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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class Joshua Rosenberg April 22nd, 2010, EDUC 496, University of North Carolina Asheville

Presentation slides for the UNCA Spring 2010 Research Symposium are available at www.studydesigned.com/educ496

The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

Abstract Previous research has shown that the practice of keeping a journal in an academic setting denotes many benefits. However, insufficient research has been conducted into whether journals are effective in science classrooms. Journals were stored in-class and were utilized by the students in 2 10th grade Biology science classes each day in a High School in Buncombe County, North Carolina. The goal of the study was to determine whether the allotment of time at the beginning of each class period results in increases in comprehension and test scores of the students. The content of the journals varied from prompts that activated prior knowledge, to personal reflection on topics related to the current work of the students. I utilized 3 metrics to determine whether the study achieved its goals: my assessment of the journals of students; students' own assessment of their journals and the practice of journaling; and before and after scores on student examinations. Results of the study indicate that the self-reported interest levels of students has increased as well as the quality of student journals by the teacher assessment. These results bolster my efforts to utilize journals in future science classes, and to encourage my peers to consider their use.

The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

I like thinking of new ways to engage students. From diminutive to revolutionary new methods, I am motivated to continually improve my teaching techniques. I began during my undergraduate studies to consider allocating time for the use of a daily journal by students in my classes. Journaling is a daily ritual, that helps provide context to challenging science subjects. A journal can metamorphose into whatever the writer wishes: it may be quiet, boastful, and funny. It is a space for students to make science personal. I described my thoughts about using journals in science classes to my cooperating teacher, Michael Beaver, at a small, rural high school in Western North Carolina. My cooperating teacher thought that journals were a great idea. The objectives I had in mind for journals fit some personal goals that he had for the students in his classes. For example, my cooperating teacher stated that the grades of his students were of primary concern. He said that his students were largely engaged, energetic, and fun to teach, but that grades and test scores were lagging his expectations. Five years ago my cooperating teacher began to use daily quizzes approximately every other day. These quizzes covered material from the previous days class, from homework, and from the textbook. He was unsure of his success; sometimes he found them helpful, other times he found they ate up valuable time. Mr. Beaver liked the idea of journals because they can include daily quizzes; instead of beginning with a quiz, classes could begin with a variety of journal prompts, of which quizzes would play a supporting role. My cooperating teacher and I both believed that daily journals would achieve the same goals that the daily quizzes formerly held. These goals were to review material, challenge students to prepare, and to engage students at the beginning of class.

The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

My research will investigate the relationship between the daily use of journals in a North Carolina public high school's classroom, and causal improvements in comprehension and test scores. It is my goal that journals lead to substantive improvement in student's test scores both on the end of course exams as well as in-class tests. I anticipated the desired improvement in student's scores comes not as a result of teaching the test, but by true progress in comprehension, interest, and motivation levels. The daily journal can become a thread that brings continuity to the experience of students in my classes. Past research on educational assessment, improving test scores by increasing comprehension, and the use of daily journals is abundant. However, the intent of researchers into the use of daily journals has primarily focused on impacting motivation levels and reflectiveness. Research in the area of improving test scores by improving comprehension is extremely limited; this fact makes my topic both pertinent to Mr. Beaver's goals as well as possibly useful for other educators. My research will fit the needs of the school improvement plan (SIP) that is presently in effect. Owen High School's SIP is composed of 12 objectives followed by five specific goals. The goals are to offer opportunities for faculty to collaborate; support teachers in creating a more effective environment for learning; integrate technology into the curriculum; offer a dynamic curriculum to support students into the 21st century; and to increase project-based lessons and encourage problem solving and group work. My work will support the work of the staff and faculty of the school in offering a dynamic curriculum, encouraging critical thinking, and increasing project-based learning by way of activities that begin or end in the daily journals of students.

