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GIFT OF

John H. Mee

>$yit>&

A GREEK

GRAMMAR

FOR BEGINNERS.

BY WILLIAM

HENRY WADDELL,

// PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT LANGUAGES IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA.

NEW YORK:
HARPER
&

BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,
FRANKLIN SQUARE.

1873.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1869, by

HARPER
In the Clerk's

&

BROTHERS,
Court of the United States for the

Office of the District

Southern District of

New

York.

PRE FAC E.
Tins book
is

name

imports &"Gree7c Grammar for Beginners" The author has studiously avoided the insertion of a solitary word not Such a book has been, for many absolutely essential.

be precisely what its nothing more, and nothing less. It is

an attempt

to

years, a great desideratum

a book which shall contain

no

notes, remarks, observations, "fine print" in short, to

be marked by a teacher for omission, but only essential

and elementary principles and paradigms, which are to be thoroughly memorized by the pupil, without any exception whatever. The Grammar is designed to be
committed to memory, from cover to cover, the
time the pupil goes over
it.

first

It is not, therefore, a
is full

Grammar
is

of reference

the world

of such.

It

a schoolboy's book, and intended for a schoolboy's use. Whether the author has succeeded in perfecting
his wishes,

and in giving expression to his many years' experience in teaching Greek, he leaves the public to
decide,

796411

CONTENTS.
PART
The Greek Alphabet
Euphonic Changes Accents Punctuation
*

I.

ORTHOGRAPHY

Page

9
11
,.

15

PART
Some
First Declension

IT.

ETYMOLOGY

1C
16

general Rules of Declension

17
18 19

Contracts of the First Declension

Second Declension
Contracts of the Second Declension

Third Declension
Contracts of the Third Declension
Adjectives

20 20
22 27
34:

Numerals Comparison of Adjectives Article Pronouns The Verb


Synoptical Table of the Verb ruTrrw, Table of the Inflections

36
39

I strike

42 43

Formation of Tenses

53
53 54

Augment Reduplication Compound Verbs The Root


Secondary Root Special Rules for Formation of the Tenses Special Rules for Pure Verbs

54
55 55
,

59

Examples of Pure Contract Verbs


Table of Inflections
Liquid Verbs

60

64
68
70 72

Verbs in

/zi

Synoptical Table

Vlll

CONTENTS.
Page
73
77

Table of Inflections
Exercises in Formation

Tables of the Synopses and Inflections of certain Irregular arid Defective Verbs

78
84

Deponent Verbs Synopsis of the Deponent Verb Adverbs Prepositions

!%o^ai,

/ receive

85
85

PART
Syntax of the Cases Syntax of the Verb

III.

SYNTAX

8G
89

96
99

Negatives Accents General Rules for Writing the Accents

101

>

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


PART
1.

I.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
letters,

THE GREEK ALPHABET. The Greek Alphabet consists of twenty-four

viz.:
Figure.

10
2.

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


The Vowels
are seven in number, viz.
e
:

7?

and o, Short. and w, Long. a, t, and v, Doubtful.


because they are sometimes
is

The

last three are so called

short

and sometimes

long.

3. A combination of two vowels These are twelve in number, viz.


:

called a Diphthong.

tit, ft,

Oi.

au,
at,

v, oi>.
?;(,

wt.

The

last three are usually


:

written with the Iota sub-

scribed, thus

They

are pronounced as follows, viz.


at
ti

like ai in aisle ; e. g. aipw. el height ; e. g. etc.

01

oi

coin ;

e. g. rot*/.
e.

av
v

ou
and
7/u

house ;

g. g.

ou
vt

eu in neuter; oo noon;

e. e.

g.

pronoun we / e. g. /zvta. The improper diphthongs, 9, 77, and w, are pronounced precisely like a, ry, and w.

we

in

4.

The Consonants
Smooth.

are seventeen in number, viz.,


:

Nine

Mutes, subdivided as follows


Medial.

Rough.

Palatals,

y
d
ft

x
3<j>

Linguals,
Labials,

r
IT

Kappa-mutes. Tau-mutes.
Pi-mutes.
;

One
sound

Sibilant letter,

<r,

so called from its hissing sound


p,

Four
;

Liquids, X,

yu,

v,

and

so called from their flowing

and

ORTHOGRAPHY.
v//,
,
,

11

so called because Three Double Consonants, formed respectively by the composition of the Smooth, Medial, and Bough Mutes with the letter Sigma, thus
:

for for
\JJ

2<rKOT, y<r, x<r*


7T<7, /3<7,

for

0(7.
:

5.

The Breathings

are

two in number, viz. Smooth (').

Rough ('). One of these must be written over every vowel or diphthong which commences a word. The Smooth Breathing produces no change in the pronunciation of a word. The Rough Breathing
has the same effect as
first

if

the letter
;

were written before the


is

vowel or diphthong

thus :

pronounced

Hekaton ;
evpev

Heuren.

EUPHONIC CHANGES.
6.

The following
:

rules of

Euphony

are to be carefully

observed in the formation and derivation of Greek words,


viz.

RULE
gual
is

1.

A Labial

changed into

its

or a Palatal occurring before a Lincorresponding Smooth, Medial, or


is

Rough, according as the Lingual Rough. E.g.,


rfVpt/3rat is

Smooth, Medial, or

written
/z

reYjOiTmu.

RULE
RULE

2.

A Labial before
TETpiTTfjiat

is

changed into
rtrpi/i/xac.

p.

E.

g.,

is

written
p,

3.

A Palatal before
A Lingual before
is

is

changed into
changed into
7reVei<7//cu.

y.

E. g.,
E. g.,

TTw%iJiai IS written rtrEvy^icu.

RULE

4.

/x

is

a.

written

12

GREEK GRAMMAR TOR BEGINNERS.

RULE
E.
g.,

5.

A Labial before
Tpififfw is

a unites with
rptya).

it

and forms

$.

written

RULE
E.g.,

6.

A Palatal before
irXtKffu) is

a unites with

it

and forms

written
a

TrXt'4'w.

RULE
RULE
into
ff.

7.

A Lingual before
TrXaOffw is

is

rejected.

E. g.,

written

TrXaffw.

8.

A Lingual before another Lingual is changed


ireTrXadrai is

E. g.,

written TrfVXaorcu.
a Palatal
is

RULE RULE
nants
is

9.

A Lingual before
7T7rt0m
is

rejected.

E. g.,

written TreVam.
o-

10.

The

letter

occurring between
written yeypatydai.

two Conso-

rejected.

E. g.,
letter v before a Labial is

yeypa(f)(Tdat is

RULE
P
.

11.

The

changed into

E.g.,
fy/3aXXw is written

RULE
7-

12.

The

letter v before a Palatal is

changed into

E.g.,
trvvKuXetx) is

written

<riy/caXew.
is

RULE
into

The letter that same Liquid.


13. 14.

v before

another Liquid

changed

(TvvpiTTTd) IS

E. g., written

(rvppirrTd).
a-

RULE
RULE

The

letter v before

or

is

dropped.

E. g.,

^alpovfft is

written

(Haifiom.
o-,

and a Lingual are rejected before the preceding short vowel is lengthened, and e becomes o becomes ov ; d, ft v become respectively d, I, and v,
15.

When

E. g.,

yipovrai is written yepovvt.


16.

RULE

A Smooth

into its corresponding


CITTO

Mute ending a word is changed Rough before an aspirated vowel


E. g.,
TT'

beginning the next word.

ov is first written

e>v,

and then a$

ov.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

RULE

1 7.

Mute, the

first is

If two successive syllables begin with a Rough changed into its own smooth. E. g.,
(j)(j)iXrjKa

is

written

TrefytXrjxa.

The letter p in tne beginning of a word doubled when a short vowel is prefixed to it. E. g.,
18.
tpevtca is

RULE

is

written tppevKa.

RULE 19. Words ending in o-t, and verbs of the third person ending in c or i, annex v to these terminations when the next word begins with a vowel, or before a
pause.
E. g.,

/\

AJI*

iffri is

written

iariv.

violate the preceding rules. Let the pupil correct them, repeating the rule by which the correction is made
7.
:

The following words

tXnre ov
(bdffi t/j

eSrjK 6
<j)(J)a.Kct

&$fj.ai
crvvTrXtKbJ

XsiTrffU)

Xrificra)

ffvvyovoQ
ey^eu)
(rvv^lu)

7rpay&r)v
ivfiaXXit)
Tvirrovrffi

tXsye OVQ
tine

SlSsiKaayati

tvfiaivu)

avvtyepu
ivKXivit)

a.<j)(Tai

crvv^iv^
arv vpltt)

7reV^<Toyuat

Xeo VTGL

vowel preceded by another vowel, with which it 8. does not unite and form a diphthong, is said to be pure. pure vowel often combines with the one immediately

preceding

it,

contraction,

and forms one long syllable. This is called and commonly takes place according to the
:

following rules, viz.


aa are contracted ay
aai
,

into a, as fivda

arj

are contracted into a, as

TifJLarjre

at,

a
aei

as [iva as fjivdai nval. a, as r//ia rt'/ia. p, as Tipdti ripy.

cii

^t,

as as

diacrtt)

^'or

ao
aot

a>,

n^ao^v
Tifidoifjiev

y, as

14

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


oa are contracted into w or
fix *1 TO***
a,

aov are contracted into w, as nliaovai


au)
uj,
rj,

as

rt/iuJ(7t.

aTrXoa aTrXa.

as

rijjidd) Tijjiat.

oai*

at,

as $t7rX6at dtTrXal.

as

7a

777.

Sometimes
oei

into a, as f ym.
y> as

xpv fffa XP vff ^y vytsa'

of , as drjXoere drjXovre. ou, as drjXoeiv deXovv. Verbs

Xpvoty XP Vff $'


at,

in oo> contract the endings oa and i n ^o ofi ot and ot^, as tfyXoa


c^?Xot, drjXoeig drjXolQ.
ot]

at

y or
t,

as TVTrreai TVTTTiy,

Xpvaeai \pvgai.
as
0i'Xff
rj,

0t\t.
0tXftc.

Somerprijpr].

tinies into

w, as drfXorjre drjX&re. Somej;, as o^tTrXo?; dnrXrj.


as drjXoyg drjXolg.

times into
fft
*n
t,
*7>

as rpirjpee

oy

ot,

This

as

(j)iXttig

as

(piXerjre QiXrJTE.

contraction occurs only in verbs in oat. Verbs in wjut contract oy


into
ot
^>.

ey
t

y, as tyiXeyg <f>iXyg.
ft,

as TroXft TrdXft.

o
01

~ of. as (biXsoutv <bi\.ovu,Vt


ot,

oo
oot

as v)\oi /x ou. as dnXoo


ot,
ot,

**

ov
o>
tye

as QiXsoifitv 0iXot/iv. of, as QiXeovffi <biXov<7t.

as

<

oov
oo>

ov , as dqXoouffi drjXovai.
w, as drjXou)
^j,

7j,

w, as as

0iXw

0tXui.

^Xw.

rifJLrjeffaa rtfjirjaffa.

o^j

as 7rX6<^ 7rX<p.

?t

^, as Qpfjiffffa

Qpyaaa.

vi

vi,

as TrXrj&vi TrXrj&vl.

t,

as TroXtt TroXi.

The following words violate the preceding rules. Let the pupil correct them, referring in each instance to the concurring vowels in the list above by which the correction
is

made

Arj/zoeScVec

Ar)-6og

p,\iTOV
Arjroa

tap

Arjjj.o(T$Va

lIpaK\Tjg

%r]\6ov
TtfjLacj
TljJLO.OV(Tt

^rjXorj

\aag
TILLCLT]

rip-ae
TlfJLaig

TlfJLaCl

Kfpag -aTog
TiSfiai

ocj>ig

ofyu

Tip,f]v
fjitpti

Ktpaa
pepe
TToXtt

Kpaoiv
fJLpOLV
TroXeec

p,pog

flpa
<

fJLpOJV

ORTHOGRAPHY.

15

KepctTi

Kpara
KEpaTwv
ffite

/iar/

SrjXorj
(TCLOQ

17X001

ACCENTS. The accents are three The acute ( ' ) as, w?/, life. The grave ( ) as, rat, and / rig, some one. The circumflex (~ ), composed of the acute and grave;
9.
:

as, yrj, land.

When

words are accented on the

last syllable,

they are

called oxytones ;

when

not, barytones.

10.

PUNCTUATION. The Greek has the following punctuation marks:

Comma

16

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

PAET
11.
viz.
:

II.

ETYMOLOGY.

The Greek Language has Nine Parts of Speech,

Noun, Adjective, Article, Participle, Pronoun, and Verb which are declined and Adverb, Preposition, and Conjunction which are not declined. 12. There are Three Persons First, Second, and Third. 1 3. There are Three Genders Masculine, Feminine, and
;
:

Neuter.

There are Three Numbers: the Singular, denoting and the Plural, denoting more than one. 15. There are Five Cases: the Nominative, Genitive,
14.
;

one

the Dual, denoting two

Dative, Accusative, Vocative. 16. There are Three Declensions:


Third.

First, Second,

and

The
?

First Declension has four terminations, viz.

a,

77,

The Second Declension has two terminations, viz. The Third Declension has nine terminations, viz.

oc, ov.

a,

v,

SOME GENERAL RULES OF DECLENSION.


1 7.

(a)

in the Singular,
(b)

The Nominative and Vocative are usually alike and always alike in the Dual and Plural.
in
t,

The Dative Singular always ends

annexed or

subscribed.

The Genitive Plural always ends in wr. (d) The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative of Neuters are the same in all three Numbers, and these Cases in
(c)

the Plural end always in a. In the Dual Number, the Nominative, Accusative, (e) and Vocative are alike, as also are the Genitive and Dative.

ETYMOLOGY.
18. The following Table exhibits a comparative view of the terminations of the Three Declensions.
I.

Declen.

II.

Declen.

III. Declen.

18

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


S.o

ETYMOLOGY.
EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE.
\

19

fftXrjvr],

the moon.

{ I

<ro0iOTJ7,

a sophist.

yXw<7<ra, the tongue. dyopd t the forum.


TrxyirriG)
tjdovfj,

peace.

00$ ia, wisdom.


fjitXaiva, black.

TrtXetajU dove.
ystyvpa, a bridge.
\va(jctj frenzy.

an

artist,

pleasure,

rdXaiva, miserable.
diKrj,

ywvia, an angle,
flia, force,

justice,
ri,

counsel.
,

K&apiffrrjc.,

a harper.

avpctj
dy'ict,

breeze,

a sword.
.,

'AvaZayopac,,
agoras.

