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A GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. . FRANKLIN SQUARE. // PROFESSOR OF ANCIENT LANGUAGES IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. PUBLISHERS. NEW YORK: HARPER & BROTHERS. BY WILLIAM HENRY WADDELL. 1873.

Court of the United States for the Office of the District Southern District of New York. according to Act of Congress. by HARPER In the Clerk's & BROTHERS. in the year 1869. .Entered.

without any exception whatever. but only essential and elementary principles and paradigms. from cover to cover. the time the pupil goes over it. and intended for a schoolboy's use. Whether the author has succeeded in perfecting his wishes. It is an attempt to years. and in giving expression to his many years' experience in teaching Greek. for many absolutely essential. a great desideratum a book which shall contain no notes. therefore. observations. "fine print" in short. be precisely what its nothing more. a is full Grammar is of reference the world of such. It a schoolboy's book. to be marked by a teacher for omission. which are to be thoroughly memorized by the pupil. 796411 . The Grammar is designed to be committed to memory. remarks. Tins book is name imports &"Gree7c Grammar for Beginners" The author has studiously avoided the insertion of a solitary word not Such a book has been. he leaves the public to decide. first It is not.PRE FAC E. and nothing less.

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59 Examples of Pure Contract Verbs Table of Inflections Liquid Verbs 60 64 68 70 72 Verbs in /zi Synoptical Table . Table of the Inflections 36 39 I strike 42 43 Formation of Tenses 53 53 54 Augment Reduplication Compound Verbs The Root Secondary Root Special Rules for Formation of the Tenses Special Rules for Pure Verbs 54 55 55 . PART The Greek Alphabet Euphonic Changes Accents Punctuation * I. 15 PART Some First Declension IT.. ORTHOGRAPHY Page 9 9 11 . ETYMOLOGY 1C 16 general Rules of Declension 17 18 19 Contracts of the First Declension Second Declension Contracts of the Second Declension Third Declension Contracts of the Third Declension Adjectives 20 20 22 27 34: Numerals Comparison of Adjectives Article Pronouns The Verb Synoptical Table of the Verb ruTrrw.CONTENTS.

/ receive 85 85 PART Syntax of the Cases Syntax of the Verb III. SYNTAX 8G 89 96 99 Negatives Accents General Rules for Writing the Accents 101 .Vlll CONTENTS. Page 73 77 Table of Inflections Exercises in Formation Tables of the Synopses and Inflections of certain Irregular arid Defective Verbs 78 84 Deponent Verbs Synopsis of the Deponent Verb Adverbs Prepositions !%o^ai.

THE GREEK ALPHABET. PART 1. . letters. I. ORTHOGRAPHY.> GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.: Figure. The Greek Alphabet consists of twenty-four viz.

at. g. e. The last three are usually : written with the Iota sub- scribed. rot*/. One sound Sibilant letter. r IT Kappa-mutes. are seventeen in number. au. Liquids. : Nine Mutes. etc. because they are sometimes is The last three are so called short and sometimes long. Short. so called from its hissing sound p. The Vowels are seven in number. subdivided as follows Medial. 3. a. g. g. e. Rough. and v. viz. : called a Diphthong. Labials. Long. viz. pronoun we / e. . g. av v ou and 7/u house . Four .. we in 4. Doubtful. A combination of two vowels These are twelve in number. ft. e. v. Pi-mutes. 9. aipw. are pronounced precisely like a. Oi. e. K y d ft x 3<j> Linguals. e : 7? and o. The Consonants Smooth. The improper diphthongs. oi>. at ti : like ai in aisle . ry. 77. oo noon. viz. Palatals. 01 oi coin . X. e. v. e. ou vt eu in neuter. GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. yu. el height . t. tit. and w.10 2. thus They are pronounced as follows.(. g. and w. and so called from their flowing and . viz. <r. Tau-mutes. ?. g. wt. /zvta. and w. g.

g. Medial. The Smooth Breathing produces no change in the pronunciation of a word. 6. according as the Lingual Rough. rfVpt/3rat is Smooth. . /x is a. and Bough Mutes with the letter Sigma. y. written . Medial.g. RULE 4. v//. Medial. viz. A Labial changed into its or a Palatal occurring before a Lincorresponding Smooth. or is Rough. x<r* 7T<7. The Breathings are two in number.ORTHOGRAPHY.. g. is written p. /3<7. Smooth ('). viz.. The following : rules of Euphony are to be carefully observed in the formation and derivation of Greek words. : 5. A Palatal before A Lingual before is is changed into changed into 7reVei<7//cu. 3. One of these must be written over every vowel or diphthong which commences a word. E. Rough (').. TTw%iJiai IS written rtrEvy^icu. E. A Labial before TETpiTTfjiat is changed into rtrpi/i/xac. y<r. 11 so called because Three Double Consonants. for 0(7. EUPHONIC CHANGES. or written /z reYjOiTmu.. thus : for for \JJ 2<rKOT. g. RULE RULE 2. RULE gual is 1. E. p. H were written before the is vowel or diphthong thus : pronounced Hekaton . formed respectively by the composition of the Smooth. evpev Heuren. . The Rough Breathing has the same effect as first if the letter . E.

TT' beginning the next word. o- 10. 16. written TreVam. 6. 8. g. I. The letter v before a Palatal is changed into E. The changed into E... g.. The letter occurring between written yeypatydai. ov is first written e>v. and e becomes o becomes ov . A Lingual before 7T7rt0m is rejected. 13. a- RULE RULE The letter v before or is dropped. E. trvvKuXetx) is written <riy/caXew. two Conso- rejected. E. ^alpovfft is written (Haifiom. ft v become respectively d. RULE A Smooth into its corresponding CITTO Mute ending a word is changed Rough before an aspirated vowel E. E. g. 5. 11... and v. d. and a Lingual are rejected before the preceding short vowel is lengthened. it and forms $. A Lingual before another Lingual is changed ireTrXadrai is E. 15. RULE RULE into ff. E. a Palatal is RULE RULE nants is 9. written a TrXt'4'w.. A Labial before Tpififfw is a unites with rptya). written TrfVXaorcu.. E. is RULE into The letter that same Liquid. When v .. 7. written TrXaffw. g.. .g. o-.g. g. written RULE E. fy/3aXXw is written RULE 7- 12.g. and then a$ ov. letter v before a Labial is yeypa(f)(Tdat is RULE P ..12 GREEK GRAMMAR TOR BEGINNERS. g. g. 14. . yipovrai is written yepovvt.. written (rvppirrTd). g. A Palatal before irXtKffu) is a unites with it and forms . g. RULE E.. v before another Liquid changed (TvvpiTTTd) IS E. A Lingual before TrXaOffw is is rejected.

RULE 19.. Words ending in o-t. as Tipdti ripy. a.<j)(Tai crvv^iv^ arv vpltt) 7reV^<Toyuat Xeo VTGL vowel preceded by another vowel. does not unite and form a diphthong. 1 3 RULE 1 7. viz. as . contraction. as TifJLarjre at. : The following words tXnre ov (bdffi t/j eSrjK 6 <j)(J)a. g. Let the pupil correct them. This is called and commonly takes place according to the : following rules.Kct &$fj. violate the preceding rules. is said to be pure. a aei as [iva as fjivdai nval.ORTHOGRAPHY. as as diacrtt) ^'or ao aot a>. repeating the rule by which the correction is made 7.ai crvvTrXtKbJ XsiTrffU) Xrificra) ^ ffvvyovoQ ey^eu) (rvv^lu) 7rpay&r)v ivfiaXXit) Tvirrovrffi tXsye OVQ tine SlSsiKaayati tvfiaivu) avvtyepu ivKXivit) a. with which it 8. (j)(j)iXrjKa is written TrefytXrjxa. n^ao^v Tifidoifjiev y. as r//ia rt'/ia. and forms one long syllable. /\ AJI* iffri is written iariv. E. pure vowel often combines with the one immediately A A preceding it. tpevtca is RULE is written tppevKa. Mute. E. E. annex v to these terminations when the next word begins with a vowel. p. g. 18. aa are contracted ay aai . or before a pause. the first is If two successive syllables begin with a Rough changed into its own smooth. and verbs of the third person ending in c or i. as fivda arj are contracted into a. g.. into a. The letter p in tne beginning of a word doubled when a short vowel is prefixed to it. cii ^t..

rj. as rt/iuJ(7t. contraction occurs only in verbs in oat. aTrXoa aTrXa. ft. as 7a 777. as rijjidd) Tijjiat. as TrXrj&vi TrXrj&vl. as drjXou) ^j. ** ov o> tye as QiXsoifitv 0iXot/iv. ou. u t. as Qpfjiffffa Qpyaaa. as TroXtt TroXi. The following words violate the preceding rules. as drjXoere drjXovre. Verbs Xpvoty XP Vff $' at. ^Xw. referring in each instance to the concurring vowels in the list above by which the correction is made : Arj/zoeScVec Ar)-6og p. oo oot as v)\oi /x ou. 0tXftc..Vt ot. *7> as rpirjpee oy ot. as TVTrreai TVTTTiy. 0t\t. o 01 ~ of. as drjXoyg drjXolg. w.\iTOV Arjroa tap Arjjj. as dnXoo ot. This as (j)iXttig as (piXerjre QiXrJTE. times into fft *n t. as nliaovai au) uj. as o^tTrXo?. drjXoeig drjXolQ. as as 0iXw 0tXui. as f ym. as drjXoeiv deXovv.f]v fjitpti Ktpaa pepe TToXtt Kpaoiv fJLpOLV TroXeec p. as tfyXoa c^?Xot.o(T$Va lIpaK\Tjg %r]\6ov TtfjLacj TljJLO. o^j as 7rX6<^ 7rX<p. Somej. in oo> contract the endings oa and i n ^o ofi ot and ot^. ot. rifJLrjeffaa rtfjirjaffa. y> as xpv fffa XP vff ^y vytsa' of . Somerprijpr]. of. as 0i'Xff rj. as TroXft TrdXft. Xpvaeai \pvgai. as $t7rX6at dtTrXal. w. dnrXrj. aov are contracted into w. ot] at y or t. Sometimes oei into a. ey t y. oai* at. as dqXoouffi drjXovai.pog flpa < fJLpOJV . 7j. as QiXeovffi <biXov<7t.14 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. as (biXsoutv <bi\. as tyiXeyg <f>iXyg. Let the pupil correct them. vi vi. Verbs in wjut contract oy into ot ^>. oa are contracted into w or fix *1 TO*** a. as < oov oo> ov . tinies into w. ?t ^.OV(Tt ^rjXorj \aag TILLCLT] rip-ae TlfJLaig TlfJLaCl Kfpag -aTog TiSfiai ocj>ig ofyu Tip.ovu. as drfXorjre drjX&re.

The grave ( ) as. they are called oxytones .ORTHOGRAPHY. 10. life. The accents are three The acute ( ' ) as. The Greek has the following punctuation marks: Comma . When words are accented on the last syllable. composed of the acute and grave. as. The circumflex (~ ). 15 KepctTi Kpara KEpaTwv ffite /iar/ SrjXorj (TCLOQ 17X001 ACCENTS. barytones. and / rig. 9. yrj. land. w?/. rat. when not. some one. v . PUNCTUATION. : .

and Verb which are declined and Adverb.16 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. 12. There are Three Genders Masculine. There are Five Cases: the Nominative. 77. (e) and Vocative are alike. . denoting more than one. The Dative Singular always ends annexed or subscribed. There are Three Numbers: the Singular. viz. Feminine. In the Dual Number. 16. The Greek Language has Nine Parts of Speech. PAET 11. ov. 1 7. and these Cases in (c) the Plural end always in a. and The ? First Declension has four terminations. There are Three Persons First. (a) in the Singular. . 15. Pronoun. The Genitive Plural always ends in wr. Genitive. Preposition. Vocative. Accusative. Noun. : a. Second. in t. viz. Dative. denoting and the Plural. : oc. one the Dual. There are Three Declensions: Third. ? The Second Declension has two terminations. and . Adjective. : a. Article. : : Neuter. Accusative. 1 3. 14. the Nominative. and Third. First. Participle. v. SOME GENERAL RULES OF DECLENSION. Accusative. ETYMOLOGY. The Third Declension has nine terminations. as also are the Genitive and Dative. viz. Second. (b) The Nominative and Vocative are usually alike and always alike in the Dual and Plural. : II. (d) The Nominative. and Vocative of Neuters are the same in all three Numbers. denoting two . and Conjunction which are not declined. viz. .

II. .ETYMOLOGY. Declen. The following Table exhibits a comparative view of the terminations of the Three Declensions. Declen. I. 18. Declen. III.

o .18 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. S.

