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OBJECTIVE/SCOPE: The lecture describes the basic principles used in the design of tanks for the storage of oil or water. It covers the design of vertical cylindrical tanks, and reference is made to the British Standard BS 2654 [1] and to the American Petroleum Industry Standard API650 [2]. PREREQUISITES None. RELATED LECTURES Lecture 8.6: Introduction to Shell Structures Lecture 8.8: Design of Unstiffened Cylinders SUMMARY Welded cylindrical tanks are commonly used to store oil products or water. The principal structural element of these tanks is a vertical steel cylinder, or shell, which is made by welding together a series of rectangular plates and which restrains the hydrostatic pressures by hoop tension forces. The tank is normally provided with a flat steel plated bottom which sits on a prepared foundation, and with a fixed roof attached to the top of the shell wall. This lecture explains the design basis for the structural elements of cylindrical tanks and illustrates the arrangements and the key details involved.

1. DESIGN OF WELDED CYLINDRICAL TANKS
1.1 General
Oil and oil products are most commonly stored in cylindrical steel tanks at atmospheric pressure or at low pressure. The tanks are flat bottomed and are provided with a roof which is of conical or domed shape. Water is also sometimes stored in cylindrical steel tanks. When used to store potable water they are of a size suitable to act as a service reservoir for a local community; they have a roof to prevent contamination of the water. Cylindrical tanks are also used in sewage treatment works for settlement and holding tanks; they are usually without a roof. The sizes of cylindrical tanks range from a modest 3m diameter up to about 100m diameter, and up to 25m in height. They consist of three principal structural elements - bottom, shell and roof. For petroleum storage, the bottom is formed of steel sheets, laid on a prepared base. Some tanks for water storage use a reinforced concrete slab as the base of the tank, instead of steel sheets. The shell, or cylindrical wall, is made up of steel sheets and is largely unstiffened. The roof of the tank is usually fixed to the top of the shell, though floating roofs are provided in some circumstances. A fixed roof may be self supporting or partially supported through membrane action, though generally the roof plate is supported on radial beams or trusses.

1.2 Design Standards
Clearly, common standards are generally applicable whether a tank holds oil or water, though it is the petroleum industry which has been responsible for the development of many of the design procedures and standards. The two standards applied most widely are British Standard BS 2654 [1] and the American Petroleum Institute Standard API 650 [2]. These two Standards have much in common, although there are some significant differences (see Appendix A). Other standards, American and European, are not applied much outside their respective countries.

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representing the maximum 3-second gust speed which is exceeded.5 Seismic Loads In some areas. though its use is developing. The design code is based on allowable stress principles. only once every 50 years. ambient plus 10oC) or the lowest temperature of the contents.htm This lecture will generally follow the requirements of BS 2654 [1]. the contents should be taken to fill the tank to the top of the shell. Such material is readily weldable.5 kN/m2) may have developed.2 Superimposed Load A minimum superimposed load of 1. This is normally achieved by specifying an appropriate sub-grade to EN 10 025 [3]. such as maintenance equipment. a vacuum of 5 mbar (0. any other imposed loads.4 Material Tanks are usually manufactured from plain carbon steel plate (traditionally referred to as mild steel) of grades S235 or S275 (to EN 10 025 [3]). 2. Internally. as well as a nominal snow load. for a tank without any overflow.3 Design Pressure and Temperature Tanks designed for storage at nominally atmospheric pressure must be suitable for modest internal vacuum (negative pressure). 2. 2. The use of higher strength grades of low alloy steel (e. to contain vapour losses. to cater for differential pressure under wind loads. or may be given cathodic protection. Tanks may also be designed to work at relatively small positive internal pressures (up to 56 mbar (5. Non-pressure tanks are often fitted with valves which do not open until the vacuum reaches a value of 2. 2. It is therefore applicable even in locations where snow is not experienced. tanks are normally protected. specialised knowledge should be applied in determining seismic loads. 1.4 Wind Loads Wind loads are determined on the basis of a design wind speed. Actual predicted snow load or other superimposed load. 1.6 kN/m2). not on a limit state basis.fgg. or equivalent.5 mbar. typically a value of 45 m/s is taken as the design wind speed. should be applied. Externally.g. Even without valves a tank should be designed for a vacuum of 5 mbar. For oil and oil products. should be used when it is greater than the specified minimum. Grade S355) is less common. Where any steel is used uncoated. A density of 1000 kg/m3 should therefore be taken as a minimum. By the time a valve is fully open.85 kN/m2) may develop. Whilst some guidance is given in BS 2654 [1] and API650 [2] on the design of the tank.2 kN/m2 (over the horizontal projected area) is applied to the roof of the tank. up to the full capacity of the tank. which might be applied to the roof. 2 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM . In pressure tanks the valves may be set to 6 mbar vacuum. according to BS2654. Water tanks may be given a coating (provided it is suitably inert. in which case a pressure difference of 8. No maximum service temperature is normally specified. plus appropriate vacuum pressure. Notch ductility at the lowest service temperature is obtained for thicker materials (> 13 mm) by specifying minimum requirements for impact tests. This load is commonly known as the 'snow load'.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100. where the water is potable). DESIGN LOADING A tank is designed for the most severe combination of the various possible loadings. Full capacity is usually determined by an overflow near the top of the tank. whichever is the lower.0. a tank must be designed to withstand seismic loads.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. on average. and it includes the internal vacuum load.5 mbar (0.1 Dead Load The dead load is that due to the weight of all the parts of the tank.uni-lj. Non-refrigerated tanks are designed for a minimum metal temperature which is based on the lowest ambient air temperature (typically. the relative density of the contents is less than 1.3 Contents The weight and hydrostatic pressure of the contents. 2. Maximum wind speed depends on the area in which the tank is to be built. oil tanks are normally unpainted. 2. This standard is both a design code and a construction specification. but tanks for such liquids are normally tested by filling with water. but in fact represents. an allowance must be made in the design for loss of thickness due to corrosion.

