Z
1

(*i

c) (2

c)

=r

## in the centre of the sphere, the equation

to the

tangent plane

x
which equation
or,
,r>r

x'

-f.

yy

=r
1
,

2
,

22

2 once obtained from that to the sphere xz 22 r8 y 2 x x y y\ and z z' for j? x, y y, and yy+22=:r by putting

is at

respectively.

The line in which the tangent plane cuts any co-ordinate plane is found by putting the ordinate perpendicular to that plane and the point in which the tangent plane cuts any axis is found by putting the two variables measured along the other axes each 0.

(j?
'2

the

spherical

surface

referred

to

oblique

co-

a)
)

(.r

2 a

## ON COMMON SURFACES OF REVOLUTION.

468. A right cone is formed by the revolution of the hypothenuse of a right-angled triangle about one of its sides. Let C be the side which revolves about B as an axis, so that

perpendicular to the axis is a circle. Let A X, Y, A Z be the rectangular axes to which the cone is referred, having the origin at the vertex of the cone, and the axis of Z -coincident with the axis of the cone.

section

QP

any

Let

N= A N= 2 NM = x

MP=yJ

THE CONE.
Then
the squares on

231

N M and M P ss

the square on

NP
21

andNP -

NQ= AN

tan.

CAB,
is

## therefore the equation to the surface

e =: tangent of the semiangle of the cone. 469. Let the line A C be a curve, as a parabola, for example, in which case the surface is called the common paraboloid.

where

Then

Let the equation to the generating- parabola A Q C be Q */p z P =the square on N P the square on N Q, the squares on M,

.'.

a*

=p

z.

A C be an ellipse, centre and origin at B. N = z, N M = and M P = y, C B = b and B A = a. Then the squares on N M and M P = the square on N Q and N Q being an ordinate to the ellipse A Q C, whose semiaxes are a and 6, we
470. Let

Let

a?,

have

NQ=
and therefore the equation

Ja?-z\
^
is

to the surface

or, of

z*

=6

Let a and 6 change places in the equation, we have then for the surface of revolution round the axis minor the equation

The former
spheroid.

surface

is

232

THE SPHEROID.
is

## 471. The equation to the hyperboloid round the transverse axis

putting a for b and 6 for a, we have the surface by revolution round the conjugate axis. 472. In general the equation to all these surfaces may be comprehended under the form x* -f- y2 =/(z) if Z be the axis of revolution ; 2 be the axis of revolution. or, z* -f- y (.r) if

And

=f

AX

fluid the curve of intersection of a plane and a surface of revolution. 473. Let the section be made by a plane perpendicular to x z, and as the nature of the curve is the same in whatever part of the cutting plane we place the origin, we shall let the origin be in the plane x z. Then the formulas for transformation are

To

x = a y cos. d y= -* z = c y sin.
-f-

-f-

0.

substitution in the equation to a surface, required curve of intersection. 474. Let the surface be a paraboloid

Hence by

we

shall

have the

:.
2
2

(a

-j-

cos.

Q)*-\-x*=p(c-\-y sin. 0)

since a cos. or, y (cos. 6) pc; p sin. 0) y hence the curve of intersection is a line of the second order. and a parabola similar It is an ellipse generally (76) a circle if
-|- x* -f- (2

=
;

ellipse

90.

## the spheroid formed by the revolution of an

round

its

axis major

*2 by substitution
8
2

+y +
2

62

l^-

'

this

equation becomes
8

{ (cos. 6>)

-^(sin. 0)

+* + 2y
2

c -^- sin.

lC os.0}= 0.

This is the equation to an ellipse generally, and to a circle when 476. Let the surface be the hyperboloid, whose equation is

0=0.

## the sections will

less

be found to depend
is

on the value of
if
it

tan.

if tan.
is

is

than

the curve

an
is

ellipse

is

equal to
it is

the curve

parabola; and
a circle
if

if

tan 6

greater than

an hyperbola

and

lastly,

233

CHAPTER

VII.

477.

THE
by*

is

ax*
the

## + cz*+2dxy + 2exz + 2fy + +k=Q

2 g x -f 2 h

2i

number 2 being prefixed to some of the terms merely for convenience. In order to discuss this equation, that is, to examine the nature and position of the surfaces which it represents, we shall render it more simple by
means of the transformation of co-ordinates.
Let the origin be
x
transferred by putting

= x' + m, yy' + n,

=z

+ p,

substituting these values in the general equation, and then putting the terms containing the first powers of the variables each 0, we have the

equation

ax'*

+
;

&2/

/2

-f cz'*

2dx'y'

2ex'z'

+ 2fy'z' + ^=0.
f
,

z' This equation remains the same if we change x', y f z', into x', y thence we conclude that any straight line drawn through the respectively origin, and intercepted by the surface, will be divided into two equal parts at the origin this new origin therefore will be the centre of the surface,
,

attributing to this expression the same signification as of curves of the second order (81.)

we did

in treating

478.

The

values of m,

7?,

and p, are

to

co-efficient of
.

equations

## am + dn+ep + g=Q, bn -f dm +fp ~h = 0, cp + em +fn + = 0,

ft

a?',

y',
z'.

Eliminate^ from the first and second of these equations, and also from the first and third, then from the two resulting equations eliminate n, and we shall arrive at an equation of the first order involving m, whence we have the value of m, and therefore of n and p.

## The denominator of the

values of

m, n and p

is

ab

and p are infinite, or the surhence, if this quantity face has no centre when there is this relation among the co-efficients of the This circumstance corresponds to the case of the paraoriginal equation. bola in lines of the second order (81.)
479.
3/V,

## + 2def af* = 0, the values of m

bez

c d?

To

we must have

destroy the co-efficients of the terms involving x y\ x' s/, and recourse to another transformation of co-ordinates.

234

the formulas in
x' =-

Taking

(452) we have
l

y
z
r

l

rn 2

or 2

z"

m*
7n 2

fa z"

z"

## x" y", x"

Substituting in the general equation, and then putting the co-efficients of n 0, we have the three equations z", and y" z , each

(aa

+ d/\$ +

e) Wl

(da

+/) A +

+ fft + c =
c

..... arV'

= 0.

