from
the estate
of
VERNON
R.
DAVIES
TREATISE
ALGEBRAICAL GEOMETRY.
BY THE
REV.
S.
W. WAUD,
M.A.,
F. AST.
S.,
NEW
EDITION.
LONDON:
EDWARD LAW,
(SUCCESSOR TO
ROBERT BALDWIN,)
CONTENTS.
PART
I.
CHAPTER
Aft
1.
I.
INTRODUCTION.
Page
2.
3.
4. 5.
6. 7.
by Algebra
.....
. .
2
3
General signification of an equation when referring to Geometry Particular cases where the equation refers to areas and surfaces
... ...
.
>
4
4 4
8.
Equations of the second and third order refer to some Geometrical Theorem The solution of an equation leads either to numerical calculations, or to Geometrical Constructions
.......
c2,
9.
10, 11.
The Geometrical
V 12 VI
.
12.
Method
13. If
any expression
ci
,
is
of the form
~~~~*~~
Va Va2
j
"I" ^>
^ c>
>
and must be
7
CHAPTER
II.
DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
4.
Geometrical Problems
terminate
:
may
classes,
an example of each
15.
16.
Rules which are generally useful in working Problems * To describe a square in a given triangle :fl
.
...
..
8 8
17.
to the points of
. .
18.
To
by the two
.
parts
i
may
.
be equal
to
a given square.
roots
a2
iv
Art.
19.
CONTENTS.
Page
Through a given
point
M
to
various solutions
20.
Through
the
same point
it
draw a
sum
two portions of
21.
To
a continued progression
.........
CHAPTER
III.
LINE.
.
13
Example
quantities
and
y.
Definition of a locus
.....
. .
. .
and Transcendental
.
.14
15
24.
25.
Some
The
Equations to a point,
s
a,
y=6;
or
(y6)
+ <>) =
to
Geometry
27. 28.
The
29.
To
...
.
15
the
position of points in
16
and examples
a
.17
18
two points
2
D8
(aa') +(66')
2 ')
to oblique
axes
cos.
.
D8
31. 33.
'/
The
19
.19
b
35.
The
loci of the
equations y
b,
and y
36.
Examples of
loci
20
21
first
order
22
22
is
J"i)
23
The
is
42.
To
of a given line
43. If
= etx\b y = ax + b
be a given straight
........ ...........
through a given
point,
and bisecting a
to
25
line parallel
it
is
25
44.
The
coordinates of the
intersection of two
given lines
y=ux\b, and
If a third line,
whose equation
is
a,
ff
6",
tersection, then
(y45. If t
tan. (I
'6)
 (*b.
"6)
lines
 /) =
eoe.(*/)s
+ ""'
26
CONTENTS.
Art.
v
Page
46.
The equation
to a lino,
line,
'
is*
'=nFr/
a.
*o
each other, we
27
have
1  a. a.'
+
0,
and y
'
b'
are perpendicular to
y =r
f
and y
f b'
.*'.
.27
6,
(aj
yj) on the
^^j,
A/l+
49.
!
.....
...
M
line y = a ^ +
23
The
length of the straight line drawn from a given point, and making a given angle with a given straight line, is
29
perpendiculars from the angles of a triangle on the opposite sides meet in . one point . . . . . , 51. If the straight line be referred to oblique axes, its equation is
50.
.
The
.29
30
=
sin. 6
sin. (
+
u
x +
b.
6}
.....
is
The tangent of
+
/3
(+)
+ a
cos.
u
is
The
sin.
(1
cos. u)
sin..
+

/K*
cos.
.)
*>
line is
(yi
*i
& ) si "2
<"
31
52. If
upon the sides of a triangle, as diagonals, parallelograms be described, having their sides parallel to two given lines, the other diagonals of the
parallelograms will intersect each other in the same point
.
.31
CHAPTER
IV.
The
.32
If the origin be changed, and the direction of coordinates remain the same, b a + Y, x y
= +
where x and y are the original coordinates, X and Y the new ones 55. If the axes be changed frcm oblique to others also oblique,
33
sin.
sin.
Ay
x
= {X
sin.
XA w4Ysin. YA u\
sin.
t/
Vl
Art.
CONTENTS.
Pa*e
=X
sin. 6
+Y
sin. f,
34
f>8.
...
between
34
60.
To
x and y,
into another
and
6.
=a
y
35
sm. a
x
62.
=b+r = a + r cos.
sin.
J
(
6,
6.
35
To
express r
4
f
and
in
terms of x and
(y
y,
tan.
i 1
6)
"
. .
r 2 =r (x
a)
+
V
(y
6)
2 (#
fl)
(y
6) cos. u.
.35
at the origin,
= tan. 
= sin"
r2
 =cos. ~
x
'
=*
CHAPTER
V.
ON THE CIRCLE.
64, 65.
Let a and b be the coordinates of the centre, and r the radius, then the
equation to the circle referred to rectangular axes a )2 r* (x (y 6)2
is
generally
37
If the origin
If the origin
is
at the centre,
y
is
+* =r
is
the axis of x,
= 2rx  x*.
.
.
66. 67.
68. Exceptions,
.38 .39
is
69.
The
(*>
 a) = r8
The tangent
y
s
....
A
straight line cannot
.
.
39
33
6, is
y
71.
= ax
r */
49
To
and a
circle.
points
.40
CONTENTS.
Art.
vii
(y
 *)
+ (*
 a) + 2 (y is
ft)
(x
Examples,
73, 74.
The
The
...
a) cos.
Page
=r
40
or w 2
{6
sin. 6
a cos.
4}
r = 0, + a +6
2 2
r2
0.
.41
CHAPTER
VI.
The Locus
4a
of the equation
oy
+ bxy +
. .
ca; 2
+ rfy +
. .
<?#
.
+/=
.
0,
depends
.
on the value of 6 2
76. 6 2
c negative
;
4 a c.
the Locus
is
.42
x
an
4
real
c)
xz
4 a
/=
+ 2 (6 d
2a
e)
+
43
are real
and unequal,
is
Examples
77. b*
4ac
real
positive;
the
Locus
;
an Hyperbola if #1 and xz are real and but consists of two straight lines if x\ and x^ are
. . .
and equal.
78.
62
4ac
.....
2a
e is real
;
46
is
a Parabola
when
bd
but
if
bd
2ae
straight line, or
or negative
.
is
the locus consists of two parallel straight lines, or of one 2 4 af is positive, nothing, imaginary, according as rf
'
'
"
.
.
.48
.
.
.'
49
CHAPTER
VII.
a^ 2
The
+ bdy + ca/
1
+/'
=o
.50
centre,
ellipse
Zedbe
51
82. Disappearance of the
term
xy
angle
6,
determined by
tan. 2 6
84.
The reduced
equation
a'
is a'
= a 6c y"* + c'x'
c
...
52
+/'
rr 0, where
=1
'=
'
>v
54
viii
CONTENTS.
Page
Art.
54
. .
87, 88.
The
.55
57
.60
.61
61
an angle
6,
where tan. 24
b
.
93.
91.
The
. coefficient of ar* or y* disappears Transferring the origin reduces the equation to one of the forms,
,,Y'
e'.r"
0,
orcV'r d'y"
=0
.
62
.
.
63
95, 97.
98.
The preceding
articles
when
.
'
a parabola
.63 .63
CHAPTER
100.
VIII.
THB ELLIPSE.
The
.....
is
'
66 67
101, 102.
103. 104.
Symmetry
sq.
its
axes
The The
. A' ; : sq. on B C I sq. on A C . the rectangle A M, ordinate of the Ellipse has to the ordinate of the circumscribing circle the constant ratio of the axis ninor to the axis major . .
on
MP
68
68
106.
A third SP =
To
The The The
is
Rectum
69
106108.
The Focus;
a f er,
The
109.
110.
rectangle
HP = a
points
111.
1
constant
..........
sum
2 is
A S,  ex; SP
S A'
= sq. on B C + HP = A A'
x a?
is
;
69
.
70
70
.
13. 14.
a*y y'
+6
a* 6s
71
when the
curve
72
CT, C M
=r the square on
circle
AC
.
consequently
and circumscribing
..'
.
C T is
.
.
the same
73
.
.
115.
1 1
6.
117.
rectangle
C M,
73
tangents at the two extremities of a diameter are parallel equation to the tangent at the extremity of the Latus Rectum
.73
is
8.
directrix.
The
distances of any point from the focus and from the direc'.
trix are in
119.
The length
.....
b*r
.74
i.+^*'.
a
 e*>T^=~r'
The rectangleS y,
120.
Hz = the square on BC
The
121.
..... .....
.
.
75 75
SPT =
= tan. II P Z.
Definition of Foci
78
CONTENTS.
Art.
ix
Page
122.
ab
125. If
126.
CE
is
drawn
to
meeting
H P in
E, then
"
PE
A.
78
The equation
the normal
=*y'
;
/"
127.
CG
zre2 ^; CG'
= 
MG= 
x'
PG =
The
rectangle
P G, P Gf
= the rectangle S P, H P
;
.79
79
130. All the diameters of the ellipse pass through the centre
y =. K.X
131.
<?,
a2 y
+ b*x =
0, are the
There
is
an
infinite
a
62
2
.
.....
; .
.
,80
.
*,&,*
134.
2
fli
81
+i = a + 6
2
(&'
6)
:
= ab
136. 137.
sq.
on
QV
.........
.
/.
V".
I
.82
82
83
the rectangle
P V, VP'
: I
sq.
on
CD
sq.
on
CP
is
ellipse
^'
&i
**'
= flW
....
. .
84
138.
being referred to its axes, the tangent diameter the two equations are,
ellipse
:
is
a 2 y y'
a*
\~
b2
x x'
i2,
y y'
\
b z x x'
0,
139.
140.
The The
square upon
..... .....
y
.
.
.84
85
141, 142.
The product of the tangents of the angles which a pair of supplemental chords makes with the axis major is constant,
=143.
The tangent
,AR.V= a*b*
.
86
.87
87
The equation
y
146.
ar
2
1
The
147.
The
=
1
"*
~ e *)
e 2 (cos. 6)*
+ u cos.
..... = ......
,
2
O)
a a 6a
87
88
x
Art.
CONTENTS.
148.
The
= ^^
I
C COS. r
149.
The
2 a (1
1
e 2 ) cos. 6
e
75(^cos. e)
151 152.
rr
(r
+ O,
nd r
+ =
r'
CHAPTER
IX.
THB HYPERBOLA.
153, 154.
The
is,
Py*Q*=l;
1557. Discussion of the equation
:
or
ay*
&***=**
sq.
...
sq.
90
The
158.
sq.
on
MP
rectangle
A M,
MA'.*:
on
BC
on
AC
91
The
y
159.
 x2 =  a2
The
6 2 into
6
160.
1613.
conjugate axes The focus ; the eccentricity: the square on The rectangle A S, S A'
........... ........
is
.....
92
by changing
92
92
164.
165.
SP
To
points
constant
to the
........
is
..... ....
.
.
93 93
16
1.
The equation
tangent
a*yyi
167.
1
b*xx'= .
a2 62
.
....
.
93
94
68.
is
a.
The
169.
distances of any point from the focus and from the directrix are in a
.
.
constant ratio
.....
sq.
94
The
The
170.
171.
rectangle
S y,
Hz =
on
BC
'
.
' .
.
'
95
The
locus of y
is
;'
.96
,
SPT = cy
96
172.
The
ab
CONTENTS.
Art.
x,
174. If
CE
The
1757.
H P in E, then P E=A C
Page
98
V
a
The
178, 9.
rectangle
P G, PG'
= the rectangle S P, H P
is
,
93
The
all
meet
98
the curve
180,
1.
line,
whose tangent
...
.
.
There
is
an
infinite
f =r
or
is
.
99
182.
The
b?
=
(/
a2
6}
I
b*
61 sin.
= ab
a2
187.
The sq. on Q V the rectangle P V, VP' The conjugate diameter is parallel to the
...... .........
:
.100
100
101
'.
.*
.*
sq.
on
CD
sq.
on
CP
102
188.
tangent. a 2 6 2 the
The
equations are
"
a?yy'
b*xx'
189. If
PF
be drawn perpendicular on
......
'.
.
'.
102
102
D, then
190
2. If
a.
and
a.'
rr
1 03 . Conjugate diameters are parallel to sup. chords 193. There are no equal conjugate diameters in general. In the equilateral hyper. bola they are always equal to each other . . . 103 . .
plemental chords.
194
6.
The Asymptotes.
The equation
. . .
197.
The hyperbola
lineal
is
the only one of the Hues of the second order that has a recti
asymptote
..........
.
......
carvei
.
Curvi
104
105
198.
Method
of reducing an equation into a series containing inverse powers of a . variable. The asymptotes parallel to the axes
xy
3.2
jy*=rO
2
j
......
.
.105
106
its
centre
a2 y 2
a2 y2
the asymptotes
_ #2 _ _ a s 6  6 x2 =
2
he
the asymptote
107
90
.........
xz
;
107
107
xii
Art.
CONTENTS.
Page
.
204. Examples of tracing hyperbolas, and drawing the asymptotes . . 206. Reduction of the general equation of the second order to the
1US
ty
207.
= A*
a (tan.
f)
+6 tan. 4 + c=zO
V
2
,
To
209. Examples.
= a, the curve rectangular .110 to find the equation referred to rectangular axes, xy =
is
.
.....
.
......
.
. .
form
109
.110
and
212.
.112
From
the equation a 2 y2
4 2 o; 8
... .....
on the
U3
.114
213.
The
is
*.
214.
The
. . 114 . equal to each other and to the semiconjugate diameter 215. Given the conjugate diameters to find the asymptotes. If the asymptotes are . . . . .114 given, the conjugate to a diameter is given
216.
The equation
to the
CT'
217, 8.
= 2a/, CT = 2^;
rectangle
CTT'=
.
ab
115
The two
are equal.
The
S Q,
is
Q S'
= sq. on C D
cos. 6)
.115
.
219.
The
=.
a2 6 2
.
116
220.
The
The
= e*
1
"
^ ~
z
,
.
116
(cos. 6}
221.
a 0*
~^
.
e cos. 6
......
...
.
.
116
222.
rr'=r + r;
+ '=
116
223, 4.
The conjugate hyperbola. The locus of the extremity of the conjugate diameter is the conjugate hyperbola. The equation is
Vin
6 2 #2
=a
b*.
the forms
= 0*6*
or a
= **
'
117
CHAPTER
X.
THE PARABOLA.
225, 6.
2'27. 2'28.
The
and vertex
.
is
y
.
= px
. .
118
.118
The equation
vertex,
to the parabola
by putting
its
AS = m
.118
.119
229.
The
abscissa and
ordinate.
Rectum,
is
Rectum
CONTENTS.
Art
230.
231. 232.
xiii
To
The
....... = +
SP
Page
119
.120
120
The equation
tangent
is
....
233,
4.
The subtangent
M T = 2 A M, A y
y
......
+m
.
M P.
The tangent
at the vertex
120
is
235.
The equation
to the
.121
. .
236.
The
Directrix.
.
The
.
directrix are
.
equal
237.
'"""."'
'.
121
SP
238. 9.
The locus
of y is the axis
....
meets that
.
=Vm r
121
line
the directrix on
on the
directrix
122
focal distance
axis, tail.
SPT =
/'
.122
241.
The
is
yy'
242.
= /^(*x')
:
123
The subnormal
is equal to
V4mr * .., . SP, and PG number of diameters, all parallel to the axis to another of the same form referred 244. 5. Transformation of the equation . .. new origin and to new axes 4SP . is y*=j/x', the new parameter p> 246. The new
243.
SG =
123
l'J.3
infinite
to a
.124
.
equation
I2
given
248.
249.
..... = ...... =
when
the position of the
new
origin
and axes
125
.
4S
P
;
I2fi
'
......
;*.;;
..;,.
12(
a parameter meet at right angles in 250. Tangents drawn from the extremities of 12 6 . .. v (v . the directrix
'.';
251.
The
is
sin.
f)*=p (V
+ wcos.O)
.127
252.
The
pole,
(sm.
253.
The
254.
rS =
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XL
THE SECTIONS OF A CONE.
Art.
........
.
. .
.
Page
128
257
264. Discussion of the cases arising from various positions of the cutting
plane 265.
...........
means
of a string.
.
130
On
8.
267
The
elliptic
compasses.
Another method
2C9. Tracing the hyperbola by means of a string 270. Tracing the parabola by means of a string . 271 3. Description of the ellipse by points
134
..
.
.
.
.
134
.134
.
274
277
279.
the hyperbola by points. The rectangular hyperbola 135 To describe the parabola by points . ;' . . .136 From the position of the directrix and focus, and focal ratio, to find the equa6. Description of
8.
:
280.
From
The
parabola
281.
...........
is
^ + (le*)*2f;rO+e)=0
.137
137
r=
2 1+ecos.t
282
4. Practical
2856.
287
8.
Tangents
289
292.
An
section
........ ..........
.
.
.... ........
to the ellipse
.....
138
138
139 139
139
293. If through any point within or without a conic section two straight lines making a given angle be drawn to meet the curve, the rectangle contained by the segments of the one will be in a constant ratio to the rectangle contained by the segments of the other
.
;
140
.......
its
alternate
.
141
CHAPTER
XII.
A systematic examination
To
find a point
of
all
curves
is
impossible
line,
.,
142
296.
P without
a given straight
point from the extremities of the given line are in a given ratio
43
CONTENTS.
Art
xv
Page
to
two given
lines,
298.
between the feet of the perpendiculars is constant, to find the locus of P . given line moves between two given lines, to find the locus of a given
point in the
moving
line
''""'.
line,
143
299.
To
find a point
without a given
to
.
the extremities of the given line shall make one angle double of the other 300. Four problems producing loci of the second order, not worked . .
144
.145
.
301.
From the
extremities of the axis major of an ellipse, lines are drawn ends of an ordinate, to find the locus of their intersection .
find the locus of the centres of all the circles
to the
.
145
302.
To
line,
..... ......
drawn tangential
to a given
2
The
Cissoid of Diodes, y
2a
.
146
.;..,
147
149
x
x~)
305.
To
y = ^_(b
151
306.
307.
2a/"=
.
...
.152
.
308.
309.
To trace the locus of the equation y3 # 2 (2 a a?) To trace the locus of the equation ay 2 = a^ + mj?2 cubical parabola, ay z = x3 , . The cubical parabola, a s y = x3 . ..
.
:
152
+ nx +/>
.
The semi.
.153
.
.
'.
310.
311.
The
trident, y =
^^
ax
".
...
.
154
154
312. 3.
ary
+ a*y = n x f p
.155
,.
.
156
2 2 y )
a2
y ) (x*
2
r*
a2
cos.
24
.159
160
equation y
=bx
b*
a?
._
.161
two
. . given points shall be constant 318. To trace the locus of the equation y* \x z y z duction of a third variable . .
+ 2y +
3
.
.,.,'... =
a;8
P to
162
by
the intro
...
;
.163
319.
320.
To To
5 a
a:
+ =
a
.,.
.
.
164
165
The number
order
points
is
n.
^
2i
hence a curve
may
n.
167
section passing
.
324.
, through four given points . 326. If the sum of the indices of x and y be the same in every term, the
Example of a conic
168
loci are
. 1
69
327
170
xvi
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER
XIII.
Page
331. There
may
may
order
332. There
171
be
orders
exceptions
172
333. Method of drawing a curve to pass through the points of intersection, and
. . . .'"' . thereby to avoid elimination 334. Example. From a given point without an ellipse, to draw a tangent to
. Generally to any conic section To draw a normal to a parabola from any point 338. The construction of equations by means of curves
.172
it.
.
.....
. .
.
173
1
336
7.
74
.175
.
339.
To
+ py + qy* + ry\s=Q
3
.
by means of a
. .
circle
and parabola
76
340.
341.
342.
343.
344.
To construct the roots of the equation a4 + 8*3 + 23a:2 f32.r+16 The construction of equations of the third order. Examples To find two mean proportionals between two given lines . To find a cube double of a given cube To find any number of mean proportionals between two given lines
.
=
.
177
.177
.178
. .
179
179
.179
.180
CHAPTER XIV
TRANSCENDENTAL CURVES.
348,
9.
350.
351.
= a*
( e*
f<?*
........ ...
;
Mechanical curves
.181
181
.182
182
a"*.
x*>
.
y =.
The The
.
figure is in
the letter
.
B
.
A Y, where the
.
:
..""
.
354.
355.
The curve of sines, y = sin. x . . . J . The locus of the equation y x tan. x. The figure belongs The correct figure is given in the Errata .
..
'
192
.
183
356.
tan.
' . .
357. 8. 359.
= a vers.
^TaaT
~r*
..... .....
to Art. 352.
.
. .
.
184
184
185
The
y=a =at+ma
x=a
vers. 4
sin. 4)
.
107
360.
The
when
b
m
6
r=
(a
+ 6) cos.
{
mb mb
cos.
y =: (a
b) sin.
sin.
the Ilypocycloid
when m
=

1,
:=
ab
cos
b~
(a
i) sin. I
mb
4
sin.
!&
orr
J,
.
18
= 4a
3
(

=
.
190
191
362. Varieties of the Ilypotrochoid . 363. The involute of the circle ; the figure
is
not correct.
See Errata.
364.
366.
367.
=a
,
6
,
.
,
..
.
."
193
.
.
,
,...,..
"
194
".
.'
194
.
368.
9.
b) j
.
=a
.
fj a r
.
r2
.
=b
.
94 94
The Logarithmic
Spiral, r
=a
V
.
. ,
.
.195
.
a sin. 2f 372. Tracing a curve from its polar equation r 373. Investigating a question by means of polar coordinates
195
.196
xviii
CONTENTS.
PART
II.
CHAPTER
I.
INTRODUCTION.
Art.
Page
.
.
374.
The system of coordinates in one plane not sufficient for surfaces . 375. The position of a point referred to three coordinate planes 376. 7, 8. The projection of a straight line on a plane is a straight line.
the line,
its
197
197
If
A B he
.
projection
on a plane
or line is
AB
cos. 6
.198
379.
The The
projection of the diagonal of a parallelogram on a straight line is equal to 198 the sum of the projections of the two sides upon the same straight line
.
380.
cos. 6
.200
CHAPTER
II.
LINE.
The equations to a point,  c) x = a, y = b, z = c or (x  a) + (y &)* J (z 382, 3. The algebraical signs of the coordinates determined.
;
200
sponding
384.
385.
......
is
Equations corre201
Two
To
known
201
<P
= x* +
2
z*
201
386.
7.
which a straight line through the origin /3, y, be the three angles makes with the coordinate axis,
If u,
(cos.
d
388.
(cos.
/3
y)
1,
.
h Z COS. y.
202
The
&=
389.
Or
xtf
f (y
 yi ) 2 +
b
 *i) 8
o)
202
The
line,
x
392
396.
5.
a.
a,
b,
=
(x
203
b.
. .
To
Equations to the line corresponding to various values of a, G, a, find the point where a straight line meets the coordinate planes
204
205
CONTENTS.
Art.
xix
Page
398.
The
x
399.
ai
(z
*!),
yi
ft
(z
zj
(aj
205
y\ z\)
(a"2
The
y2 2a)>
400.
= az
V.
\.
a,
=
.
/3
\ b,
'
are
. .
.207
among
b}
the coefficients
(,'
),
is
('
/})
(b'
of intersection are
of
~ aT
_&IS ~
&'b
'*~''
__.a'
.
a!a
a!
'
207
a straight line
t
coordinate axes,
cos.
x=
The
cos.
ly
=
2
Iz
=
.
.
(cos. /a?)
1.
.,*'
207
403.
= cos. Ix
cos. /'a;
+ +
cos.
ly
cos. /'y
cos.
Iz
cos.
/'.z.
208
l=0
209
407.
To
line at right
angles
.....
#j),
?n
CHAPTER
III.
THE PLANE.
408.
The equation
or or
ar
or
a:
or mx + ny + pz = zzi =. + y cos. rfy + 2 cos. ds d, x sin. P + y sin. Py + z sin. P z =r cos. P, y z y cos. P, 2 + ^ cos. P, xy = d.
to a plane,
XX!
+ yyi +
rf ,
1,
cos.
dx
a?
rf,
f
a
21C
413.
coordinate planes,
"*
.
cos. P,
VW +
2
cos.
2
P, x z
+/>
V W + +P 2
2 2
cos. P,
yz
21 2
V7M a + 2+P8
*
..
414.
The
xx +yyi
l
zz l
0.
,.'>
212
V
.
212
The The
by
putting x, y, or z
=
\
0.
'
.213
mx
ny
\
p z
\, is
S i)=0.
213
b 2
xx
CONTENTS.
Pag.
419.
The
g z
l= ma ma.
1
ma CT .
nfl nft
+p
^
n b
and plane
a.
, '
= gz
fa,
214
421.
422.
To To
.215
and
.
parallel to
.
another
.215
.
4235
426.
To
three planes,
four planes
215
The
relation
among
plane
'
.=,0=.
P P
428.
V*
.216
to
The equation
given
line,
to a plane passing
through a given
point,
and perpendicular
429.
The
plane
**! = (*p
430.
*,)>
 yi =  O P
*0
v ,,*
217
The
Vm +
2
431.
To
origin,
433.
planes,
'_
=
cos.
= cos. P, yz
437.
cos. P',
+
I
P,
xz
cos.
F, xz
cos.
P,
xy
cos. P',
xy.
218
o Q
i
among
the coefficients
is,
___
straight line
and plane,
CHAPTER
IV.
The The
</
the same equations to the point remain distance of a point from the origin,
220
.*
2 +y*+z +2;ry
cos.
XY+2#
(xyz)
cos.
X Z +2y
cos.
Y Z.
cos.
220
440.
The
(*i y\ *i),
d= (* 2 (*
a:,)
(y
y,)*
*i) (*
*i) cos.
X Y.
.
.
2150
CONTENTS.
Art.
xx i
Page
441.
442. 443. 444.
The equations to the straight line remain The angle between two lines The equation to a plane
.
.
........ ...
the
same
220
221
.221
222
.
The
relation
.
among
.
the coefficients
plane
445.
.^ t.<
;i
f
.
straight line,
222
CHAPTER
V.
To
transform an equation referred to one origin to another, the axes remaining ~" ' '
'
parallel
.*
".'
'.'
;'
223
448.
To
transform the equation referred to rectangular axes to another also referred to rectangular axes
Y+w^Zj
m*
f
n2
1 \
1
I m m 2 +n
223
224
225
Hence
three
transformation from oblique to other oblique axes. . . 452. Another method of transformation from rectangular to rectangular axes, wz2 et% Z, m a. f mi ot,\ Y X
The
z
453.
=m X+
X (cos.
Y
mi
Y+
:
m%
Z.
^ ; v
:
!* tt't
c
.'
2 25
The
6 sin. 6
^
i
v//
sin.
sin.
<p
}
cos.
cos. p)
<$) <p)
<p)
+ Y (cos. y = X (cos.
f
cos.
<p
sin. ^ cos.
Z Z
sin. 6 sin.
tp,
4 sin.
cos. cos.
^
ip
cos. ^ sin.
(cos. 6 cos.
sin.
v/'
sin. 4 cos.
.
<p,
= X sin.
^ + Y
:
sin. ^ cos.
$ +
cos. 4
225
made by a plane
x
y
*
= X cos. + Y sin.
<p
<p
cos. i
X sin.
<p
f.
Y cos.
.
cos. 6
Ysin.0
.....
is
227
when
0,
perpendicular to the
plane of x z,
456.
= Y cos.
To
M, b, c to x, y,
z respectively
......,
y =.
...
xxii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
VI
Page
8.
457,
The equation
to
a surface
is
=
.
228 228
460
4.
The
X _ a ) + (y  6) 8 + or*2 f y 8 + 2 = r 2
to
= ......
2
c)
r,
229
465.
The
229
466.
a sphere,
(y
!
On a)
467.
 6) +
(z,
.
c) (z
c)
.
=r
2
,
=r
468.
469.
The equation to the sphere referred to oblique axes The equation to a right cone, a:2 + y2 = e 2 z 2 . The equation to the common paraboloid of revolution
....
.
.230
230
.230
x*+y*=pz
470.
.231
. .
The
+ y.f ~v
by
2
..
231
471.
The
*8
^
*2
=
6s
232
=:/(z)
.
.
.
.
.
.
232
4736.
by a plane
.232
CHAPTER
VII.
There
to
the central
form.
abc
cd*
=
if
.233
233
481. There
+ My
i
+ Nz =
'
234
.
483.
484.
The The
'.
235
Ellipsoid:
ff
+ 1! + ^1 =
:
236
486.
The Hyperboloid
of one sheet
^+^^ =
a* o*
c"
.....
1
.237
238
The Hyperboloid
of two sheets
a*
 1o*
^c*
.239
CONTENTS.
Art.
Page
.. .
240
The
general noncentral equation of the second order can be deprived of the terms xy, xz,yz; and then of three other terms ; so that its form becomes
'
w*
T=.
.
.
z2
240
24
494.
The
Elliptic Paraboloid
+
y=x
496.
=x
= Ix
{
vmay
.
241
498.
The
from those
equations to the Elliptic and Hyperbolic Paraboloids to the Ellipsoid and Hyperboloid .
ly.
be obtained
.
242
.
243
CHAPTER
VIII.
To
by the motion of a straight and passing through a given straight line a Plane
find the surface generated
;
.... ....
.
243
244
503.
The
y
505.
/J*
= 0(o:
z)
.....
xy
.
245
The
(x*zxtf + (yfizyif = i*
Or*,)
a
.246
246
507.
The
The
The
+ (yyi) = r,*=0
2
508.
equation to a cylinder,
whose base
(yfiz? = p(x*z)
510.
.......
is
.....
xy
a parabola on
247
^rJ*
z
512.
c
= *x z
c
^
c
2
247
The
xy
r*
.
.248
514.
5!
a2
516. 517.
^ +
*!
b*
= f! c
....
.
248
.
dy*
= px z
8
249
=*
*8
cos '<
249
519.
()
521.
250
The conocuneus
,2 z*
of Wullis
a2
..
s
250
522.
The
any straight
line another,
parallel to
xy
xxiv
Art.
CONTENTS.
The
avis of
523.
x one
directrix,
524.
straight line passes through two stfaight lines and a given curve, to find the
surface
...... ......
252
525.
A A
straight line, parallel to a given plane, passes through two given curves, to
..........
CHAPTER
IX.
253
.
026.
straight line passes through three given straight lines, to find the surface
253
The meaning of the term curve of double curvature The curve arising from the intersection of a sphere and cylinder The curve arising from the intersection of a cone and Paraboloid
....
.
.
may
be traced.
Example 256
.
533
536.
5.
To
find out
when the
256
To
by the equations
7+T=
538.
'>7
+7=
'
;
',
Examples
'
'
To
by
points.
ALGEBRAICAL GEOMETRY.
PART
I.
CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION.
1.
I.
THE
is
Theorems and Problems by means of Algebra. Soon after the introduction of algebra into Europe, many problems in plane geometry were solved by putting letters for straight lines, and
then working the questions algebraically this process, although of use, did not much extend the boundaries of geometry, for each problem, as heretofore, required its own peculiar \nethod of solution, and therefore could give but little aid towards the investigation of other questions. It is to Descartes that we owe the first general application of algebra to geometry, and, in consequence, the first real progress in modern mathematical knowledge; in the discussion of a problem of considerable antiquity, and which admitted of an infinite number of solutions, he employed two variable quantities x and y for certain unknown lines, and then showed that the resulting equation, involving both these quantities, belonged to a series of points of which these variable quantities were the coordinates, that is, belonged to a curve, the assemblage of all the solutions, and hence called ^ the Locus of the Equation." It is riot necessary to enter into further details here, much less to point out the immense advantages of the system thus founded. However, in the course of this work we shall have many opportunities of explaining the method of Descartes and we hope that the following pages will, in some degree, exhibit the advantages of his system.
;
;
2. In applying algebra to geometry, it is obvious that we must understand the sense in which algebraical symbols are used. In speaking of a yard or a foot, we have only an idea of these lengths by comparing them with some known length ; this known or standard The unit may be any length whatever: thus, if length is called a unit. it is an inch, a foot is considered as the sum of twelve of these units, and may therefore be represented by the number 12 ; if the unit is a yard, a mile may be represented by the number 1760. But any straight line B fig. (1) may be taken to represent the unit B an exact contains the line of length, and ifanother straight line C
number
(a) of times,
C C
D D
is
is
linear units,
INTRODUCTION.
In
fig.
(1)
A.
D=
Ji
3 times
B, or
CD
3.
n
If C D does not contain A B an exact number common measure E, fig (2) let, then, C D = A B = n E, then C D has to A B the same ratio
c
of times, they
times
may have
E, and
that
that
m
n
has to
n, or that
hence
mE CD=
has to
n E,
or
times
AB
=6.
fig.
In
(2)
C D =43
of
A B =
3
common measure, we must recur to considerations analogous to those upon which the theory of incommensurable quantities in arithmetic is founded. We cannot express a number like 2 by integers or fractions consisting of commensurable quantities, but we have a distinct idea of the magnitude expressed by 2, since we can at once tell whether it be greater or less than any proposed magnitude expressed by common quantities ; and we can use the symbol *J 2 in calculation, by means of reasoning founded on its being a limit to which we can approach, as nearly as we please, by
If the lines
A B
and
have no
common
quantities.
suppose E to be a line contained an exact number of times in A B, fig. (2), but not an exact number of times in C D, and take a whole number, such that m E is less than C D, and (ra f 1) E greater than C D. E and (m f 1) E will Then the smaller E is, the nearer be to C D; because the former falls short of, and the latter exceeds, C D, by a quantity less than E. Also E may be made as small as we please ; for if any line measure A B, its half, its quarter, and so on, ad wfinitwn, will measure A B. as a quantity which, Hence we may consider though not expressible precisely by means of any unit which is a measure
Now
CD
of
B,
may
commensurable with E, exactly as J 2 is a limit between quantities commensurable with unity. We conclude, then, that any line C D may be represented by some one
is
Hence C
be approached as nearly as
we
of the letters a, b, c, &c., these letters themselves being the representatives of numbers either integral, fractional, or incommensurable. 3. If upon the linear unit we describe a square, that figure is called the
fig. (1), be a rectangle, having the side C containing N, &c., and the side C (a) linear units C M, containing (6) linear units C O, P, &c., divide the rectangle into square units by drawing lines parallel to C through the points M, N, &c, and to through the points O, P, &c. Then in the there are (o) row
square units,
many rows
in the second row the same, and there are as as there are units in C E, therefore altogether there are (6 Xfl) contains (a 6) square units, or square units in the figure, that is,
OPRQ
CF
upper
COQD
CD
INTRODUCTION.
is
"
equal in magnitude to (a 6) square units ; suppressing the words square units," the rectangle C F is equal to a b. If C D 5 feet and C E 3 feet, the area C F contains 1 5 square
feet.
1VJ
INTRODUCTION
Algebraic expressions
homogeneous equations, a x
=
+ +
f
x*
x'
ax =r be ax9
box
=
+
def
defjc
ax* f hex*
=
&c
ghkl
x'" f
axm
~l
bcx'*~*
= pqrs
... to
terms.
In the
equations
first
;
linear units
place, each equation may be understood as referring to be put instead of the words * the linear units,' the thus, if
may be
written
x times
x9 times
(x*
L = a times L, L + ax times L,
or
(.r*f
ax) times
L =
be times L,
ghkl times L, and so on. The defx) times solution of each equation gives x times L in terms of (0, 6, c, . . ) times x are merely numbers, having L; and thus the letters a, 6, c, reference to lines, but not to figures. This will be equally true it' L is not expressed, but understood; and it is in this sense that we shall interpret all equations beyond those of the
ax*
box*
. .
.
L=
.
third order.
to represent The same reasoning would equally apply if we assumed the square or cubic unit, only it would lead to confusion in the algebraic representation of a line. 6. Again, these equations may, to a certain extent, have an additional
interpretation.
For if we consider the letters in each term to be the representatives of drawn perpendicular to each other, the second equation refers to areas, and then signifies that the sum of two particular rectangles is equal to a third rectangle the third equation refers to solid figures, and siglines
;
referring to areas to another referring to lines, without any violation of principle; for, considering the second equation as referring to areas, the rectangles can be exhibited in the form of squares ; and if the squares upon two lines be equal, the lines themselves are equal, or the equation is true for linear units. 7. It follows as a consequence of the additional interpretation, that every equation of the second and third order will refer to some geometrical theorem, respecting plane or solid figures; for example, the second 2 a (a x) is the representation of the equation, when in the form j; wellknown problem of the division of a line into extreme and mean
is
ratio.
By omitting the second and third terms of the third equation, and giving the values of 2, a, and a to d, e and/) respectively, we obtain the algebraic representation of the ancient problem of the duplication of the cube. 8. The solution of equations leads to various values of the unknown quantity, and there are then two methods of exhibiting these values ;
first,
by giving to a, 6, c, &c., their numerical values, and then performing any operation indicated by the algebraic symbols.
CONSTRUCTION OF QUANTITIES.
Thus,
if a = 4, b we may have x
5,
x
,r
We
This
6 times the linear unit. \/#c v36 can then draw the line corresponding to the particular value of x.
is the most practical method. Again, we may obtain the required line from the algebraical result, by means of geometrical theorems; this method is called the Construction of Quantities' it is often elegant, and is, moreover, useful to those who wish to obtain a complete knowledge of Algebraical Geometry.
* ;
Let x
=a+
b.
In the straight line A X, let A be the point from whence the value of x is to be measured
take then
/>
the value of x.
6,
AB = and B C AC = A B + BC =
,
6,
+
B
.*:
is
Let j?=r a
b, in
BA
take
D=
b
:
then
AD = AB
BD = ab.
Let x
ab
,
then x
la
c,
c
is a fourth proportional to the three given quantities c, 6, and a ; hence the line whose length is expressed by x,
is
and x
whose respective lengths are c, 6, and a. From A draw two lines A C D, ABE, forming any angle at A take A B c, B E a, and A C 6, join B C, and draw D E parallel B C ; then, A B A C : : B E C D, or c b a C D /.CD is the
=
:
: :
required value of x.
abc
Let x r=
de
similarly for
j?
construct,
=
or
be
,
and then x
abed
or
ay j
abc
r , or d*
ab*
=r,
i~
,
d*
cP
efg
Let x
then the
10.
abc
+
g/i
def
abc
1
def
$, construct
gh
gh
sum
of the terms.
Let x
=
=
In the straight line A B take A C 6 and C B upon A B describe a semicircle, from C draw C E perpendicular to A B, and
,
Jab
is
a mean proportional
meeting the
circle in
C and C B, (Euproportional to clid, vi. 13, or Geometry, ii. 51,) and therefore C E is the required value of x.
mean
E A
then
CE
is
CONSTRUCTION OF QUANTITIES.
The same
property of rightangled triangles
may
;
be advantageously emfor,
take
AC
6,
and
per
draw C
E perpendicular to AC
AE
;
and equal
.
to a, join
AE
and draw
EB
pendicular to
then
CB=
x9
Let x
tution
V/>
cd,
= ab +
=
cd
(b
ay by
substi
is equal to the sum of the This sum may be reduced to a single rectangle, and rectangles ab, cd. the rectangle converted into a square, the base of which is the required value of x. Euclid, i. 45, and ii. 14; or Geometry, i. 57, 58.
Again, x
line,
the square
Let
AB
= a,
x=
b*
frcm
pendicular to of x.
B draw B C ( A B AC is
;
Let x
D(=
Let x
v fl2
2
,
from
C draw AC, A D is
Ja*b*
=
+
b
is
and a
ft,
last figure
AB =
ft
a,
and
AE=
we have
BE
6
8
=
z
v
9
b*.
=
,r.
a8
f
c2
d8 }, find y
=
r
+
and
and
=

c'
*=\/
^r
find
o
.
cr
"8
>
22
68
aml
(i
then
ay a2
11. Of course the preceding methods will equally apply, when instead of the letters we have the original numbers, the linear unit being understood as usual.
Thus.r= Vl2
hence (see
last figure
\/3.4 is a mean proportional between 3 and 4; but one) take A C equal four times the unit, and C B
CE
is
the value of
or since
12
Vl6
V4 8
is
the hypothenuse
2 2 by constructing a rightangled triangle of which four times the linear unit, and one side twice that unit :
,
Similarly
the form
x=
VT=:
6
8
\/4~+ 4
c
2
.
22
8
,
which
is
of
Va f +
CONSTRUCTION OF QUANTITIES.
Let x
=
=
T
VJ3
\/2
f
1.
let
B,
0, and
C D
unit, then
AD
Let x
2
I
P.
then
is
the
hypothenuse of a rightangled
triangle,
is
Let x
V/'> 4
3
thi s
ma y
De constructed as the
last.
Let x =.
A/ ^
/
9
and so on
for all
finite
number can be decomposed into a series of numbers representing the squares upon lines. If the letter a be prefixed to any of the above quantities, it must be introduced under the root. 12. In constructing compound quantities, it is best to unite the several parts of the construction in one figure.
Thus
if
=
;
fr',
the line
AX
and D'
AD apd A D'
:
for
AD =
This construction
cuts the line
13.
fails
 Va 2
2
.
when
AX
this is
greater than a, for then the circle never inferred also from the impossibility of the roots
6
is
Since theorems in geometry relate either to lines, areas, or solids, the corresponding equations must in each case be homogeneous, and will remain so through all the algebraic operations. If, however, one of the lines in a figure be taken as the linear unit and be therefore represented
by unity, we
such as x
=Va
X
1,
6,&c., in which,
prior to
must be expressed;
thus
these
quantities
must
be written
\a x
1,
DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
CHAPTER
II.
DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
14. GEOMETRICAL Problems may be divided into two classes, Determinate and Indeterminate, according as they admit of a finite or an infinite number of solutions. If A B be the diameter of the semicircle E B, and it be required to find a point C in A B such, that draw
B to meet ing C E perpendicular to shall be the circumference in E, equal to half the radius of the circle,
CE
this is
E B. circumference The determinate class is by no means so important as the indeterminate, but the investigation of a few of the former will lead us to the easier comprehension of the latter ; and therefore we proceed to the discussion of determinate problems. 15. In the consideration of a problem, the following rules are useful. 1. Draw a figure representing the conditions of the question. 2. Draw other lines, if necessary, generally parallel or perpendicular to those of the figure.
3.
there are only two such points in B, each at an equal distance from the centre. Again, if it be required to find a point out of the line such, that joining EA, B, the inB shall be a right angle, this is an indeterminate cluded angle problem, for there are an infinite number of such points, all lying in the
E AE
AB
Call the
lines
known
by the
lines
by the
letters
a, 6,
c,
&c.,
unknown
as equally known, and from the 4. Consider geometrical properties of figures deduce one, two, or more equations, each containing unknown and given quantities. 5. From these equations find the value of the unknown quantities. 6. Construct these values, and endeatour to unite the construction to
the original figure. 16. To describe a square in a given triangle be the required squar Let
ABC.
of the triangle.
The question is resolved into finding the point H, because then the position of
D E,
is
de
termined.
Let C
K
:
a,
AB=
::
: :
andDE AB or D E 6 bx :. D E =
:
CH
x
b, C H = x D E = H K,
: :
CK,
a,
and
HK =
DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
bx
.'.
=a
a third proportional to the quantities (# f 6) and a. so that to 6, join K, is the required value of x. 17. In a rightangled triangle the lines drawn from the acute angles to the points of bisection of the opposite sides are given, to find the
is
Thus #
MK
LM =
triangle.
Let
C E
a,
Then
the square
r,
2/
whence y ss db
the sides take
Make any
==
,
right angle A,
and
OLI
one of
AF
FH
with centre
and
radii
and 2
a, describe
and H, respectively ; draw other side produced in Hence A D, then 2 I is the required value of y. ; and therefore C and A B are found, and the triangle is determined. 18. To divide a straight line, so that the rectangle contained by the two parts may be equal to the square upon a given line 6.
Let
AB
= AP =
or
Then
the rectangle
A
.*.
P,
2
a?
P B
x)
x (a
= ax =
a
i
6*
* ==
Vf
/~a?
6'
10
DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
Upon
AB
describe
a semicircle, draw
BC
A E
DE
;
6)
perpendicular to E draw D P,
is
greater than
is
the value of x
irrational,
problem
impossible
x,
A Q, Q B
x (x
Q may
6
be found
B produced,
s
.
Let
AQ =
..
 a) =
2
From
draw
the centre
draw the
to
line
RQ
perpendicular
O R,
6
2
then
R, from
for
11
OQ=OC=
\J(
and therefore
AQ =

+ ^/ _+&*.
j

^/
+
6
2
which ^ whi
negative
in the
form
I\A 
f
the
magnitude
tude,
its
absolute magni
duced, or
" to find a the problem had been point Q in either A B pro2 6 ", we B that the rectangle AQ, produced, such, to be in B A the solution by assuming the point might have commenced b\ Q' #, we should have x (a f x) produced as at Q' thus letting
Now
if
BA
Q = Q
first
and x
= +
b
it
A/ JL
=

__
,,
or
J

V/J
is
the
Absolute value
of
the negative root in the last question ; hence the negative root of the last question is a real solution of the problem expressed in a more general form, the negative sign merely pointing out the position of the second Both roots may be exhibited in a positive form by measuring point Q'.
FA =
F being greater than b not from A, but from a point F, x, we find c, and F Q or F Q'
for letting
The celebrated problem of dividing a given straight line in extreme and mean ratio, is solved in the same manner letting A P x we have the
rectangle
B,
BP
the square
upon
A P,
or a
(ji,
x)
x9
whence
~j
DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
point to the
nerally
*.
II
left
of A,
is
19. Through a point equidistant from two straight lines A A' and B' at right angles to each other, to draw a straight line P Q, so that the part intersected by A' and B 15' may be of a given length 6.
PQ
From
Let
M draw the perpendicular lines M C, M D. M D  a, D Q = x> C P = y then P Q = P M + M Q, or 6  V + f+ <Ja* + = and from the similar triangles P C M, M D Q. a
t
a
whe
a*
0.
A R
sy
a'
recurring equation, and then construct the four problems ; but since the roots of an equation of four dimensions are not easily obtained, we must, in general, endeavour to avoid such an equation, and rather retrace our steps than attempt its Let us consider the problem again, and examine what kind of a solution.
We
might solve
this
result
we may
expect.
* Lucas de Borgo, who wrote a book on the application of this problem to architecture and polygonal figures, was so delighted with this division of a line, that he called it the Divine Proportion.
12
DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
S M, R' S' M, may Q, Since, in general, four lines P Q', fulfilling the conditions of the question, the two former, in all cases, though not always the two latter, we may conclude that there will is similarly situated with be four solutions ; but since the point respect to the two lines A', B B', we may also expect that the resulting lines
be drawn
FM
will
one
A' and B B'. Thus, be similarly situated with regard to line P Q, there will be another P'MQ' such that O Q' O Q. P' to O R'. Hence, Again O S will be equal to O S', and O
if
there be
OP, and we
take
upon the
line
R R
In
if
for the
unknown
quantity
the lines
we can have only two different values of this line, one referring to S R and S' R', the other to PQ and P' Q'; hence the resulting
this case the
equation
is
6a2
Again, since
0.
MR
S R,
M R' we
for the either
itself
may take M H, H being the point of biunknown quantity, and then also we may
of two dimensions, or else reducible to
#;
..MR = ,r+
:
MS=x :
^,
and
MR MD
MS O D
:
::
RSS O = +
::
RS RO =
:
06
square upon
RO +
square upon S O,
..
= M
an expression of easy construction ; the negative value of x is useless of the remaining two values that with the positive sign is always real, and refers to the lines S R, MS'R'; the other, when real, gives the lines P Q, P' Q' ; it is imaginary if 6* is less than 8 2 , that is,
joining
OM
and drawing
PM Q
perpendicular to
O M,
if
is
less than
This question is taken from Newton's Universal Arithmetic, and is given by him to show how much the judicious selection of the unknown The principal point to be quantity facilitates the solution of problems. attended to in such questions is, to choose that line for the unknown quantity which must be liable to the least number of variations.
20. Through the point M in the sum of the squares upon P M and
iven line 6.
MQ shall
last figure
DETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
Making the same substitutions we shall obtain the equations
a
9
.'.
13
2xy
xy
= a,
,
a?
+
6,
and x
+y=
it \
6,
or x
=i
whence x
dt
/_
To
,
M and radius
cutting
A A'
in
two points L, L/
circles cutting A A' again in four points: these are the required points. 21. To find a triangle such that its sides A C, C B, B A, and perpendicular B D, are in continued geometrical progression.
ABC
::
Take any
line
AB
let
BC
::
AC:CB
then
CB:BA
D
= BA:BD;
j?,
ABC
B,
are
is
the square
.'.
upon
2
,
AC
BC+
the square
upon
AB
= #* + a
or x*
a ==
0,
whence x
=
impossible, since
;
2 and of the \/5 is greater than a' remaining two the negative one is
useless.
In
AB
produced take
BE
=a V
(11), and
EF
=
;
uponAF
describe a semicircle,
0
EG
then
E G=
a?
V5)=
</
is
CHAPTER
1J1.
LINE.
DETERMINATE problems, although sometimes curious, yet, as they lead to nothing important, are unworthy of much attention. It was, however, to this branch of geometry that algebra was solely applied for some time alter its introduction into Europe. Descartes, a celebrated French
I
GEOMETRICAL SIGNIFICATION
philosopher, who lived in the early part of the seventeenth century, was He applied algebra to the consideration the first to extend the connexion. of curved lines, and thus, as it were, invented a new science.
ple example.
to the
Perhaps the best way of explaining his method will be by taking a simSuppose that it is required to find a point P without a given and P 13 shall be equal line AB, so that the sum of the squares on
AP
let fall
Let have
AM =
x,
MP
=: y, and
AB
The square on
or
8
A B = the square on A P + the square on P B. = the squares on AM, M P the squares on P M, MB,
f
=
.'.
(x* f
y*) f
(a
ct)
e
?/
2 j*
2 j;
.
2ax +
a*
7/
=^ a x
this
Now
finite
number of
T or
AM
&c.,
we may, from
the equation,
find corresponding values of y or P, each of them determining a sepawhich satisfies the condition of the problem. rate point
Let C, D, E, F, &c., be the points thus determined. the values of y may be increased by taking values of
abovementioned and
finite
The number of
x between those
shall
this to
an
infikite extent,
thus
we
have an
in
number of
so that these points ultimately form a line which geometrically represents the assemblage of all the solutions of the equation. This line C F, whether curved or straight, is called the locus of the equation.
DE
indeterminate problems resolve themselves into inand it is this branch of the subject which is by far the most important, and which leads to a boundless field for research*. 23. For the better investigation of loci, equations have been divided into two classes, algebraical and transcendental. An algebraical equation between two variables x and y is one which
all
;
In this manner
vestigations of loci
can be reduced to a finite number of terms involving only integral powers of r, y, and constant quantities: and it is called complete when it contains all the possible combinations of the variables together with a constant term, the sum of the indices of these variables in no term exceeding the degree of the equation ; thus of the equations
ay
8 2/
bx
f
+ bxy +
ex*
dy + ex
+/
the
a complete equation of the first order, and the next is a plete equation of the second order, and so on. Those equations which cannot be put into a finite and lational
first is
comalgelor
called
transcendental,
iii.
OF AN EQUATION.