BOTTOM DESIGN For petroleum storage tanks. called sketch plates. The bottom is made up of a number of rectangular plates. possibly a reinforced concrete raft. laid and fully supported on a prepared foundation. if the subsoil is weak. surrounded by a set of shaped plates. The steel plates are directly supported on a bitumen-sand layer on top of a foundation. Lapped and fillet welded joints are preferred to butt welded joints (which must be welded onto a backing strip below the joint) because they are easier and cheaper to make.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100. 3 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM .ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. steel bottom plates are specified. A typical foundation pad is shown in Figure 1 and a detailed description of the formation of this example is given in Appendix A of BS 2654 [1].htm 3. to give a circular shape.uni-lj. as shown in Figure 2.fgg. usually of compacted fill or. The plates slightly overlap each other and are pressed locally at the corners where three plates meet (see Figure 3).

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5 m diameter.fgg. rather than lapped. A typical arrangement is shown in Figure 4. because of the ring stiffening which the plates provide to the bottom of the shell. 5 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM .uni-lj. The radial joints between the annular plates are butt welded. The shell sits on the sketch or annular plates.htm For larger tanks (over 12. according to BS 2654) a ring of annular plates is provided around the group of rectangular plates. just inside the perimeter and is fillet welded to them (see Figure 5).si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www.

which is then transmitted directly to the base. is the pressure from the contents. The circumferential tension in the shell will vary directly. 4. Water tanks may also have a steel bottom. apart from local stiffening to the bottom of the shell. Stress calculations are not normally required for the base.uni-lj. the stress is given by: where D is the diameter of the tank t is the thickness of the plate r is the density of the fluid g is the gravity constant 6 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM .ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www.1 Circumferential Stresses Vertical cylinder tanks carry the hydrostatic pressures by simple hoop tension. In some circumstances a reinforced concrete slab is specified instead. At a water depth H. though a simple arrangement of an angle welded to the bottom edge of the shell and bolted to the slab will usually suffice. There are no standard details for the connection between a shell and a concrete slab. SHELL DESIGN 4.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100.fgg. The only load they carry.htm The bottom plates act principally as a seal to the tank. though BS 2654 sets out minimum thicknesses of plate depending on the size of the tank. No circumferential stiffening is needed for this action. in a vertical direction. For a uniform shell thickness. the calculation of stresses is therefore straightforward. according to the head of fluid at any given level.