. P. 'AvaZayopac. ri. (two words) P. the moon. flia. counsel. 22. wisdom. justice. V. (two Jigs) N. . diKrj. G. dyopd t the forum. 00$ ia. N. SECOND DECLENSION. D. Xoyov Xdye D. fjitXaiva. peace. S. . agoras. pleasure. black. avpctj dy'ict. P. ywvia. and rarely Femov are Neuter. yXw<7<ra. TrxyirriG) tjdovfj. an angle. Anax- sadness. Xdyw Xdyw Xdyov Xdyot (Jigs) (Tvica D. viz. (temples) vey D. A. a harper.ETYMOLOGY. a sword. A. GVKOV P. G. \va(jctj frenzy... G. G. { I <ro0iOTJ7. a breeze. N. miserable. (words) N. ystyvpa. an artist. inine. V. A. A. They are declined as follows. D. rdXaiva. . GVKWV OVKQIQ D. G. \ 19 fftXrjvr]. o (word) D. ed. Xdyo Xdyw Xoyoiv Xoyoiv Xdyou X6y(p Xoywv Xdyot V. G. force. V. K&apiffrrjc. N. the tongue. Nouns ending : Those ending in in oc are Masculine. D. EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE. A. a bridge.. Xdyot N. N. VH# (halls) dvwye w are irregular. high-mind- a ivrestler. a sophist. TrtXetajU dove. V.

and are inserted as examples. belonging to the Attic Dialect. CONTRACTS OF THE SECOND DECLENSION. Nouns which . 23.20 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

viz. . 21 : They are declined as follows.ETYMOLOGY.

22 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. o. yv-jToiv . D.N.yuTre G. vulture.

G. S. 77X01. D. A its own diphthong . 23 The following rules are for the contractions of the Third : Declension. r//za. of two vowels is .V. rt'x G. r//xaf. ?7Xow. 2. Tpif)pai(v) Tpirfpeac TpiripteQ rpiripfiQ Tpujpeiz D. O^o galleys) rpujpEe rpifiprj N.V. G. . 8. If the first . V. or a long vowel. (galleys) N.ETYMOLOGY. Tpifipet G. rptrjpiwv P. A.A. 7. TO (wall) N. A short vowel before t becomes its own diphthong it . before a diphthong combines with the second vowel of the diphthong as. c)/?Xoot. V. flafftXeig. it 6. . <7a>e . A. A short vowel before . G. O before a long vowel becomes w . A. ?]p. G. E before as. tap. (walls) ra'xftf rpirjpeig Tpirjp&v TEIX&UV D. Ti1xS rft^o^ rtt^og Telxog- Tpirjpti rptrjprj rpirjpea Tpiqptg A. a long vowel or a diphthong is rejected . "D. 3. 4. as. Two consecutive short vowels become ou . and for Verbs also short vowel followed by itself becomes 1.A. /3a<nXee. (two walls) N. 77X0) . A before o or w becomes w as. as. . before the other vowels it becomes d . a unites with and becomes its own long 5. /) Tpirjpeog TpirjpovQ Tpirjpti N. V. v. N. o-aoc. as. the last is rejected EXAMPLES. D. t rpiripkoiv Tptrjpolv P. D. i] (galley} rpirjprjQ S. V. D.

D. A. o0c o0iC G. 5. A. 6<j)iMv D. A.V. ytpy riXQ jfaoi i]\QCL ye/oac D. ix$voiv P. i'x-^ IX&VOC. D. G. and vocative S. contracted K-X?7c undergo a double contraction in the dative singular and sometimes 5 '. D. (two echoes) N. ^xocy N. 001GT 00TC V. A. o0i<ri(i>) A. N. G. oQioiv P. A. V. ykpaa yepdajv y*'|o5 ytp&v ykpa ytpa ykpaai(v) ykpaa yipaa P. D. (serpents) N. G. N. g. jpdoiv ytp<fv P. G. G. o0t 0010 D. in the accusative singular. HEpucXeti HepucXeei HepiK\tZ HtpucXij HtpiK\8ea IljOtKX HeptKXta HeptK\eig Nouns singular. G. accusative. V. ye/oat ylpa G. S. A. Z). 6 (Pericles) E. N. 77x01 r/xw y|oa J?x*- (wo prizes) D. A. 50u 6<piv o0I * o0t N. D. V. g. D. TO (prize) S. V. t'x^e G. vg. yepag yspaog yepwg yipa'i N. 50tc G. (fishes) . V. ix&vi IX^TVV tx-^v ix$vl Z). V. S. and gen. G.V. A. (<zro serpents) N. rj (echo) r/xw N. A. voc. A. ioc. V. A. D. in ec. D.24 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. plural. (<wo fishes) N. D. 6 (fish) E. V.. V. V. (echoes) 3?%oi Proper names in tfX^V. (prizes) N. o (serpent) N. G. jfow G. A. c0i o0I^ D.. are contracted in the dative in the nominative. D.

Kpk-aT -a -as G. Kpe-aTuv -dwv -utv N. Kpk-ag G. Sing. D. a horn. D. Kpe-droiv -doiv -yv Plur. flesh. A. A. A. -aog -at -wg - N. TO Kptag. Kfp-drcov -duv -&v .V. A. A.ETYMOLOGY. -^ N. Ksp-art. Kpi-ari Dual. A. N. -aa N. Kip-ara -aa -a G. Kkp-ag G. icsp-arog D. Kps-arog -aog -at -a>g D. Sing. Ktp-dT*iv -doiv -(7>v Plur.V. N. Kpk-aTa -a G.V.V. Dual. 25 TO icepag.V. Ktp-are -as -a G.V.

/ A. 2f. i V. V. 9 *s . o (king) GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. CJQ. accusative. t. (two kings) N. t I). v. . (BaviXee P. and vocative sinSubstantives in ig and VQ generally change oc into gular. paffiXsoiv D. D. paaLXei (3aaiXtv fiaoiXtl G. D.26 S. A. r xL. change i and v into e in all the cases except the nominative. (kings) G. V./ Most Nouns in t. vc.

(T00W G. /uaKp-w. Dual. juiciKp-y. att. d%iov di(jj atoj> ft a^tav a^/a a^iov d^iov i'w N. A.iov a^tV/j N. oiv c> fictKp-E. d^ioiv ^/a d^/aj ct%ioiv d^icav . a>v. 6v } at.. N. fjiaicp-ov. G.aKp-o1Vj aiv. D. /j. fiaicp-ov. A. A. d. G. ai. a. 27 ADJECTIVES. G. V.ETYMOLOGY. viz. D. They are declined as follows. in a j Sing. V. two The first termination terminations. 6v d. JL). D. GOtyo'l GO(j)Cli G0(pd GO(f)UJV GOfpUJV CT00WV Gotyalg GO<pCLQ GO<f)Cli Gofyoiq Gotyolg G0(j)d GO<pOV GO<pOl V. w N. crcxpuv Gotyov GO(j)OV GOfyk GO^i] N. GO^OV GO(f)({J GotyrJQ (700$ Gofa'jv A. a o (worthy} ci^ioQ (worthy) d%ia d^'iaq a^cot rb (worthy) a^iov dt. and one termination. I). I). G. acj ^t. /zaK-p-ot. A. V. V. 26. V. Adjectives in masculine. /ajcp-ov. rj : o (wise) GO(j)OQ (wise) G0(j)f] TO (wise) GOfyoV Gotyov (TCfpty N. N. fiaKp-uv. G. G. N. A. J). 6v ou ^7 Plur. (70001^ G0(f)d G0(f)(i> aotyalv Gofyoiv p. a &v I).V. Greek have three terminations. /S. paKp-oi. A. and of the Third is Declension. jita/cp-ot^. the third neuter. 1}.V. D. ftaicp-og. 01^ dv. long. G. the second feminine. G0(f>d Adjectives in as : OQ pure and pog make their Feminine fiaicpoG. S. 27. A. They are of the First and Second Declensions.

N. V. P. G. A. b. G. A. r} (quiet) TO (quiet) N.D. : S. rye Adjectives in we are declined thus: S. A. D. V.V. . N. D. N. KA. b GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.28 P. A. 1).D. evytto fuytw tvytip tvyup tvytojv tvyewv D. Compound and two syllables : . #yfw fi>yw G. D. V. }o D. and one for the Neuter as 28. if (fertile) TO (fertile) G. G. A.V. P. (worthy) d^ioi r} (worthy) d^icti TO (worthy) d%ia Derivative Adjectives of more than have usually but two terminations one for the Masculine and Feminine. b. G.

ETYMOLOGY. S. and the Feminine of the First. o (sweet) They are declined as follows : . 29 line Adjectives of the Third Declension have the Mascuand Neuter of the Third Declension. 29.

TTtTTOV irkirov D.D. o (giving) ?} (giving) TO (giving) N. dtdovTE cidovTOiv D\ G. TTV(j)6T(t)V TtTVfpOTa Participles ending in ug are declined like -E-vfywQ. didovTes ClOOVT(Jf)V X ' f ClOOUffli V * diooiicraig didovaag Sidovaai S. N. I). TTSTTOPfQ TT&TTOVa TTtTTOVdJV D. N. SidovToiv P. A. P. V. S. V. V. GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. G.V. A.30 D. TTV(j)viaiV TcTVtpOTOlV N. D.V. IX TTtTTOVOg TTtTTOVL TTtTTOVL A. N. D. D. . G. G. 'l (ripe) TO (ripe) TTITTOV N. A. G. A.A. diSoVTE G.V. TT&TTOVa TTZTTOVa TO N. G. V. TiTVtpOTOQ A. G. . Tr'tTTQVE TreTrovoiv N.

SEIKVVVTS felKvtivTofy deLKvvcra dElKVVffdtV deiKvuvTe CtlKVVVTOtV . A. V. o. A.V. T&kvTQQ r&tVTi T&tVTCt T&llOffc T&'t. G.V. G. N. A. A. V.ETYMOLOGY. D. A. ft&V7^C TiS&VTwv T&'tVTCtQ rt^s^rfff f ic ft^tMWfl TiSrtiauiv T&SVTtt T&ZVTWV T&tvTCl T&tiffdG TiStivai Participles ending in >Si. V. G. r&tiaa N.VTOq r&tiay TlStlffdV T&IVTI TlStV A. d\rid& dXrj^sa ciXriStQ D. D. rt^lrre P. N. N. r) 31 TO (true) (true) " D. o (placing) >} (placing) TO (placing) G.V. G. S. SUKVVQ StlKVVVTOQ StiKvvvTi dtiRvvffy SeucvvvTi StiKvvvTa StlKVVQ StiKvveav StlKVVffCi SEIKVVV dflKVVV D. dXifiiec. D. (showing) TO (showing) o (showing) >} N. V. G. dXi]3rti dXtfiia dXTjSsbJV d\rj$)i d\Ti$kii)v dXi]S<jJV dXtj&uJv A. N. S. D. aXrjSie aXqSioiv dXrjSolv dXrjStoiv dXifiolv P. A. are declined like rt0cc. D.

G. E. 1). StlKVVVTUJV ()IK. or. o (showing*) ij (showing) dtlKVVffCtt TO (showing) $ElKVVVTCt N. V. genitive o^roc.VV(TI(V) A. StlKVVVTtQ CtlKVVVTWV diicvvai(v) VtlKVVVTClQ CtlKVVG&V dtiKvvaaic. GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. s. . . SllKVVGaQ CtlKVVGCtl deiKVVVTCt tl\VVVTCt : StlKVVVTtQ Adjectives in wv.32 P. have three endings o^.

faffa.A. lUyaXat D. A. N. D. as follows. i\vra iji>ra Tiu-ijvrt. D. 0'J7ff. N. A. rfTCTff. : Part. } (pleasanter) IjOLMV ro (pleasantcr) TI^IQV 1\ T . UVCtV. G. ^0< G. is declined B2 . T&p-evc. TiaaaQ. ijrra / ' n c fiit^t/ eiVCllC.V. The syncopated Perf. T") r/ju-f/iroc. ^ityaXoLv P. Ttp-iiv. fw re'p-f^s rtp-tvoiv.cr^C> ' rjvrt A. viz. eivai. P. G. ii> N. D. Sing. G. o (great) ?} (great) ro (great) N. (V tv V. TifA-ijvrctQ. O D. _ "" ''.A. ' W. G. II V Dual.ETYMOLOGY. t'loiovg tender. of <Vr>/p. T ^ ~ * V. ttfiovt /flfW /^(Ji/cti/ N.irydXa /S. . jUfydXotg ntyaXovQ [. tva A. N. ijffffai. /). ~\T c r fi//^ N.. o. tivaiv. ifiiovaQ r'l|07/i'. honored. ijcrfjcti.V. Sing. ai'tf.V. fidiovtg i^cicvQ jova t'rfwvwv A. tvoiv Plur. /^< rt^i-JivrtQ^ . ^o s^c7. tivct. Dual. D. }&OM ifiiova /ciu. TfjO-CVOC. jutydXw G. A. Plur. V. Tp-EVCtj rlp-2'. V. ifiiOVOQ Do A. rsp-rji'. LIU t(Tl ' ~ ' Ttp-LVl. G.

ptX-avoiv. (7j7. CT-u>ro. aivaiv. WTCOV dr-w(Tt. WTOQ wri D. a><7?7. D. A. w(Trti. are declined below. V. Sing. G. fj. N. aiva. G. aivaiQ. /tt'X-ni-'fC) aivai. yulX-avfc. A. to stand. ciauo'enoi at a . aivqc. /Lt\-ai/<. A. wcrfr. tar-ujTa. A. ava ava NUMERALS. tar-MTtov. for-wn. atv&v. G. V. dJaav. acrt ptX-avctQ. 30. av UVQQ an av av n'tX-ava. wre G.i. jusX-ac.V. n'tX-aV) aivav. as. Sing. A. rpelcj and TtffffapE^ The remainder. Dual.34 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. jusX-atrt. [ii\-ave aiva. (-JQ N. iar-MTeg. The numbers above one hundred are indeclinable. N. D. G. \. waaiQ. V. /ufiXac. N. as far as a hundred. tor-wrf. loT-Wfi o)cra. aivai. D. f'0r-it>. iffTr)jj. WTOLV Plur. aiV#. iar-uroiv. Plur. G. tira N. avwv tcrr-wrfc. Dual. are. aivac. A. dvoiv . D. OJGI tVr-wraCi W(TCJ wra N. wvcav. ? again declinable like the plural of Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions. blade. V. WQ tuj. aiva. a!(7(7. c^o. aira D. waai. ava niX-avw.i\-avoc. are The Cardinal Numbers ac. WG&V.