15
they can only be expanded into an infinite series of terms in which the power of the variable increases without limit, and thus the order of the
equation
is
infinitely great, or
transcends
a", are
all finite
orders.
are named after their equations, thus the locus of an equation of the first order is a line of the first order; the locus of an equation of the second order is a line of the second order the locus of a transcendental equation is a transcendental line or curve. Algebraical equations have not corresponding loci in all cases, for the equation may be such as not to admit of any real values of both x and y; is an example of this kind, where, whatthe equation y s x2 a2 ever real value we give to j?, we cannot have a real value of y there is therefore no locus whatever corresponding to such an equation. 24.
;
sin. x,
and y
transcendental equations.
=0
IN A PLANE.
25. The position of a point in a plane is determined by finding its situation relatively to some fixed objects in that plane ; for this purpose suppose the plane of the paper to be the given plane, and let us consider as
known
of two lines x
;
them
AN evidently known if A M and shown, ex absurdo^ that there is such that its distance from the line*, AM
;
PN
X and y Y of unlimited length, and from any point P, in this plane, draw P
parallel to
then the position of the point P For it may be easily are known. hut one point within the angle
AX,
AY
and
AX
is
and
equal
YAX P M re
AM
and
MP
P;
AN,
or
its
M P,
is
X Y
are together the coordinates of P ; a? is called the axis of abscissas, y the axis of ordinates. The
point
is
is rectangular, according as an oblique or a right angle. In this treatise rectangular axes as the
YAX
most simple
ployed.
will generally
be emQl
tf,
P'
and P the ordinate y, then if on and measuring these lengths A P we find the first equal to a and the second equal to 6, we have,
Let the abscissa
AM =
two equations
them, when taken together,
we
call
the equations to this point. The same point may also be defined by the equation
a and y ==
b.
16
in general any equation which can only be satisfied by a single real value of each variable quantity x and y t refers to a point whose situation is determined by the coordinates corresponding to these values. 26. In this manner the position of any point in the angle can be determined, but in order to express the positions of points in the angle A x, some further considerations are necessary. In the solution of the problem, article (18), we observed that negative quantities may be geometrically represented by lines drawn in a certain An extension of this idea leads to the following reasoning. direction. When we affix a negative sign to any quantity, we do not signify any cluinge in its magnitude, but merely the way in which the quantity is to Thus the absolute magbe used, or the operation to be performed on it. 5 is just as great as that of f 5 5 means that 5 is to but nitude of 5 that it is to be added. As the sign is applied be subtracted, and will have in each of these to quantities variously estimated, the sign various cases a corresponding meaning, necessarily following from that of
And
YAX
0. a+a means, we must always have to be a quantity estimated in such a manner that the altering it by the operation indicated by + a reduces the result This is properly the meaning of the sign to nothing. it depends ; entirely on that of the sign j in every case. The symbol of positive quantity is used in a variety of ways; but in every instance the above principle shows in what way the negative quan
the sign
tity
quantity, be used.
Thus, if we placed a mark on a pole stuck vertically into the ground, at some point in the pole which was baie at low water and covered at high water, and scored upwards the inches from that mark, we might express the height of the surface by the number of inches above the mark, posisurface was above the mark; but at low water when the tively, when the surface is below the mark, 11 inches for instance, we should call the 11 because when 11 inches were added to the height, (that is, height when the surface of the water was advanced 11 inches upwards, which is the direction in which the positive quantities are supposed to be reckoned,) the surface would be just at the mark, and would be no inches in height
;
Suppose a man
17
AG
units, as to will be
Again, suppose n to become == m is, let the point be carried back exactly to A ; then the advance of the will still be measured point along
;
(m
AX
=z
by (m
11)
m
0.
that is, let B C exceed A B ; the advance ; of the point will be expressed by (m n) still ; but this will now C be a negative number, showing by X B how many linear units the point must be advanced in order to bring it forward to the original starting point A. Now any line C may be considered to be determined by the motion of a point either simply along C, or along first A B and then B C.
Once more,
let
n exceed
We
tion
A X as poitive
see, therefore, if
we begin by reckoning distances from A in the direcquantities, we are compelled to consider distances from)
negative quantities. Conversely again, having designated positive quantities by lines in one direction from a given point, suppose the calculation produces a negative
result,
to assign to
it ?
The
how much
positive quantity is required to bring the whole nothing. positive quantity, by the hypothesis, is distance in the original direction ; therefore the negative quantity shows
to
Now
measured
how much
distance measured in the original direction is required to bring the result But if there be a distance from A, such that a linear units in to nothing. the original direction must be subjoined to bring the result to nothing, dis(that is, to reduce to nothing the distance from A,) it is clear that this
tance must be that of a linear units measured in a direction from opposite That is, the negative quantity must be repreto the original direction. sented by lines drawn in the direction opposite to that in which the lines representing the positive quantities are drawn. It is immaterial in which direction the line is drawn which we consider but when chosen, negative quantities of th same kind must be positive
:
taken in the opposite direction. 27. We are now able to express the position of points in the remaining angles formed by the axes, by con
A X to
sidering
all lines
in
the direction
be positive and those in A x and similarly all to be negative those drawn in the direction will be considered positive, and therefore those in A y will be nega:
AY
tive.
We
of coordinates.
x,
+ + 
01
x,
*,
F in
the angle
X A y, +
18
LINE.
a,
a,
............... ..............
If,
;
P Q
P'
are
.
x
j?
= = 
y y
= =
6
6
Q'..j?=
.
a,
a,
y=r
&
= the abscissa AM remaining the same, the ordinate MP diminishes, 28. and when M P the point P approaches to the axis A X nothing, P
*
is
is
are
x ==
Similarly
a,
y
y
=
P
b
:
or
+

fl
(x
= =
0.
0.
when
x
the point
0,
is
are
or (y
b)
xz
If both
AM
and
Ex.
the
The point whose equations are x = 4, y = 2, is situated in = 4 times the linear unit from the angle X Ay, at a distance
1.
M P vanish, x = 0, y =
we have
:
or y* f
x%
situ+ 2)* = + 3) + AL = 2, LQ' = 3, from the axes. in the line 3 Ex. 3. The point whose equations are x = 0, y = A y, at a distance = 3 times the linear unit. in A #, at a Ex. 4. The point whose equation y + (x + a) = 0,
axis of y,
and
M P' =
AM
Ex. 2. The point whose equation is (y ated in the angle xAy, at distances
(a?
is
is
is
is
if
To
find
equations to a. y P be x
= =
a', v
= =
b
b'
;
NQ=
AM
6',
draw
QS
parallel to
AX.
Then
the square
upon
QP
the square
upon
QS +
the square
upon P S
and
also
QS = N
:.
2
If
Q
Q
be
in the
PS=PMQN
2
b'
8
If
and
//
=
'
D =
2
b\ or
D=
Va a +6 8
AX A Q = perpendicular to Q S then the square upon Q P the square on P S + twice the rectangle Q S, S R
QN
;
o>, 30. If the angle between the axes be oblique and also let S parallel to ; Y, and parallel to
draw
PM
Q
and
S
P R
be drawn
the square on
LINE.
19
=

a 6
a',
V,
/.
')
(6
a'
is
2
D =
at the origin,
a*
6') cos.
w
b'
0,
and
0,
Ay +
and
Bo?
+ C=
;
0,
ory
=:
BC
x
r=:<x
B A
Let AX, A Y be the rectangular axes, then a point in the locus will be determined by giving to x a particular value as 1,2, 3, &c. ; let A M, P and A N, N Q be the respective coordinates of two points P and Q thus
simple form y =
=b
we
equation in
its
most
otx.
determined
since
ocx,
we have
andNQ = .AN MP AM NQ AN therefore the triangles A M P, A N Q are similar, and the angles MAP, N A Q, equal to one another hence the two lines A P, A Q coincide. If a third point R be taken in the locus, then, as before, A R will coincide with A P and A Q.
/.
:
: :
same
straight line
A R,
and by
giving negative values to x we can determine the point S, &c., to be in the same straight line Hence the A produced.
straight
line
RA
S produced
both ways indefinitely, being the assemblage of all the points dea a?, termined by the equation y
is
20
In considering the equation y ax 6, we observe that the new ordiAate y always exceeds the former by the quantity b ; hence taking in the axis E F parallel to S R, equal to 6, and drawing the line the line E F is the locus required. Hence the equation of the first order belongs to the straight line.
AY
AE
explain the nature of the equation more clearly, we will take the To find the equation to a straight line F, that is, 1<> find the relation which exists between the coordinates, xand y, of each of
32.
To
converse problem.
points.
H
;
its
A be the origin of coordinates, A X, A Y the axes from A draw A R parallel to H F, and from any point P' in the given line draw P' P M perpendicular to A X and cutting A R in P. Let A M = *, M P' = y, and A E = 6
Let
;
then
M P' = P M =
+
f
P'
= AMtan. PAM + AE
= x tan. F G X +
or
a, fore the equation
6
;
ax
6,
if tan.
FGX
E G A,
If
AG=
jr
we have
A E = A G.
tan.
to the straight
line
may
oc
a.
FGA =
33. In general, therefore, the equation to the straight line contains two E or is the the former is the distance constant quantities 6 and ordinate of the point in which the line cuts the axis of y, the latter is the tangent of the angle which the line makes with the axis of x, for the angle hence (he angle
;
PAM:
tan.
FGA=
tan.
PAM
y =*
the tangent of the It is to be particularly observed that, in calling angle which the line makes with the axis of x, we understand the angle and not F x. F
GX
and b may be either b, the quantities one positive and the other negative let us then examine the course of the line to which the equation belongs in each Now it is clear that the knowledge of two points in a straight line case. is sufficient to determine the position of that line; hence we shall only find the points where it cuts the axes since they are the most easily obtained.
and b positive ;
.*.
y=ra,rf6;
b
;
Let x
y
join
2.
= =
B
;
/.
y
i
in
AY
;
take
AD
.*.
in
a
is
x take
AB =
b
D BD
=
;
produced
a x
Let x
/.
y
x
b, in
Ay
take
take
AC =
CX
y
join
0;
;
/.
=
Oi
h,
AX
AE=
OE
C E produced
is
LINE.
fll
3.
or
.'.
Let x
7/
join
4.
or
= = 0; DE D E
;
.*. .'.
;
y
a?
= 
ax
\
in
AY
take
AD =
6;
;
;inAXtakeAE=
is
;
.".
produced
=
take take
,r
Let x
6 6
in
Ay
A
ax 6 AC =
6
y
join
=
;
.'.
x =.
a
is
in
AB =
B C
y
BC
produced
35.
The
6
quantities a and 6
may
also
change
in absolute value.
;t a #; and the loci are two straight lines passing through the origin and drawn at angles with the axis of x whose respective tangents are or.
Let
0;
.*.
i
y
Let
.'.
Ox
.'.
IT
and x
the former of
these results shows that every point in the locus is equidistant from the x axis of x, and the latter (or 0) that every value of x satisfies the original equation ; hence the loci are two straight lines drawn through and C both parallel to the axis of x.
It
6,
refers to a point
we
6,
x
is
refers to
straight line
yet
it
generally omitted,
must be considered as
Let a
may be
becomes
written
y
x
ax
\
aa
nj
or
=,r+a,
which when
or
=
=
,
a,
23
or more simply the equation it a denotes two straight lines parallel to the axis of y and at a distance a from that axis.
.
x=
Again
let
both a
0,
;
and 6
and
.'.
the equation y
= ax +
b
is
becomes y
=
,
and hence, y =r
0,
=
Oy
the axis of x.
If or rr
and
6=0,
r
.*.
x =:
and y
Hence
the equation
j?
36. By the above methods the line to which any equation of the first order belongs may be drawn. In the following examples reference is made to parts of the last figure.
Ex.
take
1.
3y
5x
=
o
;
let
x =r
0,
.'.
=
3
on the axis
AY
AD
let
again
0,
.*.
x ==
on the axis
hence the
A x take A B
=r 5
of the unit,
and
C E. and the line passes through or the tangent of the angle which the line makes with the the origin ; also axis of x 1, therefore that angle 45; hence the straight line drawn through the origin and bisecting the angle Y A X is the required locus. Ex. 4. 5 y 2 x 0. The line passes through the origin as in the last example, but to find another point through which the line passes, let x 5 2 .*. hence take A E 5, and from E draw E P (= 2) y perpendicular to AX; then the line joining the points A, P is the locus
Ex.
2.
10 y
21 x
Ex.
3.
let
rr 0,
=
+
required.
Ex.
Ex.
5.
ay
bx
a line
;
y* the axis of x.
6.
j?
two straight
4 AD = 3
Ex.
7.
3y
=
2
0; take
is
a line through
drawn
Ex.
parallel to
8.
AX
the locus.
;
&+
+
take
AE =
1,
and
AB
through E and B parallel to A Y are the required loci. Ex. 9. y *2x 4. The equation to a straight
=r 2, the lines
line
drawn
may be put
=
and when x
the quantities b and a are respectively the distances of the origin from the intersection of the Hue with the axes of y and x.
0,
= b,
1,
0,
Thus Ex.
9. in this
form
is
^

1,
take
AD
rr 4, and
AE = 2,
E, this line produced is the required locus. join 37. If the equation involve the second root of a negative quantity its locus will not be a straight line, but either a point or altogether imaginary :
23
2x
is
and y
a, for
no other
real value of
is a */ y ; but the locus of the equation y } x imaginary, for there are no corresponding real values of a? and y. (24) 38. We have thus seen that the equation to a straight line is of the
1=0
+ b, and that its position depends entirely upon a and b. a given line we understand one whose position is given, that is, that By a and b are given quantities when we seek a line we require its position, so that assuming y =: oe x 6 to be its equation, oc and 6 are the two indeterminate quantities to be found by the conditions of the question : if only one can be found the conditions are insufficient to fix the position of the
form y == a x
;
line.
By
a given point
we
shall generally use the letters x l and y t for the coordinates of a given point, and to avoid useless repetition, the point whose coordinates are x, and y l will be called " the point a?,, y^." Similarly the line whose equation is
ax
+
+
6 will be called
"
the line
ce
b."
y and y
use the equations to two straight lines as that x 6', it must be carefully remembered are not the same quantities in both equations ; we might have used
we
arid~Y being the a'X the equations y oe x b', b, and variable coordinates of the second line, but the former notation is found to be the more convenient.
39.
Y=
We
regret
much
we
1.
In algebraical
geometry the formulas most in use are very simple, much more so indeed than they would be if homogeneous moreover the advantage of a uniform system of symbols and formulas is so great to mathematicians that it should not be violated without very strong reasons. To remedy in some degree this want of regularity, the student should repeatedly consider the meaning of the constants at his first introduction to the subject of straight
:
lines.
PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
40.
point.
LINES.
a given
To
be x l y,, and point being given its coordinates are known ; let them ax b ; we signify that this the equation to the straight line be y line passes through the point x l y lt by saying that when the variable abscissa x becomes x it then y will become y l hence the equation to the line
The
let
=
:
becomes
ax
2/1
/. 6
+
iji
a *i
we have
y zz ccx
or
Xi
y  y
(x
(x
XL)
21
method of eliminating 6 is by subtracting the second equaand this is the method generally adopted. Since a, which fixes the direction of the line, is not determined, there may be an infinite number of straight lines drawn through a given point this
tion
from the
first,
is
a (x j?, 0, and .*. y y j^); .*. be on the axis of y, x^ y y l =2 a x. If either or both of the coordinates of the given point be negative, the proper substitutions must be made thus if the point be on the axis of x x l and ; and in the negative direction from A, its coordinates will be therefore the equation to the line passing through that point will be
and
y
41.
= a (x + =
xj.
To
points
#!, 3/1
and #2 ,
2/ 2 .
a x b Let the required equation be y (1) then since the line passes through the given points, we have the equations
2/i
2/ 2
= =
J?i
+
+
(x
b 6
(2)
x,
(3)
y
Subtracting (3) from (2)
2A
y, =:
*,)
(4)
2/2
=
we have
finally
The two conditions have sufficed to determine a and 6, and by their elimination the position of the line is fixed, as it ought to be, since only one straight line can be drawn through the same two points.
This equation
will
assume
different
forms according
T,
to
the particular
on the axis of
we have
y%
y 2/1=
if
it
.*.
y^^
o? 2
*^i
;
(x
j?^;
and
3/2
and
=:0
This
last
equation
is
also thus obtained; the line passing through the is the tangent
PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
of the angle which the line
LINES.
and
this line
25
axis of x,
.*.
passing
x^ y^ a must be equal
y=
*
x.
If a straight line pass through three given points, the following relation must exist between the coordinates of those points:
(yi **
 *i y.) 
(2/1
*3
 *i
line
2/ a )
(2/2
*3
ys)
= o.
^y
and
,
42.
point
to a
straight
finite portion
is
43.
line.
To
Let y
= ax + = + y
a'j?
b
b'
(2)
required line
then since the lines are parallel they must of x or a'~ or /. the required equation is
y^ccx +
Of
b'
course b' could not be determined by the single condition of the parallelism of the lines, since an infinite number of lines may be drawn but if another condition is added, b' will be parallel to the given line then determined thus if the required line passes also through a given
;
is
y
.'.
2/1
'
(?
*0
l
(3) becomes y
ss
a (x
x^
lines
C B, E D. This consists in finding the coordinates of the point O of intersection. Now it is evident that at this point they have the same abscissa and ordinate; hence if in the equations to two lines we regard x as representing the
44.
To
same abscissa and y the same ordinate, it is in fact saying that they are the coordinates X, of the point of intersection O.
26
PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
Let y
LINES.
ax
\
b
b'
be the equation to
CB
then
&ndya'x + at O we have Y =
ED = a' X + X+ ,.x =
b
^
ab
.
6'
and
Ex.
1.
Y= X
1
f 6
=

b'
a
\
6'
a'
b
.
b r=
To
y
= 3x +
x
and y
2x
4=
0.
Ex.
2.
To
y
and 3y  2x = 1. X If a third line, whose equation is y a" x + b", passes through the point of intersection, the relation between the coefficients is
=
1
(a
45.
6'
a'
6)
(a b"
a"
b)
(a b"
a"V)
0.
To
.straight lines.
Let y
=
=
a.
x x
y
and
tan.
a.'
+ b be + 6'
the equation to
CB
ED
make
(0 respectively with the axis of
&
then
DOB =
EOC
I
= tan.
00
=
l
I
+ tan.0tan.0'
I
2
ecu'
'
also cos.
DOB =
sec.
DOB
DOB
x
Vl + (tan.
cos.
D OB)
+ V(1+O (1+a' 2)
and
sine
DOB =
tan.
DO B =
making a given angle with
46.
To
another straight
~
1
= a x + b be the given line C B, = oc'x + b required line E D, = tangent of the given angle DOB. = tan. DEC = tan. (B C X Then BOD) tan. B C X  tan. BOD " + tan. B C X tan. BOD +
Let y
ft
'
ft
'
/3
'
in the
second equation,
j? lt
y,,
the equa
tion
is
r~rrpW*
PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
If be considered the given point but another (the dotted line in the
LINES.
line
27
DOE
C, and
its
equation
For example, the two straight lines which pass through the point and cut B C at an angle of 45 are given by the equations
Also the equation to the straight line passing through the axis of x at an angle of 135 is
D
(*
and cutting
 ^),
is
~ y ory+
47.
y
*
= =y +
l
ft (or
a\.
*t)
tan.
135
(x
ar,)
=1
is
/3
infinitely great
a
1
~~
^
of3
J1
==
or
ce
=
oc
to
given line y
6, is
=
'
b'.
This
may be
we have
hence
in
drawing
tan.
OE OEX=
perpendicular to
tan.
OEC
OCX ~
a
to
the equations to
two straight
lines
one another
versely, if in the equations to two straight lines, these lines are perpendicular to one another.
=
oc
^
a'
and, con
0,
If the
its
equation
is
2/1
0?
*i)
and, of course, this equation will assume various forms, agreeing with the line drawn through the position of the point x^ y\ ; thus, for example, the ax 6, is one whose equation is origin perpendicular to the line y
=
48.
I
cr,
for here
both x l and y
0.
To
(^
3/1)
on a given straight
B.
28
PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
Let y
then
LINES.
or
j
b

B,
y^ r=
(x
x^
(2)
is
pendicular line
D O E,
Let p
= DO
be the coordinates of
(X  xj*
(Y
determined
ytf
(1)
(29)
from (2)
Y =r y,
...
(X
xj
= X f 6
y,
from
_
(X
Xl)
ax
6,
ax
6), also
y,
(X 
a^
..
f= =
(X
(X
*,)' + (Y  *,y + 
i/0
(x
=
The
superior sign
line,
is
to be
taken
when
is
above the
given straight
and the
6=0;
:.
p=
.'.
.
and y^
There
to
is another way of obtaining the expression for p. 6 applies to all points in ax Since the equation y
Q, where
and
= C O B, + M D or y, cuts COB; M Q = a ^ + Now D O = D Q sin. D Q O, MQ=y ax but DQ = D M = sin. CQM = cos. Q C M = sin. DQO sec. Q C M
/.
6.
l
it
must
6,
29
+
.*.
(tan.
QCM)
p
DO
or
yi =y
l
ax

VI +
=
b
a
t
r.
or
=,
if
D was
below the
line.
E had been drawn making a given angle whose tan49. If the line ft with the given line C O, the distance might be found for instead of equation (2) we shall have
gent was
DO
(46):
hence, following the
same
steps as above,
we
shall find
This expression
is
Let y
sin.
DO
6
'
a T!
\/l
50.
The equation
may
:
demonstration of the following theorem If from the angles of a plane triangle perpendiculars be let fall
on the opposite
sides,
these per
B
A,
D,
B and C on
let
BD
be
A F.
of y.
Let
AC y~
 y, =
x (41)
to
D, y
C, y
= a (x  ay) =
(x
(x *8 ) (47)
to
B
y
 *,)
(11)
or
30
to
A E,
=
f
ax
=
.
X,
tfo
O of B D and A E
Xi
we have, by equating
Xi
the values of y,
X$
.*.
xl
j?t
*a =: x^x
iT 8
x\
.".
x^x
Xi
X 3 and x
j^,
the abscissa of the point is found to be that of C. In the same manner it may be proved that if perpendiculars be from the bisections of the sides, they will meet in one point.
that
is,
drawn
Similarly
in the
ABC.
we may prove that the three straight lines F C, KB, and A L, 47th preposition of Euclid, meet in one point within the triangle
have hitherto considered the axes as rectangular, but if they be 51. oblique, the coefficient of x, in the equation to a straight line, is not the tangent of the angle which the line makes with the axis of x. the angle between the axes, Let a)
We
then
sin. (<i> x 0) b remains, as before, the distance of the origin from the intersection of the line with the axis ofy: hence the equation to a straight line referred to
the line
axis of
(33);
oblique axes
is
sin.
is
of the form
= ax +
b all
riot affect
the ratio
of 
sin. (u>
 6)
will
be
Thus,
To
the axes are oblique. and 44, require no modification. find the tangent (/3) of the angle between two given straight lines.
articles 40, 41, 42, 43,
when
Le '
from a
=
1
sin.

sin.
<x
tan.
6'=
 f
(w
, '
a>
we have
hence
tan. 6
0)
1f
a
sin.
a cos. w
and,
(ex
similarly,
sin.
ft
a') sin.
w w
tan.
f
cos.
(00')=
At
To
Xi
y l$ and making
Let
/3
a given angle with a given straight be the tangent of the given angle,
y
y
a.
+
o>
6,
y l z: a' (#
line.
From
we have
a
sin.
/3
(!{
w)
w)
ti>
(3
(l+a
cos. w)
OBLIQUE COORDINATES.
If the lines be perpendicular to each other
,
31
(3
==
fa>
1fof COS.
a + cos.
o>
is
1+ct
or
cos.
o> o>
+cos.
To
straight line.
Instead of equation (2), in article 48, we must use the equation just found, and then proceeding as usual we shall find
sn,
~
It will be concluded from an observation of these formulas, that oblique axes are to be avoided as much as possible ; they may be used with adwhere points and lines, but not vantage angles, are the subjects of discussion. As an instance, we shall take the following theorem. 52. If, upon the sides of a triangle as diagonals, parallelograms be described, having their sides parallel to two given lines, the other diagonals of the parallelograms will intersect each other in the same point. Let B C be the triangle, A X, A G, the given lines, E B C, C
AY
HA IB
will
D E, F G,
and
HI
AY
the coordinates of
To
DE
be y
ax
y2
.*
=

ax
y*
V*
+ +
&
6 at
<*
D
*i)
y
2/i
O
Oa^i)
l)
at
E
(1)
...
y yt
= ^Ll(a*
,12
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
find the equation to
To
F G;
= ax + b + 6 at F y^ =  y* = * y = a* at G
y
3/ 2
a?,
To
H
y
j;
y,=
+
?/!
6 at 11
jr t
at I
in (1)
X=
also equating the values ofy in (2) and (3) we find the same value for ; hence the abscissa for intersection being the same for any two of the lines, they must all three intersect in the same point.
may prove
drawn
to
that if from the angles of a plane triangle the bisections of the opposite sides, they will
meet
in
one
point.
CHAPTER
IV.
Before we proceed to the discussion of equations of higher orders, necessary to investigate a method for changing the position of the coordinate axes. The object is to place the axes in such a manner that the equation to a given curve may appear in its most simple form, and conversely by the introduction of indeterminate constants into an equation to reduce the number of terms, so that the form and properties of the corresponding locus may be most easily detected. An alteration of this nature cannot in the least change the form of the curve, but only the algebraical manner of representing it; thus the general equation to the straight line y ax when the origin is on a x \ b becomes y the line itself. Also on examining articles 46 and 51 we see that the simplicity of an equation depends very much on the angle between the axes.
53.
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
Hence
in
33
many
cases not only the position of the origin but also the direcmay be altered with advantage. The method of perform
ing these operations is called the transformation of coordinates. 54. To transform an equation referred to an origin A, to an equation referred to another origin A', the axes in the latter case being parallel to those in the former.
Let
~
j
T>J
x
\
original coordinates of
IT
~ Yi new co or di n ates of P
then
A[
new y
#
origin
A',
== b
tf
+ Y, +X
substituting these values for y and x in the equation to the curve, we have and referred to the origin A' the transformed equation between
transform the equation referred to oblique axes, to an equauon referred to other oblique axes having the same origin.
55.
Let
A x, A y
AX,
jjLp
A
TVT
AY
2
**
new
axes,
original joordinates of P.
^ p T V^>
"V
new
coordinates of
34
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
Let the angle #
Draw
theny
= MP = MQ
NR
Ay
parallel to
P M, and
sin.ANR
sin.
sin
NPQ
NQP
0')
ARN
0)
{<>
H
sin.
sin.
(w
sin.
sin. (a;
sin.
sin.
+Y
sin.
d)
sin. 0'
X
56.
sin.
(o>
0) f
sin.
Y
w
sin.
(QJ
&
original
= X
axes be
sin.
oblique,
f
sin.
Y
w
0)
cos.
.'
X sin.
57.
/.
(q>
Y
()
cos,
(a;
0)
sin.
Let the original axes be rectangular, or w x X cos. e + Y cos. Let both systems be rectangular, or w
/.
= X sin.
= 90.
and
Q'
f
sin. 0',
0'
58.
= 90
0,
= 90
59. These forms have been deduced from the first, but each of them may be found by a separate process. The first and last pairs are the most useful. Perhaps they may be best remembered if expressed in the following manner. Both systems oblique, the formulas (55) become
{X
sin.
X A* + Y
sin.
Y \x\ J
i
sm.
xAy
x=
Both systems
{Xsin.
y
x
= X cos. X A x f Y cos. Y A
cos.
XAy
f
Y cos. Y
^r sin. x \y become Ay
a?.
If the situation of the origin be changed as well as the direction of the axes, we have only to add the quantities a and 6 to the values of x and y however, in such a case, it is most convenient to perform respectively
;
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
Since the values of x and y are in all cases expressed by equations of the order, the degree of an equation is never changed by the transformation of coordinates. 60. Hitherto we have determined the situation of a point in a plane by its distance from two axes, but there is also another method of much use. Let S be a fixed point, and S B a fixed straight line ; then the point P is also evidently determined if we know the length S P and the angle P S B. If S P =. r and P S B 0, r and 9 are called the polar coordinates of P. S is called the pole, and SP the radius vector, because a curve may be supposed to be described by the extremity of the line S P revolving round S, the length of S P being variable. The fixed straight line S B is
first
into another
YAX
D
10.
parallel to
A X,
angle
BS D
= 0,
AM
C S
=
(0
6,
+r
sin,
0)
y=b
x
sin. sin.
sin.
w
(w
=a+
w
a)
0)
sin.
rectangular, or
..
7T
;
y=6+rsin.0J x = a+ rcos. 0J
the origin
(3)
and
if
v x
= r sin. = r cos.
and
6=0.
Of
terms of
a?
and y:
,n
. b
(0+0)1
.
ta sin. (9
JV = sm + 0)
wcot
(e
0)cos. u;
L^
:.
tan. (0 f 0)
=
x
1
(y
I) sin.
01
(y
(y
6) cos.
0= tan.'
1
6) sin.
w w
f (y
to
6) cos. wj
where the symbol tan." a is equivalent whose radius is unity, and tangent a."
also r2
the words
"a
circular arc
(x
a)
(y
by*
f 2 (x
a) (y
6) cos. w.
(30)
36
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
63.
If the axes are rectangular, or
=
= 0,
y
the pole
at.
therefore a
therefore
and
= 0,
6
and also
we have
tan. 0,
and
and
r'
= =
tan.
 1
x
x*
(29)
From
tan.
0=
sin.
y 
we have
cos.
^Y+^^i T VTT~F
/ .
;
!_
1
=
and
tf
= cos.
tan.
may
or
cos.
CHAPTER
V.
ON THE CIRCLE.
64.
FOLLOWING
would be the loci of the general equation of the second degree ; but there is one curve among these loci, remarkable for the facility of its description and the simplicity of its equation this curve, we need scarcely say, is the circle; and as the discussion of the circle is admirably fitted to prepare the reader for other investigations, we proceed to examine its analytical cha:
racter.
The common definition of the circle states, that the distance of any point on the circumference of the figure from the centre is equal to a given
line called the radius.
If a and 6 be the coordinates of the centre, x and y those of any point on the circumference, and r the radius, the distance between those points hence the equation to the circle is b Y + (* is )* } ( 29 ) { (y
XJ
65.
To
obtain this equation directly from the figure, be the origin, let
A A X, A Y the
IN
rectangular axes,
= 6J
THE CIRCLE.
37
M p^ v
BOQC
to the axis of x.
on the circumference
a line parallel
the
Then
square upon
upon
OQ,
also
OQ=AMAN=*
(y6)2
a;
(1)
or
a)
If the axis
ofx or
that of
becomes
respectively
If the origin be at any point of the circumference as E, we have then 2 the equation of condition 2 6 2 =: r ; expanding (1) and reducing it by means of this condition, we have
If the origin
is
at
B, B
or
O
'
2rx
*
2rx
*
we have
=0
and
ar
;
x* (4).
at the centre
y*
all
+X =r
O, we have
6=0 and
are
66. Equation (1), if expanded, is 2 r2 62 0. r2 2 6y a2 2 ax 2/ This differs from the complete equation of the second order ('23) in z having the coefficients of a? and y unity, and by having no term containing
the product x y. Any equation of this form being given, we can, by comparing it with the above equation, determine the situation of its locus, that is, find the position of the centre, and the magnitude of the corresponding circle.
Ex.
1.
y
here b
j;
+
a
2,
= 4,
9
8x and
6*
0.
<z
+ 6
r2
= 
/. 7*
=a +
25.
38
THE CIRCLE.
Let
In
perpendicular but downwards, and equal to 2 then O is the centre of the circle. With centre O and radius 5 describe a circle; this is the locus required. The points where it cuts the axis of x are determined by putting y ;
to
A be the origin of coordinates, AX, A Y the axes. AX take AN = 4 times the linear unit, from N draw NO
;
A X,
..* 8*
.'.
= 0;
=
4
x
j
4
1
hence
AB=
V2
find
N/1T; and A C
\/~2L
Similarly putting x
67.
0,
we
(x
AD
2
=
7'
and
AE
is
5.
The
shortest
 6) 2
3
way of describing
the locus
9.
For example,
the equation
x
cy
+ dx +
0,
c2
d8 and
o
8
,
d*
d*
where we observe
centre,
directly that
 and 2
&
is
and
2.
that
]
3/
{
8
 e}
+
4i/
Ex.
+
+
*8
JF
4#8 =
2
8,
2/
4.4 2/ +
2
or (y
2)
2,
and the
4.
Ex.3.
4.
3/*
5.
+ 2^4 /4
2
rfl=:03
1,
ft
1,
fi
6. 7.
+^+
2
43/
 3^=0;
,
6=
6
2,
2/M^
last
4y+2j:
0;
is
rrl,
= 2,
= r= \/"57
r
to calculate the length of the radius, for the circumference of the circle passes through the origin of coordinates, as do the loci of all equations which want the last or constant term.
8.
In these
no occasion
if
9.
10.
y a y
+ +
4
a?
x2
*
 6*
6x
= 0; =
= 0, b ~ 2, r = =  3, b 0, r = 3. + 8 = 0; a 3, 6 = 0, r=
;
a a
2.
1.
In th
last three
is
on the axes.
THE CIRCLE.
39
68. We have seen that the equation to the circle referred to rectangular axes does not contain the product xy, and also that the coefficients of y* and xz are each unity ; we have, moreover, seen that generally an equation of the second degree of this form has a circle for its locus, but there are
2
<r
Sy
12 x
4
52
is
is not a circle, apparently of the circular form ; its locus, however, 6 and y but a point whose co ordinates are x 4, for it may be put 2 2 under the form (y 4) f (x 6) =: 0, the only real solution of which 4 ; and this will always be the case when r2 is x 6 and y 0, hence a point may be considered as a circle whose radius is indefinitely small.
9 x* 0, may be put under Again, the equation y 4y f 2# 2 8 the form (y 4 ; but there are no possible values of 2) + {x j I) x and y that can satisfy this equation, therefore the locus is imaginary. (24).
69.
To
and
x', y'
any point on
Then
*/,
y' is
y 
y' = a (x
x')
x', y' is
y> 
xf
we have ex

(47.)
'
y'*~
r
2
xx'
.
=
The equation yy
1
thus found, may be easily remembered, from the similarity of its form to that of the equation to the circle, it x* r2 by changing i/ 2 or yy into y y' being obtained at once from y* and x* or x x into x x'.
x'
,
=r?
If
we take
6)
8
f
(x
8 a)* =: r ,
il'b
= +
y^
to the tangent is
=r
To
straight line.
+ b be + xx'=r
j?
#',
f y are unknown.
40
THE CIRCLE.
Since these lines are parallel,
y
"'
Hence by
=
*;
x
y
* H
r
we have
71.
To
and
circle
Let the centre of the circle be the common origin, and let the equations 2 r2 ; at the point of intersection, y and x must be y a.r + 6, and y 2 + r x* x + &), be the same for both. r2 (
whence
.r
6V{r (l+
8
)6
;
a
there being two values of x, we have two intersections be constructed, and the points of intersection found.
these values
may
will
the
1
line
If
Ex
Ex.
1.
J
f
** =r 25,
2. 3.
y
y
2
x*
8
a?
Ex.
f
= = 25
y
?/
*
ar
x
j?
=

4 and
5 and
line
2t>,
3, y 0, y
==
3 and 4
and 5
4y
f So, =
25
The
touches the
circle.
may observe that the coirbh ation of an equation of the first order with any equation of two dimensions will, as above, give an equation of and hence there can be only two intersecthe second order for solution tions of their loci.
;
We
72. If the axes be oblique and inclined to each other at an angle equation to the circle is
o>,
the
and j/ 2 hence
circle
_ 6) 4. (^ __ a y + 2 (y  6) (x a) cos. = r + x* + '2xy cos. w = r, if the origin be at the centre the equation y + cxy + a? + dy + # + f 0, belongs
2
u>
(30)
to the
in
cosine
is
one whose
Comparing
2a
it
2 cos. w
we
rf,
find
2 6 cos. w r=
<?,
o8
a
whence, by elimination,
we
obtain
= 2e d
6*
2a 6
erf
cos.
=
w 
= /;
ce.
,
2 d
^
and
ce.d
:
e*
^_4
nee the coordinates of the centre and the radius being known, the s can be drawn. 1 =. x Ex. 1. ; y xy f * y 1 ; .. w 2 cos. u 60; hence this equation will give a circle if
+ +
THE CIRCLE.
the axes be inclined at an angle of
a =:
11 ,
4,
60;
= =
2

The equation
to this circle,
is
when
8
to rectangular axes,
obviously y
2
,z
x*
r*
4
.
Ex.
This
centre
2.
8
2/
+ \/T.*2/ +
a circle
if
9 = 0.
will give
is at
45,
the
Of
must be
to,
or greater than,
i 2,
for cos.
y'b
x
f
O
a
b)
a) ____ (41)
is
.
to the
tangent
,.
(y'
(x'
a) cos. w
and reducing as in article 69 we have the equation to the tangent /  b}  &) + (x a) f (x (y 6) cos. w + (y/ (y' a) (x a) (y r\ 6) cos. w (y
73.
To
the circle.
Let the pole be at the origin S, and the angle P S (= 0) be measured from the axis of x.
Let and
^P = } be S N = a
octangular coordinates of
N0=
6
c,
SO =
y=u
tf
sin. 0,
=
2
a=c
6
6=c
sin. a.
y +
*
2by  2 ax
8
a*
+
~
= 0,
cos.
we have
?/
(sin. 0)

w2
c
(cos. 0)
2
2 cu
c
2
sin.
sin.
2
2cu
r*
cos.
f
(cos.
{
+
sin.
(sin.
=
}
0,
or
z/*
2cw
or
sin.
cos
cos.
o
2
0,
uz
2cu cos.
is
 *) + (0
 r*
=
a
0.
74.
c
If
.
a and  2
and
6 sin.
f
f
a2
r2
= 0.
42
If the origin be on the circumference fore the equation to the circle becomes
If the axis of
6*
=r
2
,
and
there
= 0, = 0.
is
Whence u
=a
cos.
db
Vr2
(sin.0)
O.
CHAPTER
VI.
THE most
a, 6,
c,
is
ay+ bxy + c
where
+ dy +
ex
+/=
to
y
J;
=" =
~~
y and x
separately, then
_^fJ7{(6
_4ac)
3/
+2(6 '2crf)+
<
 4
/}
(2).
account of the double sign of the root in (1), there are, in general, two values of y; hence there are two ordinates corresponding to the same abscissa: these ordinates maybe constructed whenever the values of x render the radical quantity real but if these values render it nothing, there is only one ordinate, and if they make it imaginary, no corresponding ordinate can be drawn, and therefore there is no point of the curve correHence, to know the extent ;md limits of sponding to such a value of x. the curve, we must examine when the quantity under the root is real,
;
On
nothing, or imaginary.
This
will
(b*
In an expression of this form, a value may be given to ar, so large that the sign of the whole quantity depends only upon that of its first term, or 4 ac, since x* is always positive for any upon that of its coefficient b* real value of x.
For, writing the expression in the form
m (x* +
x
w,
+ m )leto be the
and
tn
then sub
(q
1) for
or,
the expression
becomes
43
m m
and
>
m
r
;
is
positive,
is
of the ex
When tf is negative, real values may be given to x, either positive or negative, greater than rt r, which will render y imaginary. The curve will then be limited in both the positive and negative directions of
or.
4c
When
&
4 a c
is
positive,
all
values of x not less than r will is of infinite extent in both directhe quantity
when
is
nothing,
becomes
2
If b
(bd2ae)
4af.
2 a e be positive, real positive values may be given to #, which shall render y real ; but if a negative value be given to x greater
than
rW
(
.
CL
"
"
Ct
6)
is
imaginary
the opposite
But
that
is,
if
2ae be negative, exactly opposite results will follow, bd the curve will be of indefinite extent in the direction of x negative
in the opposite direction,
and limited
curves corresponding to the equation of the second degree, therefore be divided into three distinct classes.
1.
The
may
b* b*
2.
3.
4ac
but unli
4 a c negative.
b2
4 ac
and
let
jc l
d*
af=
0.
Then
equation (1) or
b*+d_ + ~~
2a
4ac
2
(x
bd
2
6
2
2ae
4 ac
x+
*
b*
becomes by substitution
b*
_ 4ac
NEOATIVK.
Let Let
one of
A be the origin of coordinates, AX, AY the oblique axes. H H' be the line represented by the equation y = a x f
its
I,
MO
*i)
x between x and
l
ora .
Along the
(j?
o*8 )},
MO
take
OP
and
,r
O P'
/
each equal to
(*.TI) (a?*,)
/*
(*
then
VJfi </{p
(**>)
2
O* )}
render
bisects
all
If we repeat this construction for all the real values of x which the root real we obtain the different points of the curve.
The
chords
H'
is
P P'
which are
it
the
The reality oi'y depends on the reality of the radical quantity, which last jr 2 depends on the form of the factors (x x^ and (x ), that is, on the roots *i and xz Now these may enter the equation in three forms real and unequal real and equal or both imaginary.
.
Case 1. Let x and xy be real and unequal, take A B j? a , x it A B' then if x x l or x* the quantity vanishes, and the orx^ yii (x dinate to the curve coincides with the crdinate to the diameter, therefore the and B' 11' parallel to drawing through B and B' two lines B curve cuts the diameter in and R'.
(xx^
AY
x
(x
For x
For
all
l
values of x between
positive
is
and x
x and xa there are two real values of y, for xs is negative, and therefore p. (x xj
l
J? 2
) is positive.
all values of x xz or j^, p (j?^) (x xs ) is negative, the root being impossible cannot be constructed, hence there is no real value of y corresponding to such values of x, and therefore the curve is entirely confined between the two lines and B' R'.
>
<
BR
line
Similarly by taking equation (2) in (75), Q Q' is a diameter ; that the curve cuts
lines parallel
we
it
shall
in
drawing
to
AX
through
confined
between those
parallels.
have thus determined that the curve exists and only exists between certain parallel lines its form is not yet asceitained. We might by giving
We
ac NEGATIVE.
l
45
a variety of values to x between x and ,r a determine a variety of points P, Q, &c., and thus arrive at a tolerably exact idea of its course, but independently of this method, its form cannot much differ from that in the figure, for supposing it to be such as in fig. (2) a straight line could be drawn cutting it in more points than two which is impossible (71).
is
If we require the points where the curve cuts 0, then the X, put y roots of the equation co? 2 f ex are the abscissas of the points of intersection, and the curve will cut the axis in two points, touch it in one, or never meet it, according as these roots are real and unequal, real and
+f
equal, or imaginary. Similarly putting where the curve meets the axis of y.
we
if
any,
Case
2.
Let the
roots
.*.
x and x a be
l
real
and equal,
a x
f /
which
is
=
+
(x
 x^
^
IJL
is
the poin
.
whose coordinates
Case
x
to
3.
l
and ocx
2aebd
t,
or
b
'
and
Zedbe
b*
4 ac
real value
4 a c
can be given to
make
x^)
(x
x^)
negative,
*J
1
for
the
p
p* of x.
\
x (# #0 (xxj) 2px (x db/?) (jalways positive for a real value <f Hence in this case the radical quantity being impossible there is no
<i
V
and
2
/.
which quantity
is
locus.
have not examined the equation of # in terms of y at length, for the dependent on those of the former. By comparing equations (1) and (2) in (75), we soe that c stands in one equation where
results of the latter are
We
a stands
in the other, and therefore that the radical quantities are contemporaneously possible, equal, or impossible, provided that a and c have the same sign, which is the case when b* 4ac is negative.
y= x  afy + v
l7
V  fjf(yyd
{
(yjfi)}
Case 1. #! and xz real and unequal. The locus is called an ellipse, its boundaries are determined from x^ xz y^ and y2 its diameters are drawn from y / and x ax a' y + V, and its intersections with the axes in the original equation. found by putting x and y successively ==
,
,
Case
2.
3.
j^
l
and xt
real
and equal
the locus
is
a point.
Case
Ex.
1.
1.
Fig
1.
A B = 2, A B'=
Ex.
2. y*
4,
AC
x*
=4y
s/T,
+ xy
4
The curve
A
C'=
These
'7
and
2 '7 nearly;
determine
its
course.
46
IP
ac POSITIVE.
=r 0.
Ex. Ex.
3.
+

2xy
8
.r
j?
Case
1.
4. y*
5.
Ex.
Ex.
Ex.
6.
2jr2/+2tf
2?y
+2;r=0.
Case
1.
1.
19
=
0.
0.
Case
3.
2.
The
in
Ex.
2
?/
1.
4 T
f
2
,r
j?
Case
be observed that no accurate form of the curve is here found, that will be hereafter ascertained, all that we can at present do, is to obtain an idea of the situation of the locus.
It is to
77.
Second
class, b*
4 a c positive.
in (76) the
equation becomes
=. a x
Let
is
I.
Then as
Case
1.
xa
and
r2 be real
draw
R,
B'R
parallel to
and unequal, let A B =: a^and AY, the curve meets the diameter
A B'
in
jr
a,
and
1.
B'
R'.
The
real
T2 but
radical quantity is imaginary for all values of x beyond these limits, hence no part of the curve
pnrallels
B R,
it
ft
4ac
POSITIVE.
47
for x in terms of y, we may draw the diameter determine the lines C Q, C' Q' parallel to A between which no part of the curve is found, and beyond which x is always possible. From this examination it results that the form of the locus must be something like that in fig. I, consisting of two opposite arcs with branches pro
QQ' and
ceeding to infinity. This curve is called the Hyperbola. We must observe that the second diameter does not necessarily meet the curve, for the contemporaneous possibility or impossibility of the radical quantities depends on the signs of a and c, and these may be different in
the hyperbola
;
may have
possible
and the
Case
2. x^
and xt
and equal.
I
y
this is the
= a x f
(x
lines.
#,)
Vju
Case
x and xz imaginary ; whatever real values be given to x the is real, and therefore there must be four infi'nite branches. xj (x xs can never vanish, (76, Case 3.) the diameter H' never meets the curve, but we may draw the other diameter as in
3.
~)
If neither diameter meets the curve, yet they will at least determine where the curve does not pass, we must then find the intersections with
the axes.
mine the
forms
+ xa'y +
ax
I
l'
J2)}
(7/y2 )}
Case 1. x l and xz real and unequal. The locus is an hyperbola, its boundaries determined from x v #2 y and ?/2 tne diameters are drawn from / and x =z a! ax y y + V, and its intersections with the axes found by putting x and y separately equal nothing. Case 2. and <r2 real and equal. The locus consists of two straight lines which intersect each other. Case 3. x\ and xa impossible. The locus is an hyperbola, draw the
if
Ex.
1.
 3xy +
to the
xz
0.
Case
Fig.
1.
The
origin being
The equations
AB =
92
5
diameters are
and y
A B'=
v
5
Case 1. The two diameters pass 0. 2 2 xy x* Ex. 2. y* through the origin and make an angle of 45 with the axes, the second 1 and A B the curve inter1 Q Q' never meets the curve, A B'
at distances
2.
48
 4ac
=
4
0.
4y
y
y 4xy  8a5j?
e
 txy 3x* + %y +
8
2
Qxy
+
+
y
 2y + 40*  26=
2,r
1
16
0.
= 0.
0.
Case Case
2.
j?
1.
1.
Case
The
to
y
Ex.
6.
2/2
lines
are
=
2.
equations
0,
and
+

3 jry
4
2 i8
<r
Ex.7. Ex.8.
y~
8
2/
jy + 3xy
f
10*
2 y f 3 or f 1  10 0.
= 0.
Case
2.
+i +
+x=

0.
Here neither diameter meets the curve ; but the curve passes through the origin and cuts the axis of a? at a distance 1, and that of y also at 1. a distance x*  2 y 5 x 3 0. Ex. 9. y* Case 3. The diameters are parallel to the axes, but the curve never meets that
is
=
Class,
Ex.
10.
a*
= 0.
Third
Case
3.
78.
b*
= 0.
Let
2a
d _ ._
r>d
2ae
2 a2
2a
And
let
a: 1
af=z
0.
The
Let
locus of
ax
\
is
a diameter
l
H' as
before.
/v
and B R be drawn parallel to A Y, the curve cuts the diameter in R. As x increases from x to
l
increases to OD, hence there are two arcs R Q, Q' extending to infinity. If x be less than xlt y is impossible, or no part of the curve
GO,
extends to the negative side of B. __^ A x Let v be negative, then the results are contrary, and the curve only extends on the negative side of B ; this case is represented by the dotted curve. This curve is called the Parabola.
d*
and the locus consists of two parallel straight lines ; and, according as 4 a/is positive, nothing, or negative, these lines are both real, or
unite into one, or are both imaginary. In discussing a particular example, reduce
it
to the
form
ax
J{v
(TJ?,)}
THE CENTRE.
Case
1.
49
v positive or negative. The locus is called a parabola; draw and find the points where the curve cuts the axes and diav
Case
2.
0.
The
is
one straight
Ex.1.
Ex.2.
Ex.3.
Ex.
Ex.
4. 5.
Ex.
6.
y*2xy + x *2y  \  0. Case 1. 2xy + 2  2y  2,r= 0. Case 1. Case 1. y* + 2xy + x* + 2y + x + 3 = 0. y 2xy + x*  1 = 0. Case 2. Two parallel straight lines. ~ 2x y + x* + 2 y  2 x+ 1=0. Case 2. One straight line. y* Case 2. Imaginary locus. y* + 2xy + x* + 1 = 0.
2/2
,r
line,
or
imaginary.
79. Before we leave this subject, it may be useful to recapitulate the results obtained from the investigation of the general equation
ay*
If
b*
+ bxy +
ex*
+ dy
4
ex
+ /=:
fol
4ac
varieties
is
lowing
1.
=
d
o,
and
circle.
(72.)
(b
2.
3.
2 a e)
(6
4 a c) (d a
(&*
a/).
(d
3
Locus
a point.
(bd
2ffp)
less
than
4c)
is
4 a/).
Locus ima
ginary.
If& 2
variety.
1.
(bd
 2e)
%
=
a
c
(62
ac) (d
4 a/).
Locus two
straight
lines.
= 0,
the locus
is
2.
3.
bd bd
b
2 ae z= 0.
Locus two
and d z
4
less
2oe = 0,
2
in
Locus imaginary. another relation between the coefficients would be obtained Apparently each variety, by taking the equation of x in terms of y; but on exathan 4 a/.
is
ae
= 0,
o/=
Locus one
straight line.
and d2
mination, it will be found that in each case the last relation the former.
involved in
50
CHAPTER
VII
simple form, which will be effected by the transformation of Taking the formulas in (54.)
coordinates.
y
and substituting
a(y'
(*'
=. y'
n,
and x
= tf + m
we have
c(,r'
in the
general equation,
n)
6 (*>
m)
(y' f
+ m) +
1
(y'
M)
+
+
m)
+/=0;
b x' y' + c x'* + (2 a n + b m + d) y' + + bmn + cm* + dn + emf=Q.
or arranging
ay'*
of
+
8 7i
(2 c
m+
ft
e)
at liberty to
last
As we have introduced two indeterminate quantities, m and ??, we make two hypotheses respecting the new coefficients in
equation
/.