Anax-

sadness.
,

high-mind-

ivrestler.

ed.

SECOND DECLENSION.
22.
inine.

Nouns ending
:

Those ending in

in oc are Masculine, and rarely Femov are Neuter. They are declined

as follows, viz.
S. o (word)

D.
N.
G.

(two words)

P. (words)
N. G. D. A. V.
Xdyot

N. G. D. A.

Xdyo

Xdyw
Xoyoiv
Xoyoiv

Xdyou
X6y(p

Xoywv
Xdyot

V.

Xoyov Xdye

D. A. V.

Xdyw Xdyw

Xdyov
Xdyot
(Jigs)
(Tvica

D. (two Jigs)
N.
GVKOV

P.
N. G.

GVKWV
OVKQIQ

D.

P.
N. G.

(temples)

vey

D.
A. V.
P. N. G. D. A. V.
VH#
(halls)

dvwye w

are irregular,

20

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

belonging to the Attic Dialect, and are inserted as examples.

CONTRACTS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION.


23.

Nouns which

ETYMOLOGY.

21
:

They

are declined as follows, viz.

22

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


o, vulture.

D.N.yuTre G. yv-jToiv

ETYMOLOGY.

23

The following

rules are for the contractions of the Third


:

Declension, and for Verbs also short vowel followed by itself becomes 1.

its

own

diphthong ;
2.

as, /3a<nXee, flafftXeig.


as,

Two

consecutive short vowels become ou ;

3.

A short vowel before

becomes

its

own diphthong
it

4.

A short vowel before


;

a unites with

and becomes

its

own long 5. E before

as, tap,

?]p.

a long vowel or a diphthong

is

rejected

as,

it

6. O before a long vowel becomes w ; before a diphthong combines with the second vowel of the diphthong as,
;

?7Xow,
7.

77X0)

c)/?Xoot,

77X01.
;

before o or w becomes w
as, o-aoc,
<7a>e
;

before the other vowels

it

becomes d ;
8.

r//xaf, r//za.

If the

first
;

of two vowels

is

v,

or a long vowel, the

last is rejected

EXAMPLES.
S.
i]

(galley}
rpirjprjQ

S. TO (wall)

N. G. D. A. V.
/)

Tpirjpeog TpirjpovQ
Tpirjpti

N. G.
"D.

Ti1xS
rft^o^
rtt^og
Telxog-

Tpirjpti
rptrjprj

rpirjpea

Tpiqptg

A. V.

O^o galleys)
rpujpEe
rpifiprj

N.A.V.
G. D.

D. (two walls) N.A.V. rt'x


G. D.
t

rpiripkoiv Tptrjpolv

P. (galleys) N. Tpifipet G. rptrjpiwv

P.
N.
G.

(walls)
ra'xftf

rpirjpeig

Tpirjp&v

TEIX&UV

D. A. V.

Tpif)pai(v)
Tpirfpeac
TpiripteQ
rpiripfiQ

Tpujpeiz

D. A. V.

24

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


S. TO (prize) S.
rj

(echo) r/xw

N. G. D. A. V.
Z).

yepag
yspaog yepwg
yipa'i

N.
G.
ytpy

riXQ
jfaoi
i]\QCL

ye/oac

D. A.
V.

77x01

r/xw

y|oa

J?x*-

(wo prizes)

D. (two

echoes)

N. A.V. ye/oat ylpa G. D. jpdoiv ytp<fv P. (prizes)

N. A. V. jfow G. D. ^xocy

N. G. D. A. V.

ykpaa
yepdajv

y*'|o5

ytp&v
ykpa ytpa

ykpaai(v)

ykpaa yipaa

P. N. G. D. A. V.

(echoes)
3?%oi

Proper names in tfX^V, contracted K-X?7c undergo a double contraction in the dative singular and sometimes
5
',

in the accusative singular.


5. 6 (Pericles)

E. g.,

N. G.

D. A. V.

HEpucXeti

HepucXeei

HepiK\tZ
HtpucXij

HtpiK\8ea
IljOtKX

HeptKXta
HeptK\eig

Nouns
singular,
plural.

in

ec, vg,

and

gen. ioc, voc, are contracted in the dative in the nominative, accusative, and vocative
S. 6 (fish)

E. g., S. o (serpent)
N. G.
o0t

0010

D. A. V.

50u
6<piv

o0I
*

o0t

N. G. D. A. V.

i'x-^

IX&VOC,

ix&vi
IX^TVV
tx-^v

ix$vl

Z). (<zro serpents)

N. A. V. 50tc G. D. oQioiv P. (serpents) N. o0c o0iC G. 6<j)iMv D. o0i<ri(i>) A. 001GT 00TC V. c0i o0I^

D. (<wo fishes) N. A.V. t'x^e G. D. ix$voiv P. N.


G. D. A. V.
(fishes)

ETYMOLOGY.
TO Kptag, flesh.
Sing.

25
TO icepag, a horn.
Sing.

N. A.V. Kpk-ag
G. Kps-arog
-aog
-at
-a>g

D. Kpi-ari
Dual.

-^

N. A.V. Kkp-ag G. icsp-arog D. Ksp-art,


Dual.

-aog
-at

-wg
-

N. A.V. Kpk-aT -a -as G. D. Kpe-droiv -doiv -yv


Plur.

N. A.V. Ktp-are -as -a G. D. Ktp-dT*iv -doiv -(7>v


Plur.

-aa N. A.V. Kpk-aTa -a G. Kpe-aTuv -dwv -utv

N. A.V. Kip-ara

-aa -a G. Kfp-drcov -duv -&v

26
S. o (king)

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


D. (two kings)
N. A. V.
(BaviXee

P. (kings)
G.

I).

paaLXei
(3aaiXtv

fiaoiXtl

G. D. paffiXsoiv

D./ A.
i

V.

V./

Most Nouns in t, t, vc, v, change i and v into e in all the cases except the nominative, accusative, and vocative sinSubstantives in ig and VQ generally change oc into gular.
CJQ.
r

xL.

2f. 9

*s

ETYMOLOGY.

27

ADJECTIVES. Greek have three terminations, two The first termination terminations, and one termination.
26.

Adjectives in

masculine, the second feminine, the third neuter. They are of the First and Second Declensions, and of the Third
is

Declension.
S.

They

are declined as follows, viz.


rj

o (wise)
GO(j)OQ

(wise)
G0(j)f]

TO (wise)
GOfyoV
Gotyov
(TCfpty

N. G.
JL).

GO^OV
GO(f)({J

GotyrJQ

(700$
Gofa'jv

A. V.
1}.

crcxpuv

Gotyov
GO(j)OV

GOfyk

GO^i]

N. A. V. (T00W G. I). (70001^

G0(f)d

G0(f)(i>

aotyalv

Gofyoiv

p.
N. G. D. A.
GOtyo'l
GO(j)Cli

G0(pd
GO(f)UJV

GOfpUJV

CT00WV
Gotyalg
GO<pCLQ
GO<f)Cli

Gofyoiq

Gotyolg
G0(j)d

GO<pOV
GO<pOl

V.
27.

G0(f>d

Adjectives in
as
:

OQ

pure and pog make their Feminine


fiaicpoG, long.

in a

Sing.

Dual.
6v
ou
^7

Plur.

N. G. A. V.

ftaicp-og, d,

fiaicp-ov, acj
^t,

N. A.V.
G. D.

/uaKp-w, a,

N. /zaK-p-ot, G. fiaKp-uv, A. /ajcp-ov, V. paKp-oi,

ai,
a>v,

&v

I). juiciKp-y,
fjiaicp-ov,

I), jita/cp-ot^, att;, 01^

dv, 6v
d,

/j.aKp-o1Vj aiv, oiv

c>

fictKp-E,
/S.

6v
}

at,

(worthy}
ci^ioQ

(worthy)
d%ia
d^'iaq
a^cot

rb (worthy) a^iov
dt,iov
a^tV/j

N. G. D. A. V.
J),

d%iov
di(jj

atoj>
ft

a^tav a^/a

a^iov d^iov

i'w N. A.V. G. D. d^ioiv

^/a

d^/aj
ct%ioiv

d^icav

28
P. N.
b

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


(worthy)
d^ioi
r}

(worthy)
d^icti

TO (worthy)

d%ia

Derivative Adjectives of more than have usually but two terminations one for the Masculine and Feminine, and one for the Neuter as
28.

Compound and

two

syllables

S.

b,

r}

(quiet)

TO (quiet)

N. G. D.

A.
V.
}o

D.

KA.V.
G.D.
P.
N. G. D. A. V.

rye

Adjectives in we are declined thus:


S.
b,
if

(fertile)

TO (fertile)

G. D. A.

evytto

fuytw
tvytip

tvyup
tvytojv

tvyewv

D.
N. A.V. #yfw
fi>yw

G.D.
P.
G.
1).

A. V.

ETYMOLOGY.
29.

29

line

Adjectives of the Third Declension have the Mascuand Neuter of the Third Declension, and the Feminine

of the First.
S.
o (sweet)

They

are declined as follows

30
D.

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


o (giving)
?}

(giving)

TO (giving)

N. A.V. diSoVTE G. D. SidovToiv


P.

dtdovTE

cidovTOiv

D\
G.
.

N.

didovTes
ClOOVT(Jf)V

X ' f ClOOUffli V

diooiicraig

didovaag Sidovaai
S.
'l

(ripe)

TO (ripe)
TTITTOV

N. G. IX

TTtTTOVOg
TTtTTOVL

TTtTTOVL

A.
V.
TTtTTOV

irkirov

D.
N. A.V. G. D.
Tr'tTTQVE

TreTrovoiv

N. G.

TTSTTOPfQ

TT&TTOVa
TTtTTOVdJV

D. A. V.
S.

TT&TTOVa
TTZTTOVa

TO

N. G.
I).

TiTVtpOTOQ

A. V.

N.A.V. G.D.
P.

TTV(j)viaiV

TcTVtpOTOlV

N. G. D. A. V.

TTV(j)6T(t)V

TtTVfpOTa

Participles ending

in ug are declined like -E-vfywQ.

ETYMOLOGY.
S.
o,
r)

31
TO (true)

(true)

"

D. A. V.

d\rid&
dXrj^sa
ciXriStQ

D. N. A.V.
G. D.

aXrjSie

aXqSioiv

dXrjSolv

dXrjStoiv

dXifiolv

P. N.
G.

dXifiiec;

dXi]3rti

dXtfiia
dXTjSsbJV

d\rj$)i

d\Ti$kii)v

dXi]S<jJV

dXtj&uJv

A. V.
S.
o (placing)
>}

(placing)

TO (placing)

G. D.

T&kvTQQ r&tVTi
T&tVTCt

T&llOffc

T&'t.VTOq

r&tiay
TlStlffdV

T&IVTI
TlStV

A.

D.
N. A.V. rt^lrre
P.

r&tiaa

N. G. A. V.

ft&V7^C TiS&VTwv
T&'tVTCtQ
rt^s^rfff
f ic

ft^tMWfl
TiSrtiauiv

T&SVTtt

T&ZVTWV
T&tvTCl

T&tiffdG
TiStivai

Participles ending in
>Si.

are declined like rt0cc.


(showing)
TO (showing)

o (showing)

>}

N. G. D. A. V.

SUKVVQ
StlKVVVTOQ
StiKvvvTi
dtiRvvffy

SeucvvvTi

StiKvvvTa
StlKVVQ

StiKvveav
StlKVVffCi

SEIKVVV
dflKVVV

D. N. A.V.
G. D.

SEIKVVVTS
felKvtivTofy

deLKvvcra
dElKVVffdtV

deiKvuvTe

CtlKVVVTOtV

32
P.

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


o (showing*)
ij

(showing)
dtlKVVffCtt

TO (showing)
$ElKVVVTCt

N. G.
1).

StlKVVVTtQ

CtlKVVVTWV
diicvvai(v)
VtlKVVVTClQ

CtlKVVG&V
dtiKvvaaic;

StlKVVVTUJV
()IK.VV(TI(V)

A. V.

SllKVVGaQ
CtlKVVGCtl

deiKVVVTCt
tl\VVVTCt
:

StlKVVVTtQ

Adjectives in wv, genitive o^roc,


,

have three endings

o^,

or.

E.

s.

ETYMOLOGY.
/).

o (great)

?}

(great)

ro (great)

N. A.V. jutydXw G. D. ^ityaXoLv P.


lUyaXat

D. A.

jUfydXotg

ntyaXovQ

[.irydXa

/S. o,

(pleasanter)
IjOLMV

ro (pleasantcr)
TI^IQV

1\

T
.

ifiiOVOQ

Do A.
N. A. G. D.
P.

}&OM
ifiiova
/ciu,

ttfiovt

/flfW
/^(Ji/cti/

N.
G.

fidiovtg

i^cicvQ

jova

t'rfwvwv

A.

ifiiovaQ
r'l|07/i',

t'loiovg

tender.

honored.

Sing.

Sing.
ii>

N. G.

rsp-rji',

tivct,
0'J7ff,

TfjO-CVOC,

^0<

G.
T")

r/ju-f/iroc,
_
""

'';cr^C>
'

rjvrt

A. V.

Tp-EVCtj
rlp-2',

UVCtV,
ai'tf,

(V
tv

V.

Ttp-iiv,

faffa,

II

Dual.

Dual.

N.A.V.
G. D.

fw re'p-f^s rtp-tvoiv, tivaiv, tvoiv


Plur.
'

W,

N.A.V.
G. D.
Plur.

rfTCTff,

~\T

fi//^

N.
/^<

rt^i-JivrtQ^
.

ijcrfjcti,

O
D.

ijrra
/
'

fiit^t/
eiVCllC;,

LIU
t(Tl

'

~
'

Ttp-LVl,

T ^

V.

T&p-evc,

eivai,

tva

A. V.

TifA-ijvrctQ,

TiaaaQ,
ijffffai,

i\vra
iji>ra

Tiu-ijvrt,

The syncopated Perf.


as follows, viz.
:

Part, of <Vr>/p, ^o

s^c7,

is

declined

B2

34

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


iffTr)jj.i,

to stand.

/ufiXac,

blade.

Sing.