BS 2654 defines it as two-thirds of the yield stress. These plates may take the form of a circular doubling plate welded around the hole or of an inset piece of thicker plate. Good weld procedures can minimise the distortions or deviations from the ideal flat or curved line of the surface across the weld. The effect of this on the hoop stresses is illustrated in Figure 6. this is slightly more restrictive. 7 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM . if possible. for higher strength steels.5 on the plastic strength of the plate. a convenient opportunity to use thicker plates in the lower rings and thinner plates in the upper rings.htm For practical reasons. an empirical adjustment is introduced into the design rules which effectively requires that any course is simply designed for the pressure 300mm above the bottom edge of the course. API650 allows a slightly higher stress during the hydrostatic test than the allowable design stress for service conditions when the relative density is less than 1.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100. or courses. Each piece will be cylindrically curved and it is convenient to build up the shell in a number of rings. butt welded together.) When the load due to internal pressure is taken into account and an allowance for corrosion loss is introduced. thus giving an overall factor of 1. Each course is butt welded to the course below along a circumferential line. Each course is made of a number of plates. Further. it may also be made of sufficient size that shell reinforcement can be omitted.0.fgg. This increase is catered for by requiring the provision of reinforcing plates. The lowest course of plates is fully welded to the bottom plate of the tank providing radial restraint to the bottom edge of the plate. because of these restraints. at least for deeper tanks. Consequently the rules call for the vertical seams to be staggered from one course to the next . one on top of the other. API650 also uses two-thirds of the yield stress. The nozzle provides some stiffening to the edge of the hole. the resulting design equation is of the form in BS 2654: where t is the calculated minimum thickness (mm) w is the maximum density of the fluid (kg/l) H is the height of fluid above the bottom of the course being designed (m) S is the allowable design stress (N/mm2) p is the design pressure (pressure tanks only) (mbar) c is the corrosion allowance (mm) The allowable design stress in tension in the shell is generally taken to be a suitable fraction of the material yield stress. but additionally limits the design stress to a smaller fraction of the ultimate strength. rather than the greater pressure at the bottom edge.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www.uni-lj. it is necessary to build up the shell from a number of fairly small rectangular pieces of plate. Holes in the shell for inlet/outlet nozzles or access manholes cause a local increase in circumferential stresses. Similarly. the bottom edge of any course which sits on top of a thicker course is somewhat restrained because the thicker plate is stiffer. especially with thin material. This technique provides. (This is known as the 'one foot rule' in API 650 [2]. butt welded along the vertical join between the plates. but some imperfection is inevitable.at least one third of the length of the individual plates. Consequently.

larger stresses result because of the large overturning moment when the tank is full. for steel. M. The calculation of axial stress is therefore not even called for in codes. and the weight of the roof which it supports. has the value: In practice. In addition.htm 4. is given simply by the expression: sa = 4M/ptD2 In BS 2654 the axial stress under seismic conditions is limited to 0. If necessary. API650 uses a similar value.2 Axial Stresses in the Shell The cylindrical shell has to carry its weight. or wrinkle. A thin-walled cylinder under a sufficient axial load will of course buckle locally. the tank does have to be checked for uplift when it is empty and subject to wind loading. as an axial stress. provided that the internal pressure exceeds a value which depends on the tank size. can be obtained from classical theory and. for a perfect cylinder. The critical value of this stress. But under seismic conditions. which is considered a reasonable value when the cylinder is also under internal hydrostatic pressure. wind loading on the tank contributes tensile axial stress on one side of the tank and compressive stress on the other. In that case the axial stresses must be calculated. such as BS 2654 and API650. However. Axial stress due to overturning moment.uni-lj.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. a typical example is shown in Figure 7.fgg. for the service conditions. anchorages must be provided. in normal service the axial stresses in shells suitable to carry the circumferential loads for the size of tank used for oil and water storage are much smaller than even this level of stress. 4.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100. an allowable stress level of as little as a tenth of the above might be more appropriate. imperfect shells buckle at a much lower stress.3 Primary Wind Girders 8 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM .20Et/R. Although axial stresses do not need to be calculated for service conditions.