;
are the
let,
and
y' each
2 an
find
f
0,
and
whence we
by elimination,
2<ze
62
2c7/i+6;t
+ e=0;
62
4ac'
and n
= 2cdbe
4
c
0.
may be
or, since
2 a n
+ m f d =
ft
0,
and
2cm +
6nfe
0,
Multiply the first of these two equations by n t and, adding the results, we have
m;
dn + em =0;
. .
7i
+
^
<
71
j
m =
8
d n
f
em
;
hence /'
d n
f
em
rdn fern
+/=
n,
dn + em +/, J
<&
which,
m

and
4
becomes
_
is
+
b*
c d*
ac
a*
'
The reduced
equation
ay" +
/'
0.
51
is
The
new
origin
of coordinates,
called
it
is
AMP,
every point P in the curve, whose coordinates are x and y, there, is another point P', whose coordinates are x and y, or A M' and M' P' hence, by comparing the right angled triangles, AM' P', we see that the
for
;
For the last equation remains the same when x and y are substituted for + x and f y hence,
:
of
Whenever, x and
its
straight line bisected in A. therefore, the equation remains the same on the substitution x and f y respectively, it belongs to a locus y for
and
referred to
centre.
If the equation be of an even order, this condition will be satisfied if the sum of the exponents of the variables in every term be even ; thus, in the general equation of the second order, a y 2 6 xy c j2 dy e x \the sum of the exponents in each of the three first terms 0, is 2, and in the two next terms is 1 changing the signs of x and y, the or for one point P, there is not equation does not remain the same another point P' opposite and similarly situated with respect to the origin ; But the equation ay* hence that origin is not the centre of the curve. b x y c x* 0, refers just as much to the point P' as to P, and thus the origin is here the centre of the curve. If the equation be of an odd order, the sum of the exponents in each term must be odd, and the constant term also must vanish; for if both these conditions are not fulfilled, the equation would be totally altered by x and x and putting y respectively. Therefore a locus y for may be referred to a centre if it be expressed by an equation which, by transformation, can be brought under either of the two following condi
+f
tions
(1) Where the sum of the indices of every term is even, whether there be a constant or not, as a y 2 f b x y c x* 0. (2) Where the sum of the indices in every term is odd, and there is no 0. constant term, as a y 3 + b x y* c x* y f d x3 j e y Now it has been stated (59) that no equation can be so transformed that the new equation shall be of a lower or higher degree than the ori
+/=
+fx =
Hence, if the original equation be of an even degree, the ginal one. transformed equation will be so too, and the locus can be transferred to a centre only where the equation can be brought under the first condition ; but if the original equation be of an odd degree, the transformed equation also will be of an odd degree, and the locus can only be transferred to a centre when the equation can be brought under the second condition. Hence we have a test, whether a locus with a given equation can be referred to a centre or not. If the axes can be transferred so that (1) The original equation being of an even degree, the coefficients of all the terms, the sum of whose exponents is odd, vanish. (2) The original equation being of an odd degree, the coefficients of all the terms, the sum of whose
E2
52
exponents is even, and also the constant term, vanish, then the locus may be referred to a centre, and not otherwise. Now in the transformation which we effect by making y y' + w, and x' \ m, we can destroy only two terms; we cannot therefore bring, x by any substitution, an equation of higher dimensions than the second under the necessary conditions, unless from some accidental relation of the original coefficients of that equation. But in the case of equations of the second degree, we can always bring them under the first condition, unless the values of the indeterminate quantities, and n, are found to be impossible or infinite. In curves of the second order, we see that the values of and n are 2 4 a c real and finite, unless 6 ; consequently the ellipse and hyperbola have a centre and the parabola has not hence arises the division
of these curves into two classes, central and noncentral. 4 a c b d In the case where 68 0, and at the same time 2 a e be vanish, the equation becomes that to a straight line, as or2cd nppears on inspecting the equations (1) and (2) in (75). should vanish, the equation beIf by the transformation the term c^2 comes of the form ay* + 6 x y 0; whence
f =
or
if
6
/v
/6
4#c
}
is
reduced
is
to
two straight
lines
is
ac
may have their general equation still further reduced by causing the term containing the product of the variables to vanish, which is done by another transformation of coordinates. Taking
the formulas in (58) let
Let
y'
x'
=
==
x"
jf''
sin.
y"
cos. 0,
sin. 0,
cos. d
y"
+ f = 0, we have + b(x"in 4+y"cos.4)(V'cos ty"s\n.6){ c(x"co*.6 y'^m.^+fQ 6 sin. e cos. + c (sin 0) + x"* {a (sin. 0) + y"* {a (cos. 0) b sin. 6 cos. + c (cos. 0)
a
y'*
b x' y'
ex'*
x'
y" (2 a
sin.
cos.
0+6
y"
(cos. 0)*
b (sin. 0) s
2 csin. 0cos. 0}
Let the
.'.
coefficient of of'
cos.
== 0,
2 a
sin.
9 2
6 (cos. 0) 8
b (sin. 0)*
s
2 c
sin.
8
cos.
}
= 0,
or (a
c)
sin.
9 cos.
c)
.*.
(a 
=r 0,
and dividing by
cos.
20,
we have
tan.
20= ~a,
Here
one (58)
an angle
;
is
hence,
the angle which the new axis of x makes with the original if the original rectangular axes be transferred through
,
0,
the
transformed equation
will
53
have no term containing the product x" y", that is, the equation, when its new rectangular axes, will be reduced to the simple form
a'
y"*
c'*" 8
+/'
().
a tangent is capable of expressing ah values from to CD , positive or negative, it follows that the angle Q has always a real value, whatever be the values of #, 6, and c, and thus it is always possible to destroy the term containing xy. The values of sin. 2 Q and cos. 2 are thus obtained from that of tan. 2 ;
83.
As
V
And
Since
(tan. 2 0)
^
0. tan.
sin.
= cos. 2
20
=
V
(a
c)
6*
than 90, xand therefore sin. 2 positive, the sign of the radical quantity must be taken positive or negative, according as b is itself negative or positive. 84. To express the coefficients a' and c' of the transformed equation in terms of the coefficients in the original equation. Taking the expressions for the coefficients in article (82) we have
must be
less
a'
c'
a (cos, 0) s a (sin. 0) 2
2
sin.
cos.
2 f c (sin. 0)
+
2
b sin. Q cos.
c (cos. 0)
2
,
.'.
= =
(cos 0) }
(a
c) cos.
206
,
sin.
but cos.
20=
and
sin.
20
=
V(ab*
V(ac) +
8
c?
s
V (a
c)
+
c)
6
2
V (a 
(a
&8
or
a
a'
Also
/.
c/
c'
= =
V (a a
j
c)
ft
c,
a'
c'
= l {a + c = ^ {a + c
is
V(ac) 2 +
68 .}
Hence
The upper or lower sign to be taken as the sign of 6 in the original equation
all
is
through
this article,
according
negative or positive
Hitherto
in this
chapter
number of altera
original equation: the following figures will show the corresponding alterations which have been made in the position of the curve. The ellipse is used in the figure, in preference to the hyperbola solely on account of its easier description.
tions in
the/orm of the
(,!
Fig. 1. We have here the original position of the curve referred X and A Y, and the corresponding equation is angular axes
to rect
Fig.
.
2.
The
origin
is
m=
4ac
and n
= 2cdbe
6s
and the
ay'*
bx'y'
+ cx'*+f =
0.
Fig. 3. The origin remains at A', but the curve is referred to the new rectangular axes A' X" and A' Y", instead of the former ones A' X' and A' Y'. The axis A' X' has been transferred through an angle X' A' X" into the position A' X'', the angle X' A'X", or 0, being determined by the
equation tan.
26=:
to the
curve
is
now
a'y"*+
86. In the ellipse and hyperbola the word " axis" is used in a limited sense to signify that portion of the central rectangular axis which is
bounded by the
curve. the lengths of the axes, put x" and y" successively 0, we then obtain the points where the curve cuts the axes, or, in other words, we have the lengths of the semiaxes. In the equation
To
find
a'y*
Let y"
Let #"
In
cf
x* +/'
0,
0,
= =
0,
/.
c'
x"*
+f =
and
*''
= =
C
0,
.'.
a'
y"*
+f =
0, a.I
/'
a'
y"
fig.
AC
r
^/
and A' B
putting for
and/',
55
2__
a
Let the
(a
__  +
c)
fa
\
+
62
c d*
de
6
1
4 ac
0,
equation
a' y"*
cf
x'
+ /'
Then,
if
the curve
is
an
ellipse,
we must have
4ac
f
negative,
(
or, since 6 r=
we must have
both positive
/v
7/)
negative,
and
therefore
and
J
a'
^
d
and
are negative, would give
J
an imaginary locus).
If the curve
is
J
an hyperbola, 6
2
4 a
or
c is positive,
and therefore
(
^J
("77) must
and the other
be positive,
one of the
values,
positive,
77
negative
hence,
one of the axes in the hyperbola has an impossible value, and therefore does not meet the curve. The relative lengths of the axes will depend entirely on the magnitude o.
a'
87. Hitherto the original coordinates have been rectangular, but if they were oblique, considerable alterations must be made in some of the
formulas. Articles 80 and 81 are applicable in all cases, but 82, 83, and 84, must be entirely changed ; the method pursued will be nearly the same as in the more simple case ; but on account of the great length of some of the operations, we cannot do more than indicate a few steps, and give the
results *.
To
__ x" sin.
+
sin.
f
co
sin. 6'
__
x"
sin.
(w0)
sin.
1
+ y"
i*>.
sin.
(w
z
0')
* ay +
6 x'
cx' f /'
=
8 >
0,
we have
!
m
{
a
(
(sin. 0')
+ +
6 sin.
0' sin.
0'
c (sin.
w w
0')
(sin.
I
w)
x"*
(sin. 0)
6 sin.
sin.
f c (sin.
0)
>
(__
* This
at the
article, and the following first reading of the subject.
(sin. faQ*
56
+
2 c
" 2 y" {2 a 1
sin. 0. sin. 0* 4
w0 +
0.
b sin.
sin.
w0
4
sin.
w 
0. sin.
0' >
J
 4<i>)
f=
(sin.
Let the coefficient of x" y" 0; expanding sin. w dividing by cos. 0. cos 0' we shall obtain the equation
0, sin.
0'
and
!a
(0'
tan.
w 4 c (cos. w) } 2 tan. #. tan. 4 { b 2 c (sin. w) a 0. 4 tan. 0'} a value of d' Whence for any given value of
b cos.
&
2 c cos. w
sin. w.
0) axes to
and consequently of be found, so that there are an infinite number of pairs of which if the curve be referred, its equation may assume the form
may
Let us
now examine
:
rectangular
For
this
0'
and therefore
tan. 0'
By substituting
tan. 0',
sin. w.
we have
2
tan.
this value of tan. 0' in the equation containing tan. 2 2 {a 6 cos. tu 4. c (cos. w) } 4 { 2 c cos. no
and
6
}
20
tan.
1
2 c
(sin. wY =
0.
c sin.
2 w
6 sin.
w
o>
b cos.
4 c cos. 2
There are two angles which have got the same tan. 2 u separated from each other by 180, therefore there are two angles 0, which would satisfy the above equation ; however, as they are separated by an angle of 90,
the second value only applies to the new axis of y". Hence there is only one system of rectangular axes, and their position is fully determined by the last formula.
*88.
To
and
c' in
original equation, the new axes being supposed rectangular. Taking the coefficients in the general transformed equation given above, putting
0'
4. 0,
8
and multiplying by
(sin. u>)
we
have,
a! (sin.
c'
w)
(sin.
:.
w)
= =
a a
(cos. 0)*
8
6 cos.
cos.
sin.
8
(sin. 0)
+
0'}
6 sin.
w w
4 c (cos.
4 c (sin.
8
w w
0)*
0)*
cos.
2
(' 
c') (sin.
w)
=a
{(cos. 0)
 (sin. 0) }  b { cos.
w
4>
sin. 0sin.
c{(cos.
0)
(sin.
0)
= a cos. 20 = [a 6 cos.
a
6 cos. (w 4 ccos.
2 0) 4 c cos. (2 w
 2 0)
o>
2w}
cos.
method
in (83)
4 c cos.
2 w
b sin.
57
cos. 2u>}
>
.
M=
=
(a'
.*.
V { + b f ^ { (a 4 c  6
2
2
2
6 (a
8
+
2
c) cos.
&>
ac
2
t>;)
cos. a>)
f (6
c) (sin.
Hence (a'c')
and
(sin. <u)
M
6 cos.
c') (sin.
2 w) =: a
+c
}
a'
6 cos.
w w
+
+
M M
2 (sin. w
1
2
and
c' ==.
b cos.
is
c 4
(sin.
w)
Hence
b*4ac
And
^J
the 6 sin. w is positive sign is to be used according as c sin. 2 w or negative, since 2 is assumed to be positive. These analytical transformations may be geometrically represented as in In figures (1), (2), and (3) we must suppose the axes AX, AY, (85). and also the axes A/X' and A' Y', to contain the angle w. The article (86) will equally apply when the original axes are oblique ; the value of the square on the semiaxis is,
(sin, to)
/a e*
+
61
dt
b cos.
'
4ac~~
89, shall conclude the discussion of the central class by the application of the results already obtained to a few examples.
We
ay + bxy
1
+
'
ex*
+ dy +
ex
+ f=
(I)
=
2
formulas to be used.
TO
ae
cd
b e
dn + em
2
^Jcj/
ae*
+
68
cd*
 bde
(5)
4r
t/'=0
'
= x" =y
sin.
4
cos.
0^sin.
tan.
26=
_
(6)
58
=
!{
c ip
M}
is
(8)
M=
it
*J (a
e)
6 2 , it according as 6
f
*"'='
'
(2) and (3) determine the situation of the centre, and together with (4) reduce the equation to the form (5) (6) determines the position of the rectangular axes passing through the centre, (7) and (8) enable us to reduce the equation to its most simple form (9) and the coefficients of y"* and x"* inverted are respectively the squares upon the semiaxes measured along the axes of y" and x".
;
:
Ex.
1.
a 3/
m= l;n=
tan.
xy +
x
+ x\^Q;
locus an ellipse.
!;/'= 2;
and 0=
y'*x'y'+ x'*2
2
=Q
is
:.20
= 90
a'
45;
c'
negative,
and
/.
M= +
and
y
*"=
1
or
y* +
and 4 3
The squares on
selves are
V3
Ex.
2.
and,/2,
4 and 7=
V3'
3y
4xy + 3x*+y
is
1.
= 0;
locus an ellipse.
by"*
+ xm =
The axes
are 2 and
2#
ry
is
p.
{
1.
5y
4
6,ry
5,r8
 22y
rf
 2 6*
29
+ m
+=
V2
y" ^5
= 0; 8
locus an ellipse.
5 y
f*
tan.
20
:=:
GO
*
.
Q =r
45;
y ==
'
x"
+ v" +J(_
and
1 = x"
V2
59
I (*" +
5.
3/")
y/a _
..//a
gL +
12 y
 (*"  y")
P*
8 =
or
4 y m + xm =
2
Ex.
2 1/
2x y
2
j?
12
.r
locus an ellipse.
Ex.6.
Let y
22/
+ # My2 x 6=0;
a?
locus an ellipse.
is
y'+7i and
M)
= j?'+m,
m)
2
(jc>+
 = 4 n2m6= 0.
1
ml =
/. is
7^=1
2
and TZ=:
and
/'=
9;
2y +#'
Ex.7, y 8
10
/2
=9
The
axes are 6 and
locus an hyperbola.
requisite.
xy + x* + y + x+l=Q;
6y'
f *
 4r //2 +
4i/
^
Ex.8.
4z/ 8
ry4
2
j?
+ 28^
= 0. 15 = 0; locus an hyperbola.
is
the axes are each \] 2 , that which axis of x" alone meeting the curve.
Here
Ex.
9.
y
is
2 xy
x*
locus an hyperbola.
is
origin necessary.
tan.
The
*90.
c'=j~2, y'*~x>*=J~Z.
The
20=
 c sin. 2
6 cos.
c cos.
5 w 2
1
=
</
6 cos.
2 (sin w) 2
=
2
{2
6 cos. a,f
c^M} ^A^.
+
c) cos.
ia
M=
Ex.
1.
^
y*
(a f 6
+
{
c2
2 6 (a
+
.
2 a c cos. 2
}.
as c sin. 2
b sin
w
;
is
 x y
x*
y + x
=
.'.2
the angle
between the
,n= ^, o
; o
tan
20=1
=45; M = + (l 
60
The
The curve
is
2 1. 3 (2  J* > y"' (' V2) *"* an ellipse, and the squares upon the semiaxes are
Ex.
2.
2 y + 16 x y
16
2
.r
f
32
y + 64
,r
28
0.
The
angle
60.
The form
since tan.
of the equation
is
now
7 y'
16
x' y'
16 x' 2
36
the reduction to rectangular axes is effected by merely and 60, transferring the axis ofy' through 30; hence, putting the formulas (56) of transformation become
200,
0=0.
w=
*, V
3
and
.=
_
it
f
\/3
becomes
4y"*+
Hence
Ex.
3.
}6x"*
 36r=0;
w
ellijse
2
r
are 3 and 6.
;
3
?t
xy +
+ =0
1
the angle
.
.
= 60.
30;
m =0,
'
= 0,
tan.
20
f
=
1,
^/3,
M=
r
4.
5, c' rr
 ,f
3
=^
is
57/0
^*"'=
I
The curve
first
is
V3
and
tne
a;''
The second
of these, which is the greatest, is measured along the new axis of axis never meets the curve.
91. It was observed, at the end of art. 81, that the curves corresponding to the general equation of the second order were divided into two classes, one class having a centre or point such that every chord passing through it is bisected in that point, and another class having no such This fact was ascertained from the inspection of the peculiar point. and n introduced into the values of the two indeterminate quantities equation by means of the transformation of coordinates, and for the purpose of destroying certain terms in the general equation. The values of and n were found to be infinite, that is, there was no centre when the relation among the three first terms of the coefficients of the general 4 a c 0. equation was such that b* This relation 6 8 4 a c being characteristic of the parabola, it follows that the general equation of the second order belonging to a parabola is not capable of the reduction performed in art. (80) ; that is, we cannot destroy the coefficients of both x and y, or reduce the equation
ci
+/=
a y*
0.
x y
c x*
+/=
form a y*
Although, however, we cannot thus reduce the parabolic equation, we are yet able to reduce it to a very simple form, in fact to a much more simple form than that of either of the above equations. This will be effected by a process similar to that already used for the general equation, We shall commence by transferring the axes only in a different order. through an angle 0, and thus destroy two terms in the equation, so 2 that it will be reduced to the form we shall then transfer the axes parallel to themselves, and by that means destroy two other terms, so that the final equation will be of the form
ay + dy +
x
o
ex+f=0;
a
92.
y* ~f~ e
Taking
y =: x
x'
sin.
x' cos. e
y' cos. 9
y' sin. Q
+
2
j
e.
+ /=
0,
(cos.
y'
6 sin.
+c
.r'
2
j
rfcos. 4 #'
+ rfsiu. 6
(sin.
c (cos. *
2 c
sin. t cos. 6
Let the
=
+
6 {(cos. 0)* 6 cos.
V 2
r>)
sin
(
cos. c) sin.
or
20 +
 (sin. 20=0,
0)
0,
and
Hence,
if
tan.
20= a
will
as in (82.)
=2
of the variables
that
is, it will
be of the form
a' y'*
f
c' *'
f d' y' f
e x'
+/=
0.
But, since this last equation belongs among first terms must be such that the general con2 holds good. In this case, since 6' 4 a c dition 6 0, we must that is, the transhence either a' or c' must have  4 a' c' , ; formation which has enabled us to destroy the coefficient of the term f x'* or y'*. containing x y will of necessity destroy the coefficient of either And this will soon be observed upon examining the values of the cothe coefficients of the three
efficients
of
x'*
and y
*.
is,
=  2 V^T.
1 1
From
tan.
we have
cos.
r=
62
since sin. 2 9
must be
.
positive,
and b
is itself
negative
hence
cos.
/ = \/
I
f cos. 2 6
3
cos.
\/j(l
/ _) = ^i,
c\
2 9
sin.
__
a a a a
c c
j c
c c
^a + 2ocjc
a
afca+c c a Vac
a
ojc
~~
2 a c
\
+ c"
afc
c
is
And
(a
now
va+c
is
And
it
manifest that
article, the
all
the
way through
this
{a
e)
+.
v a
y'
c
,'
v a
+ /= +
0.
f c
parallel
94. In order to reduce the equation still lower, let us transfer the axes n n and x' to themselves by means of the formulas y' y r" (54.)
+m
+
d')
d'
y' f
(y" f ")
f ^'
(y"
or
0'^+
(2a'n
y"
x' \
'
And since we have two independent quantities, ra and n, we can make two hypotheses respecting them ; let, therefore, their values be such that the coefficient of y' and the constant term in the equation eac h
that
is, let
2a'n +
d'
= 0, and a' n* +
d'
7
whence n r=
and the reduced equation
is
2 a
c'
d'
.
now
y
"
of the form
of
'
x"
63
f d' \?
f
manifest that
x* f
f =.
had been positive, the equation would have been reduced to the form
if
c' a/
+
o
m and n would
c'
i
dV =
e
2
^i
'
>
am
__
ti r\
4 c'f r
95. The following figures will exhibit the changes which have taken place in regard to the position of the locus corresponding to each analytical change in iheform of the equation
:
Y
Y
X
Y'
X
In
the curve
is
fig.
1,
is
A X
0.
and
A A
Y, and
the equation
ay*
In
angle
fig.
x y
c x*
+ dy +
+ f=
2,
X',
Y', the
X A
X'
or
for 6 negative,
+
+
d'y'
e'
+/=
+f=
0.
angles to
would originally have been situated present position, and the reduced equation would be
c' at*
f d' y' f e
at right
0.
changed from A to A', the coordinates of A' being measured along A X' and A Y', and their values determined by the equations
In
the position fig. 3,
of the origin
is
for b negative,
d' = ^r
and
d'*4a'f ^ ^ &l
."
for 6 positive,
==
e'
e'*
4
,
and n
c'
f
.
is
e'
x"
0.
for 6 positive,
c' a/'
f d' y" s=
0.
96*. If the original axes are oblique, the transformation of the general The values equation must be effected by means of the formulas in (55). of a, b', and c' will be exactly the same as in (87). We may then let 6' 0, and also find tan. 2 6 when the axes are rect
64
(87),
we
shall find
that there
is
The same value of 9 which destroys the term in x' y' will, as in (93), 2 also destroy the term in x'* or y' ; hence the reduced equation will be t' x' b sin. w positive, a' 0. for csin. 2 w f d' y'
y'*
for c sin. 2
<a
sin. o
negative,
a', c', d',
c'
+ +
e'
+/ = + / r=
0.
97.
To
and
The
values of a' and c are best deduced from those in art. (88), Since 6 8 6 sin. w positive 4 a c 0, we have for c sin. 2 w
= M=a a' = {a
a
b cos.
b cos.
+c + c}
J
cos.
2 9 r=
d)
b cos.
(sin. a>)
c cos.
a>
a  b cos.
a>
Also a
=
(d
siri.
Jc
__
and
cos. 6
/ /a = \/ V
6 cos.
+c (cos. ta)
ia
^
b cos.
cos.
__
e cos.
w)
and
e'
d
sin.
+
e.
e sin. (w
:
sin.
sin
ta
e cos.
(w
0)
J{a
bcos.w
c (cos. w)
2
}
>^c
(sin.
w)
sin.
o>
tj
{a
6 cos.
c }
0)
a)
(d
cos. w) A/C
fj
J {a
b cos.
b cos.
+ c (cos.
w)
[a
d'y'
c }
is
now
of the form
a'2/'
e'
x'
+/=0;
a', c',
For
d',
c sin. 2
e'
6 sin.
M,
and
are
M=
a'=
</
(a
+
c)
c)
== (a
6 cos.
w)
c}
'
(sin.
sin.
and
d'
cos.
hence
(d 
Jc
J
{
"
J
>
ab
"
a
^
b cos.
w
~
+
"
cincl
^""
__ (d
ecos. w) ......

^ {a
.
6 cos.
sin.
is
now
of the form
(tv"*
The
d'y'
e'x>
+/=0.
transformation required to reduce the equations still lower is performed exactly as in (94) ; and, by making the angle between the original
We
1.
Ex.
3/
Qjry
+
A
9 x*
+
o
'
10 y
;
0; locus a parabola.
the tables.
tan. 29 =r
b is negative
.'.
 =
ci

hence
may be found by
by (93)
a'
/.
=
10
a f
2
z/'
10,
y'
c'
0, d'
= JlO
a:'
and
e'
r= 3 \/To,
Also by (94) n =r
 2
is
VIO
4 3
VIo
f

=
;
and
m=
2>/10
VlO
and the
final
equation
io
Ex.
2.
i/
^:0;
locus a parabola.
0.
Ex.3.
form y
f
\/2/+ x d
y
2
*J
=
2
=
+
Vd;
the
2 *J x y
or
xy
a?
c? ,r
d2
is
a parabola because
52
satisfies the
condition
4 a c
=
d
0.
By
we
PBCQ
and y
=x
to the
diameters
BE
A
.r',
and
i/',
C F.
are the
new
axes,
or
being 45.
'
2, d'
= 0,
c'
2d
J2
o,
m = = 2^2
new
axes, therefore
take
A A'=
2
final
VI
and A'
is
is
the
new
origin.
The
equation
dxV2
Ex. 4
or
 4.0./=
y=
+
0.
f
2 /".r
The
locus
is
a parabola, since
6*
66
THE ELLIPSE.
Let y
.'.
;/'
'
+
...
n,
and x =
x'
y>
c Or'
/*" +
(2
e
m /f
c) a'
n =0.
Let 2
m/+
=
...
0,
and
=
e
2
,
is
/
The axes
oblique.
2
&
;
y'
= 0.
60.
Here, c
Sjry+jc sin. 2 w
6 #
b sin.
o> is
M=
3,
a'
4,
c'
= 0,
d' s= 6,
c'
= 3
2 V~3~,
m= 
4 v2
CHAPTER
VIII
THE ELLIPSE.
100. IN the discussion of the general equation of the second order, we have seen that, supposing the origin of coordinates in the centre, there is but one system of rectangular axes to which, if the corresponding ellipse be referred, its equation is of the simple form
or,
where the
coefficients
P and
(86, 87.)
We now
this
the ellipse. To exhibit the coefficients in a better form ; let curve ; JT, y, the rectangular axes meeting in C ;
X Y
C be the C M = x,
l
centre of the
M P =: y.
Then
at the points
the axes,
we have
=
=
0,
Qj*=:l,
.'.
x=
0,
Py=
1,
/.
y=
VP
'
THE ELLIPSE
A'
:mand C A
=
B'
y take
C B =
VP
B
and
VF
6,
then the curve cuts the axes at the points A, A', B, and B'.
Also
if
A =
a and C
,
6,
we have
and
P =
becomes
b*
a2
101.
tion.
We
is
The points A, A', B, and B' determine those limits. equation we have
(1),
From
the last
and x
from (1)
#, y is impossible, and from (2) if y is greater than 6, x is also impossible ; hence straight lines drawn through greater than the points A, A', B and B' parallel to the axes, completely enclose the
if
is
curve.
A.gain from (1) for every value of x less than a we have two real and less than C A' we have equal values of y, that is, for any abscissa C two equal ordinates MP, P', the sign determining their opposite
directions.
to + a these values of y decrease from b Also as x increases from hence we have two equal arcs B P A', B' P' A' exactly similar and
to 0,
opposite to one another. to z* is positive, and the [f 00 be negative, and decrease from same values of y must recur, hence there are two equal and opposite
,
F2
63
arcs
THE ELLIPSE.
B
A, B'A.
Therefore the whole curve
is
parts by the axis of x. From (2) the curve appears in the equal parts by the axis of y hence
:
same way
it
is
respect to those axes. Its concavity must also be turned towards the centre, otherwise it might be cut by a straight line in more points than two, which is impossible
102.
From
the equation
8 a:
(a
we have
hence C
case
that can
C P becomes
0, in
when x is greatest, that is, when x in which , also equal to a, hence C or C A' is the greatest line be drawn from the centre to the curve. Again C is least when
is
greatest
the least line axes A' and B B' are thus shown to be the greatest and least lines that can be drawn through the The greater A A' is called the axis major, or greater axis, or centre. transverse axis, and B B' the axis minor or lesser axis.
to b,
is
becomes equal
to the curve.
hence
CB
The
103. The points A, B, A' and B' are called the vertices or summits of the curve. Any of these points may be taken for the origin, thus let be the origin, C the axis of r, and let the axis of y be parallel to C B,
and
A M = x'.
Then #
= C M = AM  AC = ^
ij*
(2 a x
j? )
x (2 a 
x).
This
last
The square upon M P the rectangle A M, M A' : the square upon A C. Hence the square upon the ordinate varies as
:
equation
is
by the segments of the axis major. If the origin be at C, C A' the axis of y and
putting x for
CB
r^
we have,
origin
y and yfor
g
x, the equation
(&
and
if the
be
at
B, y
^(Zbxx*).
104. If the axes major and minor were equal to one another, the equa8 8 a* .r , which is that to a circle tion to the ellipse would become y whose diameter is 2 a, hence we see as in (79) that the circle is a species
Ao we advance we shall have frequent occasion to remark the of ellipse. analogy existing between these two curves. Let A Q A' be the circle described upon A A' as diameter, and Q or Y be an ordinate corresponding to the abscissa C or #, let P (?/) be the corresponding ordinate to the ellipse, then we have
THE FOCUS.
3,'
:.
::
b:a
circle the
thus the ordinate to the ellipse has to the corresponding ordinate of the constant ratio of the axis minor to the axis major.
wholly without the ellipse, except at Similarly if a circle be described on the axis minor, it is wholly within the ellipse except at B and B'. Thus the elliptic curve lies between the two circumferences.
circle is
Since b
THE FOCUS.
105.
THE
x
equation y*
I
(2
ax
#*)
may
2 7/
xz
2 a
in
2 62
is
called the
Rectum.
Since
2a
the Latus
Rectum
is
axis major
and minor.
axis
To find from what point in the be drawn equal to the Latus Rectum.
106.
Here 4 y*
...
s I
or
i^ (a*  x*) = i^
b*
_*or x9
=
=
a*
b9
b*
.
and x
i <Ja*
= V
and radius a describe a circle cutting the axis major in the c= points S and H, then we have C H
With centre
+ ja t
b*
and
CS
6
a
,
are the points through either of which if an ordinate at thus S and L S L' be drawn, it is equal to the Latus Rectum ; henceforward then we shall consider this line as the Latus Rectum or principal parameter of the
ellipse.
thus determined are called the Foci, for a The two points S and reason to be hereafter explained.
107.
The
fraction
ratio of
CS
to
CA
70
THE FOCUS.
is called the excentricity, because the deviation of this curve from the circular form, that is, its excentric course, depends upon the magnitude of this ratio.
is
we have
=
is
and
the form
y z=(le
108.
(*).
ellipticity
;
The
line
S C
is
ae
we
value, as above, a2 e 62
The
rectangle
A S,
r',
S A?
C.
in the curve.
To find Let S P = r,
109.
HP
..
r=
r2
=
(x
2
(y
a
2
y'Y
8
9
#'
<?,
3/2
e)
=r (1
a2
 e ) (a8  * ) + (x + e)  ^  e a2 + e ^ + x 9 + 2 a ex +
tf
a* e*
.*.
e,r
similarly
HP=
ej?.
In all questions referring to the absolute magnitude of S P or we must give to x its proper sign ; thus if P is between B and A, the absolute e,r, because x is itself negative. magnitude of S P is a / 2<z P, we have ; By the addition of S P and that is, the sum of the distances of any point on the curve from the foci
HP
SP+ HP =
= AA
is
equal to the axis major This property is analogous to that of the any point from the centre is constant.
circle,
110. This property of the ellipse is so useful, that we shall prove the To find the locus of a point P, the sum of whose distances converse. is constant or equal 2 a. from two fixed points S and
Let S
H=
H
P
2c, bisect
H
;
in C,
let
rectangular axes
C A', C B
M == x,
to be the origin of
then S
=
2a,
=
)
orSP=:2aHP
x
3/
=4o*a
(c
4 a
V (c 4,
we have
x)*
ex
THE TANGENT.
s= a4
2
71
a* c2
2
+
8 8
c y?
a8
8
a?
=O and y* =
c ) (a
*)
(a
 x8 )
c*,
Hence the locus is an ellipse whose axes are 2 a and 2 whose foci are S and H.
and
THE TANGENT.
111.
To
at y'
Let
any point.
Q
two points
(41)
is
'
PQ
throijgh these
y'
y
t
.
(x  #0,
Now this cutting line or secant will come to the position TPT' or just touch the curve when Q comes to P, and the equation will 1 become the equation to the tangent x' and y" when af' y.
PQ
PT
PQ
In
term
f
yl
f
y'l
f
becomes
,
but
its
value
may yet be
found,
x y
f ,
we have
a*y'*
/.
+b*x
2
lz
a
y"}
(y'
(y'
or
(y'
"
.
y'
x'
y"
*" 8 )
x") (x'
"
x"}
0,
y" x"
:=
a2
y'
b* x'
when
= ^ and
'r
.*.
The equation
to the tangent is
By
multiplication
cfyy
a*y"
=
a2 6 2
.
6'j?^'
72
THE TANGENT.
is yf and In the figure C P is y', and x and y are the coordinates of any point in T PT'. The equation to the tangent is easily recollected, since it may be obtained 2 2 8 2 6 x from that to the curve s y s 6 by putting yy' for y* and xx'
for
8 .T .
is a tangent is evident, since a straight line cannot cut 112. That the curve in more points than two, and here those two have gradually coalesced ; it may, however, be satisfactory to show that every point in P except P is without the curve.
PT
is
Let x and y be the coordinates of any point R then if a"y* + b* x* 8 2 the point R is without the curve. For, join the greater than # 6
l
l
with the centre of the ellipse by a line cutting the curve in Q, x and y be the coordinates of Q, then if a*y*\ 6 2 x* is greater 8 than a 6 or than a 2 y* f 62 ^, we have 6 2 (x?  j?2 ) greater than a2 (y 2 2 but 6 is less than a, therefore x* x* must be greater than s/i ) z 2 yf, or xf + y* greater than x* + y , and therefore C R greater than y
point
R
2
;
and
let
CQ
(29), or
is
we have
/.
8
az y iz
or a (y'
/.
a2
/+
2
,r
=
.
a2
a2
(y'
V
y)
b (x f
a)
2 which is greater than a2 6 But y and x are the coordinates of any point in the tangent therefore in the particular generally any point on the tangent is without the curve = x', that is at P, we have the equation case where y y', and x a8 y 2 + 6 2 x3 := a2 6 2 therefore at that point the tangent coincides with the
;
;
,
curve.
is
62
(2 a
xz } or a z y* f
6 2 x*
2 a b*x ==
is
0,
to the tangent,
a*yy'
tfxx
ab* (x
a/)
=
y
= mx
nxx'.
tangent
is
y y'
(x
#')
Generally,
if
is
~
y
 2
c,r'
ex'
by
+
*
rf
or (2 ay' f bx'
d)
(2
6y'
3/
^+ 2/= 0.
THE TANGENT.
then,
73
Again let y =: a x + d be the equation to a tangent to the ellipse a2 6 s and elimicomparing this with the equation a?y y' f b* xx' 8 2 2 6 2 we have + b*x 12 nating x' and y' by means of the equation y'
a2
= d\
and
this is the
oe
+
To
114.
necessary relation among the coefficients of the equation it is a tangent to the curve. find the point where the tangent cuts the axes.
d when
b*
x x'
put y
6
8
,'.b z
xx
:= a2 6 e ,
and
a?
a2 x
and
Since
= C T' = hence we have y' The rectangle C T, C M = The square upon A C, The rectangle CT', MP = The square upon B C
;
~ CT
similarly
CT(
) xf J
y',
it
is
all
ellipses
which have the same axis major, and same abscissa for the point of contact ; and, as the circle on the axis major may be considered as one of these ellipses, the distance C T is the same for an ellipse and its circumscribing
circle.
Again, since
at the
CT =
a2
is
f independent of the sign of y the tangents,
,
The equation
two extremities of an ordinate, meet in the same point on the axis. to the lower tangent is found by putting y' for y' in the
general equation to the tangent (111). from the foot of the ordinate to the point 115. The distance where the tangent meets the axis of r, is called the subtangent.
MT
Intheellipse,MT=:CT116.
of
=a
The equation
;
to the
0,
.".
and
.'.
y'
62
ax
;
a2
and x
is
perpendicular to
is
perpendicular
s
,
The
2 being a y
&
x y?
or
If P C be produced to meet the curve again in P', the signs of the coordinates of P' are both contrary to those of P ; hence the coefficient
6 
x'
ay
P', or the
tangents at
and
F are parallel
117.
To
Latus
Rectum.
The equation
generally
7i
THE TANGENT.
1
At L, x
.*.
ae and
y'
a
8
a2 v
6*
a
s 8 6 x a e =r a 6
=: a
JF.
/.
MQ =
S P.
where
this particular
118.
lo
axis, let
to
From T draw T R perpendicular to A C, and from P draw P R parallel A C then, taking the absolute values of C M and C T, we have
;
Consequently, the distances of any point P from S, and from the line are in the constant ratio of e : 1. is called the directrix; for, This line knowing the position of this line and of the focus, an ellipse of any excentricity may be described, as will hereafter be shown. If x a. Thus the tangent, at the extremity of the 0, we have y Latus Rectum, cuts the axis of y where that axis meets the circumscribing
T R,
TR
circle.
By producing Q
The
119.
tangent.
rectangle
that
To
Let S y, H 2, be the perpendiculars on the tangent PT. Taking the expression in (48.) we hare
Where
y
r= a x is also
y, =r
is
and x v ae are coordinates of the point S, and the equation to the line P T. But the equation to P
THE TANGENT.
f5
And
Let S
or
ed
r,
and
H P or
e a?
=2 r=
r',
2ar
Similarly,
if
p',
we have
p'
2
=
;
By
multiplication
we have pp'
y,
s= 6
2
Hence,
C.
The
120.
rectangle S
To
2 n 2 2 The equation to the curve at P is a* 6 2 y + 6 a/ (1) 2 2 The equation to the tangent at P is (2). a?yy'+b*xx'=i a 6 The equation to the perpendicular S y (the coordinatss of S being  c, 0) is y = a (x + c) and this line being perpendicular to the tangent
(2),
we have a
to
Sy
is
If we eliminate y' and x' from (1) (2) and (3), we shall have an equation involving x and y ; but this elimination supposes x and y to be the same for both (2) and (3), and therefore can only refer to their intersection. Hence, the resulting equation is the locus of their intersection.
From
y'
' (3)
bz
y x
x'
a*
=
c
b*
.
62
a*
x
from (2)
;
a/
and
y'
(x
c)
r.
x (x
f c)
76
THE TANGENT.
Substituting these values of x' and
a*b* y
8
y',
in (1),
we have
a?
+
..
(,r
2
+
2
e)
a? b*
8
{y f
(*
+ c)
8
}*
6*
2
y f
2
(*
+
9
c)
r= {y 2
4
& + c)}*
c)
Or,
'
a'
y
2
Cr c)
=
2/
y
8
2 x (x
+
c)
y f
8
{/+
C*
+ 0'}
4
2/
4
+ +
{2.r
O+
2
2/
+c
9
+ c) + *>(* + c)
a:
(x
2
2/
*2
(*
c)
8 f ^
(ar
c)
This
is
whose radius
is a.
is
From
may
CP
x \
we
prove that
C P and S y meet
in the directrix.
121.
To
find the
focal distance
2
SP
b*
.
tangent
P T.
is
The
6 = 
x'
,
x
c,
\
The
equation to S
passing through S
0) and
(,i
} is
And
tan.
SPT = tan.
(P S C
 PTC) =
X ' +C "
y'
a* y'
*
a'fc
68
PT to tan. H PT
;
this
for c in the
to the equation
HPT =
b*
;,
hence, tan.
HPz =
SPT,
tan.
(180
HPT) = 
tan.
HPT =
HPz
THE TANGENT.
if
77
a light be placed at H, all rays which are reflected hence, by the ellipse will proceed to S. Hence, these points, S and H, are called foci.
is
Sy
:.
=p = b ^y
Hz
::
and
:
= p' =
Sy
rf
HP 2.*
Py
arid
Py
equal
u,
here
0,
^
6
8
0,
=  x

and d =.
y'
___
nW C
__
4
/Ji ,6 _ X/ jlf
2
)

a2
62
/2
j (a
a b
e a.')
>
yl%
Jrb .^ }
ab
(a
ex')
* The following geometrical method of drawing a tangent to the ellipse, and proving that the locus of the perpendicular from the focus on the tangent is the circumscribing circle, will be found useful.
Let Join S
A P A' be
P and
;
P
y
K
P
= PS
the ellipse,
any point on
it.
KPS
by the line
z,
Py
in y.
1. Py is a tangent to the ellipse; for if R be in the line P y, we have S It + R H = K R + R H, greater than K H, greater
hence,
R and
Py
is
without the
% parallel to S y, and join Cy ; 2. The locus of y is the circumscribing circle. Draw P y are equal, we ha.ye the angle S y P a right then, because the triangles S P y, z are perpendicular to the tangent. Also, since S y y, and angle, or S y and P H) C A. C H, we have C y parallel to S C (S P H, and Cy 4 meet the circle again in Let Z z =. the square on B C. 3. The rectangle S y, because the angle y z O is a right angle, and that the points y and join C ; then, are in the circumference of the circle, the line y C O must be a straight line, and are equal ; and the rectangle and a diameter. Hence, the triangles C S y, A' the square on the rectangle Z H, z the rectangle S y, H,
= KH =
H
=K
HO
OHO
BC
(108).
4.
Let
SP=r, HP=2a
triangles,
SP= 2a:
r,
Sy=^,andH,8 =
II
p',
then p*
p'
For by similar
5
Sy
.*.
and, as above,
...
^
78
123.
THE NORMAL.
To
find the locus of
a2
*
tt
y'
yy
+ +
JF
.
y
x
.
x'
= =
a2
(1).
a* //
(2).
a8
V
.
?/.
Proceeding*, as in (120.), to eliminate x' and y', we 2 2 2 #8 ) 8 j the locus is an b* y* { a jp = (y at the extremities of the axes, and bulging out ellipse something like the lowest of figures 2 in page 44. We
equation
124.
To
C P makes
fa*
we have
the equation
to
P, y
=
is
yl
and to Zj x;
found
P T, y

= 
yl
x
;
/,
;
hence tan.
125.
CPT
=
sin.
.,
From C u
r r'
Cy
C y u we have
y
=r a sin.
y u
.'.
sin.
V
Also from
Cyu
=
Jr
r'
H
4
= H
rj /
sin.
HPz
we have
.'.
V/
=
u
sin.
H P2
sin.
H Px =
,
b
i
7
.*.
angle
Cy
angle
H P 2,
and
Cy
is
parallel to
H P.
HP
in
Hence, if C E, we have
PE = Cy =
AC.
T, and meeting
THE NORMAL.
126. The normal to any point of a curve is a straight line drawn through that point, and perpendicular to the tangent at that point. To find the equation to the normal P G.
The equation
to a straight line
(x
) is
y
This
line
8
y'
a (x
x')
must be perpendicular
6
af
to the tangent
tf
.
whose equation
is
_ a*y'
to the
normal
is
127.
To
THE DIAMETERS.
Let y
.'.
C G.
Hence
e*
(a
e *')
e.
S P.
The
mal,
is
M G,
x
1
Its value is
=
a?
x'.
128.
From
M G, C G and C G' we
a2
* ^ I a a Vi
6 2 x'*
\
( J
a2
* VlI a v
6 T  ** 2
and similarly
G'
=
f
,^77^ consequently,
the rectangle S P, HP. G, P G' =: r r rectangle, ; hence, at the extremity greatest value of the normal is when x' of the axis minor, we have the greatest value of the normal =s 6. Similarly, the least value of the normal is at the extremity of the axis major, the
The The
=
b
Rectum
(105.).
~
P
i/,
V77', and
G G' =
^b
;
V7?
..
G G' =
or
e.
G'.
tri
If a perpendicular
angles
PG
L, S
and
HP,
the
PL
PG.^, r
or=PG
^r
r1
the
Latus Rectum.
129. Since the tangent makes equal angles with the focal distances, the normal, which is perpendicular to the tangent, also makes equal angles with the focal distances. This theorem may be directly proved from the above value :: SC I +
; I
ae 
e* 3?
hence, the
HG CG: HC CG ofCG;forSG a  ex' a e + e x' a+ e x' S P HP; Euclid, VI. 3, or angle S P H is bisected by the line P G.
2
\
'.
: :
Geometry,
ii.
50
*.
THE DIAMETERS.
130,
parallel chords.
*
in (76.) to
prove that
all
and
90
THE DIAMETERS.
are straight lines, and that they pass through the centre, which last ciris evident, since no line could bisect every one of a system of parallel chords without itself passing through the centre. a * 4 c be the equation to any chord ; Let y
cumstance
a 9 y*
b* x*
=
a (x
68
bisecting
y becomes y
putting
y' for
f y'
y and x
j
x1
for
,r,
point x' y' of the chord, by then the equation to the chord
x9 )
c or
2
y t= a #, since
2 b* (x the equation to the curve becomes 2/') (y To find where the chord intersects the curve, put a
i/
J/
2
+
x
6
2
;
.r')
f
also
se
a2
6*.
for
in the
cond equation
or,
/.
a 8 (a *
*
2
+
2
I/')
+
7
2
2
O+
a/)
j?
or')
=
2
a2
(a a
6 )
a y
+
0.
a y'*
2
/>
j/
a8
8
.
origin is at the bisection of the chord, the two values of to one another, and have opposite signs, or the second
equation must
.a8 ay'
& 2 x'
0.
;
This equation gives the relation between x' and y' and, since it is inax c ; dependent of c, it will be the same for any chord parallel to y hence, considering x' and y' as variable, it is the equation to the assemblage of all the middle points, or to their locus. This equation is evidently that to a straight line passing through the
centre.
is
a dia
A pair of diameters are called conjugate when each bisects all the chords parallel to the other. Hence, the axes major and minor are conjugate diameters, and the 2 2 8 a* b\ which we have generally employed, is that 6 x* equation a ^ to the ellipse referred to its centre and rectangular conjugate diameters. If the curve be referred to oblique coordinates, and its equation remains of the same form, that is, containing only j^, y*, and constant quantities, for each value of one cothe new axes will also be conjugate diameters
meter. 131.
ordinate will give two equal and opposite values to the other. shall, therefore, pass from the above equation to another referred to oblique conjugate diameters, by determining, through the transformation of coordinates, all the systems of axes, for which the equation to the ellipse preserves this same form. 6 2 <ra a* b* ; the formulas for transformLet the equation be o 2 y*
We
+
/
y
2
rt
6',
Bf t
:.
O'
sin.
+ +
6
s
sin. 0')*
+
8
b
9
0'
COR e

+ y' cos.
8
0')
8
=
8
/A
8
8 8 or {a (sin. Q7 )
f
{a
2 {a* sin 6
6 cos.
(cos. 0)
,r'
a8
b*.
In order that this equation may be of the conjugate form, it must not but since we have introduced two indeterminate ; and 0', we are enabled to put the coefficient of X* ff ' quantities, ; hence we have the condition
contain the term a/ y'
a* sin.
sin
f
cos
cos. 0'
1HE DIAMETERS.
or dividing by a cos.
2
81
cos. 0',
f tan. 0. tan. Q
oa
.
Now this condition will not determine both the angles 6 and &f but for any value of the one angle it gives a real value for the other and hence there is an infinite number of pairs of axes to which, if the curve be re
, ;
ferred, its equation is of the required conjugate form. If, in the next figure, we draw making any angle 9 with
CP
A',
and
CD making an angle O
and
(whose tangent
is
cot.
0) with
C A',
then
CP
are conjugate diameters. Also since the product of the tangents is must be drawn in negative, if C P be drawn in the angle A' C B, C the angle B C A.
C D
132. There
in the case
let
is no occasion to examine the above equation of condition where 6 or Q' but G, for then we hare the original axes us examine whether there are any other systems of rectangular axes. cos. 0, and cos. 0' sin. 0, Let 8' 90 + e, :. sin. 6'
&*) sin.
cos.
0,
,
2 s we must have by the nature of the ellipse, a cannot == 6 90, both which values give the original axes again hence 0, or G This rethe only system of rectangular diameters is that of the axes.
and 6
since,
article 87.
observe in the above transformation that, although we have and 0', it does not follow that introduced two indeterminate quantities we can destroy two terms in the transformed equation, unless the values
of these quantities are real: for example,
if
We may
we attempt
a
to destroy
any
we
find tan.
1>
a value to which
is no corresponding angle 0; hence, in putting the coefficient of 0, we adopted the only possible hypothesis. x'y' 133. The equation to the curve is now
{a
(sin. 0')
+ b* (cos.
0')
}y +
2
a8
(sin.
0)
6 (cos. 0) 2 }
a?'
b*.
0, we have the distances from 0, and x' If we successively make y' the origin to the points in which the curve cuts the new axes; let these distances be represented by a^ and b lt the former being measured along the axis of a?', arid the latter along the axis of y' ; then we have
y'
x'
= =
0, 0,
/. {
/.
a* (sin. 0)
2
2 2
{a
(sin. 0')
+6 +6
s
3
(cos. 0)
}
2
af
8
(cos. 0') } 6 t
= a b\ =a 6
2
2
And
becomes
bf
or,
a*
Where
6^
y =
8
are 2
a and 2
64 .
82
134.
THE DIAMETERS.
From
the transformation
a,*
we obtain
8
V {a
a* sin.
or,
1
(sin. 0')'
sin. 0'
+
6
2
(cos. 0') }
=a 6 =a6
2
8
(I),
(2),
f
cos.
/
cos. 0' s= 0,

tan.
8
tan.
= 8
(
j
3'
Putting
(sin. 0)
2 2
we have
a,
(a
2
6s )
6*)
(sin. 0)
and
tf
(a
/.
(cos. 0)
= =
a8 6 8
*
CT
 a^
6,
,
a2
a 2 62
(tan. 0)*
=
a^
~
6*
8
Putting 6j for o, in this expression, we have the value of (tan. found from (2)
0')
as
hence by multiplication,
(tan.0)*
.'. ( tan .eO2
(a
or,
..
 o8
t
fll
a2
a8
a4
6 =
4
= (a,  6) (^  6 = a, 6^ of 6  6 a? V
 6,)
8 2
),
2
6t
f 6*
V+
8
8
t
a2
68
f
8
fe,
,
V),
=
that
is,
(a
6 )
the
sum
the sum of the squares upon the conjugate diameters of the squares upon the axes.
is
equal to
135. Again, multiplying (1) and (2) together, and (3) by then subtracting the results, we have
a,
2
itself,
and
e
6j
a4
(sin. 0)
;
(sin.
+b
8
(cos. 0)
2 8
(cos. 0')
f
a*6
b
4
(sin. 0)
(cos. tf)*}
8
+
a
4
a9 6*
6
4
,
(sin. 0')
(cos. 0)
a 4 (sin 0) 8
(sin.
2 a8 6*
sin.
THE DIAMETERS.
a 6s
2
2
83
sin. 9' cos. 6 cos.
0)
2
2
(sin.