.y"z"

## object is effected, that is,

Our

transformation can always be now to ascertain to determine the possibility of the values of the six unif this
oe z, fa z (452.); y of the above three equations becomes
l

known
480.

quantities in the last three equations. The equations to the new axis of y" are x
first

## + <*+ e)x+ (<Ja4-M+/)y +

is

(eot+ffi

c) z

0,

the equation to a plane passing through the origin. the co-ordinates of every point in this plane satisfy the condition that the co-efficient of x" y" 0, that is, give the necessary relation ' between a v and fa ; hence, if (he new axis of y be drawn in this plane the condition is still satisfied. Thus, the direction of the axis of x" being

which

Now

above

## by and from the equations of z" (x

1 quite arbitrary, that of y' is determined to be in the particular plane given and the term x" y" is gone. a similar elimination of or2 and /3 2 from the co-efficient ofj/'", Again,
;

a a z, y fa 2), we have, from the if the axis of similarity of the equations, the same plane as before ; hence, z" be also drawn in this plane, the term x" z" will disappear. Also, 2 and fa being thus obtained, the relation between t and /8, may

0. be found from the co-efficient of y" z" Thus, fixing upon any position of the axis of x"^ that is, giving any values to a and fa we have determined a plane passing through the origin, in which plane any two straight lines whatever drawn from the origin may be the axes of y'' and z", and one of them as z" being so drawn, or 2 and/8 2 is determined from the are given, and then the relation between a l and ' 0. co-efficient of x y" But since the relation between these quantities a l and fa, and not the
1

&

quantities themselves, is given by the last equation, it appears that there are an infinite number of systems to which, if the axes be transferred, the

products of the variables may be destroyed. 481. Let the new axes be rectangular. In this case the axis of x" must be perpendicular to the plane of y" x", or the line whose equations are x ft z is perpendicular to the z, y

plane

/.

aa-fd/3-f

e=

(e

-f//3

-{-

c)

(426)

Substituting in the first of these equations the value of the second, we have the following equation for /3 :

or

obtained from

## SURFACES OF THE SECOND ORDER.

235

+ +

{ (a
{

- a) (c

- 6)

(c

(c

- 6) e + - 6) d +

(2 <f
2 (2 c

-/ - e
2

/ 8

) e
rf

2 e* )

+ +

(2

c-

(2 6

a a

- 6)/d } /3 2

c)

/e

This equation of the third degree has at least one real value for /3, and hence a real value of or; thus the position of the axis of x" is found, and also the position of the perpendicular plane in which y" and z n are situated.
1 Again, we might find a plane x" z" perpendicular to y' , and such that the terms in x" y", y" z" should disappear, and the necessary conditions will, as appears from the similarity of the equations, lead to the same

equation of the third degree in (3^ and the same is true for the axis of z". Hence the three roots of the above equation of the third degree are the three real values of /3, fi v and /3 2 These three quantities give the three corresponding values of , t and 2 and since there are only one value of each quantity, it appears that there is only one system of rectangular axes to which the curve surface can be referred so as not to contain the products of the variables. For further information on this subject, see " Annales Math.'' ii. p. 144. 482. By the last transformation, the equation when the locus has a centre is reduced to the form
.

a^'t
or,

+ biyV' + c^'t+k^O

LcC2

## by substitution and the suppression of accents, which are no longer necessary.

The order of transformation might have been inverted, by first destroying the products of the variables exactly in every respect as in the last article, and then the resulting equation must be deprived of three terms by a simple change of the origin; the result, after both transformations,
is

L
483.
(1) (2)

<r

+ My +N
8

z9

+ Px =

0.

central equation involves three distinct cases, which on the signs of the quantities L, M, and N.

The

depend

They may be all positive. Two may be positive, and the third negative. and the other two negative. (3) One may be positive, They cannot be all negative.
Substituting for L,

where a

is

>

and

M >

c,

respectively,

## the three cases are

a2

__
6
s

_
c
2

"

The readiest way of obtaining the form of these surfaces is by sections either in planes parallel to the co-ordinate planes, or on the co-ordinate remark again, that in the latter case they are called the prinplanes.

We

THE ELLIPSOID.

THE ELLIPSOID.
484.

For

the trace

on x y,

=
=

0, /.

-f-

2
c3

r=

2,

0,

.'.

-I

a*

ellipses.

Let

=m

xz
.*.

## the section parallel to x

y*
-f-

y
-

is

a
-]

m*
1

c
-

v=n.
x =. p

x z

is

of these equations is an ellipse from m, or z to c the curve becomes a point, and when z is greater than c the ellipse is imaginary, therefore the surface is limited in the direction of z. Similarly it may be proved, that the other sections are ellipses, and the From the circumstance of surface is limited in the directions of x and y. this surface being thus limited in every direction, and also from the above sections being all ellipses, Ihis surface is called the ellipsoid. The diameters 2 a, 26, 2 c of the principal sections are called the diameters of the ellipsoid, and their extremities are the vertices of the surface.
first

=c

The
;

when

If 6

xz
a, the

equation becomes

y
-f-

\ -\

1,

which

is

the equa-

by revolution round the axis of z. If any other two co-efficients are equal, we have spheroids round the 6 other axes ; and if a c, the surface becomes a sphere. 485. To render the conception of this surface clear we subjoin a figure representing the eighth part of an ellipsoid.
tion to a spheroid

= =
7.

to that of z

* This equation belongs to the projection on x y, hut since the plane of x j> is parallel m,tbe projection is exactly the same in form as the curve of section itself.

IE

HYPERROLOID.
x

237

AB

is

## part of the ellipse on x y

z

BD
and the section

yz,

Q PR
may

parallel to

xy

is

also an ellipse.
in

The

surface

C A B moving upwards parallel to itself with its centre N Q R be one position of this variable ellipse; and let C N = 2, C A = a, NR=

## be conceived to be generated by a variable ellipse

C Z.
;

Let

j? l

N M = x, M P = y,
Then from
the ellipse

C B
C

b,
c,

NQ

=^ y,

D =

Q P R we

have

~~i~

D RA
H
2
i;

and
1

DQB
b

we have
c
j-

ail

d TT H

== 1

x
Therefore

2
ti

-i-

first

equation by

~
j? 2

or its

equal

J-,

we have

p-

^r
b

= -^- =1 a*

r-.

THE HYPERBOLOID.
486. Case
2.

The

## principal sections are

^+fr =
on

^-^=

( 2>

(2) and (1) is the equation to an ellipse whose axes are 2 a and 2 b 2c i (3) are hyperbolas with the same imaginary conjugate axis or 3; less than 6, z is imaginary. it\r is less than , Giving to 2, 7/, and j? the values m, ??, and jy, respectively, we have the
;

^_

hyperbolas. portion of the eighth part A B is the ellipse on x y, A the hyperbola on x x, and of this surface. B Q is the other hyperbola on y z. This surface may also be conceived

section parallel to

487.

## x y an ellipse, to y z and x z The accompanying figure represents a

238

THE HYPERBOLOID.

to be generated by a variable ellipse moving parallel to itself with it Let centre in C Z. Q be one position of this variable ellipse ; and le

N R
Z,

CAB
6,

N=

NM =

*,

M P rr y,

C A = 0, CB = C D = C,

N R r= ^ N Q = y,

Then from

the ellipse

PQ

R, we have

~5 2

AR
1

and

B Q we
6
c

have
T" 2
1 1

* 2

anc* IF 2

2
<r

therefore
2/i*

j-

i/

-^-

## and multiplying the

x
first

equation by

j-

or

its

equal

we have
a2
6
2

This surface is called the hyperboloid of one sheet because it forms one continuous surface or sheet. b the surface becomes the common hyperboloid of revolution If a

axis.