The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

Review of Literature I have focused my literature review on three areas of past work: the broadest concept of assessment in schools, the improvement of test scores through increasing learner comprehension, and the use of daily journals in classrooms and beyond. The body of research supports the notion that the use of daily journals will increase test scores and improve comprehension. I will summarize past scholarship, and draw connections to my research into journaling. The area of educational assessment is rich with previous studies. The area of improving test scores by way of improvements in comprehension is also rich with previous scholarship. Minbashian (2004) describes the ways in which short essays may be approached by both teachers and students; her work has been useful in shaping my conceptions about how to design tests that go beyond multiple-choice and essay-based. Hargreaves (2002) and Watt (2009) describe the far-from uniform opinions on how to make assessment more effective for teachers, schools and communities alike. Hargreaves interviewed teachers to determine how assessment differs in their schools. From these interviews, he concludes that four factors can be altered: technological, cultural, political, and postmodern viewpoints on assessment. These factors need be kept in mind as I design my own assessment resources, as well as when I determine students' improvement as a result of their use of journals. Watt simply concluded after researching teachers in Australia that their current assessment techniques are successful; the teachers and administrators are content with traditional methods, like multiple choice exams in literature, and the simple working of problems for mathematics. If I am using an improper mode of assessment it may be that my implementation of journals has no measurable differences with regards to assessment, despite its other benefits.

The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

Klasses (2006) work gave me context for examining assessment in light of its history. Until the 1970s assessment was predicated upon the ability to decontextualize knowledge. Thus, hardand-fast questions with one correct response were standard. This began to change as educators view assessment more as a function of understanding individuals relationship with the material he or she encounters. The most important transition from the former to current styles of assessment is a focus on context. In a science classroom this results in techniques like concept mapping, or portfolio assessment. This modern focus correlates well with my use of the daily journal not only for quizzes but for short answers and reflection; my students journals are portfolios. Research on improving comprehension through the use of daily journals is relatively abundant. The intent of researchers into the use of daily journals has focused on areas other than improving comprehension such as impacting motivation and reflection. The area of improving test scores, by way of increased comprehension through daily journals is comparatively limited; this is the prescient area of my research. Giovannelli (2003) and Kreber (2005) have explored how a reflective disposition both affects the comprehension of students in classrooms both atlarge and specifically science classrooms. Giovannelli determined that across all subjects the ability of students to reflect on learned material leads to better organized teachers with higher expectations of students. Focusing solely on science teachers, Kreber found the former results to be true, and additionally determined that reflective science teachers are better able to relate with students needs. This research is helpful in bridging my cognitive divide between journaling as a self-sustaining, enjoyable activity, and journaling as a tangible and important step in the learning process. Turning to students, Carr's (1997) research found that the use of a constructivist

The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

approach in the design of a class improves students reflectiveness. A constructive approach is defined by the author as one in which students themselves build the requisite knowledge of a subject. The author designed his college Astronomy class so students investigated each concept anew, before input from the author; constructivism through the eyes of Carr is similar to the inquiry-based approach taught by my instructors in my education methods coursework. In accord with my research, the improvements in reflectiveness should correlate with improvements in comprehension and test scores. The work of Bangert-Drowns (2004) into writing-to-learn is helpful for the authors clear description of writing-to-learn and it's role in improving comprehension. I used Writing-to-learn techniques in the development of student journal formats. Ryans (2004) research into journaling at a secondary school in Australia is similar to my research; Ryan used Reflective Dialogue Journals to assist students' understanding into the nature of science. Ryan first explains the importance of the nature of science to understanding the concepts of science; without knowing how and why science works as it does, the student cannot place concepts into their correct context. He defines his Reflective Dialogue Journals as tripartite: the reflective component is an intentional recall of material; the dialogue is an investigation into the context and factors that compose material, and the journal is the sustained writing of journal entries. Ryan found that students were more engaged with the course material because of a deeper understanding of science. His conclusions offers insight into how reflective journaling should be used by teachers struggling to communicate with students and specifically as a technique for assisting marginalized, struggling individuals. Another useful piece of scholarship is Samsa's (1994) work into incorporating writing and the teaching of writing skills

