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6    XP ,  M.  @   ) ,#( 4 

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MX &  + * ; R U  C4 ; 6 .6 &l MO0 
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 =  #3A


M 4  + )  ; M)    #  U7 ,Q =  (# 3-0  * 4) % -  1: & 
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T  M(U 
U9 # MR 56 * 46  -0  , &  M 1  - )  &  4 . & 7(  36 3K: 8
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: : U  2  & 8  +    4 D   +   * # .  6 & 0 R

!,-. /01 *!


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3 *8 K  , 

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d # R T!Q,
:   4

"...!=@ CA   #2  @   UVV   , #3  32  -5 ,A ..."
 =  : MSir Francis Crick "E    "     @(   M& 9 36 & ) &  &
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: 4  P  ?  & 6 [ D 56 E : & &K M&   *P  6 [\\  4 E : &   .(DNA
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&    1: 56 ; 4  *4 *P )  1
.@0  * 4 .  & & ;1
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  @0 )6 D * 4 *( P  & & P  '  . 6 5
&  % M     4 56  
)4 , )67( D   )  M64 E6  .   6 n,o  4 1  ; M) 7( 64 )  = *
)   @  & P  4 E6  X  & ..  '0 ;1 (  & . @  B M"84" )4, 4 " "
spontaneous

"* 46  6  @C"  C @6   66    )9 0  ,4 Y6 0  *

&   @C   M81
.( # -  54    7# ; & K  .@ ) &  @   animation
. -    6 n,o  ; M) 7(  T  ,4 . "* 46 6  @C" & P . %
& 
& P-# &  )6 * ( 4 .  4   @ 6 . @ .76Q ) ) -0 X1: 2   . 
 Q 24 . 6 :89,  .6 '60  1: & M 24 @  56 @ 6 .  .4 4 & & P0,
   4  '( %
 ( (   . 56 &  ) &  O  bE1   ..8 6
X1 : 1 # .  .  M8-+ =  1: &   .D & .6 B M&P        :  )- &
&     *  @  B M D  6 24 @  56   @ 6 .  )76 ) )-
& 24
 - M89 . * ,D )0 ,  8+ 8   @ 6 BQ  6 24 & 71 . 4 BD 
 C  D & R46  @   )-P L 4 M   n\\ ) "  D & * : 3 -  " & 6
"    - 8 # )-P  M  0  .(C4 ;  R46 -PQ M8-  @ E () & (    
 , & 5 
 (  M- & & )   )6,4 *  )( D & R46 * 4 *( 29 
 M   6 ],o ; MR * )    '   8 . D @#  & .B7D  :  8D  & * 4
  ) 6 ] "  O,  M81
..  @0  : @6(    ?  )P ( *( )6 
stromatolites

")    " U( 56   E1 MR X1: 56 * 4 @  )6   *    7
.   6 h,k 5
@#        ( 6#   ) - ) *P4

   6 h,k 5
@#    ")   "
.@  2 '  M  EA U( 1: .@,  .  5
*9 &  6  .@    1@ M& 6  
  .4 M& 6!   # X  & 6 T  (   6 ]) "  E1  & .  - * MW#
* , ) :  ,# .* 4 7( 8 ( @  &   *   & : + M. # M* '(
.=@ 5
P 4 P & 

# 5 I  , #31 

*      ) 6     . & )    )0(I  *4 ")   "
  L 4 M : @   .?  1:  )Q @    * 4 ( P  : Mprokaryotic bacteria
(*   ) "   "   X1 : &l  M)D  0  & .DNA ;  @-4 3 4 *=P@ * @ 
R4 ( & ) E6  M 1   )  0 & ) )(  @ .8D9
  )  prokaryotes
.  )  0 B 4 :  ( *(  # & 8 DNA ; 

(*   ) prokaryote ")  "  


5  * 4 ( @  @ '-0    B      )  : "   "   & 84-  M81

.8!,  )  0 & !, @  P&CQ  M3 4A  6
&   & .   4  & P 4 I  . 2  2 @    1:    @   )  0 & .6 B
Y . MD 5
31! E1 P 4 . M*(  4   & 31! 1# 56 *D @  &  &   8 P 4 & 
T    B   M:=  & U - & d4 )  0 M 4    . . & M)9-0
U  C    )  0 2 0 - )  & R   & M81
.@ ?  U -  & 
.)4
* 4   36 BD     6 h,k "  5
* *P4 "   " )  U( & :  ,9#
.@   O , M ?9  R46 )-P D -   .@ C &   & M& .&   E

 @    D  .% ; & B6:  E
;   & &  *  R4  6 ; B ?   0   *  *#
      *
. . .8 8 ( P ! . L 4 M89 ,4 1: .Q,4 . 8 ( &   .: 8D  
& 60    "* 46 6  @C"  C . 6  &  P .  U( 1: B 8    e: 
  1 #KI .  ; M  ?!  #  *P4 stromatolites ")   " X1: )0 Q, D .  1 
.8 @6: . M4Q

&  )  #   ..@:     6  0  D 89  36 4 . . L 4 8DK & : 1: &
5 6 R ' 56 )@C * 4    '  Carl Woese "= " 5 Q     . U( M- &
'  Q &  & "= "   .4 % &  E : &  M   6 ]  4 1  "   " )  (
true

"  4  " archaea " (" :3  @ 


( M& 06# & & UK  4  : 8  8 
:E
P ( ; 8=  84-   B7D   + :1 U( 1: .bacteria

.......E/  > ) 2= H5 ,$ # , ? ........


 4 &        & & 06# & 56  4 M*4 V X1: @ )0(  ) 6 &

! > ) E 3$ *!  "# / C: " :' 4   4 5  5
 ( @6 MP 
  ? PI . .stromatolite ")   " U( '6D ;1 : ), 0  U( 1:  D 
&  84 &  8 M3 4 .6 P  .76 
) 1
.  .@@  &  P ! . .' 4
Y  *  ?9 .76 = '  U( 7U,  'P  ?D M&  &  ?:
54 ) -
 ")    "   3  ) 1 1
."* 46  6  @C"  C 2 ?  1:  * 4 ) U 
& 0 .C T  @ ) 6 X1: .?9 1 & 89 :@C *4 Q 8:  T U  ")  "
E 1 M  . 56 &   D &   & )Q4  .  ,D 2 & E1 )= : M& 6
.gradualism "  P " W ,# , 3 ' 5  C  4  4 ;1 . 2  B 2   @ 

 " 01 , *L"3


  ;1    ? 7( &  &  D & "  P "  C 56 P  .P@ &

# M.@0  ,# .@$ .@ C   C04 &  &  .  *   ; . 6 & & = 36
.  &  3 @  0 46  4 
@ 4 36 B   M&  & R 0 & L 4 .:  4
M. @ * , D  56 &  U D ? M& . 4 BD  B .@  R -  ;   4
  .  MU  .@-+ ?7  89    & T   # ; 366  . MU *  .@ ?  & D
.&  &  1  9A ) ,  M* 4  , W ,# :  ) 0 2   T 
..@   6 ;,D B-   89: 8 ! L4   & :  4  @C &   36  ;1 #V ?
 
 4  (*1 )  6 )  56 8  U,I  )  & ) 6 54 & 9 E6  P ,
U(   @C  ,4  1 P , . M+  R "  , @ # B> *> :  K 56 ? 
?  M  K E1 56 ?  7   M   6 ] 5
@#     * ")  " )4

56 0  -  + )   2  & 8 6 7( . * 4 & O-  & O, .!W "$ # B> ((( :
 6  &  )  ) 6 0# U  M .@6 )=   .4 56 ; 4 L 4 & 6!   # 4

( C$ O-  & '  M "O , , )A 7 @  &   * 4 & 8@ 36 U  & P :4-
. > ) > $3

 D  8, ,#  , M  '(   # @  C4 .prokaryote ")  "   T# * ,

b8    *P  )  D & * ,    :   1: &  & & : . 6  # )K & ) 4
spontaneous animation "* 46 6  @C"  C & :  4  @C &   36  ;1 L ?

)# )=  *  " "    @ 6        4 7( '1 .D ; ?:1 7
  1: M; ?:1        .,# @  56 & A P  U,   & - &  9#
.  D   .& & @  .  4 )6 56 C4 : @   @ &   
^    56 5 ;1 : .:1 0 &
M 4  ..   .  81 0  .: &   @ &
36 P, M. ( "* 4" % -    M4 ; 56 .@ B   D,   M  P   C
 M genetic mutations   P 4  6 &    66 )1 & V e Q 7  ( & 56
  06# )  X1:  MT# *P .?  56  4 )   3 ( &  K : M& (
.(-   ) % ; & # 7# ; &  ; M?  1:  4 &-   ( )P  D * 46
7 8 *  *  #  O0 U  M? 1 R46 "* 46 6  @C"  C )-P 1
M
O0 L 4 & @  366     4   7 )= )  *  *0 X1: M"# 3-0 & 7#" 
6= 5
&  @4, 246  P   C    , & L4 . 1: M*  ?  &   
." 