X*

line,
-f-

## whose equations are #=az,y=/3z,

if

and substituting

in the

equation-

-- =:

Z*

-^-

1,

we have

hence

this line

tion is real

and

meets the surface as long as the denominator of the frac2 8 ac8 /3= O8 6, then the line only finite; let fc* c

THE HYPERBOLOID.
meets the surface
last

239

at an infinite distance, or is an asymptote to the surface. and /3, when the correequation gives the relation between sponding line is an asymptote ; and if for and (3 we substitute their gene-

The

ral values

and

we

z,

whose locus

## will consist of all the

any point

in

it

have

asymptotes to the surface, because the co-ordinates of the required relation above.
6
8

The equation

to this surface is

c a*
or,

a2

c y*

a2
e2

b* z*

We
is

shall hereafter
is

whose vertex
an
ellipse.

show (art. 514.) that this is the equation to a cone the origin, and whose base, or section parallel to the axis,

489. Case 3.

The

## principal sections are

(i)

on xz 9
a"

(2)

on
is

(3).

an hyperbola whose axes are 2 a and 2 6 V 1 00 is an hyper(1) is bola whose axes are 2 a and 2 c /v/_j (3) imaginary, therefore the plane of y z never meets the surface.
.

Of the
tion
is

parallel to

xy

## and x z are hyperbolas, and that

2^1 6*

z is

an

ellipse,

whose equa-

ic
2

"'

_
a2

x is less than db a; therefore, if two ellipse is imaginary, if p or a from the centre, no planes are drawn parallel to y z, and at distances part of the surface can be between these planes.
hence this

240

THE PARABOLOID.
fig-tire

represents the hyperbolic section on xy, and on x z E Q F R is an elliptic section parallel to y z. There is an equal and opposite sheet with its vertex at A' ; hence the surface is called the hyperboloid of two sheets. 490. The equation to the surface is deduced from the figure; let AMiz

In the

EAF
;

QAR

that

x,

M N = y, N P = *

=r

Then from

## the elliptic section

%19 M F = y, Q P F R we have
;

U an d -\ c8
first

77 62
therefore

o2

"~

r a2
equation by

--

-J-;

-y-

or

its

equal

~,

we have
-

+
'*'

=^
"a 2

:=

S-"?

~
~"tf

a.

491.

2s

-j-

0,

is

## the equation to the conical asymptote;

hence both in case (2) and (3) we have the conical asymptote by omitting the constant term in the equations.

## ON SURFACES WHICH HAVE NO CENTRE.

492. In this case the general equation can be deprived of the products of the variables, as in (479) ; it will then be of the form

let

x
Let the
co-efficients

=m+

,r',
'

y
z'

-f y', z

z f,

or,

But
tities

## since this class has

m,

11,

p,

co-efficients

deprived the one or two of the co efficients of JT, y\ or 2 9 ; this corresponds to the case in art. 92. Now, all three co-efficients cannot 0, for then we fall upon the equation to a plane hence we have only two cases left, when a vanishes, or when a arid b both vanish. 493. Let a 0, then, as we have three quantities, m. n and p to deteras well as the co-efficients of y' and z' ; hence mine, we may let k' =r the equation is reduced to the form

no centre, the values of some, or all the quanmust be infinite therefore, either one, two, or three of Ihe Thus the original transformation which a, 6, c, must rr: 0. equation of the terms xy, xz, and 3/2, has of itself destroyed
;

THE PARABOLOID

241

This equation has two varieties depending upon the signs of the quau
tities
-

and

2 1. Let the signs of/ and *'* be both alike and positive, (if were negative we should change the sign of x' to reduce the equation they

494. Case

to the

same form)

substituting
<r,

for

and
-j-

for

and supis

y and

## z as no longer necessary, the equation

a
For the
principal sections

on xy, y*

we have
.

Ix

(1) and (2) are parabolas extending on the side of x positive ; (3) is a point, which is the origin itself For the sections parallel to

## ^lx' on y*,/y + /*:=

onxz,
z*

(1) (2)
(3)

V*
/>,
.'.

p ^zx-n*

(1)

(2)

yz, put x
(1)

= m,

(3)

to those of the principal sections respecequation differing by a constant term, implies that the origin is (3) is an ellipse. differently situated with regard to the curve) 495. In the figure and are parts of the parabolas on x y and x y, and the surface is described by the motion of the parabola A Q, R. Let P parallel to itself, its vertex moving along the parabola be one position of the generating parabola, and let A X, =y, then from the parabola or z, and draw R O parallel to A ;
tively, (the
:

## and (2) are parabolas, equal

AQ

AR

NP =

MN
=

M=

MN

RN

R P we

have
*

= R N = V (AM - A O)
/'

This surface

is

z'*

and

is

composed of one

496

Case

2.

## Let the signs of y' 2 and

be different.

242

THE PARABOLOID.
'

For

= Ix = - I'x on2/z,/y-/* =
on xy, y z on xz, z*
2

## the principal sections

we have
(I) (2)
(3)

(1) and (2) are parabolas, the first corresponding to x positive, and the second to x negative ; (3) belongs to two straight lines through the origin.

The
497.
is

parallel to

## sections in planes parallel to y z are hyperbolas.

xy and xz

are parabolas,

and those

is the parabola on x z, and is that on xy\ and the surdescribed by the motion of the parabola Q parallel to itself, its R. Let vertex moving along the parabola P be one position of = xy the generating parabola, and let P z, and y, and then from the parabola draw ; Q we have parallel to

AQ

AR

face

MN

MN =
=V

A R N

R
-

= RN =
/'

(A

O - A M)

called the hyperbolic paraboloid. to the elliptic and hyperbolic paraboloids may be deduced from those of the ellipsoid and hyperboloid of one sheet, as the equation to the parabola was deduced from that to the ellipse (228) by supposing the centre to be infinitely distant.
is

This surface
498.

The equations

for x,

Let the origin be transferred to a vertex of the surface, by putting x then the equation to the ellipsoid and hyperboloid is

and m' be the distances of the vertex from the foci Let on x y and x z ; 2 /. b* s= a - (a 2 a m - m2 ra)

or the sections

and
therefore,

c8

2 am'

m"*

= =
or
0,

rfc -

2x

2 m'

= 0, when a

is infinite.

And hence

and hyperboloid

will

be

making

## the above substitutions.

THE PARABOLOID.
stated in article 492, that both a and b might vanish 499. case the equation will be

243
;

We

in this

cz*+'2gx-{- 2hy

2iz

+k=

0.

