You are on page 1of 15

.

.

.

http://www.php?project=Roombeek 1 . Oct 22. The challenge of the program was the urban and architectural development with new image but with big closure to the inhabitants. Roombeck Urban Plan. 2000.net/pub/proceedings/korea/full-papers/session20/lohmann. 10:30 2 Paul A. a fireworks warehouse exploded in Roombeek area of Enschede affecting 43 hectares of living area. Enschede: is there a life after disaster?.mimoa.enschede-stad. New Technology for a New Century International Conference.htm.G. Oct 22. http://www. 2011. Urban Planner: Pi de Bruijn Client: Projectbureau Wederopbouw1 Year: 2004 . public space Key participants: Municipality and the community 2 History On May 13. 11:27 3 Project: Roombeek Informatie http://www. office.2008 Land use type: housing. Enschede City Size: 43 hectares Architect.nl/projecten. Lohmann.BACKGROUND Location: Roombeek area. 2011.fig.eu/projects/Netherlands/Enschede/Roombeek%20Urban%20Plan. The effects of the explosion were catastrophic for the city of Enschede: The municipality had to start a proprietary program to reconstruct the area in order to support the living needs of the inhabitants without a home. 2001.3 1 Mi Modern Architecture.

23:14 2 . Architectuurcentrum Twente. A bi importance had the architect Pi de Bruijn.com. Verslag van de activiteiten die het Architectuurcentrum Twente in de periode van april 2001 tot en met februari 2004 organiseerde over de Wederopbouw van Roombeek te Enschede. born in Losser. Joost Cannegieter . Paul of Youth. The nature of the team and the nature of the land The program was started by organising a team for planning the reconstruction of the neighbourhood. creating a home for the community. The owner of the land was in majority the municipality.architectuurcentrumtwente. www.4 The project was executed by professional practitioners in the construction domain from different construction and architecture companies. The origins of the leading architect were important for the special approach of the new urban development: working with community. artist and assistants. Oct 22. moreover the municipality buy several plots left without houses. artist Paul Hajenius and assistant Studium Peter Carpenter . The plan was managed by the Reconstruction Project Office settled next to Roombeek area. Oct 22.pdf. urbanist Ypkje Grimm. 2011. coordinated by Peter van Roosmaleninator. Knowing the people and how to communicate with them is very important in creating space for their own living at quality standards. urbanits. The team is form by architects. 2011 4 Architects Harry Abels.The roles of the landscape architect and other professionals The key participants were the Municipality who took the engagement of rebuilding the area and the community who was open to collaboration for reconstructing their own neighbourhood. The architects have built new architecture valuing authentic architecture reminiscence of the space. Source: Wederopbouw Roombeek. The selected members are part in program of the Architecture Centre Twente. Site of Enschede Fireworks Disaster. not far from Enschede.nl/pdf/eindverslagWederopbouwRoombeek. http://www. For the half of the houses and lands owners the project was developed through private commissioning.wikimapia. Pi de Bruijn had the sufficient closure with the people and sufficient skills of organizing an accurate new image of the neighbourhood.