Examples are shown in Figure 8. which is easily applied in design. This stiffening is particularly necessary when the tank is empty.fgg.058 D2 H where Z is the (elastic) section modulus (cm3) of the effective section of the ring girder.uni-lj. i. 9 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM . no additional stiffening is needed at the top of the shell. to avoid a corrosion trap. circumferential stiffening is needed to maintain the roundness of the tank when it is subject to wind load.htm A tank with a fixed roof is considered to be adequately restrained in its cylindrical shape by the roof. based on work by De Wit. except possibly as part of an effective compression ring (see Section 5. At the top of an open tank (or one with a floating roof). including a width of shell plate acting with the added stiffener D is the tank diameter (m) H is the height of the tank (m) The formula presumes a design wind speed of 45 m/s.2). by (V/45)2. In BS 2654 this formula is expressed as a required minimum section modulus given by: Z = 0. Wind girders are usually formed by welding an angle or a channel around the top edge of the shell. Fortunately.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. For other wind speeds it may be modified by multiplying by the ratio of the basic wind pressure at the design speed to that at 45 m/s.e. Note that continuous fillet welds should always be used on the upper edge of the connection. The calculation of the stability of stiffened tanks is a complex matter. investigations into the subject have led to an empirical formula.

The whole process is illustrated by an example in BS 2654. provided it is relatively close to the top of the tank. The positions of the intermediate rings. Fortunately. this reduces approximately to the expression in the code: where D is the diameter of the shell (m) Hp is the maximum permitted spacing of rings (m) (equivalent to critical length. Taking the thinnest plate (the top course) as reference (tmin). which are equally spaced on the equivalent tube. To prevent this local buckling. into which the water spills and passes to the outlet.4 Secondary Wind Girders Although the primary wind girder or the roof will stabilise the tank over its full height. of radius R and thickness t. tank shells in practice are made up of courses. The steel plates can be entirely self supporting (by 'membrane' action). l. and the thickness of the plating increases from the top to the bottom. courses of height h and thickness t can be converted to an equivalent height of a tube of the thin plate which has the same effective slenderness by applying the correction: where t is the thickness of each course in turn He is the equivalent height of each course at a thickness of tmin The equivalent heights of all the courses are added to give the total equivalent height (length of tube) and divided by the critical length Hp to determine the minimum number of intervals and thus the number of intermediate rings. Such buckling would also occur in a longer tube which is restrained at intervals equal to that length. Membrane roofs are more difficult to erect .1 General Fixed roofs of cylindrical tanks are formed of steel plate and are of either conical or domed (spherically curved) configuration. local buckling can occur in empty tall tanks between the top of the tank and its base. a suitable gutter detail can participate as a primary wind girder. Primary wind girders are normally external to the tank. Minimum sizes for this angle are given in the code [1]. Although this detail is not covered in the code. FIXED ROOF DESIGN 5. In that event a kerb angle is also required at the free edge. the arrangement of a low ring girder and a kerb angle is covered by the design rules.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100.and are usually found only 10 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM . by the reverse of the above procedure. The determination of the number and position of these secondary wind girders is dealt with in BS 2654 (but not in API 650).htm It is recognised that application of the above formula to tanks over 60 m diameter leads to unnecessarily large wind girders. The critical stress for a length of tube. the code allows the size to be limited to that needed for a 60 m tank.they require some temporary support during placing and welding . or they may rest on top of some form of support structure.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www.uni-lj. l) tmin is the thickness of the shell plate (mm) Vw is the design wind speed (m/s) va is the vacuum (mbar) However. 5. 4. The stiffening is achieved by welding an angle to the surface of the shell plate in the same manner as for the primary wind girder. the elastic critical buckling will occur at a given uniform external pressure.fgg. Settlement tanks usually require a gutter around the inside edge of the tank. rearranging and simplifying. The procedure is based on determining the length of tube for which. is given in Roark [4] by the formula: Using values of E and u for steel. secondary wind girders are introduced at intervals in the height of the tank. with the ends held circular. must be established by converting positions on the tube back to positions on the tank. this non-uniform situation can be converted into an equivalent uniform situation by noting that the critical length l (or maximum spacing Hp) is proportional to t5/2.

