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Great Depression

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Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children, age 32, in Nipomo, California, March 1936. The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn starting in most places in 1929 and ending at different times in the 1930s or early 1940s for different countries. It was the largest and most important economic depression in modern history, and is used in the 21st century as a benchmark in how far the world's economy can fall. The Great Depression originated in the United States; historians most often use as a starting date the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. The end of the depression in the U.S. is associated with the onset of the war economy of World War II, beginning around 1939.[1] The depression had devastating effects in the developed and developing worlds. International trade was deeply affected, as were personal incomes, tax revenues, prices, and profits. Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries. Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by 40 to 60 percent.[2][3] Facing plummeting demand with few alternate sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as farming, mining and logging suffered the most.[4] However, even shortly after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, optimism persisted; John D. Rockefeller said that "These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come and gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again."[5]

The Great Depression ended at different times in different countries; for subsequent history see Home front during World War II. The majority of countries set up relief programs, and most underwent some sort of political upheaval, pushing them to the left or right. In some states, the desperate citizens turned toward nationalist demagogues - the most infamous being Adolf Hitler - setting the stage for World War II in 1939.

Contents
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1 The snowball spiral 2 Causes 3 Literature 4 Effects 5 Keynesian models 6 Neoclassical approach 7 Gold standard 8 Rearmament and recovery 9 Political consequences 10 Facts and figures 11 Other Great Depressions 12 See also 13 Notes 14 Further reading 15 External links

The snowball spiral
The Great Depression was not a sudden total collapse. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April, though still almost 30 percent below the peak of September 1929.[6] Together, government and business actually spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. But consumers, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by ten percent, and a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the USA beginning in the northern summer of 1930. In early 1930, credit was ample and available at low rates, but people were reluctant to add new debt by borrowing. By May 1930, auto sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, but wages held steady in 1930, then began to drop in 1931. Conditions were worst in farming areas, where commodity prices plunged, and in mining and logging areas, where unemployment was high and there were few other jobs. The decline in the American economy was the factor that pulled down most other countries at first, then internal weaknesses or strengths in each country made conditions worse or better. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual

Current theories may be broadly classified into three main points of view. The search for causes is closely connected to the question of how to avoid a future depression. Recession cycles are thought to be a normal part of living in a world of inexact balances between supply and demand. Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries. such as the 1930 U. exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By late in 1930. the resulting panics. including the structural weaknesses and specific events that turned it into a major depression and the way in which the downturn spread from country to country. Causes Main article: Causes of the Great Depression US industrial production (1928-39) There were multiple causes for the first downturn in 1929.nations through protectionist policies. while economists (such as Peter Temin and Barry Eichengreen) point to Britain's decision to return to the Gold Standard at pre-World War I parities (US$4. In relation to the 1929 downturn.86:£1). including production and consumption. and so the political and policy viewpoints of scholars are mixed into the analysis of historic events eight decades ago. Scholars have not agreed on the exact causes and their relative importance.S. Austrian Economics and neoclassical economic theory. Those who believe in a large role for the state in the economy believe it was mostly a failure of the free markets and those who believe in free markets believe it was mostly a failure of government that compounded the problem. First. and reduction in the money supply. historians emphasize structural factors like massive bank failures and the stock market crash. . What turns a usually mild and short recession or "ordinary" business cycle into a great depression is a subject of debate and concern. The even larger question is whether it was largely a failure on the part of free markets or largely a failure on the part of governments to curtail widespread bank failures. there is orthodox classical economics: monetarist. all of which focus on the macroeconomic effects of money supply and the supply of gold which backed many currencies before the Great Depression. a steady decline set in which reached bottom by March 1933.

that point to underconsumption and overinvestment (economic bubble). there are structural theories. in billions of dollars at constant prices[7]. most importantly Keynesian. there is the Marxist critique of political economy. Debt deflation . culminating in periodic crises of devaluation of capital. but also including those of institutional economics. The origin of crisis is thus located firmly in the sphere of production. Second. once panic and deflation set in. malfeasance by bankers and industrialists.USA GDP annual pattern and long-term trend. Third. many people believed they could make more money by keeping clear of the markets as prices got lower and lower and a given amount of money bought ever more goods. Unfortunately. 1920-40. or incompetence by government officials. This emphasizes contradictions within capital itself (which is viewed as a social relation involving the appropriation of surplus value) as giving rise to an inherently unbalanced dynamic of accumulation resulting in an overaccumulation of capital. though economic crisis can be aggravated by problems of disproportionality of over-production in the manufacturing and related production sectors and the underconsumption of the masses. The only consensus viewpoint is that there was a large-scale lack of confidence.

