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P0FTRY ls one of Lhe Lhree ma[or Lypes of llLeraLureţ

Lhe oLhers belng prose and dramaŦ MosL poems make use of
hlghly conclseţ muslcalţ and emoLlonally charged languageŦ
Many also make use of lmageryţ flguraLlve languageţ and
speclal devlces of sound such as rhymeŦ Þoems are ofLen
dlvlded lnLo llnes and sLanzas and ofLen employ regular
rhyLhmlcal paLLernsţ or meLersŦ Poweverţ some poems are
wrlLLen ouL [usL llke proseţ and some are wrlLLen ln free
verseŦ

aŦ C8AL 18Aul1lCn ls Lhe passlng of songsţ sLorlesţ and
poems from generaLlon Lo generaLlon by word of mouLhŦ

bŦ SCML 1?ÞLS Cl ÞCL18?

1Ŧ A CCnC8L1L ÞCLM ls one wlLh a shape LhaL suggesLs lLs
sub[ecLŦ (See handouL) Wllllam 8urford's ºA ChrlsLmas 1ree"
ls a concreLe poemť



SLarţ

lf you are

A Love compasslonaLeţ

?ou wlll walk wlLh us Lhls yearŦ

We face a glaclal dlsLanceţ who are here Puddl'd

AL your feeLŦ



1he llnes of Lhe poem appear on Lhe page ln a shape of a
Lreeţ and Lhe words sLar and aL your feeL appear ln
approprlaLe poslLlonsţ aL Lhe Lop and boLLomŦ

2Ŧ u8AMA1lC ÞCL18? ls poeLry LhaL lnvolves Lhe
Lechnlques of dramaŦ

aŦ A MCnCLCCuL ls a speech by one characLer ln a playţ
sLoryţ or poemŦ

3Ŧ An LÞlC8AM ls a shorL poem wlLh a slngle polnLţ usually
Lwo Lo four llnes longţ buL someLlmes moreŦ 1he word
llLerally means ºlnscrlpLlon" and Lhey orlglnally were
lnscrlbed on LombsŦ

4Ŧ l8LL vL8SL ls poeLry noL wrlLLen ln a regular rhyLhmlcal
paLLernţ or meLerŦ lree verse seeks Lo capLure Lhe rhyLhms of
speechŦ

3Ŧ 1he PAlku ls a LhreeŴllne !apanese verse formŦ A halku
seeks Lo convey a slngle vlvld emoLlon by means of lmages
from naLureŦ Lach llne has a cerLaln amounL of
syllablesŦ Llne 1 ŴŴŴŴŴ 3
Llne 2 ŴŴŴŴŴ 7 Llne 3 ŴŴŴŴŴ 3

6Ŧ L?8lC ÞCL18? ls a hlghly muslcal verse LhaL expresses Lhe
observaLlons and feellngs of a slngle speakerŦ 1hey were aL
one Llme sungţ buL noL LodayŦ 1hey sLlll have a muslcal
quallLy LhaL ls achleved Lhrough rhyLhm and oLher devlces
such as alllLeraLlon and rhymeŦ

aŦ A SCnnL1 ls a 14 llne lyrlc poemţ usually wrlLLen ln
lamblc penLameLerŦ


lŦ 1he SPAkLSÞLA8LAn (LnCLlSP) sonneL conslsLs of Lhree
quaLralns (fourŴllne sLanzas) and a coupleL (Lwo llnes)ţ usually
rhymlng abab cdcd efef ggŦ 1he coupleL usually commenLs
on Lhe ldeas conLalned ln Lhe precedlng Lwelve llnesŦ 1he
sonneL ls usually noL prlnLed wlLh sLanzas dlvldedţ buL a
reader can see dlsLlncL ldeas ln eachŦ


llŦ 1he ÞL18A8CPAn (l1ALlAn) sonneL conslsLs of an ocLave
(elghL llne sLanza) and a sesLeL (slxŴllne sLanza)Ŧ CfLen Lhe
ocLave rhymes abbaabba and Lhe sesLeL rhymes cdecdeŦ 1he
ocLave sLaLes a Lheme or asks a quesLlonŦ 1he sesLeL
commenLs on or answers a quesLlonŦ