the economical approach of regeneration aimed to create an affordable space integrating strategies for local business development. Purpose of urban regeneration The necessity of regeneration was obvious in order to restore the neighbourhood with catastrophic landscape. Mobility refers to the networks within the city that reflects society. Oct 22. Politically. By involving them in the development of the project the new developed landscape had to have a meaning for the users of the space. The first critics were related about the lack of safety in positioning a fireworks warehouse in the middle on a living area. Urban comfort integrates built environment. However. Particularly. the blame has to be thrown on someone. people daily migration and ways of transport determine mobility of the users. The impact of the events leaded to a well controlled new development in which the key participants were the citizens.nl/68%20Roombeek%20wint%20EURPA. Therefore the neighbourhood needed to be reconstructed offering living facilities but also a meaningful landscape for the inhabitants. All urban environment aspects are related to the usage of people. either if they are inhabitants or passengers. The central point of the investigations and site visit were related to the government but not only regarding the responsibility of producing such a disaster but also to learn a lesson that should never have to be experienced again. Embedding in context Enschede is one of the biggest cities in the East of the Netherlands. mobility and comfort. The concept or regeneration aims to rebuild the area focusing on the convergence of social. Thirdly. green infrastructure and the efficiency of living facilities. within all there the safety is probably the most important aspect of urban environment related to its usage. The actors of this disaster were public and private. The urban accessibility refers to external connections with the surroundings thorough infrastructure and visibility but it also refers to internal conditions of affordability and usage. 5 Gireon Consult. A certain importance within the mobility has also the efficiency and connection between different types of public spaces and types of usage.DEVELOPMENT Urban environment Todays` continuous urban expansion and density define urban environment through the connection of three different elements of urban evolution: accessibility. economic and environmental issues. However responsible were both the Firework Company for insufficient safety and the local government for inadequate policies permitting the location of functions as dangerous materials storage inside a living area. social settings needed to serve to the emotional comfort of the people.5 Since the events in 2000 the safety has increase its importance in urban environment. Political process The Enschede Firework disaster had an enormous physic impact over the city with and a big awareness in the whole country. the events were localised in a living area. The prior concerns were to rebuild the area and to make the people trust again in a safe living inside the neighbourhood.pdf. therefore more important than accusing the responsible was to help the society to move on. The challenge of political process was to make the people trust in government and also to trust the safety of the new development. Both indoor and outdoor space define consumable spaces. 01:25 3 . Roombeek`s urban plan of reconstruction was realised through the closure between people and space. http://www. Firstly. The disaster affected directly more than one thousand people and indirectly the whole country. 2011. being a good example of community involvement in the urban regeneration project. environmental cause was served by bringing quality of the new created spaces and vitality in the new landscape through urban planning and architecture. Secondly.gideonconsult.

6 Moreover. circulation infrastructure and green infrastructure.Decision making process and budget for implementation The Echsnede new development was an important problem not only as local issue but national image problem. Ashgate Publishing.net/pub/proceedings/korea/full-papers/session20/lohmann. The goal was achieved. J. Enschede: is there a life after disaster?. The overall plan was made in collaboration with the inhabitants of the affected area. Thus. Erik Braun. http://www. the inhabitants were completely compensated for their lost.fig.G. National policy responses to urban challenges in Europe. 6 Leo van den Berg. 19:48 4 . Decision making process has to have two major objectives: social and economic restructuring. The design of the new houses and public spaces had to suit the general plan agreed with the community. the project succeeded to create new landscapes valuing history of the place. Involving the community was a successful method of increasing the trust of the inhabitants in the rebuilt area but also in the government. Moreover.htm. The municipality was the principal actor in decision making project. Oct 22. therefore the importance of the new development was directly connected with the city management. but also they rebuilt the neighbourhood. The completed assignment of the project aim to create not only housing facilities. 7 Design process and method The Roombeek project aimed to give the possibility to return to all the inhabitants that used to live in the area. Therefore. Community involvement did not stopped to door to door debates. Lohmann. The ecological goal was achieved through the development of quality public spaces. as the president on European Commission in 2000 that showed deep empathy with the people of Enschede. Therefore the impact was analysed by professional practitioner from different domains in order to establish a strong base of new development. therefore through urban regeneration the project nor only rebuilt the neighbourhood but it offers vitality to the space.p 28 7 Paul A. The founding for the development project was guaranteed by Dutch urban initiative for urban renewal and through National Urban Policy of channelling the urban flows. therefore an overall plan was made for rebuilding an accessible area for inhabitants and future inhabitants. 2001. The social goal was to bring the people back to the area witch succeeded completely through locating a big number of housing. but it also was involved in building new houses. the most viable rebuilding solution and the most economically feasible implementation. therefore their involvement lead to a special appreciation and meaning of the space. Therefore the three pillars of sustainability were the base of setting the key goals of the project. cultural and commercial activities. 2007 . Therefore the decisions within the project had to establish the best team. and the success was given also through increasing the number of the inhabitants more than initial. European Commission was directly involved in consultancy of rebuilding the infrastructure and to re-launch the economic activities in the affected area. The case importance was perfected on European level. The decisions were influenced by important people that were interested by the case. Oh aesthetical level. New Technology for a New Century International Conference. van der Meer. developing different areas within the city. but also places for working. the industrial heritage is preserved and the place has strong connection with the surroundings both on network and aesthetical and level. 2011. land-owners had to build new houses with an architecture integrated in the overall plan. a founding for the new development was acquiescent by the founding programme of transnational cooperation Interreg. However they received all needed help for rebuilding from consultancy to finance. Key Goals Achievement The aim of the project was to rebuild the neighbourhood on a superior level of comfort and durability. The living facilities goal and safety were also achieved contributing to living comfort of the people.