And

by the transformation in art. 492, we cannot destroy the co-efficients of x and y, but we may destroy that of 2, and also the constant term k ; hence the transformed equation is reduced to the form

2gx

=
may be
The

Ix

if

~=

+ 2hy =

0;

/,and/',

500. There are two cases depending on the signs of I and both positive, or one positive and the other negative. Case I. / and V both positive.
section

which

(1) (2) is (3) B ; (2) is a para(1) is a straight line bola A Q ; (3) is also a parabola, not in the sections on the planes the figure in each parallel to the above are similar case. The surface is formed by the motion
I'

on xy on xz on y z

is

Ix
2 2

is

= Ix = Vy

=--

of the parabola A Q parallel to itself, its vertex describing the straight line ; letRPNbe one position of the generating

AR

parabola

let

A M=,r, M N=y, NP = z,

=
Since this surface
classed

^-y

+ se\ =

Vy

Ix.

is a cylinder with a parabolic base, it is not usually the surfaces of the second order. Case 2. If the signs of / and /' be different, the surface will be th same, but situated in a different manner.

among

CHAPTER

VIII.

## CYLINDRICAL AND CONICAL SURFACES.

501. Our notion of surfaces will be very much enlarged, if we tak into consideration the general character of classes of surfaces, defining them by their peculiar method of generation, and then expressing that definition in a general algebraical form. For example, we have been

accustomed, in common geometry, to consider a cylinder as a surface generated by a straight line, which is carried round the circumference of a given circle, and always parallel to a given straight line. (Geom. b w 2

244

## CYLINDRICAL AND CONICAL SURFACES.

But it is evident that if the base be not a circle, but any other def. 1.) curve, as a parabola, for instance, we shall have a surface partaking of (he essential cylindrical character, and which, with others of the same kind, come under a more extended definition ; and similarly for conical and

many

other surfaces.
lines

## Having seized upon

by which the

are

this general character, method of generation, or law compelled to move, the next step is to express

this fact in algebraical language; that is, to obtain an equation between co-ordinates x, y, and z, of any point on the surface, which equation shall belong to the class of surfaces in the first instance, and then can be adapted to any particular surface in that class.

THE PLANE.
502. In order to prepare the reader for this subject, we shall take a the motion of a straight simple case: to find the surface generated by a given straight line, parallel to itself, and constrained to pass through
line.

Let

A X, A

Y,

AZ

## given straight line plane of y *) be

B C

be rectangular axes, and let the equations to the (supposed for the sake of simplicity to be in the

Y +pZ= = X

1\

Of

Also,

let

## the equations to the generating line

Q,

in

any one of

its

posi-

tions, be

a y

= az + = /3* +

a\
bf

Now,

a and /3 are the tangents of the angles which the projections of P Q make with the axes A and A Y respectively ; and in the motion of P Q, parallel to itself, the projections also remain parallel to themselves respecand are always constant, and therefore are known tively ; and hence

or

But a and 6 being the co-ordinates of the point meets the plane of a: y, they change with every change of position and therefore, being variable, must not appear in the final equation to the surface. Now, these variable quantities, a and 6, can be expressed in terms of the other variable quantities x,y, z; and hence we can thus estimate them from the two given systems above. At the point P, where P Q meets B C, we have, by comparison of (1) ind (2),
given quantities.
line

where the

PQ of P Q;

ON CYLINDRICAL SURFACES.

845

X =x =

But

is

## true for any values of

X, Y, Z;

therefore, by sub-

stitution in (1),

we have

and

relation

connecting a and b together, or expressing the which the variable quantities a and 6 have to each other, or the that is, relation which any quantities equal to a and 6 have to each other z, and y (3 z from (2), we substituting for a and 6 the quantities x shall have the relation between the quantities x, y, and 2, which is called
this is the equation
;

## the equation to a surface.

1;

which is the equation to a plane and this is the most general method of determining the equation to a plane ; for it can be thus found for any system of co-ordinate axes, and it is determined from the most obvious character of the plane. We now proceed to the discussion of surfaces formed by the motion of a straight line constrained to move after some given law or condition.
;

ON CYLINDRICAL SURFACES.
503. Definition.

which moves
given curve.

cylindrical surface is generated by a straight line, parallel to itself in space, and describes, with its extremity, a

The
curve

is

straight line which moves is called the Generatrix called the Directrix.
its

To

## find the equation to the surface, to the generatrix, in any one of

positions,

be

or

a
b

y=j3z +
Now,

the generatrix, in its movement, always moving parallel to itself; the quantities and [3 remain the same for every position of the generatrix ; but the quantities a and 6, which are the co-ordinates of the point where the generatrix meets the plane of x y, are constant for the same position of the generatrix, but vary when the generatrix passes from one Thus, when any point on the surface changes its position to another.
position without quitting the generatrix, a and 6 are both constant ; and when the point moves from one position of the generatrix to another, a and 6 are both variable ; hence these two quantities, being constant together, and variable together, must be dependent on each other in some way or another; which general dependence is expressed by saying that one of them is a function of the other

246

ON CYLINDRICAL SURFACES.
/.

<J)

(a)

or,

## putting for b and a their values as above,

we have
oc

y
which
is

/3

(x

),

the general equation to cylindrical surfaces. 504. The form of the function will depend upon the nature of the directrix in any particular case.

## Let the equations

to the directrix

be

F
Then

(X, Y, Z,) ,)
,)

= =

01

0/

as the generatrix must in all its positions meet the directrix, the equations to this curve and to the generatrix must exist simultaneously for the points of intersection ; thus having four equations we may eliminate a,*, y, 2, and arrive at an equation between er, 6, and constant quantities, which will determine the form of the function <j>. Substituting in this equation for a and b their values x a z, y flz, we have the actual equation to the particular cylinder required. 505. Ex. 1. Let the directrix be the circle B Q C, in the plane of x y, and let x l and y be the co-ordinates of its centre ; then the equations to the directrix are
l

## E, be various positions of the generatrix whose

general equation
is

Let

Z = B D, Q R, C

r2 l

YZftttfa
to express that the generatrix meets

.'.

must

exist together

Z= X =
-

=
=
a

we have
(b

(a
Substituting in

xtf

y,Y

=
z

(3)

## determined. (3) the values of a and b from (2), we have

^>

is

(x

- *z-

xtf

(y

ft

y,)

r*

This

the equation to an oblique cylinder, with circular base, situated in the plane of x y. 506. Let the centre of the circle be at the origin,
is
.*.