Sing.
(-JQ

N.
G.

loT-Wfi

o)cra,

CT-u>ro,

a><7?7,
(7j7,

WTOQ
wri

D. A. \.

for-wn,
tar-ujTa,
f'0r-it>,

dJaav,
a!(7(7,

WQ
tuj;

N. G. D. A. V.

jusX-ac,
fj.i\-avoc,
/Lt\-ai/<,

aiva,
aivqc,
aiV#,

av
UVQQ

an
av av

n'tX-ava,
n'tX-aV)

aivav,
aiva,

Dual.

Dual.
are. N. A. V. [ii\-ave aiva, G. D. ptX-avoiv, aivaiv, dvoiv
,

N. A.V. tor-wrf, wcrfr, wre G. D. iar-uroiv, wvcav, WTOLV


Plur.

Plur.
tira

N. G. D. A. V.

iar-MTeg,

waai,

tar-MTtov, WG&V, WTCOV


dr-w(Tt, waaiQ, OJGI tVr-wraCi W(TCJ wra

N. G.

yulX-avfc,

aivai, ava niX-avw, atv&v, avwv

tcrr-wrfc,

w(Trti,

aira

D. A. V.

jusX-atrt,

aivaiQ, acrt

ptX-avctQ, aivac,
/tt'X-ni-'fC)

aivai,

ava ava

NUMERALS.
30.

are declined below.

are

The Cardinal Numbers ac, c^o, rpelcj and TtffffapE^ The remainder, as far as a hundred, The numbers above one hundred are indeclinable.
?

again declinable like the plural of Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions; as, ciauo'enoi at a

ETYMOLOGY.
Adjectives in
OQ

06

drop

c,

and,

if the

penult

is

short, length*

en

it

as

Adjectives in

ac, ^c,

and

vc

annex

repoQ

and

raroe to the

Neuter

as

peXag (Neuter pfXav)


acrQevrjz

jmeXavrepOQ

^fXuv

(Neuter

aa'diveg)

acr'dfvtcrrepOQ

Adjectives in

w*/
;

and
as
:

r?v

annex

rfjooe

and

raroc to the

Nominative Plural

(Plural (Tu^poveo)
epEveg)
repevtarrepOQ

ff

T
,

drop the and those in 5 change the Nominative Plural into larepoQ icrraroc ; as
Adjectives in ae
:

of

/3\d| (Plural

/3\ac)

(3Xxu&<rrpO

jSXaoraroc

the terAdjectives, ending poc, change minations into iwj/ for the Comparative, and into co-roc for
in vc

Some

and

the Superlative

as

The following Adjectives


viz.
:
[

are

compared
aya3

irregularly,

cifjiEivajv,

wa., 7 aya.joc, aooa,


,

KptlTTCJV,

iKwrepog.

KClKLffTOC.

KLWV,
.I/C,.

IXU,L*.

36

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


Ka\oQ,fair,
uaicpug, long,
<

KaXXiwv,
,

KciXXic

(fia

jikyaQ, great,
liuepoQ, small,

jjif.

7roXv, many,

TtOTTVOTeOOC,

TtQTTVOTaTOQ.
rit'Xraroc.

TtpjrvoQ, agreeable,
.

,x

/.

77

0tXrfpo,
,

<j,i\oc,jricnd/y,

\'

A'\

ARTICLE.
32.
S.

The
M.

Article
F.
if

o, ?7iC, is

declined as follows:
P. M.
N,
G,
Ot

N.
TO

D. M.

N. 6 G. rou
I).
T(fi

r/yc

TOV
T<<>

F. N. Tit) TCI N. 7"W G. rcl^ rat^ roir


roii^

F.
Ol

N.
TCI

r&v
rott,-

T&V T&y

Ty
r/p-'

3).

TCLIV TOIV

A. rov

ro

A.

ra>

ra

rw

IX A.

rt^
TC\Q

TO!Q
TO.

**?&

PROXOUNS.
PERSONAL PRONOUN.
33.

The Personal Pronouns


is

are eyw. o-^'L

The Nomina(he, she, it)


'I

tive

'I

obsolete.
(I)
fcyw
t/uLOV, jjiov

S.

S.

(thov)

S.

N. G.
1).

t/io/, /^oi

A.

tJA,

fJLS.

N. G. D. A.

GU
croi)

N. G.
I).

o<;

crot

ol

Gt

A.

D. (we two) N.A. vwi, v<t) G.D. V(jj(V, ViOV


P. N.
G.
I).

D.
N. A.

(you two)
G(J)Oj'i, G(j)<{j

D.
N. A.

(they two)
tr^we
G(h(t}LV

G.D.
P. N. G.

G(b(iilV, G(b('JV

G.DP. N. G. D. A.

(we)
>//tftC
Tt'lfjlOJV

(ye, you)
VJJLEIQ

(they)
<r0at; n. Gtyka

VflOJV
?''//tv

(70WV
G(j)iffi(i>)

//n)'
?/^u

D.
A.

A.

?'^oc

Ttfrlc

n. *T0f

ETYMOLOGY.
POSSESSIVE PRONOUN.

37

The Possessive Pronouns

formed from the Personal Pronouns. #, etc., and are declined like o-o^oc.

signify possession. They are are t/zoc, <c, They

REFLEXIVE PRONOUN.
These are
inative,
CLVTOQ.

They

tpavTov, creavrov, iavrov. They have no Nomare declined as in the oblique cases of

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN.

The Interrogative Pronoun TIC, who? which? what? declined in the following manner
:

is

S.

M.
TIQ

F.

N.
r'i

D. M. F. N.
N. rive G. TIVOIV

N.
I).

P. M. F. N. rive.Q
G. TIVWV D. r/(Tt(i')

N.
rivet

G. TIVOC, TOV
Tivi t T(}

TIVOC, TOV

Tivtov

rim, T<$
ri

A. riva

D. TIVOIV A. rive

A. Tivag

rim(v) Tiva

INDEFINITE PRONOUN.

The
some,
S.

Indefinite

Pronoun

rig
:

(grave accent), any, certain,


P. M. F. N. nvic, G. TlvCoV
1).

is

declined as follows

M. F.
riff

N.
ri
riVOff,

D. M. F. N,
N.
TOV
rive

N.
riva

N. G.
1^.

TIVOQ, TOV
TlVl t
rn-'ii
7V<7

G. TIVOIV

TLV&V
7"t(T/(l/)

TLVlj Tip
ri

A,

D. TIVOIV * A. rti^t

TWI^f) A. TIV&Q

Tivd,

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN.

The Demonstrative Pronouns


"Ode
.

are

6'de,

ovrog,

and

EKZLV

simply the Article with the inseparable particle Thus, o^e, ?;'^, ro^e, G. rouoe, r^rSe.
is is

declined as follows

S.

M.

(tins')

F.

(this)

N.

(this)

N.

owroff

avTtj

TOVTO

TCVTOV
Tovftft

Taini]Q

TQVTOV

ravry
ravTr,v

rovr^
TOVTO

TOV TOV

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

ETYMOLOGY.
1.

39

Cases

In the Nominative Case always, and in the Oblique when it stands first in the sentence, UVTOQ has the

force of the English self j ,as, 'Eyw cWoc,


2.

I myself.
first

In the Oblique Cases,


it

when
etc.
it, it

not the

word
the

in the

clause,
3.

means him,

her,

it,

With

the Article before

always means

same ;
:

as, 6 avroQ c)ovXoc, the


Singular.

same

slave.

It is declined as follows
Plural.

Dual.
-6

N. aur-oQ
G. avT-ov

-i]

N. A.
CWT-IO

N.
-w

avT-o'i

-ai

-d

-i]Q

-ov
-cf

-d

G. auT-CJv

-wv -&v
-CL"IQ

D. avr-( -y A. O.VT-OV -i]V

G. D.
avT-olv -alv -civ
:

-6

D. avr-otc; A. aur-ovq

-tj
-d

-ct

In the same manner are declined


dXXoQ
CQ
tKU.VOQ
dXXrj
i]

dXXo
o

another

who, which
that

tKlLVtf

LKLLIO

RECIPROCAL PRONOUN.

The Reciprocal Pronoun


declined
:

aXX/yXw^,

of one another,

is

thus

D.

40

GllEEK

GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


VOICES.
I.

There are three Voices


Middle.

the Active, the Passive, and the

upon by some person or tiling; as, rti/rro/^cn, lam struck. The Middle Voice represents the agent (l) as acting upon itself; as, Active, Xouw, I wash; Middle, Xouopai, I wash myself, e., / bathe (2) as acting for its own adi.

The Active Voice represents the' agent as acting upon an object as, TVTTTIO ere, I strike you. The Passive Voice represents the subject as being acted
;

vantage ;

as,

Active, Trapaoram^w,
its

I provide ;
table /

Middle,
as,

?ra-

pairxEvaopat, I provide for my

something to be done for


Traparidrjpi rr\v rpaTrtZav,
TidEfjLai rrjv

own use (8) own advantage, j

as causing

Active,
Trapa-

I set forth the

Middle,

rpaTTE^ar^T cause the table to be set forth before

me.

II.

the Indicative, the Subjunctive, the Optative, the Imperative, and the Infinitive. The Indicative represents that which actually is or ocfive
:

There are

Moods

curs

as, Tvirrei,

he strikes.

The Subjunctive represents a possibility or conception of the mind as, fiovXevrj. he may advise. The Optative represents a wish, and is also used as the Subjunctive of the Past Tenses as, TVTTTOI, let him strike,
;
;

or,

he might

strike.

The Imperative represents a command, exhortation,


entreaty
;

or

as, TVTT-E, strike thou.

simply the meaning of the Verb, without limitation of person or number; as,
Infinitive represents
to strike.

The

ETYMOLOGY.
TENSES.
III.

41

There are

six

Tenses

Perfect, the Pluperfect, the Future,

the Present, the Imperfect, the and the Aorist

The Present, Perfect, and Future are called Primary Tenses. The Imperfect, Pluperfect, and Aorist are called
Historical Tenses.

The Present Tense represents an


place;
as, TVTTTW^ I strike.

action as

now taking
will take

The Future Tense represents an action which


place
;

as,

TU^E t,
:

lie

will strike.

In the Passive Voice two

forms occur

the First Future and the Second Future.

The Imperfect Tense represents an action which was taking place and was not completed in some past time /
as, eVuTrroj',

I was

striking.

(ao/>joroe, indefinite) represents a past action as simply done, without reference to the time of its completion ; as, tVv^a, struck. This tense has two forms,

The Aorist Tense

known as the First and Second Aorist, which do not differ in meaning, and are not both found in the same Verb. The Perfect Tense represents an action as complete at Of this tense the present time as, render, I have struck. as well as of the Pluperfect, two forms, the First and also,
;

the Second, exist.


at

The Pluperfect Tense represents an action some past time as, i-eru^Eu^ I had struck.
;

as complete

PERSONS.
IV.

There are three Persons, First, Second, and Third. There is no separate form for the First Person Dual in the Active Voice. _ It is expressed by the form of the First Person Plural.

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

2 a

sg
"*

Pi

-lsM

lt-l-1

fills
f-Hf'l a a
s> s>

.5
'

5 S

re

Wo

ETYMOLOGY.

43

3G.

TABLE OF INFLECTIONS,
ACTIVE VOICE.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
S.

/ strike.
TV7TTEI,

TV7TTW,

TVTTTtig,

I strike.
IX
P.
TUTTTOJUV,
ive strike.

thou strikest.
TVTrTETOV,

he strikes.
TVTTTETOV,

you two
TUTTTtTf,

strike.

they two strike.


TVTTTOVGl,

you

strike.

they strike.

Imperfect.
S.

I was

striking.

kTVTTTOV

kTVTTTtC;

IX P.

kTVTTTfTOV
IT

kTVTTTcTE

Perfect
S.

/ have

struck.

IX
p.
>

TSTvtiaTe

Perfect
S.

2.

/ have

struck.
TcTVTTE

TkTVTTa

D.
P.

TiTVTTaQ TiTVTTaTOV
TiTVirOLTf.

Tt-vrraTOV

TTV7raUV
Pluperfect

/ had struck.
irtrvtyti

D.

kTtTV(f)tlTOV

S.

Pluperfect iTtTVTTUV

2.

I had struck.

kTcTVTTtlQ

D.
P.
kTE.TVTrf.lfJLtV

kTtTVTTeiTOV
kTtTVTTcLTS.

irf.TV7rf.Laav

Future

1.

I shall strike.
TV'^tTOV
TV'^OVffl

Future

2.

I shall
TVTTilQ

strike.^

p.

44

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


Aorist
S.
I).
1.

I struck.

.
trvifse

trv^a
kTU'ipctf-lfV

trv^ag trv^arov
cTVl^CtTS

trv^aT^v
tTV$/CtV

P.

Aorist
S.
I).

2.

I struck.
tTVTTS
tTUTrtrrjv

tTUTrOls

tTVTTEC

iruTTcTOV

P.

kTUTToptv

i-uxEre

iTVirov

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
S.
1).
TUTTTiiJ

I may
TVTTTyQ

strike.

TUTTTy
TV7TT1JTOI

TVTTTl]TOV
T^TTrW/ZfJ/
TVTTTIJTk
1.

P.

TUTTTWGl

Perfect

I may

have struck.

D.

TTV(f)r]TOV

TcTV^tJTO

Perfect
S.
~D.

2.

/ may

have struck.

TiTVTTW

TcTVTTyQ

TTV7TJ]TOV

Aorist

1.

I may

strike.

J).

TV^TJTOV

TV^TjTOV

Aorist
S.
I).

2.

I may
TVTTyQ

strike.

TU7TU)

TVTty
TUTTtfTOV

rVTTf]TOV
TV7ra)[,iLV

P.

rvTrrjre

TVTTWGI

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Present.
S.

I might,

could, icould, or should strike.

TUTTTOlfM

rVTCTOlQ

TVTTTOt
TVTTTOirTJV

D.
P.
TVTTTOlUtV
1.

TU7TTOITOV
TVTTTOlTt

TVTTTQltV

Perfect
S.
Y).

Imiyht, could, would, or should have struck.


TETV(j)OlQ

TtTV^Olfll

TBTlHbOl
TETV(j)OlT1]V

TfTV([)OirOV
TTV(j)Ol[JltV

P.

TtrV$OlT6

T(TV$OltV

ETYMOLOGY.
Perfect
S.
2.

45
have struck.
TETV7TOL
TtTUTTOlTIJV

I might,

could, would, or should TITV7TOIQ

T&TV7TOIUI

D.
P.
Tf.TVTTOlp.LV

TETV7TOITOV
TtTVTTOlTe.

TeTVTTOtiV

Future
S.
I).
TV^Olfjil

1.