+E A   > 
M# - )  M(  ( R 5
)3 .5@   ..#$ & & R ?  5
* 4 )3 
 + M*  B D  X1@ . 6  .* D    U C  - 8 &     & 06# & 6( 2 8  )

#( 7( J' 3 .@ 6 .DA & 6 .C &  =  0 #  0   . 6 &  &$ M@ E (
* 4 ...8 6 * 4 )P -  0 . R ..( Y - 4- M  : : . 4 : X1: ..!>
.. 4 O 56 U  8   8 64 )- ?  )D  ?  &  )6  2 *(   P .
.' 6 UP  4 ?+  ;1 BD  : 1: ..     ..) 56 .. : 5
* 4 )3 
&  M8 4 !b2Q  # ,D &  b, & : b1: ,4 & & U  M89  : ) Q= D * 4 )  1

&  8     D & p  ,0 *0 X1:  L4 .  accidental seeding ", * 4 1"  4
Fred " :  " E 60 .N & .:@( &  & 0 & R E1 M(&   +) & 76 & 0

P= ) panspermia "   " : ", * 4 1"  C 5


*(f ' #Q ;1   O6,Q .Hoyle
?   &    )  ) 1   R ?  5
)3    * 4 &  C  X1:   M((
?   5 
:4
)6, 54 *  )  : C(  0  & D # 3-0  O )  T#
.@ 4  7( L 4 & ;1 R
*  56   M" , (  =" ; directed panspermia O6, ' 
 (  C  X1@ #$ 72( E :
M8    - )-4 D & @D9
.   , )  :#$  )  ) 1   06#
 ,  '  "  6 *0 X1: & .8 4 7( & ;1    @ (  -0 )4 2#
.66   ==(9 *      : "3-0   &  B 6D )  D &     
 =" *  ) 76  M? 1@ .6D )   276  ?   4 =   ?+  ;1 @ 
*  & .+ MT# @ & & .@  .6 D & @4   P pD 56  .4 &  6 " ,
56 (JP@Q (  ) : 6 36 & 
M @   6 z6   8 8 4 8-  7 " ,  +  ="
'     P &   *0 X1: )1#q  .(* 46 6 3 ( )  4 .@ C  &   7 @  
  * 46   P    E : & 1
& 76 R 56 D ) 1 R W40 *  ) 4 ,4
.@6#    @ 6
 &  &  4 7 MB 6 O- :  YD .v .  ?+ 4  & :  : 'C49 ? ;1 
X1 & )D M8 @ = ? M'67(   *     5
)3 M(  C d#  & & )  
)   @  : @ '  M@    %  5D : Mprokaryotes ")  "   & & 
  &   ?  ) .&  1 :     ;  :=   3! *5 E!!" !J  @
 P    ! ; &  ...   6 ] D @ )  W # @C 0  .  *   )= ")  "

) 6   M 7  5
. 4  4 56   *  * *=P@  @ ) @
. 6 6D  + : .P 4
.(84 '4(   1: ..R ? 
, 4 : .66 6 &   ' U  M" ,  ="  4  6P    0   X1:  1# 1

b24   6! )    = ,4 1 bR 1 bR ?     ?     = 1:
 6D M: +   M*P  6 X1: ..b8 :P  O, ) D &  L 4 &  & ) 6 *    1
 : 5 
* 4 ?6 &  ( 8 ( ) 84 ?+ 1 :: M   & *  @  & .A  06

 *> :    26  ;1 M.: K 5


  ;K  1: b#$ ?  ; 5
 R    5
& &
M8
!+  ..+B *@ , ..+3! *5  > X!A *3 A
*  )A  E>$
 76    :  : M    * ,  6 #  R@  6D )  D & R     Y9,
. @0 &

)    &  % @  & - (2  ,  6 #)  P     8  . , &   MW#( R @


)   M( &4 & *      & & P  M 4 B   .@, ?D (T# * !, )(4
Y  1: ME1 B . '  ( E         8   Y 56 !, &   P MT#
? 4  O 8 * !, * P  4  : M'#- '  ( ?  B   ;1 (R ? )  
&  X1 # ?  &  MO 4,  + &  D M89 ? +  +   '
.'  4  L 4 8 B &  3-
) 6 ] &V 54 ' )!6 29     .6   8 !, & 6 P    1 b 1 M81
. 
bE1  - &  M8    .9   4 J  @ . 6 & 0  J 6  I  b 
E6   M   24  C      b P      @   b  6:1 *0 X1: &  & & :

# & : M4-    M5   4 .3    .: 4  & 1  56  6 6C 9# & @ &K  6 
,( , M)6Q  5  * 4 ( . & E( 56 P:   * & * &   )A 7
*  *  B  @  : E1 & .: .P4 56 *D :  @ )   : M7    
.@   metabolic processes R  ) 6    ,- RA 56  
M8 & .6 4 O, @  * 4 M&   56       &  & '  bP.@ : 1 b&   1
B       )  @  M&   &  & J  B  anaerobic "  : " @    - ) 
;  - '   M8   :  @  7 * 46 8 ; - &   .:4    

 7 M&    ; M  : X1: )  1


.?  1:     &   *  * 4 (  
E 6  C  &      C 1
) 8   8 9  O, M M&  34    * 46 8  8,
.")  "   56 ; 4 ( .C  1: 5
: 4(  5  ) 4 &  & ( -0 ) 

& 9 * ) *# 56 = 4 .@-4 L 4 M # ( &   M6D 6 ,0 M.@
..@   0  B-  
B M81
..@   8 (    M&=  54  MB  3-0  0 M .)  & ) 6 54 
1     ?  56 ; 4  ( C  & 84 .:0 9# .*  6( 7  3-0  ( )
&   P  )   7( M* (  .@ ! ?     ?  )  L 4 M (   C  5
 6, M@  * 4
.'4 56 * 4 := @  &   ?  O &  56  4 ?  X1: &   ")  "  
& &7 . & &=   = U  M")  "   )P  P '  : " -0 ) " X1: '  &

M( ,) " 4   " 5


8    ;1 ?  O 56  4  8  P 4  &   & 0  d

  8 (    '   ;1 )    6  ; M89  8D 2! & &   ;1 ME1 =
.  P
  4 X  %(A ")  " '  ;1 &   &  = 7  U  ..( * *  ) 
.56 

* 4 ( .   -0 )   MT#    6  R0   ; M P   8  %(A E1 O, 
 I   Meukaryotes ")  "   E : * 4 ( & *    X1: 56  .? 6 8  
.  '  ;) 3 (  & * @C '  O-  & ;1 *  ;4   : MR ?  .Q * 4 (  
")   " &
. D 56   ; 6 X & M")  "  @C   0  @C  M(2 ( & P 
   R ' 56 * 4 (   7(  M* 56 ; 4  5  * 4 ( 7 @  *=P 
&      X1: .eukaryotic creatures "   " )D 6#   56 U7 ,I 89 ( &4  .")  "
P  . ;) ?  5
@ , 1  )   .  8D @6( = ()   ;) R 5
)3   

d 
  *30  @  M@  ((:  @  O 4, M")  " @06 & 84  : M(P !  P 4 
.&  

eukaryote

")  "  

 @  &  5
?   54 7  , & -0 3K: C M.@   5  64 & 3@  
  * 4 ( &  M   6 U,  4 1      M?  )D  & 4  .  4 * 4 ( . 
&  : .  @C )@( L 4 Cambrian "  64" 5 I R "  & *0 E6 M8  8  8 
 6  &  .Cambrian Explosion ;  0   6 X1: 5
36  ( ( 4 @C)  P  )  4
 0 *  R )4 ,  ..  ML
 1 M06# ,0 )  & UV @C M:4-
.(     , .D  C ) 0 ,4  1: & 8 +   D .   ! * 4
?   1: & : M8@ 8  C4 .@  &   M8 .R ?   . .@ ( D & -0 P
* 4 ( & %j\ 5
%o\ 56 - L  X1: M() 1 ., )   L  ;  ( RP
V ' 
 (  1: MD 56 ) # &  )6,4 D (     L  1:) .?  1: 
   ,    , 4 3 0 P 4 5 
R ' 56 & 3(  O (  #$ M   
* & -0 C M6(      .() ,  56 )-D  M  & 6 ko D ; MCretaceous
)  4 ) :* 4 ( & T#  &  . M; 4 @ =   - *   54 M)  & U$
)4  @    6   5 6   8-   4 X1:) M       , B  * 
5 6    * 4 (   B  6 Z0 P 4 1:  0 & @  36  4 M( #,
, Q Mpunctuated equilibrium : 6 O6, M"B  P 4" 5I   P   C  46Q  -

T     M8 4 :  .  P  & 6  64    &  * 4 ( B  P 4 :'