0)
(cos. 0')
=
a a
8
sin.
d7
a4
6
8
;
4
,
or,
or,
a,
2
&!
{ sin.
2
tf'
cos,
sin.
cos. 0' }
a* 6
a,
6t
/.
{ sin. (0'
6) }
b v sin. (Q'
= =
b.
is the angle between the conjugate diameters C P hence drawing straight lines at the extremities of the conjugate diameters, parallel to those diameters, we have, from the above equathe rectangle A C B E, and therefore tion, the parallelogram P the whole parallelogram thus circumscribing the ellipse is equal to the
Now
0'
PCD,
and
CD;
CDT =
rectangle contained by the axes *. If the extremities of the conjugate diameters be joined, it is readily seen that the inscribed figure is a parallelogram, and that its area is equal to half that of the above circumscribed parallelogram. We may remark, in passing, that the circumscribed parallelogram, having its sides parallel to a pair of conjugate diameters, is the least of all parallelograms circumscribing the ellipse arid that the inscribed parallelogram, having conjugate lines for its diameters, is the greatest of all inscribed
;
parallelograms. 136. Returning to article (133.), the equation to the curve, suppressing the accents on a/ and y', as no longer necessary, is
In the
figure,
CP
=
mr
a lf
D = ^ CV=
Q,
x and
t
VQ
rp
* The theorems in articles 134 and 135 may be proved also in the following manner : Referring the curve to its rectangular axes, as in article (138.), let the coordinates of P be x' and y''; then the equation to C D is a*yy' j b 2 x x' 0, and eliminating 2 2 2 z b z x* = a * ), we have of and y between this equation and that to the curve (a y the coordinates C and D N, fig. 135, of the intersection of C D with the curve, C

and
N DN =
hence we have
a2
6s
a2
Mso
the triangle
PCD =
the trapezium
PMN D
the triangles
l Zao
T Z
PCDT=
b.
notice has been taken of the positional value of the abscissa entirely a question of absolute values.
No
C N,
since this is
G2
84
THE DIAMETERS.
Putting the equation into the form
we have
137.
the square
the square
upon C
the rectangle
PV, VP':i
as in (111.)
The equation to the tangent at any point Q (x y') found exactly 8 is a, y y' + b^ x x' = a? bf. The points T and T', where it cuts the new axes, are determined as in
;
(114.)
whence
CT = ^,
CT'
^;
at the
in the
now
referred to
diameter to that chord (114.). its rectangular axes, and let the
coordinates of
be x'
is
y',
CP
is
~~
j?,
and the
equation to
C
u
tan. &'
6  cot. 6 = a a
8
b*
8
d
r
y'
=r,
or,
a*yy'
+
P
x
b*
is
x'
=
62
;
0.
to the
tangent
at
a*yy'
68
x'
CD or the
this
From
diameter conjugate to C P is parallel to the tangent at P. circumstance the conjugate to any diameter is often defined
drawn through the centre, and parallel to the tangent at the extremity of the diameter. The equation to the conjugate diameter is readily remembered, since it is the same as that to the tangent without the last term, and therefore may be deduced from the equation to the curve, as at the end of article 111. The three equations are
to be the line
a* y* 4. 6*
*
x2
b*
=
x
a8
6 s,
to the curve,
y'
y'
os y
+ +
d
x'
=r a* 6 8 , to the tangent,
0,
to the conjugate.
The equation
coordinates are
to the tangent
DT
i/
bo?
and
a ^
P,
is
or reducing
y x'
x y'
=
xtf
b.
And
the equation to
C P
is
y
These equations
with the equation
yf
0.
to the tangents and conjugate diameters, combined to the curve, will be found useful in the solution of
SUPPLEMENTAL CHORDS.
139. Let j/ and y' be rectangular coordinates of
2
85
equation a,
+
2
&i
=
2
a8
+
2
&
2
,
we have
6
2
6t
1
*"
(a
y'
&
a;'
a3
x*
= a + b*  a? r= a + 6 ~ a*  " ~ 6 = a  eV*
2 2 2 '
2 2
a2
a:'
e#') (a
ex')
r r'.
That is, the square upon the conjugate diameter under the focal distances S P and H P.
140.
D=
the rectangle
Draw
conjugate diameter
C D,
then
ab
=  Vrr7 and P G' =hence, The rectangle P G, P F = The square on B C, and The rectangle P G', P F = The square on A C, and The rectangle P G, P G' = The square on C D
It
was shown
in (128.) that
PG
SUPPLEMENTAL CHORDS.
141. Two straight lines drawn from a point on the curve to the extremities of a diameter are called supplemental chords. They are called if that diameter be the axis major. principal supplemental chords P' two Referring the ellipse to its axes, let P P' be a diameter, Q P, 1 chords ; then, if x' y' be the coordinates of P, #', y
supplemental
QP
is
is
y'
y'
a (x
x'},
x'}.
,
to
P'
a' (x
At the point of intersection, y and x are the same for both equation 2 3 a?' y'* =. act' (x ) ; being the coordinates of Q ; hence., y*
but a?y*
j
62
&
o?
2
and a2 y'*
= a 6 at Q, x = a b at P
2
2 2
1
that is, The product of the tangents of the angles, which a pair of supplemental chords makes with the axis major, is constant.
P=
is
u,
and p
86
SUPPLEMENTAL CHORDS.
t
If the curve was referred to any conjugate diameters, 2 o and 2 6,, we should find exactly in the same manner that the product of the tangents of the angles, which a pair of supplemental chords makes with any axis
1
8
.
a,, is
constant,
and equal
to
^ a
\
The
to
its
equation to a chord
QP
being y
is
y'
=

a

(j?
x ),
f
the equation
supplemental chord
Q P'
+ y'
(#
#')
'= a .' . In the circle b 1, which proves that in the circle the supplemental chords are at right angles to each other, a wellknown property of that figure. The converse of the proposition
is
thus proved.
a'
Let
A C A'
be any diameter,
=
to
^,then
the
equation to
a'
A R is
9
a (x
a^
A'
is
(x  ff
=  b
let
;
 aO (x
(2).
of the lines
AR
and A'R,
y and x be
hence,
!*)
the
same
and
(2),
and eliminate a by
multiplication
y*
= l
(x*
or
a? y
l
b^
,r
is
The equation a
a' ==

is
a'
the same, not only for different pairs of chords drawn to the extremities of the same diameter, but also for pairs of chords drawn to the extremities of any diameter ; hence, if from the extremity of the axis major we can
AR
:
parallel to
P',
R A'
will
is
this is possible in all cases, except when one chord be parallel to Q P axis. parallel or perpendicular to the 143. To find the angle between two supplemental chords. Let x, y be the coordinates of Q, and x' y' those of P,
y y'
Then
tan.
y+y'
a
8
PQ
26*
P'
=
x
or
 ~
x'y
a * ft 8
y.
 y'f
,
y'x
'
For the
we have
x'
a, y'
tan
A RA
__.
a8
6s
f. y
This value of the tangent being negative, the angle all the points on the
A R A'
is
alwayt
87
As y increases, the numerical value of the tangent decreases, or the angle increases (since the greater the obtuse angle, the less is its tangent) b. hence, the angle is a maximum when y is, that is, when y This shows that the angle ABA' is the greatest angle contained by the principal supplemental chords, and therefore by any supplemental chords. r Also, its supplement B A B is the least angle contained by any supplemental chords. The angle between the chords being thus limited by the angles A'BA, BAB', of which the former is greater, and the latter less, than a right angle, chords may be drawn containing any angle between these limits. This is done by describing a segment of a circle,
containing the given angle, upon any diameter, except the axis, and joining the extremities of the diameter with the points of intersection of the Also, from the value of tan. P Q P', it appears that, ellipse and circle. if the angle be a right angle, the two chords are perpendicular to the
axes.
144. It
was shown
in (131.)
that if Q
and
Q'
conjugate diameters
but
a,
the axis major, tan. Q. tan. Q' , a* of the angles which two supplemental chords being tangents
make with
make
a
a!
;
with the
same
tan.
axis,
we have a we have
a' rr
/.
tan. Q
tan. 0'
hence,
if
a,
tan. Q'
a'
is
or
if
one diameter be
to the supple
parallel to
parallel
mental chord. 145. Since supplemental chords can be drawn containing any angle within certain limits, conjugate diameters parallel to these chords may be drawn containing any given angle within the same limits. Also, since the angle between the principal supplemental chords is between the conjugate diameters is also always obtuse, the angle In obtuse, and is the greatest when they are parallel to A B and A B'. this case, being symmetrically situated with respect to the axes, they are equal to one another. The magnitude of the equal conjugate diameters is found from the
PCD
equation
0^+ bf
#i
2
;
a8
+6
8
,
.*.
a^
The equation
#8
is
to the circle,
we may
we have
= y' f u sin.
x'
x =.
cos. 6
&** 8
a8
*>
2
5
1 by substitution, a* (y
+ u sin. 0)*
62
;
cos. 0)
=a
in
terms of
=
a
2
and
2
y'
a2
a 2 (sin.
u* (sin. 0) 8
6
2
2
= 0, +6
w8
(cos. 0)
=
2
a8 6*
a8
2
2
0)
(cos. 0)
(sin. 0)
+
8
(a
a 2 e8 )
8
'
(cos. 0)
a2
148.
a2
(cos. 0)
:
(cos. 0)
=
8
=
c
c,
and M becomes
r cos. 0) 2
8 8
a2
2
.'.
(r sin. 0)
f
8
+

=
2
a2
s
;
r 2 (sin. 0) 2
r
8 8
or,
a8 6 8
+ +
r
6 2 r 2 (cos. 0)*
2 6 2 r c cos.
c r
+

62 c2
62
a8
(cos. 0)
2 6
r c cos.
=s
or,
a2
== c2 r2 (cos. 0) 8
+
2
2 6s r
8 )
;
c cos.
b*
a
6
s
= =
(c r cos.
c r cos.
a a
+6 +6 (l
2
e2 )
a (11
e )
c cos.
ae. cos.
e cos.
149. Let any point on the curve be the pole: Expanding the terms of the polar equation in (146.), and reducing by a* 6 f we have means of the equation a* y * + 6 8 .r"
r
a2 y f
"
sin.
&
2
\ b*
cos.
8
'
a* (sin. 0)
+
""
(cos. 0)
a,
e ) cos.
'
If the pole
is
at
A, we have y'
2
g
fr
= 0, and a/ = _
2 a (1
1
2
_ =
150.
cos.
a(sin.0)M
6 (cos.0)
e
is
(cos. 0)
When
the focus
is
Let S
r,
then
0,
+
+
a
(S
(
M 
S C)
ae)
.
=
'.
r cos. 6
+e
r cos.
a & and
r =
1
f c cos.
,M>
This is the equation generally used in astronomy, the focus S being the place of the sun, and the ellipse the approximate path of the planet.
Let a (1
e )
=
may be
l
e cos.
= p,
where
is
Then
P.
le
+2e{
cos.
If 6 be measured, not from S A, but from a line passing through and making an angle a with S A, the polar equation is
S,
f~ e
cos 
a)
S
151. If
let
1
F=
r',
e cos.
"
'
e cos. (TT
0)
e cos.
ea
(cos. 6}*
i of the rectangle under the rectangle S P, S P' r= principal and focal chord. parameter
or the
152.
Let
6
.
CD,
or
6,,
SP,
.
then (147.)
./
~
1
0e
2
fi
)
_a
2
1
(co?.
6))*
p
e
2 a
(cos. 6)
that
is, a focal chord at any point P, major and diameter to that chord.
is
90
THE HYPERBOLA.
CHAPTER
IX.
THE HYPERBOLA.
153. IN the discussion of the general equation of the second order, we observed that, referring the curve to the centre and rectangular axes, the equation to the hyperbola assumed the form
where the
Let
(
coefficients
r
f J
+
2
or
2/
=
1.
proceed to investigate this equation, and to deduce from it all the properties of the hyperbola. 154. Let the curve be referred to its centre C, and rectangular axes P x, and x, Y y, meeting in C ; C y ; then, at the point where the curve cuts the axes, we have
We now
M=
=
*
0,
Q
0,
= ,
1,
.'.
CA
and CA'
=
x in and A: Since the value of y cuts the axis the other axis never meets the curve ; nevertheless we points, B and B', in that axis, whose distances from
impossible,
off
mark
two
zz
are
CB
THE HYPERBOLA.
Also
if
91
CA
s=
and
C B
6,
we have
Q =
there
ar
6*
becomes
2
62
*i. a
=
8
i/
or a 2
x*
 a8
f
;
oiy = ^(*
155.
a)
From
we have
From
a,
drawn through
between these
is
impossible;
if,
therefore, lines be
is
and
A', parallel to
C Y, no
found
lines.
hence, we have two arcs A P, P', exactly equal and oppoeach other, and extending themselves indefinitely. z If x be negative, x being positive, the same values of y must recur ; hence, there are again two equal and opposite arcs which form another branch extending from A' to OD ; thus the whole curve is divided into two equal parts by the axis of x. From (2) it appears to be divided into two equal parts by the axis of y ; hence it is symmetrical with respect to the axes; and its concavity is turned towards the axis of ,r, otherwise it might be cut by a straight line in more points than two, (71.) 156. If P be any point on the curve, we have
to ;t CD
;
Again, for every value of x, greater than a, we have two real and equal values of y ; that is, for any abscissa C M, greater than C A, we have two equal and opposite ordinates, P'. P, Also as x increases from a to CD, these values of y increase from
site to
c p
hence
=
a"
a'
is,
which case hence C A, or C A', is the least line that becomes also equal to a A' is the can be drawn from the centre to the curve thus, the axis least line that can be drawn through the centre to meet the curve. The other axis, B B', never meets the curve. 2 In the equation Q x* =r 1, the imaginary axis may be greater or less than the real one, according as Q is greater or l"ess than P ; hence the appellation of axis major cannot be generally applied to the real axis A' the transverse axis, and In this treatise we shall call of the curve. B B' the conjugate axis. 157. The points A, A' are called the vertices, or summits of the curve* either of these points may be taken for the origin by making proper subis
CP
least
when x
is least,
;
that
when x
=:
in
C P
Py
stitutions.
Let
be the origin,
AM
=r x'
Then
j^CM^CA + AM
x'
,
92
THE FOCUS.
...
(,,
fl
(a
*>)
_
2
,r
*}
{2 a
*>
or},
or,
suppressing accents, y*
last
(2 a x
==
x (2 a
+ ^).
This
tion
:
equation
is
the square
upon
MP A C.
rectangle
A M, M A'
is
the square
upon
BC
if
9 (cr
2 a
.T).
x* 6, the equation to the hyperbola becomes y* called the equilateral hyperbola, and has, to the hyperbola, the same relation that the circle has to the ellipse.
a =:
is
a*
this
curve
common
159. The analogy between the ellipse and hyperbola will be found to be very remarkable the equations to the two curves differ only in the s a8 6 s we put 6 x sign of 6* for if, in the equation to the ellipse a* y* 1 2 we have the equation to the hyperbola hence we might 6 for 6 conclude that many of the algebraical results found in the one curve will s and in 6 in those results be true for the other, upon changing 6* into fact this is the case, the same theorems are. generally true for both, and may be proved in the same manner for this reason we shall not enter at length into the demonstration of all the properties of the hyperbola, but merely put down the enunciations and results, with a reference at the end of each article to the corresponding one in the ellipse, except in those To cases where there may be any modification required in the working. prevent any doubt about the form of the figure, we shall insert figures in those places where they may be wanted and, with this assistance, we
; ;
no
difficulty.
THE FOCUS.
160.
The equation
x
y*
(2 a x
y*
I

x8
in
26*
is
called the
Latus Rectum
the
Since
 =26*
a 4 6 2 a
Latus Rectum
is
a third proportional to
161. To find from what point in the transverse axis a double ordinate can be drawn equal to the Latus Rectum,
Here
4
*, or
f>
(*'
)=;
4 64
Join
then
B V a8 j 6s ; with centre C and radius B, then a circle cutting the transverse axis in the points S and H,
AB
de
we have
C S
= Va

6 2,
and
H =  Vo
f 6*
LS
The two
162.
is
points
The
fraction
ratio of
CS
to
C A,
which
is
unity,
be represented by the
letter e,
we have Va 2
1,
62
=a
e,
whence
=
perbola
.'.
=
2
e2
to the hy
may
2/
=
2
(*
1) (**
6
~
2
)2
163. (a
e
Since a
)_;
ft
e\
we have
a?
(a e
Or
the square upon B C. the rectangle S, S A' 164. To find the distance from the focus to any point
a)
in the
curve,
we
find
ex 
o,
HP=ea? +
that
is
a;
the difference of the distances of any point in the curve from the foci is equal to the transverse axis. 165. Conversely, To find the locus of a point, the difference of whose is constant or equal 2 a. distances from two fixed points S and
Hence
HPSP = 2 =
H = 2 + e*, and
c,
AA',
If
S
8
the locus
is
whose
foci are
S and H. (110.)
THE TANGENT.
166.
To
The
find the equation to the tangent at any point required equation obtained as in (111.) is
(#'
 a8
68.
94
THE TANGENT.
This form is easily recollected, since it may be obtained from the equa2 tion to the curve a 9 y9 a2 6 ? , by putting y y f for y*, and x x6 x* 9 for r .
167.
To
Let y
^
=CT
similarly
= C T' =
y
hence
we have
The
rectangle
Since
C T, C M = C T', M P =
less
upon upon
AC
B
C.
C T
is
always
than
C A,
the branch
PA
C and A.
(115.)
The subtangent
MT=
x'
 =
"*
The tangent at the extremity A of the transverse axis is perpendicular to that axis (116.). If P C be produced to meet the curve again in P ;, the tangents at P will be found to be parallel (116.). and 168. To find the equation to the tangent at the extremity of the Latus
Rectum,
Generally the equation to the tangent
is
y
at L,
v'
6a
x x'
'.
a*
69
x a
r=
a9
6*.
THE TANGENT.
95
SP
C T
hence
perpendicular to
C, and
from
P draw P R
parallel to
C, then
we have
Consequently, the distances of any point * are in the constant ratio of e l 1* The line is called the directrix.
line
T R,
If x a ; hence the tangent at the extremity of 0, we have y the Latus Rectum cuts the axis of y at the point where the circle on the transverse axis cuts the axis of y. 169. To find the length of the perpendicular from the focus on the tangent. Let S y, z be the perpendiculars on the tangent P T.
TR
in (48.)
we have
v 1
here y l r=
and
x^
e are
is
the equation to
Py
=
Jf
*f
6 of
s
"
b*
S?
and
<*=a)
ae
b* (e x'
6s (e
j?'
o)
2
/
"
2
e j?'
fi2 <*'
a:'
96
THE TANGENT.
r
LetSP= r,andHP = 2a +
Similarly
if
=r'..
= b */^,or =6 v / 2a+r
2
.
= p',
we have p"
r
=
;
By
multiplication
we have p p
y,
b*
hence
The
170.
rectangle S
H
P
z r: the square
upon
1
C.
To
a* y'*
is
b* y'
=.
x'
a* 6
to the tangent at
P
is
a*
=
c)
a8
6*.
The equation
to
S y
=.
a? y' j (x
By
tion
we
Hence
meter. 171.
the locus of y
is
tangent
To find P T.
S
6
2
,
P makes
with the
The equation
to
to the
tangent
(x
is
y =.
x'),
x

is,
y'
=
"
2
x
tan.
hence
y'
x'
PT =
'
tan.
(P S
X  PTX)
6 2 x'*
b**'
c
6* x'
a2
y'
a? y'*
a* y' x'
6' c
y'
a* c
y~+
b* x' y'~
a*y' *'c
_ ~
Similarly tan.
6' (c yf
/.
a*)
y' c(cx'
a2 )
_ "
68
'
c y'
H PT =
s
:,
the angles
SPT,
HPT
are equal
thus the tangent makes equal angles with the focal distances. Produce S P to S', then it is a property of light, that if a ray probe reflected by the line TPT', the angle S' PT' of the ceeding from reflected ray will equal the angle Now, in the hyperbola, the.se angles are equal ; hence if a light be placed at H, all rays which are incident on the curve will be reflected as if diverging from S ; or if a body of rays proceeding to S be incident on the curve, they will converge to H. are called foci. Hence these points S and This important property of the curve is also thus proved from article
HPT.
(169.),
Sy
=p
!>V,
and
=// =
~;
THE TANGENT.
. .
J);
Sy
H,r
::
r'
::
SP H
:
P;
.*.
angle S
Py
=H
z,
equal angles with the focal distances *. 172. To find the length of the perpendicular tangent.
Cu
here y,
173.
=
To
=
C
=
is
b* x'
,,
b*
and d ==
r , ..
C u
The equation
yt
t
x,
from
this
equation, and the equation to the tangent, we find as in (123.), the re2 9 9 3 b* sulting equation to be a x* (x f y ) , which cannot be disy* cussed at present. 174. From the equation to the tangent, and that to C P, we find, as
in (124.),
x' y'
* The following geometrical method of drawing a tangent to the hyperbola, and proving that the locus of the perpendicular fram the focus on the tangent is the circle on the transverse axis, will be found useful.
Let
AP
;
point on it P take
angle S
join
.
PK
P K = PS;
S K, cutting P y in y. P y is a tangent to the hyper1 bola; for if R be any other point in the line P y, we have H R  S R II R  K R is less than H K ^Geom. i. 10) less than 2 a, hence R, and every
be the hyperbola, P any join S P and H P, and in bisect the by the line P y z, and
other point in Py, is without the curve. 2. The locus of y is the circle on the transverse axis : draw z parallel to S y, and join Cy; then, because the triangles S P y, P y are equal, we have the angle S yP a right angle, or S y and z are perpendicular to the tangent.
Also since S y
II
y,
and S C
C H, we have C y
parallel to
K, and
K=
i (H
P  S
P) =r
A.
3. The rectangle S y, H z =. the square on B C. Let z H meet the circle again in O, and join C O then the line O C y is a straight line and a diameter, hence the C S y, C H O are equal, and the rectangle S y, H z r= the rectangle II O, triangles H z =. the rectangle A', H A the square upon B C.
;
4.
Let
SP
H HPr=2 r,
S y
I
=
.'
jo
And
=

p',
then p*
for
by
similar triangles,
S P
II
P,
.'.
p = 
p\ and, as above,
p'
i*
j>*
rrr
4 r
i!
98
THE NORMAL.
From C
w
=
a
C y
sin.
Cy
sin.
w,
we have
.'
.
Also from
b
V r r' Hz = HP
Cyu
sin.
Cyu
=
Vr
r'
.
sin.
H P 2,
/.
we have
sin.
J  = / r
sin.
H P *, H
H P* =
Vr
4=
r>
.'.
And if C E in E, we have
P 2 and C y is parallel to P. angle angle C y u be drawn parallel to the tangent PT, and meeting
PE = Cy = AC.
H P
THE NORMAL.
175.
The equation
to
y')> anc^
/
perpendicular
the tangent
I
y
\
=
cf
b* tf **
b*
\
1
is
y
11'
y = '
1F7
<
0.
To
find
MG=
x'
a
8
and S
G=
e.
P.
From
C G, C
G', and
r1 ,
M G', we
may demon
that
trate that
P G =
rectangle
s/TPT
PG'
=
b
r'
Jr
and consequently
The
G,
P
'
G' r= r
=
6
the rectangle
S P,
P.
Also S G'
=
o
G'
 v', and
..
G G'=
e.SG'.
177. Since the tangent makes equal angles with the focal distances, the normal, which is perpendicular to the tangent, also makes equal angles with the focal distances, one of them being first produced as to H'.
This theorem may be directly proved from the above value of C G for 8 ae e x' a e a/ a :: SP : a e :: ex' : :: & x' H P, hence the angle S P H' is bisected by the line P G.
SG
HG
THE DIAMETERS.
178. It may be proved as for the ellipse (130.), that all the diameters of the hyperbola pass through the centre, and that any line through the
THE DIAMETERS.
centre
a?
ot
99
is
a diameter.
68
If
c.
parallel to
= =
+
to
is
the equation
179. In the ellipse all the diameters must necessarily meet the curve; but this is not the case in the hyperbola, as will appear by rinding the coordinates of intersection of the diameter and the curve. Let y ft x be the equation to a diameter C P, and substitute this value of y in the equation to the curve.
if
a8
,
/3
is
is, if /3
is
andif/3
=
B and
an
infinite distance.
The
limits of the
determined; through A,
in
intersecting diameters are thus B' draw lines parallel to the axes meeting
,
and
ECA
and
tan.
E'
CA
hence
CE
and C E' produced are the lines required. Hence, in order that a diameter meet the curve, it must be drawn within the angle E C E'; thus the
line
respect to these lines C E, C E', since the axis bisects the angle C E'. 180. The hyperbola has an infinite number of pairs of conjugate diaThis is proved by referring the equation to other axes by means meters.
y
x
hence the equation
9
a9 y2
6
s
0'
{a
(sin. 0')
sin.
2 (a2
2 2 6 (cos. 0)*} (cos. 0') } y' {a* (sin. 0) a* b*. 62 cos. sin. 0' cos. 0'} x' y'
9
jc
I'l
'2
100
THE DIAMETERS.
1
In order that
of
i)
*'
this equation
let
the coefficient
0,
.%
a2
sin.
6 sin. Of
0,
or,
a2
Hence
infinite
for
any value of
0,
we have a
real value of
if
0',
that
is,
there
is
an
its
number of
is
equation
If tan. 6 be less
than
tan. 0'
that
is,
if
one diameter C P, in the last figure, meets the curve, the conjugate diameter C D does not; therefore in each system of conjugate diameters one
Also, since the product of the tangents is positive, both imaginary. angles are acute, or both obtuse ; in the figure they are both acute, but for the opposite branch they must be both obtuse. 181. As in article (132.), it appears that there can be only one system of rectangular conjugate diameters. 182. The equation to the curve is now
is
{a
(sin. 0')
{a
(sin. 0)
6 s (cos. 0) 2 }
8
r'
a?
b*.
and j/ 0, we have the distances from which the curve cuts the new axes; but as we already know (180.) that one of these new axes never meets the curve, we must represent one of these distances by an imaginary quantity. Let the axis of x' meet the curve at a distance a v from the centre, and
If
we
= 0,
let
the length of the other semiaxis be bi connected with the symbol 1, that is, let the new conjugate diameters be 2 a^ and 2 6 t If
then
we have
y x
= =
/. /.
{a
{a
2
(sin. 0)
8
6 2 (cos. 0)
}
2
a?
}
a* b\
(sin. 0')
(cos. 0')
6, )
= 
a 2 6%
And
becomes
or,
y'*
b? .r'
=z
2
,
6 t2
183.
From
2
the transformation
8
2
we
!{' (sin.
2
0)
2
6>')
6,
2
{a
sin.
(sin.
(1),
2
&
(2),
sin
0'
cos.
'
cos. 0'
0,
or,
tan.
tan. 0'
.
Following the steps exactly as in article (134.), or, which amounts to 8 s 2 for 6 , and 6 for bf all through that the same thing, putting 6j article, we arrive at the result
THE DIAMETERS.
or, the difference
101
of the squares upon the conjugate diameters is equal to the difference of the squares upon the axes. 184. Again, multiplying (1) and (2) together, and (3) by itself, then subtracting the results, and reducing, as in the article (135.), we have
a t 6 l sin. (0'
0)
b.
and C
Now Q'  is the angle PCD between the conjugate diameters C P D hence, drawing straight lines at the extremities of the conjugate
;
diameters, parallel to those diameterSj we have, from the above equation, the T the rectangle A' C B E, and hence the whole parallelogram P C parallelogram thus inscribed in the figure is equal to the rectangle contained by the axes*. 185. Returning to article (182."), the equation to the curve, suppressing the accents on a/ and as no longer necessary, is y',
The theorems
:
may
ner
s bear' and y '; then the is o y y' b z x x' = 0, and eliminating x equation to and y between this equation and that to the curve (a2 y 2 A 2 x z =. a 2 6 2 ) we have the coordinates C N and D N, independent of the sign *J 1, with which they are
CD
both affected,
CN =
Hence we have
JL, and
b
DN =
*

PCM
PCD =
the trapezium
PM ND

+ the
triangle
DCN
the
y'*.
PCDT
c= a
6.
102
THE DIAMETERS.
r= In the last figure, C P a,, C Putting the equation into the form
2/5
6,,
CV
= x and Q V = y
(*
^ (*
8
O = ;(* "0
:
+
P'
1
i>
we have
C D
the square
the square
upon Q V upon C P.
the rectangle
P V, V
: :
the square
upon
186.
point
Q
V.
A,
(x y
) is
i
axes
B, and
let
the co
be x'
y y
r
,
C P
being y
6
= ~ x, the
w
g
,
equation to
CD
is
tan.
9
b*
=
x
x
x'
cot.
a,
or,
a*yy' But
#8 y
hence
at P. b9
0.
is
x'
=
C
is
a8
P,
1>* ;
C D,
is
parallel to
the tangent
The
the
same as
P; then from
the
s=
a*
a' 2
a?'
a8
(e *'
(p x'
+
the
=r
r'
That is, the square upon the conjugate diameter under the focal distances S P and H P.
D=
rectangle
189. If P F be drawn perpendicular from P upon the conjugate (see the last figure but one,) we have the rectangle P F, C
(184).
..
D=
C D,
a
6,
PF
fLJL
i
=
P
. V
G'
ab
a8
fll
6s
= ^i* v rr
Also
PG
VTT;
P P P
and
G,
4 >i~^ b
B C
;
Hence
the rectangle
And
And
the rectangle
G',
the rectangle
G,
u,
= = P G' =
PF PF
the square on
the square on the square OB
AC
C D.
centre on the tan
* If the distance
C P r=
and p
gnt,
this equation is
THE ASYMPTOTES.
Iu3
SUPPLEMENTAL CHORDS.
190. Two straight lines drawn from a point on the curve to the extremities of a diameter are called supplemental chords ; they are called principal supplemental chords if that diameter be the transverse axis.
The equations
to a pair of
chords are
f
=
=
(*
*' (x
<*')
y
Whence a
a'
y'
#')
the angles which a pair of supplemental chords makes with the transverse axis is constant; the converse is proved as in 141. 191. The angle between two supplemental chords is found from the ex
pression
R be
drawn
to any point
tan.
AR
A
A'
= r^f! 6
(a
8
to
A' is always acute, and diminishes from a right angle angle A' R' increases at the same time from a the supplemental angle right angle to 180; hence, the angle between the supplemental chords
;
The
A R
containing any angle between these limits, by describing on any diameter, except the axes, a segment of a circle containing the given angle, an'l then joining the extremities of the diameter with the point where the circle intersects the hyperbola. And therefore principal supplemental chords parallel to these may be drawn. 192. Conjugate diameters are parallel to supplemental chords (144.)
;
and 180.
and therefore they may be drawn containing any angle between and 90. 193. There are no equal conjugate diameters in the hyperbola, but in that particular curve where b a, we have the equation a?  b3 a?  bf ;
hence the conjugate diameters c and 6 t are always equal to each other.
t
The equation
a:
=  o.
THE ASYMPTOTES.
194. have now shown that most of the properties of the ellipse apply to the hyperbola with a very slight variation there is, however, a whole class of theorems quite peculiar to the latter curve, and these arise from the curious form of the branches extending to an infinite distance ;
:
We
it
tan
6'
104
THE ASYMPTOTES.
,
approaches to
il
tan. 6'
approaches also to
and
Or
thus, as a point
recedes along the curve from the origin, the conjugate diameters for that point approach towards a certain line C E, fig. (179.), and finally at an infinite distance come indefinitely near to that line. now proceed to show that the curve itself continually approaches to But as this the same line C E, without ever actually coinciding with it. species of line is not confined to the hyperbola, we shall state the theory
We
CPP'
form
And
let
TB
S be the
line
whose equation
is
y
For any value of x we can
ordinate
=ax +
from
to
b.
find
this last
equation a corresponding
point
M Q,
and by adding
M Q, we determine a
line.
in the
curve
similarly
points
Since
JB
will
be
less
than
Q,
and the greater x becomes, the smaller does the corresponding P' Q' become ; so that when x is infinitely great, P' Q' is infinitely small, or the
curve approaches indefinitely near to the line TBS, but yet never actually is called an asymptote to the curve, from three meets it hence Greek words signifying " never coinciding."
:
TBS
B S is y The equation to the asymptote tion to the curve, with the exception of the
power of a:.
=ax+
6,
or
is
the equa
196. The reasoning would have been as conclusive if there had been more inverse powers of x and in general if the equation to a curve can
;
&c.
+mjf+nx*+aj!+b+
f
f
&c
THE ASYMPTOTES.
Then
the equation to the curvilinear asymptote
is
105
&c.
+ m
x3
n n
x*
a x
ax
f 6
&c.
+ m 3? +
x*
\
 gives a curve
series of curves,
the preceding equation, and hence arises a more nearly coinciding" with the original curve. 197. Let us apply this method to lines of the second order, whose
(75.)
general equation
y =
*
 4
2 (b d 
 4 a/}
mx +
n x
+P
>
b y substitution,
2a
6
r
d
'
constant terms
*
\
2 a
powers of x
is
Hence
 
bx
+
a
V{* + i^}
V6 8  4ac
f
bx
6rf
2a
2a
{<
 4ac
2oc)
s 4 a c is negative in the ellipse, and therefore there is no locus 6 2 4 ac to the above equation in this case ; also if 6 0, the equation
Now
to the asymptote, found as above, will contain the term V#, and therefore will belong to a curvilinear asymptote ; hence the hyperbola is the admits of a rectilinear asymptote. only one of the three curves which It appears
from the
the
diameter y
bx +d 2a
;
bisects them.
for giving to
b
x the value
2 c d
b*
,
we have
be
4 ac
2a
and these values of x and y are the coordinates of the centre (80.). 198. I the equation want either of the terms #* or y*, a slight operation will enable us to express the equation in a series of inverse
powers of
or x
thus
if
the equation be
6
x n
f ex* 4
dy
+ f=
0,
106
THE ASYMPTOTES.
CJ
y
,
we have
ex+f =
:
c a*
+f
+
x
+/
bx
c e
f \f x J\
d
i
Hence
lecting inverse
powers of *,
is
cd
other asymptote is determined by the consideration that if, for any value of J?, we obtain a real infinite value of y, that value of x determines the position of an asymptote. d oo ; hence a line drawn paHere when bx 0, we have y
finite
The
rallel to
=
o
is
the required
asymptote.
If the equation be
ay*
+ bxy+dy + ex+ /=
0,
ay
j
=
6
is
and by
f e
bxy + dy + ex +/=0,
the equations to the asymptotes are
6
4
= 0,
and
and the
latter pa
199. Lastly,
if
the equation be b x
+/=
0,
the asymptotes are then the axes themselves, its centre and asymptotes as axes.
is
referred to
The
from the
equation y
~ ~
b
by substitution.
cc,
THE ASYMPTOTES.
107
For x negative, y is negative; and as x increases from toco, y decreases from QD to hence another branch y tf, equal and similar lo the ; former. 200. To find the equation to the asymptotes from the equation to the hyperbola referred to its centre and axes,
Hence
is
~x.
To draw these lines, complete the parallelogram on the principal axes (see the figure, art. 179.) ; the diagonals of this parallelogram are the loci of the last equation, and therefore are the asymptotes required : thus C and C E', when produced, are the asymptotes.
The equation
axes,
is
and rectangular
equation to the
readily remembered, since it is the same as the curve without the last term ; the two equations are
as
2
7/
b*
x3
8
a?
=
rr
.
a8
62 , to the curve,
,
a* y*
to the asymptotes.
a*
2
2/
&!
xs
#2
2
!
a* y'
201. If &
&,
to the asymptotes.
equation to the hyperbola referred to its centre and 2 a2 , therefore the equation to the asymx* rectangular axes is y 2 x* x ; hence these asymptotes cut the 0, or y ptotes is 7/
#, the
= = i
is
90;
hence the
equilateral hyperbola is also called the rectangular hyperbola. and rectangular axes, the 202. If the curve be referred to its vertex equation to the curve is
i + >
asymptotes
is
108
THE ASYMPTOTES.
we take
the equation to any line
(
203. If
c
J
parallel to
the asymptote, and eliminate y between this equation and the equation to the curve, we find only one value of x ; and thus a straight line parallel to the asymptote cuts the hyperbola only in one point. 204. In article (77.) it was stated that, in some cases, the form of the curve could not be readily ascertained : thus, when the curve cuts neither
diameter, there might be some difficulty in ascertaining its correct position: the asymptotes will, however, be found very useful in this respect: for
example,
if
the equation
is
xy
;
x9
1
,
or
=x +
i
we have
mates
and when x becomes very great, y approxiA Y and TBS, in figure (194), will of the curve ; and since the curve never cuts the represent the asymptotes S and the axes, its course is entirely confined within the angle of the cwrre is at once deteropposite angle T B A ; hence the position
for
=
;
0,
GO
to
hence the
lines
YB
mined, as
in figure
(194).
Ex.
2.
(x
2)
(*
1) (x
3),
or
=r
<HlP
x
(*
<&
~
Y
3)
In the first place we ascertain that the curve is an hyperbola by the test _ 4 a c being positive ; then draw the rectangular axes A X, A : tt where the curve cuts the axes, find the
s
points
Let x
Let y
= =
0,
.'.
0,
/.
y x
also
=  f = A B, = 1 = A C, x = 3 = A D,
AE =
To
PEG,
y drawn perpendicular
=
to
co for
A X,
is
we have
3)
2
(*!)(*
3)
ODOrSV
2\~
*;
.(,4
THE ASYMPTOTES.
a?
109
4 x
f
+, & c
+,
&c.
x hence the equation to the asymptote is y 2, and therefore this line must be drawn through the point E, making an angle of 45 with A X. We can now trace the course of the curve completely for all values of x less than I, y is negative, hence the branch B C ; for x greater than to CD, hence the 1, but less than 2, y is positive and increases from branch C F ; for x greater than 2, but less than 3, y is negative, hence the branch G D ; and for x greater than 3, y is positive and approx2, hence the branch from imating to x extending to the second
;
asymptote. For negative values of x, y is negative, and increases from to co, 2 ; hence the curve extends x approximating also to the value downwards from B towards the asymptote. 2 a). Here x a and y Ex. 3. y (x x x (x a, are a) the equations to the asymptotes. The figure is like the last, supposing
=
*
that
and
coincide.
Ex. 4
=a gives y =
y*
x~
co
:
+
1
x*.
The
a \8
x
axis of
is
Also
y
hence y
/
x(
=,r + 2a
x { 2 a gives the other asymptote. 205. In order to discuss an equation of the second order completely, we have given, in Chapter VII., a general method of reducing that equation to its more simple forms. In that chapter we showed that the equation, when belonging to an c x* 0. (84.) hyperbola, could be reduced to the form a y* 2 Now the same equation can be reduced also to the form xy A; and ; as this form is of use in all discussions about asymptotes, we shall proceed to its investigation. 206. Let the general equation be referred to rectangular axes, and let it be
+f
Let x x' f m, and y n, and then, as in article (80.), put y' the coefficients of x' and y' each ; by this means the curve is referred to its centre, and its equation is reduced to the form
ay'*
Again,
to destroy the
bx'y'
ex'*
+/'=0.
,
and y' z take the formulas of transformation from rectangular to oblique co ordinates (57.). f x" sin. 6 f y" sin. 0', y =r
coefficients of x' z
'x'
=
2
x" cos.e
/'cos.
0';
then, by substituting
central equation
becomes
8
y" {a
J .r" 2
(sin. 6')
+
4
c (cos.
6>',
{a
(sin. 0)
f b sin.
c (cos. 0) 8 }
110
THE ASYMPTOTES.
x" y" {2 a
sin. 0'sin.
\
+
fore
6
(sin. cos. }
2 c cos.
0'
There are two new indeterminate quantities 0and tf introduced therewe may make two suppositions respecting the coefficients in the z transformed equation 0, hence, letting the coefficients of x"* and y" we have cos. a (sin. 0) 8 + 6 sin. + c (cos. 0) 8 (1),
; ;
(sin. 0')
first
6 (sin.
Bf)
(cos. 0')
+ +
c (cos. 0') 8
,
(2).
Dividing the
we have
a
hence
(tan. 0)
+
_
6 tan.
0;
2a
the similarity of the equation (1) and (2), it is evident that we / shall arrive at the same value for tan. ; hence, letting one of the above or both the new axes are de values refer to 0, the other will refer to ;
From
termined
in position
is
The equation
207.
>':=
now reduced
0.
To
= 0.
sin. 0'cos. 0)
/
2a
6 (sin.
cos. 0'
2 c cos 0'cos.
0,
= cos.
From
6 (tan.
tan. 0)
2 c
0,
we have
tan. 0'
tan.
tan. 0'
=
;
and therefore
cos.
cos. 0'
=
J
_
V
(
a
c)*
1
J
!>
2 (
V (a
 4ac 
Hence
is
we must
find
6
8
_
y =
V 6*
2 (a
4Gc
2 c cos.
6 cos.
a;)
oi
c (cos. w)
8
V
{(*
(ft
+c 
6 cos. w) 8
4 a c)
(6
s
___
4
ac)
(sin.
a)
}*
following examples relate to the reduction of the general equation referred to rectangular axes, to another equation referred to the
209.
The
asymptotes.
THE ASYMPTOTES.
Ex
1.
i/'
Ml
10 x y
a*
=*0,
m =
!,
./'
=;
tan.
fl=
Ex.
2.
4 y8
8 xy
a;
28 x
2,
0,
b'=  8V2T/'=:
/.
 8 *J~Tx" y"
0,
or,
4V2
xyz=
Ex.
3.
  =
1
1,
or
axes are here parallel to the asymptotes (198.) : in order to transfer f the origin to the centre, let y x' + m, hence we have y + n and x
The
m=
o,
?i
6,
is
6.
210. If 6 and 6 f be the angles which the asymptotes make with the original rectangular axes, we have from the equation (206.),
(tan. 0)
.'.
b tan.
f
= 0,
=
Now
when
a,
7 1, or, equation becomes tan. B. tan. fl hence by (47.), the angle between the asym0; 90 ; and thus whenever, in the general hyperbolic
this
is
a rectangular hyperbola.
4.
2/
The curve is a rectangular hyperbola, and is referred to its centre and also taking the two values of tan. in (206.), we have rectangular axes
;
tan.
0=1,
and
tan. 6'
= 
hence
45
and
0'
= 
45, and
become
=J
and
2,
In this example the curve is placed as in the next figure, and at first was referred to the axes C X and C Y, but now is referred to the asymptotes C x and C y, supposing C y and C a: to change places, and the 90. angle x C y
r,2
THE ASYMPTOTES.
xy
A , to find the equation re211. Conversely given the equation ferred to the rectangular axes, and thence to deduce the lengths of the axes For this purpose we use the formulas of transformation from oblique to
x' sin.
:
+
sin.
y' cos.
,
<i>
0)
sin.
y' cos,
it)
(cj
0)
x y
2
&*,
we have
(w
a?" sin.
4
sin
sin.
(w
0)
0)
y'
sin.
cos. cos.
cos.
0)
2
(w
(w
u))
Let the
.*.
=
2
0,
cos.
(w
0)
.'.
sin.
cos.
(w
2 0)
o>
0,
and
hence the new rectangular axis of >r, determined by the angle 0, bisects the angle w between the asymptotes ; this agrees with the remark at the end of (179.).
The transformed
equation, putting
=
;.
60
,
is
=^
j
(sin. (i)
or, putting
sin. 
cos.
for sin
w, and dividing
r
'
;
Comparing
1,
we have
(t
2 k cos.
and
2 k
sin.
hence the lengths of the semiaxes are determined. If the equation had been xy + ax + l>y+cz=:Q,
to
its
first refer
the curve
and then proceed as above. 2 212, To deduce the equation x y from the equation referred to the centre and rectangular axes.
centre,
to the curve
Let
C X, C Y C r, C y
new
axes,
_
v
P
THE ASYMPTOTES
VJ
113
Then taking the formulas of transformation from rectangular to oblique axes (57),
x' sin.
+
9
x
and substituting
in the
x? cos.
+ y' cos.
b*
2 equation a
y
2
x9
a2 6 2 we have
,
a (x
or,
sin.
+ /
8
sin. 0')
2
&
(*'
2
2/'
cos.
2
+
/
= a2
6
2
.
a2
2
6*,
2
,
{a
(sin. 0')
{a (sin.0)
cos.
6 (cos. 0)
} *'
2 { a 2 sin
&
6 cos.
} a/ y'
In order that this equation may be of the required form, it must not contain the terms in a/ 2 and y' 2 ; but since we have introduced two indeterminate quantities, we can make the two suppositions that the coefficients of these terms shall ;
.'.
(sin. 0')
62 (cos. 0') 8
= =
0,
a (sin.0)
(cos. 6)
tan.
r= 0,
,
From
we have
and as we
0', it
values of
and
&'
=
H
)
that
is, if
tan
refers
to the axis of y,
tan.
=
its.
jr,
in
order
asymptotes
is
now
2
2 {a 2
or,
sin.
sin. 0'
6 s cos.
2 cos.
cos. 0'
{a
tan.
tan. 0'
2
}
<r'
=a 6 y =  a* 6*
?
,
we have
114
THE ASYMPTOTES
===== = ==== =
COB.
*;
If 6
x y
a2
.
213.
drawn
CN,
*
'
the area
PN R
'
PR
as
+
4
the
j }
b^ VoM p
a
"
ab
2
Va
f 6
Thus
all
parallelograms constructed
upon coordinates
and
semiaxes.
214. Let CS, C S' be the asymptotes to the curve referred to conC P, C (a t 60, then if P T be parallel to C D, it is a jugate diameters TPT' is also a double ordinate to the asymptote, tangent at P (1S7.) ;
CS
is
it
#,
and when x == a lt y=
6..
Hence
the parts of the tangent contained between the point of , or contact and the asymptotes are equal to each other, and to the semiconjugate diameter.
PT= PT
215. Join
D T,
to
then
DP
is
arallelogram
line
and
parallel
DP
also because
CD
is
equal
parallel
to the
asymptote
115
C S'. Hence, if the conjugate diameters be given, the asymptotes may always be found by completing the parallelogram upon the conjugate Also, if the asymptotes be diameters, and then drawing the diagonals. given, a conjugate diameter to C P may be found by drawing P R parallel to C S' and taking P double of P R. If the asymptotes be given, a tangent maybe drawn by taking double of C R, and joining P T. If the position of the focus is known, the length of the conjugate axis is equal to the perpendicular, from the focus on the asymptote. 216. To find the equation to the tangent P T, when referred to the
CT
asymptotes as axes,
y''
coordinates of another
?
fc
~7'
and y "
A:
IP
y'y" _
y
^7 ( x
y'
r
x')
e equation to a secant.
When
x"
to the
tangent
This equation to the tangent is readily obtained from the equation to 2 the curve (xy k* or xy xy =: 2& ) by putting x'y and xy' successively for xy, and then adding the results.
Let y
/.
C T'
2 a/
.
and C
=r 2 y'
= 2 NP
2
The
triangle
CTT'
2J. 2 y'
sin.
TCT =2#Vsin.
;
6,
The two parts S Q, S'Q' of any secant S Q Q' S comprised between the curve and its asymptote are equal for if the diameter C P V V Q' from the equation and its conjugate C D be drawn, we have
(213.) 217.
VQ =
to the curve
y = it
x, ^]
J x*
 af
to the
asym
ptotes
(y
\
=
ai
we have
VS = VS
VS,
SQ=S'Q'.
we
218. If
and y
VQ respectively,
have
Thus
the rectangle S Q,
Q S' =
the square
upon C D.
12
16
219.
C A, C
jr.
Then we have by
f
(61.)
f
also,
.
.
2
j/
8
8
62 6
o;
=r
f
a2
b*
2
(T/ f
sin. 0)
(x
.*.
0,
6*
a2
221. Let the focus
. .
*6 8
(sin. 0)
_ ~~
0)
2
a8
e
2
(e
1)
6* (cos.
(cos. 0)
1.
S be
y'
the pole,
= 0, x =
b
2
fi
and u becomes
r,
and following
~~
we
find
_ ~~
a
If the angle
a(e*
1
1)
c cos.
cos
P=
0,
we have
^ a(e'l) +
1
e cos.
It may easily be obtained from the equation generally used. r cos. 0) er the equation r a, a, fig. (161):= e (a e
This
is
1 f e
cos.
222.
If ^
a (e*
1)
we have
= 21 +
.
=
ecos,0
S P, and
if
in
P',
we have
the rectangle S P, S
= j
(PSfSP')
j
PP
''
The
= 2^
where
b t is the dia
is
TJT J
be negative in
is
Py
Q jc*
=1
1U
If
x2
=
A
a''
if
P =
,
and
is the real or transcourse of this curve, we shall find that verse axis, and A', or 2 a, is the conjugate axis, and that the curve extends indefinitely from B to B', so that it is, in form, like the hyperbola already investigated, but only placed in a different manner. Both curves are represented in the next figure ; the real axis of the one being the conjugate or imaginary axis of the other. It is evident from the form of the equations that both curves have got
= B B' = 2 b
Q
we examine
the
common
perbola
E C E', FC F'.
APE,
it is
Le t C
M = af M P = y' C N = *, N D = y then a? bf = a  6
t ,
2
;
.'.
x'*
+
is
2 y'* =c r
y*
a2
"
a4
(x*
2/
a2
6),
2 6* x'* a2 6 8 and Substituting these values in the equation a y'* 6s x* a2 6 2 hence the locus of is the conreducing, we have a* y~ jugate hyperbola, and hence arises its name. By changing the sign of the constant term in the equation to any hyperbola, referred to its centre, we directly obtain the equation to its Both curves are comconjugate, referred to the s '.me axes of x and y. prised in the form
118
THE PARABOLA.
CHAPTER
X.
THE PARABOLA.
225. THE equation to the parabola referred to rectangular axes, has e' x been reduced to the form a'y* (94.). From this equation we proceed now to deduce all the important proper
tics of
the parabola.
Let
p,
:.
y*
a xes
A be the origin ; A X, A the we have y then for x 0, and the curve passes through the origin A.
Let
;
y,
For each positive value of x there are two equal and opposite values of which increase from to co, according as x increases from to CD ; hence there are two equal arcs, A P and A P', proceeding from A, without any limit. This curve is symmetrical with respect to its axis AX, and
its
turned towards that axis, otherwise it could be cut by a points than one. For every negative value of x, y is imaginary. 226. The point A is called the vertex of the parabola; A X, A Y the alone is called the Axis of principal axes; but, generally speaking, the parabola. Thus the equation to the curve referred to its axis and
concavity
is
straight line in
more
AX
vertex
is
y*
^.px.
The rectequation we have The square upon the ordinate angle under the abscissa and a constant quantity ; or the square upon the ordinate varies as the abscissa. 227. The last property of this curve points out the difference between the figures of the hyperbola and parabola; both have branches extending to infinity, but of a very different nature ; for the equation to the hyperthis
From
bola
is
y*
(a
a*)
2
or
x*
x )
),
and
values of x, the values of y increase nearly as the corresponding values of x8 or y varies nearly as x ; hence the hyperbolic branch rises much more
rapidly than
When x
y
a?,
is
x. that of the parabola, whose ordinate varies only as very great, the former takes nearly the course of the line
,r,
is
and therefore the curve tends rather towards parallelism with the axis of*. 228. The equation to the parabola may be derived from that of the ellipse by considering the axis major of the ellipse to be infinite.