I should

or would strike.
TV^/Ol

TV^Oig
TUTpoiTOV
Ti\^oire

TV^QITK]V
TV\poitv

P.

TVtpotfjttv

Future
S.

2.

I might,

could, would, or should hereofter strike.'f


TVTCOIQ
i'

TVTTollJLl

TV7TOI

TVTrorrjv
TUTToltV

P.

TV7TolfJ,EV
1.

TVTTOlTS

Aorist
S.

I might,

could, would, or should strike.

Tv\pai[.u

P.
Aorist
S.
2.

I might,

could, would, or should strike.


TV7TOIQ
ru'/rotrov

TVTTOlftl

TVTCOL
TVTTOITTJV

D.
P.
TVTroipev

TVTTOITS

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present,
S.
rvTrre
ASVn'/je.
ri>7T7fcra>

D.
P.

TVTTTtTOV
TV7TTLT8
.

TVTTTSrdJV

TVTTTtTUJGaV

Perfect
S.
~D.
T'cTlHpB.

1.

Have struck.
TtTV<j)T(i)
TtTV(j)tT(t)V

TETV^ETOV
TETVfpere

P.

TeTv&erwcrav
2.

Perfect
S.

//are struck.
TfTVTTtTlt)

T&TVTTE

D.
P.

TtTVTTETOV
TtTVTTtTc

TtTVTf'iTMV
TtTVTc'tTUaCtV

Aorist
S.
3).

1.

Strike.

rv<l/ov

Tv^drw
TV\^CITOJV

P.

Tvyarou Tv^are

TVaTuaav

46

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


Aorist
S.
TV7TE
2.

Strike.

TV7TETW

D.
P.

TVTTtTOV

TVTTSTWV
TVTTtTbMJaV

TV KITE

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present.
TVTTTEIV, to strike, to be striking. Perfect 1. rtrvtitvai, to have struck.

Future Future
Aorist

Perfect 2. rervTrsvai, to have struck. 1 TV^EIV, to be about to strike,


.

2. 1.

rvTrtiv, to be

about

to strike.^

TV^CII, to strike.

Aorist

2.

ru/rn^, to strike.

PARTICIPLES.
Present. Striking.

N.
G.

TV7TTUJV

TVTTTOVffCt

TVTTTOVTOQ

TVTTTOVarjg
1.

Perfect

Having

struck.

N.
G.

TtTlHpiOQ

TETV<pvla

Perfect

2.

Having

struck.

N.
G.

TtTV7r<jj

rervTTwa
TtTVTTViaQ
1.

TZTVTTOQ

TETVTTOTOZ OZ

TtTUTTOTO

Future

Going

to strike.

N.
G.

TVIJJWV

TV^OVTt

Future
N. G.
TV7TWV

2.

Going

to strike.^

TUTTUUGCt
TVTrovcrrjc;

TVTTOiJV

TVXOVVTOZ
Aorist
1.

TVTruvvTog

Having
Tvijjacra

struck.

N. G.

Tv-(jja

rv^av
TV\JJC(PTO

TV^CIVTOQ

TV\jJClG1ig

Aorist

2.

Having

struck.

N.
G.

TVTTOtV

TVTTOVffa

TV7TUV

TV7TOPTO

TVTTOVVrjQ

TUTTGVTQQ

ETYMOLOGY.
PASSIVE VOICE.
INDICATIVE MOOD,
Present.
TVTTTOfJLaC

/ am

struck.

TVTTTy OT -7TTU

D.
P.

TVTTTOfJL^OV

TVTTTOVrai

Imperfect.
S.
I).

I was

struck.

irVTTTOV

rvrrreTO

P.
Perfect.
S.

tTVTTTOVTO

I have

been struck.

D.
P.
Pluperfect.
S.

/ had

been struck.

D. P.

irirv^e
Future
1.

kvoi ijaav

I shall

or will be struck.

S.

or -era

D.
P.

Future
S.
TVTrfjGOfJiai

2.

I shall be
TV7TY]<ry

struck.
TVTrfjvtrat

D.
P.

Future
S.

3.

I shall be

struck.

D.
P.
Aorist
S.
1.

I was

struck.

D.
P.
Aorist
S.

irvfi&rjTov

inxf&rjre
2.

/ was

struck.
tTVTT)]

MTTIJV

kTWTJje
trvTrrjrov

D.
P.

tTVTrfjTrjf

48

GEEEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
S.
I).
TVTTTUfJlCtl

I am

struck.

I may

or can le struck.
TVliTT]Tai
TUTTTtjaSrOV

TVTTTy
TVTTTrjGSrOV

TVTTTWfjltSoi'

P.

TVTrTion&a
Perfect.
S.

TVTTrrjaSe

rvirr^vrai

/ have

been struck,

I may

have been struck.

TETVfifjiirog (y, ov),

w, yq, yIJTOV, ijrov.

D.

rfri>ju/zro> (a, w),

(Oytttv,

P. TtTV^fjiepoi (at, a),


Aorist
S.
J).

<u/jj/, jyrf, wfft(v).

1.

/<m struck, I may

or caw ie struck.

TvtySuj

P.

Tvtyz&niv

S.

rfTrJ;

D.
P.

Aorist 2.

I may
Tviryz

be struck.

TVTTtJTOV
TVTTiJTE

TVTriJTOV

TU7TU>fJ.V

TVK&Gl

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Present.
S.

/ mir/ht,

could, would, or should be struck.


TV7TTOIO
TVTTTOiaSrov

TVTTToifJIJV

TV7TTOLTO
TVTTToi(j3rr]

D.
P.

TVTTTOIH&OV
TWKToifjie&a.

TVTTTOKJ^E

TVTTTOIVTO

Perfect.
S.

I might,

etc.,

Ai*c
('?yv,

teerc struck.
'

TervpjjL^vo^

(j], oi/),

f'^Cj

?7'

D. TtTV^kvit) (,
P.

w), eh]Liev,tirjTOV,

eu'iTTjv.

Future
S.
T).

1.

I should or

would be struck.
TV<p3rrj<joiTO

rvtySrnGoifirjv
TV(j)^rr](7oipt^ov

rv^rjuoto
rv(^3rr]ffoi<7^ov

nMJ&ijffoiff&l

P.

Tv^rjaoifJLf^ra

TU(p$i]aoivS8

Future
S.

2.

I might,

etc., hereafter be struck.


rvTn'jffoio

TVTrnaoi/Jirjv
TvirrjcroiiJitSov

Tvirr

D.
P,

rvwqaoipe&a

ETYMOLOGY.
Future
S.
rtrv^oifjujv
3.

49

I should or

would remain struck.

rerv^oio
TtTV^OUjStOV
TTU\}JOI<T$
TtTV^o'ltJ^f

D. P.

TtTV^OljJl&OV
reTVifjoifji&a

TSTV^OIVT

Aorist 1.
S.

I might,

could, would, or should be struck.

D.
P.
Aorist
S.
TVTrenjv
fifv 2.

TV(pllT)Tr]V

rwj&ttijTt or -are
etc., be struck.

I might,

rvvfrjg
rv7ri'ir]Tov

D.
P.
TVTTtitJlJtEV

TVTTtlTJTe

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present.
S,
TVTTTOV

Be

thou struck.
TVTrr

D.
p.
Perfect.

Be

thou struck.

a
D.
p.
Aorist
S.
1.

Be

thou struck.

D. P.
Aorist
S.
TVTTTjdt
2.

Be

struck.

D.
P.

TVTTrfTOV
TVTrrjre

TVTrrjTOjaav or

-evrwv

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present.
Perfect,
rvTrrtaSai, to be struck.
rfrt/03-at, to

have been struck.

Future Future Future

rv03-7<Teoai, to be about to be struck.' 2. rvirriGtaSai, to be about to be struck.


1. 3.

rfru'^eaS-ai, to
rv<f)$rivat, to

remain struck.

Aorist 1. Aorist 2.

be struck.

rvTrijvat, to be struck.

50

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR REGLXXERS.


PARTICIPLE.
Present.
Perfect.
rvTrTofjitvoc.,
ij, rj,

ov, being struck.

TITV^^'WOC,
1
.

ov, struck,
77,

having been struck.

Future Future Future


Aorist

ru03^<7o/ji>o,
Tvirrjcofjitvoc.,

or, about to be struck.

2.

rj,

ov, about to be struck.

3.
1.

Terv^ofjiEvog, about to
TvfyStic., tlffa, &v,

remain struck.

Aorist 2.

TVTTiig, etera,

being struck. er, being struck.

MIDDLE VOICE.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
S.
I).
rvTTTOfjiai

/ strike

myself.

P.

TVTTTOfJl&OV TVTTTUIJl&a

rvrcry TVTTTtaSoV
TVTTTtGSf

rvimrai
TV7TTt(T$OV
TVTTTOVTCLl

Imperfect.
S.
irvTrrofjiTjv

/ was

striking myself.

ITVTTTOV

iTvirnro
irvTrrovro

P.

iTVTTTOfji&a

irvrrTtaSe

Perfect.
S.
rt'rv/u/iat

/ have

struck myself.
riruTfrai

rkrvtyai

D.
P.
Pluperfect.
S.
ireTvfifJLrjv

I had struck
irtrv^o
trkrvfySov

myself

IrtTVTrro
trtTvQSrtjv

D.

treTvfjin&ov

Future
S.

1.

I shall strike
rv^y
TVlLfffOt

myself.

rv^o/iae
TV'il/OUtOa

TV^ETUI
TVll/OVTat

P.

Future
S.
rvTrovfJiai

2.

I shall strike myself*.f


TVTTTJ

rvTritrai

D.
P.

TVTTOVfJt&OV
rvTrovfJif^a

TVTTtiaSoV
TviriiaSt
1
.

TVirtla&OV

rvirovvrai

Aorist
S.
rwpa/uj;i>

/ struck myself.
trvx//o>

irv^dro

P.

irv^afie^a

eTV\l/aa$6

tTv^avro

ETYMOLOGY.
Aorist
S.
tTvirofjirjv

51

2.

I struck myself.
krvirov

D.
P.

irvTTOfJieOov

ervTreoOov

irvTrofttOa

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
S.

I strike, I may

or can strike, myself.

rurrruj/iat
TVTrrdjfJie^ov

Tvirry
rvTrrrjaSov
TV7TT7](T&

D.
P.

TVtrTWH&a
Perfect.
S.

/ may

have struck myself.


yg,

TtTVfjLfjitvoG S),
TiTVjJLfJlBVd},

y,

D.
P.

TJTOV, ffTOV,

TtTVJJlfJlivOl WfJieV,

iJT,

tbffl.

Aorist
S.
"D.
TvipufJiai

1.

I may

strike myself.

Tv-fyy

TV^fJltOoV
Tv^w/jitQa

TV^TJffOoV

P.

rv^rjaOe
2.

Aorist
S.
ruTraJfJiai

I struck
rviry

myself.

D.
P.

TVTTWfJltOoV
ru7ro>/ic9a

TVTTTjaOoV
TvirrjaOe

TV7T1]ff9oV

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Present.
S.
TVTTToiflTJV

/ might strike
TV7TTOIO

myself.
TVTTTOLTO
TVTTToiaSrrjV

D.
P.

TVTTTOlfJieSoV

TVTTTOlffSoV
TvirroiffSre

TVTrroifji&a

TVTTTOIVTO

Perfect.
S.
*

I might

have struck myself.


tirig,
tlij,

Ttrvfjifjitvoc; tirjv,

D.
P.

TtTVUfJlBVto),

tlrjTOV, tlTJTTJV,
elrjfjiev, tlrjTe,

TeTvpfJiEvoi

tlrjaav.

Future
S.

1.

I should strike
TV\I/010

myself.

TV^OlprjV
TVlfjOtfJltQoV
Tv\j/6ifjieQa

TV^OITO
TV^OiaQlJ

D.
P.

TV^OHjQoV

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


Future
S.
TVTTOlfJiyjV

2.

I should

strike myself.^

TVTTOIO

TV1TOITO
TVTTOlffOrjV

D.
P.

TVTToijjllOoV
TViroifJitQa

TVTTOtaOov
rvTrourOe
1.

TVTTOIVTO

Aorist
S.

/ mighty

etc., strike myself.

D.
P.
Aorist
S.
TVTToijjirjv

2.

/ mighty

etc.

TVTTOIO

strike myself. TVTTOITO


TVTroiaOrjv

D.
P.

TVTToifjitOov
TVTTOlfJLeOa

TviroiaQov
TVTTOHtOe

TV7TOIVTO

IMPERATITE MOOD.
Present. Strike thyself.
S.

TV7TTOV

D.
P.

Perfect.
S.

Have

been struck.

T6TV$$<Ji>

D.
P.
Aorist
S.
Tinfsai

1.

D.
P.

TvifjaaSrov

TvipaoSre

Aorist
S.

2.

Strike.

TVTTOV

TVTTBffSijj

D.
P.

TfTTfVS'WV

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present.
Perfect.
,

#o strike one's

se//*.

to
1.

have struck one's

self.
se//*.

Future Future
Aorist
Aorist

ai, to
,

6e a&owZ <o strike one's

2.
1.

contracted rvTTfi^at, to 6e
to strike one's se^.

a6o/

to strike one's seT/If

t,
,

2.

to strike one's self.

ETYMOLOGY.
PARTICIPLE.
Present.
Perfect.

53

TVTTTO^VO^
TtrvfijJievoQ,

r\, rj,

ov, striking himself.

Future Future
Aorist

1.

rv^6/ifi>o,

rj,

ov, having struck himself. ov, about to strike himself.

2. rvireo^tvoQ, contr. TVTroviJ.(vog,rj, ov,


1
.

about

to strike one's self.^

having struck himself. Aorist 2. rvTrofjievoc,, TJ, ov, striking or having struck himself. [NOTE. Grammarians have assumed a second future in the Active as well as in the Passive and Middle Voices. We have given these in the paradigms, marking them with an obelisk (t). But no such forms actually exist in this voice.]
Tv^dfievo^j
rj,

ov, striking or

37.

FORMATION OF THE TENSES.


I.

AUGMENT.

The Imperfect and Aorists of the Indicative Mood, and the Perfect, Pluperfect, and Third Future of all of the Moods, receive an increase at the beginning, whichfris
called

Augment.