# *5 Y1 C: *:C &


.8D9
84 4,    0 1: & & 6 .@  B M2= 1: & .@,76#  
.@6 ,0   # ?  @  .6 =  =! & PQ #H@ 71" - # *5$ , E 1"
( ) &   C & BD  5
?D '  
...84
80  M8 ( 8#, 2    @ M8 #
  '   ;1   4  : &V X D ;1   1: &
:.0 U  ? M( ) 3 (   C
0  8  84-    1: .  6 5
-A M #          )  &
 6
MR 5 6 * 4 ,   ? # -0 7#  - .      X1: .+ L 4 .)D 
  . &4 &16 & 0 &  D & (B ) P  :6 RP . @0 1: & 

L 4)  4  276   .'  '@0 & & 8 B-  1: .C   ..L: ,3 :  A
Y  P  &
. '  &    : 81
 .1 0  *  276  M(89,  4 ' 4 
&94  (.6/& ) & =  &   9 M   D, ? @6 U  Y0   #   4 X1: (D 
?   # : '    #$ M@  .   %, 1:  &V Y :9 .-4 )D   *# 1:
.@ L
.){ 0 &   @( U  6 )  ..  5  M*   @C L ?  1:   ... @P  &
. .4 .  D  &    &    @C  & .4,  E16

5 6      MP - C )@  )- 7   M* 4 ,  4 *  24 & * &  
*   = &  ' 
C  9# & E1 M;( &6 *=    56 UP &V   .  6 )(
.  @ ) 6 &    ?  B   M: M8 : 0  C    & 8 06#
;(  &  & R! ?     ;1 M('0 ?6) "+, ," &  ? & Q :  % - 
.B -  & ' 4    . ' 3 ?  '    .# )  D & X=P      'D

+,(( ,((
;( &6     
:   B    P - . :0 & 26  )= )   (  6 , U,  "   )1P   @  &

?  E   8  - :   4 'D & A   W ,# U  U  : ;1 .U  U 
.8 8 @ M.: : M
  8 *  4 p4 U  M (  6 , & . @0  + ?   4  U    1
M4  
& A      4 T   5
5D & &  P - . :0 7 U  :   .'0 '  B
.  
:6     M06#   = & M *0 ?  &
.  &   mental " 6 " intelligence " " )D 56 = 4 @  :  (  6 ,0 * 0   4
.8-  @ 4 &     0 M&  6  M@0 &  6    M)@
.  . @
&  1 ,# M ( 6 ,0 ' B ;1  0  1: C ?  & &   = 
. *0 5   4     L 4   )  &-  ,4
 : M    *=  X1: 56 = 4  * 4  :  6 , &  MT#  - )  & X  4
.( ( 2  )  6 ,0 T  56 := 4
 - ,0 B   6:1         C  Y , )P (  * 4  :  6 , M-A
.T#
?    4   , & O 4, :   4   &   1# 1
8:1
  4 7 8-   0  1:
&  @ D M=! X1: Y( ):   P #  %# 5
) (  (  6 , & M  @0  +   
. 24 ;(
1 #  (    M M  *  :      ? P0  8 ( *Q ):   X1:
)   7   06# ):   &  M . 4 7 '  56 ' &K ):   X1: 4

5 D  *P=  T! Q,  , P : ):   E6 &   1@ M ( 6 ,0    *4  (
. ( 6 ,0  ( & R 0 &  T * , T 
& 6 (; ) ;  ?  56 8 =7 M 6 ,0   4   6 M8 ( *Q ):   
.   +  4  @3  @ =  ) @ M;(
M  = A 1: & &
M?  :1     : =
7  (      & PE( 5  E :  
.06#  0  6 ?:1 @ 1# "3 ( ):  " & : + ..@
M  , M,  & e
= 4 '  B M'(  '0   '(D  .  8 ;1 #V :1 ?  E : M; ?  5
-A &
* Q P -  ):    R4 M)D  0  ) ;( &6   4  , W ,# *  )
56
:6  @, #6 & T# 6:1  4 & U( ?  1: .(8 (

!  )   PL=  M#33 = 5H M' 7 38 7 3 3-  ! #'2C  5 !@ ,A
'  ;1  U@  4 =   (  6 ,0 )4 Q  )= @ &
M    4  & M#$ 5  ;
  T#  - )  &   5D )  5
 6 ,0 B :4  X1: .survival "36 %,"
."36 %,"  4 =     )@ ,Q @  84- 
=  2  P@ 1: .T#  - ,0 D  6 , &  8 (     4 ) X4  1:
.;( &6   4  ,  4   K
K  1 : 5 6 ?   (8 ( *Q ):  ) ) 0 &      .  M8 )1  M8
@  4 )6: @  &  MTI *4 * , T  5
5D  T!Q,  , & P @  & M 
.T# ,0  6 , &  6:    : 8
B   @(  5 6 )= 7  (  6 , ?  .@0  1  @  &   & M *06 84 - 
.@  6,0  *  )9# 56   MT# ,0
   ) &   E6  (  6 , & : M"3" @  4 =  W # )  = 4 56 )l
X1 :  4  D 3( & 5
M   89  ;( & :   B E1 B @  .8D9
.#I    

&P  U C 8   &   8+ M 4  D   +    4 T 8 6 = &    )
.  ' 6 :   '  & A .6  @ 4 .' 6 RI
&    E :  M(, 8 6 : @C  T  EI  L 4)  @  )      ( ) X1:
  +  + :C & :  M: @C B  ) B- 5
%(  (8 ( *Q)   )
.(6    * 4  @# 3!
 4 @D 56 BP( T# )3
M8 
& %[\ T  .#  ;( & &    *0 .@ 56    :1 &  (  T4

   &   & 84-  L 4 MBD  & 8  D   C * P )  X1: &   . 6 X D
6 -      X1: &  .# 56 0 BP(  (X#$ 5
.. 6 M   M ) 06# )6 @-0
! 6 'D &
:& A 76 =!  4 .  - :4  4 X1:
b@#  @  M*     )D 56  P  6 , = 4 1
!b89, @# @6 0 @ 8# & . 1
   ) E6  6 ,0 X1: = @ . 1 M#$ 5 
2 4 &     & M('0 UK6)", ," ?  & A 76 6:1 24 &  = 5
UP U 
 #$ K  5
  ;K  4  1: . (   W ,# 8 @ * OP-  &   )4I  6 6
:* 

!+  ) Z E!$ 2= H5  5 ,/ *>


  P  C   &  M  # ++  94 *A    MK 1: Y  6  ? &   E :
;P ( K 1: Y  6 0 (8 @ &0 .   .+ 8  :# )  *4 *:C E : .% -  1:
:&  4 7 *:C X1: .L 4

W " 0 7/ @  ..1 , <5 )A # 5 : K=- ?  3 >  5 ,/
!B *@ K=-
  6(  ; '   8  @  U( U  .. , MU4 = M?9 M ME 4 & )  4 )D 1

?  b806# & A  ;1 ? :  b6:1  4 X1: 5


4 E@P : !( 4 & 4 &  C 
:O-   :

 ,-[   - ? 0 /


@ J 6 '0 B  & &7 M*    ) *=P@   '  -0 ME1 .+ &

: *  6 Y 5


*(    2 d  1:

) \$ & M> )A *! D ..+E A  ,$ ,@ M ,-[   - F 0 / 7 A
+C2 C Z )A N2 =0  #33 / N> @ Z

+,-. /01 *!


M # 3-0   & 5
 MR ?     & A , & R   1
:.- 3 
b -0 X1: .  7   #  BD  M 6 )
 E : @

: 
ME 1 . + .. 0  UP 4Q  0#  %  
'   4 X1: & LP4 .  ;( "   3( 
( 56 
M! &= E1 1   ( *1  (D 56 8 =) C 04  #  L4 X1: &   )=9
 :  #    4 X1: & L4  ):   .     6 )  P W ,   
:&   & :   5
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06 D9  0  -4 .   A * D  .."
 .@ X1@ &   3   # . .  . E1  *P  B  56 X ?P ;1
3 @  & e 3 )  & e 70  3 : L 4 M1 30 1 8,# 8 I D9 &0 X1: &
& =# .  ..=9 &K E1 M*=@ )  4 . .&   , W# Q ;1 &   @
64 )4, MC     M8 # .64 *   @C04 :  2  & P 4 ) 6 06# )9
"..*=: 
 ; 4 ;1 &  )6# . M#$ &  ) . M    A = ! : ((   )D
=  @6: . . (  4   T# *  . E : & .  R ?  *  ' 4
. M 0 & 56 .?  2  *4   )P .  D9  0 )4 . 4 ?  56 .:
M # & MT# *P .R 4   )6  . 3   @6# .29 9 * !,   -4
U$ * %0 56 2764 )4, & 5
M  . 4 :4  9# )D  & R @ 5(9 . ! I):(
.4 2  & * ,  #,  5
)6, M)D  R  ( @   .4 X  2  .D &