THE FOCUS.
Let
19
is
Let
m =AS
A C
.*.
*J a*
b*,
(fig.
106.)
2 a in
:.
y*
/ 4
2m
2
8
;
a be considered to vary, this will be the equation to a series of which the distance A S, or m, is the same for all, but (he axis major different for each thus giving to a any particular value, we have a corresponding ellipse. Let now a be infinite, then, since all the other 4 m x hence the ellipse has graterms vanish, the equation becomes y z
if
Now
ellipses, in
dually approached to the parabolic form, as its axes enlarged, and finally coincided with it when the axis major was infinite *. In the same manner the equation to the parabola may be derived from that to the hyperbola.
THE FOCUS.
229.
rabola.
The
is
quantity p, which
is
parabola,
the coefficient of x in the equation to the parameter, or Latus Rectum of the pa
Since p
y*
,
is
abscissa and
corresponding ordinate. we have used the equation y* 4 x for the parabola, merely to avoid fractions with numerical denominators ; it appears that many of the operations in this chapter are similarly shortened, without for p ; hence we shall use losing any generality, by merely putting 4 x in most of the following articles, recollecting 4 the equation y* that all the results can be expressed in terms of the principal parameter, by
its
In
article (228.)
= m
putting
for
wherever
occurs.
230.
To
which
is
equal to the
.'.
The point S
is
The
Let
S may be
::
/.
* If # is very small when compared with a, the equation to the ellipse is very nearly that to a parabola; and this is the reason that the path of a comet near its perihelion appears to be a portion of a parabola.
120
THE TANGENT.
To
S
find the distance of
231.
J^et
.'.
any point
;
in the
*,
P
(y
=

.*.
THE TANGENT.
232.
To
any point
(a/, y')
of the
y')
(a/,
jc"
/2
.'
2/'
2/'
(,r
Thus
becomes
4
*0;
y',
or
\ y y'
=
is
y'
y y' 2
/.
1*
=
x
2
2
)
77*
(#
a/),
1
m
y
(x
y'
= 4 mx +
(a
?/i (j:
a7
m
m
J^).
This equation
by writing y
233.
y' for
8
,
and x
of for
,r
f x.
To
Let y
,r
t
x'
AM
Hence
MT
is
A M.
THE TANGENT.
Let x
234.
121
0,
.'.
= 2m =
,
=

A Ay=
M P.
+
The equation
to the
?/'
at the vertex A, j/
and
f 2 m (x tangent being y y <r'), we have each 0, therefore the equation to the tangent
=
;
to the axis
A Y;
Hence
axis of y.
235.
To
pal parameter.
yy
At
we have
/.
9>
2 m,
E22L,
If the ordinate
M
=r x
1C
(231.),
/.
MQ = S P.
Let
or
M Q cut
where
/.
the parabola in P,
this particular
we have S P
+m
236.
To
From
rallel to
T draw A X, then
y=0, T R perpendicular
j?=AT =
to
m=
A T,
AS.
X, and from
draw
PR
we have
pa
Consequently the distances of any point P from S, and from the line R, are equal to one another. This line, R, is called the directrix ; for knowing the position of this line and of the focus, a parabola may be described. This tangent cuts the axis at an angle of 45. (35. Ex. 3:)
237.
tangent.
To
y from
we have
But from the figure 232, we have y l for the co0, and x^ a x f 6 is the equation to the line ordinates of the point S, and y P T ; also the equation to P is
=m
:.
a
2
= 2m
m
xf
y,
and b
= 2mx y,
r
2m "*
S
(m
(m
x')
= Vm
**,
if
P r= r
122
THE TANGENT.
the square
Hence
238.
on S y
or,
the rectangle
:
S
l
P, S
S P
S y
: :
Sy
S A.
To
The equation
Hence
to the tangent
PT,
fig.
232,
is
=2m j
(x
x')
the equation to S
y passing through
pendicular to
T,
is
= 
2m
(of
m).
put x
To
this
find
where
0,
/.
J, but
is the point where the tangent at P cuts the same axis (233.) ; hence the tangent and the perpendicular on it from the focus meet in the axis AY, or the locus of y is the axis AY. 239. Again, to find where ihe perpendicular S y cuts the directrix, put
.==_,
:.
= jL<,m)=jLt m
MP
;
 m =
)
if,
hence a tangent being drawn at any point but this is P, the perpendicular on it from the focus cuts the directrix in the point where the perpendicular from P on the directrix meets that directrix. 240. To find the angle which the tangent makes with the focal distance
the ordinate
The equation
and
to the tangent
to the focal
PT
is
y
S
=
P
j (j;
x').
The equation
distance
P <=
(=
0,
m)
x' t y') is
And
tan.
PT
tan.
(P S
X  P T X)
y'
a/
m
x'
2m
y
1
M
?n
2
G
2
x.
(*'
2 in (x'
 m) _
m x'  2 m x' +
jf_
m)
+ 2 m/
(of
m)
m)
_ 2_ m _
But
H^L
/.
M P = MT
tan.
P T M,
tan.
PT
M = fj,
/.
tan.
PT
123
Thus
tan. T' P Q, if P Q be drawn parallel to the axis of x. rr tan. S T P the tangent at P makes equal angles with the focal distance, and with a parallel to the axis through P. This important theorem may also be deduced from the property in It is there proved that the absolute value of is article 233.
hence we have
angle
AT
AM,
S P, and
therefore
the
If a ray of light, proceeding in the direction Q P, be incident on the parabola at P, it will be reflected to S, on account of the equal angles
QP'I', SPT: similarly ail rays coming in a direction parallel to the axis, and incident on the curve, would converge to S; and if a portion of the curve revolve round its axis, so as to form a hollow concave mirror, all rays from a distant luminous point in the direction of the axis would be concentrated in S. Thus, if a parabolic mirror be held with its axis pointing to the sun, a very powerful heat will be found at the locus.
Again,
if
all
the
rays, instead of being lost in every direction, will proceed in a mass parallel to the axis, and thus illuminate a very distant point in the direction of that
axis.
This property of the curve has led to the adoption of parabolic mirrors in many lighthouses.
THE NORMAL.
To find the equation to the normal P G, at a point P jc The equation to a straight line, through P, is y ), and y = or (j? .is this line must be perpendicular to the tangent whose equation \sy =
241.
1 r
j
(JT
j/),
we have a
=.
y'
2m
mal
is
y 
y'
=
.*.
^
x 
(r
*').
242.
To
J=
where the normal cuts the axis of #. G is constant and equal m, or the subnormal
v/2/'
r.
Hence
PG
THE DIAMETERS.
243. It was shown in article 81, that the parabola has no centre. Since for every positive value of x there are two equal and opposite values of y the axis of x is a diameter, but that of y is not; hence the axes cannot be called conjugate axes. The parabola has an infinite number of diameters, all parallel to the axis ; to prove this,
Let y =.
ax
2
2/
become y
=a
and (y
+ y')* = p (x +
y of
r')
124
THE DIAMETERS.
find
To
in the
second
equation.
or a 2 * 2
+ (2a/p)rrV
/>tf'=0
;
But since the origin is at the bisection of the chord, the two values of x must be equal to one another, and have opposite signs hence the second 2 ay' term of the last equation must 0, p = 0.
.".
it
is
independent of
b, it will
= ax +
hence
~
is
the
equation to the locus of all the middle points of a system of parallel chords, is evidently that to a straight line parallel to the axis ;
To
new
origin
and to new axes, and so that it shall preserve the same form, Let x a f x' cos. 6 + y r cos. 6f
and
have
= y = b
j
y' sin.
0',
(57.)
= px and
ap
(1),
(2),
arranging,
we
+ of (2 6
And
as this equation
+
sin.
p cos.
z 0) j b
p cos. 0)
0.
must be of
2
the form
.
.
= p x,
.
we must have
(sin.0)
zrO
=
0'
.
2 6
sin. 6'
 p cos.
=
.
(3),
.
b*ap =
Jlence the equation becomes
2
3/'
(4).
(sin.
r=:
6'y
2
j/'
j
(2 b
sin.
2
cos. 0) #'
or since e
0,
(sin. 0')
px
= 0.
245. On the examination of the equations (1) (2) (3) and (4), it appears from (1) that the new axis of x' is parallel to the original axis of from (1), of course (2) is destroyed, and thus the x ; and being equations of condition are reduced to three : but there are four unknown quantities, hence there are an infinite number of points to which, if the origin be transferred, the equation may be reduced to the same simple
f<;rm.
take the remaining three quantities a, b and 0', in any order, the same results. Suppose a is known, then from (4), b* p a, this equation shows that a must be taken in a positive direction from A, and also that the new origin must be taken on the curve itself, or the new origin is at some point P on the curve, as in the next figure
We may
and arrive
at
From
but this
(3)
we have
tan.
nr\
^j
fo
P T to
is exactly the value of the tangent of the angle which a tangent the curve makes with the Axis (240.) : hence the new axis of y is a tangent to the curve at the new origin P.
THE DIAMETERS.
125
The results are therefore these, the new origin is at any point P on The axes are one (P X') parallel to the the curve (see the next figure). axis X, and the other (P Y') is a tangent at the new origin P. Lastly, from the form of the equation, the new axis of or is a diameter.
246.
The equation
2
is
/ =
8
^
2
of
P
Ql
(cosec. 0')
=
=
(1
+
P
cot.0')
= p( 1 +
4 a
4 S
(231.)
new parameter at P is four times the focal distance S P. The equation to the parabola, when we know the position and direction of the new axes, is readily obtained from the original equation
Hence
the
247.
Y'
P X'
Also,
X',
P Y'
the
new
axes, angle
let
AN =
a,
,
And PV
AM =
=
x'
f,
Then y
= QN
r=
sin.
cos. 6.
2
1
=px
cos 0)
we have
.'.
(6
/s
y' sin.
2
6>)
=p
sin.
(a
+y
6
2/
(sin. 0)
(26
cos. 0)
+
2
62 6
=p
f
but 6 2
= p a, and
tan.
= tan. P T M = ^ =
.*.
p = ^
2 6
sin.
p
2
cos.
0=0,
is
y'
(sin. 0) 6*
==
p x'.
2
=
2
we have
(cos. 0)
4 a8
4 ga
&a
and
(sin. 0)
E=
126
THE DIAMETERS.
'
.".
=p2
*'
y'
rr (4 a
P) *'
fa
4
4
P'
^ where // =
rectangle
4 S P.
the
the
under
To
find
the
the
Here, x
PV=ST=SP=:r
..
Hence,
QQ'
/.
= p,r:=4r.r=4r
2r
4 S P.
the ordinate through the focus is equal to four times the focal distance S P, is equal to the parameter at the point P.
Thus
Hence, generally, if the origin of coordinates be at any point P on the the parabola, and if the axes be a diameter and a tangent at P, parameter to the point P is that chord which passes through the focus. 249. The equation to a tangent at any point (#' y'), referred to the
new axes
P X', P
Y',
is
Let y
Let x
=
.
.*.
= ^
<//
x1
=  =
V
the ordinate.
For y put y, then we have the equation to the tangent at the other Q' ; hence it may be proved that tangents extremity Q' of the ordinate Q at the two extremities of a chord meet in a diameter to that chord.
250. If the chord Q V Q' pass through the focus, as in the figure, the 2 SP 2 r, and r' coordinates of Q are y' r, also
= PV = SP =
p'
4 r
(x
#')
becomes  y x
y = x +
+ r,
P, that
rectrix.
is,
r, and similarly the equation to the tangent at Q' is and these lines meet the axis P X' at a distance r from tangents at the extremity of any parameter meet in the di
is
(a
'
a') sin. to
'
= (1 +

tan.
1 ) sin. 
ai
(since
and a
1;
90.
at the
127
To
Let the coordinates of any point O be J/ and y', and let 9 be measured from a line O x, which is parallel to the axis of the curve
Then by
the figure,
(61.), or
by inspection of
we have
y
x
= =
+
f
sin.
cos.
x and y
in the
equation y* =r
x,
we have
(y
sin. 0) *
(x'
cos. 0)
y"
u y'
8
sin.
+
^?
u* (sin. 0)
or,
(sin. 0)
= p cos.
2
cos. 9
?/'
sin. 0,
y' sin.
(sin.
1
0")
And
if
we have
y'
=
'
= p
253. Let the focus S be the pole,
cos.
2
(sin.0)
.
'.
+
2
sin.
r2 (sin. 6)
1
4
8
pr
cos. 0,
or
r2 (sin. 0)
2
f>'
(cos. 0)
=
+
or r
j
+
(
/?
r cos.
r2 (cos. 0)
/.
=
.
^
r cos.
^2
r cos. 0;
is
22
cos.
article (231).
The
also easily
deduced from
Let angle
ASP=
0,
thenr
r cos. 0;
"21
__
_
+
cos.
(CO,
V i
128
254. If
we have S
2
1
P
1
21
P 4
1
cos.
(TT
_P ~~
0)
cos.
'
p s,
s p'
(cos. 0)*
= L. 4
(s
P+ sP
, '
4
P P'.
CHAPTER
XI
well
known
and parabola, were originally obtained from the section of a cone, and that hence they were called the conic sections. We shall now show the manner in which a cone must be cut by a plane, in order that the section may be one of these curves. A right cone is the solid generated by the revolution of a rightangled triangle about one of its perpendicular sides. The fixed side, O H, about which the triangle revoive^, is called the axis and the point O, where the hypothenuse of the triangle meets the axis, is
;
If the revolving hypothenuse be produced another cone, having the same axis and vertex. Any point in the hypothenuse of the triangle describes a circle; hence, the base of the triangle describes a circular area called the base of
it
will describe
the cone.
Section
made by
planes which pass through the vertex and along the these are, evidently, triangles. ;
129
If a plane pass through the cone in any direction, the intersection of it The nature of the with the surface of the cone is called a conic section. ine thus traced will be found to be different, according to the various It is our purpose to show, positions of the cutting plane. generally, to what class of curves a section must necessarily belong ; and, afterwards, to point out the particular species of curve due to a given position of the
cutting plane. the vertex, 256. Let O B Q C be a right cone, the axis, B C Q the circular base, P A the line in which the cutting plane meets the surface of the cone; being the point in the curve nearest to the Let O B C A be a vertical plane passing through the axis yertex O. and perpendicular to the cutting plane P A M. the intersection of these planes, is a straight line, and is called the axis of the conic section, the curve being symmetrically placed with
OH
OH AM,
regard to
it.
FM
Let F P D, its
it
is
and the Since both this last plane P the intersection of the two C, pendicular to the vertical plane O B former is perpendicular to the vertical plane, (Euc. xi. 19, or Geometry iv. 18,) and, therefore, to all lines meeting it in that plane. Hence
FP D
therefore a circle,
and
F D and to A M. O A M, which is the inclination of the cutting plane to the side of the cone, = a, and let the Z A O B = /5, draw A E parallel to B H and M L parallel to O B. Let A M = x M P = y, and A O = a.
is
MP
perpendicular to
Then by
The square on
F M,
sin.
MD
<x
'
ft
cos.
Also,
FM=EAALO E A =90 to
,
sin.
sm.
AOE O EA
90
AM
:
sin.
sin.
AML ALM
if
But angle
duce
(
angle
ALM =
f
and
we
180
pro
ML
0)
;
meet
O A,
we
AML =
hence
FM
= asin
cos
.
ft
sin.
_
j
(a
/>)
cos.
y
sin.
sin. ft
(a
ft)
cos.
^,
cos.
cos.
or y'
=7
/
sin.
_

. '
TTT. i
cos.
sin
sin
(a
J
130
p x f q .z , which represents a parabola, or an hyperbola, according as q is negative, nothing, or positive ; we observe that the section is an ellipse, a parabola, or an To sin. (a /3) is positive, nothing, or negative. hyperbola, according as we shall suppose the cutting plane to move investigate these various cases, to 180 about A, so that a may take all values from
an
257. Let a
0,
is
.'.
= 0, and
this is the
equation to the
the axis of x.
And this appears, also, from the figure ; for when a 0, the cutting is in plane just touches the cone, and hence the line of intersection A the position O.
258. Let a
lines
ft
OE
and
AM
AOE
meet
and
in
The curve is an ellipse. In the being together less than 180, the A', or the sectional plane cuts both sides of the
OAM
cone.
259. Let
M be the
FM = AEandMD
AE,
.*. The square on the axis minor The rectangle A E, A' G. Also by drawing perpendiculars from A and E upon A' G, it may be proved that The square on the axis major The square on A G + The rectangle
A'G.
.*.
And
angle
The
AG.
AK
is
E A
if
A',\hen
AK
EAK =
the
And
A A'
in the focus
a circle be inscribed in the triangle A' A O, it will touch the line of the section. (Geometry, Appendix, prop. 21.)
131
90
 ,
is
then
gsin
Jg +/j)
__
AN
261. Let a j /3 0, and the curve is a 180, /. sin. ( a f ft) The plane, continuing to turn, has now come into the position parabola. Q, the axis being parallel to O F, or the cutting plane parallel to a side of the cone.
AN
The equation
If
to the
parabola
is
y*
4 a
(
sin. )
AK AN
AL
262. Let at + ft be greater than 180 .*. sin. (a + /3) is negative, and the curve is an hyperbola; The cutting plane is now in the position A L R; in this case the lines A L, E O must meet if produced backwards, or the plane cuts both cones, and the curve consists of two branches, one on the surface of each cone. As in the ellipse, it may be proved that the square on the conjugate axis the rectangle A E, A" G' ; that A G' is the distance between the foci, that A K is the latus rectum, and that the circle touching A' O, O A and
be drawn making the angle E the angle K, then the latus rectum of the section, and the circle which touches O, and in the focus of the parabola. F, will touch
AK
AK =
AO
is
AN
touches 263. We
AL
at the focus.
may
also suppose
a
or
to
have a
plane to meet the cone in some other point than A, for example
Let a
.*.
sin.
sin. (
(3}
Since
will
sin.
a and
cos.
sin. (a
are positive,
/3).
depend upon
the radical quantity is impossible, and the and y =: 0, or the section is a point ; only solution of the equation is x = this is the case when the cutting plane passes through the vertex O, and is PA'. parallel to any elliptic section If a we have two straight lines which cut /3 is greater than 180 each other at the origin. In this case the cutting plane is drawn through L R, and the intersection with the cone is two straight O, parallel to
If a
ft
is
less
than 180
lines
meeting
in
this discussion, that the conic sections a point, a straight line, two straight lines which intersect, a circle, an ellipse, an hyperbola, and a parabola or all the curves of the second degree and their varieties, with the exception of two parallel lines, which is a variety of the parabola. The three latter sections, the ellipse, hyperbola, and parabola, are those which are usually termed "conic sections," and which have been the study and delight of mathematicians since the time of Plato. In his school they were first discovered; and his disciples, excited, no doubt, by the many beautiful properties of these curves, examined them with such
We
:
may
O. conclude from
K2
132
industry, that in a very short time several complete treatises on the Of these, the best still extant is that of conic sections were published. It is in eight books, four of which are elementary ; Apollonius of Perga. and four on the abstruser properties of these curves. The whole work is well worth attention, as showing how much could be done by the ancient analysis, and as giving a very high opinion of the geometrical genius of
the age.
Apollonius gave the names of ellipse and hyperbola to those curves Hyperbola, because the square on the ordinate is equal to a figure "exceeding" (" virtppocXXov ") the rectangle under the abscissa and latus B. i. p. 13. rectum by another rectangle. " defective" Ellipse, because the square on the ordinate is (" eXXeiTroi/") 14. with regard to the same rectangle. p. the name of parabola to that curve is not known who It gave probably Archimedes, because the square of the ordinate is equal (" leapafiaXXov ")
and latus rectum. Thus, the ancients viewed these curves geometrically, in the manner as we are accustomed to express them by the equations
to the rectangle of the abscissa
:
same
y*
2
j/
 p* = p x.
2 a
265.
The
from
their
either by "mechanical description" or by "points." As an instance of the first method we may mention the circle, described by the compasses, or by means of a string fastened at one end to the centre, and the other carried round by the hand, the hand tracing the curve. This " that mechanical method, or, as it is sometimes culled, by continued motion," is not always practicable: no curve is so simple, in this respect,
ways,
as the circle; hence we are often obliged to have recourse to the second method, or that by points: this is done by taking the equation to the curve and from some property expressed geometrically, finding a number of points, all of which belong to the curve, and then neatly joining these We shall commence with the points with a pen or other instrument. mechanical description of these curves. 266. To trace an ellipse of which the axes are given :
Let
centre
A
B
A',
with
and radius
AC
circle cutting
A A' in S
and H.
Place pegs at S Let one extremity of a string be held at A, and pass the string round H back again to A, and ther.e join its two ends by a
points are the foci.
133
its length shall be just double ; place a pen or other it round the points S pointed instrument within this string;, and move and H, so that the string be always stretched ; the pen will trace out the For if P be one of its positions, we have required ellipse.
of A H
/.
SP +
PH = A A'.
elliptic
267. Another method is by means of an instrument called the compasses, or the trammel.
Let
Xx
and
Yy
grooves in them, and fastened at right Let B P be a angles to each other. third ruler, on which take B P equal the to the semiaxis major, and At B a peg is so semiaxis minor. fixed that the point B with the peg a similar peg is can move along fixed at A. By turning the ruler B P
PA
Yy
round, a pen placed at P will trace out the curve. Suppose C to be the point where the axes meet, x and P y, the rectanis drawn parallel to C gular coordinates of P, and suppose that B
CM =
M =
and meeting
M in N,
then
AM
==
B N,
and
the square on
The square on
AP=
the square on
PM +
2
,
AM
or I 9
\
 #
The following is also a very simple method of describing the ellipse. are two rulers, each equal to half a ruler of any length, C F, F These rulers are fastened together by a the sum of the semiaxes. turns round a pivot at C ; F P is taken moveable joint at F, and Let the point slide equal to half the difference of the semiaxes. Draw x, then the point P will trace out the curve. along the line
268.
X x is
FC
FD
and
PM
perpendicular to
C X, and
let
M=
x,
and
MP=
;
y, then
The square on
or
FG =
a
the square on
FD +
the square on
DG
ti
134
For a description of the Elliptograph, and other instruments for describreaders to the treatise on Practical Geo~ ing ellipses, we must refer our account is given of all the instruments, metry, where an extremely good and also the advantages and disadvantages of each are well exhibited
269. To trace the hyperbola by continued motion, let A A' be the
transverse axis, S between the foci,
H the distance H P K a ruler movable about H. A string, whose length is less than H K by A A' is
fastened to
;
is
stretched, and in part attached to the ruler by a pencil as at ; then, since S is constantly the same, the point and the difference of will trace out the curve. If the length of the string be S K, a straight line perpendicular to
HP
if
H K,
the opposite
BC
C O along B C, keepthe square ing the thread tight by means of a pencil P, and in part attached to
the square.
Then
since
S P
C, the point
will
describe a parabola.
271. Given the axes of an ellipse to deLet A A' be the axis scribe the curve. With centre S. the foci. major, S and less than A A', describe and any radius A a circle, and with centre H and radius A' describe a second circle, cutting the former in two points Panel P' ; then since
V...
'
'V.
SP
+ P H = A M + M A' = A A', P
is
a point in the required curve ; and thus any number of points may be found, and the curve described.
272. Given a pair of conjugate diameters to describe the curve. Let A', BB', be the conjugate
1)
diameters.
AD
and
parallel to
A C, and
B
Through
draw
BD
AC
parallel to
into the
equal parts as lines to the dividing points in AD, and from B' draw lines to the dividing points in P, Q, of these lines are points in the ellipse.
AC;
the intersections
135
be the origin
CA
is
=a
y
l5
CB
= 6n
x
;
(ti
Then
the equation to
BP
is
bi
to
B P
7
b^
x.
Hence
P,
B'P make
therefore
=
t
and
is
constant;
af
quadrants of the
ellipse
273.
points
:
The
following
is
by
equal and parallel to the conjugate diameter. Through B draw paA' and equal to rallel to A'. In any multiple of B produced, take the same multiple of B. Divide B C into any number of c a 2 i B 4. into the same number of equal parts. equal parts, and Through draw lines to the points of division in B C, and through A' draw lines to the points of division in the intersections of corresponding lines ; will give points in an ellipse whose conjugate diameters are A' and B. The proof is the same as in the last case.
Let and A
A A'
B
be a diameter
BC
AD
AD
AD
AM
M
the same as that for the ellipse (271.) in article 273, C was taken to the right of instead of the as in the figure, the intersections of the corresponding lines will give
an hyperbola.
275.
To
by
points.
Let C A, C B be the equal semiaxes with any centre O in C B produced and with radius O A, describe a circle ; draw OP perpendicular to C O meeting the
circle in
Let C on C
P, then
#,
O =
is
square on
CA
the square
;
OA
the
or y*
= x*
a*.
136
C X, C Y
P
I?
by points.
Tn rough P draw any line S P S' terminated by the asymptotes in it take S'Q SP; then Q is a point in the curve (217), and similarly any number of points may be found.
277.
To
when
take AB = p\ with any AY be the rectangular axes; in AX and radius C B describe a circle B D M, cutting A Y in D and A X in M, draw D P and M P
centre
in
AY
and
AX
re
is
a point in the
AM
the square on
AD =
MP =
x.
y\ then
the rectangle
BA, AM,
or y*
=p
278. Given the angle between the axes and any parameter p' to describe the curve.
Let
AB
B
A X, Y A y be the axes,
Through
the parameter.
AX.
line
AY
FAG,
draw
meeting
take
DP
B C in F; in A D = B F, and
parallel
to
AX,
P
is
AG
Draw MP
let
parallel to
AY,
and
or
at
: :
p'
y;
:.
=p
x.
279. Given the position of the directrix of the conic sections by points.
T R and the
137
. Draw
TS
a point in the curve. in AX, and with centre Take any point S and radius equal to e times T M, describe a circle ; draw P perpendicular to X, and meeting the circle in P, then P is a point in the curve. Let be the origin of rectangular coordinates, A P == y, #,
:: e
:
AT
is
A A
M M= M
AS=m, and
AT =r then SPrre.TM^e.PR
;
or y*
:.
x*
2
(I
x
2
m*
2
y*
e )*
/.
= e* x* + 2 e m x + m  2m* (1 + e) =
;
2
;
which
Let
is
be
less
than unity,
y*
(1
e2 )
\ v
J.
~ C
x
z
x*
[.
Comparing
this
(2
ax
r9 ),
we have
2 a
is
an
ellipse
and 2
6
Let
8
.'.
i/
(e
1)


&
+ m \/

is
and 2

Let
the curve
4 x; .'. y* a parabola, whose principal parameter is 4 m. 280. The general equation to all the conic sections being
e
be equal to unity,
is
= m
_
2
(i
__
e ) a?
mx
(1
e)
0,
it follows that if we find any property of the ellipse from this equation' true for the hyperbola and parabola, making the necessary it will be changes in the value of e:
Thus
yy
yyf
is
+ (i _ e ) xx  m (1 + _ (e _ i) a _ m (\ +
s
j;'
e}
(x
(j7
e)
)
+ jf) = + a/) i=
hyperbola,
and yy'
(x
a:
138
Also most of the results found in Chapter VIII. <ir the ellipse will be 6 2 for 68 ; and will be true for the true for the hyperbola, by putting parabola by transferring the origin to the vertex of the ellipse, by then
puttingfor a,
and m* 
for 6 s
1.
Thus
in the
the equation to the tangent at the extremity of the Latus ellipse, when the origin is at the vertex, is
Rectum
y
or,
+

(x
a) (117),
ex,
=
1
a(l ,
e) j
for
a put
/.
and then
let e
e
\ #,
=m
e.
as in (235).
281. If S
traced
is
easily
r, and found :
A S P r=
=:
SP
or
PR =
(m
e(TS
f
S M),
;
r cos. 0)
m
t
(1 f e)
e cos.
Or
since
(1
e)
= 2 m for the
parabola, we have (putting p for the principal parameter) the genera polar equation to the three curves,
V
282.
To draw a tangent at a given point P on the ellipse. Draw the ordinate M P, and produce it to meet the circumscribing
Q, from Q draw a tangent to the circle meeting the axis major produced in T, join PT; this line is a tangent to the ellipse (114). Again, taking the figure in the note appended to Art. 121, join S P, to K, so that HP, and produce PH; join SK; the line Py bisecting S K is a tangent. 283. To draw a tangent to the ellipse from a point T without the curve.
circle in
HP
PK =
(2)
139
T P C P' through the centre, fig. 1. ; draw a conjugate then the question is reduced to finding a point in CP, and T Q' may through which a chord Q V Q' is to be drawn, so that be tangents. is the required Take C V a third proportional to C T and C P, then point (136). C describe circles CO, P'R, draw Again, with centre T and radii TP', any line T O R, cutting these circles in O and R ; join P O, and draw then it may be proved by similar triangles that C is a parallel to P O is the third proportional to C T and C P, and therefore required point. 284. If the axes, and not the ellipse, are given, take S and the foci, A' describe a circle, and with centre T and S and radius fig. 2, with centre radius describe another circle, cutting the former in the points and and H K' ; from T draw the lines T Q and and SK', K'; join S and and SK' in the K', these lines meet S perpendicular to
diameter to
CP
TQ
V
RV
TH
HK
HK
TQ
required points
and
Q and Q'. The proof will readily appear upon joining H Q and referring to the note, page 77. 285. To draw a tangent to the hyperbola at a given point P on the H Q', SP and H
curve.
P take S P, and join SK; P, note, page 97; in is the required tangent. 286. To draw a tangent from a given point T without the curve. The two methods given (283) for the ellipse will apply, with the necessary alteration of figure, to the hyperbola. 287. To draw a tangent to the parabola at a given point P on the curve.
Join
the line
PK =
PY
bisecting
SK
Draw
take
A T = A M,
To draw
an ordinate
join
PT
to the axis, fig. 232, and in the axis produced this line is a tangent (233) j or take S ;
T=
P, and join
P T.
a tangent to a parabola from a given point
to the axis,
288.
curve.
without the
in
Draw
P, take then
a diameter
ordinate
Q V Q'
V,
and focus be given, but not the curve; with centre T and radius T S describe a circle, cutting the directrix in the points R and R', join R S and R' S draw R Q and R' Q' parallel to the axis, and then TQ and T Q' perpendicular to R S and R' S (239). 289. An arc Q P Q' of a conic section, being traced on a plane to find and also the axes and focus of the to which of the curves it belongs
If the directrix
; ;
TQ
TQ'
section.
Draw a line L through the middle of two parallel chords, and another line L' through the middle of other two parallel chords, if the lines L, L are is a parabola, if they meet on the concave side of the parallel, the curve curve it is an ellipse, if on the convex side it is an hyperbola. (130. 243.)
290. Let the curve be an ellipse, the point where the lines L I/ meet is the centre C ; let P P' be a diameter, its conis thus found ; describe a jugate circle on P P' as diameter, and draw R,
CD
D
CB
Q, and perpendicular to PP'; join draw B parallel to R Q, meeting a line parallel to Q V, passing through C ; then C is the conjugate diameter (136).
140
INTERSECTING CHORDS.
;
To find the length and position of the axes draw P F perpendicular on C D, and produce it to E, making P E = C D, join C E, and bisect C E in H join P H then from the triangle C P E we have the side C E in terms of C P and C D = ,J{a? j bf 2 a ^ sin. (0' 0)} =
; ;
t
{a
6*
2 ab} s= a
.*.
H =
also
triangle
we have
PH
= a+
is
hence
P H + H E
is
the smallaxis
major, and
PH
HE
is the direction of the axismajor. then C 291. If the arc Q P Q' be an hyperbola, the conjugate diameter may be found by a process somewhat similar to that for the ellipse ; the asympThe direction of the axes bisects totes may then be drawn by Art. 215. the angle of the asymptote, and their length is determined by drawing a a tangent PT, and perpendicular P M, to the axis, and taking and mean proportional between (167).
In
HP
take
H K = H E,
CM
CA
CT
292. If the arc be a portion of a parabola, to Q V, and then draw P S, the angle T'PV; repeat this construction for another point P', then the junction of PS and P'S determines the focus (240); the axis is parallel to PV, and the vertex is found by drawing a perpendicular
SPT=
on the
axis,
TM
(233).
293. theorem.
We
any point within or without a conic section two straight lines other, be drawn to meet the curve, the rectangle contained by the segments of the one will be in a constant ratio to the rectangle contained by the segments of the other.
If through
Case 1. The ellipse and hyperbola. be two semidiameters parallel to the chords POP', Let CD, Q O Q' then, wherever chords parallel to these be drawn, we shall always have the following proportion The rectangle PO, OP': the rectangle Q O, O Q :: the square on C D : the square on C E.
CE
be the origin of oblique axes Let the curve will be of the form
OX, O Y
INTERSECTING CHORDS.
141
Let x
,
.*.
a y*
+ dy +/= 0,
we have
The
rectangle
Q O, O Q' =
P
O,
i;
O P'
=
c
:. the rectangle
Q O, O Q
f
:
the rectangle
P O, O P'
f f ::::: a
c
Now, let the origin be transferred to the centre without changing the direction of the axes, then the form of the equation is
ay*
+ bxy +
Let x
.*.
the square on
x2
(81).
the
square on
: :
D=
.'.
C
.'.
the square on
CE
!
the square
on
CD
the rectangle PO, OP' II the square on the rectangle Q O, O Q' the square on C D. : do not meet the curve ; but in In the hyperbola fig. (2), C E and C order to show that these lines are semidiameters, let the axis of y be carried round till it becomes conjugate to C D, then the formulas for trans
C E
formation
in
9=0,
x'
sin. sin.
&
w
,
y'
sin.
(w
7 sin.
0') y .
y'
If these values of x and y be substituted in the general central equation 0, the above, and it be reduced to the conjugate form by putting b' transformed equation is of the form a' y z \ c xz \0, where
f=
and/
and
is
along the axis of x (86) ; hence the theorem is true for the hyperbola. Case '2. The Parabola fig. (3.) As before, we have the rectangle P O, : the rectangle Q O,
OP
and Q O Q' ; be the parameters to the chords to the focus, the axes remaining parallel to PO, and Q O, by which transformation c and a are not altered. Now in this case, the chords passing through the focus, we have the
OQ'
::
Let
P and Q
POP'
transfer the
origin
ectangle
PS, S
:
P'
the rectangle
S,
S Q';
P'
::
P
^Q
(254)
and
also as c
::
;
:
P 0, O
the rectangle
Q O,
OQ'
::
"294.
If the point
as well as
and
be without the curves, and the points P P' coincide become tangents, we have for the ellipse
and hyperbola,
142
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
OP
the square
on
::
OQ
::
the square on
CD
the
or
the parabola
;
OP: OQ
CD
CE.
O P : the square on O Q S P ; S Q be proved that, if a polygon circumscribe an ellipse, the may And the same algebraical product of its alternate segments are equal. theorem will apply to tangents about an hyperbola; the tangents commencing from any point in the asymptotes.
The square on
: :
;
it
CHAPTER
XIJ.
amount to eighty) is quite sufficient to show that their complete investigation would far exceed the limits of an elementary treatise like the present. Nor is it requisite: we have examined the sections of the cone at great length,
because, from their connexion with the system of the world, every proso with the higher perty of these curves may be useful; but it is not orders ; generally speaking they possess but few important qualities, and may be considered more as objects of mathematical curiosity than of practical utility.
third order is chiefly remarkable from its investigation having been Of the eighty species now known, seventyundertaken by Newton. him eight others, which escaped his searching two were examined by eye, have since been discovered. " EnuThose who wish to study these curves, may refer to Newton's " or to the work of Stirling upon the meratio Linearum tertii Ordinis
The
first
same
subject.
Of the
fourth order there are above five thousand species, and the number is so enormous as to preclude the possibility of their
general investigation in the present state of analysis. systematic examination of curves being thus impossible, all that we can do is to give a selection, taking care that amongst them shall be found all the algebraical or transcendental curves which are most remarkable either for their utility or history. We shall generally introduce them as examples of indeterminate pro
blems, that
variables.
when
It
of problems leading to final equations, containing two then trace the loci of those equations, and explain, necessary, anything relating to the construction or properties of
is,
We
shall
the curves.
to give any general rules for the working of these those given for determinate problems will here serve equally well but, in both cases, experience is the only sure guide. In the solution of these problems we shall not always follow the same, nor even the easiest,
would be useless
;
questions
;
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
method; but we
observer
shall
143
AB,
manner, so that an attentive any particular case. We commence with problems leading to loci of the second order. 296. Given the straight line A B (= a) to find the point P without
endeavour
to vary the
may
learn
how
to act in
so that
AP PB
:
::
1.
AM =
Let
MP =
then
AP
M = PB m
::
2
:
AX
and A
the axes,
/. x*
or (1
 m
+ ^ :: m + y* = m (a  *) + m y* + (1 m x* + 2 m a x m
2/
V (ax)
2
r=
(),
or y*
+
(I
?>i
This equation shows that there are an infinite number of points satisproblem, all situated on the circumference of a
this circle
To draw
and radius
If
in
x take
A
;
=
1
and with
centre.
m
1,
describe a circle
m=
we have x
which
is
the equation to a straight line drawn through the bisection of B, and Y. parallel to 297. If perpendiculars be drawn to two lines given in position from a point P, and the distance between the feet of the perpendiculars be a con
stant quantity a, required the locus of P. Let the intersection of the given lines be the origin of rectangular axes, a x be the equation to take one of the lines for the axis of x, and let y
(x
},
and
then
perpendicular to the
line
j?,
is
y'
=
05
(x
a;')
from these two equations the coordinates of the point where their loci meet, that is, the coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular are readily x f* obtained and then the final equation found, by art. 29, is y''2
;
a*
which belongs
to a circle
whose centre
is at
the intersection
of the
lines.
298. given straight line B C moves between two straight lines, A B, C, so that its extremities B C are constantly on those lines to find the curve traced out by any given point P in B C.
;
144
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
the lines
Let
A
y,
B,
AC
<r,
A M = x,
BP
;
MP =
and
let
= PC=
a,
6,
B AC
then
be a right angle
AM:BP::MC:PC,
or a2
2
j/
62 x
a*
b\
A.
the equation to an ellipse whose centre is A and axes 2 a, 2 b. If a ladder be,, placed against a wall, and its foot drawn along the ground at right angles to the wall, any step will trace out a quarter of an ellipse, and the middle step will trace out a quadrant of a circle. If the coordinate axes be inclined at an angle 0, we have
which
is
>
B, A C, so that the triangle A B C is constant, the curve traced out by a point P which divides B C in a given ratio is an hyperbola. 299. Given the line A B (= c) to find a point P without A B, such and P B, the angle P B A may be double of P A B. that drawing
b* x* 2 a b cos. 6 x y a? y* a2 6 2 0, the equation to an ellipse (76). It is easy to see that from this problem arises a very simple mechanical method of describing the ellipse. If a straight line B C of variable length move between two straight lines
Whence
which
is
PA
Let
A be
the origin
A X, A Y
is
The
equation to
to
AP
is
and that
but /
BP
= x, y = a! (x
a.
= tan. PBX =
tan.
PBA=
tan.
PAB
2 a
;
2 a
a2
(*
')
(2)
3 x* Eliminating a between the equations (1) and (2), we have y* 2 c ar, hence the locus of P is an hyperbola ; comparing its equation
it
r=
(a?
2 c
2 a x),
we
and
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
,
45
at
C where
V3
AC =
By this hyperbola, a circular arc may be trisected ; for if P B be the arc to be trisected, describe the as above, and let hyperbola the curves intersect in P; then if be the centre of the circle, the anole & or the arc P B is onethird of
DP
may
Let
AM =
M P = y,
and angle
PA B
Then
tan. 6
2 tan 6
'
(tan. 0)
'
or
1
2
?/
3 xs
2 c
x.
On
examination
it
will
are identical.
The following problems give loci of the second order. From the given points A and B, (fig. 1,) two straight lines given in position are drawn, M R Q is a common ordinate to these lines, and M P
300.
1.
is
taken in
M RQ
mean
proportional to
MQ
and
M R;
required the
locus of P.
(2)
M
2.
A common
;
X A Y, so line A X
carpenter's square C B P, (fig. 2,) moves in the right angle that the point C is always in Y, and the right angle B in the required the locus of P.
3. If the base and difference of the angles at the base of a triangle be given, the locus of the vertex is an equilateral hyperbola 4. To find a point P, from which, drawing perpendiculars on two gives straight lines, the enclosed quadrilateral shall be equal to a given square.
301. Let
join
AQ
A Q and
C
A' be an ellipse, A A' the axis major, Q Q' any ordin&te, A' Q' required the locus of their intersection P.
;
Let
C
Then
M=
the equation to
is
/.
146
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
At
it
becomes y
a (r f
a)
.'.
Hence
the equation to
AQ
A'Q'
2
is
y
y
(*
),
(U
(2)
And
similarly that to
is
y
,
(*),
(x
62
;
/,)
Also a 2
Eliminating
x'
y'
6 2 *' 2
=
y'
o2
(2),
(3)
we have
a?
y=
Substituting in (3)
J?
and
=1
we obtain
x*
x*
or
a2 y 2
6 2 c8
68 ,
is
which
is
whose centre
C, and transverse
axis 2 a.
The method of elimination used in this problem is of great use ; the have the equations to principle admits of a clear explanation. and A'Q'; putting x and y the same for both equations intimates that P in one particular case of interand x and y are the coordinates C
We
AQ
and y r intimates that x and y are also the coordinates of intersection, and therefore that the resulting always
section
;
x'
equation belongs to the locus of their intersection. 302. To find the locus of the centres of all the circles drawn tangential to a given line AX, and whose circumferences pass through a given point
Q (a 6).
Let S
x,
Q
y
Ay.
centre P,
its
x\ y'
any point on
circumference.
Then
the equation to
S Q M
is
*)
but passing through Q,
it
^;
*)
(65)
becomes
(6
<v)
__
(a
A X, we
hare r
= y,
DESCARTES PROBLEM.
147
or x*
2 a x
2 by
+ oM
62
= 0.
This
is
It
may be
of
( ,
r= 2 b
_V
Hence
if
we
b y,
is
E, which
is
circle,
instead of the circle passing through a given point, a parabola is again the locus of P.
it
touch a given
303. Let B, B C, C D, and (fig. 1, p. 148) be four straight lines given in position, to find the locus of a point P, such, that drawing the lines P E, P F, P G, and P B, B C, *C D, making given angles with the rectangle P G, P H. and A, we may have the rectangle P E, P F
DA
Let
lines
ordinates of
/3, /3',
ft"
and
/3
P E, P F,
JTL
&c.,
make with
x and y the coX, ; the cosecants of the angles which the B, B C, &c. Then the equation
y
OY
~
10
* *
ut
~^
toB C
to
DC
to
AD
148
problem may be expressed much more generally. Suppose number of lines to be given in position, required a point from which, drawing lines to the given lines, each making a given angle with them, the rectangle of two lines thus drawn from the given point may have a given ratio to the square on the third, if there are three ; or to the rectangle of the two others, if there are four: or again, if there are five lines, that the parallelopiped composed of three lines may have a given ratio to the parallelopiped of the two remaining lines, together with a
This
3, 4, 5 or a greater
third given line, or to the parallelopiped composed of the three others, if there are six : or again, if there are seven, that the algebraical product of four may have a given ratio to the algebraical product of the three others
and a given line, or to the four others, if there are eight, and so on. This was a problem which very much perplexed the ancient geometricians. Pappus says, that neither Euclid nor Apollonius could give a
He himself knew that when there are only three or four lines solution. the locus was a conic section, but he could not describe it, much less could he tell what the curve would be when the number of lines were more When the number of lines were seven or eight, the ancients than four. could scarcely enunciate the problem, for there are no figures beyond solids, and without the aid of algebra, it is impossible to conceive what
the product of four lines can mean.
It was this problem which Descartes successfully attacked, and which, most probably, led him to apply algebra generally to geometry. The
following solution
is
A B, A D, E Fand G H
D
F D, B, making point from which are drawn the lines B (= tf) and B C A, C FE, and C H G. given angles C B A, C to which all the others will be referred. (= y) are the principal lines Suppose the given lines to meet C B in the points R, S, T, and A B in c and A G d. Let A E the points A, E and G.
C C
C
and
CH
the required
C R = a x + y and C D = BR = a.AB=*; C S = y + a' also B S = a'.B E = a' (c + x ); ". B G = also B T = CF = {y + a' (c + x) C T = y + a" (d  x) and C H = 0" y + " (d
/.
Then
since
all
ABR
are
known, we have
ft
(a x
+
;
y)
(c
+ x)
x)
}
and
x): then
13'
} ;
:.
a" (d
DESCARTES' PROBLEM.
since the rectangle
149
B,
CF
r=
the rectangle
CD, C H, we
have the
equation
This equation Descartes showed to belong to a conic section which he He also gave the following numerical example described.
:
LetEA = 3,AG=5,AB=rBR, B
'
BE
GB = BT
CD = JCR, CF = 2CS, CH =  C T, the angle A B R = 60, and the rectangle C B, C F = the rectangle C C H. By the above
(j
I),
to be
to
circle.
in
(72)
we have
and
3
1
and
Vl9
the radius rr
304. Let
indefinite
AQB
be a semicircle of which
AB
is
meeting
the diameter,
ix
BR
AP= Q
AQ
B an a straight line
required the
R;
locus of P.
Let
A be
and
AB
the axis of x.
parallel to
AB
2 a,
AM =
Jf,
M P = y,
and draw
QN
MP
(2)
then since
AP = Q
:
R, we have
AM
:
==
B N,
and
that
is, a?
:
AM
y
::
MP::AN
a
x)
:
NQ;
a
(2
#) x
(65)
2 a
and y
2 a
150
THE
CISSOID.
The
THE CISSOID.
Substitute these value? in the equation y
2 9
=
2 a
2a
sin.
oc
.'.
(sin. 0)
(cos. 0)
2a
whence r
tan 6
r cos.0
Ex. If a perpendicular be drawn from the vertex of a parabola to a tangent, the locus of their intersection is the cissoid.
305. If C be a point in the diameter A B of the circle A Q B, and Q in any ordinate, join B Q, and draw C P parallel to B Q, meeting
MQ
P
Lei
AM =
a?,
MP
A B
thenB
=r y,
=
::
a,
AC =
6;
M MQ
:
M P,
or
(a
x)
Vax
(6
x*
: :
(6
x)
y,
..
x)
Hence
152
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
P of the parabola, always Ex. A point Q is taken in the ordinate equidistant from P, and from the vertex of the parabola; required the locus of Q.
306.
lo
MQ
is
P, so that
MP MQ
AB AM
:
AQ
B, and
MQ
is
produced
Let
ABX
axes.
and
AY be the rectangular
x,
AM =
Then
A B = 20; MP MQ
:
::
A]B
AM
or
<J
2 a x
2 a
x* ::
2 a:
8
<r ,
2 a x
2a 
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
153
2 a, y increases positive ; but when x is negatively to infinity, since the third root of a negative quantity is negative and possible. Again, y is positive for all negative values of #, and increases to oo ; also for each value of #, there is only one real value 3 of y, the other two roots of an 0, being always imequation y db 1
;
Let or and B
=
for
or
=2 < 2 a,
/.
is
>
possible.
Expanding
the equation
3
we have
r
/l2_a_
is
2 a
4a
.*.
=
take
2a 3
(195).
In
A Y take A C =
and
in
AX
AE =
?A join o
;
C E,
this
produced is an asymptote to the curve. 8 Ex. Find the locus of the equation, y* + #3 3 3 a* x a? y 308. To trace the curve whose equation is a y* r
line
<r
+ m# +
a
nx
+ p.
Case (1). Suppose the roots of this equation to be real and unequal, and to be represented by the letters b, and c, of which a is less than b and 6 less than c, then the equation is of th*1 form
,
154
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
Let
axes
AB
be the origin,
:= a,
AC=
AX, AY,
6,
the
and
AD
c;
(2) (5) and (7) the curve from (3) ; passes through B, C, and and (6) no part of the curve is found and B, or C and between from ; (4) there are two branches between B and C from (8) and (9) the curve proceeds from to oo , and from (10) no part of the curve is on the left of A. If the roots had been negative, the curve would have the same form, but would be rather differently situated with regard to the origin.
From
Case
(2). If
(#
or
(x
V/
C
c
5
in the
is
nearly
the
same
as above,
when
and
become
Case (3). If two of the roots be impossible, shaped part of the curve from D.
Case (4).
we have
a y9
If the three roots be equal, the equation is consists of two branches proceeding figure from B with their convexity towards the axis. This curve is called the semicubical parabola ; its equation is the most simple when the origin is at the vertex z B ; that is, putting x instead of x a, when a y
(j
a)
The
now
remarkable as being the first curve This curve which was rectified, that is, the length of any portion of it was shown to be equal to a number of the comis
mon
rectilinear unit.
8
x n x X 309. The equation o y ;;, can be traced exactly the accompanying figure applies to the case when as in the last article If two of them be equal, the three roots are positive, real, and unequal. one of the semi ovals disappears; if three are equal, both disappear: in 2 3 8 8 .r , if (x this case the equation is of the form a y a) , or a y the origin be transferred to B ; the curve is then called the cubical
:
+m
parabola.
is
310. If the equation be a x y =: x8 x9 f n r + p, the axis of y an asymptote, and there is a branch in the angle YA<r; the rest
+m
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
of the curve
is
155
like
that in the
from
vary.
to
come
to
Ay
last figure, supposing the lower branch as the asymptote, the form will vary as the roots
We
where y =
a;
a
ax
156
THE CONCHOID.
/2+ a
y
*y
= n
2
p,
 
7i
2 X
If the denominator of this expression had been constant, the equation would have belonged to an ellipse, hyperbola, or parabola, according as n was negative, positive or nothing; hence if such constant quantity be " hyperreplaced by the variable quantity 2 #, the conic section becomes bolized" by having an infinite branch proceeding to the axis of y as an
asymptote.
Newton,
last article
;
appears that
all
necessarily be the case, for every equation of an odd degree has at least one real root, so that there is always one real value of y corresponding to any real value of x.
branches
and
this
must
The conchoid of Nicomedes. Let X x (fig. 1) be an indefinite straight line, which draw the straight line A C B perpendicular
312.
A
to
number of
straight lines
AE P, A E P'
&c.
take
EP
always equal to
is
the conchoid.
we take E P' E P the locus of ~& is called the inferior both conchoids form but one curve, that is, both are expressed by the same equation. C B is called the modulus, and x the base or rule ;
conchoid
;
EA
M =s x, M P = y,
:
then
or
:.
EP
b
:
P
: :
M
f
A P A N,
(
y
8
+
6*
3/)
y,
y* x*
+y
(a
(a
y?,
.'.
x ==
+
is
We
>
a,
= a, or <
a.
THE CONCHOID.
Case
1. 6
57
>
a.
158
THE CONCHOID.
P ; in fixed pin, which is inserted in the groove of a third ruler P ; a fixed pin at E, which is inserted into the groove of x of the ruler any given length ; then, by the constrained motion a pencil at P will trace out a conchoid, and another pencil fixed in would trace out the inferior curve.
is
would be incomplete. Nicomedes therefore invented the following simple machine for describing it. Let x X be a straight ruler with a groove cut in it; C D is another ruler fixed at right angles to x X ; at A there is a
A E
AP
is
PEA, EA
This curve was formerly used by architects ; the contour of the shaft of a column being the portion B P P" of a conchoid.