.ETYMOLOGY. and into co-roc for in vc Some and the Superlative . aooa. cifjiEivajv. KptlTTCJV.L*. : [ are compared aya3 irregularly. and as : r?v annex rfjooe and raroc to the Nominative Plural (Plural (Tu^poveo) epEveg) repevtarrepOQ ff T . Adjectives in OQ 06 drop c. drop the and those in 5 change the Nominative Plural into larepoQ icrraroc . iKwrepog. ending poc.. as : Adjectives in ac. 7 aya. length* en it . ^c.joc. and vc annex repoQ and raroe to the Neuter . as Adjectives in ae : t of /3\d| (Plural /3\ac) (3Xxu&<rrpO jSXaoraroc the terAdjectives. KLWV. change minations into iwj/ for the Comparative. as : peXag (Neuter pfXav) acrQevrjz jmeXavrepOQ ^fXuv (Neuter aa'diveg) acr'dfvtcrrepOQ Adjectives in w*/ . wa. . if the penult is short. as : The following Adjectives viz. \ IXU.I/C. ) KClKLffTOC. . and..

S. . N. fJLS. 7 . Tit) TCI N. G. ra> ra rw IX A. G(b(iilV. ( TtOTTVOTeOOC. < KaXXiwv. Ol N. 33. you) VJJLEIQ (they) <r0at. rit'Xraroc.D. Ka\oQ. D. she. /^oi A. The Personal Pronouns is are eyw. v<t) G. G. D. N. (we) >//tftC Tt'lfjlOJV (ye. TtpjrvoQ. (thov) S. G(b('JV G. N. TCI r&v rott. N. Article F. tJA. *T0f . crot ol Gt A. long. (they two) tr^we G(h(t}LV G. ?7iC. uaicpug. A. . N. The M. 6 G. G. M. n.A. Ot N. agreeable. N. . A. small. (you two) G(J)Oj'i. \ \' A'\ ARTICLE. o<. (I) fcyw t/uLOV. P. 32. I). it) 'I tive 'I obsolete. rov ro A. G.jricnd/y. 7"W G. TtQTTVOTaTOQ.DP. A. T(fi r/yc TOV T<<> F. N. A.D. Gtyka VflOJV ?''//tv (70WV G(j)iffi(i>) //n)' ?/^u D. jjiov S. rou I). ?'^oc Ttfrlc n. N.- T&V T&y Ty r/p-' 3). M.fair. N. G. . <j. I). 77 ( 0tXrfpo. PERSONAL PRONOUN. t/io/. **?& PROXOUNS. (we two) N. TO D. if o. 1).x /. D. vwi. rcl^ rat^ roir roii^ F. N. rt^ TC\Q TO!Q TO. G(j)<{j D. KciXXic (fia jikyaQ. G. is declined as follows: P. D. TCLIV TOIV A. S.36 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. .i\oc. G. great. 7roXv. . ViOV P. V(jj(V. o-^'L The Nomina(he. liuepoQ. GU croi) N. jjif. A. A. many.

F. I).Q G. CLVTOQ. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN. M. rive A. any. F. TIVOIV * A. and are declined like o-o^oc. N. ri riVOff. rti^t TWI^f) A. TIVOIV N. They REFLEXIVE PRONOUN. N. riva N. TIVOIV TLV&V 7"t(T/(l/) TLVlj Tip ri A. riff N. and EKZLV simply the Article with the inseparable particle Thus.ETYMOLOGY. TlvCoV 1). N. TIV&Q Tivd. owroff avTtj TOVTO TCVTOV Tovftft Taini]Q TQVTOV ravry ravTr. creavrov. G. (this) N. 37 The Possessive Pronouns formed from the Personal Pronouns. TIVOIV A. P. TOV Tivi t T(} TIVOC. M. N. N. TIVWV D. ovrog. rivet G. 1^. D. riva D. are 6'de. iavrov. These are inative. F. TOV Tivtov rim. rive G. M. TIVOQ. The Interrogative Pronoun TIC. certain. The Demonstrative Pronouns "Ode . (this) N. The some. D. signify possession. They have no Nomare declined as in the oblique cases of INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN. Tivag rim(v) Tiva INDEFINITE PRONOUN. M. ?. Indefinite Pronoun rig : (grave accent). is declined as follows M. TIVOC. F. TIQ F. ro^e. M. rive. They are are t/zoc. N.. M. TOV rive N. is is declined as follows : S. P. S. nvic. (tins') F. r^rSe. They tpavTov. TOV TlVl t rn-'ii 7V<7 G. o^e.v rovr^ TOVTO TOV TOV . G. N. r/(Tt(i') N. etc.'^. G. <c. #. F. T<$ ri A. who? which? what? declined in the following manner : is S. POSSESSIVE PRONOUN. rouoe. r'i D.

.GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

The Reciprocal Pronoun declined : aXX/yXw^. UVTOQ has the force of the English self j . aur-ovq -tj -d -ct In the same manner are declined dXXoQ CQ tKU. 1. aur-oQ G. 6 avroQ c)ovXoc. the Singular. A.ETYMOLOGY. and in the Oblique when it stands first in the sentence. is thus D. it when etc. : as. which that tKlLVtf LKLLIO RECIPROCAL PRONOUN. avr-( -y A.VT-OV -i]V G. . 2. first In the Oblique Cases. it. -w avT-o'i -ai -d -i]Q -ov -cf -d G. it. avT-olv -alv -civ : -6 D. It is declined as follows Plural. -6 N. CWT-IO N. auT-CJv -wv -&v -CL"IQ D. same slave. avT-ov -i] N.as. 3. A. O. her. it not the word the in the clause.VOQ dXXrj i] dXXo o another who. D. 'Eyw cWoc. means him. With the Article before always means same . 39 Cases In the Nominative Case always. Dual. avr-otc. of one another. I myself.

as. VOICES. Middle. let him strike. I. The Optative represents a wish. The Imperative represents a command. The Indicative represents that which actually is or ocfive : There are Moods curs . fiovXevrj.40 GllEEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. or as. : the Active. and the Infinitive. the Optative. / bathe (2) as acting for its own adi. the Imperative. and is also used as the Subjunctive of the Past Tenses as. Xouopai. I wash myself. without limitation of person or number. lam struck. . II. Infinitive represents to strike. entreaty . exhortation. Trapa- I set forth the Middle. TidEfjLai rrjv own use (8) own advantage. There are three Voices Middle. table / Middle. its I provide . . Active. The Active Voice represents the' agent as acting upon an object as. The Subjunctive represents a possibility or conception of the mind as. and the upon by some person or tiling. TVTTTOI. the Subjunctive. I wash. as. vantage . or.. The Middle Voice represents the agent (l) as acting upon itself. TVTT-E. as. TVTTTIO ere. as. the Passive. as. I strike you. Active. rti/rro/^cn. Xouw. as. e. he may advise. I provide for my something to be done for Traparidrjpi rr\v rpaTrtZav. strike thou. The Passive Voice represents the subject as being acted . Tvirrei. the Indicative. simply the meaning of the Verb. he strikes. he might strike. The . j as causing Active. rpaTTE^ar^T cause the table to be set forth before me. Trapaoram^w. ?ra- pairxEvaopat.

the Second. which do not differ in meaning. The Imperfect Tense represents an action which was taking place and was not completed in some past time / as. : lie will strike. as. without reference to the time of its completion . and Third. i-eru^Eu^ I had struck. _ It is expressed by the form of the First Person Plural. Second. as. the Pluperfect. . as. the and the Aorist The Present. at The Pluperfect Tense represents an action some past time as. Pluperfect. and Future are called Primary Tenses. III. The Present Tense represents an place. . Perfect. and Aorist are called Historical Tenses. . two forms. the First and also. The Imperfect. IV. There is no separate form for the First Person Dual in the Active Voice. as complete PERSONS. This tense has two forms. TVTTTW^ I strike.ETYMOLOGY. indefinite) represents a past action as simply done. I have struck. render. The Aorist Tense I known as the First and Second Aorist. exist. the Imperfect. First. struck. 41 There are six Tenses : Perfect. action as now taking will take The Future Tense represents an action which place . and are not both found in the same Verb. There are three Persons. eVuTrroj'. TU^E t. (ao/>joroe. as well as of the Pluperfect. the Future. tVv^a. TENSES. The Perfect Tense represents an action as complete at Of this tense the present time as. I was striking. In the Passive Voice two forms occur the First Future and the Second Future. the Present.

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. 2 a sg "* - Pi v k -lsM lt-l-1 fills f-Hf'l a a s> s> .5 ' 5 S re Wo .

kTcTVTTtlQ D.lfJLtV kTtTVTTeiTOV kTtTVTTcLTS. IX P. > TSTvtiaTe Perfect S. kTtTV(f)tlTOV S. IX p. he strikes. TABLE OF INFLECTIONS. Pluperfect iTtTVTTUV 2. TVTTTtig. kTVTTTfTOV IT kTVTTTcTE Perfect S. IX P. / strike. TcTVTTE TkTVTTa D. Tt-vrraTOV TTV7raUV Pluperfect 1 . TV'^tTOV TV'^OVffl Future 2. 2.TVTrf. I had struck. 43 3G. I strike. TV7TTW. irtrvtyti D. ACTIVE VOICE. they two strike.TV7rf. TVTrTETOV. Imperfect.ETYMOLOGY. S. P. S. TUTTTOJUV. I shall TVTTilQ strike. strike. thou strikest. TVTTTOVGl. TiTVTTaQ TiTVTTaTOV TiTVirOLTf. irf.^ p. they strike.Laav Future 1. 1 . Present Tense. P. / have struck. you two TUTTTtTf. TVTTTETOV. kTVTTTOV kTVTTTtC. you strike. INDICATIVE MOOD. / had struck. TV7TTEI. I was striking. ive strike. . I shall strike. / have struck. kTE.

trvifse trv^a kTU'ipctf-lfV trv^ag trv^arov cTVl^CtTS trv^aT^v tTV$/CtV P. kTUTToptv i-uxEre iTVirov SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. I struck. TUTTTWGl Perfect I may have struck. TU7TTOITOV TVTTTOlTt TVTTTQltV Perfect S. Aorist S. P. S. TVTTTOlUtV 1. or should have struck. I may TVTTyQ strike. Y). ~D. 1). TUTTTy TV7TT1JTOI TVTTTl]TOV T^TTrW/ZfJ/ TVTTTIJTk 1. TTV(f)r]TOV TcTV^tJTO Perfect S. TUTTTOlfM rVTCTOlQ TVTTTOt TVTTTOirTJV D. tTVTTS tTUTrtrrjv tTUTrOls tTVTTEC iruTTcTOV P. Present. TV^TJTOV TV^TjTOV Aorist S. rvTrrjre TVTTWGI OPTATIVE MOOD. / may have struck. TtrV$OlT6 T(TV$OltV . 2. . I struck. icould. P. would. I might. could. TETV(j)OlQ TtTV^Olfll TBTlHbOl TETV(j)OlT1]V TfTV([)OirOV TTV(j)Ol[JltV P. I). TiTVTTW TcTVTTyQ TTV7TJ]TOV Aorist 1. I). 1.iLV P. 2. 2. Present. or should strike. Imiyht. I). Aorist S. J). TU7TU) TVTty TUTTtfTOV rVTTf]TOV TV7ra)[. could. I may strike. D. TUTTTiiJ I may TVTTTyQ strike.44 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. S.

TV^/Ol TV^Oig TUTpoiTOV Ti\^oire TV^QITK]V TV\poitv P. Tv\pai[. TeTVTTOtiV Future S. 3). would. TV7TolfJ. rv<l/ov Tv^drw TV\^CITOJV P. or should TITV7TOIQ T&TV7TOIUI D. could. TfTVTTtTlt) T&TVTTE D. Tf. could. TeTv&erwcrav 2. could. TVTTTSrdJV TVTTTtTUJGaV Perfect S. I should or would strike. P. 2. could. 45 have struck. Have struck. S. TtTVTTETOV TtTVTTtTc TtTVTf'iTMV TtTVTc'tTUaCtV Aorist S. or should strike. I). Tvyarou Tv^are TVaTuaav . I might. ri>7T7fcra> D. TVTroipev TVTTOITS IMPERATIVE MOOD. Perfect S. P.u P.TVTTOlp. Aorist S. or should strike. TVtpotfjttv Future S. T'cTlHpB. I might. 2. rvTrre ASVn'/je. 1. TETV7TOL TtTUTTOlTIJV I might. Perfect S.LV TETV7TOITOV TtTVTTOlTe. Strike. TVTTOlTS Aorist S. TtTV<j)T(i) TtTV(j)tT(t)V TETV^ETOV TETVfpere P.ETYMOLOGY. I might. TV^Olfjil 1. P.'f TVTCOIQ i' TVTTollJLl TV7TOI TVTrorrjv TUTToltV P. 1. TVTTTtTOV TV7TTLT8 .EV 1. or should hereofter strike. Present. TV7TOIQ ru'/rotrov TVTTOlftl TVTCOL TVTTOITTJV D. would. would. 2. would. //are struck. ~D. P.