and during the first 10 months of 1930. in other words. the more they owed. Banks began to fail as debtors defaulted on debt and depositors attempted to withdraw their deposits en masse. The liquidation of debt could not keep up with the fall of prices which it caused. because prices and incomes fell by 20–50% but the debts remained at the same dollar amount.[9] Banks built up their capital reserves and made fewer loans. 9. brokers called in these loans. Bank failures led to the loss of billions of dollars in assets. precipitating bankruptcies (5) A fall in profits (6) A reduction in output. which intensified deflationary pressures. depositors had lost $140 billion in deposits. the more the debtors paid. Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act . Brokerage firms. triggering multiple bank runs. The very effort of individuals to lessen their burden of debt effectively increased it.S. A vicious cycle developed and the downward spiral accelerated.000 banks failed during the 1930s). Irving Fisher argued that the predominant factor leading to the Great Depression was overindebtedness and deflation.[8] During the Crash of 1929 proceeding the Great Depression. Fisher tied loose credit to over-indebtedness.S. By 1933. With future profits looking poor. have revived the debt-deflation view of the Great Depression originated by Fisher.[8] Macroeconomists including Ben Bernanke. capital investment and construction slowed or completely ceased. the surviving banks became even more conservative in their lending. [8] He then outlined 9 factors interacting with one another under conditions of debt and deflation to create the mechanics of boom to bust.[9] Bank failures snowballed as desperate bankers called in loans which the borrowers did not have time or money to repay. margin requirements were only 10%.[10][11] Trade decline and the U. Federal Reserve Bank.Crowd at New York's American Union Bank during a bank run early in the Great Depression. would loan $9 for every $1 an investor had deposited. the current chairman of the U. in trade and in employment. After the panic of 1929. When the market fell. (In all. which could not be paid back.[9] Outstanding debts became heavier. The chain of events proceeded as follows (1) Debt liquidation and distress selling (2) Contraction of the money supply as bank loans are paid off (3) A fall in the level of asset prices (4) A still greater fall in the net worths of business. 744 US banks failed. In the face of bad loans and worsening future prospects. The mass effect of their stampede to liquidate increased the value of each dollar they owed. This kind of self-aggravating process turned a 1930 recession into a 1933 great depression. (7) Pessimism and loss of confidence (8) Hoarding of money (9) A fall in nominal interest rates and a rise in deflation adjusted interest rates. Government guarantees and Federal Reserve banking regulations to prevent such panics were ineffective or not used. which fueled speculation and asset bubbles. Paradoxically. relative to the value of their declining asset holdings.

The problem was that some large. all the rest of the banks would not have fallen after the large ones did. especially for countries significantly dependent on foreign trade. allowed the money supply as measured by the M2 to shrink by one-third from 1929 to 1933.[13][14] In this view. starting with the stock market crash.2 billion in 1929 to $1. and lumber. including Milton Friedman and current Federal Reserve System chairman Ben Bernanke. Most historians and economists partly blame the American Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act (enacted June 17. This interpretation blames the Federal Reserve for inaction. and the money supply would not have fallen as far and as fast as it did. argue that the Great Depression was caused by monetary contraction. would have been just another recession.Main article: Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act Many economists have argued that the sharp decline in international trade after 1930 helped to worsen the depression.7 billion in 1933. the Federal Reserve. Since a "promise of gold" is not as good as "gold in the hand". By the late 1920s the Federal Reserve had almost hit the limit of allowable credit that could be backed by the gold in its possession. Federal Reserve and money supply Monetarists. produced panic and widespread runs on local banks. 1930) for worsening the depression by seriously reducing international trade and causing retaliatory tariffs in other countries. At that time the amount of credit the Federal Reserve could issue was limited by laws which required partial gold backing of that credit. In dollar terms. or simply bought government bonds on the open market to provide liquidity and increase the quantity of money after the key banks fell. According to this theory. leading to the bank runs on small rural banks that characterized the early years of the Great Depression. especially the New York branch. and that the Federal Reserve sat idly by while banks fell. forcing many to stop investing. it was a much larger factor in many other countries. American exports declined from about $5. Hardest hit were farm commodities such as wheat. but prices also fell. Friedman argued[15] that the downward turn in the economy. Foreign trade was a small part of overall economic activity in the United States and was concentrated in a few businesses like farming. particularly that of the New York Bank of the United States. businessmen could not get new loans and could not even get their old loans renewed. Since the . by not acting. public bank failures. the collapse of farm exports caused many American farmers to default on their loans. tobacco.[17] One reason why the Federal Reserve did not act to limit the decline of the money supply was regulation.S. the consequence of poor policymaking by the American Federal Reserve System and continuous crisis in the banking system.[16] With significantly less money to go around. U.[12] The average ad valorem rate of duties on dutiable imports for 1921–1925 was 25. so the physical volume of exports only fell by half. if the Fed had provided emergency lending to these key banks.9% but under the new tariff it jumped to 50% in 1931–1935. cotton. This credit was in the form of Federal Reserve demand notes. He claimed that. during the bank panics a portion of those demand notes were redeemed for Federal Reserve gold.

was struggling with its plans to return to the gold standard at pre-war (World War I) parity. writing for the Austrian Institute of Economic Research Report in February 1929[18] predicted the economic downturn. which was created in 1913. they refused. the Federal Reserve. In the Austrian view it was this inflation of the money supply that led to an unsustainable boom in both asset prices (stocks and bonds) and capital goods. In opinion.[20] According to Rothbard. Norman pressured the heads of the central banks of France and Germany to inflate as well. Returning to the gold standard at this rate meant that the British economy was facing deflationary pressure. in the Austrian view. reducing the pressure on Federal Reserve gold. head of the Bank of England. Theorists of the "Austrian School" who wrote about the Depression include Austrian economist Friedrich Hayek and American economist Murray Rothbard. In their view. government intervention delayed the market's adjustment and made the road to complete recovery more difficult. According to Rothbard. Austrian School explanations Another explanation comes from the Austrian School of economics.Federal Reserve had hit its limit on allowable credit.[21] . the lack of price flexibility in Britain meant that unemployment shot up. In their view. Several years into the Great Depression. it was far too late and. and the American government was asked to help. which."[19] when he turned down an important job at the Kreditanstalt Bank in early 1929. The artificial interference in the economy was a disaster prior to the Depression. By the time the Fed belatedly tightened in 1928. and inflated further in order to help Britain return to the gold standard. had an especially good relationship with Benjamin Strong. The United States was receiving a net inflow of gold. stating that "the boom will collapse within the next few months. Hayek. who wrote America's Great Depression (1963). the private ownership of gold was declared illegal. shoulders much of the blame. the de facto head of the Federal Reserve." Ludwig von Mises also expected this financial catastrophe. and government efforts to prop up the economy after the crash of 1929 only made things worse. Montagu Norman. Britain could not inflate on its own. in the 1920s. but unlike Strong. and is quoted as stating "A great crash is coming. because under the gold standard. One reason for the monetary inflation was to help Great Britain. and I don't want my name in any way connected with it. a depression was inevitable. the key cause of the Depression was the expansion of the money supply in the 1920s that led to an unsustainable credit-driven boom.[20] Rothbard says American inflation was meant to allow Britain to inflate as well. any reduction in gold in its vaults had to be accompanied by a greater reduction in credit.