And

if

r ft z? (y the origin be at the extremity of a diameter parallel to the axis of x, 8 2 r (x - <* *) ft z) (x - a *)' (y
/.
(,r

:=

a z?

and y

## 507. Let the axis of the cylinder be parallel to the axis of *

then a and

ft

ON CYLINDRICAL SURFACES.
-

'247

the angles which the projection each 0, since they are the tangents of of the generatrix on x z and y z make with A Z ; 1
/.

and

if

## the axis coincide with

Cr-j^'+Cy-yi) ^? A Z, x* H~ y' = r z
2

in these cases the cylinder is called a right cylinder, same as that of the directrix.

and

its

equation

is

the

tf

z,

## the equation to the right cylinder will be

*

r\
t

508. Let the directrix be a parabola on a- y vertex at the origin, and ajds coincident with the axis of x. Then the equations to the directrix arid generatrix are

Y Z

= pXl

=0

az + =/3* +

fll

p. -

6/

## therefore at the points of junction

we have
z
a?

X= = Y=2/ =
then by substituting in (I)
.-.

Z =

=
a
6;

we have
b*

- |3 *) a *) p (,r (y which is the equation to an oblique parabolic cylinder, whose base is on xy. 509. Let the directrix be a parabola on x z, axis A X, and vertex at A and let the generatrix be parallel to the plane x y.
;

= pa =

The equations

are

p Y^O/
Then

Z*

X)

z-b
is

+ *x =
See
article (499).

## the equation to the surface

#.

is 510. Definition. the movement of a straight line, which passes constantly through a given point, and also describes a given curve.

## ON CONICAL SURFACES. A conical surface generated by

The given point is called the centre of the surface, the straight line which moves is called the generatrix, and the given curve is called the directrix.
Let
,

&, c,

## then the equations to the

generatrix are

x y

a
6

= =

a
/3

(z

c)
c).

Now when a point on the surface changes its position without quitting the generatrix, the quantities a, /3 are constant, but when the point passes from one generatrix to another, they are both variable ; hence being constant together, and variable together, they are functions of one another ; /. j3 (a), or substituting their equals,

y
jr

b
c

fx
1

a\
~
)

which

is

## the general equation

to conical surfaces

248

ON CONICAL SURFACES.

511. The form of the function \$ will depend upon the nature of the any particular case. By combining the equations to the generatrix and directrix we may, as for cylindrical surfaces, eliminate <*, y, z, in a particular case, and thus arrive at an equation between a and /3, which will determine the form of
directrix in

the function

^>.

we

z c z obtain the actual equation to the particular conical surface. 512. Ex. Let the directrix be a circle B Q C in the plane of x y. The equations to this directrix are

x
/3

a
an(j

~
c

their values

(X - xtf

(Y

y,)

And
point

E, or

Q E

## passing through the

E
x
y

(0, 6,

c), are

a
b

= =

a (2
13

(z

c)

cj

W
,~v

To express
circle,

the

that the generatrix meets the equations (1) and (2) must

coexist.
/.

Z=

z
,r

X=
ft

hence by substitution
(a Putting for

in (1)

we have

- jc^

(6

- yj* = H

(3)

a and

their values

## from (2) and reducing

This

is the equation to an oblique cone with a circular base situated plane of x y. o and y l o Lei the centre of the circle be at the origin .*. x l

in

the

/.

(a z

X?

(6 z

- cyY

r 2 (z

c)
.'.

513. Let the axis of the cone be parallel to the axis of z becomes 3h, and the general equation

=x

and

>-*\
z
Iii this

-c

J
circle,

case the cone is called a right cone. Also, if in this case the origin be at the centre of the o and 6 0,

we have

5 1 4. Directrix an ellipse on x y, whose centre is the origin, and the centre of the cone in the axis of*; then the equation to the cone is

y>

(,-

ON CONICAL SURFACES.
or putting
z,

249

for

c that

is,

## measuring from the centre of the cone

simple case, the equation to the surface is easily found by the (468). Taking the figure in that article, and supposing every section, like P Q, to be an ellipse, whose axes #! and y t are always proportional to the axes a and b of an ellipse whose centre is in A Z, and
this

In

method

in article

at a distance c

## from A, we have the equation

to

PQ

.*+-^ + yS
~

but

y,

=
*

#!,

and

^
c8

a
zs
e
z

a
axis of

~~

'

515. Let the directrix be a parabola parallel to x y, and vertex in the The equations to the directrix and generatrix are z.
.

Z =
at the points

*y

d
we have

&

= =

(*fi

(z

c)l

e)f

of junction

## = z= d X = o?~a-f-cr(c/ c) Y = 2/=& + 0(d-c)

Z
hence the
final

equation

is

516. Let the vertex or centre of the cone be at the origin .'. a = 6 c o, and the equation to a cone whose directrix is { y* = p xt z d } and whose vertex is at the origin, is d y* = p x z. 517. The following method of finding the equation to a right cone whose

= =

vertex

is at the origin, is sometimes useful. Let the length of the axis of the cone be k, and suppose this axis to pass through the origin, and be perpendicular to a given plane or base whose equation therefore will be of the form

where

a,

/6,

## k makes with the

axis

of,r, y,

andz

(410).

Also suppose x t y, and z to be the co-ordinates of a point on the circumand let Q be the angle which the generatrix of the cone makes with its axis, then by the property of the right-angle triangle we have the equation
ference of this base,

= ^ G* + f +
2

**) cos.

Hence by equating
(a X

the values of
ft

## k we have the equation,

y z?

(*

+ f -f

z 2 ) (cos. 0)8

250

ON CON01DAL SURFACES.
this is the

equation to any point in the surface, since a, /3, y remain for a plane parallel to the base and passing through any point (JT y 2) of the surface. If the axis of the cone coincides with the axis of z, we have a o ft
the

And

same

and

y=l;

z~

= =

(x*

z*) (cos. 0)

518. To find the curve of intersection of a plane and an oblique cone, we may suppose the cutting plane to pass through the origin of co-ordi-

## nates without detracting from the generality of the result.

Substituting

for x, y, z, in the equation, their values in 455, we readily find that the sections are lines of the second order and their varieties.

ON CONOIDAL SURFACES.
surface is generated by the movement of a straight line constantly parallel to a plane, one extremity of the line moving along a given straight line, the other describing a given curve.