2 kN/m2).2 Membrane Roofs In a membrane roof. as shown in Figure 9: 11 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM .7 kN/m2. R1 is taken as the radius of the shell divided by the sine of the angle between the roof and the horizontal.0.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100. This is expressed as a requirement for a minimum area of the effective section. for example. they have a joint efficiency factor of only 0. Conical roofs usually have a slope of 1:5. 5. stresses are limited to: (for spherical roofs) (for conical roofs) where h is the joint efficiency factor S is the allowable design stress (in N/mm2) p is the internal pressure (in mbar) Although lapped and double fillet welded joints are acceptable.e.5 times the diameter of the tank. under internal pressure. Permanent support steelwork for the roof plate may either span the complete diameter of the tank or may in turn be supported on columns inside the tank. for larger tanks. Roof plates are usually lapped and fillet welded to one another. superimposed load plus 0.2 kN/m2. the forces from dead and imposed loads are resisted by compressive radial stresses.htm on smaller tanks. i.e. For low pressure tanks. The use of a single central column is particularly effective in relatively small tanks (15-20 m diameter). naturally. they do not need to be welded to any structure which supports them. 1. (equivalent to about 6 mm plate thickness) and the E value for steel.e. but they must normally be welded to the top of the shell. They can be simple rolled beam sections or.5. i. The net upward forces from internal pressure minus dead load are resisted by tensile radial stresses. For upward loads.5kN/m2 for dead load. the radial compression is complemented by ring tension. i. they can be fabricated trusses. For downward loads.36 R1 A similar expression is given in API650. R1 = R/sinq .uni-lj. The main members of the support steelwork are. radial to the tank.8 and 1. For tensile forces.fgg. Using a value of Pe = 1. butt welded joints have a factor of 1. Spherical roofs usually have a radius of curvature between 0.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. the radial tension has to be complemented by a circumferential compression. expressed in imperial units and for a loading of 45lb/ft2 (= 2. gives: tr = 0. This compression can only be provided by the junction section between roof and shell. Limitations on buckling under radial compression are expressed in BS2654 as: where R1 is the radius of curvature of the roof (m) P e is the external loading plus self weight (kN/m2) E is Young's modulus (N/mm2) tr is the roof plate thickness (mm) For conical roofs.

The plate simply lies on the beams and is not connected to them. This limit allows the use of 5 mm plate for the roof.uni-lj. Self supporting roofs are essential when there is an internal floating cover. although spherical roofs can be used if the radial beams are curved. They greatly facilitate the construction of the roof. Typical arrangements are shown in section in Figures 10 and 11. Radial beams are arranged such that the span of the plate between them is kept down to a minimum of about 2 m.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. The roof support structure can either be self supporting or be supported on internal columns.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100.3 Supported Roofs Radial members supporting the roof plate permit the plate thickness to be kept to a minimum. 12 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM . 5. Supported roofs are most commonly of conical shape.fgg.htm where Sc is the allowable compressive stress (in N/mm2) R is the radius of the tank (in m) q is the slope of the roof at roof-shell connection The allowable compressive stress for this region is taken to be 120 N/mm2 in BS2654 [1].

htm 13 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM .fgg.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www.uni-lj.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100.

Pressure relief 14 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM . the slope may be as low as 1:16. Typical plan arrangements are shown in Figure 11. For storage of petroleum products. Those that do may be considered as main support beams. Where they are designed for axial thrust.htm When columns are used to support the roof.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100. In API650 it is permitted to assume that friction between the roof plate and the beam is adequate to restrain the compression flange of the secondary rafter beams. the secondary radial members may be considered as rafters . such restraint cannot be assumed for the main beams.fgg. however. 5.4 Venting Venting has to be provided to cater for movement of the contents into and out of the tank and for temperature change of the air in the tank. emergency pressure relief has to be provided to cater for heating due to an external fire.they are supported at their inner ends on ring beams between the main support members. The shell/roof junction zone must be designed for compression. In the British code reference is therefore made to BS449 [5]. When the roof is self supporting it may be more economic to use a steeper roof. Design of beams and support columns may generally follow conventional building code rules. Venting can be provided by pressure relief valves or by open vents. The main support members may be subject to bending and axial load. Cross bracing is provided in selected bays. provided that they are not too deep. The main support members need to be restrained at intervals to stabilise them against lateral-torsional buckling. though it must be noted that both BS 2654 and API650 are allowable stress codes. the central ring must be designed as a compression ring. rather than to a limit state code. in the same way as described above for membrane roofs. Where internal columns are used they will be beneath the main support members.uni-lj.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. the top of the shell must be designed for the hoop forces associated with the axial forces in the support members. Not all radial members continue to the centre of the tank.