TVTTtTOV TVTTSTWV TVTTtTbMJaV TV KITE INFINITIVE MOOD. Aorist 2. rtrvtitvai. N. TtTV7r<jj rervTTwa TtTVTTViaQ 1. N.^ TUTTUUGCt TVTrovcrrjc. Having struck. Going to strike. to be about to strike. N. 2. Having struck. Strike. TZTVTTOQ TETVTTOTOZ OZ TtTUTTOTO Future Going to strike. G. to be striking. Perfect 1. to be about to strike. TVTTOiJV TVXOVVTOZ Aorist 1. Tv-(jja rv^av TV\JJC(PTO TV^CIVTOQ TV\jJClG1ig Aorist 2. to strike. N. TVTTTEIV. TV7TWV 2. . TVTTOtV TVTTOVffa TV7TUV TV7TOPTO TVTTOVVrjQ TUTTGVTQQ . ru/rn^. G. G. to strike. N. Perfect Having struck. rervTrsvai.46 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. to have struck. Future Future Aorist Perfect 2. G. PARTICIPLES. Present. TV7TE 2. rvTrtiv. TtTlHpiOQ TETV<pvla Perfect 2. G. Aorist S. to have struck. TV7TETW % D. Striking. G. TV7TTUJV TVTTTOVffCt TVTTTOVTOQ TVTTTOVarjg 1.^ TV^CII. G. to strike. N. TVIJJWV TV^OVTt Future N. 1. 1 TV^EIV. Present. TVTruvvTog Having Tvijjacra struck. P.

Aorist S. P. P. tTVTT)] MTTIJV kTWTJje trvTrrjrov D. P. tTVTrfjTrjf . Pluperfect. 1. P. I shall be struck. TVTTTOfJLaC / am struck. TVTrfjGOfJiai 2. P. irvfi&rjTov inxf&rjre 2. INDICATIVE MOOD. or -era D. TVTTTy OT -7TTU D. kvoi ijaav I shall or will be struck. TVTTTOfJL^OV TVTTTOVrai Imperfect. S. I). S. Present. TVTrfjvtrat D. P. 3. P. irirv^e Future 1. D. PASSIVE VOICE. / was struck. S. irVTTTOV rvrrreTO P. Aorist S. S. P. D. Perfect. tTVTTTOVTO I have been struck. I was struck. I shall be TV7TY]<ry struck. D. D. Future S. Future S.ETYMOLOGY. / had been struck. I was struck.

T). would.V TVK&Gl OPTATIVE MOOD. P. I should or would be struck. 2. w). S. TVTTtJTOV TVTTiJTE TVTriJTOV TU7TU>fJ. Present. P. TVTTTUfJlCtl I am struck. TVTTTOKJ^E TVTTTOIVTO Perfect. I may have been struck.48 GEEEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. etc. TETVfifjiirog (y. - Aorist 2. <u/jj/. S. TtTV^fjiepoi (at. Aorist S. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. wfft(v). w).. 1. J). T rvwqaoipe&a r . hereafter be struck. P. Tvtyz&niv S. w. TVTTTOIH&OV TWKToifjie&a. rvTn'jffoio TVTrnaoi/Jirjv TvirrjcroiiJitSov Tvirr D. f'^Cj ?7' D. TVTTrrjaSe rvirr^vrai / have been struck. TVTrTion&a Perfect. I may or caw ie struck. D. TV7TTOIO TVTTTOiaSrov TVTTToifJIJV TV7TTOLTO TVTTToi(j3rr] D. S. oi/). D. I might. TVliTT]Tai TUTTTtjaSrOV TVTTTy TVTTTrjGSrOV TVTTTWfjltSoi' P. Tv^rjaoifJLf^ra TU(p$i]aoivS8 Future S. TvtySuj P. I may Tviryz be struck. / mir/ht. could. P. rfTrJ. a). ' TervpjjL^vo^ (j]. eh]Liev. or should be struck. jyrf. yq. teerc struck. ijrov. I might. I may or can le struck. P. S. eu'iTTjv. I). Ai*c ('?yv. TtTV^kvit) (. rfri>ju/zro> (a. TV<p3rrj<joiTO rvtySrnGoifirjv TV(j)^rr](7oipt^ov rv^rjuoto rv(^3rr]ffoi<7^ov nMJ&ijffoiff&l P. yIJTOV. (Oytttv.tirjTOV. /<m struck. Future S. 1. etc.. Present. ov).

Be thou struck. Present. rvTrijvat. to be about to be struck. TVTrr D. TtTV^OljJl&OV reTVifjoifji&a TSTV^OIVT Aorist 1. rvvfrjg rv7ri'ir]Tov D. or should be struck. Future S. rfru'^eaS-ai. Be thou struck. to rv<f)$rivat. to be struck. Be struck. D. TV(pllT)Tr]V rwj&ttijTt or -are etc. P. rvTrrtaSai. 49 I should or would remain struck. to have been struck. S. TVTTTjdt 2. TVTTtitJlJtEV TVTTtlTJTe IMPERATIVE MOOD. p. 3. D. P. TVTTTOV Be thou struck. I might.ETYMOLOGY. 1.' 2. Aorist 2. a D. rtrv^oifjujv 3. Aorist S. could. c . p. Present. rfrt/03-at. Aorist 1. be struck. Aorist S. would. to remain struck. to be struck. rerv^oio TtTV^OUjStOV TTU\}JOI<T$ TtTV^o'ltJ^f D. Perfect. TVTTrfTOV TVTrrjre TVTrrjTOjaav or -evrwv INFINITIVE MOOD. D. rvirriGtaSai. Future Future Future rv03-7<Teoai. be struck. TVTrenjv fifv 2. I might. P. S. Aorist S. P. 1.. P. Perfect. to be about to be struck.

ITVTTTOV iTvirnro irvTrrovro P.50 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR REGLXXERS. ireTvfifJLrjv I had struck irtrv^o trkrvfySov myself . being struck. TITV^^'WOC. S. S. rvTrovfJiai 2. trvx//o> irv^dro P. struck. Aorist 2. 2.. Present Tense. rj. S. ij. Perfect. treTvfjin&ov Future S. about to TvfyStic. Present. Future Future Future Aorist ru03^<7o/ji>o. 1. being struck. IrtTVTrro trtTvQSrtjv D. er. I). irvTrrofjiTjv / was striking myself. rj. TVTTTOfJl&OV TVTTTUIJl&a rvrcry TVTTTtaSoV TVTTTtGSf rvimrai TV7TTt(T$OV TVTTTOVTCLl Imperfect. Terv^ofjiEvog. being struck. ov. rwpa/uj. P. about to be struck. Tvirrjcofjitvoc. Future S. ov. MIDDLE VOICE. rvTrTofjitvoc. &v. S. 3. P. rvTTTOfjiai / strike myself. rv^o/iae TV'il/OUtOa TV^ETUI TVll/OVTat P. I shall strike myself*.f TVTTTJ rvTritrai D. tlffa. 77. Pluperfect. I shall strike rv^y TVlLfffOt myself. riruTfrai rkrvtyai D. having been struck.. irv^afie^a eTV\l/aa$6 tTv^avro . remain struck. INDICATIVE MOOD. TVTTiig. rt'rv/u/iat / have struck myself. 1. about to be struck. P. iTVTTTOfji&a irvrrTtaSe Perfect. ov..i> / struck myself. or. TVTTOVfJt&OV rvTrovfJif^a TVTTtiaSoV TviriiaSt 1 . etera. TVirtla&OV rvirovvrai Aorist S. PARTICIPLE. 1 .

ETYMOLOGY.
Aorist
S.
tTvirofjirjv

51

2.

I struck myself.
krvirov

D.
P.

irvTTOfJieOov

ervTreoOov

irvTrofttOa

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Present.
S.

I strike, I may

or can strike, myself.

rurrruj/iat
TVTrrdjfJie^ov

Tvirry
rvTrrrjaSov
TV7TT7](T&

D.
P.

TVtrTWH&a
Perfect.
S.

T

/ may

have struck myself.
yg,

TtTVfjLfjitvoG S),
TiTVjJLfJlBVd},

y,

D.
P.

TJTOV, ffTOV,

TtTVJJlfJlivOl WfJieV,

iJT,

tbffl.

Aorist
S.
"D.
TvipufJiai

1.

I may

strike myself.

Tv-fyy

T

TV^fJltOoV
Tv^w/jitQa

TV^TJffOoV

T

P.

rv^rjaOe
2.

Aorist
S.
ruTraJfJiai

I struck
rviry

myself.

D.
P.

TVTTWfJltOoV
ru7ro>/ic9a

TVTTTjaOoV
TvirrjaOe

TV7T1]ff9oV

OPTATIVE MOOD.
Present.
S.
TVTTToiflTJV

/ might strike
TV7TTOIO

myself.
TVTTTOLTO
TVTTToiaSrrjV

D.
P.

TVTTTOlfJieSoV

TVTTTOlffSoV
TvirroiffSre

TVTrroifji&a

TVTTTOIVTO

Perfect.
S.
*

I might

have struck myself.
tirig,
tlij,

Ttrvfjifjitvoc; tirjv,

D.
P.

TtTVUfJlBVto),

tlrjTOV, tlTJTTJV,
elrjfjiev, tlrjTe,

TeTvpfJiEvoi

tlrjaav.

Future
S.

1.

I should strike
TV\I/010

myself.

TV^OlprjV
TVlfjOtfJltQoV
Tv\j/6ifjieQa

TV^OITO
TV^OiaQlJ

D.
P.

TV^OHjQoV

2

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.
Future
S.
TVTTOlfJiyjV

2.

I should

strike myself.^

TVTTOIO

TV1TOITO
TVTTOlffOrjV

D.
P.

TVTToijjllOoV
TViroifJitQa

TVTTOtaOov
rvTrourOe
1.

TVTTOIVTO

Aorist
S.

/ mighty

etc., strike myself.

D.
P.
Aorist
S.
TVTToijjirjv

2.

/ mighty

etc.

,

TVTTOIO

strike myself. TVTTOITO
TVTroiaOrjv

D.
P.

TVTToifjitOov
TVTTOlfJLeOa

TviroiaQov
TVTTOHtOe

TV7TOIVTO

IMPERATITE MOOD.
Present. Strike thyself.
S.

TV7TTOV

D.
P.

T

Perfect.
S.

Have

been struck.

T6TV$$<Ji>

D.
P.
Aorist
S.
Tinfsai

1.

D.
P.

TvifjaaSrov

TvipaoSre

Aorist
S.

2.

Strike.

TVTTOV

TVTTBffSijj

D.
P.

TfTTfVS'WV

INFINITIVE MOOD.
Present.
Perfect.
,

#o strike one's

se//*.

to
1.

have struck one's

self.
se//*.

Future Future
Aorist
Aorist

ai, to
,

6e a&owZ <o strike one's

2.
1.

contracted rvTTfi^at, to 6e
to strike one's se^.

a6o/

to strike one's seT/If

t,
,

2.

to strike one's self.

ETYMOLOGY.
PARTICIPLE.
Present.
Perfect.

53

TVTTTO^VO^
TtrvfijJievoQ,

r\, rj,

ov, striking himself.

Future Future
Aorist

1.

rv^6/ifi>o,

rj,

ov, having struck himself. ov, about to strike himself.

2. rvireo^tvoQ, contr. TVTroviJ.(vog,rj, ov,
1
.

about

to strike one's self.^

having struck himself. Aorist 2. rvTrofjievoc,, TJ, ov, striking or having struck himself. [NOTE. Grammarians have assumed a second future in the Active as well as in the Passive and Middle Voices. We have given these in the paradigms, marking them with an obelisk (t). But no such forms actually exist in this voice.]
Tv^dfievo^j
rj,

ov, striking or

37.

FORMATION OF THE TENSES.
I.

AUGMENT.

The Imperfect and Aorists of the Indicative Mood, and the Perfect, Pluperfect, and Third Future of all of the Moods, receive an increase at the beginning, whichfris
called

Augment.

Augment there are two species, known as the Augment and as the Temporal Augment. The Syballic Augment consists of a syllable or syllables preThe Temporal Augment is formed by fixed to the Verb.
this

Of

Syllabic

lengthening the first syllable of the Verb. In most Verbs which begin with a Consonant, the Syllabic Augment is used in the Imperfect and Aorist Tenses, and it is formed

by prefixing

e to the Root ; as, TVTTTW Imperfect, ITVKTOV. In Verbs which begin with a Vowel, the Temporal Augment is used in all of the Past Tenses, and it is formed by

initial Vowel if it be short, or by leaving unchanged if it be long. The Temporal Augment lengthens a and e into 77, and o into w ; as, $w Imperfect,

lengthening the
it

rjcW.