 )4 .*=+ pD ,  #,  C(  .D &  pD MU # '0 .+ M&  &  O,
BD  56 20 . 8 # M @6 ?  & & 84 O  C  &  ) . ( 14 8   R0# 
)# )  &  .D   M?6, O 56  )P L 4 M& 1:  . ): . MP4
..@D 54 .@D  & .:   +  .D  &  T M)#    -  .  
.X  ;1 ? ! 3 5
. #  ,  0(  = * ' 56 B-  
 ? 2  4 3 - eP:  ..4l .@06# ? 26+q L 4 * !, *4 5
8   6#  4 .@   
R 4   .76 P .# ? O0 M-# & 6 3 - eP:  M)C4  . d# '   ;1
'  ? Y R ' ,  .76 56 &  4 = ..D [o  4 G6   & -0# 
 Y ? - 4 8 5 4  .R  '! .D   ? -D ' 4 & d# .&  4 R 56
.' 
 PC & 'D 5
( 8,  UD . M'   56  &  )@C  e 
.@  &  56     .   5  @   3 ( &   M ( (    & P  2 0  Y
.' 4  @- * !, *4  .@- .!, 0 ?6  & P@6 .@  )6 & 67 & ! W#(
 )P  M* '  &P  ;1 M#V & 4  .  ? -D '  &  @-  MD R ?- .@-
.    @0  + )    X1:  .,# ) D  @6# . = * !,  = ( YP 6 &
)4   M2   =   0  E4 &  &  @   0D .5  *4  6#  5
  8 #
?6D 5
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.
@- 5
=6  = ( 4, * )  .W# '6  B  !( & D   )D - .
6 M&  & - P  )4 M&     )C @@  'D  ) 4  . M  =@  T# 6 *4
. 6:     ) @67!( . ,# $  @- * !, *4 ?4,    .@9= X  56
&   ,4 M)# &   3
. .8 .  2 4 5
)P 4  *4 : d# * )0D 
..  B , 9# )(  L 4
9# MB .  4 ) )   ) ..  0 5
) 5     MT# ) * )@C
 * !, )  ) M@6 & 3@   .4 X  56 T# 3 (   56 3 (  )  E1
)6# MT# 6 *4 .Rv ;  U9! & )# 56  5
)0 . P4  7U, )67( 4 &
T# ?  4 @ R  & 8   0 )4 M* #   #  M.  0 5
)
.Rv  = ) D  *  )  P D & M* ,D )   6 X1: 9# .( .C  

   .  0 ) D  B  * =  . &= 1:   .R ) D  &= & *  & D 5- 
   * 4 )4 M 6D  *  & D )P  . ?  ?, M&  D  &    U9# E @ .3-0
M#-   @D  B M?4 O  D9 # ) )4 .4 2     56 :=
& D9  )= M)D  4  .89  &    8@ &   6  &  )!6 P,
M  @  =    0 X1: ?   T4
 D9 ?  )4I .6 Z( 56 ): . !  3
 @ )D 6# .@D )4 )P=: R &  *  P- @ = L4 M#- 0 # )D 6# @  d#
.3 4 6   6 @4  ) T#

 84  T# *  &0 &  & 5  :  M D9  0 X1: ), M@ 4 & .D )+ & 
  )D 6# )4 . 3 O 2   0 )P M8 : 4 . 2  2  .4 4 @ M) 
.3-0  8  )0# D9  X1: ), . .2  5
! @  d#  !
P ! .)06 (  P ! .) ) M@- B ) , .D9 )D 6# *0 X1:  R 56 J
)4 R )  *0 X1:   M6   , )P .  . ?  )  4 R P  M)  (
.34 & = D & *P D
?6D & .  ( .C U4  & % P   1:  M:    ?11 R ) 
&=  56 C4 B   R ' 56 *4 *D & 36 PD .,#  -  0 )3   A
* %0 56 2764   & .R  =  & 3 @ 4 B  0    & *4 6 &
.? 
M* &  @C 2 ( ) & 5
P=@ ?11  -   )4 .%(
26  MR O 2   
)==: &   ,4 U    &  )4 M 1@    .84 !,  5
  )60  :
U-  M4 & : .  D = 4 67( @- & * U     )4 )D    B . -
.:  R )P .R &  56 X  &
d1   @ )6 *P X1: .  A = & T# 64 )3 M- ) D  &  & 9   
M    @ & 3  .06# 2   @6 =  . M0  @   + )D 6# & * .( X( & P 
5
P- 8  )0 .:4  1
L 4 .@ 56 P 3( R  )  3   &   K
8 ( )D 6# X1: E . .@  0 , 54 8 = 5 6  :  * ,D @6 )  . ' *

.D9 ( &,+ 56 U @  )( .@     %, 4 )  E1 .+ 46   &
& & -   . & D & ..  . E1  )04=  )(4 E1 @0 ?(  )   M@ .
*(
; @C . M)4  @ K(   B   L 4 8D9
 9  + )D 6# & L 4 M4 X1:
.P  56 @D & U(
&- ( .C  (  *P  *P )   ;     ) )  *0 X1: 
&  .P 4  & ?  E : .)D  0  :  .   : T# *  . E : .R ? 
W406 )-# M ( '(  64 )D 6# & R  . .): L 4 R 4  )6C  .R
(  .@ ? +  + ?(  56 %= -  .. 2 1: 56 3- ? '  ID #
.4  )  V '( )D 6#  MR 3   3

 .9 3   .@ =  . .& 06# ( X( E1 06# )  4 @  T#  0 ): 3 &
?@6 U1 &  )= .B = R ?   .@  B-Q    ? ;1 '  ' ?4
 .6  U C ?  8   P ! @  * 4  4 )  . ?   56 &   .4 M)=!
.R ?  56 * P  e6 7(  * X  )  M&   &  
(    O0 D9  # )  )4 .)06 (  P ! .?  "  & 6   , )P
.*0 E6  * *-4 ):= .C  *P  4  C  )4, . 

B & 6# MT# 5


  & & 6  .  4 & P  M*0 E6  R 56  = & 1 & = Y
&: .D ..@  3  B )D9 &    4, L 4 & B .@D9 8   P & = R .& 64 (
*0 : .'= 4  * C4  & U( U@ ' ! & = 4 ?1 & 6  * % Dl  P(
. .   @4 & R 0 & ;1 (%=)  E1 *@  )   P  46 56 = 4 * )4,
. P( &: ;   )D & D )  -

2  Y9 & # M;P (  46 B7 ,   @  &   ) M)6  * , *0 
1:  M : .    049 6 & = & R *  P. L 4 MT#  # # )-Q .  d1  
9# .& #V & = 56 B . : : 26  ..@= @  )DQ .& = .  . MP &
==: 5
T : 0  ,4 . @ 4 D & *  ) T4
 ;  & =# U . M
. 4 d  )4  C  6 *D )D+ @ 4 . R
& R ) M4 & D9 U,  ): .8
( 2P=  ?@   ,  )4 *  9 
& P& J@ MU @ 20   * J  E :  : *  6 6D )     ( * 4 & 8 P
. ( ? 
& = & ;  . 6  )  * .;  0  )  & U P=@ R )  M6  &  *
* 4 )7 .& :P ( 0 ?     ( )    )4 M D ) (A )  .?  , 
?  4 ( P( )  .P  ( * 4 .  56 D  + O, L 4 . (  *  )-0#  M  
.-0#  34 . ! 
 4 E6 5
P 4 )  & *     R ?  5
T# 64  & 34 D 8 #
.) )  4  ( )  6P4 3-0 2  5
D9  0 )6  .  

. .  .4 .@  @  & #   & 1 (  .'0, &   @ @4 & MR 56  0 ):
B  8 , 1: &  M*P#  * # @  ) )  B  .*   ( )  MD9 )  4  = 
2  & 64 M ,  .: @C 56  + 3 ( &    .0 9#  # ?!( )4  ,4
.& &  , 6  &- .@74 2  & .@  & C M( )  4 % 
)  M ( )   .)  4 & 06# %  :3 06# M*  &  : M.  4  0 )
)  4 M# )  4 .X#$ 5
.. ,D M   ..0, M  R  ( E : M8-  06#
 )  4 @ .  .4 &  (  %P  T 8  # . M2 '   @- M6  @D 
O,  ME1 .+ M4 B  U  ?  .    8 #- )   4 )D 6# R . 
.) 4  * !, E  4 0# D( @C 4 2  
.R ?   & *  &  & D @6#  3    * !, ) )4 MP (
& 8 ( )  46 B  (  56  ,4 L 4 *  & ) (  & 6!( & = &  8+
B , *4 ? 1( 56 D 54  M  (
& 8= & A = 6  & D )P .4 &  .@6
L 4 M31   (  .  2  & E1 ;(   & 4 ? '   D 34 B .  ) 
& 8    .  56 & = @9#   -
& D )P .*4 ? 1(   (
B 
.? 4   ( E1 M ( ) 
)   )P  . M=    P Y . .  (
T  5
*4 ?1( & M8   .P & A Y
.R 56 @$ .@    ( )D 6# &  8 & 6  & = & .& )6 )4, 54  
56  4     56 )P  P ( 1 & T  E :   :89D :( 6 ) , BD
56 E T U  9 9# .E  * , O -   :    &   ,#    .R
".. D  OP-  :( ((
( X(   .7   6 %=    4 &     #$ &  & 3 & M*P  C   A )  .."
 & L 4 M?46 8 &   & 0   .? 1 .@  &  .@ @ &  & D .@ K 56 .@ 
M3   - &0   5
&   K ..@ 0    @  5
-A  @  -  P .@  
.3-0   - ? 4 &   ?( .8 4 : =  .     ?# .@ & 06#  4
.  O @-  C( )= M* !,  C( 3= 5
0  @  M8 )PQ T# . *  . )Q:
*:= )  *  . .)  & =4 67( 06#  ( C  )  26  @  3-0 