buoyancy is achieved by providing liquid-tight compartments in one of two forms of roof .htm can be achieved either by additional emergency venting or by designing the roof to shell joint as frangible (this means. A double deck roof is effectively a complete set of compartments over the whole diameter of the tank. maintenance personnel need access from the top of the shell to the roof whatever the level of contents in the tank. The continued breathing can result in substantial evaporation losses. DESIGN OF FLOATING ROOFS AND COVERS 6. 6. the free space above the contents contains an air/vapour mixture. Measures are needed to minimise these losses. Access is usually achieved by a movable ladder or stairway. because there is internal pipework. For maintenance of the drainage system and for access to nozzles through the roof for various purposes. Both types of roof must remain buoyant even if some compartments are punctured (typically two compartments). the roof cannot normally be allowed to fall to the bottom of the tank. an access manhole must be provided through the roof. that the size of the fillet weld between the roof and the shell is limited in size .uni-lj. In petroleum tanks. 15 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM . The central deck of a pontoon roof should also be presumed to be punctured for this design condition. A typical arrangement of a pontoon type roof is shown in Figure 12. During service. principally. it catches rain. A pontoon roof has an annular compartment. When the tank is emptied.a limit of 5 mm is typical). Because the roof is open to the environment.pontoon type and double deck type. the roof is therefore fitted with legs which keep it clear of the bottom.1 Use of Floating Roofs and Covers As mentioned in Section 5. venting expels some of this vapour.2 kN/m2) plus any accumulated rainwater. For maintenance of the tank when it is empty. divided by bulkheads. 6. tanks need to be vented to cater for the expansion and contraction of the air. and a central single skin diaphragm. when the temperature drops. At this stage the roof must be able to carry a superimposed load (1. The design is required to ensure that the roof continues to float in the event of a block in the drainage system which results in a surcharge of water on the roof (usually 250 mm of water). The shell is then effectively open at the top and is designed accordingly.2 Floating Roofs A floating roof is sometimes provided instead of a fixed roof. floating roofs and covers are commonly used for this purpose. When the mixture expands in the heat of the day.4. At night. a floating roof is completely supported on the liquid and must therefore be sufficiently buoyant.fgg. fresh air is drawn in and more of the contents evaporates to saturate the air.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100. The central diaphragm may need to be stiffened by radial beams.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. which must be drained off. two circular skins are joined to circumferential plates and bulkheads to form a disk or piston. Drainage is achieved by a system on the roof which connects to flexible pipework inside the tank and thence through the shell or bottom plates to a discharge. pinned to the shell and resting on the roof.

and the type of cover. Access through the shell wall is more convenient for cleaning out (some access holes are D-shaped and flush with the bottom for cleaning out purposes).fgg. 7. to reduce evaporation or ingress of contaminants (e. A manhole through the shell wall should be at least 600 mm diameter and is normally positioned just above the bottom of the tank. MANHOLES. depend on the design of the roof. A typical detail is shown in section in Figure 13. Such access can be provided through the roof or through the shell wall. a much lighter cover or screen can be provided.1 Manholes Access is required inside fixed roof tanks for maintenance and inspection purposes.uni-lj.3 Floating Covers Where a cover to the contents is provided inside a fixed roof tank.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. nor to be designed for surcharge. water or sand).si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100. NOZZLES AND OPENINGS 7. Detailed recommendations for the design of internal floating covers are given in Appendix E of BS 2654 [1]. Further details of this example. with suitable handrails and walkways on the roof. 16 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM . Stiffening arrangements around the hole in the roof plate.htm 6. and details of clean-out openings. Access to the roof manhole must be provided by ladders. The cover does not need to be provided with access ladders. A manhole through a roof should be at least 500 mm diameter. Such a cover is likely to be manufactured from lighter materials than steel. though a shallow steel pan can sometimes be provided. are given in BS2654 [1].g. It does have to be designed to be supported at low level when the tank is empty and to carry a small live load in that condition. Manholes through the roof have the advantage that they are always accessible. even when the tank is full.