Augment there are two species, known as the Augment and as the Temporal Augment. The Syballic Augment consists of a syllable or syllables preThe Temporal Augment is formed by fixed to the Verb.
this

Of

Syllabic

lengthening the first syllable of the Verb. In most Verbs which begin with a Consonant, the Syllabic Augment is used in the Imperfect and Aorist Tenses, and it is formed

by prefixing

e to the Root ; as, TVTTTW Imperfect, ITVKTOV. In Verbs which begin with a Vowel, the Temporal Augment is used in all of the Past Tenses, and it is formed by

initial Vowel if it be short, or by leaving unchanged if it be long. The Temporal Augment lengthens a and e into 77, and o into w ; as, $w Imperfect,

lengthening the
it

rjcW.

REDUPLICATION.
In the Perfect, the Pluperfect, and the Third Future, Verbs which begin with a Consonant repeat this Consonant before the Syllabic Augment, and such repetition is

54

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


Aug-

ment

called Reduplication. In the Pluperfect the Syllabic is repeated before the Reduplication ; as,
TUTTTW

Perfect, T-e-rvtya

Pluperfect,

COMPOUND VERBS.
Verbs compounded with a Preposition take their Augment between the Preposition and the Verb as,
;
t)

Imperfect,
II.

THE ROOT.
The Root of a Verb
undergo no change
the Verb.
is

composed of those

in inflection

which throughout every part of


letters
is

The
Root.

Characteristic of a

Verb

the last letter of the

In regular Verbs, the Characteristic is the letter which immediately precedes the termination of the Present Tense, Indicative Mood, Active Voice as, y in Ae'yoj. In
;

many

instances, however, the

Root

is

modified

by the

in;

terposition of a letter or letters before the termination as, r in Tirnrit)) where the Root is TVTT.

Commonly

the Root

may be

found by striking

off

from

the Present Indicative Active the letters which follow the The remainder will be the Root, either Characteristic.

unchanged or as modified by the


Xe'yw
TVTTTW

rules of Euphony; as,

Characteristic, y

Root, Xey.

Characteristic,

TT

Root,

TVTT.

Verbs are Pure, Mute, or Liquid, according as the Characteristic is a Vowel, a Mute, or a Liquid as,
;

rtw
XC/TTW

Characteristic,

is
TT

a Pure
is

Characteristic,

Verb a Mute Verb


;

(nrelpu

Characteristic, p

is

a Liquid Verb.

ETYMOLOGY.

55

SECONDARY ROOT.
In the Perfect, Pluperfect, Aorist, and Future Tenses, the Root is found to be, in some Verbs, a shortened form. These Tenses, when formed from this shortened Root, are
called the

Second Second Second Second

Perfect,

Pluperfect,
Aorist,

Future.

These are not distinct Tenses, but merely different forms of the same Tense. The shortened root is found in the Lexicon, and the Tenses are formed by adding their respective terminations to it, as exhibited in the Second Aorist Active and in the /Second Perfect Active.

III.

SPECIAL RULES FOR FORMATION OF THE TENSES.


ACTIVE VOICE.
Present.

Add -w
;

to the

strengthened Root
to the

if it

be

strengthened
Imperfect.
1st Perfect.

as, X'TT-W.

Augment and add -or

Root

as, Xtnr-

Root
-ra in
16).

if

Augment, Reduplicate, and add -a to the the Characteristic is a Labial or a Palatal add
;

all

other cases

as,

XaV-w

\e-\eur-a =\Xei(j)a

(6,

R.

2d Perfect. Augment, Reduplicate, and add -a to the modified Root, as found in the Lexicon ; as, XEITT-CJ ; XOITT \ XOITT a.
;

1st Pluperfect.

Augment, Reduplicate, repeat the Aug-

ment, and -iw to the Root, if the Characteristic is a Labial or a Palatal add -KEIV in all other cases ; as, XaV
;

(6,R, 16).

56

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

2d Pluperfect. Augment, Reduplicate, repeat the Augment, and add -v to the modified Root as found in the
2d Perfect;
1st

as, Xenr-w; Xot?r; eXeXotVeu/.

future.
(6,

Add

o-w

to the

Root

as, XftTr

w; XetTr-o-w^

XV/

R.

5).

Add -tw, contracted w, to the shortened Root as found in the Second Aorist ; as, Xenr-w ; XITT ; Xnrw.f IstAorist. Augment and add -o-a to the Root ; as, XC/TT2 d Future.

w;

eXetTT

era

= eXen^/a

(6,

R.

5).

2d Aorist. Augment and add -ov to the shortened Root as found in the Lexicon as, XaV-w XITT t\urov.
;

Present.

Add
;

-o/itu to

PASSIVE VOICE. the strengthened Root,


;

if it

be

strengthened
Imperfect.
XCITT
it) ;

as, XW'TT-W

\eiir-op.cu.

Augment and add -o^v


ofirjv.

to the

Root;

as,

XetTT

Perfect.

Augment, Reduplicate, and add


w
;

-/zcu

to the

Root

as, Xenr

Ac XCITT fj.aiz=:\\eip,fjiai (6,

R.

2).

Pluperfect.

Augment, Reduplicate, repeat the Augment,


to the
2).

and add

-p.rjv

Root;

as,

XetV-w; c-Xe-Xc/Tr-^y^cXe-

\EiHfiriv (6,

R.

ls Future.
Oti(Top,a.L

Add

-drjcrofiai

to the

Root

as,

XV-w

XetTr-

= \i(t)dfiffop,at
Add

(6, R.

l).

2(7

Future.

-qo-o/mi to the
;

shortened Root as found

in the 2 d Aorist Active

as, XEITT-W; XITT; \urfi ffop,ai.

3d Future. Augment, Reduplicate, and add -o-o/zcu to the Root as, XC/TT-W; XfXe/7r-o-o/iatrr:XeX/i^o/zai (6, R. 5). 1st Aorist. Augment and add -617 v to the Root; as,
;

X'TT-W; eXetyOriv (6, R. 1). 2c7 Aorist. Augment and

Root

as found in the

add -rjv to the shortened 2d Aorist Active ; as, XC/TT-W XCTT ;


;

ETYMOLOGY.

57

MIDDLE VOICE.
the strengthened Root, if it be w ; XctTro^icu. Imperfect. Augment and add -ofirjv to the Root; as,
Present.
-o/zai to
;

Add

strengthened
Xe/7r
u) ;

as, Xenr

iXftTrofjiriv.

Perfect.

Augment, Reduplicate, and add


;

-/zcu

to the

Root

as, Xfnr-w

XcXet/x/xcu (6,

R.

2).

Augment, Reduplicate, repeat the Augment, and add pjr to the Root as, XaV w eXfXaWrp'. 1st Future. Add -tro/icu to the Root; as, XetV-w; XeA//oPluperfect.
;
;

/i<u (6,

R.

5).

2df

Future.

Add

-co/icu,

contracted

-ov/zat,

to the short;

ened Root as found in the 2d Aorist Active


XITT; XtTToi/^cu.f

as, XEITT-W

1st Aorist.

Augment and add


R.

-o-a/iijv

to the

Root;

as,

Xcnr-w; fXei^afJLYiv (6, 5). 2d Aorist. Augment and

Root
XtTT

as found in the
OfJUJV.

add -o/z??j> to the shortened 2d Aorist Active as, XCITT-W Xt?r ;


;
;

EXAMPLES.
Let the pupil form each Tense in the following Verbs, giving Rules for all of the Euphonic Changes as
38.

laid

down

in

6.
1. T/oi,

I honor.

58

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


\Aw,

Ifold.
Parts combined.
tTrXeicov

ACTIVE VOICE.
Parts divided.
Present.

Imperfect. Future.

t-irXiK-ov

Aorist

1.

t-TrXtK-a-a
t-7rXaic-ov
tir\a.Kov

Aorist

2.

Perfect.

Pluperfect.

Perfect

2.

7T-7rXo/c-a

Pluperfect 2.

MIDDLE VOICE.
Present.
Imperfect.
irXtK-ojjia.1

i-TrXtK-Ofirjv

Future 1. Future 2.f


Aorist
1.
i-7T\6K-(T-dfJiT]V

TrXa

Aorist 2.
Perfect.

Pluperfect.

PASSIVE VOICE.
Present.
TrXsKOfiat

Imperfect.

Future Future
Aorist

1.

2. 1.

Aorist

2.

Perfect.

iriTrXeyfiat

Pluperfect.

Future

3.

w,

Ipersuade.
Middle.
Passive.

Active.

Present.
Imperfect.

Future Future
Aorist

1. 2.
1.

7T-<7-U)

t-TTEl-ff-d

t-TTfl-ff-dfJUJV

ETYMOLOGY.
Aorist
2.

59

t-iri3r-ov

Perfect.

irk-Trti-K-a
i-Trt-irri-K-tiv

Trk-TTtia~iiai
s-Tre-Trtiff-fjujv

ire-ire iff- \LOLI


i-TTt-Trdff-iJLfjv

Pluperfect. Perfect 2.

Tri~Troi$-a
i-ire-noiSr-iiv

Pluperfect 2.

Future

3.

Tre-nti-a-opai

SPECIAL RULES FOR PURE VERBS.


I.

Pure Verbs, whose characteristic is a or e or contracted in the Present and Imperfect Tenses.
39.
II.

o,

are

are formed according to the Rules given above ; but, (a) when a short vowel occurs before a consonant, it is changed into its own long ; as, 0tXcw ; 0tXc ; QiXriffu) ; (b) when e or a short doubtful vowel occurs before
serts

The Tenses

a Consonant in the Active and Middle Voice, the Verb <r before a Consonant in the Passive Voice ; as,
ctXecj
5

in-

ciXiffit) y

60

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

til

ETYMOLOGY.
.2

61
5
<JI

Ss
^^SL
..

IT!

r?

%u

S>

-f

s 5 " T 'T
i

O " O " O

rTrTr

8 C

1-1 A > X

to

^ vo

n
33 a
=J.

3-3-3-3t^ K K

ft?<n

till!

62

w
|r
?

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

144-

??

Tff

JJ-S-e.

*^

s^

ci
I

s-

i-

-i-.t fc

i.

1^
? J"

^.3-1 * .2 2

tl o o

|i 11

ll s Iff

trllt

\
l

to

6 -a

E b 3

<2

ETYMOLOGY.

63

tl| |lt
c>
.j

fti!
T.TT!

64

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

ETY^IOLOGY.
S ^

65

ft

a,

r,

I 41 III

'3 -S '3 *S

Hi K o ^ s
^*

Iv

**

,b

o b

11-4.14 .1

Itlili
1

I'Jilili = S -'3-2=-=

'3

'3

o ~

66

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


e e
e e g

-0 '3 -2 o -o

1 II 11 o

fifiii

iittfi

<<<< ^^
vu
1*1

wu

uu

fH-Ht

g
M

P H S g 3 g

gl
A S

a! P

g|| ||

Jlllil

..

^ ^ A a

S" R. B-

NMH

e- R-

i 4

ETYMOLOGY.

67

to<S

b^

to<S

-I-U-l-i'l

o o o o o o

"

Q 3-

o o o

iH4HM

ST

ST-

2.

c"
t>

|.

R
v

*
1

|.

R"
to

a
^>
to
N

Oi
t>

t>

^>
to

*S

^3-2*3 i^S

*s

li ii
-Itl'l-l-l C 3 * o o o

e
_.
\

S o
*
^3,
*
C

l 1| CD w
vu

I
*

<I>
**

^_
*

"*>

3_
%

^3 V |A|- V a

3 o V3

^3

4
.5

la

68

GKEEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


LIQUID VERBS. Verbs are those whose characteristic Liquid
:

42.
uid.

is

a Liq-

In the formation of their Tenses, they differ from the Mute Verbs in the following particulars, viz.
I.

Root of the Present is long, all of the Tenses excepting the Present and Imperfect are formed from the modified Root as found in the 2d Aorist and 2d Perfect.
If the strengthened
II.

The Future Active and Middle, instead of <rw and o-oftcu, add eo) and tojucu, contracted into & and oi^cu, to the shortened Root; as, rtwu; Root reiv, shortened Root nv^
Future Active
TE.V&
;

Future Middle
III.

rtvoupai.

The First Aorist Active and Middle lengthen the shortened Root, and instead of aa and o-ayuqr, add a and apriv as, TSIVU ; Root TEW ; shortened Root rev re-lengthened Root reiv'y 1st A. Active iretra 1st A. Middle
; ; ;

IV.

Verbs of two
a Consonant; Perfect reraica.
43.

syllables in eivw, u'w


as,

and

wu

drop

v before

ravw; Root

TW,

modified Root rav;

EXAMPLES OF LIQUID VERBS.


Srf'XXw,
Active.

I send.
Middle.
Passive.
(TTtXX-ofjLai

Present.

crreXX-w
f-errtXX-ov

errt'XX-o/zat

Imperfect.

Future Future
Aorist

1.

<mX--a>, w
t-araX-a 1-oraX-ov

2.
1.

Aorigt

2.

ETYMOLOGY.
Perfect.

69

t-araX-K-a

70

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

VERBS IN
44.

fu.

Verbs

in

fit

are formed from Pure Verbs in


aw, w, ow,

and

vw,

and are consequently of four forms, ending respectively and vfjit. rjpty T/JUI, w/a,
ular

in

The following Verb in /a


:

steps are taken in the formation of a reg-

I.

Change w into

/a

as,

/3aw; /3a/a.
II.

Lengthen the Penult ima


flaw
5

as,
5

/3a/a
III.

/3rjfj.i.

Prefix the Reduplication. This consists of i with the initial Consonant

when

the

Verb begins with a Consonant

as,

or of simply an aspirated t when the Verb begins with Vowel or with the letters or or TTT as,
-,

fw;
/

If/a
5

^f/a;
',

tiy/a.
ffrrj/Jii 5
/

oraoi

trrapt
/

itmifju.

Trraw

7rra/a

TTT^IJLI

t7rr7/a.

form, viz.

in /a have but three Tenses of this peculiar the Present, Imperfect, and 2d Aorist. The remaining Tenses are formed regularly from the Pure Verbs upon which they are built. The Present is formed
45.

Verbs
:

above.
viz.
:

The other two Tenses

are formed as follows

ETYMOLOGY.

71

IMPERFECT ACTIVE.

Change
changed
;

p
as,

of the Present into

v,

ment, unless the Verb begins with


L

t,

and prefix the Augwhich remains un-

Imp. Imp.

efi&

SECOND AORIST ACTIVE.

Drop the reduplication of the Imperfect unless the Verb begins with a Vowel, TTT-, or or, when the aspirated i is
changed into the Augment
c;
;

as,

i;

Imp. i$i$w, 2d A. cwy. Imp. icmiv} 2d A.