. 1: U  #$ . . ., .@   )D 6#  ) I   @06+ )0I M8 * 4 0
...D &   - .   1: M  #$  5
)Q )( R )P=: .R ?  4 #V
.)P:  )  )@ .&  & D9 )( )   M., P4 5
M@- & &   ?D 9# ...
56 & 0( &  4 & =   R O )4 * )   .   & - ( &  
}R 5
.@6 2  & ( )  & .@   1
&  4 .@   . 4 1:     ) 
  &  *=!    
) D )=:  .  , & & ,  3-0  ?4 )@  8 # .0
....@   
? ( * 0 .  & '     '  & 89D M* 4  D 56 X3
P   M 6
  M*=!    ...
 .' D  & R & ' 0 .  @   .& #V  # 46, 8   '  8  .  A
M  A *D )   .'7  ;1 ( .C  3  *
 & & 6 UP@6 '  :C X & *
 4 0 ?6  6P .& #V ? 6D  * P(       P , . M*P #   6    & .@0,
...  A  & *P D )4 &   Y9,
   & ' D  6
 v
RP  .,4  B *   & X   ?  @ &  & , & 64 & MR 56  ...
 X1: M -  C  5
*  *(  #
. .3 @ )P:     &  0 E9@6 .@C
E1 M8 06# &V -   )4, .T#    ?   * 4  D 56 )   (   & 0K
&  D &   4   .=4 &V E : O, .;1 ( ^  P  R   P !  .4
)  4  ) .4  )   2       & D9   6  )7(  .8 & 
56  ;1 Z0 P !   @6 )+ )@  .2  E6 ' )-P ;1 0  6   D9
... 
.*-4 ( & (   & A  MT# *P .  & P * 46   U C )4 M  ( ...
M   ( & .'  U- : &  @- Y M?46       & A O, *P X1: &
%     @C Y ;( P   6 ) .:  U@ *     ( & 4 & = Y
B  1# .R O 56 & = &  = J  &  PD D .& -   . & = & .*   (
...:(  .D 56 .@ ,# 8   .@9 .@ =
 & : +  M"@V 3 "  M"& D"  M"56  &  = & 1"  M"3 &  : & 1" O6, 3  : &
.R ? (         W ,   .@ 
 (

C  I  U  MR  4 *P 2    .D 56 & = .D U  5  &:6 & -0 T 
: & 1 &    M" =
" "+ =
"  ' = %= Q 89 &   T6 .06# 2  ? (
..M")  " M" 6 " M" ="  06# 3    56  6 ME :       D 56 .@@$
.1:

%   .1: ..M" =


" M"  " M"  = " M" 4"  3 & = UQ M5 & , T
8 4 :  MT# *P .@{ &6    I  .@6 & = = M .D 56 MR
& P( .@ &  MR 56 @~ & 6 .@0   , .@V    &  P    @  )6(
)= .,# .@  56 @6 * &  !( .:    & 1 @V &   E
&  1:  M.@
& &   & *  M P )  )67( .  6 .: .@+ & =    (  @ 6
*= 4   &  =  = D U@ )   P )  X1: .8    D & 1  6
 6 . .@  & =6  )  *=@ &   56  6,4 .& 64 56  ( * C4 & =
.  ( ) = ) ,   &   ) MR     (  M@#  0 

.4 &   1 A 3 .XP &6  ;1  6


U 0, 5
& = R P.-  *K * )P 
& 1  # 5
O,  )6q .XP 56 P, 1 A & #  # & MXP &  6
7U &   A
2  )P M  &    )3 MP4    . ..: ! & '   6
@ 6 5   & & 
. .&# ?@6 06# 8 & )4Q ..)0  )6,4 .@   56 * !, .= ) @ &
.9 T  *= X1: & 
& 64 B ( ,  ; D
. R & & =   4 &   A 34 PD M4 X1: 
. *  D & P  L 4 MR  =  ( )   )  .  &   ,0 .@6 30
3  :    (A T#   56    ME1 & 8 ..@ ( ,  %  & M  & & 64
. @0 3  : & ..:(    0    . 6 .  .: = & 64 & &  & & P  W#(
.,- J 
 (  7(    @   56  = ' (6 .@  )-P M8 4 :  MT# *P &
   M,# .@{ ?  L 4 @ 4 MP W , 5
.  & P 4   ..@ 4 * 9#  .@ 
..R ' 56 @ & '   ;1 @  & * 

"E " ? & D 5@ 

/01 *!  -

!" # "$ 

MR ?  "   &  & 9 1  BD  R 56 0 L4  B  @6 ,0  ,D &   
.X  D M,  &   '   1: & .6 B ..: & '4    1: O  ? &
:   1: & : M8
* 4  &  =  M6( & MU  2  &     '  O 4,
&  1# &  ,# M @   6    )  &
MT# ) 0 X D 1
    4  &  46 ?D
&  '    R4 0 1: .B  &  1:  * !,  T  )  :  - * &  4  
.* 4 3 ( & @  .6 '   E1 M26# ,D &
@  B M89 P )    6 ?   9# & P 4 )  :C (  @ %P   0 &
   MP 4 )  @ 
   06#    U ,    0 &V 54 &  & M(# ) 0
0(4 6 :  T# MJ  :  T# M 0 @  )   ..R  B- T#   ) 
', # '  =P  @ M@ 
  2   .+ ;1 & A 6 M8 # ...(89 E U4 =)
   %P  1: e  & (R ?  :P ) 6 *4     C  &  .T# )  D &
@C P & P 6 &  & MP   6   E : & O 4, . 4 ) 6       = 0 W #
 6 ,06    = 0   &    ,0  ,4  P  ) ! L 4 MP4 &6     = 0
. 6 ,0  
& @0  & @ &  4 1 & 0  M& @  36 @ 1#  "  P "  C W ,# 
:@
. B  3e0  @C (&  & & 9 )   ) Cambrian   64 9#  - * )@(
M:4 - 6  &  .Cambrian Explosion ; 0   6 &  36    P  )  4 & :
 ! * 4 0 * R )4, L 4 ..  ML
 1 M06# ,0 )  & UV @C
. 
L  1:) .* 4 ( & 8 06# *   * @C MR ?  ? , 6(     
V ' 
 (  1: MRv    "   D 56 ) # &  )6,4 (    
  , 

,4 3 0 P4 5


R ' 56 & 3(  O (  #$ M   

@  6  56   8-   4 X1: .() ,  56 )-D  M  & 6 ko D ; MCretaceous
  * 4 (   B  6 Z0 P 4 1:  0 & @  36  4 M #, )4
Mpunctuated equilibrium : 6 O6, M"B  P 4" 5I   P   C  46Q  - 56

Y1 C: *:C &


.  P  & 6  64    &  * 4 ( B  P 4 :' ,Q
  # ?  @  .6 =  =! & PI #H@ 71" - # *5$ , E 1" # *5
.@6 ,0
&  .&  & 9   3 ( "  2  ( V &  4    MD , & & A P  W ,# 
%pP  5
-A .*  )  T#  - )   2   '6 ;( &6     
 1# 1
1: .06# &  .=D  E : L 4 MP   C B 2   ;1  ( 2    
..  4 06# 2  & @(  . 06#  $ '( )   C   .   & 
R @    4 -4 & 0  M"  &  4  = *0 E6  *  )-4   & 
& 6 [ D 56 E : & & K M&   *P  6 [\\  4 E : &  M& @  36 = &
&    1: 56 ; 4  *4 *P )  1
.@0  * 4 .  & & ;1 :4  P  ? 
B   M&    &  * 4    8  76  - 1
!!b*P  6 [\\ E  M* 4   ) 

(    %P  M81


. 4  -4 B        6  4  & 8  )-4   &
54  M   :   M;-4 @ T   06# ) 0    4 B   &   6D * 4
.8-  6 4  :   8 0
:  )K 56 ?  U  MR 3 4A # 7# *   1