REDUPLICATION.
In the Perfect, the Pluperfect, and the Third Future, Verbs which begin with a Consonant repeat this Consonant before the Syllabic Augment, and such repetition is

II. . Verbs are Pure. Verbs compounded with a Preposition take their Augment between the Preposition and the Verb as. TT Root. according as the Characteristic is a Vowel. THE ROOT. p is a Liquid Verb. as. y Root. Verb a Mute Verb . T-e-rvtya Pluperfect. Mute. or a Liquid as. t is TT a Pure is Characteristic. Indicative Mood. many instances. In . Xey. Aug- ment called Reduplication. . a Mute. Active Voice as. rtw XC/TTW Characteristic. COMPOUND VERBS. unchanged or as modified by the Xe'yw TVTTTW rules of Euphony. (nrelpu Characteristic. Commonly the Root may be found by striking off from the Present Indicative Active the letters which follow the The remainder will be the Root. Characteristic. terposition of a letter or letters before the termination as. . or Liquid. as. the Characteristic is the letter which immediately precedes the termination of the Present Tense. either Characteristic. r in Tirnrit)) where the Root is TVTT. Characteristic. In the Pluperfect the Syllabic is repeated before the Reduplication . . The Root of a Verb undergo no change the Verb. Characteristic of a Verb the last letter of the In regular Verbs. TVTT.54 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. y in Ae'yoj. t) Imperfect. is composed of those in inflection which throughout every part of letters is The Root. the Root is modified by the in. however. TUTTTW Perfect.

XaV . as. These Tenses. to the strengthened Root to the if it be strengthened Imperfect. as found in the Lexicon . Augment. as. and -iw to the Root. R. 1st Perfect. if the Characteristic is a Labial or a Palatal add -KEIV in all other cases . in some Verbs. Aorist. Future. ACTIVE VOICE. Pluperfect. as exhibited in the Second Aorist Active and in the /Second Perfect Active. (6. Augment. Reduplicate. a shortened form. Augment and add -or Root . repeat the Aug- ment. and Future Tenses. the Root is found to be. all other cases . and add -a to the the Characteristic is a Labial or a Palatal add . . In the Perfect.ETYMOLOGY. XEITT-CJ . as. and add -a to the modified Root. when formed from this shortened Root. Add -w . XOITT \ XOITT a. are called the Second Second Second Second Perfect. Present. as. Aorist. SPECIAL RULES FOR FORMATION OF THE TENSES. if Augment. \e-\eur-a =\Xei(j)a (6. Reduplicate. and the Tenses are formed by adding their respective terminations to it. Pluperfect. The shortened root is found in the Lexicon. III. 1st Pluperfect. but merely different forms of the same Tense. 2d Perfect. X'TT-W. Xtnr- Root -ra in 16). These are not distinct Tenses. . XaV-w .R. 16). Reduplicate. 55 SECONDARY ROOT. as.

at Add (6. as. Augment. 2(7 Future. to the Root.rjv Root. 5). Augment. Add o-w to the Root . Augment. future. as. Augment and add -ov to the shortened Root as found in the Lexicon as. R. ls Future. -o/itu to PASSIVE VOICE. and add -p.56 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. eXeXotVeu/. as. as. as. . .ai. . XCITT it) .cu. Xnrw. R. shortened Root as found in the 2 d Aorist Active as. and add -v to the modified Root as found in the 2d Perfect.f IstAorist. XftTr w. Add -tw. Reduplicate. to the 2). 2). XC/TT-W. Xenr Ac XCITT fj. eXetTT era = eXen^/a (6. as. (6. -/zcu to the Root . XW'TT-W \eiir-op. XEITT-W. Augment and Root as found in the add -rjv to the shortened 2d Aorist Active .aiz=:\\eip. repeat the Augment. w. . . Augment and add -617 v to the Root. R. Xot?r. -qo-o/mi to the . XfXe/7r-o-o/iatrr:XeX/i^o/zai (6. XetV-w. XaV-w XITT t\urov. contracted w. 2c7 Aorist. as.L Add -drjcrofiai to the Root .fjiai (6. XetTr- = \i(t)dfiffop. if it be strengthened Imperfect. to the shortened Root as found in the Second Aorist . c-Xe-Xc/Tr-^y^cXe- \EiHfiriv (6. Reduplicate.a. and add w . Xenr-w. Reduplicate. Pluperfect. as. XITT . 3d Future. . Xenr-w . Augment and add -o-a to the Root . R. as. as. . XC/TT-W XCTT . R. 1st Aorist. Augment. R. XetTr-o-w^ XV/ R. eXetyOriv (6. XV-w . 2d Aorist. 5). XITT. repeat the Augment. X'TT-W. l). I XetTT Perfect. the strengthened Root. Augment and add -o^v ofirjv. Oti(Top. 2d Pluperfect. Add . Present. 5). 1). 1st as. XC/TT2 d Future. Reduplicate. \urfi ffop. and add -o-o/zcu to the Root as.

ETYMOLOGY.

57

MIDDLE VOICE.
the strengthened Root, if it be w ; XctTro^icu. Imperfect. Augment and add -ofirjv to the Root; as,
Present.
-o/zai to
;

Add

strengthened
Xe/7r
u) ;

as, Xenr

iXftTrofjiriv.

Perfect.

Augment, Reduplicate, and add
;

-/zcu

to the

Root

;

as, Xfnr-w

XcXet/x/xcu (6,

R.

2).

Augment, Reduplicate, repeat the Augment, and add pjr to the Root as, XaV w eXfXaWrp'. 1st Future. Add -tro/icu to the Root; as, XetV-w; XeA//oPluperfect.
;
;

/i<u (6,

R.

5).

2df

Future.

Add

-co/icu,

contracted

-ov/zat,

to the short;

ened Root as found in the 2d Aorist Active
XITT; XtTToi/^cu.f

as, XEITT-W

;

1st Aorist.

Augment and add
R.

-o-a/iijv

to the

Root;

as,

Xcnr-w; fXei^afJLYiv (6, 5). 2d Aorist. Augment and

Root
XtTT

as found in the
OfJUJV.

add -o/z??j> to the shortened 2d Aorist Active as, XCITT-W Xt?r ;
;
;

EXAMPLES.
Let the pupil form each Tense in the following Verbs, giving Rules for all of the Euphonic Changes as
38.

laid

down

in

6.
1. T/oi,

I honor.

58

GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.
\Aw,

Ifold.
Parts combined.
tTrXeicov

ACTIVE VOICE.
Parts divided.
Present.

Imperfect. Future.

t-irXiK-ov

Aorist

1.

t-TrXtK-a-a
t-7rXaic-ov
tir\a.Kov

Aorist

2.

Perfect.

Pluperfect.

Perfect

2.

7T-7rXo/c-a

Pluperfect 2.

MIDDLE VOICE.
Present.
Imperfect.
irXtK-ojjia.1

i-TrXtK-Ofirjv

Future 1. Future 2.f
Aorist
1.
i-7T\6K-(T-dfJiT]V

TrXa

Aorist 2.
Perfect.

Pluperfect.

PASSIVE VOICE.
Present.
TrXsKOfiat

Imperfect.

Future Future
Aorist

1.

2. 1.

Aorist

2.

Perfect.

iriTrXeyfiat

Pluperfect.

Future

3.

w,

Ipersuade.
Middle.
Passive.

Active.

Present.
Imperfect.

Future Future
Aorist

1. 2.
1.

7T-<7-U)

t-TTEl-ff-d

t-TTfl-ff-dfJUJV

ETYMOLOGY.
Aorist
2.

59

t-iri3r-ov

Perfect.

irk-Trti-K-a
i-Trt-irri-K-tiv

Trk-TTtia~iiai
s-Tre-Trtiff-fjujv

ire-ire iff- \LOLI
i-TTt-Trdff-iJLfjv

Pluperfect. Perfect 2.

Tri~Troi$-a
i-ire-noiSr-iiv

Pluperfect 2.

Future

3.

Tre-nti-a-opai

SPECIAL RULES FOR PURE VERBS.
I.

Pure Verbs, whose characteristic is a or e or contracted in the Present and Imperfect Tenses.
39.
II.

o,

are

are formed according to the Rules given above ; but, (a) when a short vowel occurs before a consonant, it is changed into its own long ; as, 0tXcw ; 0tXc ; QiXriffu) ; (b) when e or a short doubtful vowel occurs before
serts

The Tenses

a Consonant in the Active and Middle Voice, the Verb <r before a Consonant in the Passive Voice ; as,
ctXecj
5

in-

ciXiffit) y

60 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. til .

ETYMOLOGY. IT! r? %u S> -f ? s 5 " T 'T i T O " O " O rTrTr 8 C 1-1 A > X Z to ^ vo n 33 a =J. .. 3-3-3-3t^ K K G ft?<n I till! .2 61 5 <JI Ss ^^SL .

144- ?? Tff g I JJ-S-e.62 w |r ? GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. 1^ ? J" ^.2 2 tl o o |i 11 ll s Iff trllt H \ l P to 6 -a E b 3 <2 . i- -i-. *^ s^ ci I s- .t fc i.3-1 * .

63 tl| |lt c> .TT! .j fti! T.ETYMOLOGY.

.64 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

14 .ETY^IOLOGY.1 Itlili 1 I'Jilili = S -'3-2=-= '3 ^ '3 o ~ o G . I 41 III C '3 -S '3 *S f 3 s Hi K o ^ s ^* * Iv ** . S r.b o b 11-4. S ^ 65 ft a.

. B- NMH e.R- i 4 .66 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. e e e e g -0 '3 -2 o -o i 1 II 11 o fifiii iittfi <<<< ^^ vu 1*1 wu uu fH-Ht g M P H S g 3 g gl A S a! P g|| || Jlllil ^ . ^ ^ A a S" R.

4 . R v * 1 |. R" to a ^> to N Oi t> t> ^> to *S ^3-2*3 i^S s *s li ii -Itl'l-l-l C 3 * o o o e _. 67 to<S b^ to<S -I-U-l-i'l o o o o o o " Q 3- u o o o iH4HM ST ST- 2. c" t> |.5 la .V a 3 3 o V3 ^3 . * C l 1| CD w vu I * <I> ** ^_ * "*> 3_ % ^3 V |A|. \ w p H S o * ^3.ETYMOLOGY.

syllables in eivw. as. I send. Future Middle III. Middle . shortened Root rev re-lengthened Root reiv'y 1st A. LIQUID VERBS. uid. . The Future Active and Middle. IV.68 GKEEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. Root TEW . . contracted into & and oi^cu. Active iretra 1st A. Root of the Present is long. viz. is a Liq- In the formation of their Tenses. rtwu. I. If the strengthened II. EXAMPLES OF LIQUID VERBS. Future Future Aorist 1. u'w as. and instead of aa and o-ayuqr. all of the Tenses excepting the Present and Imperfect are formed from the modified Root as found in the 2d Aorist and 2d Perfect. modified Root rav. Root TW. they differ from the Mute Verbs in the following particulars. The First Aorist Active and Middle lengthen the shortened Root. TSIVU . instead of <rw and o-oftcu. Middle. w t-araX-a 1-oraX-ov 2. . shortened Root nv^ Future Active TE. Verbs are those whose characteristic Liquid : 42. Passive. 1. 43. rtvoupai. and wu drop v before ravw. to the shortened Root. Aorigt 2. Active.V& . Root reiv. (TTtXX-ofjLai Present. <mX--a>. Verbs of two a Consonant. Perfect reraica. Srf'XXw. add eo) and tojucu. add a and apriv as. crreXX-w f-errtXX-ov errt'XX-o/zat Imperfect.

Perfect. 69 t-araX-K-a .ETYMOLOGY.

form. fw. ffrrj/Jii 5 / oraoi trrapt / itmifju. as. '. The Present is formed 45. Verbs in fit are formed from Pure Verbs in aw. /3aw. This consists of i with the initial Consonant when the Verb begins with a Consonant . w/a. VERBS IN 44. The remaining Tenses are formed regularly from the Pure Verbs upon which they are built. rjpty T/JUI. viz. w. Verbs : above. ^f/a. Lengthen the Penult ima flaw 5 . in /a have but three Tenses of this peculiar the Present. /3a/a. /3rjfj.70 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. as. Trraw 5 7rra/a 5 TTT^IJLI .i. ow. as. and are consequently of four forms. viz. Change w into /a . II. ular in The following Verb in /a : steps are taken in the formation of a reg- I. t7rr7/a. / If/a 5 . a or of simply an aspirated t when the Verb begins with Vowel or with the letters or or TTT as. : The other two Tenses are formed as follows . -. fu. Imperfect. 5 /3a/a III. ending respectively and vfjit. tiy/a. . and 2d Aorist. and vw. Prefix the Reduplication.

2d A. Imp. or or. when the aspirated i is changed into the Augment c. TTT-. Change changed . as. efi& t . i$i$w. PASSIVE AND MIDDLE. 71 IMPERFECT ACTIVE. Sft IMPERFECT. with TIT.ETYMOLOGY. PASSIVE AND MIDDLE. unless the Verb begins with L t. as.r]v 5 . cwy. Drop the reduplication of the Imperfect unless the Verb begins with a Vowel. Pres. Imp. . SECOND AORIST MIDDLE. when the aspirated t is changed into the Augment as. Imp. . ment. ment. Pass. unless the Verb begins with t. of the Present into v. Imp. p as. i. pat of the Present into /xiyi/. Change and prefix the Augwhich remains un- changed. as. and prefix the Augwhich remains un- y Imp. Sidopcu Icrrapai . Imp. . icmiv} 2d A. tVra/zry v. t y e$i()6fj. or with or. Change pi of the t . Drop the reduplication of the Imperfect unless the Verb begins with a Vowel. i$i$6/jir)v. SECOND AORIST ACTIVE. Present Active into pai and shorten the Penultima . PRESENT.