Beckoning Frontiers (New York. Supreme Court. 1938.S. a factor quite beyond the control of the Central Bank. Eccles.8 billion. and the New Deal was intended as a remedy. Rothbard criticizes Milton Friedman's assertion that the central bank failed to inflate the supply of money. economy around in 1933. 1951)[24]: . Lack of government deficit spending British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in General Theory of Employment Interest and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment that was well below the average. Roosevelt.[23] However the Securities and Exchange Commission. raising its total holding to $1. Federal Reserve. Massive increases in deficit spending. Rothbard asserts that the Federal Reserve bought $1. but Rothbard argues that this was because the American populace lost faith in the banking system and began hoarding more cash.S. and Social Security won widespread support. Democrats believed the problem was that business had too much money.Furthermore. primarily blamed the excesses of big business for causing an unstable bubble-like economy. the economy might have reached a perfect balance. detailed what he believed caused the Depression in his memoirs. Texas.[citation needed] but it was a slow and painful process. elected in 1932. new banking regulation.[22] Power farming displaces tenants from the land in the western dry cotton area. The U. In this situation. by empowering labor unions and farmers and by raising taxes on corporate profits.S. Alfred A. The potential for a run on the banks caused local bankers to be more conservative in lending out their reserves. and boosting farm prices did start turning the U. Inequality of wealth and income Marriner S. at a cost of high unemployment. was the cause of the Federal Reserve's inability to inflate. had not returned to 1929's GNP for over a decade and still had an unemployment rate of about 15% in 1940 — down from 25% in 1933. who served as Franklin D. and this.1 billion of government securities from February to July 1932. Some New Deal regulation (the NRA and AAA) was declared unconstitutional by the U. Business Franklin D. Roosevelt's Chairman of the Federal Reserve from November 1934 to February 1948. Most New Deal regulations were abolished or scaled back in the 1970s and 1980s in a bipartisan wave of deregulation. Keynesian economists called on governments during times of economic crisis to pick up the slack by increasing government spending and/or cutting taxes. Regulation of the economy was a favorite remedy. Knopf. Childress County. Rothbard argues. Total bank reserves rose by only $212 million.

but measured by current values and income that represented the ability to pay. office. which was at high interest rates. brought about a fall in prices and employment. The time came when there were no more poker chips to be loaned on credit. . but of wealth as it is currently produced -. This. implies a distribution of wealth -. Earnings began to disappear. railroad and other utility rates. Private debt outside of the banking system increased about fifty per cent.As mass production has to be accompanied by mass consumption. Unemployment further decreased the consumption of goods. That is what happened to us in the twenties. but was in reality underconsumption when judged in terms of the real world instead of the money world. consumer installment debt. and time of those employed. This debt. the game stopped. particularly in the upper-income groups where taxes were relatively low. with our national income reduced by fifty per cent. as in a poker game where the chips were concentrated in fewer and fewer hands. insurance and interest charges. was my reading of what brought on the depression. When their credit ran out. The stimulation to spend by debt-creation of this sort was short-lived and could not be counted on to sustain high levels of employment for long periods of time. such as taxes.to provide men with buying power equal to the amount of goods and services offered by the nation's economic machinery. the other fellows could stay in the game only by borrowing.in other words. in turn. This then. mass consumption. that were loaned by corporations and wealthy individuals for stock-market speculation been distributed to the public as lower prices or higher wages and with less profits to the corporations and the well-to-do. And thus again the vicious circle of deflation was closed until one third of the entire working population was unemployed. the savers denied to themselves the kind of effective demand for their products that would justify a reinvestment of their capital accumulations in new plants. largely took the form of mortgage debt on housing. it would have prevented or greatly moderated the economic collapse that began at the end of 1929. This debt was provided by the large growth of business savings as well as savings by individuals. We sustained high levels of employment in that period with the aid of an exceptional expansion of debt outside of the banking system. for instance. This naturally reduced the demand for goods of all kinds and brought on what seemed to be overproduction.not of existing wealth.we should have had far greater stability in our economy. a giant suction pump had by 1929-30 drawn into a few hands an increasing portion of currently produced wealth. brokers' loans. [Emphasis in original. salaries. clung close to the 1929 level and required such a portion of the national income to meet them that the amount left for consumption of goods was not sufficient to support the population. and hotel structures. This served them as capital accumulations. requiring economies of all kinds in the wages. Had there been a better distribution of the current income from the national product -. had there been less savings by business and the higher-income groups and more income in the lower groups -. In consequence. and with the aggregate debt burden greater than ever before. Debtors thereupon were forced to curtail their consumption in an effort to create a margin that could be applied to the reduction of outstanding debts. Fixed charges. But by taking purchasing power out of the hands of mass consumers. in turn. not in dollars.] Instead of achieving that kind of distribution. which further increased unemployment. Had the six billion dollars. and foreign debt. thus closing the circle in a continuing decline of prices.