The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

in a most writing-unfavorable course, Statistics. Samsa figured that since individuals encounter statistics first and frequently through writing, such as through mass media, students studying statistics should begin by communicating simple statistical findings in clear and concise prose. Since the author was able to integrate writing into a Mathematics-based course easily, I do not forsee struggle in the integration of journals into Biology coursework. Cheung (2004) demonstrates that teachers have mixed notions of how their subject affects students lives outside of their classrooms. The author found that as teachers and students time together increase, teachers are more concerned about the practical applications of what their students learn. Moreover, Cheung found that the implementation of a school-wide assessment plan lessened teachers own anxiety about the design of their own assessment materials. This research speaks in favor of journaling for two reasons. Alternative assessment techniques can lessen the anxiety of teachers about assessing their students from only one direction, like the teacher with solely essay-based exams. And journaling is a reflective process that allows students to explore the material taught by the teacher from different perspective, such as from occupational or personal perspectives. Moore (1986) has written an extensive collection of articles that regard learning science-course material distinct from the comprehension of different subjects; he proposes that science is so encompassing and unique that the study of science requires new ways of thinking, studying, and assessing. These techniques include alternate assessment and reflective activities that support my implementation of journaling. Samuelowicz (2002) describes the various ways that the educational establishment views assessment; there is far from a consensus within the academic community despite the political and educational communities pointed emphasis on testing. For example, many administrators

The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

wish there were alternate forms of assessment beyond end-of-course-exams that would determine whether students benefited and gained knowledge from a course. With the support of past research, my research weaves together past findings as support for the notion that daily journals can lead to marked improvements in the comprehension of Biology, and the scores in end-of-course and in class exams. This work is conducted in a manner that fits the needs of Mr. Beaver's classes and the school improvement plan, and answers a question of true personal interest. The success of my research will lead to implementation of journaling in my future classroom. The study will take place in a standard 10th grade science classroom at a high school in Buncombe County, North Carolina. The sixteen students effectively represent the demographics of the area surrounding the school. One of the students in my research is an African-American; two students are Hispanic; three students have an Individual Educational Plan (IEP), which we accommodate with grades on a ten-point scale, and, by having these students exams read-aloud by a peer tutor. The sex demographic is skewed male: there are ten males and six females in my research. There are no English as Second Language (ESL) learners in this class. Finally, the socioeconomic status of the students in these classes reflects the surrounding area of the school. Abject poverty is not typically present, but the students are from lower middle class to middle class socioeconomic backgrounds. The students are engaged and generally interested in the subject matter, and show respect to each other and to myself. Methods There are three metrics in my research that I will use to determine the success of daily journals: student self-assessment, teacher assessment, and changes in test scores. The student

The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

self-assessment (Figure 1) will be conducted using a questionnaire ten-point Likert scale, where students are asked to rank their agreement with a statement with a number from one to ten; this questionnaire will include ten questions. The teacher assessment will be a simple assessment of the quality and quantity of student journal responses. This will be recorded as a percentage. Again, both of these metrics will be used two times throughout the study; in the beginning, and at the conclusion of my time with the classes. Finally, a test will be given at the end of the first and fifth weeks: the class mean will be determined, and a change in that mean will determine whether test scores improve. The format of my daily journals will include writing prompts, mini-quizzes, audio and visual presentations, and test review materials like diagrams and flow-charts. In preparation for the journal activity at the start of each day, I will prepare the prompt and my own response in a teacher journal. Rubric #1 is utilized to assess students' work ethic, interest level, and motivation; while Rubric #2 is be utilized by students own self-assessment of their journals. Changes in work ethic, interest level and motivation brought to our attention by the teacheranalysis using Rubric #1 will demonstrate the efficacy of daily journals. Changes in students self-assessment indicated by the pre and post use of Rubric #2 will paint a clearer picture of how journals can be presented to students in an appealing manner and whether to continuing daily journaling increases the desire to reflect and study. The study will begin when I begin phase III of student teaching, and will correspond with students beginning to use daily journals on Monday, February 22nd. The study will conclude when phase III is over on Thursday, April 1st, for a six-week period for my study. Each metrics will be used at the end of the first and fifth weeks of the study. Students will take the self-