&  ) 6 D R ?   eukaryotes ")  " prokaryotes ")  "    ;1 &
b&   : M* 4 .   ,  ?  %(A
64 @   *0 9# M* R ' 56 )@C  P 4 )  &   %P  E1 3 &  &
.   ! * 4 0 * R )4, L 4 MCambrian  
  ? 6  4 )  &   *   .  2  & Rv  4  C  3 4
  & &
:' ,Q Mpunctuated equilibrium "B  P 4" . 36 @ 
(   6 X1: !b@ R   
!bTI  P 4 1: ,4 U  .  P  & 6  64    &  * 4 ( B  P 4

3 2  3 : " D3C  N 3 @  K0 , : : 8 @ '  = ;1  # K
 1@ .D TI  & !bE1   M*  -  : ?76  = A 1: !!+  ) 2 /
!b*-

 6 24 56  P . .@  1: M  .: & '4  * #  4 X1: .- 1# . 
M  .:   @6 L 4  X1: OP-   .EA * 4 &  4 36 BD  )= 
   
  C  : &   .  & 2   . 6 24 E6 & R 6   1 U 
.&  1@  &  *  - )-4

( '%

  & : "  ?  56 *   ") " )  1


  K7   &= 1   K 7  P& & .+P 56
.    ?D  ?+ 5
 7 0   76 & L4 . M? + ? '7 l M& - &  @
7  76  7  .8@ 84 8 # 5  6: 6  D    ,+  M". 2 " 6   67 )@ 7 & 8 
E1   .*  -   6 P  E :   '7    D 76   4 & A @  ) 6  
) -0 X1: 3 - 56  076 6D O, M D 8=!   &= )   3 ( &   M8-   M?4
.* 
  )  'D  1: .(X=! PE &  7 &
*  24 5
 (
'  ;) ?  " ( 4"  
&  & P )  .NASA P   3-0   7 P; U(  6 P   P : Robert Jastrow
)  . :  = !  0#  4 & * M : M?D    =  M DP 6P,0 C49 P
 64 &  8  =! 6 &  = @ e M)   ?7 & ) M O 56  : ) 6
:  *  24 @  & . (  

:   (U
M   6 ],k : Rv P;    P& L 4 M7( 54  R & .D P MB7D  P   .D  &

.@6D    6  D 56 &  #P, X1: )4    ! M  ) 6 o,h @   #, 7  P

: "2! 3! (d
) P C7  U # 1: M@0  #P, & C 46 ( U6#  #P, BD      !6 P   ? 7 &

)   #P, P& P  .@0  #P, P & P  )76 RP7 & e ! &    @ .6   6
.#$ & &

:_=2- ) L ! (e


M  O 56 0 0#     5
E1 M&  6  ,   5
;PK ;1  7 P  ? 7 &

2    .   7 ,   , ,   &l M36 U(  ?4 . 4  L4 .
 O 5
)-4q D *7 )7 E6 &  - D     36 & 8  & L 4 .8 O- P 4P
.X 0 &  E : 24 ;1 = A 1: &
.-+ )=  @ 2 #- )P 

: " (f
)P L 4 M O   P #  + 3-0 P  @-  )P )6P M[jm[ . 1$ & BP 
.BP     4 G6 4 56 @6   )7+ M  *( B *P  !

:2-=% "2! (g
.'0  56   ! 4   '7  M8  + *:7C X1: I M ! )   56 *    #P,
.3= 5
   & 1@ 8  P& R   & 8( 1: &  & & 

:,  3 ? (h
8P 4 &  P& )     & .P6# (  5
 O 56 *   04 ):P 0 R (   
.): 0 )67(  P  )  7 E6 L 4 }U (

:2  * (i


X1 : &
.89  ]\ n\  4 2  56 MP   @P = )4 B M8-  0  P  #-  :
.8  , u3  P  &  & &  MP; WD ( 1# -  . :  O 56   )#67

:2 '' 7=5L (j


.   7 & ( 0 .?@(  E= )- 5
@ 
&  M  p  56 L4 )  )P=@ & )
 ,  M       , & MNikolay A. Kozyrev U  =  ;    P 60 . .D M[joi
56 *4 5
89 8P:  8-  C4 D .Alphonsus "  0" 5  :P  & ?  O 56 P;=+ & 

P L 4 MP     )1 M8  )C49 X1: P& @C MAristarchus " ( "     .D
.   ?   ,  MO 56 P   *:C )  *:7C X1: P&
MR &  ?  @0

:(*" 3 , l 1J) D2  (k


*0  = .: E : '   & M, 6 e@      8 4   + *0 X1@ .: & .+
("    D 4) "  "    & " 6( U   "   .  M.[joj . 0 .P  D
.     -  )4 ' 
 (  D 56 1: .# & a0 &  & &   '  5
 ( '4  
  ;1   & "U  (  " "&   # " &    & ) M- & & )  
 C  X1: .  D !  , '  84-   M  : U  1: & D, . !UP  8-  : R  4
 C  : @ 
'1 ,  )  - * &      6  C  .& #V 36 &  
.4 0 -  :
.   b1 :   1 & .h./.+ o,o  4 R  G6   Mh. /.+ h,h]   P P&

NASA    P   3-0  O,  ;1 Gordon MacDonald   E &  + . Y, M[jkn

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3 6 &
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  4 2   & # &   .4 ? E1 M* 4 ,  W ,#     5
 6,   
&  D & 56   ( @  .6 & 1l .=  #  M6  +    : .9 1: & ; . 6
. @0 1 : RD  0 5
6 & 2  @  .N & U  M&   & ;  @1 : 3   3 = 0
& @   (  d    6 ? M(&  34    @1 : &   & ;) E1  & 1
L 4 b6
.&   & ;  8 6 3 (  @   * 4
   #$ &   * 4 3 (          = 0 &   )   54 :: @4 -   4   
R 4 3;= := 4  (, (   @  O-  &  ) *70(Q ) 6    0  P0  1@ M& 
  C    6 ) 6 E1 M 9#  @ 1  @ . , , & 8 O- O, 6 .DNA ; 
 !6     B  M?4 1:   M89D 8, &  & &   MDNA ;  R4   4
B  : ; M& &= ;=4 =  ; M 6 ; . d# B ; M  : , 1: &
@ 
& K6  & : +    -   A ,  54   (   - )D 6# ' ? 9 & &
3 6 5 6 &  &$  . 6 ; .@
 4 & # : C & ' @  ,D 7DK ) 0
M&         & M 6 .@#  .@0        C4 &  M  & & @ 
   @ M8    - )-4     .;P1 .  !, u3@  . C   T  & u3
1 : & M&   * 4 *( 29  &  K :    9 M )-4 1: Q  54 .8 06#
 @ ; M  & @ .+E!$ C"  ,@ M# 5 , ,^-  A :#$ @  K 5
   
 @    ) =9 M.P :  5 @ MB  &  1:  * 4  (  )D 6# X1: %  )
?  1: 56 * 4   &  K @  * ?    M .@ B-#      &   0  B-#
 @ * 4 *( 29
&  K @  * P &  & M(   5
&   #$ & & @6 9# &)
.@ .4 ( *0 O -  0  % -   .:   @ &

     


M 4 : * 46 6 3 (  & Francis Crick "E    " George Wald " d " &  YP, 
  .* 46  6 ; ?  & 6!(   = ; M* 4 ( # ; 6#  @ , & & 6  
  &   1# 1
L 4 .8    U  M( 6 ;)  ?  1: & @9 5
 C 1
M 4
  $ &   * 4 3  *4 &  4 M(? ) ) 3      )9 06 () 6  
*  &
 M(?  1:  7( (  & D 6 RP @  ? ) L 4) R    
.  )# T4
P @  &P   .@4, .  6  ; @   R ' 56 "* 46 6 3 ( "
. 6  @ 6       &   &- : 0 &   : 4  @
.B 2 56 8   @ 
& M.: + " :  " "E    " " d "  M& @  36 R   1: .8 @ 
& .'  ? , :  4  1: .&   #$ &  * 4 , & L4  3 .@0  %# &  07D 
*  ) 0:  &  M" " ) 6 B 8 * :  M K MX 4D ;1    ,0  .@ # 
.  2  5
.@ )
  R  @  )1 Q   = 64 &    M :    *0 (D  9#     &
54 .* 4  1 & : +  DNA ; R4 56 ; 4 T#  @ )    ")  " ")  "
 )  X1 :   &I . : :   K & .  ; T    = L 4 M*P     &V
            @     - )      ) 6 *=P@  @ ) 
X1 : 5 6 ; 4 )  1
b(*0  *= ! '  MP4 &  B R 0 : ) . ( 36 %,
56 UP ? M8  6 X1: ?   bR ?  5
@ ,  . D E1 & : M  6 
.@ 3  (  6  )   X1: ' U, ;1   T

   