8. For small nozzles. no reinforcement is necessary. the cutting of an opening in the shell interferes with the structural action of the shell. and drainage pipes. outlet. CONCLUDING SUMMARY 17 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM .2 Nozzles As well as manholes for access and cleaning out.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. The area must be provided within a circular region around the hole. The loss of section of shell plate is compensated by providing additional cross-section area equal to 75% of that lost.uni-lj.htm Clearly. They are normally made by welding a cylindrical section of plate into a circular hole in the structural plate. nozzles are required through the shell roof and bottom for inlet. Larger holes must be reinforced in the same way as manholes. the extra material is considered sufficient. though the actual reinforcement should extend beyond that region. An example of a roof nozzle detail is shown in Figure 14.fgg. Reinforcement can be provided in one of three ways: (i) a reinforcing plate welded onto the shell plate (similar to the section in Figure 13) (ii) an insert of thicker plate locally (in which the manhole is cut) (iii) a thicker shell plate than that required for that course of the shell 7.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100. and for vents in the roof.

Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain. Water is also sometimes stored in cylindrical steel tanks. For open tanks. for the required thickness. As the tendency to brittle fracture increases with increasing plate thickness it means that API 650 in fact allows a lower safety factor for large tanks than for smaller ones. This system gives the same safety factor for all thicknesses. Manholes are provided for access and nozzles allow inlet. It is readily weldable. In API 650 a fixed value and test temperature is given for the impact tests for all thicknesses. London. [2] API 650. Specification for manufacture of vertical steel welded storage tanks with butt-welded shells for the petroleum industry. London. BS 2654 specifies an allowable stress for water testing only.htm Oil and oil products are most commonly stored in cylindrical steel tanks at atmospheric pressure or at low pressure. Appendix A Differences between BS 2654 and API 650 The following are the principal differences between the British Standard. This system considers a steel acceptable if. BS 2654 [1] and the American Petroleum Institute Standard. British Standards Institution. steel bottom plates are specified. November 1988. laid and fully supported on a prepared foundation. REFERENCES [1] BS 2654: 1984. (c) BS 2654 specifies more stringent requirements for the weldability of the shell plates. 8th Edition. the test plate does not fail at test temperature before it has yielded at least 0. which will allow oils with any specific gravity up to 1 to be stored in the tank. Wind loading on the tank influences the axial stress. The two design standards applied most widely to the design of welded cylindrical tanks are BS2654 and API 650. [4] Young. (e) The steels specified by API 650 guarantee their notch ductility by chemical analysis but without guaranteed impact values. Hot Rolled Products of Non-alloy Structural Steels and their Technical Delivery Conditions. For petroleum storage tanks. British Standards Institution. outlet and drainage. 1989. 1990. London. [5] BS 449: Part 2: 1969. A cover to the contents of a fixed roof tank may be provided to reduce evaporation or ingress of contaminants. Secondary wind girders are needed in tall tanks. A tank is designed for the most severe combination of the various possible loadings. Water tanks may also have a steel bottom or a reinforced concrete slab may be specified. (f) BS 2654 gives a clearer picture of how to determine the size and location of secondary wind girders. The cylindrical shell has to carry both its own weight and the weight of the supported roof by axial stresses. Tanks are usually manufactured from plain carbon steel plate. [3] BS EN 10025. McGraw Hill. British Standards Institution.si/kmk/esdep/master/wg15c/l0100. Roofs may be fixed or floating. primary wind girders are required to maintain the roundness of the tank when it is subject to wind load. API650 [2]: (a) API 650 specifies different allowable stresses for service and water testing.fgg.. Vertical cylindrical tanks carry the hydrostatic pressure by simple hoop tension. (b) The allowable design stresses of BS 2654 are based on guaranteed minimum yield strength whereas the design stresses of API 650 are based on the guaranteed minimum ultimate tensile strength. C. W. Previous | Next | Contents 18 of 18 11/21/2011 8:49 AM . and venting of the space under the roof. Specification for the Use of Structural Steel in Building.uni-lj. (d) The notch ductility requirements of BS 2654 are based on the results of a great number of wide plate tests.5%.ESDEP LECTURE NOTE [WG15] http://www. 9. Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage. API. BS 2654 requires guaranteed impact values where necessary.