The communication with the surroundings is well served through circulations and also on visual level. the area became a central point offering all needed features for living. Functional Aspect Roombeek offers educational and cultural facilities. Different social classes live now in the area and the comfort of the space does not differentiate them. The quality of public space serves well for the working purposes of networks. the project achieved the functional purpose of creating a vivid space. The aesthetic features are a mix between old and new and follow the history of the place in its development periods. After the reconstruction. 5 . The cultural – historical elements and various design of new architecture are highlighting different types of atmosphere. and the architecture follows the variety of elements as open façades or planted front yards. but on the context of the city. moreover they add value to the space. RESULTING LANDSCAPES How the project looks like and how it works The project is now integrated into the city. converting the reminiscence of industrial buildings to new attraction points within the neighbourhood. The space has its own identity within the context of attracting city for its inhabitants. The aesthetics of the sire after rebuilding the neighbourhood is attractive for the old residents of the area but it also attracts new inhabitants.AESTHETIC AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECT Aesthetic Aspect The design solutions applied were related not only particularly to the site. the industrial elements were kept. Therefore. Before the disaster the area had a mix of industrial and traditional architecture. Large open spaces extend their atmosphere between the buildings. but integrated into a readable landscape. working and spending free time. The networks of public spaces serve all ages and offers different opportunities of spending time. for developers but also for tourists. setting up opportunities for businesses. The goals of serving the community through residential areas. mobility and accessibility to and within the site. The connections between open space and the buildings make the area accessible physic and visual. On functional level. creating educational and cultural centres have been translated into form increasing the making the site attractive not only through function but also through aspect. The memory of the place is kept through the industrial buildings as land-marks. Orientation and aesthetical characteristics of the neighbourhood raise a high level of positive perception of the space both as inhabitant and as a passenger.

People and space seem to be completely recovered in the new neighbourhood. The space is welcoming and invites the passenger to explore. However is also has attraction for economic development as local business area commercial activities. However. therefore the place is used by all social layers. Large open space gives the feeling of safety. Educational and cultural activities attract not only the inhabitants form the neighbourhood but also from the surroundings. within the project. How the project feels Enschede area is far from the atmosphere of a catastrophic event. indifferent of incomes age and sex. but the fireworks disaster is reminded only on the memorial. it feels like a living painting of a modern city. for mobility and access into the site. Different atmospheres within the neighbourhood make the people explore the new. not only houses. The close connection between the neighbourhood areas unify the place and create a story. more than the old. The industrial buildings integrated through new houses bring the memory of the past. but also strengthening the community. The only missing feature of public activities is sports. The community is well served by the project and people that use the space are attached to it though its history and through their involvement in project development. Those who are willing to practice sport have done it in other areas of the city. Therefore.How is the space used The place is mainly used as living area. an integrated space does not have to offer all the possibilities of spending spare time within it. The project reached its goal to support the society. The project had a big social impact building not only a new neighbourhood. Public spaces are used for social activities. Enschede is not anymore defined by the fireworks disaster. 6 . the architects build homes for the community. It is a modern story with old characters that ask to be discovered. in order to encourage the mobility between different areas of the city. and the high level of maintenance increase the comfort and the pleasure of exploring the place.