 (  -  5
C   M(  6  ) P4 &  .@  1: C T 56 UP  &
 6 k  4 ;  ) 6 56 ; 4 -  X1: M@4 !, .+ .*A  @4 =    M476
o\\ &  U K ? [\\\ v &   U4 &   X1: !(   ;  R4 U4) ";   ="
  )I 1
!: & @ d4 L 4 8 2 D .4 )40, 56   U4 M  .4 & 40,
L 4 8 6: ?   5
4 )  M? )40, 56 & A .  *      ;  R4 U4
J  :  : ..8 8 8 @  )1 ) 6 X1: , &
!*P & # )P  4 Z6 @# E 
X  & .76 . &4 .K : 1: +33 /C     N> 7 ,$ , .* 4 , W ,#
2   .+  * 4 ( )     &    ) 6 &  U6# B   M* 4 (  '6

 &  * 4 , & & 4 & 1 M (  6 P-0 6 .   :C  ( 2 56 ; . 
.K 1: 56    M# 3-0 
.@D  & & P 1@   M"..3 )A )- > M3 @  * > , .." & & @  36 YP, 
 60Q   C  '  56 " 6 " & 6 & C .@ ..@ 4 &   6 material " " *C  )1 6
. 6  2 & # )K @   #  closed system
&   ; 3(   M#$  / = BD  & &  )    " 6 e " E :   MT# 6
4 &    D , ? ! M .,  B-# (: +       = 0    )P )
;  R4 3;=   =  : 9 ) 6 & *0 1# T  "& " 36 56 &  M26 31
.*0 X1@   ) 06 3 6 5
 P- M, 8-  )( DNA
 C U  M" , D . ,"  ",  " &   # ; MO 4, @ d  56 3A  &
 6  56 UP U  ME1 D & .P 4 )    = () 6 )  4 ) 6 X1:  
")  6" % -   1: 3# U, U  T  L 4 M" A"   6  : M8#K @C  
.. (

 : =


 @ .   .& - &        4    4 *  L4l ;, "  6  @"  .: 
M  U @ M0 *=@ M)  )   Minformation theory ") 6  C "  X@( ;1 Z0
..    M   #  5
)6# T# *  *=@
* @     genetic code "  *0 ("   W40 ") 6"   &  @ .D * # )  
) C  '  &  ;1 )D   .error correcting digital coding system ="o 2!J 8 15 : &
M -A .8   @  8 ( D : ="o 2! 8  7 15 & 
M8 *7 :4  D  0(
(gene &  @  )   6 = 0 & ; . C  X1@ 8 1 =P@ : DNA ;  R4 3;= &l
)  4 ? , 1
M  X1@ .P4 &6 B ;  R4  )D  0  BD  &   *   & 
  & T  1: !  .= .6  backup gene     #  5
*A P 4 M  6 3#
.8     C   T  ' ' ( 
& 

DNA

;  R4 3;=  

e  WI @ 4  5   .   eQ W DNA ;  R46   0(  C  ' ( &
2 6# # Q    !6 . 
E  & 1
T   ( @
&   D   '   P=#Q :
     V 5
4 )  MeQ W @ 4  5    !(  & .WI   P=#Q ) 6
&  )(  e Q W  !( =@   V X1: ( .5   5
*0(Q ) 6 E6  56 
.06#  
3= @ .   )@
 K )(A ; 4 DNA ;  R4 3;=   4 ) 6 . 4 P 6#  8  806#   
  ,# )= @ B  6#  #  .;( .    )  ) C  )   &
.:3 &  K ) 6 E6 .# . &  0( PE 56

X   .'4 56  P=#Q     ) 6   56 ;:C     ; C49  Me WD 5
C 
W  ' P=#   26#  #Q   !6  ? +  .3 -   :7  &  ? 9 :
   '4  56 7  &  ? 9 30 T   #    6 M5   5
'  #Q  V E1
; 5 4  M'  *70(Q ) 6   DNA ;  R4 B @@  @1 6- : X1: .3 -  
.T#   6 & =#  C 

 6  66 ( 56 @C @  T  M;  R4 3;=  nucleotides "  6 "  ?  2   ,4 1

*0 ( )   !6  56 = 4   '


.=     6  ( 56        &
O, Q @ 4 MDNA ;  R4 3;=  *70( ) 6    ) V E1 (genetic code  
 66 )     U  M  $  X1: ? +  .    8 @0 "  6 " 6 66 ? 
.8D9
5  &  ;  R4 3;= & ,6#Q

;  R4 3;= 

nucleotides

"  6 "  ? 

*0 ( )   !6 & U   0 : materialists &  36 ' ;1   ;4 &l M'6 1@   
M6 ; 0 ( )P M;  R4 3;=   =#Q ) 6    -  6# ) V M( 
.D (
 1 7# &  ;
John "&  & "    1 D .&= & 6    .@!(
36 El " - " 6C )D 

:D  M.[jmm .  6-Q X1: Walton

66 ?   *0(Q ) 6  .p46 6D  + 6:  Y genetic

code

  *0 ( , &


.."

;  R 4   *70(Q 8-  :  V X1: W # & M  $ ? +  5  ; & *P "  6 " 6

&   M*0( Q )  6 ? +  & M5  &  ) 6  M  $ ? +  M#$ 5  .DNA

)3    X1 : p 4 @ ) 4 B  M" - " 6C 7  X1: .  $ d#
"..(0

 6   # X1: = 4 : b' 6 ,4 ;1  M6  ;  R4  # 6   *0   9# &
*0 ( 4 56 * '  8 7 ;   , : ' 6 ,4  &
. 8 be   *0 ( 56   6  &
. C  Q 1

8 6 *  DNA   R 4 X1:    ) 6 E : &  & &  M81
.) 6 
56    &  &   &   .#$ 3( ; D 8    6  & 66 )  X1:  W#
. 6- X1:   .@

<  ' %


Morse Code

     56 
$
8 # )  1
M M M Ma Ma Ma M M M : 6 & 80K 8= E 6 RQ 1

 @ 6 UQ * : M"S-O-S"   )+0   & 6 X1: & 8*( E U  M   =  ! 
&   6 X1:  1# 1
M)D  0  & .Save Our Souls " 4   1 " 66 = L 4 . ( *4 & 
   ?  5 
&  C U  M& = )+  &   : 6 D  4 56 : - )+0  
'  ;1  ; !6 O6, .@
. ? 8 1: M@  * 0  6 ; W9# & &= & )+0
.Morse Code    = 

'[ %
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

  D ;  7 & U  M+  &  & 4 X D  = 6 A !6 ?  ?  1# 1
M (
 :  . = 6 A !6 '  ;1 ; !6 O6, Q  '  & 1

.'    9 54    
;  7   = 6 A   @  U  & (  U4 &l M(   = ) )+0   B 4
.:4 D )  1
@    ) 6
  U4 B  & .5  &  5 & U 4 B   1: & MP   @ 5  & 8 @( 7 D
1 : M& .) 6 @Cl  @ 4 M = 6 A !6   D @-0   49, &   2 M66 ) 

:8  &      & ?  & @ & 6 ? +  5  ; 4 & '   U4 )  6 B
)  6 5 
 @P 4  (& A  )   $ M8  M = 6 A !6 .4   !6 )49,   
. @0

!

 &

DNA

 

*= @   )  6 % & =# .#I  magnetic disks    ! WD  M?6, WD &

 D &   : M8 + '1 &    ;(  .DNA ;  R4 3;= *P  6 7   
; 5 6 & .e   *0 ( & =# 56 * '  & M ;     ) (  . be   *0 ( ) (
 D &  (formatting  0 )  6 B-# & a0 W 56 ?   4 ) 6   & M4
.R! 1@ 8, ,# B Q, ;1  
& , 0  d #    : ;1 ( ) 1 , 9# & e  '  &P=#Q M?6, W  9#
    &   2 @ UQ   W O 56   4 )1 ?  9# & 1: 2 4 . .W
.  ) 6 & 1: .W  ' =  = & U  M) 6 ' = W   .   ! @
.&=   6 &  # '  @ =#

7  W 56  P=    4 )1 (   &l M = 6 A   & & (  U4 4  
9 # &  (e   *0 ( ( 56 &  ) ) 6 W9# & M)D  0  & .@1  ) 6 ;
 6          4 )16 ?  1:  . . .W O 56  4 )1 ?   
  U  M8Q ,Q e  !    . ? +  . ! ?  8  -  &   2
.8D9
5  &  W 56  4 )1 ? 
2  '0 4 M89D 8 ,    . d4  . 8 b' ,#  ! 26#   B  :
 #  @ & .76 4 X1:  M1 D . , 4 8-  : L 4 M(; !6 O6, )  ! 56
.   
 @ )    ")  " ")  "   R @  )1Q   = 64 & 3 9# &
)  X1 @   6 )  4 &V )4,  M* 4  1 & : +  DNA ; R4 56 ; 4 T#
WD 7 ) = X1: & P ,  &V .DNA ;  R4 ) = @  R0     @ . @
?  8  ?  M) 6 ;  R4 3= 4 &  & .4 O 56 0 (@  & 9 )) Q
&  : .76 MQ WD 4  .chemical code    *0 ( D & 8Q *4Q ,#   ' =
)  6  C z  ?4 .8  *   &  &  ! 56 ? '   &  :  . !
! & ; ..D , &    ! &l Mmodern information theory  ,
e & .:4 &     .C Q    3  *4  & Urey "; " Miller "66 " % 
e   ! ? + 0 M'6 E1 .+ & .(,)  0    )3A   & nucleotides "  6 " 
 P=   4 )1 B 4 :  M) 6   *K &  &    =  X1@ &  M8  - 
.? 40, 56 8  (  =    U4  MW O 56 8  (
6 T  1: .+ MC46 X1: 54 & M06# W #  U6# ( 1# 56 := 04   6# ^   
E1  8 6 (  4A D) * 4 D @  P U  &V 54 ?  36 B   M.  X@( ;1 .
;1  =  A T  ?   !   36 @ 6    ( = !)  0 ) 6 )3 &  &
:6 PQ * 7     4 -   , M  =!6 1: '-0