centering on a privileged socialite's love affair with a Marxist revolutionary. Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird is set during the Great Depression. Margaret Atwood's Booker prize-winning The Blind Assassin is likewise set in the Great Depression. Further. who was awarded both the Nobel Prize for literature and the Pulitzer Prize for the work. disgruntled temporary worker. Perhaps the most noteworthy and famous novel written on the subject is The Grapes of Wrath. Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men is another important novel about a journey during the Great Depression. The Great Depression is a novella written by Alon Bersharder about a sad. The novel focuses on a poor family of sharecroppers who are forced from their home as drought. Falling export demand and commodity prices placed massive downward pressures on wages. Additionally. and changes in the agricultural industry occur during the Great Depression. with incidents of civil unrest becoming common. Effects Australia Main article: Great Depression in Australia Australia's extreme dependence on agricultural and industrial exports meant it was one of the hardest-hit countries in the Western world.Literature The U. Canada . unemployment reached a record high of almost 32% in 1932. an increase in wool and meat prices led to a gradual recovery. economic hardship.S. Depression has been the subject of much writing. After 1932. making the title both a homage to the historical event and a pun. published in 1939 and written by John Steinbeck. amongst the likes of Canada and Germany. as the country has sought to re-evaluate an era that caused emotional as well as financial trauma to its people.

hardship and unemployment were high enough to lead to rioting and the rise of the socialist Popular Front. The devaluation of the currency had an immediate effect. Main article: Great Depression in Canada Harshly impacted by both the global economic downturn and the Dust Bowl. Canadian industrial production had fallen to only 58% of the 1929 level by 1932. Japan was already out of the depression. and the political system veered toward extremism. by devaluing the currency. especially those in the Army. Germany Main article: Great Depression in Central Europe Germany's Weimar Republic was hit hard by the depression. which saw it fall only to 83% of the 1929 level. Japan's Minister of Finance (MoF) Osachi Hamaguchi implemented the first version of Keynesian economic policies: first. and to avoid inflation. culminating in an assassination attempt on the MoF. however proved to be most profound. by increasing deficit spending. By 1933. By that time Germany had repaid 1/8th of the reparations. as American loans to help rebuild the German economy now stopped. again worse than any nation apart from the United States. Unemployment soared. France Main article: Great Depression in France The Depression began to affect France from about 1931. However. Total national income fell to 55% of the 1929 level. and second. the second lowest level in the world after the United States. Japan The Great Depression did not strongly affect Japan. The deficit spending went into the purchase of munitions for the armed forces. This resulted in a strong and swift negative reaction from nationalists. This had a chilling effect on all civilian bureaucrats in the Japanese . Ontario. Repayment of the war reparations due by Germany were suspended in 1932 following the Lausanne Conference of 1932.Unemployed men march in Toronto. France's relatively high degree of self-sufficiency meant the damage was considerably less than in nations like Germany. Canada. The MoF believed that the deficit spending could easily be paid for when productivity improved. and well behind nations such as Britain. leading to his eventual demise from poor health some months later. The Japanese economy shrank by 8% during 1929–31. However. Hitler's Nazi Party came to power in January 1933. moved to reduce the deficit spending that went towards armaments and munitions. especially in larger cities. The deficit spending. By 1934 the MoF realized that the economy was in danger of overheating. Japanese textiles began to displace British textiles in export markets.

Japan's GNP was nearly half that of the United States. Further. the Netherlands suffered a deep and exceptionally long depression. Government policy.S. played a role in prolonging the depression. Instead of reducing deficit spending. . The Great Depression in the Netherlands led to some political instability and riots. From 1934. This depression was partly caused by the after-effects of the Stock Market Crash of 1929 in the United States. it was easy to see how some Japanese planners felt that they had an even chance against the U. and its per capita GNP was about a third. had yet to truly kick in deficit financing for munitions until after 1940 . These events obviously set the stage for World War II. especially textile companies (many of Japan's automakers. and partly by internal factors in the Netherlands. and its per capita GNP was nearly equal to the United States. which would remain a problem until the end of World War II. Chile. In 1929. By 1940 light industry had been displaced by heavy industry as the largest firms inside the Japanese economy.government. By 1939. Japan's GNP was about a sixth of the U. economy contracted by a third. What they may not have considered is that the U. Within the region. but did not eliminate inflation. The deficit spending had a transformative effect on Japan. Faced with having to face two Oceans. in 1929 the list of the largest firms in Japan was dominated by light industries.S. However. during the 1930s. The depression in the Netherlands eased off somewhat at the end of 1936. the U. Bolivia and Peru were particularly badly affected. Japan's industrial production doubled during the 1930s. and can be linked to the rise of the Dutch national-socialist party NSB.S. One result of the Depression in this area was the rise of fascist movements. like Toyota. the government introduced price controls and rationing schemes that reduced.[citation needed] Netherlands Main article: Great Depression in the Netherlands From roughly 1931 until 1937. especially the very late dropping of the Gold Standard. but real economic stability did not return until after World War II. when the government finally dropped the Gold Standard. (For more on the Japanese economy in the 1930s see "MITI and the Japanese Miracle" by Chalmers Johnson).S. they were severely damaged by the Depression. Latin America Main article: Great Depression in Latin America Because of high levels of United States investment in Latin American economies. have their roots in the textile industry).where upon the United States would experience its own doubling of industrial production in four short years. the military's dominance of the government continued to grow.