'C ECO III III 111 ill .72 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. P b ^ I- ^ -I P b ^ t- 3 < Bi 11 $ 3 s? sJ ^ fe ? ^ b t- b b .3- E * ^ S t it <^a3'- ^ 0.

ETYMOLOGY. Iplace I put I give ti8<wc. idtlKVVTIJV P. Present. INDICATIVE MOOD. tTi&ijv idiSwv tdtiKvvv tdtlKVV D. . ACTIVE VOICE. S. 73 47. I show IffTCLTOV IffTOTOV T&iTOV T&tTOV ri&ffitv Ci^GTOV dlOOTOV cido[Jin> Ci'lKVVTQV StlKVVTOV dtiicwfltv T&tTt didoTe dtiKwre Ti^icun^v) c?t^oacr/(j') deiKvv(i0i(i>) Imperfect. TABLE OF INFLECTIONS.

S. Present. ed like the ed like the Present. iffrys IGTIJ D. Present. OPTATIVE MOOD. lGTt]TOV T&i]TOV IGT^TOV T&tJTOV VtlKVVWJJLtV P. Present. ed like the Present. . da> inflect- OTW inflected like the Present. coirjp inflect- ed like the ed like the Present. && inflect- dun) inflect- ed like the Present.GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. Present. Aorist 2. didoirjTov tlKVVOlTOV larairjTt CtlKVVOlTE Ti$rfii](Tav ^ larairjaav StlKVVOltV Or thus D. SU15JUNCTIVE MOOD. iffTalrov iffraiTfjv : Aorist GTair]v inflectSttrjv inflect- 2. tffraiijc term?/ citiotrj D.

covvai Pres.' _~ci.ji or i oTty or St'iKvv T&'tTU dlCUTU) difioTOV ioToroo StlKVVTd) T&fTOV StlKVVTOV Aorist 3-ari 2. (7rm/ai Stivai duvai PARTICIPLE. Aor. i(rrc 2. forayac 2. Aor. Pres.. Present. Present. toTu. c^o3( or 3-6 or < GT)]TUJV P.ETYMOLOGY. S'. IMPERATIVE MOOD. orf 3-it't. or riSy 'iGrarai ri&Tat StdoTftt otiKWrai 'izTClVTCU T&tVTCU FiCOVTCU Ct'lKVVVTa . INDICATIVE MOOD. OT^7 or crravrwv or Sivnov CVTt durcoaav or < or SUVTWV INTFIXITIVE MOOD. dove dug PASSIVE! AND MIDDLE.

Present.70 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. t(TT : IffTtJTCtl TlStJTCtl D. Imperfect. TiSruvTCii cidisJVTai Aorist 2 Middle. (TTCllfJlT]V dtdolo SeiKvvoto T&tLTO . Ti3riJG&ov P. iGru/uHiv 'iGTUGO idiooao or 'IGTCO or ir& or ididov tcidoTO tdt'lKVVTO 'iGraro 1 7/3*6 TO D. S.i]i' inflected like the inflected like t Imperfect. like the like the like the like Present. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. OPTATIVE MOOD. Imperfect. Imperfect. Present. Present. Present. S. P. iriSevro tllKWVTO Aorist 2 Middle. iffranqv inflected like the t^rsfjirjv tdopjv inflected like the i^L<jj.

GTClUtVOZ EXERCISES IN FORMATION. D. Aorist 2 Root. Present. . Pres. Pres. Root. like the like the like the Present. PARTICIPLE. cepK capK . Iffraiu&o lilKVVOLG^OV T&llVTO Cld( dKl'VClVTO Aorist 2 Middle. 'iGTUfuvoQ A. S. \GTCKJQ or Y0TW or riSov or ciccv P. 2 M. Present. INFINITIVE MOOD. Present. Perfect 2 Root. 2M. IMPERATIVE MOOD. or &. CL(KVVGO. Present. Present. Verb. A. GTUGO like the ^t'cTO dcffo or ov like like the like the Present. Or ()tlKVVG$WV Aorist 2 Middle.ETYMOLOGY. Let the pupil form all of the Tenses of the following Verbs according to the foregoing Rules. VcTTrtl or i or T&wSuv or 3oi.

Plural. Plural. Dual. Dual. Present. F/lifl') 1l<fO. t'irjroi'. TABLES OF THE SYNOPSES AND INFLECTIONS OF CERTAIN IRREGULAR AND DEFECTIVE VERBS. Singular. earov tare. Singular. terror. Dual. . torajcr OPTATIVE MOOD. or tdo. Xey (TTJ7T Xey ffaTT Xoy (T)J7C Oa\ a yap /3a Oa\ ay(> OrjX ayop 48. Aorist 2 Root. Verb. aofiaij tag. iffTi Plural. Plural. tifinjv Future. t Dual. Future Middle. Singular.'. Imperfect Middle. Plural. Singular. Dual. I'lTO Plural. Singular. i Dual. dai Imperfect. Singular. f //. Efp. Singular. tvtrai Dual. INDICATIVE MOOD. IMPERATIVE MOOD. Perfect 2 Root.78 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. Present Tense. tGTiov Plural. torw tTrf. to be. or a. tcrrov. Root. tcr/^6^. Present.

or ti HGI n. Sing. OlHJCl. yc. Plural. Singular. efyii i'w tit. Present Imperfect t'-fjut -TCll j etc. Singular. Suly. Present. 'ITS Indie.t. foijui rote. IjTGV. livat irw iwi/ "iTWV 'iTwaav Part. (TOV 0/jKV. etc. OVfTL . INDICATIVE MOOD. Future. tTOV. Singular. ACTIVE VOICE. etc. Present Tense. VV E7^it. Infin. i'S't wire ITS 'ioitv Imper. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. i'ot tro^ \r\rov 'ioirov 'irov 'irov lei or lam o?c trjrov ioirrfv 'h]TE 'ihJffl Opt. foiv or ytig or ya r/ffffS-a ?jti Dual Plur. iuv-oq iovcrjc. Present. WV. Dual. Future 1. to go. v. Present Participle. Dual. L-E^V to send. MIDDLE VOICE. lovaa iov Gen. "irjc. t-f. to hasten. <^> Dual. . INDICATIVE MOOD. Present. hlt Imperfect. Plural. fjTCV Plural. irjv. (T(. INDICATIVE MOOD. fietufv or y foiTov or ?JTOV yiT or ?JTE ytiTrjv or IJTTJV r^eaar. Ion. y INFINITIVE MOOD.ETYMOLOGY. Imperfect. yicav "lEfjiai. -(TO .

1. tlK-UJ) %C. ikv . HKrt Pluperfect. <i>. 'itrs. Singular. itjrov. Present. y ijrov. 'itTOV. Plural. iwcrs Perfect. irjre. Perfect. r\TOV (il/MV. ?)rf. COffl Aorist . Future ?. Present. Perfect. rjc. Dual.80 Aorist TJKCl GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. OPTATIVE MOOD. PARTICIPLES. Aorist 2. iuGa. Singular. w//fi>. ly. Singular. r\TOV y rjrTjv Plural. Plural. 7}TE. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. Aorist 2. or tijJLtV) art. \y I^TOV iwptv. 2. f'/K:otjUi ?1 T t) tfffav Future fycroi/y. Aorist 2. Dual. iti-ijv. iw.i 1. itic. y 1JTOV. tlKtLV Aorist Singular.(T(0 1. Plural. y. Perfect. Uraj ikruv ikrwcav Aorist 1. tiaav IMPERATIVE MOOD. 2. i]rov wat INFINITIVE MOOD. Future 1. Present. Present. r\ Dual. Present. 'i&ij Dual. "n^Wi Perfect.

GCtl. c$ov H&a.ii]v.I Pluperfect. Future 1. Plural. &ov. VTO. (7. Future Aorist 1. 0. . OPTATIVE MOOD. 6/u$a. (TO.9-f. aSrrjv D2 .ETYMOLOGY. INDICATIVE MOOD. fo-3'c. a$ov. Plural. zero. aSi}v Perfect. Future fjo--o/irtt. <?Sov. TO 3.&a. Aorist 2. crSov. ]. PASSIVE VOICE.Dnal. . Dual. Plural. v. TO H&ov. t'f-jUrtt. Dual. ea&ov. Present. Aorist Singular.i?]v. Singular. . tad)]!' t/j. TCIL Imperfect. Dual.Tai op&ov. taSe. 'ivro IMPERATIVE MOOD. 'iv dea. t 1. f. G$OV. Present and Imperfect like the Passive. Singular. ie-f. tro tfji&or. y. tl-p]V. ovTai Aorist tij. (TO. Ol-pllV. ecSrov. Aorist 2. taSov 2. Perfect. Future Singular. 81 Aorist tiQ 9 2. Plural. tVfTOjltat and t&nv MIDDLE VOICE. TO 1. oSrrjv &ov.

<J$QV p&a. rat /utS'oi/. (73*02^. taSov c/if3a. INDICATIVE MOOD. v$r. Singular. Present. rj. KtiaSrio Dual.82 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. Aorist 2. Present. rinral.v f. ovrai IMPERATIVE MOOD. o. Present. Dual. ro iu2rov. toi-fjiijv. KU. Present. Dual. rj. j/ro Future 1 . ov a^at. Future 1. (TO. Plural. a$r.O'ZCU PARTICIPLE. KeiaSwv KuaSe. 2..v ji&a. Aorist Singular. Kcifiiv-oCi ^7) ov . i'rai Imperfect. <r3f. Dual. Present. -fjiai) trat. PARTICIPLES. Tr'jGufjitv-o(. to lie down. Plural. (r3-f. c$ov. (ToS-oi/. taSov. o/uSrov. fa^f. Future 1. Singular. Present. TO fji&ov. Aorist 2. vro SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. KH(TO. Plural. i-fjLrjv. Aorist 1. Singular. (73-6. INFINITIVE MOOD. INFINITIVE.i&a. Kcladov. ov tfitv-og. KtivSua OPTATIVE MOOD.

83 .ETYMOLOGY.

Aorist Singular. .84 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. 2. Att. Deponent Verb is that which under a Middle or Passive form has an Active or Middle meaning. TritydaSu INFINITIVE. 2. Dual Plur. 'IGTOV "KJTOV Plural. ?. (7. -. Ind. Singular. VTO IMPERATIVE MOOD. Aorist 2. PARTICIPLE. Aorist ic:ilv-Q. ydtya&a) ?/^6i. Dual. Inf. ACTIVE VOICE. PARTICIPLE. Dual. (jdrjv TO n&ov. ydctv Att. Present. 49. (pdcr-o.!. c$ov. Plural. INDICATIVE MOOD. I know. ?/. p&a. PASSIVE VOICE. ^d-fjirji'y (TO. &d)v 3". 3"w 2. 'iarov \G^V 'ivrt 'ia ifffu 'ivrcov -o^- ('ors 'LG eidtvai Part.. INDICATIVE. eidw Opt. S'o)^. Perfect Trkfyarai IMPERATIVE. olSa oiaSa tidys tidtirjQ ia$ri oZ^f (^) ( *' ti\h Subj. Aorist Singular. Dual. Imp. S'uxrav INFINITIVE. cv Ol^a. v-oc. iow^ -tia Sing. ! e ^' etde'irjv eiddrj. ^y yvavj ydeirov !- y&ftnjv ijdeiaav (or ydeire (or ^ort) DEPONENT VERBS. etc. A Imperfect.3-f. cv MIDDLE VOICE. Pliirr. ydtiQ (jfaur&a.

ETYMOLOGY. Imper. Aor. in. They ajjityl. 1 P. sir/3 over.from. GUV. 2ia. for the sake of modifying or their meaning. am. and : sometimes to other Adverbs. 1 wanting -w/itti wanting -at -ctcr3*at -OLfJitVOQ -ofjit M. Optative. Properly speaking. with. | lufiu. ex Trpoe. or e. Prepositions are ositions. through. before. | Subjunctive. air6. to. on. Trapa. I Part. 1 P. avr'i. along. out of. ev. after. . Fut. the Greek language has eighteen Prep51. -OlfJLfJV | Indicative. VTTO. PREPOSITIONS. Trep/. of. Future 3 wanting x&'M wanting wanting -erjv -J]TL -lie wanting ADVERBS. /if-a. or. Adverbs are words joined to Verbs. Present Imperfect Perfect Pluperfect Future M. words 'used to express the relations between Nouns and other words which precede them. down. are : around. i/TTtp. 85 SYNOPSIS OF THE DEPONENT VERB ) I receive.. instead Kara. towards. around. under. upon. as. Trpo. 50. Adjectives.

vpun. is put in the same case . PAET III. The soul is immortal. 'S. TIV is i/w^) is the Subject and aQavaros ka- the Predicate. and denoting the same thing. In this Sentence.80 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. (ptXcvofog modifies the meaning of Sw.?. 52. and is therefore put by Apposition in the same case. or some word or words representing a Noun in the Nominative Case. Sentences are either Simple or Compound. Sentence contains a Subject and a Predicate. 53. as. The relations of the words in a Sentence to each other are regulated by the following Rules. A Noun modifying Socrates the Philosopher. SYNTAX. Every The Subject is that of which something is affirmed. or a Verb in con- nection with other words which are dependent upon it.wKpdrrjQ o ^i\o'(7o0oc. The Predicate is that which is affirmed of the Subject . it is the modifying Noun denotes a different person put in a different case. A Simple Sentence is one which contains only one Subject and one Predicate. The Subject of a Sentence is always either a Noun in the Nominative Case. denoting the same person. The Predicate is cither a Verb alone. A Compound Sentence is a combination of two 01 more Simple Sentences. 'ASravcLTOQ ianv // ij ^v%ir}. viz. and in which Sentences are combined together. Syntax teaches the way in which words are arranged in Sentences. RULE I. as. . : the meaning of another Noun. Ill When or thing. the example given.