PRESENT, PASSIVE AND MIDDLE. Present Active into pai and shorten the Penultima ; as,

Change

pi of the

Pres. Pass. Sft

IMPERFECT, PASSIVE AND MIDDLE.


pat of the Present into /xiyi/, ment, unless the Verb begins with t,

Change

and prefix the Augwhich remains un-

changed;

as,

Sidopcu
Icrrapai

Imp. i$i$6/jir)v. Imp. tVra/zry v.

SECOND AORIST MIDDLE.

Drop the reduplication of the Imperfect unless the Verb begins with a Vowel, with TIT, or with or, when the aspirated t is changed into the Augment as,
;

e$i()6fj,r]v

72

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

P b

^
I-

-I

P b

^
t-

<

Bi

11

$ 3

s? sJ

fe

? ^ b

t-

.3-

it

<^a3'-

0,'C ECO

III III 111 ill

ETYMOLOGY.

73

47.

TABLE OF INFLECTIONS.
ACTIVE VOICE.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.

Iplace

I put

I give
ti8<wc;

I show

IffTCLTOV

IffTOTOV

T&iTOV T&tTOV
ri&ffitv

Ci^GTOV dlOOTOV
cido[Jin>

Ci'lKVVTQV

StlKVVTOV
dtiicwfltv

T&tTt

didoTe

dtiKwre

Ti^icun^v)

c?t^oacr/(j')

deiKvv(i0i(i>)

Imperfect.
S.
tTi&ijv

idiSwv

tdtiKvvv
tdtlKVV

D.
idtlKVVTIJV

P.

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


SU15JUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
S.
iffrys
IGTIJ

D.
lGTt]TOV

T&i]TOV

IGT^TOV

T&tJTOV
VtlKVVWJJLtV

P.

Aorist

2. da> inflect-

OTW inflected like the


Present.

&&

inflect-

dun) inflect-

ed like the
Present.

ed

like the

ed like the
Present.

Present.

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Present.

tffraiijc

term?/

citiotrj

D.
didoirjTov

tlKVVOlTOV

larairjTt

CtlKVVOlTE
Ti$rfii](Tav
^

larairjaav

StlKVVOltV

Or thus
D.
iffTalrov
iffraiTfjv

Aorist
GTair]v inflectSttrjv inflect-

2.

coirjp inflect-

ed

like the

ed like the
Present.

ed like the
Present.

Present.

ETYMOLOGY.
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present.

S'.' _~ci., toTu.ji


or
i

oTty

or St'iKvv T&'tTU
dlCUTU)
difioTOV

ioToroo

StlKVVTd)

T&fTOV

StlKVVTOV

Aorist
3-ari

2.
c^o3(

or

3-6

or

<

GT)]TUJV

P.

OT^7
or crravrwv
or Sivnov

CVTt

durcoaav
or
<

or SUVTWV

INTFIXITIVE

MOOD.
covvai

Pres.

forayac
2.

Aor.

(7rm/ai

Stivai

duvai

PARTICIPLE.
Pres.

i(rrc
2.

Aor.

orf

3-it't;

dove

dug

PASSIVE!

AND MIDDLE.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.

or riSy
'iGrarai

ri&Tat

StdoTftt

otiKWrai

'izTClVTCU

T&tVTCU

FiCOVTCU

Ct'lKVVVTa

70

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


Imperfect.
S.
iGru/uHiv

'iGTUGO

idiooao

or

'IGTCO

or

ir&

or ididov
tcidoTO
tdt'lKVVTO

'iGraro

1 7/3*6 TO

D.

P.
iriSevro

tllKWVTO

Aorist 2 Middle.
iffranqv inflected
like the
t^rsfjirjv

tdopjv
inflected
like the

i^L<jj.i]i'

inflected
like the

inflected
like
t

Imperfect.

Imperfect.

Imperfect,

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.

t(TT :
IffTtJTCtl

TlStJTCtl

D.
Ti3riJG&ov

P.
TiSruvTCii
cidisJVTai

Aorist 2 Middle.
like the

like the

like the

like

Present.

Present.

Present.

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Present.
S.
(TTCllfJlT]V

dtdolo

SeiKvvoto

T&tLTO

ETYMOLOGY.
D.
Iffraiu&o

lilKVVOLG^OV

T&llVTO

Cld(

dKl'VClVTO

Aorist 2 Middle.

like the

like the

like the

Present.

Present.

Present.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present,
S.

\GTCKJQ

or Y0TW

or riSov

or ciccv

P.

VcTTrtl

or

or

T&wSuv
or 3oi;

or &,

Or ()tlKVVG$WV

Aorist 2 Middle.

GTUGO
like the

^t'cTO

dcffo

or

ov
like

like the

like the

Present.

Present.

Present.

CL(KVVGO.

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Pres.
;

A. 2 M.
PARTICIPLE.
Pres.
'iGTUfuvoQ

A. 2M. GTClUtVOZ

EXERCISES IN FORMATION.
Let the pupil form all of the Tenses of the following Verbs according to the foregoing Rules.
Verb.

Root.

Aorist 2 Root.

Perfect 2 Root.

cepK

capK

78

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


Verb.
Root.
Aorist 2 Root.
Perfect 2 Root.

Xey
(TTJ7T

Xey
ffaTT

Xoy
(T)J7C

Oa\
a yap
/3a

Oa\
ay(>

OrjX

ayop

48.

TABLES OF THE SYNOPSES AND INFLECTIONS OF CERTAIN IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS.
Efp,
to be.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present Tense.
Singular.
f //.',
t

Dual.
iffTi

Plural.
tcr/^6^,

or a,

terror,

earov

tare,

dai

Imperfect.
Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

Imperfect Middle.
Singular.
F/lifl') 1l<fO,

Dual.
I'lTO

Plural.

Future Middle.
Singular.
aofiaij tag, tvtrai

Dual.

Plural.

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular,
i

Dual.
tcrrov, tGTiov

Plural.

or tdo, torw

tTrf, torajcr

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular.

Dual.
t'irjroi',

Plural.

tifinjv

Future.
Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

ETYMOLOGY.
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular.
<^>

Dual.
IjTGV, fjTCV

Plural.

yc, y

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present.

Future.

Present Participle. WV, OlHJCl, VV

E7^it,

to go.

ACTIVE VOICE.
Present Tense.
Singular.

Dual.

Plural.
'ITS

Indie,
Suly.

efyii
i'w

tit;

or

ti

HGI
n;
i'ot

tro^
\r\rov
'ioirov
'irov

'irov

lei

or

lam

o?c

trjrov
ioirrfv

'h]TE

'ihJffl

Opt.

foijui rote;
i'S't

wire
ITS

'ioitv

Imper.
Infin.
livat

irw
iwi/

"iTWV

'iTwaav

Part,

lovaa

iov

Gen. iuv-oq

iovcrjc, etc.

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Imperfect.
Sing, foiv or
ytig or

ya

r/ffffS-a

?jti

Dual
Plur. fietufv or y

foiTov or ?JTOV yiT or ?JTE

ytiTrjv or IJTTJV

r^eaar, Ion.

yicav

"lEfjiai,

to hasten.

MIDDLE VOICE.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present
Imperfect
t'-fjut

-TCll

etc.

L-E^V
to send.

-(TO

etc.

;t,

INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular.

Dual.

Plural.
v,

t-f, hlt

Imperfect.
irjv, "irjc,

Future

1.

tTOV. (TOV

0/jKV, (T(, OVfTL

80
Aorist
TJKCl

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


1.

Perfect.
HKrt

Pluperfect.
tlKtLV

Aorist
Singular.

2.

Dual.

Plural.

or

tijJLtV)

art, tiaav

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular.
'i&ij

Dual.
'itTOV,

Plural.
'itrs,

Uraj

ikruv

ikrwcav

Aorist

1.

Perfect.

Aorist

2.

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular.
iti-ijv, rjc,
r\

Dual.
r\TOV y rjrTjv

Plural.

"n^Wi
Perfect.
f'/K:otjUi

?1

T t) tfffav

Future
fycroi/y.i

1.

Aorist 2.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular.
iw,

Dual.
itjrov,

Plural.

ly, \y

I^TOV

iwptv,

irjre, iwcrs

Perfect.
tlK-UJ) %C,

1JTOV, r\TOV

(il/MV, 7}TE, COffl

Aorist
,

2.
w//fi>, ?)rf,

<i>,

y,

ijrov, i]rov

wat

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present.

Future

1.

Perfect.

Aorist

2.

PARTICIPLES.
Present.
itic,

Future
?;(T(0

1.

iuGa, ikv

ETYMOLOGY.
Perfect.

81
Aorist
tiQ 9
2.
'iv

dea,

PASSIVE VOICE.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular.
t'f-jUrtt, GCtl,

Dual.

Plural.

TCIL

Imperfect.
ie-f,i?]v, (TO,

TO

H&ov,

<?Sov, aSi}v

Perfect.
v,

a$ov, c$ov

H&a,

(7.9-f,

VTO.I

Pluperfect.
tl-p]V,
(TO,

TO
3.

Future

Aorist

1.

Future

1.

tVfTOjltat

and t&nv

MIDDLE VOICE.
Present and Imperfect like the Passive.
Aorist
Singular.
t

1.
,
.

.Dnal.

Plural.

Future
fjo--o/irtt,

].

y, f.Tai

op&ov,

ecSrov,

taSov
2.

6/u$a,

fo-3'c,

ovTai

Aorist
tij.ii]v, zero,

tro

tfji&or, ea&ov, tad)]!'

t/j.&a, taSe, 'ivro

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Aorist 2.
Singular.

Dual.

Plural.

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Future
Singular.
Ol-pllV, 0, TO
1.

Dual.

Plural.
oSrrjv

&ov, G$OV,

Aorist 2.

&ov,

crSov, aSrrjv

D2

82

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Aorist
Singular.
2.

Dual.

Plural.

INFINITIVE MOOD.

Future

1.

Aorist

2.

PARTICIPLES.

Future

1.

Aorist

2.
rj,

Tr'jGufjitv-o(;, rj,

ov

tfitv-og,

ov

a^at, to lie down. INDICATIVE MOOD.


Present.
Singular.
-fjiai) trat,

Dual.
rat
/utS'oi/, (73*02^,

Plural.

<J$QV

p&a,

<r3f, i'rai

Imperfect.
i-fjLrjv, (TO,

ro

iu2rov, c$ov, v$r,v

f.i&a,

(73-6,

j/ro

Future

o/uSrov, taSov,

taSov

c/if3a, fa^f, ovrai

IMPERATIVE MOOD,
Present.
Singular.
KH(TO, KtiaSrio

Dual.

Plural.

Kcladov, KeiaSwv

KuaSe, KtivSua

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Present.
Singular.
toi-fjiijv, o,

Dual.

rinral.

TO

fji&ov,

(ToS-oi/,

a$r,v

ji&a,

(r3-f,

vro

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.

Aorist

1.

INFINITIVE.
Present.
KU.O'ZCU

PARTICIPLE.
Present.
Kcifiiv-oCi
^7)

ov

ETYMOLOGY.

83

84

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS,


PASSIVE VOICE.
INDICATIVE.
Perfect Trkfyarai

IMPERATIVE.
TritydaSu

INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.
v-oc,
?;.

cv

MIDDLE VOICE.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
Aorist
Singular.
^d-fjirji'y (TO,

2.

Dual.

Plural.
(jdrjv

TO

n&ov, c$ov,

p&a,

(7.3-f,

VTO

IMPERATIVE MOOD.
Aorist
Singular. (pdcr-o, 3"w
2.
Pliirr.!.

Dual.
S'o)^,

&d)v

3", S'uxrav

INFINITIVE.

PARTICIPLE.
Aorist
ic:ilv-Q,
2.
?/,

Aorist

2.

cv

Ol^a,

I know.

ACTIVE VOICE.
Present.
Singular.

Ind.

olSa

oiaSa
tidys
tidtirjQ
ia$ri

oZ^f (^)
( *' ti\h

Subj. eidw

Opt.

Imp.
Inf.

-;
!

e ^'

etde'irjv

eiddrj, etc.

Dual.
'IGTOV "KJTOV

Plural.

'iarov

\G^V

'ivrt

'ia

ifffu

'ivrcov

-o^-

('ors

'LG

eidtvai

Part.

iow^

-tia

Sing,

Dual
Plur.

Imperfect.
ydtiQ (jfaur&a, Att. ydtya&a)
?/^6i,

ydctv

Att.

^y
yvavj

ydeirov
!-

y&ftnjv
ijdeiaav (or

ydeire (or ^ort)

DEPONENT VERBS.
Deponent Verb is that which under a Middle or Passive form has an Active or Middle meaning.
49.

ETYMOLOGY.

85

SYNOPSIS OF THE DEPONENT VERB


)

I receive.
Optative.
-OlfJLfJV
|

Indicative.
|

Subjunctive.

Imper.

lufiu.

Part.

Present

Imperfect
Perfect

Pluperfect

Future M.
or. 1

wanting
-w/itti

wanting
-at
-ctcr3*at -OLfJitVOQ
-ofjit

M.

Fut. 1 P. Aor. 1 P.

Future 3

wanting x&'M wanting

wanting
-erjv
-J]TL

-lie

wanting

ADVERBS.
50.

Adverbs are words joined to Verbs, Adjectives, and


:

sometimes to other Adverbs, for the sake of modifying or


their meaning;.

PREPOSITIONS.

words 'used to express the relations between Nouns and other words which precede them. Properly speaking, the Greek language has eighteen Prep51. Prepositions are

ositions.

They
ajjityl,

are

around.
instead

Kara,

down.

am,
avr'i,

on.
of.

/if-a, after.

Trapa,
Trep/,

along.

air6,from.
2ia,

around.
before.

through.

Trpo,

as, to.
ex

Trpoe,

towards,

or e, out

of.

GUV, with.
i/TTtp,

ev, in.
sir/3

over.

upon.

VTTO,

under.

80

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

PAET

III.

SYNTAX.

52. Syntax teaches the way in which words are arranged in Sentences, and in which Sentences are combined together. Sentences are either Simple or Compound. A Simple Sentence is one which contains only one Subject and one Predicate. A Compound Sentence is a combination of two 01 more Simple Sentences. Sentence contains a Subject and a Predicate. Every The Subject is that of which something is affirmed. The Predicate is that which is affirmed of the Subject
;

as,
'ASravcLTOQ

ianv
//

ij

^v%ir},

The

soul is immortal.