Soviet Union Main article: Economy of the Soviet Union#Economic development Having removed itself from the capitalist world system both by choice and as a result of efforts of the capitalist powers to isolate it.. United Kingdom Main article: Great Depression in the United Kingdom United States Main article: Great Depression in the United States Early response Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon advised President Hoover that shock treatment would be the best response: "Liquidate labor. all of which failed to reverse the downturn. and started numerous programs. and enterprising people will pick up the wrecks from less competent people..[26] Hoover launched a series of programs to increase farm prices. liquidate the farmers. It is believed that the social discomfort caused by the depression was a contributing factor in the 1933 split between the "gesuiwerde" (purified) and "smelter" (fusionist) factions within the National Party and the National Party's subsequent fusion with the South African Party. This was a period of industrial expansion for the USSR as it recovered from revolution and civil war. and launched the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) which aided cities. People will work harder.. This in turn increased fears of Communist revolution in the West. and its apparent immunity to the Great Depression seemed to validate the theory of Marxism and contributed to Socialist and Communist agitation in affected nations. and continued as a major agency under the New Deal. liquidate stocks. live a more moral life. strengthening support for anti-Communists.South Africa Main article: Great Depression in South Africa As world trade slumped. Values will be adjusted. High costs of living and high living will come down. both moderate and extreme. That will purge the rottenness out of the system. ."[25] Hoover rejected this advice. To provide unemployment relief he set up the Emergency Relief Agency (ERA) that operated until 1935 as the Federal Emergency Relief Agency. which failed. banks and railroads. demand for South African agricultural and mineral exports fell drastically. expanded federal spending in public works such as dams. the Great Depression had little effect on the Soviet Union. liquidate real estate.

a strong stimulus to the growth of labor unions. labor standards. Though amended. WPA) and. accompanied by sizable deficits. the "Second New Deal" added Social Security. The institution of the National Recovery Administration (NRA) remains a controversial act to this day. shifting hundreds of thousands of displaced persons off their farms in the midwest. leading to the political realignment in 1932 that brought to power the New Deal. Encouraging unions that would raise wages. The NRA made a number of sweeping changes to the American economy until it was deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1935. Federal insurance of bank deposits was provided by the FDIC. then declined somewhat until the draft to fight World War II lowered it more. Roosevelt argued that restructuring of the economy would be needed to prevent another depression or avoid prolonging the current one. By 1935. federal expenditures constituted only 3% of the GDP. drought and erosion combined to cause the Dust Bowl. through the National Labor Relations Board. a national relief agency (the Works Progress Administration.Quarter by quarter the economy went downhill. together with several other relief and recovery measures are called the First New Deal. New Deal programs sought to stimulate demand and provide work and relief for the impoverished through increased government spending and institute financial reforms. as prices. Setting minimum prices and wages. From his inauguration onward. Expenditures as a proportion of GDP tripled[citation needed] between 1933 and 1939. but faster than the economic upturn came 1938's "recession within a depression" and unemployment zoomed to 19%. to increase the purchasing power of the working class. and competitive conditions in all industries through the NRA. and the GlassSteagall Act. profits and employment fell.[citation .3%. The New Deal Main article: New Deal Shortly after President Roosevelt was inaugurated in 1933. These reforms. Unemployment declined by over one-third in Roosevelt's first term (from 25% to 14. The Securities Act of 1933 comprehensively regulated the securities industry. Cutting farm production to raise prices through the Agricultural Adjustment Act and its successors. 1933 to 1937). This was followed by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 which created the Securities and Exchange Commission. In 1929. New regulations and attempts at economic stimulus through a new alphabet soup of agencies set up in 1933 and 1934 and previously extant agencies such as the Reconstruction Finance Corporation did not halt economic stagnation. Forcing businesses to work with government to set price codes through the NRA. Early changes by the Roosevelt administration included: • • • • • Instituting regulations to fight deflationary "cut-throat competition" through the NRA. key provisions of both Acts are still in force.