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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

assessment during these weeks, will be issued a unit test, and their journals will be collected for the teacher assessment. The data will be collected from the three sources of student exam scores, my assessment of students' journals, and students' self assessment of their journals. The data will be analyzed after the conclusion of my student teaching throughout early April. During this time I will compile the data that I have collected, and assess the effectiveness of journals on test scores and comprehension by comparing the work of the students. For example, if students demonstrate higher levels of work ethic, level of interest, and motivation with regards to their daily journals at the conclusion of their study compared to the beginning phases, that will indicate that daily journals are an effective tool to use in the classroom. In contrast, if test scores steadily decrease throughout the period of my study and the use of daily journals, that factor would hint that daily journals do not increase test scores and comprehension. I will weigh the three metrics of test scores, my assessment, and students' assessment, and form a conclusion about the effectiveness of daily journals. Finally, I will compare the changes in exam scores between the two Biology classes using the class mean for each set of exam scores. I will then compare the two qualitative metrics anecdotally. Results Two of the three data sources indicate that daily journals positively impact comprehension and test scores in my high school biology class. Students responded using a 10 point Likert scale to the following statements: I like to keep a journal (Table 1), Journaling is a technique I recommend to peers (Table 2), and I like getting feedback on my journal (Table 3). Student responses were higher on the post-test for all three questions, and were on average 1.1

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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

points higher. Teacher assessment scores (Table 4) increased by 15% for the quality metric, and by 38% for the quantity metric. Test scores (Table 5) were the sole metric which did not suggest success: the mean test score was 13% lower at the end of the study period, compared to the beginning test. I believe this result is a misleading anomaly which I will explain in the Discussion section. Looking more in depth into student self-assessment responses I saw encouraging data. Students reported (Table 1) that they liked journaling an average of 1.4 points more at the conclusion of the study than at the beginning. Moreover, students also reported (Table 2 and Table 3) notable increases when asked if they would recommend journaling to a peer, and that they liked to receive feedback on their journals. The data that I collected for the teacher assessment metric suggests broad improvements in students journals. This encouraging data was offset by the negative correlation between test scores and the use of journals. I recorded observational notes and results that are independent of the three metrics I have used to record data. I found that students highly anticipated using their journals; students early to class usually asked not that we would do in class, but about the topic for their journals. Students took pride in their journals. For example, students wrote on the cover of the notebook in which they kept their journals, Biology Rocks or Joshs Journal is the Best. Discussion My research question was: can daily journals increase student comprehension and test scores? Journaling was overall a success. I can answer affirmatively to the former part, and inconclusively to the latter part of my research question. Increases in student comprehension

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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

were demonstrated by the improvements in student journals' quality and length. A number of important, subjective observations demonstrate the success of journals in my class to an extent equal to or greater than the success shown through the data I collected. For example, the connections that I made with students through feedback in their journals was invaluable. Journals felt right in my classroom. They suited my teaching style and the learning styles of my students well. The results suggest that journals were successful and that students did benefit from their use. Student self-assessment data (Tables 1, 2 and 3) suggested broad-based improvement in students' opinions of and attitudes about journaling. The responses of students increased by 1.1 points on a 10 point Likert scale. This suggests that the change in student attitude was neither negligible nor due to confounding factors, but is a statistically significant improvement. Looking deeper into the data, I found that student responses were highly correlated in the before and after surveys. The increase in the class mean response was not due to a few student's wildly changing opinion, but was due to small improvements in a large number of my students. This supports my assessment that the data suggests broad-based improvements in students' attitudes and opinions. The data for each individual question from the student self-assessment (Tables 1, 2, and 3) suggests to me that I put additional time and energy into providing feedback for student journals. Of the three questions, that which asked of students how much they appreciated feedback (Figure 3) showed both the lowest mean score and gross score on the post-study responses. This indicates that not only did student attitude about feedback increase by the smallest amount, student's had a less positive attitude toward the feedback they were receiving, compared to the other facets of the student's experience with journals. Since I chose to look at
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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