8 Lesson learned Roombewk area had a big impact over the inhabitants but not over the city itself. all there for a successful achievement of the project purposes. Though the lost caused by the disaster was enormous. The networks at the city level are well connected with the area. For the new inhabitants of the space though. where often tight open areas are placed in the back of the buildings. being accessible and affordable for all social categories. the neighbourhood is now more viable and more attractive for inhabitants and developers. The area was born again through urban development project. As integrated part of the image of the city. The management and efficiency of the project was alimented by the awareness and the opportunity of founding for calamities situation. integrated though in the urban network. Also the careful maintenance of public space keeps the importance of quality and comfort of outdoor spaces. It is a modern complete landscape through its social and environmental layers. However on a large scale the proportions of large areas are contrasting the image of the living areas. 8 Pictures annexed 7 . Site-specific lessons learned are related to the disaster that leaded to a better and faster urban development in the area. Roombeek area has now the characteristics of the city of Enschede as being lively. it has now a series of connected landscapes offering a completely new image to the site. There are a big number of areas that aim to gather the people. Therefore people might be forced to travel for working. with the risk of forgetting history and creating a mix of communities unrelated to the area on emotional level. The fire disaster has killed the life within the site. but the focus is more on the children playgrounds. Public life integrates also the cultural and leisure opportunities. Though it had a different life before. less than mature inhabitants as I noticed from the low number of urban furniture. but nevertheless the community shows solidarity and deep involvement within in the project. However the authenticity of the neighbourhood is more represented though its history rather that its image(s). but soon after the neighbourhood was born again from its own reminiscences. As a professional user a noted the attention to details in the area as art objects and different textures combination within the landscape. Experiencing the landscape Roombeek area have not got a landscape. modern and innovative. the completely new landscape reminds less about the disaster that caused this major change of the neighbourhood. On functional level. Educational and cultural facilities are important for the comfort of living in the area as the quality of public space.EVALUATION Differentiation between the design and the execution As an urban area the impact over the city is for long term. serving not only the inhabitants within the neighbourhood but also the inhabitants from the surroundings. contributing in the movement of population regarding working places and sport activities. contributing on general mobility and encouraging the people to use public space for spare time. Roombeek area represents a land mark district. As user of the space I appreciate the comfort of living and the experience on the neighbourhood though it’s different atmospheres. but having its own paths and nodes. The purpose of the project was to bring life and meaning to the space. the concern over housing increased the importance of living and recreational activities but decreased the importance of working places. Neighbourhood as image of the city The area is integrated into the character of the city though its variety of spaces and architectural elements. However Enschede is a city that uses new and old layers in a dynamic development to a modern centre of the East. Moreover people can easily travel distances to other parts of the city for entertainment facilities and working places. the rebirth of the neighbourhood brought plenty of vitality and better life quality for the inhabitants.

1960 Articles 3. Oct 22. The Netherlands. Kevin Lynch.net/pub/proceedings/korea/fullpapers/session20/lohmann.2009.net/cultural-identities-enschede-the-netherlands. http://peterderuijter. Erik Braun. Oct 22. Oct 23. Planum Magazine. http://www. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 5. Oct 22. Cultural Identities: Enschede (The Netherlands) http://www. 2011. Project # 2 : Roombeek. Enschede: is there a life after disaster?. http://www.fig. 2011 19:20 9. MIT Press. Roombeck Urban Plan. doi:10. Lohmann. Architectuurcentrum Twente.com/pb/journal/v5/n3/full/pb200910a. 11:27 4.10. www. City of Enschede.gideonconsult. Oct 22. 23:15 7. Oct 22.fig. 2011.pdf. Leo van den Berg. 2011.nl/projecten. 2011. 20:20 Websites 5. Ashgate Publishing. 226-233. 13:30 11.mimoa.com. J.nl/. 13:48 12. Mi Modern Architecture. New technology for a new Century International Conference 2001.palgrave-journals. Wikimapia. Paul A. 2007 2. Oct 9.htm.enschedestad. 2011. National policy responses to urban challenges in Europe. Oct 9. van der Meer.1057/pb. http://www.G. 2011.weebly. 10:40 8 . http://esntwente. Enschede. http://www. The image of the city. August 2009. Ecopolis Reinterpreted.LIST OF SOURCES Literature 1. Wederopbouw Roombeek.eu/projects/Netherlands/Enschede/Roombeek%20Urban%20Plan.architectuurcentrumtwente.htm . Urry and city marketing: Taking advantage of the city as a built and graphic image.html.pdf. New Technology for a New Century International Conference.com/ar0083-mpe-roombeek-enschede. Lynch. 2011. 2011. 2011. 01:25 10.planum. 2001. Oct 9. 23:14 8. 13:49 13. Project: Roombeek Informatie http://www. 10:30 6. Oct 22.wikimapia. http://www. Gireon Consult. http://www.php?project=Roombeek Oct 18.nl/pdf/eindverslagWederopbouwRoombeek.html .net/pub/proceedings/korea/fullpapers/session20/lohmann.nl/68%20Roombeek%20wint%20EURPA. International Federation od Surveyors. 2011.