intangible goods like victory in war). Arnold's effectiveness ended once World War II began and corporate energies had to be directed to winning the war. To Keynesians. which was cast as the cause of the depression. Production declined sharply. large-scale relaxation of government controls[citation needed] over the wartime economy. conservatives were able to form a bipartisan conservative coalition to stop further expansion of the New Deal and. along with the ending of the restrictive wartime regulations in most consumer industries. They argued that the New Deal had been very hostile to business expansion in 1935–37. Unemployment rates also returned to normal levels.0% in 1938. when it soared to 128%. then loosening them) appear to have contributed to the recovery. In 1946. when looking only at the supply of consumer goods. had encouraged massive strikes which had a negative impact on major industries such as automobiles. and the cutting of high tax rates starting in 1946. as did profits and employment. by 1943. and it led. as consumer and producer behavior changed. After the Recession of 1937. including a sharp reduction of taxes. had abolished all of the relief programs. according to this argument. to fears that as soon as America demobilized. The administration's other response to the 1937 deepening of the Great Depression had more tangible results. On the other hand. Business-oriented observers explained the recession and recovery in very different terms from the Keynesians.[citation needed] Recession of 1937 Main article: Recession of 1937 In 1937 the American economy took an unexpected nosedive. That incorrect Keynesian prediction that a new depression would start after the war failed to take into account massive savings and pent-up consumer demand. The Roosevelt administration reacted by launching a rhetorical campaign against monopoly power. the war economy showed just how large the fiscal stimulus required to end the downturn of the Depression was. government spending and changing regulations (first tightening them. All those threats diminished sharply after 1938. allowed for increased innovation in consumer goods and a marked increase in consumer spending. it would return to Depression conditions.3% in 1937 to 19. In any case. Ignoring the pleas of the Treasury Department. The CIO and AFL unions started battling each other more than with the corporations. according to economist Robert Higgs. the antitrust efforts fizzled out without major cases. at the time. reluctantly abandoning his efforts to balance the budget and launching a $5 billion spending program in the spring of 1938. Roosevelt embarked on an antidote to the depression. . and by appointing Thurman Arnold to act. and tax policy became more favorable to long-term growth.needed] The debt as a proportion of GNP rose under Hoover from 20% to 40%. significant GDP growth resumed only in 1946 (Higgs does not estimate the value to consumers of collective. an effort to increase mass purchasing power. and industrial output would fall to pre-war levels. lasting through most of 1938. Unemployment jumped from 14. and had threatened massive antitrust legal attacks on big corporations. Roosevelt kept it at 40% until the war began. For example.

This analysis rejects theories that focus on the role of savings and posit a decline in the capital stock. and increasing individuals' incomes. His basic idea was simple: to keep people fully employed. he needed to spend much more money. As the Depression wore on. As they spent more. government could provide the needed Keynesian spending by decreasing taxes. This work. Although Keynes never mentions fiscal policy in The General Theory. Roosevelt tried public works. he was advocating public works programs and deficits as a way to get the British economy out of the Depression. however. collected by Kehoe and Prescott. remained on the gold standard into 1932 or . increasing government spending. Facing speculative attacks on the pound and depleting gold reserves. most notably in the 1950s by Milton Friedman and Franco Modigliani. grocers and family[citation needed]. before John Maynard Keynes wrote The General Theory. that is. This study suggests that theories of the Great Depression have to explain an initial severe decline but rapid recovery in productivity. With fiscal policy. Gold standard Every major currency left the gold standard during the Great Depression. and the Scandinavian countries left the gold standard in 1931. and the productivity with which these inputs are used. such as Italy and the United States. and a prolonged depression in the labor force. As incomes increased. Keynesian ideas of the consumption function have been challenged. farm subsidies. but never completely gave up trying to balance the budget. According to the Keynesians. they paid back debts owed to landlords. and other devices to restart the economy. The Keynesians did not estimate what the size of the multiplier was. they were unable to say how much more. the multiplier effect would take over and expand the effect on the initial spending. Great Britain. governments have to run deficits when the economy is slowing because the private sector will not invest enough to increase production and reverse the recession. relatively little change in the capital stock. Keynes ushered in more of a theoretical revolution than a policy one. Neoclassical approach Recent work from a neoclassical perspective focuses on the decline in productivity that caused the initial decline in output and a prolonged recovery due to policies that affected the labor market. they would spend more. which might have then spent the money. they saved much of the new money. Other countries. Keynesian economists assumed poor people would spend new incomes. Great Britain was the first to do so. however. and instead advocates the need to socialize investments.[27] decomposes the economic decline into a decline in the labor force. in September 1931 the Bank of England ceased exchanging pound notes for gold and the pound was floated on foreign exchange markets. capital stock. Japan.Keynesian models In the early 1930s.

In the United States. which had a silver standard.5 million. Great Britain and Scandinavia. Although Austrian economists had challenged Keynesianism since the 1920s. and Roosevelt's critics charged that he was turning America into a socialist state. Belgium and Switzerland.1933. which left the gold standard in 1931. These events magnified the role of the federal government in the national economy. including developing countries. The mobilization of manpower following the outbreak of war in 1939 finally ended unemployment. the massive war spending doubled the GNP. Political consequences The crisis had many political consequences. federal expenditure tripled. federal expenditures accounted for only 3% of GNP. Businesses hired every person in sight. Rearmament and recovery The massive rearmament policies to counter the threat from Nazi Germany helped stimulate the economies of Europe in 1937-39. It was a main factor in the implementation of social democracy and planned economies in European countries after World War II.[29] However. redoubling their efforts for greater output to take advantage of generous government contracts. recovered much earlier than France and Belgium. Countries such as China. either masking the effects of the Depression or essentially ending the Depression. even driving sound trucks up and down city streets begging people to apply for jobs. For example. regardless of cost. (see Marshall Plan). unemployment in Britain had fallen to 1. led by France and including Poland. Between 1933 and 1939. almost avoided the depression entirely. According to later analysis. the earliness with which a country left the gold standard reliably predicted its economic recovery. among which was the abandonment of classic economic liberal approaches. which remained on gold much longer. Productivity soared: most people worked overtime and gave up leisure activities to make money after so many hard years. spending on the New Deal was far smaller than on the war effort. Cost-plus pricing in munitions contracts guaranteed businesses a profit no matter how many mediocre workers they employed or how inefficient the techniques they used. New workers were needed to replace the 11 million working-age men serving in the military. stayed on the standard until 1935-1936. People accepted rationing and price controls for the first time as a way of expressing their support for the war effort. In 1929. Businessmen ignored the mounting national debt and heavy new taxes. while a few countries in the so-called "gold bloc". it was not . The demand was for a vast quantity of war supplies as soon as possible. By 1937. The connection between leaving the gold standard as a strong predictor of that country's severity of its depression and the length of time of its recovery has been shown to be consistent for dozens of countries. which Roosevelt replaced in the United States with Keynesian policies. This partly explains why the experience and length of the depression differed between national economies [28].