the change in the mean for the student responses, additional research could focus attention on student's overall opinions of journaling. Although the 1.1 point mean increase in the student selfassessment data indicates a successful implementation of journals, the final mean was just above 5.0, which indicates a neutral attitude. It is my goal for my future use of journals to achieve a higher level of student satisfaction with journals, with more positive student responses. Teacher assessment data (Table 4) suggested that journals greatly increased in quality and quantity. I attribute this to how well my classes and students adapted to the implementation of journals. My class had a difficult time the first week with new journals. Students did not all bring in a notebook on time, so we had to begin with sheets of paper stapled together. Some students finished very quickly by scribbling short, one or two sentence responses, while others wrote laboriously for ten or more minutes. When reviewing student journals after the first week, I read some student journals with just one or two word responses. This led me to emphasize that students needed to take a full five minutes to write a cogent, thoughtful response. By the conclusion of my study, student responses were longer and of higher quality than at the beginning. Students learned that I expected a lot from them, and they met the challenge, turning in work that they were proud of in the second half of the period of my study. Test score data (Table 5) suggested that journaling was not successful. I believe that the decrease in test scores is not indicative of any failure on the part of journals, but is anomalous due to increases in the difficulty of the content material on the tests. The material that the initial test covered was the Ecology chapter. Many students were familiar with this material from Middle School classes, or Earth Science classes taken in High School. Moreover, much of Ecology is easily relatable to student's everyday life. The material covered by the second test

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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

was the Chemistry of Life chapter; this chapter covers the atom and subatomic particles, and is new and challenging to students. I believe that the negative thirteen percent change in the mean test score between the before and after tests is due to the increase in difficulty and the decrease in student mastery of the material covered on the second test. It is interesting that for the data which supported the goals of my study I celebrated the fact and drew connections to broader themes in my student teaching experience. When the data did not support the goals of my study, I found a reasonable explanation for why these data points are not as significant as the others. This bias leads me to believe that the design of my study was not flexible enough to allow for different interpretations of the results; and that allowing for changes in test scores, which can be attributed to many factors, would directly impact my use of daily journals. In designing this study again, I would suggest that changes in test scores occupy a lesser importance to the researcher, or that the changes in test scores are controlled for the difficulty of the test material, the levels of students' prior knowledge of the material, and any confounding factor that allows a researcher to discredit the test scores data in favor of other results. A diverse group of students responded well to journaling activities. Males and females responded equally well to keeping a journal. I was not able to statistically nor subjectively determine differences between the Caucasian, Hispanic, and African-American students in my study. I was able to emphasize positive reinforcement for students that were struggling with challenging material, and this included my student's with learning disabilities. Again quantitative and qualitative the results of my research were neutral, though I observed positive effects in attitude and motivation. One of the most profound experiences during my student
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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

teaching was with a student who initially struggled in my class. This male, Hispanic student struggled in class, but wrote detailed and high-quality journal responses. I wrote a lengthy response in his journal, and noticed the day that journals were returned that his his attention and focus were better in class. For the following weeks this student transformed from unfocused into an active, interested participant in class. I attribute part of his change to the dialogue we began in his daily journal. I learned from him that small efforts at positive reinforcement can lead to profound changes in my students. I learned about research into daily journals, how to design a study for my classroom, and how to assess student learning and to collect and analyze data. However, the most important lesson learned from my experience conducting research during my professional year is that I can implement and make a success a new technique successful. I learned that with a positive attitude almost any technique can be helpful. That my students initially struggled with journals and later found success is a joy to me as a young teacher. Due to the data-backed and experiential success of my study, I recommend that other science teachers work with journals. Journals connote many benefits for teachers and students with a modicum of effort and expense. References Bangert-Drowns, R. (2004). The Effects of School-Based Writing-to-Learn Interventions on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research 74(1), 29-58. Carr, K. A Constructivist Approach To Reflective Judgment and Science Literacy in Introductory College Science Instruction. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Northern Rocky Mountain Educational Research Association. 15th, Jackson, WY, October 3, 1997.