(4) Kf>po Article . KCLE III. (2) Homer When employed to designate a it is others of the same kind.. g. o KvpoCj Cyrus being present. number. es The Article is not used when a substantive expressan idea in general. 54. Adjective Pronouns. 7 In this example. (b) A Collective Noun 6. Participles.RULE II. two or more Nouns. and the Feminine before lac (a) If the Adjective refers to in the plural Neuter. e. A wise man. (3) called the Generic Article. The Relative Pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender. g. and the Article agree with their Nouns in gender. e.. In later Greek it generally corresponds to the English definite " the" and is used either to specify a single object article or a class. it is and in gender prefers the Masnumber. put culine before the Feminine. 55. the divinity. the Relative wi> agrees with its ante- . To my father. (o) (l) The Article Pronoun. Avijp (7o0oc. . Article. . and person the case is determined by the construction of the clause to which it belongs: as. and in occurs only as such. Oeug. number. Adjectives. Eyu> aroXjiioe f'A"? I am timid. or 2o0o '\\ tfjLtij ctvt'ip. //. o Oec'c. "7 O Ot (T-pciTL(u-ai MV iif>x*i The soldiers whom he commanded. TLapwv Trarpi. in the singular TO is originally a commonly has Demonstrative its Adjective in the plural. a The Predicate generally has no tyiveTO [3aai\tvQ particular god. and case as. Cyrus became king of the Per- sians. rwv Tlepcwv. When it is employed single object above called the Individualizing to designate a v/hole class of objects.

57. the First Person being preferred to the Second. (c) The nominative of the neuter plural takes a Verb in the singular number. CIIQ ^Ivv rcuQ vavalv %. / am a teacher. and is understood with the rest. (b) attracted into the Dative by its On the other hand. rvxiiv avrijv xpaOj/ Knowcst thou not the fate which she must meet? KULE 56. IV. as. of the antecedent as. . it. more nominatives singular take the Verb in the plural. orpartiDrai in cedent case is determined by gender. same thiny . which is construed with the Genitive. number. A (e) A dual nominative may take RULE V.c as. Any Verb may have the same 'Eyw cr'/u case after it as before ivhen both words refer to the didd(7Ka\oc. its subject nominative in num. and person. and the Second to the Third. I say. (b) Sometimes a Verb. often the Relative agrees with its antecedent it is then said to be attracted into the case . the antecedent . Collective Noun in the singular may take a Verb (d) in the plural. a Verb in the plural. but its ?lp^e. with two or more nominatives of different numbers and persons. is often attracted into the case of the Relative OVK olaSa fjioipaQ ?. Here UIQ would regularly be is in the Accusative Case as the object of el^E. lie had. With the ships which. ber and person as. agrees with one of them. A Verb Two or agrees with . Eyw (a) Ae'ycu. but antecedent vavv\v. . (a) Very in case also.88 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS.

The temple of the god. 80 SYNTAX OF THE CASES. A Tpificuv \~TTIK~IQ. and is denoting a different person or thing. specifical- 60. Skilled in horsemanship. Each of the states. are followed by a Genitive denoting the whole . Adjectives. VIII. r&v ndpaiciwv. The words thus limited are usually Partitives and words used Partitively. . but ly of God. and Adverbs denoting a part. RULE 59. A Noun limiting the meaning of another Noun. It is the " tem- ple" not of man nor of any other creature. and confines its application to this word. TUV TroXewr. Qzov limits the meaning of rfpevoc. tive . VI. THE GENITIVE. limiting the meaning of an Adjective for the purpose of farther specifying its meaning. (1) has two general significations. viz. Nouns. as. It properly. Noun. 'Efcaor?. and some Numerals. 58. No one of the young men. The Greek Genitive performs some of the functions of the Latin Ablative as well as those of the Latin Genitive. is put in the Genitive as. . In the example given. Superlatives. Comparatives. Adjective Pronouns.. put in the Geni- as. and (2) Separation. wherein it corresponds to the English Possessive Case and Latin Genitive . Interrogatives. To T&ntvoQ TCV Seov. wherein it corresponds to the Latin Ablative. Possession. Ilov y// Where on earth f Oufittg . RULE 01. therefore.SYNTAX.

. XIV. except. IX. Verbs of hearing govern the Accusative of the heard. They shared in the festival. without a conjunction. senses. All Verbs are followed by the Genitive when their action does not refer to the whole object. XII. Adjectives of plenty or want arc followed by the Genitive as. Full of confusion. I understand RULE XIII. but the Genitive of the person or thing the sound. The Comparative Degree. Verbs denoting an operation of the mind are . as. RULE xv. fol- lowed by the Genitive KoMpov as. RULE 64. Hear me. . MfOTt> GopujSov. RULE G3. Verbs signifying to abound and to be dentitnto. GS. Superior to this man. but to a part only . Memx " T nQ *jO/. is X. All Verbs denoting origin or possession are followed by the Genitive as. 66. . tliirg making RULE 65.90 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. to . Verbs signifying an operation of the K\v8i uov. followed by the Genitive as. XI. the dumb man. KpaVrwv TOVTOV. are followed by the Genitive as. ing that of sight. RULE 67. avvin[jn. It belongs to the boy. "E<m rov TraiSbz. RULE 62.

Time when and by pressed the place where are sometimes exthe Genitive as. Ap%tiv rfJQ orpartttC) To rule the army. to preside over. to reign. to survive. 74. Ttjs VVKTOQ v'ifjiovTai. dXAr/X(uv. as. Certain Adverbs denoting time. They separated from each RULE CO. RULE xx. the crime . to begin. fill. aro followed by the Genitive as. They feed at RULE XXI. and to depart from. rule. is used to denote the material of which . are followed by the Genitive . five drachmcc. the Genitive as. XVI. XVII. Trrf'r' in a Sentence. and the punishment. Xa\/coD TTotlorrat. to lead. Verbs of Ruling. is said to and a Participle. I bought XVIII. as. 73. IToi) yTiQ fifii . arc expressed by the Genitive RULE as. Was he not at Arrjos ? night. . and their contraries. place. A Noun as. They are made of brass. 91 to deprive. and quantity. These things were done ivfMX&Ti. are followed by . .SYNTAX. other. The price of a thing. 71. tc separate. and the contrary. Where on earth cm I? RULE XIX. it fo? 'Qvijffaprjv Trivre dpaxfji&v. to surpass. no other word Absolute. . to cease. Koj/fe*f>o when Conon was general. whose case depends upon bo in the Genitive uTfjar^yoii rcc. Oi>x "ApytoQ ?iev . fall Verbs under this rule which signify to RULE 70. The Genitive any thing is made 72.

RULE 76. is It is used to denote the end towards which any thing is tends. tAci. RULE XXVI. command. servo. Touro ov pr]rov tcri JJLOI. Resembling Jvpiter. discharges some of the functions of the Latin Ablative. being thus distinthe case of the Di- guished from the Accusative. To aid the country. Adjectives of likeness and unlikeness. equality. XXII. Verbs signifying to .92 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. IVy vo/zcu. and also to assist. to please. THE DATIVE. TOIQ ry Trdrpa. "\Kt\oQ An. fitness. to trust. RULE XXIV. 78. and Y7rapx w are followed by the Da- f TptiQ ds juot tial SvyarptCj I have three daughters. 75. This is not to le spoken by me. XXIII. Adverbs. and nearness. as. . as. Verbals in roc and rlog are followed by the Dative. are followed by the Dative. or is done as. friendliness. their contraries favor. tive denoting the possessor. which rect Object. or the thing for which any thing done. like the Genitive. 79. The Greek Dative. Dear to his friends. 'Boifitiv HoSreivbc. 'Etp. . 80. obey. RULE 77. It is the case of the Indirect Object. RULE XXV. the thing possessed being the subject of the Verb as. re- . Nouns. and Verbs are followed by the Dative denoting the object or end to or for which a thing is. Adjectives.

w. and bo angry. It designates the person or thing actually reached and affected by the action 85. RULE XXIX. ('0ti t7raraf. The Interjections . as. r//4J?<ray. "Edo&v avnfy It as.<7i. The Direct Object of an Active Verb . Dative . . Impersonal Verbs are followed by the Dative. 84. To fight a battle. > RULE XXX. 83.SYNTAX. RULE XXXII. RULE XXXI. . 82. RULE XXVIII. 'E(3ofj&t)ff lie assisted the Greeks. fw. He struck with his sword. A Noun denoting the is cause. are followed by roi "EXX?. cusative of kindred signification to its own MdxtvOat fJLaxnv. as. and me! oval arc followed by the Dative as. 8 7. is put in tho Accusative Case as. Tbv 'Ax/XXsa They honored Achilles. seemed best to Id in. 81. manner. sist. Tourip T< r< rpoTTtf) fi\$ov. RULE XXVII. this JLuvoia TOVT He did from good will. 93 tlio threaten. ot. They arrived the fifth day. 83. . and in- strument. is of the Verb. Woe is THE ACCUSATIVE. O? juoz. as. An Intransitive Verb may be followed by an Ac. They came in this manner. ]jt the case of the Direct Object. put in the Dative tTTOirjfft.c:?rry I'l^spa. The Dative is sometimes used to denote the place where and the time when any thing occurs as. The Greek Accusative is the English Objective. means. 'AtyiKovro nj 7T.

He strikes me on the back. or extent of space years. or another Accusative may for the purpose of further explaining its meaning as. They differ somewhat from each other called the Synecdochical Accusative. the of a town or other place in which the motion teris minates put in the Accusative *E/3acr 6/. The which sake of specifying or more fully explaining the it follows . RULE XXXVI.He is distressed in hisjinycr. 2<. ri]v Trarplcja. It is of frequent occurrence in the Latin Poets. ' Yfuv ijyfftovcq. To (Tw/^a iikyciQ iiv.94 GllEEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. are put in the Accusative Af/ca trrj as. The same principle sometimes applies to the Genitive and to the Dative. A AlaQtQovai TI dXAgXara'. . I will give you guides. as. 92./3af . or a Dative. take a Genitive.po word QovKvdldrjQ rovvoua. RULE XXXIV. together with the Accusative. RULE XXXIII. . Thou earnest to Thebes. Syrian as to his country. Any Transitive Verb. Tha Particles pa and i\w vi'j are followed by the Accuthee! sative. Thucydides by name. and is there deis This nominated the Greek Accusative as. as. They sleep RULE XXXVII. Nudus membra. Haiei ue TO VOJTOV. . with bare limbs. 89.IIe was large in person. 91. . name After Verbs expressing or implying motion. as. Tbv daKTvXov a\yu. particular part or circumstance referred to after a general affirmation is put in the Accusative for t!u 88. c^wtrw. Ey Poseidon. N/} rev IIo(7ac)w <7. I love RULE XXXV. 90. tc Koi^vrai. Nouns denoting duration of time .

Prepositions in MO.He has spoken worthily of himself RULE XL. When . RULE XXXIX. Conjunctions commonly connect similar Cases. as. I am accused of theft. (Rule XVII.) (b) Verbs of hearing and the like take the Accusative of the thing heard and the Genitive of the person making the sound. They teach their youths probity. 'Av&ff-ri Kcd tlTTcv Moods and 96. (Rule XXII. Tt Troifjvoj avrov. take the Accusative of the Direct with the Dative of the Indirect Object. and some others. AifidffKOVGi TOVQ TTouSaQ <7(n>(f)oo(jvvr]v.SYNTAX. 05 () Verbs of accusing and the like take the Accusative of the person and the Genitive of the crime. and taking away. He accused me of impiety. case as their primitives 'A%io)g as. They sought money from the Thebans. 04. the first of a person and the last of a thing as (illustrating the . conceal. (c) (Rule XL) Verbs of comparing. Some Derivative Adverbs . I promise you ten talents. teach.He rose up and spoke as follows. the Passive Voice takes after as. 'HKOVCTS TOV ayykXov ravra^ lie heard these things from the messenger. 'T7ri(T%vOjUot ffoi dtica TaXavTa. a Verb in the Active Voice is it followed by the latter of two cases. Dative. *E/it dfft(3tiag kypctyaro. last four rules). iavrov t*prjKe. What shall I do to him? RULE XXXVIII. .) (d) Verbs signifying to ask. jMrti the two i:\G7Ti]. clothe. 05. Greek are followed by the Genitive. take away. Qt](3aioug xpriftctTa ?jTrjcrav. take two Accusatives. arc followed by the same . giving. 93. declaring. and Accusative Cases.