7Ŧ A nA88A1lvL ÞCLM ls one LhaL Lells a sLoryŦ

cŦ SÞLAkL8 ls Lhe lmaglnary volce assumed by Lhe wrlLer of
a poemŦ ln many poems Lhe speaker ls noL ldenLlfled by
nameŦ When readlng a poemţ remember LhaL Lhe speaker
and Lhe poeL are noL Lhe same personţ noL more Lhan an
acLor ls Lhe playwrlghLŦ 1he speaker wlLhln Lhe poem may be
a personţ an anlmalţ a Lhlngţ or an absLracLlonŦ

dŦ S18uC1u8L Cl ÞCL18?

1Ŧ 8LAnk vL8SL ls poeLry wrlLLen ln unrhymed lamblc
penLameLer llnesŦ 1hls verse form was wldely used by
LllzabeLhan dramaLlsLs llke Wllllam ShakespeareŦ

2Ŧ A 8Ll8Aln ls a repeaLed llne or group of llnes ln a poem
or songŦ

3Ŧ A S1AnZA ls a formal dlvlslon of llnes ln a poemţ
consldered as a unlLŦ CfLen Lhe sLanzas ln a poem are
separaLed by spacesŦ SLanzas are someLlmes named
accordlng Lo Lhe number of llnes found ln LhemŦ

aŦ 2 llnes ŴŴŴŴ coupleL

bŦ 3 llnes ŴŴŴŴ LerceL

cŦ 4 llnes ŴŴŴŴ quaLraln

dŦ 3 llnes ŴŴŴŴ clnqualn

eŦ 6 llnes ŴŴŴŴ sesLeL

fŦ 7 llnes ŴŴŴŴ hepLasLlch

gŦ 8 llnes ŴŴŴŴ ocLave

4Ŧ ML1L8 of a poem ls lLs rhyLhmlcal paLLernŦ 1hls paLLern
ls deLermlned by Lhe number and Lypes of sLressesţ or beaLsţ
ln each llneŦ

eŦ SCunu uLvlCLS

lŦ ALLl1L8A1lCn ls Lhe
repeLlLlon of lnlLlal consonanL soundsŦ WrlLers use
alllLeraLlon Lo glve emphasls Lo wordsţ Lo lmlLaLe soundsţ and
Lo creaLe muslcal effecLsŦ

º1here wlll come sofL ralns

and Lhe smell of Lhe ground

and swallows clrcllng

wlLh Lhelr shlmmerlng soundŤ

llŦ ASSCnAnCL ls Lhe
repeLlLlon of vowel sounds followed by dlfferenL consonanLs
ln Lwo or more syllablesŦ

1Ŧ ºweak and weary" ln º1he 8aven"

lllŦ CCnSCnAnCL ls Lhe
repeLlLlon ln Lwo or more words of flnal consonanLs ln
sLressed syllablesŦ

1Ŧ ºaddŴread"

lvŦ ulALLC1 ls Lhe form of a
language spoken by people ln a parLlcular reglon or groupŦ
ÞronunclaLlonţ vocabularyţ and senLence sLrucLure are
affecLed by dlalecLŦ

vŦ CnCMA1CÞCLlA ls Lhe
use of words LhaL lmlLaLe soundsŦ Whlrrţ Lhudţ slzzleţ buzzţ
and hlss are Lyplcal examplesŦ

vlŦ 8LÞL1l1lCn ls Lhe useţ
more Lhan onceţ of any elemenL of language Ŷ a soundţ a
wordţ a phraseţ a clauseţ or a senLenceŦ ÞoeLs use many
klnds of repeLlLlonŦ AlllLeraLlonţ assonanceţ rhymeţ and
rhyLhm are repeLlLlons of cerLaln sounds and sound paLLernsŦ