In this Sentence,
TIV is

i/w^) is the Subject

and aQavaros

ka-

the Predicate.

The Subject of a Sentence is always either a Noun in the Nominative Case, or some word or words representing a Noun in the Nominative Case.

The Predicate

is

cither a

Verb

alone, or a

Verb

in con-

nection with other words which are dependent upon it. The relations of the words in a Sentence to each other
are regulated

by the following Rules,


RULE
I.

viz.

the meaning of another Noun, and denoting the same thing, is put in the same case ; as,
53.
'S.wKpdrrjQ o ^i\o'(7o0oc,

Noun modifying

Socrates the Philosopher.

the example given, (ptXcvofog modifies the meaning of Sw.vpun;?, denoting the same person, and is therefore put by Apposition in the same case.
Ill

When
or thing,

it is

the modifying Noun denotes a different person put in a different case.

RULE

II.

54. Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, Participles, and the Article agree with their Nouns in gender, number, and case as,
;

Avijp (7o0oc, or 2o0o


'\\
tfjLtij

ctvt'ip,

wise man.

TLapwv

Trarpi, To my father. o KvpoCj Cyrus being present.

Eyu> aroXjiioe f'A"?

I am

timid.

two or more Nouns, it is and in gender prefers the Masnumber, put culine before the Feminine, and the Feminine before lac
(a) If the Adjective refers to

in the plural

Neuter.
(b)

Collective

Noun
6,
//,

in the singular
TO is originally a

commonly has
Demonstrative

its

Adjective in the plural.


(o) (l)

The

Article

Pronoun, and in

occurs only as such. In later Greek it generally corresponds to the English definite " the" and is used either to specify a single object article
or a class.
(2)

Homer

When

employed to designate a
it is

others of the same kind,


Article.

When
it is

employed

single object above called the Individualizing to designate a v/hole class of

objects,
(3)

called the Generic Article.

es

The Article is not used when a substantive expressan idea in general; e. g., Oeug. the divinity; o Oec'c, a
The Predicate generally has no
tyiveTO [3aai\tvQ

particular god.
(4)
Kf>po

Article

e. g.,

rwv Tlepcwv, Cyrus became king of

the

Per-

sians.

KCLE

III.

55. The Relative Pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender, number, and person the case is determined by the construction of the clause to which it belongs: as, "7 O Ot (T-pciTL(u-ai MV iif>x*i The soldiers whom he commanded.
; 7

In this example, the Relative

wi>

agrees with

its ante-

88

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


orpartiDrai in

cedent
case
is

determined by

gender, number, and person, but its ?lp^e, which is construed with the

Genitive.
(a)

Very

in case also;

often the Relative agrees with its antecedent it is then said to be attracted into the case
;

of the antecedent

as,
CIIQ

^Ivv rcuQ vavalv

%, With

the ships which,

lie

had.

Here

UIQ

would regularly be
is

in the

Accusative Case as

the object of el^E, but antecedent vavv\v.


(b)

attracted into the Dative

by

its

On

the other hand, the antecedent


;

is

often attracted

into the case of the Relative


OVK olaSa
fjioipaQ ?;c

as,
;

rvxiiv avrijv xpaOj/

Knowcst thou not

the fate

which she must meet?

KULE
56.

IV.

A Verb
Two
or

agrees with
;

its

subject nominative in

num,

ber and person

as,

Eyw
(a)

Ae'ycu,

I say.

more nominatives singular take the Verb

in the plural, the First Person being preferred to the Second, and the Second to the Third.
(b) Sometimes a Verb, with two or more nominatives of different numbers and persons, agrees with one of them, and is understood with the rest.
(c) The nominative of the neuter plural takes a Verb in the singular number. Collective Noun in the singular may take a Verb (d) in the plural.

(e)

A dual nominative may take


RULE
V.

Verb

in the plural.

57.
it,

Any Verb may have the same


'Eyw
cr'/u

case after

it

as before

ivhen both words refer to the


didd(7Ka\oc,

same thiny ;
/ am
a teacher.

as,

SYNTAX.

80

SYNTAX OF THE CASES.


THE GENITIVE.
58. The Greek Genitive performs some of the functions of the Latin Ablative as well as those of the Latin Genitive.

It properly, therefore,
viz., (1)

has two general significations,

Possession, wherein it corresponds to the English Possessive Case and Latin Genitive ; and (2) Separation, wherein it corresponds to the Latin Ablative.

RULE
59.

VI.

A Noun limiting the meaning of another Noun, and


is

denoting a different person or thing,


tive
;

put in the Geni-

as,

To T&ntvoQ TCV Seov, The temple of the god.

In the example given, Qzov limits the meaning of rfpevoc, and confines its application to this word. It is the " tem-

ple" not of man nor of any other creature, but ly of God.

specifical-

60. Noun, limiting the meaning of an Adjective for the purpose of farther specifying its meaning, is put in the Genitive as,
;

Tpificuv \~TTIK~IQ, Skilled in horsemanship.

RULE
01.

VIII.

Nouns, Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, and Adverbs denoting a part, are followed by a Genitive denoting the whole ; as,
'Efcaor?;

TUV TroXewr, Each of the states. r&v ndpaiciwv, No one of the young men. Ilov y// Where on earth f
Oufittg
;

The words thus limited are usually Partitives and words used Partitively, Comparatives, Superlatives, Interrogatives, and some Numerals.

90

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


RULE
62.
IX.

Adjectives of plenty or want arc followed by the Genitive as,


;

MfOTt>

GopujSov, Full

of confusion.

RULE
G3.
is

X.

The Comparative Degree, without a conjunction, followed by the Genitive as,


;

KpaVrwv

TOVTOV, Superior to this man.

RULE
64.

XI.

Verbs signifying an operation of the


K\v8i uov, Hear me.

senses, except;

ing that of sight, are followed

by the Genitive

as,

Verbs of hearing govern the Accusative of the


heard, but the Genitive of the person or thing the sound.

tliirg

making

RULE
65.

XII.

Verbs denoting an operation of the mind are


;

fol-

lowed by the Genitive


KoMpov

as,

avvin[jn,

I understand
RULE
XIII.

the

dumb man.

All Verbs denoting origin or possession are followed by the Genitive as,
66.
;

"E<m rov

TraiSbz, It belongs to the boy.

RULE
67.

XIV.

All Verbs are followed

by

the Genitive

when

their

action does not refer to the whole object, but to a part

only

as,

Memx

" T nQ

*jO/, They

shared in the festival.

RULE xv.
GS.

Verbs signifying to abound and

to be dentitnto, to

SYNTAX.
fill,

91

to deprive, tc separate, to cease, are followed by the Genitive ; as,


dXAr/X(uv,

and to depart from,


other.

They separated from each

RULE
CO.

XVI.

Verbs of Ruling, and the contrary, are followed by


;

the Genitive

as,

Ap%tiv

rfJQ orpartttC)

To

rule the army.

rule, to reign, to lead, to preside over, to survive, to surpass, to begin, and their contraries.
fall

Verbs

under this rule which signify to

RULE
70.

XVII.

The price of a

thing, the crime


;

and the punishment,


five drachmcc.

arc expressed

by the Genitive
RULE

as,
it fo?

'Qvijffaprjv Trivre dpaxfji&v,

I bought
XVIII.

Certain Adverbs denoting time, place, and quantity, aro followed by the Genitive as,
71.
;

IToi) yTiQ fifii

Where on

earth

cm I?

RULE XIX.

The Genitive any thing is made


72.

is

used to denote the material of which

as,

Xa\/coD TTotlorrat, They are made of brass.

RULE xx.
73.

Time when and


by

pressed

the place where are sometimes exthe Genitive as,


;

Oi>x "ApytoQ ?iev

Was

he not at Arrjos ?
night.

Ttjs VVKTOQ v'ifjiovTai,

They feed at

RULE XXI.
74.

A Noun
as,

no other word
Absolute;
Trrf'r'

in a Sentence, is said to

and a Participle, whose case depends upon bo in the Genitive


uTfjar^yoii rcc, These things were done

ivfMX&Ti,

Koj/fe*f>o

when

Conon was general.

92

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


THE DATIVE.
75.

The Greek Dative,

like

the

Genitive, discharges

some of the functions of the Latin Ablative.


It is the case of the Indirect Object,

being thus distinthe case of the Di-

guished from the Accusative, which


rect Object.

is

It is

used to denote the end towards which any thing


is

tends, or the thing for which any thing

done.

RULE
76.

XXII.

Nouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, and Verbs are followed by the Dative denoting the object or end to or for which a thing is, or is done as,
;

'Boifitiv

HoSreivbc; TOIQ

ry Trdrpa, To aid the country. tAci, Dear to his friends.

RULE
77.

XXIII.

Adjectives of likeness and unlikeness, friendliness, fitness, equality, and nearness, are followed by the Dative; as,
"\Kt\oQ An, Resembling Jvpiter.

RULE XXIV.
78.
as,

Verbals

in roc

and

rlog are

followed by the Dative;

Touro ov pr]rov

tcri

JJLOI,

This

is

not to le spoken by me.

RULE XXV.
IVy vo/zcu, tive denoting the possessor, the thing possessed being the subject of the Verb as,
;

79. 'Etp,

and Y7rapx w are followed by the Da-

TptiQ ds juot tial

SvyarptCj

I have

three daughters.

RULE XXVI.
80.

Verbs signifying to
;

their contraries

favor, to please, to trust, and also to assist, command, obey, servo, re-

SYNTAX.
sist,

93
tlio

threaten,

and bo angry, are followed by


roi
"EXX?;<7i,

Dative

as,
'E(3ofj&t)ff

lie assisted the Greeks.

RULE XXVII.
81.

Impersonal Verbs are followed by the Dative;


"Edo&v avnfy
It

as,

seemed

best to Id in.

RULE XXVIII.
82.

A Noun denoting the


is

cause, manner, means,


;

and

in-

strument,

put in the Dative


tTTOirjfft,

as,
this

JLuvoia TOVT

He

did

from good

will.

Tourip
T<

r<

rpoTTtf)

fi\$ov,

They came

in this manner.

('0ti

t7raraf,

He

struck with his sword.

RULE XXIX.

The Dative is sometimes used to denote the place where and the time when any thing occurs as,
83.
;

'AtyiKovro nj 7T.c:?rry I'l^spa,

They arrived

the fifth day.

>

RULE XXX.
84.

The

Interjections
;

ot,

w, fw,

and
me!

oval arc followed

by

the Dative

as,

O?

juoz,

Woe

is

THE ACCUSATIVE. The Greek Accusative is the English Objective. ]jt the case of the Direct Object. It designates the person or thing actually reached and affected by the action
85.
is

of the Verb.
RULE XXXI.
83.

The Direct Object of an Active Verb


;

is

put in tho

Accusative Case

as,
r//4J?<ray,

Tbv 'Ax/XXsa

They honored Achilles.

RULE XXXII.
8 7.

An

Intransitive

Verb may be followed by an Ac;

cusative of kindred signification to its own MdxtvOat fJLaxnv, To fight a battle.

as,

94

GllEEK

GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


RULE XXXIII.

particular part or circumstance referred to after a general affirmation is put in the Accusative for t!u
88.

The

which

sake of specifying or more fully explaining the it follows ; as,


To (Tw/^a iikyciQ iiv,IIe was large in person. Tbv daKTvXov a\yu,He is distressed in hisjinycr.
2<;po

word

QovKvdldrjQ rovvoua, Thucydides by name. ri]v Trarplcja, Syrian as to his country. Haiei ue TO VOJTOV, He strikes me on the back.

AlaQtQovai

TI dXAgXara',

They

differ

somewhat from each other

called the Synecdochical Accusative. It is of frequent occurrence in the Latin Poets, and is there deis

This

nominated the Greek Accusative as, Nudus membra, with bare limbs. The same principle sometimes applies to the Genitive and to the Dative.
;

RULE XXXIV.
89.

Tha

Particles pa and
i\w

vi'j

are followed

by the Accuthee!

sative; as,
N/} rev IIo(7ac)w
<7,

Ey Poseidon, I love

RULE XXXV.
90.

name

After Verbs expressing or implying motion, the of a town or other place in which the motion teris

minates

put in the Accusative


*E/3acr 6/;/3af ,

as,

Thou

earnest to Thebes.

RULE XXXVI.
91.

Nouns denoting duration of time


;

or extent of space
years.

are put in the Accusative


Af/ca trrj

as,
tc

Koi^vrai, They sleep

RULE XXXVII.

Any Transitive Verb, together with the Accusative, take a Genitive, or a Dative, or another Accusative may for the purpose of further explaining its meaning as,
92.
;
'

Yfuv

ijyfftovcq; c^wtrw,

I will give you guides.

SYNTAX.

05

() Verbs of accusing and the like take the Accusative of the person and the Genitive of the crime. (Rule
XVII.) (b) Verbs of hearing and the like take the Accusative of the thing heard and the Genitive of the person making
the sound.
(c)

(Rule

XL)

Verbs of comparing, giving, declaring, and taking away, take the Accusative of the Direct with the Dative of the Indirect Object. (Rule XXII.) (d) Verbs signifying to ask, teach, take away, clothe, conceal, and some others, take two Accusatives, the first of a person and the last of a thing as (illustrating the
;

last four rules),


*E/it dfft(3tiag kypctyaro, He accused me of impiety. 'HKOVCTS TOV ayykXov ravra^ lie heard these things from the messenger.

'T7ri(T%vOjUot

ffoi dtica

TaXavTa,

I promise you

ten talents.

Qt](3aioug xpriftctTa ?jTrjcrav, They sought money from the Thebans. AifidffKOVGi TOVQ TTouSaQ <7(n>(f)oo(jvvr]v, They teach their youths probity.

Tt

Troifjvoj

avrov;

What

shall

I do

to

him?

RULE XXXVIII.
93.

When
;

Verb

in the

Active Voice

is
it

followed by
the latter of

two

cases, the Passive Voice takes after


as,
jMrti

the two

i:\G7Ti],

I am

accused of theft.

RULE XXXIX,
04.

Some Derivative Adverbs


;

arc followed

by the same
.

case as their primitives


'A%io)g

as,

iavrov t*prjKe,He has spoken worthily of himself

RULE XL.

Conjunctions commonly connect similar Cases; as,


05.
'Av&ff-ri Kcd tlTTcv

Moods and

96. Prepositions in

MO,He rose up and spoke as follows. Greek are followed by the Genitive,

Dative, and Accusative Cases.