The
Let
is
thus found
(fig. 1,
pole,
6,
y+
=? r cos.
= PA B = and x = r sin.
AP
r,
9.
Substituting these values in the equation, and reducing, we arrive at the a sec. Q b. polar equation r The polar equation may, however, be much more easily obtained from have the definition of the curve.
We
= AP = AE + EP = AC sec. CAE +
AEP,
CB
sec.
+
X
6.
313. The following method of obtaining the equation to the conchoid will be found applicable to many similar problems. Let any number of lines, C in diffig. 1, be drawn cutting ferent points E, &c. ; from each of these points as centre, and with / radius 6 describe a circle cutting the line in P and P ; the locus of the point P is the conchoid. Let be the origin of the rectangular coordinates. B the axis of y, and in the figure. parallel to C Let the general equation to the line a x, where a is in E P be y determinate :
A EP
AX
THE LEMNISCATA.
Then
y' == a, and x'
159
The
radius
and
or
(y
a]
And
have the
eliminating a between this equation, and that to the line final equation to the curve,
A E P,
we
(y
 */.'/
ax
In general if the line C be a curve whose equation is (#), the y == coordinates of the point E are found by eliminating x and y from the
equations y
a;/' (a),
(x)
hence we find x
= /'
(a),
and
to the circle is
//()}.+ {*/'()} =
is
6,
And
314. perpendicular is drawn from the centre of an hyperbola tangent, find the locus of their intersection.
upon a
The equation
The equation
to the tangent is
2 a* 6 .
(1)
is
on
it
a/
In order to get the equation to their intersection, we must eliminate and y r from these two equations and that to the hyperbola; from (1)
find
and (2) we
_ 
a**
'
*
6
_ "
x'*
 6'y

a? b*,
we have
O +
2
s 8
7/
y
a 2 *2
0,
which
is
160
THE LEMNISCATA.
shall only investigate the figure in the case when 6 the hyperbola is equilateral, in which case the equation
2
We
when a2
a, that
8
is
(.t
is (,r
V*)*
a 2/
).
/.
+
{
(2 r
t
a2 ) y2
4 f J
a2
2
J?
0,
and y
^+^
o
\/ 2 x*
y
is
^.
If the sign of the interior root shall only examine the equation
be negative,
impossible; hence
we
here
is
impossible,
if
8
j;
j
 >
is
if
x4
4
a*
*8
f
is
4
is
ifr
> 2 a* ^ >a *
8 2
,
f
if a; is
> +
a;
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
The equation a (y )* (x curve referred to a different origin.
2
161
a)
(2 a x
x*
a tangent to a circle Q an ordinate to the Q, and taken a mean proportional between A Q; required the locus of P.
AM,
AM; M P
fig.
1, is
is
AC
Let
let the
AM
=r x, and
= =
and
MP=
the rectangle
a
AM,
M Q.
To
find
M Q,
we have
(y
2 6
or y*
.'.
6,
j?
}.
Since 6
of x
<
6,
B is a limit to the curve, and when straight line C B C' perpendicular to x 6, the ordinate to the curve is equal to the extreme ordinate of the circle, that is, to the tangent B C.
 x8 is< 6*, there are four values of to each y and no value of y to x negative hence if A B
;
positive value
6, fig. 1,
the
Between x 0, and x 6, we have four values of y, which give the two dotted ovals of fig. (1). To make the question more general we shall suppose the line A B to be
a chord of the
circle, figs. (2) (3) (4).
circle,
to the centre of the the origin, the equation to the curve will be
if 6
"~L
j
Then
and
f /
/ L%
"~o
and we have four cases depending on the values of 6 and a ; hence we have four curves of different forms, yet partaking of the same character and generation.
Case
(1).
Case
Case
(2).
(3).
a and
6
A E
+ V
6'.
0, fig. (3).
fig.
Case
(4).
b negative,
162
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
for
There are two values of y for x positive, and x negative, and V 8 4 & 8  that is,
<2
A
is
<
<
The gradual
In
transition of
M and M Q, and also between A M and M Q'. Moreover P may be in QM produced as well as in M Q, thus we have the double oval, (1.) On the of A the abscissas A M will be negative, and the ordinates M Q
A
fig.
fig.
(1)
left
hence no possible mean proportional can exist, or no part of the ; curve can be on the left of A. and In fig. (2) A and Q determine the points P and P'; but Q' give only an imaginary locus. Fig. (3) requires no comment. In fig. (4) the reasoning on fig. (2) will explain the positive side of A ; on the left of the abscissa and both ordinates are negative ; therefore two mean proportionals can be found, or four points in the curve for each
positive
AM
abscissa.
Such curves may be invented at pleasure, by taking the parabola or other curves for the base instead of the circle. 0. 2 a x y2 a x8 Ex. To find the locus of the equation y* 317. To find a point P', such that drawing straight lines to two given
points
S and H, we may have the rectangle S P, Join the points S and H, and bisect S H in C
HP
let
rectangular axes, S S P, U P, a b.
i=
2 a,
M.
x,
~
x,
Then
since
M=
2
a
(a
8
<r,
and
H M=
8
we have
{y
or
+
or,
+ xY } {y
+
f (a
x)*}
2
a2
8
6*,
2
(/
f
* 8 f a2
2 a x) (y 8
r2
{
/.
{y
hence
= Let y = Let x =
y
+ J
0,
+  (*
x
a8 } 2
+ x + a 2 a .r)=a  4 d> x* =: a 6*
;
>\
4
x9
V^ + 4?].
8
Va
(a
6)
(1).
0,
1.
Let a be
li
less
than
6.
Then from
points
(I)
B'.
we have
the points
A and
A',
and
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
Also by comparing the values of y
(2)
*J 2
163
we
MP
is
in the original equation and in equation greater than C B as long as x is greater than
a (2 a
6)
figure
APBA'B'A.
and takes the form of
As b increases, the oval becomes flatter at the top, the outer curves.
2. Let a 6, then we have the dotted curve passing through C ; also 2 2 2 since the equation becomes (j?2 2 a2 (or2 3/ ) j ) the locus is in this case the lemniscata of Bernouilli.
3. Let a be greater than 6. Then from (1) we have two values of #, and from value ofy hence the curve must consist of the two
;
round S and H.
little ovals decrease and when 6 0, we have the S and H themselves for the locus. These curves are called the ovals of Cassini, that celebrated astronomer having imagined that the path of a planet was a curve like the exterior
As
6 decreases, the
points
one
in the
above
figure.
The
.r
8 2
i2
1.
318. There are some cases in which it is useful to introduce a third x3 : 0, x* y* 2 y3 variable; for example, if the equation be y* it requires the solution of an equation of three or four dimensions, in
+
;
assume x
?/
y,
/.
4
y y
or,
+ w y* f 2 y + w y +22 2
.,
u* y*
=
j
0,
u3
=
u.
0,
2
,
i/.*
+
.
and x
n*
2
;
we can
y
find
for
x and
y.
3
2
1
= = = =

2 TV 2
1
8
4
A
*
=0

2 3 4
&c.
= =
&c.
3ff
= = =
2 i
7i
H H
&c.
164
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
Y
r
= 0, =
A X, A Y
Also when y
be the axes
Let 0, hence the curve passes through A. along the axis of y take values equal to those in and from the points thus determined draw lines equal to
;
the corresponding values in the table for x (these are the dotted lines in the figure) ; by this method we obtain a number of points in the curve sufficient to determine its course.
This example is taken from the " Analyse des Lignes Courbes, by G. Cramer. Geneva. 1750," a work which will be found extremely useful in
319.
To
whose equation
is
5 a a?y*
x5
0.
Let x be very small .*. x6 being exceedingly small may be omitted, and the equation becomes y 6 5 a x* y2 or y8 5 a x*, which is the to a semicubical parabola PAP' fig. (1.) and if y be very equation 9 9 5 ay which gives the parabola Q A Q' ; hence small, we have x near the origin the curve assumes the forms of the two parabolic branches. Again when x is infinitely great, x* may be neglected in comparison with x* and the equation becomes ^ x hence for x posior .*. y tive, we have an infinite branch in the angle X A y, and for x negative an
infinite
YA
x.
To
rr
xb
5 a x*
y,
**
'?.*'?}
INDETERMINATE PROBLEMS.
65
2
<r
+2
ft
.
f, &c.
when y
Therefore the equation to the asymptote is y + x == a ; this being drawn and the branches A P', A Q' produced towards it, we have nearly a correct idea of the curve. 5 5 a2 a;2 y + # If the equation be y* 0, the curve will be traced
in the
If the equation be y  a* x* y* 0, we have fig. (3) ; 6 will give fig. (4). Arid the equation y a* a;2 y* xe 4 a2 x y Ex. Find the locus of the equation y* x* =0. For the above method of tracing curves of this species, see a treatise on the Differential Calculus, by Professor Miller. Cambridge, 1832. 320. B C is a straight line of given length (2 6), having its extremities always in the circumferences of two equal circles, to find the locus of the middle point P of the line B C. Let the line joining the centres O,O' of the circles be the axis of x, and let the origin of rectangular axes be at A, the bisecting point of O O'.
6
same manner,
fig. (2).
+&
Let x y be
the coordinates of B.
c.
'*.../'
A O = A O' O B = O' C =
the equation to to
a,
c,
B is C is
y* f (x
also (y
 y')
'*
2
+ +
(X +
(x
a2 ) 2
2
From
\f
and xf
we must
*
+ x  x'*  2 a (x + x') 0, X 2aX = or (y _ y Y + (a (6), fz + 2 y y + 2 x x'  4 Y + 4 X from (4) and (5) y* + f + ^ + x from (3) + y" + * + ^/  2 y y' 2 x' 4 6 from (1) and (2) 2 y + 2 + 2 * + 2 x'*  4 a (#/)= 4 c  4 a 6 + a  c ), 4 a (*  A') 4 (Y i X /. by substitution
'
_
')
a?')
i/
a?
8
,
2/'
=r.
166
ALGEBRAIC CURVES.
or (x
*')
=Y + X +
2
2
m*
,
if
m*
a2
r
6'
c,
y 
y'
{2 a
(x
x')}

=
x'
2 a
Y + X + m
2
and y
*
f
y' in (3),
we have
2
2 a
+X + m
*
T^ + Y
g 2
)
Y +
X8 a
m8
j
j
4 6
or 4 a
X*
(Y
+X +m X +
s
8
fH^ \
**
'X 2
+ Y2 + ~2a~~
:
0.
This equation, being of the sixth dimension, and the highest terms when X being both positive, the curve must be limited in every direction is very small, there are four values of Y also when X 0, we have Y 0; hence the curve is a species of double oval, or lemniscata. If the circles be unequal, and P be any point in the line B C, the curvt
will be of the
same
is
much
longer.
(2)
very beautiful contrivance of Walt to reduce a circular to a rectimotion is well known to every one. Suppose the point B to be the extremity of an enginebeam, moveable about its centre O, this beam is required to moved a pistonrod always in the same vertical position it is plain that this motion cannot be obtained by fixing the pistonrod to B, or to any point in O B. Suppose now, a beam O'C, called the radiusrod, to move about a centre O', and join the extremities B, C, by a bar B C ; the extremity of the pistonrod is fixed to the middle of the beam B C, and its motion, according to the above demonstration, is in a portion of the curve, such as the dark part of the lemniscate in the first figure, and
The
linear
consequently the rod itself continues much more in the same vertical line than if attached to B. The comparative lengths of the rods necessary to render the motion as nearly vertical as possible are stated in most works on the steamengine, and in the Mechanics' Magazine. For a more complete but very different method of finding the equation to the
above curve, see 4< Prony, Hydraulique.' 321. We have no space for the disc ission of any higher algebraic it mu?t but in fuct we have not '.he meafis curves, if it were necessary
: ;
ALGEBRAIC CURVES.
167
have been already seen that many of the preceding curves have not been drawn with mathematical exactness ; for unless we took the trouble of tracing them by points, we could not easily determine their curvature ; we shall therefore pass to the consideration of the general equation of the nth dimension, and then proceed to the intersection of algebraic curves*. 322. The general equation of the rath degree, with all its terms complete, is
y
it
+ (ax + b)y n
~l
(ex*
+ dx +
e)
n ~*
+ f x + gxsum
contains all the possible combinations of x and y, so that the the exponents in no one term exceeds n.
of
The number of terms is 1+2 + 3+.. ..+(n + 1), or is the sum of an arithmetic progression, whose first term and common difference is unity, and the number of terms is n + 1 therefore the sum of this
.
series
is 
(n
+
2
2)
+ ^(n
1)
.
constants is (dividing by the co efficient of necessary) one less than the number of terms in the equation, that is,
(n+2)
323.
(*+l)
(n+3)
2
An
n th degree may
is,
given points as
for giving to
through
pass through as / o\ i^ ^
many
points,
x and y
different equations,
be determined.
For example,
* We must refer our readers to our treatise on the Differential Calculus for information on the curvature of lines. It must not, however, be imagined that algebraic geometry is incapable of exhibiting the form of curves the following method of determining the curvature is an instance to the contrary. Let yi, y%, and y a be three consecutive ordinates, at equal distances from each other then drawing a corresponding figure, it will be seen that the curve is concave or convex
; ;
to the axis,
according as y2
2
is
> or <
3
,
"^
x then the curve is convex, if 2 x3 is whose equation is a y (x 1) 3 3 is x3 + 6#, which it is, and therefore the curve is convex. The { I) distances at which the ordinates are drawn from each other must depend on the conbola,
(x
>2
<
stants in the equation. Again, to determine the angle at which a curve cuts the axis of x, transfer the then the tangent to the curve at that point and the curve itself origin to that point make the same angle with the axis ; but the value of the tangent of the angle which
;
is
then
o
:=
,
value whatever
..
= =
,
when
= 0, therefore
art.
307
<r
at
A we have x d =
and at
B we
have
2 a
*:*
_jj
a = 4 tp
hence the curve cuts the axis of x in both cases at an angle of 90.
168
ALGEBRAIC CURVES.
general equation to the conic sections, dividing by the coefficient
8
!/
The
f
bry
+ c a* +
dy +
!+/=
0,
in
five coefficients,
five given points ; substituting the coordinates of the given points separately for x and y we obtain five equations from which the constants can be determined, and thence we have the particular curve required ; it
through
4c is negative, (79.) 324. The elimination is long, but the trouble may be much lessened by assuming one of the given points for the origin, and two lines drawn from the origin to other two given points for the axes. For example, if it be required to pass a conic section through four
will
positive, or nothing.
AB
BC
and
D E,
and
let
them meet
in
let
the axis of x,
Y
yz
ya
,
Let
AC = AD =
a?!
AB = AE =
Assume
the equation to be
A
we have
2
,
IT777
=. 0;
for
y,
y.'
j
dy
j
/
y,
y.,.
and
/.
+ dy.f/sO;
+
i> 2
0,
e
(y,
f
y 2 ), and/ =
),
Similarly for
c (.r,
and/ =
CJT,
j g
c =r ^i2 . TI J?8
y ya
l
we have
an equation involving only one unknown coefficient 6. There are some restrictions depending on the situation of the given thus no more than two can be in the same points line, or else
; straight the conic section degenerates into two straight lines. The five given points are the same as five conditions expressed analytically ; four are sufficient if the curve is to be a for b* 4 c
If the curve has a centre, whose equivalent to one. position is given, three other conditions suffice, because we may assume the equation 2 8 to be c j: 0. If the position of two y
parabola
0, is
bxy conjugate diameters be given, only two more conditions are requisite. Newton, in his Universal Arithmetic, gives excellent methods for describing, by continued motion, a conic section passing through five given
+/=
points.
ALGEBRAIC CURVES.
169
325. If it be required to pass a curve, whose species is not given, through a number of given points, we may with advantage assume the equation to be of the form a + b x + c x* + d x3 +, &c. y
elimination of the constants is more regular, and therefore easier in this equation than in any other: such curves are called parabolic (the three first terms giving the common parabola) and consist of a series of For the eliminasinuosities, such as in (309), which are easily traced. tion of the constants, see Lagrange, or Lardner's Algebraic Geometry,
The
art.
617.
326. We saw in article (79) that the general equation of the second order sometimes gave straight lines for the loci; such will be the case whenever any equation is reducible into rational factors of the first degree so that we must not always conclude that an equation of the 7iih If the equation be reorder has a curve of the n th order for its locus. ducible into factors of lower degrees, there will be a series of lines corresponding to those factors ; thus if an equation of the 4th degree be composed of one factor of two degrees, and two factors of the 1st degree, the loci are a conic section and two straight lines ; and hence a general equation of any order embraces under it all curves of inferior orders if any of the factors be impossible, their loci are either points, or imaginary. If the sum of the indices of x and y be the same in every term, the loci are either straight lines or points ; for an equation of this species will have
;
:
the form
+ ay
n~
by"*x*
+ l* n =
0,
let
a,
/3,
y, &c.,
will
be
0,
each factor of which being 0, its corresponding locus is evidently a straight line ; if the roots of the equation be impossible, the corresponding loci are points.
Ex.
lines
y*
2xy
sec.
xz
whose equations
are
y =. x
0.
The
'
cos.
f
and
to the axis of
at angles of
45
327. Since the general equation includes all equations below it, the true for the lower properties of the curve of n dimensions will generally be orders, and also for certain combinations of the lower orders ; thus, a true for a conicproperty of a line of the third degree will be generally section, or for a figure consisting of a conic section and a straight line,
Moreover the lower orders of curves have and hence the properties of generally some analogy to the higher curves, inferior orders often lead to the discovery of those of the superior. 328. From the application of the theory of equations to curves, an immense number of curious theorems arise, which may be seen in the
or for three straight lines.
170
ALGEBRAIC CURVES
:
works of Waring and Maclaurin the most important. If two straight lines, AX,
cut a curve of
points
that
we have
AY
the
n dimensions,
in
yy
A P, Q, A R, &c. respectively, and A S, A T, x lt oc #3, &c. respecU, &c. and move tively, then if
PQR,&c., STU,
&c., so &c. =r y^ #,
AX
AY
parallel
.
to
themselves,
.
we
&c.
:
shall
o 8
ratio.
AX, AY,
n
Let the equation to the curve be referred to the origin A, and to axes by means of the transformation of coordinates, and suppose
the equation to be
(ax +
Lety = x=
The
roots of (1)
n c x + d + cx + d x ~ + n~ + y + b y are A S, A T, A U, &c.
l .
.
n~
~l
kx
0. 0.
+ =
I
0.
+ = + = fey
kx
I
(1)
(2)
.
,r 2
xz
&c.
The
A P, A Q, A R,
.
&c.
x*
y
&c.
= c &c. =
I
yy*
3/3,
c.
xl
the transformation of the axes, parallel to themselves, never alters n n the coefficients of y and x ; hence the above ratio is constant for any and of A Y. parallel position Article 293 is an example of this theorem. diameter was defined in (76) to be a straight line, bisecting a 329.
Now
system of parallel chords; more generally it is a line, such that if any one of its parallel chords be drawn, meeting the curve in various points, the sum of the ordinates on one side shall equal the sum on the other ; P' Q &c. R Q f R/ Q thus, in the figure, if P Q &c., and the same be true for all lines parallel to P R, then B Q is a diameter. To find the equation to the diameter B Q let the equation to the curve,
referred to
AX
and a
parallel to
Q, &c.
dx
and by substitution we have 6 + n y) y y'* + (a x + Let
e)
M Q = w,
PQ = y',
f
yf.,&c.
0.
y' f u,
"~ l
.ax +
ft
=o
171
the definition the sum of the values of y' must equal nothing, and that is the coefficient of the second term in the last equation with its
.*.
sign changed,
ax
+6+
nu
= 0,
b
,
or
ax +
and
this is the
Agaii.. uy the
c
x2
dx
f
\u.ax +
n.
u* r=
is that to a conic section drawn so that the sum of the products of the values of y, taken two and two together, shall equal nothing. might proceed on with the coefficient of the fourth term. These curves are sometimes called curvilinear diameters.
We
330. The method of finding the centre, if any, of a curve, is given in (81) ; the operation is too long to apply it to a general equation of high dimensions, and therefore we shall take an example among the lines of the third order as fully illustrating the subject. ey a x3 Let the equation be x y z b x3 c x under which rf, form are comprehended most of the curves of the third order. Let x === x n ; the transformed equation is m, y y
+
y
2
z/
+
(n
'2
nxy
j
3am
f2
= + m y* + (2 n m +
26m
c)
e)
a x3
2
ra
;

cm
in
(3 a
en
m + 6) x* am 6m
3 2
order that the curve may have a centre, the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and last or constant term must each n .'. 0, m ; 0, 6=0, d 0, so that the corresponding curve has a centre, which is the origin, only when the coefficients 6 and d are wanting.
CHAPTER
XIII.
another, or
some
impossible.
;
Generally speaking, a curve of n dimensions may be cut by a straight line drawn in some direction in n points but the curve, in its most general form, must be taken ; otherwise certain points as conjugate and multiple
172
points, must be considered as evanescent ovals or evanescent branches of the curve, and thus a line passing through such points is equivalent to two or more intersections. 332. The intersections of two lines of the mth and nth orders are found also by eliminating y from both hence the resulting equation may n intersections ; there are often be of the m/ith order, or there may be zz will give points of less, for not all the real roots of the equation intersection: for example, if we eliminate y from the equations
;
= 2 ax
;
x*
and #2
is
= 2 a (x >
6)
we
find
*] 2
always an intersection corresponding to the 2 a ( */2ab but this is not the case ; for then y* abscissa V 2 a b 6), 2 a, which is evident on drawing and therefore y is impossible, if b is the two curves ; hence after the abscissa is found, we must examine the corresponding ordinates in each curve ; if they are not real, there can be no intersection corresponding to such abscissa. 2 % 2 2 n 10 x  16 If we have the two equations y 0, 0, y f 4 ,r 4 and x the elimination y gives the abscissas of intersection x 1, the second of which alone determines a, point of intersection.
hence, apparently, there
333. In finding the intersections of lines, we often fall upon a final equation of an order higher than the second, or arrive at an equation whose roots are of a form not readily constructed ; to avoid this difficulty a method is often used which consists in drawing a line which shall pass through all the required points of intersection, and thus determine their
situation.
* Let y (,r) (2), be the equations to two lines, (x) (1), and y then at the point of intersection they have the same ordinates and abscissas ; or calling and Y the coordinates of the point of intersection, we have
=/
X
hence/(X)
and
(X), from
But
since
(X)
.
(3)
we have by
or by multiplication or generally
(4)
(5) (6)
(7)
= F {/(X), 0(X)}
implying any function arising from the addition, subtraction, multiplication, &c. of (3) and (4). Now any one of these equations gives a true relation between the coof the point of intersection of (1) and (2); but by and ordinates and Y to vary, it will give a relation between a series of supposing is certainly one ; that is, points, of which the required point of intersection
X X
drawing the locus of (5) or (6) or (7), it must pass through the required point of intersection of (1) and (2). It is manifest that if one of the equations (5), (6), or (7), be a circle
The symbols F (.r), (T), <p (a), serve to denote different functions of x, that indicate expressions into which the same quantity or enters, but combined in different ways with given quantities. But /" (#), /* (y), indicate similar formulae for both 2 y 2ay x and y ; thus, if /(*) 2 a x  x* t then/(y) or 2 b y ;/ / ,
is,
173
or straight line, it will be much easier to draw this circle or straight line than to find the intersection by means of elimination. Also we may often find the intersection of (1) and (2), when one of
them
is
is
We
to
it.
the simplest
a given curve, by drawing the locus of the other, when that other is a straight line. shall give a few examples to illustrate the subject.
and
this
method
334.
From
a given
point
without an
ellipse,
to
draw a tangent
Let the coordinates of Q be and ?i, and let X and Y be the coordinates of the point P, where
ra
the required tangent meets the curve. Then by (111) the equation to the tangent through P is
a2 n
Y
8
f 6
mX =
X*
a8
2
9
f,
(1)
(2)
and
Y +
6*
a b\
From (1) and (2) we might, by elimination, find structed values would be the coordinates
point.
X and
CM,
MP
Y, and
not the equation to any straight line, but only gives the and P ; but if we suppose X and Y to vary, it C will give the relation between a series of points, of which P is certainly one ; and therefore, if the line whose equation is (1) be drawn, it must pass through P, and consequently, with the ellipse (2), will completely fix
(1)
is
Now
relation
between
the situation of P.
To draw
Let
X=
take
is
=
b*
,
Let
Y=
CA
/.
X=
;
in
Cy
C B
and
in
Cx
take
a?
join
B A
BA
7L
pro
llfc
duced hence
if
The
it cuts the ellipse in two points P and P ; be joined, they are the tangents required. same method may be employed in drawing tangents to the para
QP
and
QP
bola and hyperbola. c x* f d y e x To take the more general case, let a y* (1) be the equation to the curves of the second order referred to axes parallel to conjugate diameters. Then the equation to a tangent at a point x' y' is
ayy*
(y
2/0
+~
(*
174
(2ay>
+ d)
f (2 c x'
e)x
dy'
ex'
(2).
Let
this
(2 a y' f d)
or,
n f (2
d)
y' +
c a/ f e)
m+
e)/
dy'
f e x'
(3),
(2
an
Now
(2 c
m+
+ dn +em=rO
(4).
xf and y'in (4) be considered variable, and construct the straight line, which is the locus of (4); this with the curve itself, determines the position of the secant line which joins the two points on the curve, whence
let
tangents are drawn to the point rn n. 335. Again, suppose the secant line (4) to pass through a given point m' ?i'; Then the equation (4) becomes =r e (2 a n d) n* (2 c (5), e) m' f d n and of course the point n, whence tangents were originally drawn, must have a particular position corresponding to each secant line passing
+
,
m+
+ m
and n variable in (5) through m' ri if therefore we make have the equation to the locus of the point n c m' d n'+ e m' a n' n (2 d) e) (2
we
shall
m m +
where
the following theorem : if from any point secants be second order, and from the two points where each of these secants intersect the curve, tangents be drawn meeting each other, the locus of all such points of concourse is a straight line.
Hence we have
drawn
to a line of the
336.
To draw
(0, 6,)
not on
the curve.
be the and 4 Let y8 x, be the equation to the curve, and let coordinates of the required point, then the equation to the tangent at the
point
= m
is
X Y,
by (232)
2
Yy =
and
m (X +
,r),
normal
at
XY
is
and since
it
passes through (a 6)
we have
'jj
Y
or,
XY 
also,
8 The elimination 8 m" o (3), an equation whose roots would give the three required ordinates. To avoid this equation we shall construct the locus of (1), which is the
(I) (2)
The axis of x is one asymptote equation to an equilateral hyperbola. (198), and the other is parallel to the axis of y, and at a distance A C from A ; the equation to the hyperbola referred to its centre C and Y moreover the hyperbola cuts the axis of y in ; asymptotes is
2m
the point
D,
= 2mb where A D = X
may be
hence
this
curve
in the figure)
constructed.
175
We have drawn the figure, so that there shall be only one intersection If the curves of the curves, and hence only one normal is drawn from Q. touched, as at E, there would be two normals ; and if the hyperbola cut the parabola in the lower branch, there would be three normals drawn from Q. These cases correspond respectively to the equation (3), having one real root ; three real roots of which two are equal ; and, lastly, three
real
337. We must particularly observe that, in the construction of loci, those are to be selected which admit of the easiest description, and of all curves the circle is to be preferred ; hence, in the present case, we must look
carefully to see if
it
and unequal
roots.
is
possible,
by any combination of (1) and (2), to for by 333 this will pass ; through the
XY 2
(a
2m) Y
(a
2m6Y =
4
0,
or,
X
...
4
2
mX (a
2
 2 m)
mX
2
0,
mb Y =
X and
 2 m) X A Y 0,
Y 4mX =
from (2)
~
/.
by addition
Y +X 2
(a
+ 2m) X 
Y=
which
is
a
r
m and,
is
lf a
J
(
+ m\*b*i + .r> j
this circle passes through the vertex of the parabola, yet that point is not one of the required intersections, but merely arises from the multiplication
of(l)by Y.
If the parabola and circle be drawn, the latter in various situations according to the position of Q, we shall see, as before, that there will be such practice will be found very useful. one, two or three intersections The problem of drawing a normal to an ellipse is of the same nature, only in this case there may be four intersections. 338. The intersection of curves has been employed in the last articles to avoid the resolution of equations resulting from elimination, but t,he so as to render curves generally subservient to principle may be extended,
:
the solution of equations ; for as two equations combined produce one whose roots give the intersection of their loci, so that one may in its turn be separated into two, whose loci can be drawn, and their intersection will dv.termine the roots of the one. " the construction of This method, known by the name of equations," before the present methods of approxi<vas much used by mathematicians
it
is
even
it.
:
now
x
we proceed
to explain
\
(1),
y^
a*
(2),
by
^a.+ flzJ^O
(3).
176
already know that the roots of (3) are the abscissas to the points of intersection of the loci (1) (2); but, conversely, it is manifest that the roots of (3) can be determined by drawing the loci of (1) and (2), and measuring the abscissas of intersection.
We
Hence if it be required to exhibit geometrically the roots of (3), let be decomposed into the two equations (1) and (2), and let C P Q B of be the locus of (1), and the circle (2), having the same origin and axes : draw the and A are ordinates P, NQ, then A the roots of (3).
it
EPQ
N
The method consists in parting any given equation into two others, and then drawing the loci of those two ; and as it is obvious that there are a great many equations which, when
combined together, may produce the given equation, so we may construct a great many loci, whose intersections will give the required roots thus, in the above case, the equation (3) may be
:
y,
and
ay
ax
+ ^^
o,
and
the
In general the roots of an equation can be found by the intersection of any two species of curves whose indices, multiplied together, are equal to the index of the equation: thus, a straight line and a curve of the third order will give the solution of an equation of the third order and any two conic sections, except two circles, will give the roots of an of
;
equation
339. As equations of the third and fourth order are of frequent recurrence in mathematical researches, we proceed to the solution of the complete equation of the fourth order,
ry
0.
Here the circle and parabola, as curves of easy description, ought to be chosen, and assuming the equation to the parabola a artifice will
slight
circle.
Lety + y
(1);
177
but
.*.
y /
V
+
q
pi/
2
+
\
qy*
2
+ ry + s =
0,
by subtraction
/?
47)y + ^frw + s^
"  y
~
('
T)
(*
a*
+*=
and from
(1), y*
0,
=
The
locus of (1)
is
(2).
the parabola
A E Q, the origin
being at
E(
BE =
 Y
and the coordinates rectangular. The locus of (2) is the circle Q P 11; the E D, D C of the centre, and the radius are readily determined from (2). The roots of the equation are drawn as if two, PM, were negative. If the circle Q N were positive, and other two R S, the cases of three or four equal touch the parabola, two roots are equal roots can only be discussed by the principles of osculation, but as two roots
coordinates
TU
;
are sufficient to depress the equation to one of the second order, we need If there be only two intersections, two not here consider those cases. and if there be no intersection, all four roots are roots are impossible
;
impossible. 340. In practice the operation is shortened by first taking away the second term of the equation ; for example, to construct the roots of the equation
s*
+
2,
Qo?
and
2/
+ 23^+ 32*+
2/ +43/
2
16
= 0.
(1).
Let x s= y
is
4 = 0.
(2).
Let y8
.'.
=x
x
l
(3)
2 by substitution #
+ by
2
j?
by addition
or,
2 f r 2
(y
2)
(x
+ 4y  I) = 9
2
= 0, = 0,
(4).
Let P A Q be the parabola (3), whose parameter is unity, the coordinates of the centre C of the circle (4) are B 1, and B C 2, the radius 3. are Describing this circle, the ordinates B P and Q
the possible roots of (2) ; measuring these values we shall find = and 2 ; hence the possible roots of (2) are 1 and therefore those of (1) are 1 and 4.
QN
PB
1,
2,
and
341.
The
is
involved in that
178
by y, and then proceed precisely as in the last The circle will always pass through the vertex of the parabola, bu article. this intersection gives the root y 0, introduced by multiplication, and has therefore nothing to do with the roots of the given equation. This
Y =
if
circumstance of the circle passing through the vertex of the parabola, is singularly convenient, as it entirely saves the trouble of calculating the radius to decimal places, which is often necessary in the preceding cases. 2; 0. 6j?2  x 6 Let .r Ex.1. y
= +
/.
y*
13 y
12
= 0,
12 y
0.
or, y*
Let
':.
or,
13 y 8
(1)
(2).
The three roots of y, as given by the figure, are hence the values of x are 6, 1 and 1.
Ex.
Ex.
2.
4,
and
3;
8
j/
+ 6y +
= 0.

=
V
^
2
4 y 3 y 1 0. There never can be any difficulty in constructing the loci of these equa lions ; having once drawn a parabola, whose parameter is unity, with tolerable exactness, it will serve for the construction of any number of such equations. As another example, we take the following question. 342. To find two mean proportionals between two given lines a and 6,
3.
lines
.'.
9 y =>a x
(1),
(2),
y
/.
x::x:
2
6,
/.
x*
=
6
=a
by
a8
6
x9 =. a?b
y, or y*
=
ax
+ x*
= 0,
Let
will give
The
PAQ be the parabola (1), then the intersection of the M P and A M, the two mean proportionals required. ~
other roots of the equation
circle
(3)
a* b
are impossible.
179
This problem was one of those so much celebrated by the ancient mathematicians. Menechrne, of the school of Plato, was the first who gave a solution of it : his method being particularly ingenious, as well as being the first instance known of the application of geometrical loci to plain problems, is well worth insertion. With a parameter a, draw the parabola (fig. 2), and on A describe the parabola with parameter b. perpendicular to A Then the rectangle #, A or #, P is equal to the square on P;
M N M P and N P are in continued proportion. AN or M P equal to the square Again, the rectangle M P, N P, and are in continued proportion
/.
,
PAQ PAR
6,
6,
is
on
NP
.*.
b,
a
.".
6;
M P, N P,
and
6,
Menechme also gave a second solution depending on the intersection of a parabola and hyperbola. 343. To find a cube which shall be double of a given cube. Let a be a side of the given cube, then the equation to be solved is
y*
=
/.
2 a
2
3
,
or
4
?/
2 a*
= 0,
2
Let
The
is
2 ay = z = (2) by addition, y loci of (1) and (2) being flrawn, the ordinate P M of their intersection
8
3/
= ax
.*.
(1),
x*
2
2 a9 y
= 0,
xz
or,
2 ay
f
ax
the side of the required cube. This problem, like the former, occupied the attention of the early geometricians ; they soon discovered that its solution is involved in the pre2 a, the resulting equations are the same. ceding one ; for if 6 In this manner a cube may be found which shall be times greater than a given cube. 344. We may thus find any number of mean proportionals between
two given quantities a and 6. For if y be the first of the mean proportionals, they
lowing progression
:
will
form the
fol
sixth
we have ^
b,
or
0.
a x t and then draw the Describe the parabola whose equation is y z The last curve consists of an a? b locus of the equation y x* X, .r, and therefore the hyperbolic branch in each of the angles ordinate corresponding to the real root is readily found. 345. Newton constructed equations by means of the conchoid of Nicomedes he justly observes that those curves are to be preferred whose mechanical description is the easiest ; and he adds, that of all curves, See the conchoid next to the circle is, in this respect, the most simple.
=0.
YA
YA
is
N2
180
straight line
KB,
n
13.)
BA
in
with centre k
and radius
KC
lines
tween the
EY
A
and beinscribe
it
equal to
A, so
that,
when produced,
show
x*
that,
passes
through
the
the
is
point K. geometrical proof follows to is equation for the length of root of the equation.
from
this construction,
0,
XY
q x
so that
XY
and
The conchoid
Let
is
employed
EY
between
common suchthatEY
the modulus; then the the base, and be the pole, on the line C the point Y, description of the curve determines
AXE
CA
CX
C A.
= CA.
346. With regard to the higher equations, there is not much advantage in constructions, since it is extremely difficult to draw the curves with The method, however, is so far useful as enabling sufficient exactness. roots in any equation, as we can us to detect the number of
impossible sufficient accuracy to determine the generally trace the curves with ber of intersections, though not the exact points of intersection.
num
=
0,
0.
(1),
...
y j*_ 3 y
(2)
order,
roots,
the locus of (1) is a parabola Q, that of (2) is a curve of the third and there are three intersections ; and, therefore, three possible
PA
two
;
positive,
is
uncertainty in the employment of curves in finding stated in (332), that real roots may correspond to imaginary intersections; so, on the contrary, imaginary intersections, or what is the
roots
347. There
some
we
same, the absence of intersections, does not always prove the absence of 15,r + 14 real roots; for example, if to prove the equation x* 14 x 8 (1), and therefore x f \b x we assume y2 (2), the The loci of (1) and (2) will not intersect, but yet two roots are possible. error was in choosing a curve (l), which proceeds only in the positive direction, when from the form of the equation it is apparent that there
+ +
are negative roots. Taking the circle and common parabola for the loci, 2. 1 and as in (340), we shall find the roots to be Hence, in general, to ascertain real roots it will be advisable to try more than two
curves.
181
CHAPTER
XIV.
TRANSCENDENTAL CURVES.
348. IT was stated in art. (23), that those equations which cannot be put into a finite and rational algebraical form with respect to the varisin. x ables, are called Transcendental ; of this nature are the equations y andy =r a". In Chapter XII. we have obtained the equations to curves, generally from some distinct Geometrical property of those curves ; but there are many curves whose equations thus obtained cannot be expressed
that in the ordinary language of algebra the description or generation of the curve
;
is,
trical or
Logarithrnical quantities ; equations, are called Transcendental. shall here investigate the equations and the forms of the most celebrated of these curves, and mention a few of the remarkable properties belonging to them, although they can be only fully investigated by the higher calculus. 349. In this class will be found some curves, as the Cardioide, whose equations may be expressed in finite algebraic terms ; but these examples are only particular cases of a species of curves decidedly Transcendental, and which cannot be separated from the rest without injury to the general
is
We
arrangement. Some of the Transcendental class have been called Mechanical curves, because they can be described by the continued motion of a point ; but
this
curves
name as a distinction is erroneous, for it is very probable that may be thus described by a proper adjustment of machinery.
all
AM
A T
A M
M
if
Let P x, y, then x log. y t that is, the system of logarithms, y a*. To examine the course of the curve we find when # as r increases from to cc, y increases from 1 to CD
a be the base of
= 0, yr=#*=l;
;
to
AY
A B
A
182
of x, and on the left continually approaches that axis, which is therefore an asymptote. This curve was invented by James Gregory Huyghens discovered that in T, T is constant and equal to the if P T be a tangent meeting A
of the system of logarithms. Also that the whole area ( \\og.aj x extending infinitely towards x is finite, and equal to twice the T, and that the solid described by the revolution of the triangle P same area about X x is equal to \\ times the cone, by the revolution of
modulus
PQ
PT
about
X x.
who
solids are finite is curious, but not unintelligible are accustomed to the summation of decreasing infinite
a~ , the curve is the same, but placed in the If the equation be y opposite direction with regard to the axis of y. 351. The equation to the curve called the Catenary, formed by suspending a chain, or string, between two points B and C, is
y
*(e
e*)
x,
where and
M= AD =
A
M P = y,
1.
This equation cannot be obtained by the ordinary algebraical analysis ; it is evident that the curve may be traced from this equation, by adding together the ordinates of two logarithmic curves corresponding to the equations y =. t? and y =r e~".
but
i
a'.
(Fig. 1.)
S,
353.
.
To
I ;
trace
let
the curve
.*.
is
=
y
of.
Let x
1,
and x :=
increases
we have
less than 1;
also
increases
from
to
co,
to infinity
183
A B
(fig.
2,)
and
AC =
x.
1,
we have
the branch
B PQ
corresponding to
positive
.".
values of
(
Let x be negative
x)
~*
;
now
if
we
take for x
three consecutive values as 2, 2^, 3, it is evident that y will be positive, impossible, or negative ; hence the curve must consist of a series of isox. lated points above and below the axis For further information on this subject see a very interesting memoir " by M. Vincent, in the fifteenth volume of the Annales des Math." M. Vincent calls such discontinuous branches by the name " Branches Ponctuees ;" and he also shows, that in the common logarithmic curve there must be a similar branch below the axis of x, corresponding to fractional
THE CURVE OF
354.
SINES.
The curve
APE
\
AM =
Let
j?,
is
sin.
ar,
v =r
r sin. r
184
THE QUADRATRIX.
may be supposed
to arise
This curve
ordinates being
drawn corresponding
to the
In
gents, &c., may readily be investigated. If the ordinates of the curve of sines be increased or diminished in a
sin. x) is the curve formed by the given ratio, the resulting curve (y simple vibration of a musical chord: hence this curve is called the Harmonic Curve. 355. The accompanying figure belongs to the curve whose equation is y xta.n. x. Such curves are useful in finding the roots of an equation as x tan. x a; tor, supposing the curve to be described, in A Y take B B draw a cr, and from line parallel to A X then the ordinates corresponding to the points of intersection of this straight line with the curve are the
~m
^
^x
values of y, that
is,
of x tan. x.
THE QUADRATRIX.
356. Let
A Q BD
;
let
the ordinate
11
move uniformly from A to B C, and in the same time let the radius C Q, then the intersection P of C Q turning round C, move from C A to C B
and
RM
A
Let
be the origin,
AM = M P = A C = Then AM:AC::AQ;AB,
x,
y,
r,
angle
ACQ=
6,
::
re
2
2r
But
:.
MP=M
(r
tan. 0,
7T
y
x
=
=
X
,
x) tan.
2r
.*.
which
is
When
from
0,
to r,
as x increases the curve passes through ; tangent increases faster than the
THE QUADRATRIX.
angle
;
185
when x
= r = A C, y
2 r
is
7T
=^;
the real
hence
if
CE
2 r
,
; beyond r the tangent diminishes but is negathrough x ; .*. y is positive and diminishes until it finally tive, and so is r 2r when x is greater than 2 r the tanbecomes 0, when a? ; 3 r, the gent is positive, therefore y is negative and increases ; when x
as x increases
tangent
an asymptote through F. As x increases beyond 3 r the tangent decreases but is negative ; hence y is 4 r, y 5 r, y := 0, when a oo, and between positive; when x x =. 4 r and 5 r, y is negative therefore we have the branch between the asymptotes at F and H, and proceeding onwards we should find a The part of the curve to the left of A is series of branches like the last.
CD
;
.*.
= y =
=AD
;
oo
this gives
1
the
same
D.
;
This curve was invented most probably by a Greek mathematician of his object was to trithe name of Hippias, a cotemporary of Socrates sect an angle, or generally to divide an angle into any number of equal parts, and this would be done if the curve could be accurately drawn ; thus to trisect an angle A C Q, draw the quadratrix and the ordinate in the points and O, draw the ordinates P, trisect the line A
M
N
S,
OT
to the quadratrix.
Then from
the equation
we
C S and C T trisect the angle A C Q. This curve was afterwards employed by Dinostratus to find the area or quadrature of the circle, and hence its name supposing the point E to be determined by mechanical description we have the value of TT 2 r and therefore the ratio of the cir, given by the equation C E
shall see that
:
is generated parallel respectively to A C and by drawing two lines through Q and B C, and finding the locus of their intersection its equation will be
cumference to the diameter of the circle would be known. There is another quadratrix, that of Tschirnhausen, which
y s=
r cos.
=
J
r sin.
7T
X
.
r sin.
2r
THE CYCLOID
P F be made to roll in a given plane upon a straight circle the point in the circumference which was in contact with B at the commencement of the motion, will, in a revolution of the circle, describe a curve B D, which is called the cycloid. This is the curve which a nail in the rim of a carriagewheel describes hence the the motion of the carriage on a level road in the air
357. If a
.ine
BCD,
PA
EPF
;
is
The curve
derives
its
name
circle formed." from two Greek words signifying The line B D which the circle passes over in one revolution is called the base of the cycloid if A Q C be the position of the generating circle in
"
186
THE CYCLOID.
is called the vertex and A C the axis of the the middle of its course, is equal to The description of the curve shows that the line B curve. the circumference of the circle, and that B C is equal to half that circumbe the position of the generating circle, Hence also if ference. and P the generating point, then every point in the circular arc the arc P F, and having coincided with B F, we have the line B F the arc E P or
EPF
PF
FC =
AQ;
li
li
Draw P N Q
Let
M parallel to the
base
D.
AC
Let
be the origin of rectangular axes, the axis of ,r, and O the centre of the
circle
A M = x, A O = a, M P = y, angle A O Q
PN
A Q C.
=r
circles,
;
we have
= Q M,
aQ
a
and
PQ
= NM
that
is,
y x
=r
+
a
sin.
cos. &
is
= a (6 + sin. 6) = a vers. Q
J2
ax
x*
(1)
(2)
found by eliminating
between (1)
= = = M
1
x
.'.
sin.
6 =r 2
and y
a a
}
sin.
cos.
x'
But we can obtain an equation between x and y from (1) alone P from the equation, arc A Q + Q M.
that
is,
For
arc
AQ
=
=
is
'
'.
r= o vers.
f
J2ax
x*
THE CYCLOID.
If the origin
is
187
y, the equations are
at
B,
BR
a
= x and R P =
6
x = y =
a6
sin.
cos. 6.
shall not stop to discuss these equations, as the mechanical descrip of the curve sufficiently indicates its form. The cycloid, if not first imagined by Galileo, was first examined by him ; and it is remarkable for having occupied the attention of the most eminent mathematicians of the seventeenth century. Of the many properties of this curve the most curious are that the whole area is three times that of the generating circle, that the arc P is double of the chord of A Q, and that the tangent at P is parallel to the same chord. Also that if the figure be inverted, a body will fall from any in the same time ; and if a point P on the curve to the lowest point body falls from one point to another point, not in the same vertical line, its path of quickest descent is not the straight line joining the two points, but the arc of a cycloid, the concavity or hollow side being placed
We
tion
upwards.
358. Given the base of a cycloid to trace the curve.
be divided into twentytwo equal parts, and let them the middle point C ; from C draw the and on A C describe perpendicular line C A equal to 7 of these parts a circle A Q C. Along the circumference mark off the same number of equal parts, either by measurement or by applying the line B C to the In the figure the point Q is supposed to coincide with the circle C A. end of the fifth division from the top. Then the arc C Q being equal to the length C 5 measured on the base, if P Q be drawn parallel to the base, and equal to the remainder of the base, that is, to B 5 or A Q, it is evident that P is a point in the cycloid, and thus any number of points may be found. The ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle is generally taken as in this case to be as 22 to 7.
B and D towards
359. Instead of the point P being on the circumference of the circle, be anywhere in the plane of that circle, either within or without the circumference. In the former case the curve is called the prolate cycloid or trochoid, (fig. 1,) in the latter case the curtate or shortened
it
may
188
CD
(2)
B is the base on which the generating circle rolls, O the centre of the generating circle, P the describing point when that circle is at F.
1
ARC
Draw P
NQM
j?,
A AM =
Let
y and x
.'.
a 9
+ ma
sin.
vers. 6.
the equations to the prolate, curtate, or common cycloid, is less than, greater than, or according as equal to, unity. If the vertex of the curve be the origin of coordinates in figs. (1)
These are
and
(2,)
we have K
O=
y
arc
AR + QM
.*.
a,
and
AO
= ma
sin.
also
MP=FC
QM
= ma6 +
X
vers.
= in
The curve whose
companion
a x
x*
equations are
0,
and x
vers. 6
is
called the
to the cycloid.
360. The class of cycloids may be much extended by supposing the base on which the circle rolls to be no longer a straight line, but itself a curve thus let the base be a circle, and let another circle roll on the zircti inference of the former; then a point either within or without the
:
THE EPICYCLOID.
189
circumference of the rolling circle will describe a curve called the epitrochoid ; but if the describing point is on the circumference, it is called the
on the inner or concave side of the base, the curve described by a point within or without the revolving circle is called the hypotrochoid ; and when the point is on the circumference it is called
the hypocycloid. To find the equation to the epitrochoid. Let C be the centre of its base D, and
one of its positions :.CA the straight line passing through the centres of both circles at the commencement of the motion ; that is, when the generating point P is nearest to C or at A.
circle
DF
in
E
Let
ASM
C A be the axis C M = *, M P
of #,
y,
6,
C
Draw
D=
a,
DB =
b,
BP
=m
angle
AC B =
to
BN
every point in
parallel
to
M P,
and
PQ
parallel
EM.
Then, since
angle
DBF=
also angle
FBQ
angle
FBD
2
sin.
angle
QB D
Now
CM =
C B
cos.
BCN + PB
PBQ
TT
+ b6 (a b~
i~ )
AndMP
==
6 BN  BQ = (a + 6) sin.0  mb cosY~  y
or
JP
=r (a
+
+
6) cos. 6
mb
a
cos.
+
+ r
(1)
6
and y
(a
&) sin.
m6
a
sin.
190
THE EPICYCLOID.
to the epicycloid are
(
The equations
.;
found by putting 6
for
mb
in (1.)
a
x
+6)
cos.
6 cos.
+ 
and y
(a
6) sin.
06
+ mb
mb
a
sin.
+ 
The
manner equations to the hypotrochoid may be obtained in the same more simply by putting 6 for 6 in the equations (1.)
=
=
(a
6) cos.
cos.
'1
sin.
and y
(a
6) sin.
6 for both b
The
and
mb
system
.*.
(1.)
(a
6) cos.
0+6
b
cos.
a
and y =. (a
6)
sin.
I
I
sin.
We have comprehended all the systems in (1), but each of them might be obtained from their respective figures. 361. The elimination of the trigonometrical quantities is possible, and
gives finite algebraic equations whenever
a and 6
For then
cos. 0, cos.
^~
&c., can
sin.
<j>,
<j>
and
cos.
where
sin.
is
common
submultiple of
and
and then
and
may be expressed in terms ot x and y. Also since the resulting equation in xy is finite, the curve does not make an infinite series ot convolutions, but the wheel or revolving circle, after a certain number of revolutions, is found, having the generating point exactly in the same position as at first, and thence describing the same curve line over again.
For example,
let
= 6, the equations to the epicycloid become = a (2 cos.  cos. 2 0) = a (2 sin. sin. 2 0) y x = a (2 cos. 2 (cos. 0) + 1) and y = 2 a sin. 0(1 cos. 0).
a
x
s
.'.
From
the
first
second we have
sin. 0,
of these equations we find cos. 0, and then from the 2 8 adding the values of (cos. 0) and (sin. 0) together
3 a)*
/
4 4 a
(
o ^N
3
J
8  a8 } 8 or {** 4 a8 { (x  a) s 0. y } This curve, from its heartlike shape, is called the cardioide. Let A be the origin ; that is, for x put x o in the last algebraical equation, and then by transformation into polar co ordinates, the equation
+ /
to the cardioide
becomes
j*l
2 a (1
cos. 0).
362. If b
=r
become
a r= a cos.
and y and the hypocycloid has degenerated into the diameter of the circle In the same case the equations to the hypotrochoid become
;
A.
C E.
=
=
(1
 m)
sin.
0;
ellipse,
are a (1
whose axes
circle, the
363. If a thread coinciding with a circular axis be unwound from the extremity of the thread will trace out a curve called the involute
circle.
of the
APQRS
Thus suppose a thread fixed round the circle AB C D; then if it be unwound from A, the extremity in the hand will trace out the curve
the lines B P, DQ, C R, A S, which are particular positions ; of the thread, are also tangents to the circle, and each of them is equal to the length of the corresponding circular arc measured from A.