519. Definition.

A conoidal

We

shall

## commence with a simple

let

case.

the generatrix be parallel to the plane of equations to the generatrix in any one position are
directrix,

and

## Let the axis of z be one x y: then the

a x
b

Now

a point moves on the surface without quitting the generatrix, a and 6 are both constant, but when it passes from one position of the generatrix to another a and 6 are both variable ; hence these quantities, being constant together and variable together, are functions of
it is

evident that

when

one another.
.*.6

## (a) or substituting their values.

which
520.

is

The form
directrix.

the general equation to all conoidal surfaces. of the function ^ will depend upon the nature of the

second

By combining
we must
--, and

## may, as before, eliminate

the equations to the generatrix and this directrix, we , x, y, z, and arrive at an equation between b and

we

## shall obtain the equation to the particular conoidal surface.

in the axis

521. Let the second directrix be a circle parallel to y *, and the centre of X, therefore the equations to this directrix are

Z*

Y* ==

X =

(1)
(

## Then where this directrix meets generatrix we have

the

Z= * =6 X =x = a Y =: y = a a

^MKSI

'

'

ON CONOIDAL SURFACES.
Hence
the required equation
*
is

251

a8

8 /05 r

This surface partaking of the form and generation of both the cone and the wedge, was called the cono-cuneus by Wallis, who investigated many of its properties, If the axis of ,rbe one directrix, and the other be a circle parallel to x z,

## and the generatrix be

parallel to

z,

the equation

is

let

522. Let the axis of z be one directrix, any straight line the other, and the generatrix move parallel to x y.

Then

## the equations to the second directrix are

X = pZ + m Y s= v Z + n
Also the equations to the generatrix being the points of junction

x, z

b,

we have

at

Z = Y=

z = 6 y= v b +

=
.'.

p.

b -f-

m
fJ-

(v z

n)

in
o.

or

v z x

pzy-{-nx

my

523. Let the axis of z be one directrix, and let the second directrix be the thread of a screw whose axis is coincident with the axis of z. The thread of a screw, or the curve called the helix, is formed by a thread wrapped round the surface of a right cylinder, so as always to make the same angle with the axis; or if the base of a right-angled triangle coincide with the base of the cylinder, and the triangle be wrapped round the cylinder, the hypothenuse will form the helix A P. To find the equations to the helix, Let the centre of the cylindrical base be the origin of rectangular axes. a. C z and the radius of the cylinder #, Q y,

M=
A

PQ =

Then P Q

## to Q ; namely, that of the altitude to the base of the describing triangle

:.

and
is

PQ = eAQ A Q is a circular
:

arc

whose sine ~

y and radius a
.'.

==.

sin.

or z

e
j?

V a x
1

cos.

also

a aa

252

ON CONOIDAL SURFACES.

## line subject to the conditions that

described by a be parallel to the base of the cylinder, that it passes through the axis, and that it follows the course of the helix. The equations to the directrix (if c be the interval between two threads)
it

And these are the equations to the projections of the helix. To return to the problem, which is to find the surface

are
z

sin.

y a

And

y
'.

=
y

oc

x, z

we have

= v* -

y"

a a

z

is

ea

y
sin.

-f-

This surface

is

## the under side of

many

spiral staircases.

524. straight line passes through two straight lines whose equations b ; and x a lt z are x 61 ; and also through a given #, y curve z /(y) in the plane of z y ; to find the equation to the surface traced out by the straight line. The three directrices are

= =

Y
And
let

Z
y Q

= 6j'
ft

X=

## the equations to the generatrix be a x x

= =

+ m + n
if

and consequently y

+ p,

ft

m;
the following
^

Then

we have
-,

equations
b

Q = -Z-a+p,

m m __=/(-_ /J+)
these equations,

We must now
generatrix.

eliminate a, 6,

m, n from

and

that to the

By
y

subtraction
6

we have
a)
;

(x

(z

6,)

.".

=
bx- ay.
or

a-

m/3_
a

or

(y--y8z)-j6 a
is

(x-z) _
q t z __ ai ~ a
t

<xy

px
a

__

ft

x_

Hence

## the final equation

6, ,

x
*

/ 6 j(b f\

x
x

ay\ ay
a

ON CONOIDAL SURFACES.
525.

253

The following problem is easily solved in the same manner. find the equation to a surface formed by a straight line moving in two given curves parallel to the plane of x 2, and having its extremities

To
z

= / (y)

on

z y,
is

and x

^ (y) on x y.

The equation

TT^

/(</) 526. In questions of this kind some care is requisite in selecting the position of the axes and co-ordinate planes, so that the equations, both those given and those to be found, may present themselves in the simto find the surface formed by the motion of For example, plest form. a straight line constantly passing through three other given straight lines; Take three lines parallel to the given lines for the axes of co-ordinates ; then the equations to the three directrices are

X=

Z=
+

a.)

0J

Z +

8*.

and

-- a a
-f
b.

Then

:

we have
c3

the following

equations

&!

=
;

at

cs

68

(3

We

a

a, 6, a, /3

## from these three equations and that to

the generatrix

by subtraction (x

we have
a%

y -

6j

=
-

oO

= =

a (z -

c8)

63

(2

ca)

hence, eliminating a and /6, we have the required equation - c.) cs) 68) (3 6) (z (x ,) (y (j? ,) (y which is of the second order, since the term x y z disappears. Hymers's Anal. Geom. p. 23, Cambridge, 1830.

See

CHAPTER

IX.

## ON CURVES OF DOUBLE CURVATURE.

curve of double curvature is one whose generating perpetually changing not only the direction of its motion, as in plane curves, but also the plane in which it moves. If a circle be described on a flat sheet of paper, it is a plane curve ; let the sheet of paper be rolled into a cylindrical form, then the circle has two curvatures, that which it originally had, and that which it has acquired the flexion of the paper, hence in this situation it is called a curve of
527. Definition.
is

point

by

double curvature. 528. Curves of double curvature arise from the intersection of two surfaces ; for example, place one foot of a pair of compasses on a cylindrical surface, let the other in revolving constantly touch the surface, it will describe a curve of double curvature, which, though not a circle, has yet all

254
its

## ON CURVES OF DOUBLE CURVATURE.

The points at equal distances from the fixed foot of the compasses. is then part of a spherical surface, whose radius is equal to the distance between the feet of the compasses, and consequently is the inter-section of
curve
this sphere with the cylinder. 529. The equations to the two surfaces
fro

## taken together are the equations

their intersection,

## and consequently are the equations to the curve of

double curvature.

By the separate elimination of the variables in the two equations, we obtain the respective projections of the curve upon the co-ordinate planes. Two of these are sufficient to define the curve of double curvature ; for we may pass two cylinders through two projections of the curve, at right angles to each other, and to the co ordinate planes, the intersection of these This is analogous to the consideration of cylinders is the required curve. a straight line, being the intersection of two planes. proceed to examine curves of double curvature arising from the intersections of surfaces. 530. Let the curve arise from the intersection of a sphere and right cylinder; the origin of co-ordinates being at the centre of the sphere, the axis of the cylinder in the plane x z and parallel to the axis of z.

We

Let the distance between the centres of the sphere and cylinder r, then the equation to the sphere is X1 4- jy -f z 8 s= a8 and the equation 8 to the cylinder is (JP &*, (507.) e) if

## ON CURVES OF DOUBLE CURVATURE.

eliminating y t z*

255

as
z

-{- c
8

62
2

2 c x (1),
q: 2 c

eliminating

,r,

6
,r

^6

2
7/

(2).