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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

Retrieved from: http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ ERICServlet accno=ED414179 Cheung, D. (2004). How science teachers' concerns about school-based assessment of practical work vary with time: the Hong Kong experience. Research in Science and Technical Education 22(2), 153-169. Giovannelli, M. (2003). Relationship Between Reflective Disposition Toward Teaching And Effective Teaching. The Journal of Educational Research. 96(5), 293-309. Hargreaves, A. (2002). Perspectives of Alternate Assessment Reform. American Educational Research Journal 39.1 : 69-95. Klasses, S. (2006). Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy. Science Education 90(5), 820-851. Kreber, C. (2005). Relationship between reflective disposition toward teaching and effective teaching: Focus on science instructors. Higher Education 50(2), 323-359. Minbashian, A. (2004). Approaches to Studying and Academic Performance in Short-Essay Exams. Higher Education. 47(2), 161-176. Moore, J. (1986). Science As A Way Of Knowing. American Zoologist 26(3), 583-747. Roeber, E. (1999). Emerging Student Assessment Systems for School Reform. ERIC Digest Publications. Retrieved from http://www.counseling.org/Resources/ LibraryERIC %20Digests/95-11.pdf

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Ryan, R. Reflective Science: An Exploration of the Uses of Reflective Dialogue Journal Writing in Secondary Science Classrooms. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Australian Association for Research in Education. Sydney, Australia, December 4-7, 2000. Samsa, G. (1994). Integrating Scientific Writing into a Statistics Curriculum: A Course in Statistically Based Scientific Writing. The American Statistician 48(2), 117-119. Samuelowicz, K. (2002). Identifying Academics' Orientations to Assessment Practice. Higher Education 43(2), 173-201. Stefanou, C. (2003). Effects of Classroom Assessment on Student Motivation in FifthGrade Science. The Journal of Educational Research 96(3), 152-162. Watt, H. (2009). Attitudes To The Use Of Alternative Assessment Methods in Mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics 58(1), 21-44.

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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

Tables Table 1 Student like journaling First SelfAssessment #1 Mean Median High Low 3.9 4 9 1 Second SelfAssessment #1 5.3 6 10 1

Difference 1.4 2 1 0

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Table 2 Students recommend journaling to peers First SelfAssessment #1 Mean Median High Low 4.8 5 9 1 Second SelfAssessment #1 5.5 6 10 1

Difference 0.7 1 1 0.7

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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

Table 3 Student opinion of feedback First SelfAssessment #1 Mean Median High Low 3.9 3.9 10 10 Second SelfAssessment #1 4.7 5 10 10

Difference 0.8 2 0.8 0.8

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Table 4 Teacher assessment of journal quality and quantity Teacher Assessment #1 Quality Quantity 64% 50% Teacher Assessment #2 79% 88%

Difference 15% 38%

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Table 5 Change in test scores between Test #1 and Test #2

Test #1 Mean Median High Low 77% 78% 93% 62%

Test #2 64% 68% 92% 20%

Difference -13% -10% -1% -42%

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Figures Figure 1 Student self-opinion of journaling This questionnairre uses a 10-point Likert Scale. A circle around a "10" indicates complete agreement with the statement. A circle around a "1" indicates complete disagreement with the statement. A circle around a "5" indicates a neutral opinion with the statement. Please circle whatever number best fits your opinion of the statement. 1. I like to keep a journal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2. Journaling helps me to remember important topics in my life 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3. Journaling helps me to study in school 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4. I want to keep a journal in the future 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 5. Journaling is a technique that I would reccomend over other study-strategies 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6. I reflect back on notes, homework, and quizzes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7. Reflecting on notes, homework, and quizzes has helped me to prepare for tests 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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The Impact of Daily Journals on the Comprehension and Test Scores of Students in a High School Biology Class

8. Journaling helps me explore personal topics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 9. Journaling allows me to express myself 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10. I like to get feedback on my thoughts and reflections in my journal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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