" but none has been as worldwide for so long. 1873-1896. that the Keynesian approach was politically questioned. Kehoe and Prescott define a great depression to be a period of diminished economic output with at least one year where output is 20% below the trend. Home-building dropped by 80% between the years 1929 and 1932.[33][34] See also • • • • • • • Aftermath of World War I America's Great Depression written by Murray Rothbard. Other Great Depressions There have been other downturns called a "Great Depression. about 5000 banks went out of business. although this designation for Switzerland has been controversial. This definition also includes the economic performance of New Zealand from 1974-1992 and Switzerland from 1973 to the present. and Mexico experienced great depressions in the 1980s. Industrial production fell by nearly 45% between the years 1929 and 1932. leading the way to neoliberalism. when the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Friedrich Hayek notably for being "one of the few economists who gave warning of the possibility of a major economic crisis before the great crash came in the autumn of 1929" [30].until 1974. and Argentina experienced another in 1998-2002. a period also referred to as the Long Depression. By this definition Argentina. Brazil. Arthurdale Business cycle Cities in the Great Depression Depression cake Economic collapse • • • • • • • • Gold as an investment Great Contraction Ivar Kreuger Keynesian economics Long Depression New Deal Recession Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act Wall Street Crash of 1929 • . and the beginning of monetarism. Finnish economists refer to the Finnish economic decline around the breakup of the Soviet Union (1989-1994) as a great depression. From the years 1929 to 1932. Chile. British economic historians use the term "Great depression" to describe British conditions in the late 19th century.[citation needed] Facts and figures Effects of depression[31]: • • • • 13 million people became unemployed.[32] Several Latin American countries had severe downturns in the 1980s. especially in agriculture.

^ A Monetary History of the United States. Journal of Economic History 38: 918-37. ^ Hakim. 25. Retrieved on 2008-03-13. Willard W. 17. The memoirs of Herbert Hoover. 499. 31. 15. 6. ^ Rothbard 2002. Fredric (December 1978). 25 22. The Cambridge Economic History of the United States. ^ a b c Fisher. ISBN 0195094840.jstor. American History 102: Civil War to the Present. ^ Eccles. ISBN 0691016984.. ^ "Bernanke: Federal Reserve caused Great Depression". WorldNetDaily. 9. Herbert. Gold Eagle. ^ Bernanke. 3. "3:9". Retrieved on 2008-05-22. Historical Statistics of the US: Millennial Edition. February 1929. Mount Holyoke College. (1951). "The Debt-Deflation Theory of Great Depressions". G. ^ Rothbard 2002. Stanley. "Crashing Hopes: The Great Depression". 16. ^ a b c "Bank Failures". "Who Was Milton Friedman?". 1st. ^ Hoover. K. 18.Notes 1. Beckoning Frontiers: Public and Personal Recollections. p. New York: Alfred A. Richard H. ^ a b Rothbard 2002. 141 21. p. 12. 293–294 23. ^ Schultz. ^ Krugman. Stanley K. 15. 7. (1999). OCLC 3720103. 14. "The Household Balance and the Great Depression". Farm Prices. 2. 13. ^ Cochrane.. Engerman. My Years with Ludwig von Mises. ^ "1998/99 Prognosis Based Upon 1929 Market Autopsy". ^ Vietor. League of Nations: 43. ^ "World Economic Survey 1932–33". (2000). Gallman. New York: Oxford University Press. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 10. Living History Farm. THE AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW (The American Economic Association) 73 (3): 257-276. 11. 7. pp. ^ Mises. Retrieved on 2008-05-22. American Media (publisher). Knopf. 20. Retrieved on 2008-05-22. Retrieved on 2008-03-21. 4. The New York Review of Books.. Retrieved on 2008-05-22. Edward (2002). Econometrica 1: 337-357. (1958). 5. Margit von (1976). 19. Ben S. (1994). ^ "The World in Depression". Marriner S. ^ Mishkin. ^ L. http://links. ISBN 0912986395.0. "Non-Monetary Effects of the Financial Crisis in the Propagation of the Great Depression". ^ Austrian Institute of Economic Research Report. Essays on the Great Depression. pp.CO%3B20&origin=repec. Myth and Reality. 24. Ben S (June 1983). Princeton University Press. Irving (October 1933). Robert E. Susan (2006). Paul (2007-02-15). ^ Griffin. ^ Carter. Joy (1995). Peace and all that Jazz. . The Creature from Jekyll Island: A Second Look at the Federal Reserve. A History of Us: War. ^ Bernanke. Contrived Competition: Regulation and Deregulation in America. 8.org/sici?sici=00028282%28198306%2973%3A3%3C257%3ANEOTFC%3E2. Arlington House.