Fiom

## (1) the projection of the curve on

is

is

whose vertex

C, where

AC
y

#2

_|..

C2

a portion of a parabola
8
.

BC
59

and

A B =r ^az
whose

^_ c

From

z consists of
z,

two

ovals,

positions are

## determined by the two extreme values of

Jo?
2

(b

c)

AE = +
As
c increases, that

^/a

(6

c)

is, as the cylinder further from A, decreases, and the ovals approach nearer to each other, as a in fig. (1) when c 6, that is, when

A
'

moves

AE

the

sphere but just encloses the cylinder E == 0, and the ovals meet, fig. (2). As c increases, we obtain fig. (3), which gradually approaches fig. (4) ; and lastly, when c a vanishes

r\

entirely.

Different values, as
:

c,

&c.,
offer

may be given
no

to b,

## and we may then

trace the projections they difficulty, investigation, as the complete examination of tates the comprehension of all others.

## but we recommend their one example greatly facili-

531. Ex. 2. right cone and a paraboloid of revolution have their vertices coincident, the axis of the cone being perpendicular to the axis of
the paraboloid.

The
boloid,

9 8 2 c 2*, (468) and that to the paraequation to the cone is x y 2 *2 = p x (469) ; hence the projection on x z is x* p x y

+
2

+
c

(1

ee)

which

is

P
8

(157).

256

## <? y* Again, ** hence the projection on x

x
is

A
an
ellipse,

(1

e )

^ = *p*is

*;

whose vertex

and axes

and -~

(103).
2

e **) p * ; -f-p y equation to the projection on y z is (y the equation to a Lemniscata, and becomes the Lemniscata ot Ber1, that is, when the cone is right-angled (314). nouiili, when e 532. To find the curve of intersection of two surfaces, we have eliminated the variables separately, and thus obtained the equations to the these last projections on the co-ordinate planes ; conversely, by combining so as to have an equaequations either by addition or multiplication, &c., tion between the three variables, we may obtain the surface on which the This surface does not at all curve of double curvature may be described. define the curve of double curvature ; since an infinite number of curves be traced on this individual surface, to all of which the general equathis
is

The

may

tion to the surface belongs. The results of the above combination are often interesting. For Let the curve be the intersection of a parabolic cylinder on :

ex-

ample

x y,

## and the centre of the

the axis of x.

circle

z, the origin being the vertex of the parabola, being in the axis of the parabola, which is also

Let y8
(.r

parabola 2 z9 a)
2

px

## be the equation to the

2 ap.
is

a +p, whose centre is at a distance A G X. Now, p is the subnormal C G to the point along P of the parabola, P C being the ordinate at C (242) ; hence all the points of the curve of double curvature are on the surface of a sphere whose centre is at the extremity of the subnormal of a point in the parabola, the ordinate of which point passes through the centre of the given circle. 533. The intersections of surfaces are not always curves of double curWe proceed, then, to show how vature, but often they are plane curves. plane curves may be detected, and their equations determined. Whenever we obtain a straight line for a projection, the curve cannot be one of double curvature. Ex. Let the curve be the intersection of two parabolic cylinders, whose

Which

## the equation to a sphere

measured from

equations are
x*

=
r

a z
straight
straight

by=x*.
Eliminating x, we have
line
;

ax, hence the projection on y z is a by and as no projection of a cun e of doublo curvature can be a

line, it

follows that the curve of intersection is a plane curve. 534. Aa;ain, If we can so combine the equations to the projections as to produce the general equation to a plane, the curve, which is necessarily For example: let the curve traced on that plane, is itself a plane curve.

arise

257

b

=
a

j?

+
for

c x.

## In the second equation, substituting a z

b

r we
2
,

obtain

x;

which equation belonging to a plane, the curve is a plane curve. 535. There is another and more general method of detecting plane curves. From the two equations to the surfaces eliminate one ot' the variables, as z, for example, we obtain an equation F (x, y) 0. Now, if the curve be plane, it may arise from the intersection of either m x -f- n y -\- p of the surfaces with a plane whose equation is z eliminate z between this equation to the plane and that to one of the surfaces, the result is/* (cT,t/) =r 0, which must be identical with F {x, y) ;

0, with /(#, y} 0, we may obtain y) various equations to determine m, ft, and jo; which values of m, 71, and /? must satisfy all the equations in which these quantities appear; if not, the curve is one of double curvature. For example ; take the intersection of a sphere and cylinder, art. 530.

therefore,

comparing F

(x,

The equation

to the

## 2 Sphere is x Cylinder (r Plane z

-f-

=mx =

- c) 2

+
-f
-f-

z*

= =6

(1)
2

n y

+p

(2) (3)

Eliminating z between (1) and (3), we have/(,c, y) a 2 n r y + 2 m p x + 2 npy + p*-a* (7n +l) a* + (n 4-l) y*+2 (4) from the co-efficients of 0, n Comparing (2) and (4), we have

m=

x 2 and y'2 but the condition of ra destroys the coefficient of a? in (4) ; and thereby shows that (4) cannot be made identical with (2). The curve
;

is

therefore a curve of double curvature. But let the equation to the cylinder be

.r

and n

-f-

8 z y =r 6

then
is

m
is

==

is

a plane
clear,

a?

69

this

536.

To

## find the curve represented

by the equations
z

These equations, taken separately, belong to two one with the base in x z, and the other in y linders
;

z.

is

centre being at

## the hyperbola on x z, its is the ; hyper-

TU
or

bola on

z,

its

centre being at B.

a
Also,

=
O

b
,

b
x.

the projection of the intersecabove cylinders on x y is a Q, and therefore the straight line curve is a plane curve, situated in the plane Z Q, perpendicular to x y
tion of the

Hence

258

## ON CURVES OF DOUBLE CURVATURE.

537. As we cannot have a very clear notion of the curve itself, merely from the idea of the two hyperbolic cylinders, we shall find the equation to the O Q ; that is, in its own plane. curve in the plane Let P be any point in the curve O z. #, Q y, P Q Then, in order to find the relation between O Q (= u) and Q P (=. z),

M=

we

OM

and

ON

in

in the

given

/.

=r
0,

tan.

(if

=
sin. 0.

tan. 0),

M = O Q cos.
X
1

and
1

ON

=OQ
U
COS.

Hence

the equation

=
Z

becomes becomes

## and the equation

-- -- = z
j

sin.

-\

-- =
z

1.

Since b a tan. 0, or b cos. 6 a sin. 0, these two equations are the game, and either of them belongs to the required curve ; hence the curve is an hyperbola, whose equation referred to its centre is

cos.

=.-. 9
sin.