(d) Preposition in composition is often followed the same case as when it stands by itself. tllC Dative. tllC Genitive. tv (b) a?. the Genitive and Accusative.90 GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. The Indicative is used to affirm or to deny in both dependent and independent Sentences. I do not say. SYNTAX OF THE VERB. with its Prepositions. ac and avri. TTttpCf. ol Xeyw. Carrying the ships across the Isthmus. towards which an action extends. and GVV EK (e). icara. the Dative and Accusative. The Dative designates a connection of a more exter- The nal character. generally answering the questions where ? when ? RULE (a) XLI. THE INDICATIVE MOOD. we. designates the Object upon which. time. : them. A by 'YTTEptveyKovrtQ rag VCIVQ rbv 'ivS/nov. and cause. Cl/Z^t. E. fJLETU. It is the Mood employed to represent realities or facts. as. viz. : TTEp/. the Accusative. }J. dm. over which. The following Prepositions can have only one : case after them. (fuj'). TT^OC. viz. and Trpo. Genitive. in connection with the Prepositions preceding it. g. cases after The following Prepositions can have two viz. (c) The following Prepositions have all three of the oblique cases after them. &a. as well as the termination of the action itself. designates the source of an action as regards place. . and the Accusative. The Accusative. 7T/. 97. the Genitive. the Dative.yW)I say .. aild V7TO. and {/Tre'p.

or should take place. TOJJTO ykvoir dv. That might (2) In dependent Sentences. E . as. to denote that which may or can take place. TrotrjarjG. T O Tral yivoio 7rarpo father (1) ! evrvxtarepoQ. It is employed (1) : As a challenge in the "lajfjievj first person . THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. the Optative is used to denote that which might. the Optative (without av) is used to express something not as the opinion of the speaker.. Let us go. The Subjunctive Mood expresses a conception of the mind. without the Parti- cle av) is to express a wish that something may take place . the Optative is used to express that which be. You ought not to do this. as. to denote that which may or can take place always referring to the present. 7ro\/ztovc. he on ffrpartiyog &v OVK t7rtdyoi tTTt TOVQ 2 'he Athenians reproached Pericles because. may you be happier than your With cu'. (4) Ayo> 'iv tidy G. In questions implying doubt . The Optative Mood alone employed (i. might occur as. . when the preceding the Verb is in a Past Tense. and is used. therefore. 'Ot 'AQqvalot IIspiKXea iKciiciZov.e. would. It is the Subjunctive of Past Tenses. (3) In indirect discourse. (2) With MJ) TOVTO (3) the negative ^n in prohibitions . 99. as. as. but of another person . as. O boy. eral. could. Ti 0w.SYNTAX. when the preceding Verb is in the Present Tense . 97 98. as. What am I to say ? i In dependent Sentences. I speak in order that you may know it. being a gen- did not lead them out against the enemy. THE OPTATIVE MOOD.

without limitation of person or number. either the Present Imperative or the Aorist Subjunctive may be employed the former to express continued'and general action. Xt yt iv. oft- en^ 'TTTEO^OV lixiv OTTOT tv dffTSt diaroi(3oij ever he staid in town.98 (4) GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. He . nated object. When a prohibition to be expressed in the Second Person. RULE XLIII. forbids steal- ing generally. The Neuter become *Hparo <&tvytiv avToiQ aaQaXtartpov t'<my. steal not. began to say. to give utterance to prj. 100. AH \kytiVj It is necessary that I should speak. either with or without the Article. p/ n-XeVrt. To fly is safer for them. The Optative is used to denote what happened when the time spoken of is past . XLII. as. 101. 103. as. Trparre. ypa^e. may be used as a Verbal Noun. a command it as. like a command in the Decalogue: /JLTJ /cXedo not steal. The Subject of the as. He had an upper chamber when- THE IMPERATIVE MOOD. The Imperative Mood is used or a prohibition is . e/i Infinitive Mood is put in the Accusative. and hence the subject or the object of another Verb . write . The Infinitive is used merely to state the meaning of the Verb. It is regulated by the following Rules. Infinitive. . THE INFINITIVE MOOD. viz. some desig1//77C. do not. : RULE 102. forbids stealing. the latter to express momentary and specific action . specifically. as.

to decline. Two Negatives in Greek generally strengthen the negation. English accent has reference to strength or feebleness / Greek accent. TOVTWV TO \oyiov eidortc. used in when all direct statements. regarding them in oral intercourse. quisition of the same. and in all direct questions the answer expected is yes. pjc)ajuw. accent means emphasis / in the syllable latter. 104. ifiov dfOfjLivov. PARTICIPLES. 107. Greek. The Negative Particles in Greek are ov and /-t^. as. Participles Ot TroXsfjiioL govern the case of their own Verbs . with their various compounds ovre^ ovdeig. p. in ancient inscriptions. Ov is nrfeis. ACCENTS. In English. The enemies knowing the oracle. (2) The purpose of the accents was to fix the pronunciation of the language. and in antique medals. NEGATIVES. It is. A Participle is a part RULE XLIV. in Greek. to the rising or falling of the voice. 106. and to -assist foreigners in the acHence the ancient Greeks. as is shown in the works of Aristotle. In English.SYNTAX. I being in want of these things. though. (1) in English is The word and m accent has very different meanings Greek. of course. Ov is used to deny. not . either long or short. made no use of them in writing. tone. the accented pronounced with more force and stress . ov^apwQ pyre. 105. the sound of the same is uttered in a higher or a lower key. 99 its of the Verb which expresses considered as a quality. the accented syllable is long in .. It differs frohi an meaning Adjective in conveying the additional idea of time. M>) is used when the answer expected is no. In the former..

Noyuoc. i. : a pasture. who ? which ? what ? "Opoe. whey . about two hundred years before Christ.. twisted shows that the syllable thus marked must be pronounced with a tone commencing upon a higher key. prolonged tone. 2kiae. however. but terminating upon a lower. 'Opoe. ten Greek. g. (5) The Circumflex Accent made up by a combination of the other two. alluding to its form. * from Trepi-crTrwpevog. viz. as. It. and Tig. This around. The Acute Accent (') shows that the syllable thus marked must be pronounced with a sharp or raised tone. as. as. thus and denotes a winding ana. four hundred might be named e. which ocnot immediately followed by a (~). Of these. : The Circumflex (Trepto-TrwyueV?? 7rpo<Twc)/a) =:("). a knowledge of the accents is practically useful in enabling us to distinguish between words which are spelled alike. Every Greek word must have one. and is not written at all unless it curs in every pause. but have different significations. accent (6o)r=w. of the known when they were first employed in writSome authorities attribute the introduction present mode of accentuation to Aristophanes of Byzantium. a boundary\ (4) The Accents are threes in number. T/e. and can n ever is . any one. a mountain. e. Tu/ee. a law. simply denotes a negation of accent. (3) Besides their importance in aiding us to pronounce Greek with euphony and rhythmical propriety. . Tie. Oxy tone stands in place of an acute. The Grave (/3ape7a Trpoo-wS/a) Q. one slightly elevated above that used upon the other syllables. and No/ioc. and"Opoc. The Acute (de7a 7rpoe<k'a):=(').100 precisely GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. The Grave Accent Q shows that the syllable thus marked must be pronounced with a low tone.

this . is aye. eiirere. as. GENERAL RULES FOR WRITING THE ACCENTS. j3fjre . as. (2) If the last syllable is long by nature. Xe'yw. (6) A word having the Acute Accent upon is the last sylis lable A word called Oxytone . A word having the Acute Accent upon the Antepeis nult (7) A word having the is called Proparoxytone . the Circumflex only on such syllables as are long by nature . is placed over the last vowel. Itfdne but one of the last three syllables admit any accent at all. the term to all words which have no accent on the final applied syllable. dni. When the Circumflex and the Breathing meet upon the same word. like the Breathing. upon such syllables as have either a long vowel. a-yaSov^ <r/aae. the Circumflex is written over the Breathing. the three. (8) A word which has the Circumflex Accent upon the last syllable is called is Perispomenon / as. \eyerat. the Acute Accent can not stand on the Antepenult nor the Circumfh x on the Penult. Grave Accent over the last syl- lable is called Barytone. or a Diphthong. Of these the Acute may stand oh any one of the three. &. Trapd. the Acute Breathing . as. A word having the Circumflex Accent upon the Penult called Proper ispomenon . ovroc. (1) The Acute stands on long and short syllables alike. a. v. Circumflex only. 0eye.SYNTAX. i. . as. as. placed to the right of the come. the Accent. the Grave on the last only. fiafftXevs. This being unwritten. having the Acute Accent upon the Penult called Paroxytone . ' . 108.on one of the last two. Qaivw. I. ?/. w. 101 have more than one principal accent. In the Diphthongs. When the Acute and the (9) Breathing meet.

take^the Circumflex.. as far as is consistent with preceding rules. all other kinds of words throw it upon the previous otherwise . XeXvKorwr. as well as by its connection with the other words in the sentence e. A word ending with a long syllable has (4) (a) The Acute on the Penult as. \e\vKv~tav. g. (b) The Acute on a short Penult as. .102 (3) GREEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. every Oxytone becomes Barytone when followed by another word. (6) Compound words have the Accent on the Penult. . \e\vKujg . so that the Grave . (8) In Contracted words : (a) if the contraction occurs middle of the word. (c) The Acute on the last syllable a^. takes the place of the Acute. generally accented with the Acute. : . except (a) Contracted syllables . in the accent. (e) and many naturally long monosyllables all of which take the Circumflex Accent upon the ticle. (d) The Circumflex on a long Penult as. \e\vKviwv. Xvwpeda. \E\VKOTOQ. The contract ultima takes the Acute it if the ultima had it before contraction . \e\vKog. : The Acute on the Antepenult as. the syllable formed by contraction takes no accent if none of the contracting syllaIf either of the syllables contracted had an bles had it. OxPrepositions and Conjunctions entirely lose the acytone cent. syllable (5) . . A word ending with a short syllable has . last syllable. (c) the Genitive and Dative of the Ar- The last syllable : and of all Nouns of the First and Second Declensions which are Oxytone in the Nominative (d) the Vocative of Nouns in cue. as. the contracted syllable in the Penult and Antepenult is accented by (3) and (4). (b) the Genitive Plural of the First Declension . is. (b) With Elision. (7) The Accent is variously modified by changes in the word itself. (b) Either the Acute or the Circumflex upon the last (a) . if accented at all.

O. syllable as Acutes. as. excepting after the Noun or Verb to their accent on to the first syl- two . . ra ayaQa=TayaQa but when Parox- ytones change the first syllable by Crasis into one long by nature. (9) Prepositions consisting of &<*. I see some. word is lost . Acute. ayafloV n. 7TWQ. . ap^i. I am. and 7TOJ. KE or KEV. meaning is : towards). throw lable as. viz. (10) Enclitics are words of one or of two syllables which are so closely connected with the preceding word that they throw their accent on to it. ava.Q. lie himself says. The Particles ye. fJLOV pol (TGI fJLE (70V ff OV O ffwiv (c) and The Indicative Present of e/p. (d) The Indefinite Adverbs TTOV or iroQi. as. 6pti TWO. this takes the Circumflex.SYNTAX. TH/. Enclitic. . Trepi TovTwv becomes by Anastrophe TOUTUV irept. something. vv or vvv. A preceding (b) If the last syllable has the Circumflex. If the Acute accent upon the Penult. (e) Qi]v. $1 (as re. <W/. (a) Oxytone before an Enclitic retains the which serves also for the Enclitic as. the accent of the . through all of its cases (b) the Personal Pronouns in the forms. the accent is of the Enclitic (c) entirely lost is . KEp and a demonstrative appendage. the . as.VTOQ $K\<JIV. there were seven. and of say. when placed which they belong. kirra ^aavtitT flaw.^CL or apa. trot TTOTt. (11) In these words the accent thrown back accord- ing to the following principles. : syllables. The following words are Enclitics (a) the Indefinite Pronoun TLQ some one. excepting Second Person Singular el and y^g. first (c) 103 With Crasis. something good . rot.

cu. their own having combined with the following word. retains that upon the last. Negative ov or when ending Enclitic. Elision. (d) Proparoxytones and Paroxytones retain their ac- cent. FINIS. throws accent back upon the preceding Ei rig fioi <j>rjoi as. viz. (14) Atonies. (15) Atonies are accented: (a) Conjunctions. if of one syllable. If any one ever says to me.104 GEEEK GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS. iron. cases of the Article. with exception of dpi and ^pi is hence termed recessive. sometimes called Prolitics. each . (b) when followed by an which throws back its accent. we. and Adjectives can only be ascertained from practice and use of the Grammar and Lexicon. </\o /zov. t. Pronouns. are words without accent. eg (c) co. ^f. Prepositions. : (a) 6. if of two syllables. loses its accent . (b) (a) when standing when made emphatic (c) after . Xoyot nvig. or etc. as. the sen- tence . The following are Atonies. may be deter- mined by the preceding Verbs throw back their ac(1 7) As a general principle. 01. . w. The accent as varied in the Oblique Cases rules. Acute accent on the (12) When its several Enclitics follow one another. (d) The GI/X. K or (b) eV. It cent as far as possible. but receive also from the following Enclitic another last syllable. (1 6) The place of the Accent in the Nominative Case of Nouns. (13) Enclitics retain their accent: first in the sentence . because it is placed as far from the ultimate syllable as the quantity of that syllable will allow.

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