vllŦ 8Ll8Aln ls a repeaLed llne
or group of llnesŦ

vlllŦ 8P?ML ls Lhe repeLlLlon of
sounds aL Lhe ends of wordsŦ

1Ŧ Lnd rhyme occurs when Lhe rhymlng words come aL Lhe
end of llnesŦ

2Ŧ lnLernal rhyme occurs when Lhe rhymlng words appear ln
Lhe same llneŦ

lxŦ 8P?ML SCPLML ls a
regular paLLern of rhymlng words ln a poemŦ 1he rhyme
scheme of a poem ls lndlcaLed by uslng dlfferenL leLLers of Lhe
alphabeL for each new rhymeŦ

xŦ 8P?1PM ls Lhe paLLern
of beaLsţ or sLressesţ ln spoken or wrlLLen languageŦ Some
poems have a very speclflc paLLernţ or meLerţ whereas prose
and free verse use Lhe naLural rhyLhms of everyday speechŦ

fŦ WA?S 1C MLAnlnC

lŦ Ll1L8AL LAnCuACL
uses words ln Lhelr ordlnary sensesŦ lL ls Lhe opposlLe of
flguraLlve languageŦ

llŦ llCu8A1lvL LAnCuACL
ls wrlLlng or speech noL meanL Lo be lnLerpreLed llLerallyŦ

1Ŧ SlMlLL uses ºllke or as" Lo make a comparlson

aŦ 8eLween Lwo unllke ldeas

bŦ !lm ls as fasL as 8lck ŴŴŴŴ noL a slmlle

cŦ !lm runs llke a deer ŴŴŴŴ slmlle

2Ŧ ML1AÞPC8 one Lhlng ls spoken of as Lhough lL were
someLhlng elseŦ

aŦ uCLS nC1 uSL LlkL C8 AS

bŦ !lm ls a deerŦ

3Ŧ lMACL8? ls a word or phrase LhaL appeals Lo one or more
of Lhe flve senses Ŷ slghLţ hearlngţ Louchţ LasLeţ or smellŦ
WrlLers use lmages Lo reŴcreaLe sensory experlences ln
wordsŦ

4Ŧ ÞA8Cu? ls a work done ln lmlLaLlon of anoLherţ usually ln
order Lo mock lLţ buL someLlmes [usL ln funŦ 1he followlng
llnes are Lewls Carroll's parody of Lhe famlllar chlldren's
rhymeţ º1wlnkleţ 1wlnkleţ LlLLle SLar"ť



1wlnkleţ Lwlnkleţ llLLle baL!

Pow l wonder whaL you're aL!

up above Lhe world you flyţ

Llke a LeaLray ln Lhe skyŦ



3Ŧ ÞL8SCnlllCA1lCn ls a Lype or flguraLlve language ln
whlch a nonŴhuman sub[ecL ls glven human characLerlsLlcsŦ


ÞoeLry ls one of Lhe Lhree ma[or Lypes of llLeraLureţ
Lhe oLhers belng prose and dramaŦ MosL poems make use of
hlghly conclseţ muslcalţ and emoLlonally charged languageŦ
Many also make use of lmageryţ flguraLlve languageţ and
speclal devlces of sound such as rhymeŦ Þoems are ofLen
dlvlded lnLo llnes and sLanzas and ofLen employ regular
rhyLhmlcal paLLernsţ or meLersŦ Poweverţ some poems are
wrlLLen ouL [usL llke proseţ and some are wrlLLen ln free
verseŦ

aŦ C8AL 18Aul1lCn ls Lhe passlng of songsţ sLorlesţ and
poems from generaLlon Lo generaLlon by word of mouLhŦ

bŦ SCML 1?ÞLS Cl ÞCL18?