90

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

The Accusative, in connection with the Prepositions preceding it, designates the Object upon which, over which, towards which an action extends, as well as the
termination of the action
itself.

Genitive, with its Prepositions, designates the source of an action as regards place, time, and cause. The Dative designates a connection of a more exter-

The

nal character, generally answering the questions where

when ?
RULE
(a)
XLI.

The following Prepositions can have only one


:

case

after them, viz.

ac and
avri,

we,

the Accusative.

tv
(b)

a?, and GVV

EK (e),
(fuj'),

and

Trpo,

the Genitive.

the Dative.
cases after

The following Prepositions can have two


viz.
:

them,

&a. icara, and {/Tre'p, the Genitive and Accusative, dm, the Dative and Accusative. (c) The following Prepositions have all three of the oblique cases after them, viz.
Cl/Z^t,
7T/, fJLETU, TTttpCf,
:

TTEp/, TT^OC,

aild

V7TO, tllC

Genitive,

tllC

Dative, and the Accusative.


(d) Preposition in composition is often followed the same case as when it stands by itself. E. g.,

by

'YTTEptveyKovrtQ rag VCIVQ rbv 'ivS/nov, Carrying the ships across the Isthmus.

SYNTAX OF THE VERB.


THE INDICATIVE MOOD.
97. The Indicative is used to affirm or to deny in both dependent and independent Sentences. It is the Mood employed to represent realities or facts; as, }J.yW)I say ; ol Xeyw, I do not say.

SYNTAX.

97

98.

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. The Subjunctive Mood expresses a conception of

the mind, and is used, therefore, to denote that which may or can take place always referring to the present. It is

employed
(1)

As

a challenge in the
"lajfjievj

first

person

as,

Let us go.

(2)

With

MJ) TOVTO
(3)

the negative ^n in prohibitions ; as, TrotrjarjG, You ought not to do this.

In questions implying doubt ; as, Ti 0w, What am I to say ?


i

In dependent Sentences, to denote that which may or can take place, when the preceding Verb is in the Present Tense ; as,
(4)

Ayo>

'iv

tidy G,

I speak in

order that you

may know

it.

THE OPTATIVE MOOD.


99.

The Optative Mood alone


employed

(i.e.,

without the Parti-

cle av) is

to express a wish that something

may

take place ; as, T O Tral yivoio 7rarpo


father
(1)
!

evrvxtarepoQ,

O boy, may you

be happier than your

With

cu',
;

the Optative

is

used to express that which


be.

might occur

as,
TOJJTO ykvoir dv,

That might

(2) In dependent Sentences, the Optative is used to denote that which might, could, would, or should take place,

when

the preceding
the

Verb

is

in a Past Tense.

It is the

Subjunctive of

Past Tenses.

(3) In indirect discourse, the Optative (without av) is used to express something not as the opinion of the speaker, but of another person ; as,
'Ot 'AQqvalot IIspiKXea iKciiciZov,

7ro\/ztovc,
eral, he

on ffrpartiyog &v OVK t7rtdyoi tTTt TOVQ 2 'he Athenians reproached Pericles because, being a gen-

did not lead them out against the enemy.

98
(4)

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.


The Optative is used to denote what happened when the time spoken of is past ; as,
oft-

en^

'TTTEO^OV lixiv OTTOT tv dffTSt diaroi(3oij ever he staid in town.

He had an upper chamber when-

THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.


100.

The Imperative Mood is used


or a prohibition
is
;

to give utterance to
prj.

command
it

as, ypa^e, write ;

Trparre,

do

not.

When

a prohibition

to be expressed in the Second

Person, either the Present Imperative or the Aorist Subjunctive may be employed the former to express continued'and general action, the latter to express momentary and specific action ; as, p/ n-XeVrt, steal not, forbids steal-

ing generally, like a command in the Decalogue: /JLTJ /cXedo not steal, forbids stealing, specifically, some desig1//77C,

nated object.

THE INFINITIVE MOOD.


101. The Infinitive is used merely to state the meaning of the Verb, without limitation of person or number. It is regulated by the following Rules, viz.
:

RULE
102.

XLII.

The Subject of the


as,
e/i

Infinitive

Mood

is

put in the

Accusative;

AH

\kytiVj It is necessary that

I should speak.

RULE

XLIII.

103. Infinitive, either with or without the Article, may be used as a Verbal Noun, and hence the subject or the object of another Verb ; as,

The

Neuter become

*Hparo

<&tvytiv avToiQ aaQaXtartpov t'<my, Xt yt iv, began to say.

To fly

is

safer for them.

He

SYNTAX.
PARTICIPLES.

99

its

of the Verb which expresses considered as a quality. It differs frohi an meaning Adjective in conveying the additional idea of time.
104.

A Participle is a part

RULE XLIV.
105. Participles
Ot
TroXsfjiioL

govern the case of their

own Verbs

as,

TOVTWV

TO \oyiov eidortc;. The enemies knowing the oracle. ifiov dfOfjLivov, I being in want of these things,

NEGATIVES. The Negative Particles in Greek are ov and /-t^, with their various compounds ovre^ ovdeig, ov^apwQ pyre, Ov is used to deny, p; to decline. Ov is nrfeis, pjc)ajuw.
106.

used in

when

all direct statements, and in all direct questions the answer expected is yes. M>) is used when the

answer expected is no. Two Negatives in Greek generally strengthen the negation.

ACCENTS.
107. (1) in English
is

The word
and

accent has very different meanings Greek. In the former, accent means

emphasis / in the
syllable

latter, tone.

In English, the accented

pronounced with more force and stress ; in Greek, the sound of the same is uttered in a higher or a lower key. In English, the accented syllable is long in
;

Greek, either long or short. English accent has reference to strength or feebleness / Greek accent, to the rising or falling of the voice. (2) The purpose of the accents was to fix the pronunciation of the language, and to -assist foreigners in the acHence the ancient Greeks, though, quisition of the same.

of course, regarding them in oral intercourse, made no use of them in writing, as is shown in the works of Aristotle,,
in ancient inscriptions,

and in antique medals.

It

is.

not

100
precisely

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

ten Greek.

of the

known when they were first employed in writSome authorities attribute the introduction present mode of accentuation to Aristophanes of

Byzantium, about two hundred years before Christ. (3) Besides their importance in aiding us to pronounce Greek with euphony and rhythmical propriety, a knowledge of the accents is practically useful in enabling us to distinguish between words which are spelled alike, but have different significations. Of these, four hundred might be named e. g.
;
:

a pasture, and No/ioc, a law. Tie, any one, and Tig, who ? which ? what ? "Opoe, a mountain; 'Opoe, whey ; and"Opoc, a boundary\ (4) The Accents are threes in number, viz. The Acute (de7a 7rpoe<k'a):=('), as, T/e. The Grave (/3ape7a Trpoo-wS/a) Q, as, Tu/ee.
Noyuoc,
:

The Circumflex

(Trepto-TrwyueV?? 7rpo<Twc)/a)

=:("), as, 2kiae.

The Acute Accent (') shows that the syllable thus marked must be pronounced with a sharp or raised tone,
i. e.,

one slightly elevated above that used upon the other

syllables.

The Grave Accent Q shows that the syllable thus marked must be pronounced with a low tone. It, however, simply denotes a negation of accent, and is not written at
all

unless

it

curs in every
pause.

Oxy tone

stands in place of an acute, which ocnot immediately followed by a


(~),

from Trepi-crTrwpevog, twisted shows that the syllable thus marked must be pronounced with a tone commencing upon a higher key, but terminating upon a lower. This
around, alluding to its form,
accent
(6o)r=w,
(5)

The Circumflex Accent

made up by a combination of the other two, thus and denotes a winding ana. prolonged tone. Every Greek word must have one, and can n ever
is

SYNTAX.

'

101

have more than one principal accent.

Itfdne but one of

the last three syllables admit any accent at all. Of these the Acute may stand oh any one of the three, the three, Circumflex only.on one of the last two, the Grave on the
last only.
(6)

A word having the Acute Accent upon


is

the last sylis

lable

A word

called Oxytone ; as, Trapd, dni,

fiafftXevs.

having the Acute Accent upon the Penult

called Paroxytone ; as, Xe'yw, Qaivw.

word having the Acute Accent upon the Antepeis

nult

(7)

A word having the


is

called Proparoxytone ; as, \eyerat,

eiirere.

Grave Accent over the

last syl-

lable
is

called Barytone. This being unwritten, the term to all words which have no accent on the final applied

syllable.
(8)

A word which has

the Circumflex Accent upon the

last syllable is called

is

Perispomenon / as, a-yaSov^ <r/aae. A word having the Circumflex Accent upon the Penult called Proper ispomenon ; as, 0eye, j3fjre
.

In the Diphthongs, the Accent, like the Breathing, is placed over the last vowel. When the Circumflex and the Breathing meet upon the same word, the Circumflex is written over the Breathing. When the Acute and the
(9)

Breathing meet, the Acute


Breathing ;
as, ovroc, this
;

is

aye,

placed to the right of the come.

GENERAL RULES FOR WRITING THE ACCENTS.


108. (1)

The Acute stands on long and

short syllables

alike, the Circumflex only on such syllables as are long by nature ; i. &, upon such syllables as have either a long vowel, a, I, v, ?/, w, or a Diphthong. (2) If the last syllable is long by nature, the Acute Accent can not stand on the Antepenult nor the Circumfh x

on the Penult.

102
(3)

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

A word ending with a short syllable has


; ;

The Acute on the Antepenult as, Xvwpeda. (b) The Acute on a short Penult as, \E\VKOTOQ. (c) The Acute on the last syllable a^, \e\vKog. (d) The Circumflex on a long Penult as, \e\vKv~tav. A word ending with a long syllable has (4) (a) The Acute on the Penult as, XeXvKorwr. (b) Either the Acute or the Circumflex upon the last
(a)
;
;
:

syllable
(5)

as, \e\vKujg

\e\vKviwv.

is, if accented at all, generally accented with the Acute, except (a) Contracted syllables ; (b) the Genitive Plural of the First Declension ; (c) the Genitive and Dative of the Ar-

The

last syllable

and of all Nouns of the First and Second Declensions which are Oxytone in the Nominative (d) the Vocative of Nouns in cue; (e) and many naturally long monosyllables all of which take the Circumflex Accent upon the
ticle,
;

last syllable.
(6)

Compound words have

the Accent on the Penult,

as far as is consistent with preceding rules.


(7) The Accent is variously modified by changes in the word itself, as well as by its connection with the other words in the sentence e. g., every Oxytone becomes Barytone when followed by another word, so that the Grave
;

takes the place of the Acute.


(8)

In Contracted words

(a) if

the contraction occurs

middle of the word, the syllable formed by contraction takes no accent if none of the contracting syllaIf either of the syllables contracted had an bles had it.
in the

accent, the contracted syllable in the Penult and Antepenult is accented by (3) and (4). The contract ultima

takes the

Acute
it

if

the ultima had

it

before contraction

take^the Circumflex, (b) With Elision, OxPrepositions and Conjunctions entirely lose the acytone cent; all other kinds of words throw it upon the previous
otherwise

SYNTAX.
syllable as Acutes.
first
(c)

103

With

Crasis, the accent of the


;

word

is

lost

as,

ra

ayaQa=TayaQa

but when Parox-

ytones change the first syllable by Crasis into one long by nature, this takes the Circumflex; as, kirra ^aavtitT
flaw, there were seven.
(9)

Prepositions consisting of
&<*,

ap^i, <W/, ava,

when placed

which they belong, throw lable as, Trepi TovTwv becomes by Anastrophe TOUTUV irept. (10) Enclitics are words of one or of two syllables which are so closely connected with the preceding word that they throw their accent on to it. The following words are Enclitics (a) the Indefinite Pronoun TLQ some one, something, through all of its cases (b) the Personal Pronouns in the forms,
;
:

syllables, excepting after the Noun or Verb to their accent on to the first syl-

two

fJLOV

pol
(TGI

fJLE

(70V

ff

OV

ffwiv
(c)

and

The

Indicative Present of e/p,

I am, and

of

say, excepting Second Person Singular el and y^g. (d) The Indefinite Adverbs TTOV or iroQi, TH/, trot
TTOTt, 7TWQ,

and

7TOJ.

(e)
Qi]v,

The

Particles ye,
$1 (as

re, rot,

vv or vvv, KE or KEV,^CL or apa,

KEp

and

a demonstrative appendage, meaning


is
:

towards).
(11) In these

words the accent

thrown back accord-

ing to the following principles, viz.


(a)

Oxytone before an Enclitic retains the which serves also for the Enclitic as, ayafloV n, Acute, something good ; O.VTOQ $K\<JIV, lie himself says.
;

A preceding

(b)

If the last syllable has the Circumflex, the accent


is

of the Enclitic
(c)

entirely lost
is

as, 6pti TWO.Q,

I see some.
Enclitic,

If the

Acute accent

upon the Penult, the

104

GEEEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

if of one syllable, loses its accent ; if of two syllables, retains that upon the last; as, </\o /zov; Xoyot nvig. (d) Proparoxytones and Paroxytones retain their ac-

cent,

but receive also from the following Enclitic another


last syllable.

Acute accent on the


(12)

When
its

several Enclitics follow one another, each


;

throws

accent back upon the preceding


Ei rig
fioi
<j>rjoi

as,

iron,

If any one

ever says to me.

(13) Enclitics retain their accent:


first in

the sentence

(b)

(a) when standing when made emphatic (c) after


;

Elision.

(14) Atonies, sometimes called Prolitics, are words without accent, their own having combined with the following word. The following are Atonies, viz.
:

(a) 6,

^f,

01, cu,

cases of the Article.


K or

(b) eV, eg
(c) co,

or

etc,

t,

w,

Prepositions.

we.

(d) The GI/X. (15) Atonies are accented: (a)

Conjunctions. Negative ov or

when ending
Enclitic,

the sen-

tence

(b)

when followed by an

which throws

back

its

accent.

(1 6)

The place of the Accent

in the

Nominative Case

of Nouns, Pronouns, and Adjectives can only be ascertained from practice and use of the Grammar and Lexicon.

The accent

as varied in the Oblique Cases


rules.

may

be deter-

mined by the preceding

Verbs throw back their ac(1 7) As a general principle, It cent as far as possible, with exception of dpi and ^pi is hence termed recessive, because it is placed as far from
the ultimate syllable as the quantity of that syllable will
allow.

FINIS.

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