# #'
.@ B   ; M  :3 4
  ?  B   '  M   * 4 (  ? 9 & .6 B 
    UP, U  8  U  M?4 1:   ..6 ( * 4 0Q O, @9# &   
.@ 56 C4

 6     E1 ( @  9# 54  M& 4  M 7 D ;1) 8  , P4 & ^   

   6 5  "  & .     d# & U  M( ) 64 X1:   U7D  1
& . P 

!X3 56 C4  X    ) 6 XP = * 4 '  L   7# . &
 

= M   6 =  A 1: .+ & . 6# W # &   '  P !  MP4 &6     3
 

' -  2 X3 56 C4  X    ) 6 P = &P@ &  * 4 LI U  & 6@ 36
!' 
P 4 ;1   '6(

P  U   @ '  M(  ,  C ) [n] 64 5


[[] 64 & P4 &  & .6 B 
!'  7# ; &  [h] 64

+@3! L5 7 15


B )I & )  @  MP 4 C        ,  4 *  ) C )@C M& ( & *  
  ) ! e )0 ( , 6 ) C  &l M 4 B   & .36 &       @C
     & K ) ,  . = )@ Q  ..=9 .:    8 6 6D : ( !6 )46,)
 D &     R MD , 0  P M  *0 (  M )! e & 6 ( 
&   3 6 & &  .+  .(*0 X1: P  6( .@      6  @ & .+) ,3 
P 0  9  C 5
P,  &  = &V 54 .@  
MD ,   d  5
;K * ; & -

 X1: &l M84 T   !:4 , 0 P & M","  R  I  M) 66 & U 
. 9  +  64 &   d # 5
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; @ . origin of information by chance @3! 5 7 *!$ W ,# *@( ) C   T4

  ., 0 P  & e   *0 (6 & U  R & "&! "  4 .Manfried Eigen "&!   0 "
5 4 ) 0  )66 &  81
1 M, 7( 56 *D   *0 ( =  )  1
'  "&! "
.'0 3( 0 & ?
U  P , .   (   @6# . &  = 6 A !6 U4 M, M   56 *D 56 = 4 $ "& ! " 
U 4 &  *=  0 )  W4  .  & 6 * U4 X1@  ( =  6 ) 1
 & 
5 4 MCAT MDOG MMAN MAND   )6 )7  .5  @  )6 R  & &   8  ( *7 
89  )  L 4 V X1: 3 ?P &   .The Lord is my sheperd, I shall not want..  ) R
 ( d A  8  8  , ?  
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7 1: & "&! "  .5  @  )6 7  &
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 6 " 5   ."& ! "   '    ;1 # T A.E. Wilder-Smith "L  6 .
."     R

&  "& ! " $ '#   C  '  ?6 M  & : M = 6  !6 &    & 1 & X3D, 4 "L 
Y .X#$ 5
..BOY MFISH MHAT : M5  @   ( )6 ) 7  V )4 . = 6
)6 )
 &   .V '- ;1  ;  ?  & &  )6 & X7   V 5
2P4 ;  ' ,
5
'6 C ;   & M5  @ ) )6    56 V X1: * 8 0 X  UD  ;= 6 A
M'   8D9
5  ; '   V X1: & ) 6 & d#  & ;  ( 8 # .8 ( .@0 & &  V
. = 6 A !6   D )46, .6  +   ' 
   : M[, "4 4, ) 6"    & ] '  6 M"& ! "   &  4 9# & 84- O,
5 
    1: M( = 6 A) 8 *   ! )46,   D 56   V ., '  : ? M8 #
  8   = 6 A !6 )46, B- & :    MU6# 5  & '1 K Y    M0, 
!b@ V 
 = 6 A !6 6 )46,    2P   5  ' &  U4 6 & 5
"L  6 "  (
' 1   M   !6 .
&  8 (     )+0   B 4 :  .@1  66 )  56
  &  5  ; ;   M: +  M   =   M! ;  U4v  ( ?  56 2

5 
@6 4 66 )  X1:  &4 @ 6   =  U4 6 ?  .7C  )46,   D
5 6   L 4   &   &  8 @ 6 20 :  !  C  ; .4     & ; . @0  
 @C @46, :  D B M P  ! &  D &
M#$ 5  .P4 5  7 U4 & 66 &P  ?  &
.@# @  D 8  @ 6 20Q & ? M,#
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. 6 (  , P & 8 @    !6  C  & 8  &  6 &  @ .6
e     *0 (   Y   1
8 ,  3!
? '  8  .6   e   6
.  6  C 6 8 -  : "," &l M 4  .% ; &  

) 6 6  ( 6#  6 & 6 *0 P (P   C )   *  )= M'6 E1 .+
& =#  6 .4  *0 ( 8-   MDNA ;  R4 3;=    M( M&  & 9 * nucleotides
& @   = 6 WD & *  7K  E1 &4  M. = X1@   1
!@64  ) 6 %
  D )46, & E1   M@ 4  6@ ) 6   & * 8-  7K  M, 8 6 P
 4 d#  &  B   6  @  e & 7# ; &  , P & @  M )!  !
.W 1:

R v # ) 6 % & =#  P   $ 56 ; 4 P 4 ) C  & )- & D 1  36 PE( 
-A M[joh .  DNA ;  R4    :  0 O -   Y  B .; 6#    
ME1 B & .E1 PE( ; &   4 X1: & 7 .  M- & & )     *0 ( =  PE 5

.8  .  ;  R4 U( "  2  6# ) 6 ,  4 .   )C  &l
: M;4  5
&    Mcellular hardware  6#     7(  W ,# ,4 
& 1  .P 4 ) C  ' =#I ;1 software "e " ; M:3 ( *   4 ) 6  ,  0 M"&="
e  7( &  54 M8  O, 3(  M )D  7  1
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 K   @  & &  9  !6     )0 ( )Q   M.P, E : &  & &  9 &P  . ,
.@6 ( &
B   &  1:    . C  T &
M   .. C :   O- d  5
  )  : Q 
  . C  1 : & U     .  1#K & & U#  1:  ( ",  "  4 = 
 (A E1 MD ?76 8  1: . 4  l ' ( 56  D =  2   ?7 #

' @C ;1   @   M -A .'  &4 ;1  / = Q  4 d# B , & ..D
   &   56   X 0 &  DNA ;  R4 3;=    ) 6   MP 4 ) C 
.   D &  / =  1:  @# @0 
*  4    &  D 56   &  R +  0 .@   & : 36 & M& ( &  
. C 2#   * - 5
Y -   ( 6:1 : C U(  M.@  ,D &  M):  4 .: @ & M2
X 0(    -  1: ME1 B !8 6 X  . )A .:   & :   ;1 2# 1: .P 
!X  * - 8 #  76
  4 8=  M4   M  &  & 2# 56 ? M : 9 P 4 ' C  &  26#  &
&=  8  &  & ? M   &  26#  & .X + E
& &4 = ;1  6 ; BD  1:
& 2 # 5 6 ? ..P 4 )   ( C  )6 ; ; 4   *
 & M8  .'6#
d # # M)D  0  M  56 * X1: .& 6 ; T 4 ( ;1  / = Q 1: 5
#
  ?76 M& 6 T#  / =   2# 56 * E1 M& 6 ;  / = Q 1:
&   M'  ( 'C T U,  ?  O6,   ;1  1: .X  &  ( . C D &
.",  " 5I 0 # * 56   X 0
 Q #(  , 5 *! - -1 : /  ,/ 3 5
3 6 =9 M'6 E1 .+ &

E- EA .@   Q "@3! *" )-J <23J PA 5
3 6   M==(   8- ! 8 &  6  
   &  ; ? + B   -  )= &  MY -    # 4 & &  &$  .0  7 '
U D 6   E :  . .P 4 C  &  P .7C ;1 M*2 - 7   2#  M: 
. # E 6 ? M"D . ,"  M",  " 
. =

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)     #  .. =  C4 5
3  ..  + 2   0  3 & #V U ,   @ 9#
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8     ..( ? +  M@   @  & ..T# *  ? .." .   ="  EP & E :
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