The curve makes an infinite number of revolutions, the successive branches being separated by a distance equal to the circumference of the
circle.
To
Let
A=
a,
C P
r=
r,
and angle
cos.
ACP=
or angle
BC
P,
we have B C
PC
P C B,
a'
PCB
cos.
BP = BA =
or
J (r*
a*)
cos.
cos.
'
192
ON
is
SPIRALS.
The
there
they
involute of the circle is usefully employed in toothed wheels ; for less waste of power in passing from one tooth to another when are of this form than in any other case.
In the figures (2) and (3) we have examples of two equal wheels and by turning one wheel the other wheel which have each two teeth will be kept in motion by means of the continual contact of the teeth. The dotted line of contact is, by the property of the this involute, a common tangent to the two wheels dotted line is the constant line of contact, and the force is the same in every part of a revolution.
; ;
teeth
Fig. (3) is another example ; and by making the smaller and more numerous we shall have toothed wheels always in contact, and therefore giving no jar or shake to the machinery. Again, in raising a piston or hammer, the involute of the circle is the best form for the teeth of the turningwheel, as the force acts on the piston entirely in a vertical direction.
SPIRALS.
193
ON SPIRALS.
364. There is one class of transcendental curves which are called from their peculiar twisting form. They were invented by the ancient geometricians, and were much used in architectural ornaments.
spirals,
Of
spiral invented
is
the
This spiral is thus generated Let a straight line S P of indefinite move uniformly round a fixed point S, and from a fixed line S X, and let a point P move uniformly also along the line S P, starting from S, at the same time that the line S P commences its motion from S X, then the
length
RA, commencing at S, point will evidently trace out a curve line S and gradually extending further from S. When the line S P has made one revolution, P will have got to a certain point A, and S P still continuing to turn as before, we shall have the curve proceeding on regularly through a series of turnings, and extending further from S. To examine the form and properties of this curve, we must express this method of generation by means of an equation between polar coordinates.
Let S
PQ
r,
A
is
6,
AS P
uniform, we have
four right angles
b
: :
S P
: :
angle
ASP:
be
'2
From this equation it appears that when S P has made two revolutions or 6 2 6, or the curve cuts the axis S 47r, we have r again at a and similarly after 3, 4, n revolutions it meets the aXis distance 2 S ; S at distances 3 Archimedes discovered that the 4, n times S A. area S P Q is equal to onethird of the area of the circle described with centre S and radius S A. 365. The spiral of Archimedes is sometimes used for the volutes of the capitals of columns, and in that case the following descriotion by points
RA
is useful.
194
SPIRALS.
1
on the diameter
C S A,
take
CA
j
A
Q A
and
take
S P
=
;
SA,
in
SC
S A, and
in
take S
R =
SA
to the curve these points belong to the spiral ; by subdividing the radius and the angles in each quadrant we may obtain other points as in S the figure. In order to complete the raised part in the volute, another
spiral
in
366.
0".
Of
this class
we
cases where
=.
1,
and n
Q'
Let n
= 9
/.
SP =
is
measured,
When
0, r
oo
as
and more uniformly afterwards; as 6 may go on increasing ad infinitum r also may go on diminishing ad infinitum without ever actually becoming hence we have an infinite series of convolutions round S nothing rd Describe a circular arc PQ with centre S and radius S P, then P Q a and since this value of a is the same for all positions of P, we must have P Q P' Q' = the straight line S C at an infinite distance, and therefore the curve must approach to an asymptote drawn through C parallel to S X.
:
This curve is called the reciprocal spiral from the form of its equation, since the variables are inversely as each other, or the hyperbolic spiral, from the similarity of the equation to that of the hyperbola referred to its
asymptotes
367. Let
(j?
=:
2
Ar
).
=
it
:.r
= aO
or r
a.
;
asymptote S X,
s in the figure is described a proceeding from the makes an infinite series of convolutions round S.
SPIRALS.
equation rd
195
368. If in the the constant quana, we have the equation (r 6) 6 = a; this curve commences its course like the reciprocal spiral ; but as 6 increases we have r 6 approximating to nothing, or r approximating to 6 ; hence the spiral, after an infinite number of convolutions, approaches to an asymptotic circle, whose centre is S, and radius 6.
tity, 6,
we always deduct
r* 369. Trace the spiral whose equation is 6 J ar 6; this curve has an infinite number of small revolutions round the pole, and gradually extends outwards to meet an asymptotic circle whose radius is a. 2 2 370. The spiral whose equation is (r 6 9 commences its a) course from a point in the circumference of the circle whose radius is a, and extends outwards round S in an infinite series of convolutions. This curve is formed by twisting the axis of the common parabola round the circumference of a circle, the curve line of the parabola forming the
spiral.
a is called the logarithmic curve whose equation is r logarithm of the radius vector is proportional to the angle V. CD we find that there are an to Examining all the values of from This curve is also called, infinite series of convolutions round the pole S. the equiangular spiral, for it is found by the principles of the higher analysis that this curve cuts the radius vector in a constant angle.
371.
spiral, for the
The
Descartes, who first imagined this curve, found also that the whole length of the curve from any point P to the pole was proportional to the radius vector at P. 372. It will often happen that the algebraical equation of a curve is much more complicated than the polar equation ; the conchoid art. 31 2
is
an example. In these cases it is advisable to transform the equation from algebraical to polar coordinates, and then traca the curve from the
2 the equation be (x? 2 a xy, there would be i/ ) the form of the curve from this equation ; ascertaining r sin. 6 (61) r cos. 6 and y
polar equation.
/.
= =
2a
cos. 6 sin. 0,
Q,
or r rr a sin. 2
Let A be the origin of polar coordinates A X the axis whence 6 is measured with centre A and radius a describe a circle BCD. Then (or Q we have r to 45, r increases from 0, as Q increases from
;
C)
196
to
SPIRALS.
a
;
increases from 45 (o 90, hence the hranch A PB. Again, as r diminishes, and we trace the branch diminishes from 1 to .*. B Q A. As 6 increases from 90 to 180, sin. '2 9 increases and decreases as before ; hence the similar oval in the second quadrant. By following:
sin.
26
from 180 to 360, we shall have the ovals in the third and fourth quadrant and since the sine of an arc advances similarly in each quadrant of the circle, we have the four ovals similar and equal.
;
In this case we have paid no regard to the algebraical sign of r we have considered to vary fr>m to 360, which method we prefer to that of giving 6 all values from to 180, and then making the sign of r to vary. If the equation had been (x* f y8 ) 2 2a*j:y, we should have found two equal and similar ovals in the first and third quadrant. The locus of the equation r sin. 0) is the same kind of a (cos. 6 and A C. figure differently situated with respect to the lines The equation to the lemniscata r9 a2 cos. 2 6 art. (314), may be
AX
problems we
very usefully employed. For example, Let the corner of the page of a book be turned over into the position B C P, and in such a manner that the triangle B C P be constant, to find the locus of P. Let A P r, angle P A C =r 0, and let the
nates
may he
area
= ABC =
AE B
2
;
ABE,
0,
PB E
angle
are equal,
we have
AE
/.
a right angle
and
or
2
?
AE
==
=
a2
AB
2
cos f
0.
sin.
 Hence
.'.
a2
 sin.
0cos.
0,
the
locus
is
an oval
APBQ
as in the last
is
S P of a parabola so that its equal to the perpendicular from the focus on the
s\
is
is
a sec,
197
PART
II.
CHAPTER
I.
INTRODUCTION.
374. IN the preceding part of this Treatise lines and points have always been considered as situated in one plane, and have been referred to two
lines called axes situated in that plane.
Now we may readily imagine a curve line, the parts of which are not situated in one plane ; also, if we consider a surface, as that of a sphere, for example, we observe immein such a surface cannot be in the same diately that all the points plane hence the method of considering figures which has been hitherto adopted cannot be applied to such cases, and therefore we must have recourse to
;
We
of figures.
how
may
Let three planes Y, be drawn perpendicular Y, and be the interto each other, and let the three straight lines sections of these planes, and the common point of concourse.
ZAX, Z A
A
in
XA
AX, AY, A Z
and
From any
point
tively perpendicular to
X A Y, Z A X,
A
ZAY
respec
then the
position of the point P is completely determined when these three perpendicular lines are known. P, then P Q, P R, and P S Complete the rectangular parallelepiped are respectively equal to A O, N, and A M. These three lines M, A N, and A O, or more commonly their equals Q, and Q P, are called the coordinates of P, and are denoted by M,
and
is
198
PROJECTIONS.
line
line
A X is called the axis of x, the line A Y is called the axis of A Z is called the axis of 2. The plane X A Y is called the plane of xy, the plane Z A X is called the and the plane Z A Y is called the plane of zy*. plane of 2
The
y,
and the
<r,
three perpendicular lines, PQ, P R, and PS, The three points, Q, R, and S are called the projections of the point P on the planes of xy, xz, and zy respec
The method of projections is so useful in the investigation and description of surfaces, that we proceed to give a few of the principal theorems on the subject so far as may be required in this work.
PROJECTIONS.
376. If several points be situated in a straight line, their projections on any one of the coordinate planes are also in a straight line. For they are all comprised in the plane passing through the given and as straight line, and drawn perpendicular to the coordinate plane the intersection of any two planes is a straight line, the projections of the points must be all in one straight line. This plane, which contains all the perpendiculars drawn from different points of the straight line, is called the projecting plane; and its intersec;
is
of the straight
377.
plane.
To
AB
AB
to in in
to
jection of
draw A A' and B B' perpendicular to the A' and B'. Join A' B' ; then A' B' is the pro
be projected on
;
the plane
PQ R
produce
B.
* This system of coordinate planes may be represented by the sides and floor of a room, the corner being the origin of the axes, the Y is then represented by the floor of plane the room, and the two remaining planes by the two adjacent sides of the room.
PROJECTIONS.
Since A B and A' B' are in the same plane, they will meet in P. the angle B P B or the angle of the inclination of B to the plane r then B' draw and in the projecting plane parallel to A' B
199
Let
6,
AE
A' B'
= A E = A B cos. B A E = A B cos.
The same proof will apply to the projection of a straight line upon another straight line, both being in the same plane. 378. To find the length of the projection of a straight line upon another straight line not in the same plane.
D
JV
a
;
be the line to be projected C D the line upon which it is to be and B draw lines A A' and B B' perpendicular to From C D, then A' B' is the projection of A B. and P Q perpendicular to C D. Through A and B draw planes These planes contain the perpendicular lines A A' and B B'.
Let
AB
projected.
MN
From A draw
AE
and
is
perpendicular to the plane PQ, and therefore equal B E ; then the triangle having a right E B cos. B E, and angle B E of inclination between B and C ; hence
=A
=A
ABE
A' B'
= AB
cos. 0.
Also any line equal and parallel to A B has an equal projection A' B' on C D, and the projection of A B on any line parallel to C D is of the same
length as A' B'. 379. The projection of the diagonal of a parallelogram on any straight line is equal to the sum of the projections of the two sides upon the same
straight line.
Let
ABCD
C E
iiiciiu^d to the
diculcus or
AZ
AE= AC
AZ
line
B draw
through
CAZ
and
A is the A F is the
projection of projection of
AC AB
perpen
upon upon
200
THE POINT.
or
AZ AD
AF = AB
cos.
upon
AZ
or
FE
B A Z. Also F E B C cos. D A Z
is
the projection of
BC
or
and
hence the projection of A C the sum of projections of A B and B C. 380. To find the projection of the area of any plane figure on a given
plane
AE = AF + FE; =
EDG
H.
Let A B C be a triangle inclined to the given plane E D G H at an angle of these planes ; 0; draw A E, CD, perpendicular to the intersection E then the triangle have equal bases A B, and its projection G H, but unequal altitudes C F, ;
ABC
/.
area
ABC:GKH
GKH
cos. 6
and
this
is
true for
y=6
and
2=0
suf
they are called the equations to the point P. This point may also be defined as
8
in Art. (25)
only values that render this r expression real are <r=a, y=b, and
by the equation
(y&)
(*c) =0,
z=c.
THE POINT.
382.
201
mined
thus or
AO
A z,
algebraical signs of the coordinates a?, y, and z, are deteras in Plane Geometry, by the directions of the coordinate lines is positive or negative according as it is drawn from along A Z that is, according as it is above or below the plane of and so
:
The
xy:
the following values of coordinates for a point in each of the eight compartments into which space is divided by the coordinate planes.
:
on
hence
we have
+ + xy +
f
z a point
P
.
XAYZ
XA7/Z
x
z
.
f z
.
'
'
AyZ
Z
+ +x+ +x
x
yz
y
z
z
',.
J
,'
V
'"
x A Y
.'
^
.
.
XAY*
XAy z x Ky z
....
'.
x  y
383.
point also
may
which case the coordinate perpendicular to that plane must thus, if the 0: point be in the plane of xy, its distance z from this plane must hence the equations to the point in the plane of xy are
;
x
or
(js
= a,y a) +
2
b, z
=
&)*
(y
= 0.
a,
= Q, z ~
And
if
Also,
if
yz
= 0, therefore
the point be on the axis ofj?, its distance from the planes the equations to such a point are
,r
a;
y and
= 0, z =
and so on
384.
point
The
P on
in its
of the points Q, R, and S, in the last figure, are the projections the coordinate planes ; on referring each of these points to the
plane,
axes
own
we have
to
The equations
= =
=b =c =c
RM A
Hence we see that the projections of the point P on two of the coordinate planes being known, the projection on the third plane is necessarily and are given, draw S Z, parallel to given : thus, if S and
also
NQ
is
of
and known.
MQ
respectively parallel to
AX
and
AY,
385. To find the distance A P of a point from the origin of coordinates A. Let AX, AY, and A Z be the rectangular axes ; A Q y, a?, and P Q z, the coordinates of P.
M=
202
THE POINT.
7
/Y
The square on
AP=
or d8
the square on
AQ +
the square on
PQ
PQ
or,
= the squares on A M, M Q + = + y* +
ar*
the square on
z*.
386. Let a,
/3,
y, be the angles
which
AP
axis of
y,
and
z, respectively;
then #
..
d2
= AM = AP cos P A M =: d cos = MQ = AN = AP cos. PAN = dcos.0 z =PQ r= APsin. PAQ = dcos. y = # f y z = d (cos. a) + d* (cos. + d
y
8 8
j
/. (cos.
2 387. Again d r=
.*.
a)
y*
+
z
j3) 2
(cos.
(cos. /3)
2
f (cos. y)
y)
1.
/3 f
2
.r
I
f
= x d cos. a f y d cos.
/3
cos.
a?
cos.
+ y cos.
Xi
z cos. y.
388.
To
between two
P
zt;
and
be respectively x
and
then the distance between these points is the diagonal of a parallelepiped, the three contiguous sides of which are the differences of the parallel coordinates ; hence,
by the
last article
we have
If d l and rf2 be the distances of the points x l y l z v and j?a y 2 ^a respectively from the origin, the above expression may be put in the form
d8
d?
+ d* 
(x,
T2
y,
ya
+ z, z,).
389.
by
planes, that is, by the projections of the line upon the coordinate planes ; hence, the position of a straight line is geometrically fixed by knowing its projections ; and it is also algebraically determined by the equations to those projections taken conjointly. Taking the axis of z as the axis of abscissas the equation to the projection on the plane x z is of the form
203
ct
(31),
to the projection
on the plane of yz
As these two equations fix the position of the straight line in space, they are, taken together, called the equations to a straight line. be a portion of the 390. To illustrate this subject we shall let
straight line,
RS
y
:
its
projection on
z,
TU
PQ
its
projection on
y
z
z,
its
projection on x
And
let
equation to
TU
= a z + a,
be the equation to
R S,
and y ==
ft
+&
be the
S. the points in the plane P Q /3 z f 6 not only relates toTU, but also to Similarly the equation y all the points in the plane Q P. Therefore, the system of the two equations exists for all the powits in the straight line P Q, the intersection of the two projecting planes, artd
all
in the projecting plane P S has the same values of and S z and x that its projection S has, that is, the coordinates and hence there is the same relation between are the same as ; a expresses not z them in each case ; and therefore, the equation x S, but also of only the relation between the x and z of all the points in
QR
NW
WQ
=
AM
TU
PQ
are
az
The
of the and and this is the relation between the coordinates of any point Q in the line P Q ; and therefore, this last equaprojection on the plane xy. tion is that to the projection V
AM
\
MW
.r
r= a z
f
a and y =/3
bt a
is
the distance
204
THE STRAIGHT
LINE.
or a
= AL.
Let *
R S with A. X, AK = a
AK
similarly
/. z
=AO
(3
/.
O, but
AK
=AO
A O K = A O tan. Z O R /. is tangent of the angle which R S A Z, and similarly is tangent of the angle which UT makes wilh A Z.
tan.
makes with
392. The straight line will assume various positions according to the and /3 : however, it would be of very little use algebraical signs of tf, 6, to go through all the cases arising from these changes of sign, especially
culty.
as they offer nothing of consequence, and no one case presents any diffishall only consider the cases where the absolute value of a, 6, a
We
a z and y =. j3 z, and the two projections 0, then x pass through the origin, and therefore the line itself passes through the
origin
;
is
x.
then x a z and y Let a =: (3 z + 6, the projection on x z passing through the origin, the line itself must pass through the axis A Y perpendicular to cc z a z + a, y 0, the equations x similarly, if 6 (3 z belong to a line passing through the axis of <r, and if the equations are a x, y this (3 z } by the straight line passes through the axis of z y last case may be represented by supposing (in the last figure) VV V to is of the form pass through A, then the equation to V y = atf, and the equation toOTUisy /3z +6; now, if two planes be drawn, one through T U perpendicular to y z, and the other through V perpendicular to xy, both planes pass through the point O, and therefore the line itself must pass through O. a z 393. Let/3 /. x 6, the line is in a plane parallel a, y to a: z and distant from it by the quantity b. If the last figure be adapted to this case we should have perpendicular to A Y, and therefore P Q N Q perpendicular equal and parallel to R S situated in the plane
:
=
:
UT
/3
W U
is
to to
xy. Let or
/.
x r=
c,
a,
=
+
6,
the line
in a plane parallel to
z.
Similarly z
<x'x
a! belong to
straight line may also be situated in one of the coordinate planes as in the plane of y z ; for example, the equations to such a line arc 0. If the line be in the plane of xz the equations are b, x (3 z y
394.
xy.
= =
= = 0;
+
and
if
a' z
= 0.
xy
the equations
395. If the straight line be perpendicular to one of the coordinate planes, as x y for example ; a and (3 must each equal 0, and therefore the equations to this line are
x =z
a,
b, z
=

xz
are
* ~ a* y
205
perpendicular to y z are
396. planes
:
To
find
the coordinate
a and y a. z Let x when it (3 z f b be the equations to the line x := a, y .*. meets the plane of xy we have z 6 are the equations
Similarly z ==
^,
j?
r=

r
where the
line
z,
and
=
a
y
*
~ a
f
are the equations to the point where the line pierces the plane of 2 y. 397. There are four constant quantities in the general equations to a straight line, and if they are all given, the position of the line is
determined
z',
for
we have only
to give to
and we have
x' and y' are also necessarily determined ; hence, taking xr , Y, and lastly, y') parallel to (see the last figure,) and drawing == ', the point a perpendicular thus determined drawing from and similarly, any number of points in the line are belongs to the line determined, or the position of the line is completely ascertained. Again,
or,
WQ
M W (=
AM
the straight line may be subject to certain conditions, as passing through a given point, or being parallel to a given line; or, in other words, conditions may be given which will enable us to determine the quantities oc, (3, a and 6, supposing them first to be unknown ; in this manner arises a series of Problems on straight lines similar to those already worked for
straight Hues situated in one plane (40, 50).
To
Let the coordinates of the given point be x lt y l and z 1( and let the a yc=f3zlb. equations to the straight line bexz=.ccz Now since this line passes through the given point, the projections of the line must also pass through the projections of the point; hence the a passing through a\ and z^ we have jr l a zl <x z , projection x
.*.
a (z
y\.
z )
t
and
similarly
=
:
ft
(2
2,)
a and (3 being indeterminate, hence these are the equations required there may be an infinite number of straight lines passing through the
given point. If the given point be in the plane of x y, oc x .'. TJ
we have
z^
0,
= z\ yfts0f)
206
PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
on the
x
axis of #,
TI
LINES.
Zj
we have
a z
=.
and y ^=
l
And
position of the given point. 399. To find the equations to a straight line passing through two given points, Xi y l z t and x t y 2 z 2 . Since the line passes through the point x\ y l z l its equations are
x
y
x y
l
= a (z = P( Z 
z,)
2l ).
And
become
since
the
line
xy yz
z2
the
last
equations
line are
These equations will assume many various forms dependent on the If the first point be in the plane position of the given point, for example of y 2, and the second in the axis of j?, we have x^ 0, z 8 ; y2
:
= J=
,
c..,:
yi
(2 2i
8l ).
x 
Xl =
Xi
(2 Z,) =
we have xt y* X
l
za
each
jr 1
0,
*i
z,
'
and y
=r
Vi
z.
i
1
And
these equations
may
jections pass through the origin, and therefore their equations are of the form x ss a z, y 5= /3 ^, and the first passing through a? t z t we have
cr
=
2*
and similarly
/3
=
Z,
400.
line.
To
207
Since the lines are parallel their projecting planes on any one of the coordinate planes are also parallel, and therefore the projections themselves parallel ; hence, if the equations to the given line are
a?nz +
x
flr,
yr=/3z
y
6,
b'
az
+
zO
',
=
y,
+
/5
z^ its
equations
x
401.
a?!
(2
(2
zO
To
Two
is
two given straight lines, one plane must meet in general, but
this
not necessarily the case if the Vines be situated anywhere in space , hence there must be a particular relation among the constant quantities in the equation in order that the lines may meet : to find this relation, let the equations to the lines be
= az +
a)
= a' z +
a'}
For the point of intersection the projected values of the same in all the equations ; hence
a'
x,
y and
z must be
a
(X
<xz\a=az\a
and
z
Of
b'
or,
(a
a)
(ft
/3)
(6'
6)
('
).
And
which must
exist
in order
that the
two
lines
may
meet.
Having thus determined the necessary relation among the constants, the coordinates of intersection are given by the equations
Z
'
a
r
^r7
=
b
b'
J$ 3&'3'6
a
b'
x == az
oc
a'
a
7
a
a'
af a a
402. To find the angles which a straight line (J) makes with the coor dinate axes ; and thence with the coordinate planes : Let the equations to the given line be
x y
= =
a z
/3
j a f6
t
x
also
let
:
=*
*,
=
(<r,
/3
r be the distance
of any point
origin
508
PROBLEMS ON STRAIGHT
LINES.
But /, /y, and /* being the angles which either line makes with the axes of a , y and * respectively, we have from the second line
1
Also
line
(cos.
/#)
(cos.
lyf
(cos.
Izf
1 ;
makes with the rectangular axes. Since the system is rectangular, the angle which a line makes with any axis is the complement of the angle which it makes with the plane perhence the angles which a line makes with the copendicular to that axis
:
403. To find the cosine, sine, and tangent of the angle between two given straight lines. Let the equations to the two straight lines be
a z
y=(3z +
These two
lines
a\ 6(
x
y
meet, or they rqay not is the same as that of to them and passing through the origin ; hence find the angle between the lines represented by
may
reduced
to
the equations
Let
r
r,
= =
=
then
i (2) the distance between these points, the angle between the given lines,
......
+
r^
x y
*i yi *i
....
= (x  *!> + (y  y^ + (z (388) = x* + y + 2 + ^ + y, +  2 (xx +yy + = r + /V  2 Or *, + yyi + zz,) = x^ + yy z r r cos. Now tfj^ + yy, + 22l = Z' 2l + j3z /3', + z = (' + And r =
8
d*=
r2
2rr
8
cos. 6
2l )
2l
z z,)
.*.
j
z,
2,
/3/3'
ss,
r,
209
'
(a
_ The
also
/
*'Pr +
Q') +
2
Q8 /?)
value of the cosine of the angle between two straight lines may be expressed in terms of the angles which the two straight lines and /! make with the coordinate axes.
For x
and
,TI
r cos. I z,
y
y
v
~r
cos. ly,
z r= r cos. /z,
r^cos.
x,
r t cos.
^ y,
zl
=r
cos.
/i
z,
cos.
cos l\y

cos
sin.
* cos.
/!
2.
9 =. 0.
/3) {(_ o^ f (/3 0, /3')^ an equation which cannot be satisfied unless by supposing a
p_ a
'
and
two of these conditions are the same as those already shown to determine the parallelism of two lines (400), and the third condition is only a necessary consequence of the other two, and
or/3'
= a'/3,
a', /3
/3',
the
first
therefore implies nothing further. 405. If the lines are perpendicular to each other,
.'.
we must have
z cos.
cos.
=
;
0.
aa'
+ /3/3'f
/j
0.
Now, one
perpendicular to a second straight hence line, whenever it is in a plane perpendicular to this second line an infinite number of lines can be drawn perpendicular to a given line; and this appears from the above equation, for there are four constants involved in the equation to the perpendicular line, and only one equation between them. 406. If the lines also meet, we have then the additional equation,
;
\ cos. /
^x
(>'
a)
ft'
/3=
(&'
6) (a'
 a)
(401),
However, even yet an infinite number of straight lines can be drawn, meeting the given line at right angles, for an infinite number of planes can be drawn perpendicular to the given line, and in each plane an infinite number of straight lines can be drawn passing through the given line. 407. To find the equation to a straight line passing through a given
point x l y l z l ^ and meeting a given line (1) at right angles. Let the equations to the lines be,
= az + a
a'
x,
a'
(3?
+
l
/80'
')
(' 0?i
(0
a' z
=  6) (&'
l
ft'
(3)
(a
a')
=
f
or since a'
=x
(?)
and b f =. y l
z,
(3
2,
'
Zi
a)
03
(y,
6) (a
a') ==
(4).
210
THE PLANE.
elimination of
'
The
and
/3'
"
These values of
a' and /3 substituted in (2) give the final equation to the straight line, passing through a given point, and meeting a given straight line at right angles.
In particular cases other methods may be adopted, for example, to find the equations to a straight line passing through the axis of y at right angles to that axis here x l O l and z t = 0, therefore the equations to the line are
:
iT
but because the line is perpendicular to the axis of y we have ft 0, hence the required equations are x =: a 2, y y^. By assuming the axes of coordinates to be conveniently situated, this and many other problems may be worked in a shorter manner. This will be shown hereafter.
yyi = fc
a z
CHAPTER
III.
THE PLANE.
408.
A PLANE
may be supposed
to
AO AO
line perpendicular to it. straight line about another straight the axe, B C a portion of a plane, Let be the origin, X, Y, the perpendicular from the origin upon this plane, any point in
AZ
then, according to the above definition, we suppose the plane P round AO, the angle to be formed by the revolution of a line like P being a right angle.
this plane
;
To
Let
a?,
and
let
AO =
and #
y^
z { those of
,
O,
d.
THE PLANE.
Then
the square
211
}
on
AP
the square on
AO
the square on
OP;
or
<r a?!
+y
Jj
?/!
{
z *!
=
l
409.
Let ~ =
TW,
= n, and
=p,
And
it is
under
this
the plane.
d*
d*
a,
Let
6,
and
X
d2
zi
=
11
c,
is
\.
y\
this is intelligible form in which the equation to the plane can be put, the constants , b and c being equal to A B, and the respective distances of the origin from the intersection of the plane with the coordinate axes ; this is found by putting y and z both 0,
And
4+ b
i
AD
AC
hence
1,
or
AB=
a,
and
410. Let the word " plane" be represented by the letter P, and let the angles which or d makes with the coordinate axes be represented by d x ; d y ; d z ; and let the angles which the plane makes with the same axes be denoted by P,r; Py; Pz; then, since is a is the right angle, and angle which the plane makes with A X,
AO
ABO
AOB
we have
= =
sin.
b sin.
c sin.
Px Py
may be put
z cos. z sin.
Pz
= d.
=
411. LetP,yz represent the angle which the plane makes with the coordinate plane y z, then since angle B. is equal to the angle of cos. P, y z, hence the inclination of the plane to y ^, we have cos. d x
OA
x
4
1 2.
cos.
P, y z
+ y cos.
P, x
z 4 z
cos. P, ,xy
(cos.
=
d
2)
d.
2
we
f (cos.
d y) 2 f
* If be the area of a plane P, the projections of this area on the coordinate planes are cos. P,yz', hence (A cos. P, x y) 2 cos. P, x z ; (A cos. represented by A cos. P, x y ; 8 2 2 (cos. P, xz? (cos. P, yz)*} P, xz? (A cos. P, yz) by {(cos. P, xy)* (412). This theorem, referring to the numerical values of the projected areas, is of use in finding the area of a plane between the three coordinate planes. Thus, if the equation
=A
+ =A
;
to a plane
be_fa
,
AD C =
l>v
+ ^ + ~=l, we have by the last figure the area A B C = & area c b +6 ^ hence the area B C D = Vl (* b 4" and area A B D = ^;
?*
The volume
of the pyramid
A CDB
;=.
P
2
212
413.
THE PLANE.
To
find the angles which a plane makes with the coordinate planes in terms of the coefficients of the equation to the plane. Let the equation to the plane be
mx
f
Now
ny
pz
1.
it
the equation to a plane expressed in terms of the angles which makes with the coordinate planes is given by (411.)
x cos. P, y z y cos. P, x z + z cos. P, xy hence equating coefficients, we have cos. P, x z cos. P, y z cos. P,
= d,
xv
m =
and
cos. P,
= wi d =
nd
Cos. P,
oc
Cos. P.
= wd =
V/n 2
+
7i
2
414. The equation to the plane will assume various forms according to the various positions of the plane. Let the plane pass through the origin, then d ; therefore, putting
(408), we have the equation to the plane passing through the origin ; but as the equation to the plane has been obtained on the supposition of d being finite, it becomes necessary to give an independent proof for this particular case. Let A O (= d) be the length of a perpendicular from the plane to a x, y, z, as before, the given point O; whose coordinates are x^ y i} ^ coordinates of any point P in the plane, then O j the square on A P ; the square on the square on O P
or
cr,)
/.
+ (y  y ) + (  *i) = d + x* f  2 (x x, + y y, + z *) f d* = d\ or x Xi 4 y yi + z *i = 0.
8
t
2/
+*
2
.
So that the equation to the plane in this case is the same as the original equation without the constant term. 415. Let the plane be parallel to any of the coordinate planes, as x y
for
example, then a
GO
and 6
oo
y
'
~j
213
becomes
y H
 =
'
c,
=.
~ and y
;
of these three equations the first signifies that every point in the plane is equidistant from the plane x y, and the other two signify that for this single value of z, every possible value of x and y will give points in the The two latter equations are generally omitted ; and we say that plane. ibr a plane parallel to x y the equation is z c ; similarly for the plane #, and for a plane parallel to y z the equation is parallel to x x it is x
b.
The equations
cc =..
;
to a coordinate plane, as
;
x y
0,
or,
more
simply, x = 0.
416. The lines B C, B D, and C, where the plane intersects the The equations to coordinate planes, are called the traces of the plane. these traces are found, from the equation to the plane, by giving to .r, y t or z the particular values which they have when the plane intersects the coordinate planes. Let the equation to the plane be rn x then for the intersection B C we have the equations
ny+pz~\\
D
= 0, m x + ny
BD
=z\.
are respectively
and C
y~0,mx + pz=l x =: 0, n y + p z =
1.
To
Let the given plane be m x + n y f p z =1, and the required plane be m' x f n' y I. p' z Then the planes being parallel, their traces on the coordinate planes must be parallel ; now their traces on x z are
mx+
. .
=
=:
l,m' x
\
p' z
1;
m =
p
m'
p"
j,
or
m
p
P
becomes
,..,,, = n
;
similarly
Hence
ormx+ny +
In
pz
^
this case the resulting equation contains one indeterminate constant and therefore shows that an infinite number of planes can be drawn
Three conparallel to a given plane, which is also geometrically evident. ditions are apparently given, since the three traces of one plane are parallel
to the three traces of the other plane ; but if the traces on two of the coordinate planes be parallel, the traces on the third coordinate plane
,.,
ire
necessarily parallel
for if
m =m
P
n
and
;%
n'
.
we have
P"
!>'
214
mx +
n y
1 parallel to
m' x
j
n y
1
1.
Thus, in
reality,
the three constants. only two conditions are given to determine 418. To find the equation to a plane parallel to a given plane, and passing through a given point x lt y it *
t.
be the required plane, then since the plane passes through T y z v we have
Let m' x
+ n' y
j
m
/.
Xi
n'
3/1
p' *i
=
,
m' (x
*,)
+ n' (y  yj f p' (z
m'
r p'
*,)
0.
Also
=
p
m
p
9
and
n' 7 r
=
+
p
n p
p' (*
:.
p
or
P'(X *0 +
p (y
 yO
*t)
*)
0;
(x
xj
n (y
yj
(z
= 0.
419.
To
Let
mx + ny + pz= Z X ~ % t ?1 y = fiz + 6j
find the intersection of a straight line and plane. Ibe the equation to the plane,
common, we
have
and
m(2fa)+7i(/3*r&)}pz= 1, ma nb 1 ~~ m a + /3 + p' a nb a + n Q a +p
J?
y =
/3
+ 6=
/3
mafi+mab+pb _____
<x
 71
np
f
Thus
is
found.
420.
To
and plane be
infinite
parallel
a?,
y,
and
z
must be
oc
f
/3
+p
and
= 0.
must be indeterminate, or
a?,
y,
each
T
m
and
ma
7t6=0;
x and
by
Hence, to find the equation to a plane coinciding with a given straight we have the two conditions
ma+ m +
whence, by elimination,
=1,
n/3+/>
=
oc
,
0;
we have
=:
/3
+P b ^
'
ft
and n
= a
p a
b
ex
p 
215
+
To
pb) x
(a
+p
a)
+p
(a Q
6)* =
a/3
&*,
lines.
two given
= =
(lz
+ +
(1)
(2)
a\
bj
we have
'
1
1
m m
+ +
7i/3
ft'
+ ?r=0 +p=
(3)
(4)
and (2) we have m and n, and these values being substituted (3) and (4), give two values of p, hence we have the equation of con(1)
dition
('
This equation
/3)
(a
a')
(<*'
a)
(6 &')
0.
either if the lines are parallel (in which case f oc and /3' ot /3), or if they meet ; hence in either of these cases a plane may be drawn coinciding with the two lines ; the equation to this
is verified
plane
is
(#
6)
(a!
a)y +
(a
a)
(3
(b'
 6)
} z
=a
6'
of b.
422. If it be required to find the equation to a plane which coincides with one given straight line, and is parallel to another given straight line,
we have
m . + n + p = 1} for coincidence with ne line m' + 7i/3'+j!?:=0 for parallelism with the other
>
ft
n,
substitute these values in the general equation to the plane. 423. To find the intersection of two given planes.
to the
two planes be
n'y
+ p'z~
n' p)
1.
the elimination of z we obtain an equation between x and y, which belongs to the projection of the intersection of the planes on x y,
By
hence
is
(m p'
m' p) x
(n
= p'
the projection on x
Similarly
(m
is
n'
m'
(p n'
p' n) z =: n'
the equation to the projection on x z. But the equations to the projections of a line on two coordinate planes are called the equations to the line itself; hence the above two equations are the required equations to the intersection.
The
rately
it
may be found
m'  m.
sepa
m'
n' in)
mp)
1
z =:
424.
To
216
Let the intersection of the first and second, found as be expressed by the equations
x
ot
z *
y
and
let
=
first
/5
+ +
+ +
a
6,
equations
y
Then, finding the
\ve
= =
z
2
a'
6'.
/3'
lines from their four equations, have the values of j?, y, and z, corresponding to the point of intersection of the two lines, and therefore to the point of intersection of the three
intersection of these
two
planes.
point. 425. To find the relation among the coefficients of the equations to four planes so that they may meet in the same straight line.
among
one
mx+ny+pz=l
mix
m* x m x
+ + +
?i
?? 2
w y
+ p^ = +p *= +p ^ =
2 s
1
1
Then
the
first
intersect in a line
oc
=
=
ft
+ +
a
b
The
first
and
x =r
ft z
+ +
6,
And
the
first
and fourth
in the line
Now,
we must have
And
article
the ralues of a, fa a and 6 are given in terms of m, n, p, &c., by (423), hence the relation among the coefficients is found. The same relation exists among the coefficients of any number o
planes meeting in one point. 426. To find the relation among the coefficients of a straight line and plane, so that they may be perpendicular to one another. Let (j?! y t 2^ be the point in which the plane and line meet, then the
is
(1)
= az +
a]
Also
let the equations to a line perpendicular to (2) and passing through the point (a, y ~ L ) in (2) be
217
'(2
Z,))
C)
we have
the
,.
But since these two lines are perpendicular to one another, cosine of the angle between them r= 0,
.'.
'
j3 /3'
(402)
to the last line (3), will give the relation among the coordinates of .r, y, and z, so that the point to which they refer is always in a locus perpendicular to the first given line ; hence
this
f substituting for ol and (3 we have the equation to the plane which locus of all the lines perpendicular to (2), this equation is
,
Now,
is
the
x
a
or a
(j?
Xi
z  z #0 +
P
'
~ y
2/i
zl
., n + 1=0
z
(y
y,)+
*i
(4)
and
coefficients,
m
P
and
n
,
if the line
Or
it
if
are
From
the form
it
straight line,
of these equations to the plane and perpendicular appears that the trace of the plane is perpendicular to the
upon
the
same coordinate
plane.
428. If the plane pass through a given point x l y l z^ and be perpendi=: j3 z f 6) its equation is a z cular to a given straight line, (x , y
#0
+
+
(y
y^
z^
0.
429. If the straight line pass through a given point, and be perpendicular to a given plane (mx 1) its equations are ny pz
"~
JCl
+ ~ ~m
~~
430.
plane.
To
cEj
be the coordinates of the given point, 1 the equation to the given plane. pz It was shown in Art. 413, that if d be the perpendicular distance of the origin from a plane, whose equation is
Let
m^ + ny +
218
mx + nytpz =
we have d
Vm +
2
n*
+ p*.
the equation to the plane, parallel to the given plane, and passing through the given point, is
Now,
m Or  xj + n mx or
m*i
d of
l
(y
p (**,)
(418).
Hence
the distance
V m + w + j9f
2
But
the distance of the given point from the given plane distance between the two planes, that is, d rfj
is
evidently the
mx
f
l
ny
+pz
Vm +
ri f p*.
431. To find the distance of a point from a straight line. Let the equations to the given line be ae <xz + ftz + 6, then the y equation to the plane passing through the given point x y z^ and perpen
is
C*
*i)
ft
(y
ft)
z l =.
0.
Eliminating
line,
,r,
y,
and
z by
to the straight
we
find
=
N>
we have
=M
*=N +
2
 M ^N +6
,
'
These are the coordinates of the intersection of the given line, with the perpendicular plane passing through the given point ; and the required perpendicular line (P) is the distance of the given point from this intersection.
Hence P 8
= fo 
<r)
(y,
 y) +
8
(z,
z)*
= (r a)
1
2
2
r(y i
6) +
2
z1
^
we have x
y^ z ly each equal
433. To find the angle between two given planes. Let the equations to the planes be
mx + ny + pz=i
+
n y
v
f
/?,
(1)
1
(2).
219
if from the origin we draw perpendiculars on each of these planes, the angle between these perpendiculars is equal to the angle between the planes let the equations to the two lines be
:
to (1),
we must have
ft
(426), and
similarly a'
^L, ff
=

J^L.
Then
+
434. This value of cos. 6 means of Art. (413.)
7i
+p
may
2 ^m^ + T*! +
ft.
form by
cos. cos. P, x cos. P', x cos. P, y cos. P', y f cos. P, z cos. P', z. ; or cos. 0=cos. P, yz cos. P^yz cos. P, .ry cos. P xy. cos.P, a?2 cos. P', rz 435. If the planes be perpendicular to each other, we have cos.
+ +
0=0.
.*.
mnii
+ raw,
m.
l 
f
Hence,
if
mx + ny + p z =
n n.
l
ppt
0.
1,
the equa
m +  
z=:l,
0=1;
771
n
the
=:
nil
7*1
and
Wl
W"t
L
;
as already obtained when two planes are parallel. 437. To find the angle between a straight line and a plane.
same
This angle is the angle which the line makes with its projection on the and therefore, drawing a perpendicular from any point in the line to the plane, is the complement of the angle which this perpendicular
plane
;
makes with the given line. Let the equations to the plane and the
line
1
be
mx + ny + pz =
J7
= a2 +a,y = /3s +
(z
6,
^y
Zi in
the line
zj, y
(z
Zi).
(429)
/.
cos. (IT
0)
sin.
=
m a f n p + p
OBLIQUE AXES.
CHAPTER
THE POINT, STRAIGHT
LINE,
IV.
OBLIQUE AXES.
438. IF the coordinate axes are not rectangular but inclined to each Other at any given angles, they are then called ohlique axes. The equations to the point, Art. (381.) remain exactly the same as before, but the quantities a, 6, and c, are no longer the representatives of lines drawn perpendicular to the coordinate planes, but of lines respectively parallel
to the oblique axes.
439.
axes.
To
and
let
AQ
x, y, z,
be the co
produced,
Now, Q
and
.'.
= A M cos. M A Z M Q cos. Y A Z (379) = * cos. XAZ 43/cos. YAZ cos. X Z the rectangle A Q, Q N = * y cos. Y Z) also the square on A Q = f y + 2 xy cos. Y X,
AQ
cos.
ZA Q
j
(j?
f
2 ,r
/.
d*
cF
2
3/
zz
+ 2 xy cos. X Y +
2 x z cos.
XZ+
2yz
cos.
Z.
between two points when the axes are oblique Let x y z be the coordinates of one point, and x^ yi z the other point, . then the distance between these points is the diagonal of a parallelepiped, of which the sides are the differences of parallel coordinates (388) hence,
440.
find the distance
l
To
^
'
d*
= (x  xtf +
f
2 (x
(y
rj
(z
2 (x
*,)
2/0 (2
(y
,)
XY
441.
nates.
To
The
find the equation to a straight line referred to oblique coordistraight line must be considered to be the intersection of two
f
planes formed by drawing straight lines through the several points o the given straight line parallel respectively to the planes of x z, y z ; the traces of these planes on the coordinate planes are of the same form as for reel
OBLIQUE AXES.
angular axes
itself are
;
221
that
is,
line
of the
form
xaz^a
y
= /3*r
but the values of and /3 are not the tangents of any angles, but the ratio of the sines of the angles which each trace makes with the axes in i(s
plane (51).
The quantities a and 6 remain the same as when the straight line is referred to rectangular coordinates, and since the equations are of the same form as before, those problems which do not affect the inclination of
lines will
442. To find the angle between two straight lines referred to oblique coordinates we shall follow the plan adopted in Art. 402. Let the equations to the parallel lines through the origin be
And
let rbe the distance of a point xy z in (1) from the origin, and r l the distance of a point jc l y l 2 t in (2) from the origin.
Then
if
d be
2
we have
=r + 2 r r' cos.  3/0 + (s *0 + 2 (*  *i) (y ~ Sfi) cos. X Y = (x + (y h 2O  #0 (z  z ) cos. X Z + 2 (y  yO (z  z,) cos. Y Z,
2
r!
.r,)
2{(jr l y
.
jxyJcos.XY+faz+xzJcos.
XZ+
= xx^ +2/3/1
(y^z + y zO
cos.
YZ}
J
z^
+
,
yz^cos.'Y Z}
443.
To
consider a plane as the locus of all the straight lines which can be drawn perpendicular to a given straight line, and passing through a given point in that given straight line. Let the equations to the given line be
We
x
3/
= z = /3z +
(z
(2
f
a
b
line
 ^ = ol  yi = y
jt
/3'
*0
*i)
last lines
between them
'
90,
being perpendicular to each other, we have the or cos. 0=0; hence by the last article
:
and eliminating
and
222
OBLIQUE AXES.
*!
*
1
CO ,
*!
1^
+ aT)
/
cos.
XZ
*i
orj ( a
_j_
+ f^Lll + \ *  *i
/3 ")
cos.
Y Z =
cos.
/3
C os.
t
YZ)
aud
(T/
this equation,
which
is
the locus of
all
444.
To
given plane
The method is the same as that in article 426. The equation to a plane passing through a point
line is
77i
Xi y^ z l in the
given
(r
 xj
j?
f n (y
*
(2
0.
But
a, y
y8*f 6
it is
we have
/3
From
and
ft
these equations
in
we have
or the values of
terms of m, n, p.
find the angle
445.
To
line.
mx} ny
+ pz =.
(1)
And
be
let
y
'
x= =
a'
ft'
s.
+ +
6<
and ft' have the values of and ft in the last article. where Also the angle between the lines (2) and (3) is given in article (442. ) y and the angle between the plane and the line (1) being the complement of the angle between the two lines (2) and (3) may be obtained.
angle between two planes. the lines perpendicular to the given planes, and passing through the origin are given by Article (444.) ; and the angle between these lines, which is the angle between the given planes, is given by
Article (442.)
223
CHAPTER
V.
if
The coordinates of the new origin being a, b, and c, it is evident that a point be referred to this new origin and to the new axes, that each original ordinate is equivalent to the new ordinate together with the corresponding ordinate to the new origin ; hence if or, y, z be the original coordinate of a point P, and X, Y, Z the new coordinates, we have
x
= a + X, y = 6 + Y, z = c + Z;
Z
we have
Substituting these values for x, y and z in the equation to the surface, referred to the the transformed equation between X, Y, and
origin A'.
448. To transform the equation referred to rectangular axes to an equation referred to oblique axes having the same origin. z be the original axes, Xiet r, A y,
A A A X, A Y, A Z
the
new
axes,
1
M =* MQ = y QP = z
AM'^X
M' Q'
}
I
Q'P
=Y =Z
the
Then lines in the figure). (these planes are represented by the dotted are the respective projections of M', M' Q' and Q' P S and S, on A T, also
P draw
to
or,
which
is
a?
and meeting
Ax
in S,
T and
TM
224
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
(376)
y
,r
Or,
z=\
?i
cos.
\
J
cos.
77!
// 2
^Z
X
wheie
?/i is
put
for cos.
X
8
<r,
&c.
have also, by art. 402, (he following" equation between the angles which one straight line, as A X, makes with the axes of *, y, 2.
(cos.
We
*)
(cos.
y)
+
1
(cos.
X *) =
1,
Hence
f
i
+ Pi =
1
>
2.
new system be rectangular, we have also the equations in (405), which signify that the new axes are perpendicular to each other ; hence the system
449. If the
urt.
mm + n n + pp m m + n n + pp
v l
=i r=
>
3.
Hence we observe that of the nine cosines involved in the system (I) three are determined by the system (2), and other three by the system (3) ; and therefore that there are only three arbitrary angles remaining. 450. In the place of these three systems the following three may also
be used:
m* f m? + * 2 7i 4. n 4.
p
t
I
7n 2
~r Pi
~, 2
"T PZ
2 7?2 _ 8 
1"!
1
1
I
5.
TOI ni 4.
I
Wl j
v
E,
4.
7/l
*J
"^2 ^2 ~r "^2 Pa
>
J^ T
6.
v,
"2/2
~" rtl
For, multiplying the values of r, y and 2 in (1) by T?J, ?i and p respectively ; then adding the results together, and reducing by means of (2) and (3), we have ny}pz', and repeating this operation with the other multipliers v p and in a ?i % p it we have the system (4). Also, since the distance of P from the origin is the same for both systems, 2 2 we have a?1 Y2 Z 2 ; putting here, for X, and Z, y* their values in (4), and then equating co efficients on both sides, we have
X~mjc + m
l
=X +
the two systems (5) and (6). Whenever we see the systems
(2)
by (5) and (6) ; this may be proved independently of any transformation of coordinates, by assuming the quantities mnp, &Q. to be connected
as in (1).
451.
effected
The transformation from oblique axes to others oblique, is in the last figure upon the by drawing a perpendicular from
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
plane of y
shall
*,
225
and by projecting
x,
X, Y, and
on
this perpendicular,
we
have
x
and
sin. #,
yz
=X
sin.
X, y 2
Y
y,
sin,
Y, y *
+Z
sin.
Z, y *
x and
j;
sin. y,
2,
z sin.
sin.
sin.
Z,
j?
2,
sin.
Z,xy.
452. Another useful method of transformation from rectangular axes to others also rectangular, is the following:
to the axes of
1
~ az = /3*f y

X,Yand Z
a?!
be respectively
9e*fr*t
I
and
let
m=
Vl
then by
art.
+
cos.
+P
77?!
Vl
f
af
+A
777 a
=
Vl
+
&c.
/V
(402.) we have
X x = m a,
substitution,
eos.
X y =.
m(3, cos.
X x == m
Hence by
the first
art.
(448.) become
= maX + m
Y+m
a2
And
,*&&,&.
sition
:
unknown terms
may
arbitrary constants by supposing the solid trihedral angle formed by the original coordinate planes to turn about the origin into a new po
such a system has been ably discussed by ''Annales de Maths.," tome vii. p. 56.
M. Gergonne
in the
453. It appears throughout these articles that only three arbitrary and therefore it might be supposed quantities are absolutely necessary that formulas for transformation would be obtained involving only three angles such formulas have been discovered by Euler, and as they are
:
we proceed
to their in
plane of
the intersection of the original plane of xy with the new A to lie above the plane and suppose the plane xy A, which las.t we may assume to be the plane of the paper.
Let
A C be XY,
CXY
A
and radius unity, cutting Let a sphere be described with centre the axes in the points indicated by their respective letters.
all
226
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
Let C x = 0, C X =
and
XY
i//,
and
let
the angle
X C x between
the planes
xy
be called
0.
Then the object is to substitute in formula (1) art. (448.) the values of the cosines in terms of the new variables 0, i//, and 0.
This
is
effected by
nometry
for finding
means of the elementary theorem in spherical trigoone side of a triangle in terms of the other two and In the triangles C X x and C Y ,r, we have
sin
X x = cos. 6
^ sin.
^/) sin.
t//)
cos.
= cos. Q cos.
Similarly cos.
sin. ^
cos.
X y and
cos.
ZCx
we
Zx =
cos.
ZC#
Z C sin. G r +
sin.
cos.
ZC
cos
cos.
Cx
+ cos. 90
0.
sin. 0sin.
y, cos.
;
X *,
and
cos.
Y % may be
determined.
(cos.
+ cos. ^ cos. 0)
sin.
+Y
y
=:
(cos. 6 cos.
sin. sin.
cos.
0)
sin.
sin.
i//
cos.
cos.
sin.
0)
cos.
;//
cos.
+
cos.
sin.
;//
sin.
0)
Z
*
sin.
cos.
;//
+ Z cos. 0.
are the formulas investigated, but in a different manner, by " Me'c. Cel." i. p. 58. They will be found in most works on this subject, but often with some slight alteration in the algebraic signs of
These
Laplace,
A C.
227
are in the cutting plane. in the equation thus transBy putting Z formed, we shall have the intersection of the surface with the plane X Y,
may be done by a transformation of coordinates. Let the cutting plane be that of X Y, and the trace A C the axis of X, the surface will then be referred to new axes X, Y, Z, of which X and Y
This
which
is
Now, as the present object is only to obtain the curve of we may at first put Z = 0, and then transform the equation.