. Arthur M. Charles H. Ben S. The Economies of Africa and Asia in the inter-war depression (1989) Davis. ^ Schlesinger.. T. R. ^ ECONOMICS PRIZE FOR WORKS IN ECONOMIC THEORY AND INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH 31. Prescott.1016/j. Edward C. The Great Crash. A Monetary History of the United States. 1919-39: An Economist's View (1974) Eichengreen. 8. 27. Vol. (2007).2004. ^ T. Gottfried. money. John A." The Economic History Review. Golden fetters: The gold standard and the Great Depression.. Barry Eichengreen and Marc Flandreau... Herbert Hoover and the Great Depression 27. Timothy J. G. Vol. K.26. Lexington. ^ Abrahamsen Y. William R. Review of Economic Dynamics.003. E. (First published in 1958) ISBN 0618340866. A reply to Kehoe and Prescott". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.. Graff. pp. monetarist interpretation (heavily statistical) Galbraith. Arthur M. and Consequences of the Worldwide Depression of the Nineteen-Thirties. C.federalreserve. ^ Bernanke. W. A Social and Economic History of Twentieth-Century Europe (1989) Bernanke. Jr. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Milton and Anna Jacobson Schwartz. 417-432 in JSTOR 33. Schlesinger. as Seen by Contemporaries and in Light of History (1986) Garraty John A.co. No. 2004). Credit & Banking.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2004/200403022/default.htm 29. 759–775. The Gold Standard in Theory and History 1997 online version Feinstein. 2003. (2005).. At the H. "Remarks by Governor Ben S. The Coming of the New Deal: 1933-1935. Great Depressions of the Twentieth Century. The Politics of Upheaval: 1935-1936. and W. Atukeren. Unemployment in History (1978) Garside. John Kenneth. Aeppli. pp. 1929 (1954) Garraty. 19191939. (2005). 2003. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Ian. Capitalism in crisis: international responses to the Great Depression (1993) Haberler. Fletcher. "The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach" Journal of Money. 3 (1961). B. (First published in 1960) ISBN 0618340874 30. Barry. and the great depression 1919-1939 (1976) . Ruhl. Ben (March 2. Jr.uk/1/hi/business/7655472. Parker Willis Lecture in Economic Policy. "The Swiss disease: Facts and artefacts.06. Joseph S. Paperback ed. 28. M.stm 32. course. Washington and Lee University. 1867-1960 (1963).bbc. 1995 online at JSTOR Brown. http://www. 1992.. doi:10. ^ http://news. The European economy between the wars (1997) Friedman. "The Great Depression of English Agriculture 1873-1896.. J. Müller. Further reading • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ambrosius. Paperback ed.. Is Switzerland in a Great Depression?. ^ Kehoe. 13. Hibbard. Schips. J. ^ Waren. The Great Depression: An Inquiry into the causes. Bernanke: Money. Gold and the Great Depression". ^ Kehoe. The world economy. Virginia.red. 34. The World Between the Wars. Review of Economic Dynamics 8 (3): 749–758.

please see complete listing in the Great Depression in the United States article. the EU’s Lisbon Process and the Structures of Global Inequality" Hauppauge. C. With contributions by Samir Amin. Kehoe and E. A. "The World's Economic Outlook." The American Economic Review Vol. N. Hauppauge. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Great Depression • • • • • • • • Great Depressions of the Twentieth Century. David E. 2007 (for info: https://www.novapublishers. 327–340 online version Rothermund. Tausch. 848868 online at JSTOR Mundell.com) An Overview of the Great Depression from EH. New York: Nova Science Publishers (http://www. "Trade Barriers and the Collapse of World Trade during the Great Depression". and R. L.Y.• • • • • Hall Thomas E. R. N. Arno and Almas Heshmati (Eds. The Global Impact of the Great Depression (1996) Tausch. Prescott Theories of the Great Depression. 90. with Christian Ghymers. Immanuel Wallerstein League of Nations." Atlantic (May 1932). The Great Depression: An International Disaster of Perverse Economic Policies (1998) Kaiser. Charles P. Britain. John Maynard. 2000).: Nova Science Publishers. 1890–1939 (1987) For US specific references. with contributions by Franco Modigliani et al. Southern Economic Journal 2001. 1929-1939 (1983) Gernot Kohler and Emilio José Chaves (Editors) “Globalization: Critical Perspectives” Haupauge. 3 (Jun.novapublishers. Jr. Economic diplomacy and the origins of the Second World War: Germany. America in the 1930s. (for info: https://www. No.com/catalog/). Arno. Jakob B. Tipton. 1930-1939 (1980) Keynes.com/catalog/). An Economic and Social History of Europe. France and Eastern Europe. Roosevelt Library & Museum for copyright-free photos of the period Economic Depressions: Their Cause and Cure by Murray Rothbard (1969) . online edition • • • • • • • Kindleberger. and J.Y. World Economic Survey 1932-33 (1934) Madsen. David Ferguson. edited by T. Dietmar. F. Andre Gunder Frank. J. 2008.) "Roadmap to Bangalore? Globalization. Great Myths of the Great Depression by Lawrence Reed Franklin D. "From the “Washington” towards a “Vienna Consensus”? A quantitative analysis on globalization. R. Very large multi-mediated project on America in the Great Depression Recession? Depression? What's the difference? (About. "A Reconsideration of the Twentieth Century. The World in Depression.. 67(4). Aldrich.: Nova Science Publishers.NET by Randall Parker. Norman. pp.com/) ISBN 159033-346-2.novapublishers. Southern Economic Journal. development and global governance". Christopher Chase Dunn.

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