(209)

538.

To

Let/<>, y)
be two of
its

0,

and< (x *)

0,

projections.

## Upon x y trace the curve whose equation is j (<r, y)

APQ

R,

0.

Y,
obtain a corresponding value Pofy ; from 0, we can also obtain a corresponding value of z. From P (<r, z) of z ; then S is a draw P S perpendicular to x y, and equal to this value point in the curve. By repeating this process we may obtain any number of points S T U, &c., in the curve.

For any

value of x, as

M, we

It is evident, that if any value given to x or y renders z imaginary, no part of the curve can be constructed corresponding to such values of* or y. Also, that if z be negative, P S must be drawn below the plane x y.

Let the curve arise from the intersection of a parabolic 539. Ex. 1. to cylinder on x y, and a circular cylinder on y z, the axes perpendicular each other ; and the vertex of the parabola together with the centre of the circle at the origin of co-ordinates.

## ON CURVES OF DOUBLE CURVATURE.

Z

259

Let y 2

=
.*.

a x be the equation

to the parabola
circle

DA D

D',

2 * y -f z

Let

A B ~

a x

~
a,

E B,
%.

a2

is

a parabola on x
let

a,

A C

and

the ordinate

r= a.

To

we have
*

## the three equations on the co-ordinate planes,

If

j?

= *= y = r= 0, y = 0, and 2 =
,

cc,

.*.

## the curve passes through

;

as x in-

creases,

y increases, and z diminishes When x = y == a, and 2 = 0, therefore the curve decreases in altitude from B down to meet the parabola in D. This gives the dotted branch BD.
a,

is

;

But

since z

it

\/ a

(a

x) there
;

is

## to every value of and opposite to B'.

x between o and a hence there is another branch, equal B D, but below the plane x y. This is represented by
is
is

Again, since when y is negative, the values of z do not change, there another arc, B D' B', represented by the double dotted line, which
exactly similar to

B D

B'.
is

D'

## figure something like cide with the cylinder.

r composed of four parts, B D, D B', B D , and and described upon the surface of the paraD A D'. These branches form altogether a that of an ellipse, of which the plane is bent to coin-

a 2 , be the 540. Ex. 2. Let the circle, whose equation is x* -f- y* projection of the curve of double curvature on x y ; and the curve, of which 8 the equation is a 2 i/ 2 ^= a 2 z* * 2 , be the projection on y z t to trace z/ the cu-rve.

S 2

I,

Let B

4

circle

=a

## a8 on * y whose equation is .r2 + y* 2 2 a2 y2 = a 2 2 2 the equation on y

,

then
* is

a:

a2

a*.

=
=

and y

C If or a, z 0, y infinity, therefore the vertical line C L through an asymptote to the curve. Asx increases, y decreases, and z decreases, therefore the curve approaches the plane of x y. Ifx o, a, y o, * therefore the curve passes through B. If x is greater than a, y and 2 are each impossible, therefore no part of the curve is beyond B for any value of y there are two of 2, therefore for the values of y in the quadrant A C B, there are two equal and opposite branches, L B, B L'.
is

B A C';

B, B K/, for the quadrant Similarly there are two other equal branches, and as the same values of y and z recur for x negative, there are

four other branches equal and opposite to those already drawn, which correspond to the semicircle C B' C', and which proceed from B'. These two examples are taken from Clairaut's Treatise on Curves of Double Curvature ; a work containing numerous examples and many excellent remarks on this subject.

## USEFUL BOOKS ON THIS BRANCH OF SCIENCE.

AGNESI.
BIOT.

Analytical Institutions.

Trans.

London, 1801.
Paris, 1813.
Paris, 1810.

BOURCHARLAT.
BOURDON.
CLAIRAUT.

## Theorie des Courbes et des Surfaces.

Application de i'Algebre a la Geometric. Paris, 1825. Recherches sur les Courbes i double Courbure. Paris, 1731.
Introduction a 1'Analyse des Lignes Courbes.

CRAMER.
GARNIER.

FRANCCEUR.

Trans.

## Geneve, 1750. Cambridge, 1830.

Geometric Analytique.

Paris, 1813.

Usage de 1'Analyse de Descartes. Paris, 1740. HAMILTON. Principles of Analytical Geometry. Cambridge, 1826.
GUA.

HAMILTON.

HYMERS.
LACROIX.

Treatise on Analytical

Analytical System of Conic Sections. Cambridge, 1830. Geometry of three Dimensions. Cambridge, 1830.
Paris, 1810.

## Traite Elementaire de Trigonometric, &c.

LARDNER.

System of Algebraical Geometry. London, 1823. LEFEBVRE DE FOURCY. Lemons de Ge'ometrie Analytique. Paris, 1827.

MONGE.

## Application de 1'Analyse & la Geom6trie.

Paris, 1809.
tertii

NEWTON.
PEACOCK.
PUISSANT.

Arithmetica

Universalis.

Enumeratio linearum

ordinis.

Vol.

Horsley, ed.

London, 1779. Examples on the Differential and Integral Calculus. Recueil de Propositions de Geometric. Paris, 1824.
Traite d' Application de I'Algebre Lineae
tertii
\$.

Cambridge, 1820.

REYNAUD.
STIRLING.

la

Geometric.

Paris, 1819.

ordinis Newtonianae.

London, 1717.

The Elements
YOUNG.

of Curves.

Oxford, 1828.

London,

830.

## Cambridge Philosophical Transactions.

Encyclopaedia Metropqlitana ; arts. Conic Sections
;

Analytical Geometry.

## Annales des Mathematiques, par J. D. GERGONNE. Journal de PEcole Polytechnique.

Nismes.

Correspondance sur PEcole Polytechnique. Journal fur die reine und angewandte Mathematic, von A. L. CKELLK.

Berlin.

ERRATA.
=
y'

Page

7, line 1, read

Let

\Ts

= V2 +
*

1.

In the

CD
40
2,

unit,

then

A B, B C, AD =

and

=
r*
y'

Vl +

r*

40

3, for

110.... 24,

for e

6
.

c.

tan.

.

.

V
o

V
o

114.
123.

## .18, for conjugate read semi-conjugate.

.30, for a/

+ m S = P, read a/ + m = S P.
column
7, insert c.
a,

read 3 a 2 .

Ix

cos.

l\x

+ cos. /y

cos.

l\

y.

## 2 17, line 13, for (2) read (1).

221, line 27, read cos. 6

=(y

247, line
3,
. .

(x

- *0 +

yi)

=r

and
249, line
1.

if

## the axis coincide with

A Z, x* + y* = r, *
c.

= 0;

for r

and

Art. 352.

=a

Art. 353

=x
B

Art.

353

the

letter

A Y.

Art. 355 y

~x

Art. 363.

The

USHA'sy

C.I

PASC