Let therefore
formulas become
= 0,
CAX
cos. 6
or
i//
0,
cos. 6
These formulas may be separately investigated, with great ease, without deduction from the general case. See " Francceur," vol. ii. art. 369, or
"Puissant, Geometrie,"
art.
134.
455. In applying these formulas to a particular case, a little consideration will greatly alleviate the labour of transformation thus, in many cases, we may suppose the cutting plane lo be perpendicular to j? z, without at all diminishing the generality of the result, but only addC either ing much to its simplicity ; for in this case the trace
:
coincides with
ast formulas
Ay
or
90;
hence the
become
x
z
= + Y cos. 6
Y sin.
0.
y=X
These formulas may be readily investigated by drawing a figure 90 and and y A produced coincide, last, but letting A C, A 90, and then taking the original formulas (1) in art. 448.
like the
Y=
456. If in the above cases the origin is also changed, we must duce the quantities a, 6, c into the left side of the above equations.
iritro
Q2
228
THE SPHERE.
CHAPTER
VI.
known
/(r,
quantities x,
y, r)
?/,
0, or z
=f(x,
and
it
which relation is expressed by the symbol This equation is called the equation corresponds to all points of the surface, and to it
z,
and
y).
458. Conversely, an equation of the form/(r, y, z) where ,r, y, and z represent the coordinates of a point, refers to some surface. That it cannot belong to all the points in a solid may be thus shown. Let there be two equations /(r, y, 2) =r 0, and /' O, y, z) 0; giving to .r, y, and z the same values in both these equations, and then eliminating z, we have the equation to the intersection of the above loci (x y) 0, projected on the plane of cry: this equation is of the form and therefore it belongs to a line. Similarly the projections of the intersection on the other coordinate planes are lines ; but if the projections of a locus on three different planes are lines, the locus itself must be a line, Hence the intersection of the two loci of that is, it cannot be a surface.
,
and/'
(j?,
y, z)
being a
line,
to a surface.
459. Surfaces as well as lines are divided into orders, and for the same and to allow us to unite the important properties of generality and simplicity in our investigations as far Hence a plane which is the locus of a simple equation as possible. between three unknown quantities is called a surface of the first order ; the locus of an equation of two dimensions between three unknown quanThe length, tities is called a surface of the second order, and so on. rather than the difficulty of the mathematical operations, renders this part Hence we shall omit many of the investigations of the subject tedious. which merely require manual labour, and rather dwell upon what we consider the important steps. much more serious difficulty arises from the state of the figures we cannot give complete graphical illustrations of this part of geometry, and a mind unaccustomed to the conception of solid figures cannot always comprehend the meaning of the corresponding analytical results. We have endeavoured to obviate this difficulty as much as possihle by descriptions of what the figures intend to represent, and to these descriptions we beg the particular attention of our renders, for we are convinced that this part of geometry is by no means difficult, if attention be paid to the form of the body but without this care it is quite unintelligible. We commence with the discussion of the Sphere.
object, to avoid the confusion of ideas
THE SPHERE.
2W
THE SPHERE.
460.
To
the
let x, 7. be the y, coordinates of any point on the surface, and a, 6, c the corresponding Then since the surface is such that the discoordinates of the centre. tance of any point in it from the centre of the sphere is constant or equal to a line r, called the radius, we have by art. (388.)
Let
find the equation to the surface of a sphere. surface be referred to rectangular axes, and
(*a) +
2
(y
&) + (*c)
2
=r
2
.
will
to
the
in the plane of
xy
2
.*.
.*.
c
2
=
z
2
0,
z
O)
/.
+
8
(y
6)
=
r
2
.
r*.
=
a =.
and b
=
0,
x*
+2/
+ O c) =
.*.
=c=
And
this is the
463.
The general
equation to the surface of the sphere most generally used. equation upon expansion becomes
#2
a 4. z
by
 2bz
+^a~
r2
= 0.
may be
And
this
form
described as for the circle, art. 67. 464. The sections of a surface made by the coordinate planes are called the principal sections of the surface, and the boundaries of the principal sections are called the traces of the surface on the coordinate
planes.
The equation to a trace is determined by putting the ordinate perpendicular to the plane of the trace in the general equation. Thus, to find the curve in which the sphere cuts the plane of x y, put 2 0, and then we have the equation to the points where the plane and sphere meet, which in this case is
Hence the section on x y is a circle as long as x and y have real valuer And, similarly, the other traces are circles. The theorem that the intersection of any plane with a sphere is a circle. is best proved geometrically, as in Geometry, 6. v. 19.
465.
To
l l
Let x y Zi be the coordinates of the point on the surface through which the tangent plane passes, and let the equation to the spherical surface be
(x
a)*
+ +
(2/&)
n
(2
(z
c)
=r
2,)
s
;
is
*0
(y
 yO +
0.
to the
radius passing
(a b c
230
(z
20
y,
*i
is
since every line in the tangent plane, and therefore the plane itself, perpendicular to the radius at the point of tangence, we have from the
And
p
Hence
Zl
*!
becomes
or,
fo
a)
 xj +
s
(yi
6) (y
2/J
(^ 2
c) (2
 2l =
)
(#!) +
or,
(#!
(?/! 6)
6) (y t
(2
6)
c)
2
,
a) (ji
a)
(^
(2 t
c) (2!
c)
=
8
.
r*.
this equation,
)(*)
is
+
is
(y,
6) (y
 6) +
z Z
1
(*i
c) (2
c)
=r
to the
tangent plane
x
which equation
or,
,r>r
x'
f.
yy
=r
1
,
2
,
22
2 once obtained from that to the sphere xz 22 r8 y 2 x x y y\ and z z' for j? x, y y, and yy+22=:r by putting
is at
respectively.
The line in which the tangent plane cuts any coordinate plane is found by putting the ordinate perpendicular to that plane and the point in which the tangent plane cuts any axis is found by putting the two variables measured along the other axes each 0.
the
spherical
surface
referred
to
oblique
co
a)
)
(.r
perpendicular to the axis is a circle. Let A X, Y, A Z be the rectangular axes to which the cone is referred, having the origin at the vertex of the cone, and the axis of Z coincident with the axis of the cone.
section
QP
any
Let
N= A N= 2 NM = x
MP=yJ
THE CONE.
Then
the squares on
231
N M and M P ss
the square on
NP
21
andNP 
NQ= AN
tan.
CAB,
is
e =: tangent of the semiangle of the cone. 469. Let the line A C be a curve, as a parabola, for example, in which case the surface is called the common paraboloid.
where
Then
Let the equation to the generating parabola A Q C be Q */p z P =the square on N P the square on N Q, the squares on M,
.'.
a*
=p
z.
A C be an ellipse, centre and origin at B. N = z, N M = and M P = y, C B = b and B A = a. Then the squares on N M and M P = the square on N Q and N Q being an ordinate to the ellipse A Q C, whose semiaxes are a and 6, we
470. Let
Let
a?,
have
NQ=
and therefore the equation
Ja?z\
^
is
to the surface
or, of
z*
=6
Let a and 6 change places in the equation, we have then for the surface of revolution round the axis minor the equation
The former
spheroid.
surface
is
232
THE SPHEROID.
is
putting a for b and 6 for a, we have the surface by revolution round the conjugate axis. 472. In general the equation to all these surfaces may be comprehended under the form x* f y2 =/(z) if Z be the axis of revolution ; 2 be the axis of revolution. or, z* f y (.r) if
And
=f
AX
fluid the curve of intersection of a plane and a surface of revolution. 473. Let the section be made by a plane perpendicular to x z, and as the nature of the curve is the same in whatever part of the cutting plane we place the origin, we shall let the origin be in the plane x z. Then the formulas for transformation are
To
x = a y cos. d y= * z = c y sin.
f
f
0.
substitution in the equation to a surface, required curve of intersection. 474. Let the surface be a paraboloid
Hence by
we
shall
have the
:.
2
2
(a
j
cos.
Q)*\x*=p(c\y sin. 0)
since a cos. or, y (cos. 6) pc; p sin. 0) y hence the curve of intersection is a line of the second order. and a parabola similar It is an ellipse generally (76) a circle if
 x* f (2
=
;
90.
round
its
axis major
*2 by substitution
8
2
+y +
2
62
l^
'
this
equation becomes
8
{ (cos. 6>)
^(sin. 0)
+* + 2y
2
c ^ sin.
lC os.0}= 0.
This is the equation to an ellipse generally, and to a circle when 476. Let the surface be the hyperboloid, whose equation is
0=0.
be found to depend
is
on the value of
if
it
tan.
if tan.
is
is
than
the curve
an
is
ellipse
is
equal to
it is
the curve
parabola; and
a circle
if
if
tan 6
greater than
an hyperbola
and
lastly,
233
CHAPTER
VII.
THE
by*
is
ax*
the
2 g x f 2 h
2i
number 2 being prefixed to some of the terms merely for convenience. In order to discuss this equation, that is, to examine the nature and position of the surfaces which it represents, we shall render it more simple by
means of the transformation of coordinates.
Let the origin be
x
transferred by putting
= x' + m, yy' + n,
=z
+ p,
substituting these values in the general equation, and then putting the terms containing the first powers of the variables each 0, we have the
equation
ax'*
+
;
&2/
/2
f cz'*
2dx'y'
2ex'z'
+ 2fy'z' + ^=0.
f
,
z' This equation remains the same if we change x', y f z', into x', y thence we conclude that any straight line drawn through the respectively origin, and intercepted by the surface, will be divided into two equal parts at the origin this new origin therefore will be the centre of the surface,
,
attributing to this expression the same signification as of curves of the second order (81.)
we did
in treating
478.
The
values of m,
7?,
and p, are
to
equations
a?',
y',
z'.
Eliminate^ from the first and second of these equations, and also from the first and third, then from the two resulting equations eliminate n, and we shall arrive at an equation of the first order involving m, whence we have the value of m, and therefore of n and p.
values of
m, n and p
is
ab
and p are infinite, or the surhence, if this quantity face has no centre when there is this relation among the coefficients of the This circumstance corresponds to the case of the paraoriginal equation. bola in lines of the second order (81.)
479.
3/V,
bez
c d?
To
we must have
destroy the coefficients of the terms involving x y\ x' s/, and recourse to another transformation of coordinates.
234
Taking
(452) we have
l
y
z
r
rn 2
or 2
z"
m*
7n 2
fa z"
z"
Substituting in the general equation, and then putting the coefficients of n 0, we have the three equations z", and y" z , each
(aa
+ d/$ +
e) Wl
(da
+/) A +
+ fft + c =
c
..... arV'
= 0.
.y"z"
Our
transformation can always be now to ascertain to determine the possibility of the values of the six unif this
oe z, fa z (452.); y of the above three equations becomes
l
known
480.
quantities in the last three equations. The equations to the new axis of y" are x
first
(eot+ffi
c) z
0,
the equation to a plane passing through the origin. the coordinates of every point in this plane satisfy the condition that the coefficient of x" y" 0, that is, give the necessary relation ' between a v and fa ; hence, if (he new axis of y be drawn in this plane the condition is still satisfied. Thus, the direction of the axis of x" being
which
Now
above
1 quite arbitrary, that of y' is determined to be in the particular plane given and the term x" y" is gone. a similar elimination of or2 and /3 2 from the coefficient ofj/'", Again,
;
a a z, y fa 2), we have, from the if the axis of similarity of the equations, the same plane as before ; hence, z" be also drawn in this plane, the term x" z" will disappear. Also, 2 and fa being thus obtained, the relation between t and /8, may
0. be found from the coefficient of y" z" Thus, fixing upon any position of the axis of x"^ that is, giving any values to a and fa we have determined a plane passing through the origin, in which plane any two straight lines whatever drawn from the origin may be the axes of y'' and z", and one of them as z" being so drawn, or 2 and/8 2 is determined from the are given, and then the relation between a l and ' 0. coefficient of x y" But since the relation between these quantities a l and fa, and not the
1
&
quantities themselves, is given by the last equation, it appears that there are an infinite number of systems to which, if the axes be transferred, the
products of the variables may be destroyed. 481. Let the new axes be rectangular. In this case the axis of x" must be perpendicular to the plane of y" x", or the line whose equations are x ft z is perpendicular to the z, y
plane
/.
aafd/3f
e=
(e
f//3
{
c)
(426)
Substituting in the first of these equations the value of the second, we have the following equation for /3 :
or
obtained from
235
+ +
{ (a
{
 a) (c
 6)
(c
(c
 6) e +  6) d +
(2 <f
2 (2 c
/  e
2
/ 8
) e
rf
2 e* )
+ +
(2
c
(2 6
a a
 6)/d } /3 2
c)
/e
This equation of the third degree has at least one real value for /3, and hence a real value of or; thus the position of the axis of x" is found, and also the position of the perpendicular plane in which y" and z n are situated.
1 Again, we might find a plane x" z" perpendicular to y' , and such that the terms in x" y", y" z" should disappear, and the necessary conditions will, as appears from the similarity of the equations, lead to the same
equation of the third degree in (3^ and the same is true for the axis of z". Hence the three roots of the above equation of the third degree are the three real values of /3, fi v and /3 2 These three quantities give the three corresponding values of , t and 2 and since there are only one value of each quantity, it appears that there is only one system of rectangular axes to which the curve surface can be referred so as not to contain the products of the variables. For further information on this subject, see " Annales Math.'' ii. p. 144. 482. By the last transformation, the equation when the locus has a centre is reduced to the form
.
a^'t
or,
+ biyV' + c^'t+k^O
LcC2
The order of transformation might have been inverted, by first destroying the products of the variables exactly in every respect as in the last article, and then the resulting equation must be deprived of three terms by a simple change of the origin; the result, after both transformations,
is
L
483.
(1) (2)
<r
+ My +N
8
z9
+ Px =
0.
central equation involves three distinct cases, which on the signs of the quantities L, M, and N.
The
depend
They may be all positive. Two may be positive, and the third negative. and the other two negative. (3) One may be positive, They cannot be all negative.
Substituting for L,
where a
is
>
and
M >
respectively,
a2
__
6
s
_
c
2
"
The readiest way of obtaining the form of these surfaces is by sections either in planes parallel to the coordinate planes, or on the coordinate remark again, that in the latter case they are called the prinplanes.
We
THE ELLIPSOID.
THE ELLIPSOID.
484.
For
the trace
on x y,
=
=
0, /.
f
2
c3
r=
2,
0,
.'.
I
a*
ellipses.
Let
=m
xz
.*.
y*
f
y

is
a
]
m*
1
c

v=n.
x =. p
x z
is
of these equations is an ellipse from m, or z to c the curve becomes a point, and when z is greater than c the ellipse is imaginary, therefore the surface is limited in the direction of z. Similarly it may be proved, that the other sections are ellipses, and the From the circumstance of surface is limited in the directions of x and y. this surface being thus limited in every direction, and also from the above sections being all ellipses, Ihis surface is called the ellipsoid. The diameters 2 a, 26, 2 c of the principal sections are called the diameters of the ellipsoid, and their extremities are the vertices of the surface.
first
=c
The
;
when
If 6
xz
a, the
equation becomes
y
f
\ \
1,
which
is
the equa
by revolution round the axis of z. If any other two coefficients are equal, we have spheroids round the 6 other axes ; and if a c, the surface becomes a sphere. 485. To render the conception of this surface clear we subjoin a figure representing the eighth part of an ellipsoid.
tion to a spheroid
= =
7.
to that of z
* This equation belongs to the projection on x y, hut since the plane of x j> is parallel m,tbe projection is exactly the same in form as the curve of section itself.
IE
HYPERROLOID.
x
237
AB
is
AD
BD
and the section
yz,
Q PR
may
parallel to
xy
is
also an ellipse.
in
The
surface
C A B moving upwards parallel to itself with its centre N Q R be one position of this variable ellipse; and let C N = 2, C A = a, NR=
C Z.
;
Let
j? l
N M = x, M P = y,
Then from
the ellipse
C B
C
b,
c,
NQ
=^ y,
D =
Q P R we
have
D RA
H
2
i;
and
1
DQB
b
we have
c
j
ail
d TT H
== 1
x
Therefore
2
ti
i
first
equation by
~
j? 2
or its
equal
J,
we have
p
^r
b
= ^ =1 a*
r.
THE HYPERBOLOID.
486. Case
2.
The
^+fr =
on
^^=
( 2>
(2) and (1) is the equation to an ellipse whose axes are 2 a and 2 b 2c i (3) are hyperbolas with the same imaginary conjugate axis or 3; less than 6, z is imaginary. it\r is less than , Giving to 2, 7/, and j? the values m, ??, and jy, respectively, we have the
;
^_
hyperbolas. portion of the eighth part A B is the ellipse on x y, A the hyperbola on x x, and of this surface. B Q is the other hyperbola on y z. This surface may also be conceived
section parallel to
487.
238
THE HYPERBOLOID.
to be generated by a variable ellipse moving parallel to itself with it Let centre in C Z. Q be one position of this variable ellipse ; and le
N R
Z,
CAB
6,
N=
NM =
*,
M P rr y,
C A = 0, CB = C D = C,
N R r= ^ N Q = y,
Then from
the ellipse
PQ
R, we have
AR
1
and
B Q we
6
c
have
T" 2
1 1
* 2
anc* IF 2
2
<r
therefore
2/i*
j
i/
^
x
first
equation by
j
or
its
equal
we have
a2
6
2
This surface is called the hyperboloid of one sheet because it forms one continuous surface or sheet. b the surface becomes the common hyperboloid of revolution If a
axis.
line,
f
and substituting
in the
equation
 =:
Z*
^
1,
we have
hence
this line
tion is real
and
meets the surface as long as the denominator of the frac2 8 ac8 /3= O8 6, then the line only finite; let fc* c
THE HYPERBOLOID.
meets the surface
last
239
at an infinite distance, or is an asymptote to the surface. and /3, when the correequation gives the relation between sponding line is an asymptote ; and if for and (3 we substitute their gene
The
ral values
and
we
z,
whose locus
any point
in
it
have
asymptotes to the surface, because the coordinates of the required relation above.
6
8
The equation
to this surface is
c a*
or,
a2
c y*
a2
e2
b* z*
We
is
shall hereafter
is
whose vertex
an
ellipse.
show (art. 514.) that this is the equation to a cone the origin, and whose base, or section parallel to the axis,
489. Case 3.
The
(i)
on xz 9
a"
(2)
on
is
(3).
an hyperbola whose axes are 2 a and 2 6 V 1 00 is an hyper(1) is bola whose axes are 2 a and 2 c /v/_j (3) imaginary, therefore the plane of y z never meets the surface.
.
Of the
tion
is
xy
z is
an
ellipse,
whose equa
ic
2
"'
_
a2
x is less than db a; therefore, if two ellipse is imaginary, if p or a from the centre, no planes are drawn parallel to y z, and at distances part of the surface can be between these planes.
hence this
240
THE PARABOLOID.
figtire
represents the hyperbolic section on xy, and on x z E Q F R is an elliptic section parallel to y z. There is an equal and opposite sheet with its vertex at A' ; hence the surface is called the hyperboloid of two sheets. 490. The equation to the surface is deduced from the figure; let AMiz
In the
EAF
;
QAR
that
x,
M N = y, N P = *
=r
Then from
%19 M F = y, Q P F R we have
;
77 62
therefore
o2
"~
r a2
equation by

J;
y
or
its
equal
~,
we have

+
'*'
=^
"a 2
:=
S"?
~
~"tf
a.
491.
2s
j
0,
is
hence both in case (2) and (3) we have the conical asymptote by omitting the constant term in the equations.
let
x
Let the
coefficients
=m+
,r',
'
y
z'
f y', z
z f,
But
tities
m,
11,
p,
coefficients
deprived the one or two of the co efficients of JT, y\ or 2 9 ; this corresponds to the case in art. 92. Now, all three coefficients cannot 0, for then we fall upon the equation to a plane hence we have only two cases left, when a vanishes, or when a arid b both vanish. 493. Let a 0, then, as we have three quantities, m. n and p to deteras well as the coefficients of y' and z' ; hence mine, we may let k' =r the equation is reduced to the form
no centre, the values of some, or all the quanmust be infinite therefore, either one, two, or three of Ihe Thus the original transformation which a, 6, c, must rr: 0. equation of the terms xy, xz, and 3/2, has of itself destroyed
;
THE PARABOLOID
241
This equation has two varieties depending upon the signs of the quau
tities

and
2 1. Let the signs of/ and *'* be both alike and positive, (if were negative we should change the sign of x' to reduce the equation they
494. Case
to the
same form)
substituting
<r,
for
and
j
for
and supis
y and
a
For the
principal sections
on xy, y*
we have
.
Ix
(1) and (2) are parabolas extending on the side of x positive ; (3) is a point, which is the origin itself For the sections parallel to
(1) (2)
(3)
V*
/>,
.'.
p ^zxn*
(1)
(2)
yz, put x
(1)
= m,
(3)
to those of the principal sections respecequation differing by a constant term, implies that the origin is (3) is an ellipse. differently situated with regard to the curve) 495. In the figure and are parts of the parabolas on x y and x y, and the surface is described by the motion of the parabola A Q, R. Let P parallel to itself, its vertex moving along the parabola be one position of the generating parabola, and let A X, =y, then from the parabola or z, and draw R O parallel to A ;
tively, (the
:
AQ
AR
NP =
MN
=
M=
MN
RN
R P we
have
*
= R N = V (AM  A O)
/'
This surface
is
and
is
composed of one
496
Case
2.
be different.
242
THE PARABOLOID.
'
For
= Ix =  I'x on2/z,/y/* =
on xy, y z on xz, z*
2
we have
(I) (2)
(3)
(1) and (2) are parabolas, the first corresponding to x positive, and the second to x negative ; (3) belongs to two straight lines through the origin.
The
497.
is
parallel to
xy and xz
are parabolas,
and those
is the parabola on x z, and is that on xy\ and the surdescribed by the motion of the parabola Q parallel to itself, its R. Let vertex moving along the parabola P be one position of = xy the generating parabola, and let P z, and y, and then from the parabola draw ; Q we have parallel to
AQ
AR
face
MN
MN =
=V
A R N
R

= RN =
/'
(A
O  A M)
called the hyperbolic paraboloid. to the elliptic and hyperbolic paraboloids may be deduced from those of the ellipsoid and hyperboloid of one sheet, as the equation to the parabola was deduced from that to the ellipse (228) by supposing the centre to be infinitely distant.
is
This surface
498.
The equations
for x,
Let the origin be transferred to a vertex of the surface, by putting x then the equation to the ellipsoid and hyperboloid is
and m' be the distances of the vertex from the foci Let on x y and x z ; 2 /. b* s= a  (a 2 a m  m2 ra)
or the sections
and
therefore,
c8
2 am'
m"*
= =
or
0,
rfc 
2x
2 m'
= 0, when a
is infinite.
And hence
and hyperboloid
will
be
making
THE PARABOLOID.
stated in article 492, that both a and b might vanish 499. case the equation will be
243
;
We
in this
cz*+'2gx{ 2hy
2iz
+k=
0.
And
by the transformation in art. 492, we cannot destroy the coefficients of x and y, but we may destroy that of 2, and also the constant term k ; hence the transformed equation is reduced to the form
2gx
=
may be
The
Ix
if
~=
+ 2hy =
0;
/,and/',
500. There are two cases depending on the signs of I and both positive, or one positive and the other negative. Case I. / and V both positive.
section
which
(1) (2) is (3) B ; (2) is a para(1) is a straight line bola A Q ; (3) is also a parabola, not in the sections on the planes the figure in each parallel to the above are similar case. The surface is formed by the motion
I'
on xy on xz on y z
is
Ix
2 2
is
= Ix = Vy
=
of the parabola A Q parallel to itself, its vertex describing the straight line ; letRPNbe one position of the generating
AR
parabola
let
A M=,r, M N=y, NP = z,
=
Since this surface
classed
^y
+ se\ =
Vy
Ix.
is a cylinder with a parabolic base, it is not usually the surfaces of the second order. Case 2. If the signs of / and /' be different, the surface will be th same, but situated in a different manner.
among
CHAPTER
VIII.
accustomed, in common geometry, to consider a cylinder as a surface generated by a straight line, which is carried round the circumference of a given circle, and always parallel to a given straight line. (Geom. b w 2
244
But it is evident that if the base be not a circle, but any other def. 1.) curve, as a parabola, for instance, we shall have a surface partaking of (he essential cylindrical character, and which, with others of the same kind, come under a more extended definition ; and similarly for conical and
many
other surfaces.
lines
are
this general character, method of generation, or law compelled to move, the next step is to express
this fact in algebraical language; that is, to obtain an equation between coordinates x, y, and z, of any point on the surface, which equation shall belong to the class of surfaces in the first instance, and then can be adapted to any particular surface in that class.
THE PLANE.
502. In order to prepare the reader for this subject, we shall take a the motion of a straight simple case: to find the surface generated by a given straight line, parallel to itself, and constrained to pass through
line.
Let
A X, A
Y,
AZ
B C
be rectangular axes, and let the equations to the (supposed for the sake of simplicity to be in the
Y +pZ= = X
1\
Of
Also,
let
Q,
in
any one of
its
posi
tions, be
a y
= az + = /3* +
a\
bf
Now,
a and /3 are the tangents of the angles which the projections of P Q make with the axes A and A Y respectively ; and in the motion of P Q, parallel to itself, the projections also remain parallel to themselves respecand are always constant, and therefore are known tively ; and hence
or
But a and 6 being the coordinates of the point meets the plane of a: y, they change with every change of position and therefore, being variable, must not appear in the final equation to the surface. Now, these variable quantities, a and 6, can be expressed in terms of the other variable quantities x,y, z; and hence we can thus estimate them from the two given systems above. At the point P, where P Q meets B C, we have, by comparison of (1) ind (2),
given quantities.
line
where the
PQ of P Q;
ON CYLINDRICAL SURFACES.
845
X =x =
But
is
X, Y, Z;
therefore, by sub
stitution in (1),
we have
and
relation
connecting a and b together, or expressing the which the variable quantities a and 6 have to each other, or the that is, relation which any quantities equal to a and 6 have to each other z, and y (3 z from (2), we substituting for a and 6 the quantities x shall have the relation between the quantities x, y, and 2, which is called
this is the equation
;
1;
which is the equation to a plane and this is the most general method of determining the equation to a plane ; for it can be thus found for any system of coordinate axes, and it is determined from the most obvious character of the plane. We now proceed to the discussion of surfaces formed by the motion of a straight line constrained to move after some given law or condition.
;
ON CYLINDRICAL SURFACES.
503. Definition.
which moves
given curve.
cylindrical surface is generated by a straight line, parallel to itself in space, and describes, with its extremity, a
The
curve
is
straight line which moves is called the Generatrix called the Directrix.
its
To
positions,
be
or
a
b
y=j3z +
Now,
the generatrix, in its movement, always moving parallel to itself; the quantities and [3 remain the same for every position of the generatrix ; but the quantities a and 6, which are the coordinates of the point where the generatrix meets the plane of x y, are constant for the same position of the generatrix, but vary when the generatrix passes from one Thus, when any point on the surface changes its position to another.
position without quitting the generatrix, a and 6 are both constant ; and when the point moves from one position of the generatrix to another, a and 6 are both variable ; hence these two quantities, being constant together, and variable together, must be dependent on each other in some way or another; which general dependence is expressed by saying that one of them is a function of the other
246
ON CYLINDRICAL SURFACES.
/.
<J)
(a)
or,
we have
oc
y
which
is
/3
(x
),
the general equation to cylindrical surfaces. 504. The form of the function will depend upon the nature of the directrix in any particular case.
to the directrix
be
F
Then
(X, Y, Z,) ,)
,)
= =
01
0/
as the generatrix must in all its positions meet the directrix, the equations to this curve and to the generatrix must exist simultaneously for the points of intersection ; thus having four equations we may eliminate a,*, y, 2, and arrive at an equation between er, 6, and constant quantities, which will determine the form of the function <j>. Substituting in this equation for a and b their values x a z, y flz, we have the actual equation to the particular cylinder required. 505. Ex. 1. Let the directrix be the circle B Q C, in the plane of x y, and let x l and y be the coordinates of its centre ; then the equations to the directrix are
l
Let
Z = B D, Q R, C
r2 l
YZftttfa
to express that the generatrix meets
must
exist together
Z= X =

=
=
a
we have
(b
(a
Substituting in
xtf
y,Y
=
z
(3)
is
(x
 *z
xtf
(y
ft
y,)
r*
This
the equation to an oblique cylinder, with circular base, situated in the plane of x y. 506. Let the centre of the circle be at the origin,
is
.*.
And
if
r ft z? (y the origin be at the extremity of a diameter parallel to the axis of x, 8 2 r (x  <* *) ft z) (x  a *)' (y
/.
(,r
:=
a z?
and y
then a and
ft
ON CYLINDRICAL SURFACES.

'247
the angles which the projection each 0, since they are the tangents of of the generatrix on x z and y z make with A Z ; 1
/.
and
if
Crj^'+Cyyi) ^? A Z, x* H~ y' = r z
2
in these cases the cylinder is called a right cylinder, same as that of the directrix.
and
its
equation
is
the
z,
r\
t
508. Let the directrix be a parabola on a y vertex at the origin, and ajds coincident with the axis of x. Then the equations to the directrix arid generatrix are
Y Z
= pXl
=0
az + =/3* +
fll
p. 
6/
we have
z
a?
X= = Y=2/ =
then by substituting in (I)
..
Z =
=
a
6;
we have
b*
 3 *) a *) p (,r (y which is the equation to an oblique parabolic cylinder, whose base is on xy. 509. Let the directrix be a parabola on x z, axis A X, and vertex at A and let the generatrix be parallel to the plane x y.
;
= pa =
The equations
are
p Y^O/
Then
Z*
X)
zb
is
+ *x =
See
article (499).
#.
is 510. Definition. the movement of a straight line, which passes constantly through a given point, and also describes a given curve.
The given point is called the centre of the surface, the straight line which moves is called the generatrix, and the given curve is called the directrix.
Let
,
&, c,
generatrix are
x y
a
6
= =
a
/3
(z
c)
c).
Now when a point on the surface changes its position without quitting the generatrix, the quantities a, /3 are constant, but when the point passes from one generatrix to another, they are both variable ; hence being constant together, and variable together, they are functions of one another ; /. j3 (a), or substituting their equals,
y
jr
b
c
fx
1
a\
~
)
which
is
to conical surfaces
248
ON CONICAL SURFACES.
511. The form of the function $ will depend upon the nature of the any particular case. By combining the equations to the generatrix and directrix we may, as for cylindrical surfaces, eliminate <*, y, z, in a particular case, and thus arrive at an equation between a and /3, which will determine the form of
directrix in
the function
^>.
we
z c z obtain the actual equation to the particular conical surface. 512. Ex. Let the directrix be a circle B Q C in the plane of x y. The equations to this directrix are
x
/3
a
an(j
~
c
their values
(X  xtf
(Y
y,)
And
point
E, or
Q E
E
x
y
(0, 6,
c), are
a
b
= =
a (2
13
(z
c)
cj
W
,~v
To express
circle,
the
that the generatrix meets the equations (1) and (2) must
coexist.
/.
Z=
z
,r
X=
ft
hence by substitution
(a Putting for
in (1)
we have
 jc^
(6
 yj* = H
(3)
a and
their values
This
is the equation to an oblique cone with a circular base situated plane of x y. o and y l o Lei the centre of the circle be at the origin .*. x l
in
the
/.
(a z
X?
(6 z
 cyY
r 2 (z
c)
.'.
513. Let the axis of the cone be parallel to the axis of z becomes 3h, and the general equation
=x
and
>*\
z
Iii this
c
J
circle,
case the cone is called a right cone. Also, if in this case the origin be at the centre of the o and 6 0,
we have
5 1 4. Directrix an ellipse on x y, whose centre is the origin, and the centre of the cone in the axis of*; then the equation to the cone is
y>
(,
ON CONICAL SURFACES.
or putting
z,
249
for
c that
is,
simple case, the equation to the surface is easily found by the (468). Taking the figure in that article, and supposing every section, like P Q, to be an ellipse, whose axes #! and y t are always proportional to the axes a and b of an ellipse whose centre is in A Z, and
this
In
method
in article
at a distance c
to
PQ
.*+^ + yS
~
but
y,
=
*
#!,
and
^
c8
a
zs
e
z
a
axis of
~~
'
515. Let the directrix be a parabola parallel to x y, and vertex in the The equations to the directrix and generatrix are z.
.
Z =
at the points
*y
d
we have
&
= =
(*fi
(z
c)l
e)f
of junction
equation
is
516. Let the vertex or centre of the cone be at the origin .'. a = 6 c o, and the equation to a cone whose directrix is { y* = p xt z d } and whose vertex is at the origin, is d y* = p x z. 517. The following method of finding the equation to a right cone whose
= =
vertex
is at the origin, is sometimes useful. Let the length of the axis of the cone be k, and suppose this axis to pass through the origin, and be perpendicular to a given plane or base whose equation therefore will be of the form
where
a,
/6,
axis
of,r, y,
andz
(410).
Also suppose x t y, and z to be the coordinates of a point on the circumand let Q be the angle which the generatrix of the cone makes with its axis, then by the property of the rightangle triangle we have the equation
ference of this base,
= ^ G* + f +
2
**) cos.
Hence by equating
(a X
the values of
ft
y z?
(*
+ f f
z 2 ) (cos. 0)8
250
ON CON01DAL SURFACES.
this is the
equation to any point in the surface, since a, /3, y remain for a plane parallel to the base and passing through any point (JT y 2) of the surface. If the axis of the cone coincides with the axis of z, we have a o ft
the
And
same
and
y=l;
z~
= =
(x*
z*) (cos. 0)
518. To find the curve of intersection of a plane and an oblique cone, we may suppose the cutting plane to pass through the origin of coordi
Substituting
for x, y, z, in the equation, their values in 455, we readily find that the sections are lines of the second order and their varieties.
ON CONOIDAL SURFACES.
surface is generated by the movement of a straight line constantly parallel to a plane, one extremity of the line moving along a given straight line, the other describing a given curve.
519. Definition.
A conoidal
We
shall
case.
the generatrix be parallel to the plane of equations to the generatrix in any one position are
directrix,
and
a x
b
Now
a point moves on the surface without quitting the generatrix, a and 6 are both constant, but when it passes from one position of the generatrix to another a and 6 are both variable ; hence these quantities, being constant together and variable together, are functions of
it is
evident that
when
one another.
.*.6
which
520.
is
The form
directrix.
the general equation to all conoidal surfaces. of the function ^ will depend upon the nature of the
second
By combining
we must
, and
the equations to the generatrix and this directrix, we , x, y, z, and arrive at an equation between b and
we
in the axis
521. Let the second directrix be a circle parallel to y *, and the centre of X, therefore the equations to this directrix are
Z*
Y* ==
X =
(1)
(
the
Z= * =6 X =x = a Y =: y = a a
^MKSI
'
'
ON CONOIDAL SURFACES.
Hence
the required equation
*
is
251
a8
8 /05 r
This surface partaking of the form and generation of both the cone and the wedge, was called the conocuneus by Wallis, who investigated many of its properties, If the axis of ,rbe one directrix, and the other be a circle parallel to x z,
parallel to
z,
the equation
is
let
522. Let the axis of z be one directrix, any straight line the other, and the generatrix move parallel to x y.
Then
X = pZ + m Y s= v Z + n
Also the equations to the generatrix being the points of junction
x, z
b,
we have
at
Z = Y=
z = 6 y= v b +
=
.'.
p.
b f
m
fJ
(v z
n)
in
o.
or
v z x
pzy{nx
my
523. Let the axis of z be one directrix, and let the second directrix be the thread of a screw whose axis is coincident with the axis of z. The thread of a screw, or the curve called the helix, is formed by a thread wrapped round the surface of a right cylinder, so as always to make the same angle with the axis; or if the base of a rightangled triangle coincide with the base of the cylinder, and the triangle be wrapped round the cylinder, the hypothenuse will form the helix A P. To find the equations to the helix, Let the centre of the cylindrical base be the origin of rectangular axes. a. C z and the radius of the cylinder #, Q y,
M=
A
PQ =
Then P Q
and
is
PQ = eAQ A Q is a circular
:
arc
whose sine ~
y and radius a
.'.
==.
sin.
or z
e
j?
V a x
1
cos.
also
a aa
252
ON CONOIDAL SURFACES.
described by a be parallel to the base of the cylinder, that it passes through the axis, and that it follows the course of the helix. The equations to the directrix (if c be the interval between two threads)
it
And these are the equations to the projections of the helix. To return to the problem, which is to find the surface
are
z
sin.
y a
And
y
'.
=
y
oc
x, z
we have
= v* 
y"
a a
is
ea
y
sin.
f
This surface
is
many
spiral staircases.
524. straight line passes through two straight lines whose equations b ; and x a lt z are x 61 ; and also through a given #, y curve z /(y) in the plane of z y ; to find the equation to the surface traced out by the straight line. The three directrices are
= =
Y
And
let
Z
y Q
= 6j'
ft
X=
= =
+ m + n
if
and consequently y
+ p,
ft
m;
the following
^
Then
we have
,
equations
b
Q = Za+p,
m m __=/(_ /J+)
these equations,
We must now
generatrix.
eliminate a, 6,
m, n from
and
that to the
By
y
subtraction
6
we have
a)
;
(x
(z
6,)
.".
=
bx ay.
or
a
m/3_
a
or
(yy8z)j6 a
is
(xz) _
q t z __ ai ~ a
t
<xy
px
a
__
ft
x_
Hence
x
*
/ 6 j(b f\
x
x
ay\ ay
a
ON CONOIDAL SURFACES.
525.
253
The following problem is easily solved in the same manner. find the equation to a surface formed by a straight line moving in two given curves parallel to the plane of x 2, and having its extremities
To
z
= / (y)
on
z y,
is
and x
^ (y) on x y.
The equation
TT^
/(</) 526. In questions of this kind some care is requisite in selecting the position of the axes and coordinate planes, so that the equations, both those given and those to be found, may present themselves in the simto find the surface formed by the motion of For example, plest form. a straight line constantly passing through three other given straight lines; Take three lines parallel to the given lines for the axes of coordinates ; then the equations to the three directrices are
X=
Z=
+
a.)
0J
Z +
8*.
 a a
f
b.
Then
we have
c3
the following
equations
&!
=
;
at
cs
68
(3
We
a, 6, a, /3
the generatrix
by subtraction (x
we have
a%
y 
6j
=

oO
= =
a (z 
c8)
63
(2
ca)
hence, eliminating a and /6, we have the required equation  c.) cs) 68) (3 6) (z (x ,) (y (j? ,) (y which is of the second order, since the term x y z disappears. Hymers's Anal. Geom. p. 23, Cambridge, 1830.
See
CHAPTER
IX.
point
by
double curvature. 528. Curves of double curvature arise from the intersection of two surfaces ; for example, place one foot of a pair of compasses on a cylindrical surface, let the other in revolving constantly touch the surface, it will describe a curve of double curvature, which, though not a circle, has yet all
254
its
The points at equal distances from the fixed foot of the compasses. is then part of a spherical surface, whose radius is equal to the distance between the feet of the compasses, and consequently is the intersection of
curve
this sphere with the cylinder. 529. The equations to the two surfaces
fro
their intersection,
double curvature.
By the separate elimination of the variables in the two equations, we obtain the respective projections of the curve upon the coordinate planes. Two of these are sufficient to define the curve of double curvature ; for we may pass two cylinders through two projections of the curve, at right angles to each other, and to the co ordinate planes, the intersection of these This is analogous to the consideration of cylinders is the required curve. a straight line, being the intersection of two planes. proceed to examine curves of double curvature arising from the intersections of surfaces. 530. Let the curve arise from the intersection of a sphere and right cylinder; the origin of coordinates being at the centre of the sphere, the axis of the cylinder in the plane x z and parallel to the axis of z.
We
Let the distance between the centres of the sphere and cylinder r, then the equation to the sphere is X1 4 jy f z 8 s= a8 and the equation 8 to the cylinder is (JP &*, (507.) e) if
255
as
z
{ c
8
62
2
2 c x (1),
q: 2 c
eliminating
,r,
6
,r
^6
2
7/
(2).
Fiom
is
whose vertex
C, where
AC
y
#2
_..
C2
a portion of a parabola
8
.
BC
59
and
A B =r ^az
whose
^_ c
From
z consists of
z,
two
ovals,
positions are
AD ~
Jo?
2
(b
c)
AE = +
As
c increases, that
^/a
(6
c)
is, as the cylinder further from A, decreases, and the ovals approach nearer to each other, as a in fig. (1) when c 6, that is, when
A
'
moves
AE
the
sphere but just encloses the cylinder E == 0, and the ovals meet, fig. (2). As c increases, we obtain fig. (3), which gradually approaches fig. (4) ; and lastly, when c a vanishes
r\
entirely.
Different values, as
:
c,
&c.,
offer
may be given
no
to b,
trace the projections they difficulty, investigation, as the complete examination of tates the comprehension of all others.
531. Ex. 2. right cone and a paraboloid of revolution have their vertices coincident, the axis of the cone being perpendicular to the axis of
the paraboloid.
The
boloid,
9 8 2 c 2*, (468) and that to the paraequation to the cone is x y 2 *2 = p x (469) ; hence the projection on x z is x* p x y
+
2
+
c
(1
ee)
which
is
P
8
(157).
256
x
is
A
an
ellipse,
(1
e )
^ = *p*is
*;
whose vertex
and axes
and ~
(103).
2
e **) p * ; fp y equation to the projection on y z is (y the equation to a Lemniscata, and becomes the Lemniscata ot Ber1, that is, when the cone is rightangled (314). nouiili, when e 532. To find the curve of intersection of two surfaces, we have eliminated the variables separately, and thus obtained the equations to the these last projections on the coordinate planes ; conversely, by combining so as to have an equaequations either by addition or multiplication, &c., tion between the three variables, we may obtain the surface on which the This surface does not at all curve of double curvature may be described. define the curve of double curvature ; since an infinite number of curves be traced on this individual surface, to all of which the general equathis
is
The
may
tion to the surface belongs. The results of the above combination are often interesting. For Let the curve be the intersection of a parabolic cylinder on :
ex
ample
x y,
circle
z, the origin being the vertex of the parabola, being in the axis of the parabola, which is also
Let y8
(.r
px
2 ap.
is
a +p, whose centre is at a distance A G X. Now, p is the subnormal C G to the point along P of the parabola, P C being the ordinate at C (242) ; hence all the points of the curve of double curvature are on the surface of a sphere whose centre is at the extremity of the subnormal of a point in the parabola, the ordinate of which point passes through the centre of the given circle. 533. The intersections of surfaces are not always curves of double curWe proceed, then, to show how vature, but often they are plane curves. plane curves may be detected, and their equations determined. Whenever we obtain a straight line for a projection, the curve cannot be one of double curvature. Ex. Let the curve be the intersection of two parabolic cylinders, whose
Which
measured from
equations are
x*
=
r
a z
straight
straight
by=x*.
Eliminating x, we have
line
;
ax, hence the projection on y z is a by and as no projection of a cun e of doublo curvature can be a
line, it
follows that the curve of intersection is a plane curve. 534. Aa;ain, If we can so combine the equations to the projections as to produce the general equation to a plane, the curve, which is necessarily For example: let the curve traced on that plane, is itself a plane curve.
257
=
a
j?
+
for
c x.
r we
2
,
obtain
x;
which equation belonging to a plane, the curve is a plane curve. 535. There is another and more general method of detecting plane curves. From the two equations to the surfaces eliminate one ot' the variables, as z, for example, we obtain an equation F (x, y) 0. Now, if the curve be plane, it may arise from the intersection of either m x f n y \ p of the surfaces with a plane whose equation is z eliminate z between this equation to the plane and that to one of the surfaces, the result is/* (cT,t/) =r 0, which must be identical with F {x, y) ;
0, with /(#, y} 0, we may obtain y) various equations to determine m, ft, and jo; which values of m, 71, and /? must satisfy all the equations in which these quantities appear; if not, the curve is one of double curvature. For example ; take the intersection of a sphere and cylinder, art. 530.
therefore,
comparing F
(x,
The equation
to the
f
=mx =
 c) 2
+
f
f
z*
= =6
(1)
2
n y
+p
(2) (3)
Eliminating z between (1) and (3), we have/(,c, y) a 2 n r y + 2 m p x + 2 npy + p*a* (7n +l) a* + (n 4l) y*+2 (4) from the coefficients of 0, n Comparing (2) and (4), we have
m=
x 2 and y'2 but the condition of ra destroys the coefficient of a? in (4) ; and thereby shows that (4) cannot be made identical with (2). The curve
;
is
therefore a curve of double curvature. But let the equation to the cylinder be
.r
and n
f
8 z y =r 6
then
is
m
is
==
a plane
clear,
a?
69
this
536.
To
by the equations
z
These equations, taken separately, belong to two one with the base in x z, and the other in y linders
;
z.
is
centre being at
TU
or
bola on
z,
its
centre being at B.
a
Also,
=
O
b
,
b
x.
the projection of the intersecabove cylinders on x y is a Q, and therefore the straight line curve is a plane curve, situated in the plane Z Q, perpendicular to x y
tion of the
Hence
258
537. As we cannot have a very clear notion of the curve itself, merely from the idea of the two hyperbolic cylinders, we shall find the equation to the O Q ; that is, in its own plane. curve in the plane Let P be any point in the curve O z. #, Q y, P Q Then, in order to find the relation between O Q (= u) and Q P (=. z),
M=
we
OM
and
ON
in
in the
given
=r
0,
tan.
(if
=
sin. 0.
tan. 0),
M = O Q cos.
X
1
and
1
ON
=OQ
U
COS.
Hence
the equation
=
Z
becomes becomes
  = z
j
sin.
\
 =
z
1.
Since b a tan. 0, or b cos. 6 a sin. 0, these two equations are the game, and either of them belongs to the required curve ; hence the curve is an hyperbola, whose equation referred to its centre is
cos.
=.. 9
sin.
(209)
538.
To
Let/<>, y)
be two of
its
0,
and< (x *)
0,
projections.
APQ
R,
0.
Y,
obtain a corresponding value Pofy ; from 0, we can also obtain a corresponding value of z. From P (<r, z) of z ; then S is a draw P S perpendicular to x y, and equal to this value point in the curve. By repeating this process we may obtain any number of points S T U, &c., in the curve.
For any
value of x, as
M, we
It is evident, that if any value given to x or y renders z imaginary, no part of the curve can be constructed corresponding to such values of* or y. Also, that if z be negative, P S must be drawn below the plane x y.
Let the curve arise from the intersection of a parabolic 539. Ex. 1. to cylinder on x y, and a circular cylinder on y z, the axes perpendicular each other ; and the vertex of the parabola together with the centre of the circle at the origin of coordinates.
259
Let y 2
=
.*.
a x be the equation
to the parabola
circle
DA D
D',
2 * y f z
Let
A B ~
a x
~
a,
E B,
%.
a2
is
a parabola on x
let
a,
A C
and
the ordinate
r= a.
To
we have
*
If
j?
= *= y = r= 0, y = 0, and 2 =
,
cc,
.*.
as x in
creases,
y increases, and z diminishes When x = y == a, and 2 = 0, therefore the curve decreases in altitude from B down to meet the parabola in D. This gives the dotted branch BD.
a,
is
But
since z
it
\/ a
(a
x) there
;
is
x between o and a hence there is another branch, equal B D, but below the plane x y. This is represented by
is
is
Again, since when y is negative, the values of z do not change, there another arc, B D' B', represented by the double dotted line, which
exactly similar to
B D
B'.
is
D'
r composed of four parts, B D, D B', B D , and and described upon the surface of the paraD A D'. These branches form altogether a that of an ellipse, of which the plane is bent to coin
a 2 , be the 540. Ex. 2. Let the circle, whose equation is x* f y* projection of the curve of double curvature on x y ; and the curve, of which 8 the equation is a 2 i/ 2 ^= a 2 z* * 2 , be the projection on y z t to trace z/ the curve.
S 2
Let B
circle
=a
then
* is
a:
a2
a*.
=
=
and y
C If or a, z 0, y infinity, therefore the vertical line C L through an asymptote to the curve. Asx increases, y decreases, and z decreases, therefore the curve approaches the plane of x y. Ifx o, a, y o, * therefore the curve passes through B. If x is greater than a, y and 2 are each impossible, therefore no part of the curve is beyond B for any value of y there are two of 2, therefore for the values of y in the quadrant A C B, there are two equal and opposite branches, L B, B L'.
is
B A C';
B, B K/, for the quadrant Similarly there are two other equal branches, and as the same values of y and z recur for x negative, there are
four other branches equal and opposite to those already drawn, which correspond to the semicircle C B' C', and which proceed from B'. These two examples are taken from Clairaut's Treatise on Curves of Double Curvature ; a work containing numerous examples and many excellent remarks on this subject.
AGNESI.
BIOT.
Analytical Institutions.
Trans.
London, 1801.
Paris, 1813.
Paris, 1810.
BOURCHARLAT.
BOURDON.
CLAIRAUT.
Application de i'Algebre a la Geometric. Paris, 1825. Recherches sur les Courbes i double Courbure. Paris, 1731.
Introduction a 1'Analyse des Lignes Courbes.
CRAMER.
GARNIER.
FRANCCEUR.
Trans.
Geometric Analytique.
Paris, 1813.
Usage de 1'Analyse de Descartes. Paris, 1740. HAMILTON. Principles of Analytical Geometry. Cambridge, 1826.
GUA.
HAMILTON.
HYMERS.
LACROIX.
Treatise on Analytical
Analytical System of Conic Sections. Cambridge, 1830. Geometry of three Dimensions. Cambridge, 1830.
Paris, 1810.
LARDNER.
System of Algebraical Geometry. London, 1823. LEFEBVRE DE FOURCY. Lemons de Ge'ometrie Analytique. Paris, 1827.
MONGE.
Paris, 1809.
tertii
NEWTON.
PEACOCK.
PUISSANT.
Arithmetica
Universalis.
Enumeratio linearum
ordinis.
Vol.
Horsley, ed.
London, 1779. Examples on the Differential and Integral Calculus. Recueil de Propositions de Geometric. Paris, 1824.
Traite d' Application de I'Algebre Lineae
tertii
$.
Cambridge, 1820.
REYNAUD.
STIRLING.
la
Geometric.
Paris, 1819.
ordinis Newtonianae.
London, 1717.
The Elements
YOUNG.
of Curves.
Oxford, 1828.
London,
830.
Analytical Geometry.
Nismes.
Correspondance sur PEcole Polytechnique. Journal fur die reine und angewandte Mathematic, von A. L. CKELLK.
Berlin.
ERRATA.
=
y'
Page
7, line 1, read
Let
\Ts
= V2 +
*
1.
In the
CD
40
2,
unit,
then
A B, B C, AD =
and
read
=
r*
y'
Vl +
r*
40
3, for
read.
110.... 24,
for e
read
6
.
c.
tan.
V
o
read
V
o
114.
123.
+ m S = P, read a/ + m = S P.
column
7, insert c.
a,
read 3 a 2 .
Ix
cos.
l\x
+ cos. /y
cos.
l\
y.
=(y
(x
 *0 +
c read *,
yi)
=r
and
249, line
1.
if
A Z, x* + y* = r, *
c.
= 0;
for r
and
for c read
Art. 352.
=a
Art. 353
=x
B
Art.
353
the
letter
A Y.
Art. 355 y
~x
Art. 363.
The
USHA'sy
PASC