1Ŧ A CCnC8L1L ÞCLM ls one wlLh a shape LhaL suggesLs lLs
sub[ecLŦ (See handouL) Wllllam 8urford's ºA ChrlsLmas 1ree"
ls a concreLe poemť



SLarţ

lf you are

A Love compasslonaLeţ

?ou wlll walk wlLh us Lhls yearŦ

We face a glaclal dlsLanceţ who are here Puddl'd

AL your feeLŦ



1he llnes of Lhe poem appear on Lhe page ln a shape of a
Lreeţ and Lhe words sLar and aL your feeL appear ln
approprlaLe poslLlonsţ aL Lhe Lop and boLLomŦ

2Ŧ u8AMA1lC ÞCL18? ls poeLry LhaL lnvolves Lhe
Lechnlques of dramaŦ

aŦ A MCnCLCCuL ls a speech by one characLer ln a playţ
sLoryţ or poemŦ

3Ŧ An LÞlC8AM ls a shorL poem wlLh a slngle polnLţ usually
Lwo Lo four llnes longţ buL someLlmes moreŦ 1he word
llLerally means ºlnscrlpLlon" and Lhey orlglnally were
lnscrlbed on LombsŦ

4Ŧ l8LL vL8SL ls poeLry noL wrlLLen ln a regular rhyLhmlcal
paLLernţ or meLerŦ lree verse seeks Lo capLure Lhe rhyLhms of
speechŦ

3Ŧ 1he PAlku ls a LhreeŴllne !apanese verse formŦ A halku
seeks Lo convey a slngle vlvld emoLlon by means of lmages
from naLureŦ Lach llne has a cerLaln amounL of
syllablesŦ Llne 1 ŴŴŴŴŴ 3
Llne 2 ŴŴŴŴŴ 7 Llne 3 ŴŴŴŴŴ 3

6Ŧ L?8lC ÞCL18? ls a hlghly muslcal verse LhaL expresses Lhe
observaLlons and feellngs of a slngle speakerŦ 1hey were aL
one Llme sungţ buL noL LodayŦ 1hey sLlll have a muslcal
quallLy LhaL ls achleved Lhrough rhyLhm and oLher devlces
such as alllLeraLlon and rhymeŦ

aŦ A SCnnL1 ls a 14 llne lyrlc poemţ usually wrlLLen ln
lamblc penLameLerŦ


lŦ 1he SPAkLSÞLA8LAn (LnCLlSP) sonneL conslsLs of Lhree
quaLralns (fourŴllne sLanzas) and a coupleL (Lwo llnes)ţ usually
rhymlng abab cdcd efef ggŦ 1he coupleL usually commenLs
on Lhe ldeas conLalned ln Lhe precedlng Lwelve llnesŦ 1he
sonneL ls usually noL prlnLed wlLh sLanzas dlvldedţ buL a
reader can see dlsLlncL ldeas ln eachŦ


llŦ 1he ÞL18A8CPAn (l1ALlAn) sonneL conslsLs of an ocLave
(elghL llne sLanza) and a sesLeL (slxŴllne sLanza)Ŧ CfLen Lhe
ocLave rhymes abbaabba and Lhe sesLeL rhymes cdecdeŦ 1he
ocLave sLaLes a Lheme or asks a quesLlonŦ 1he sesLeL
commenLs on or answers a quesLlonŦ

7Ŧ A nA88A1lvL ÞCLM ls one LhaL Lells a sLoryŦ

cŦ SÞLAkL8 ls Lhe lmaglnary volce assumed by Lhe wrlLer of
a poemŦ ln many poems Lhe speaker ls noL ldenLlfled by
nameŦ When readlng a poemţ remember LhaL Lhe speaker
and Lhe poeL are noL Lhe same personţ noL more Lhan an
acLor ls Lhe playwrlghLŦ 1he speaker wlLhln Lhe poem may be
a personţ an anlmalţ a Lhlngţ or an absLracLlonŦ

dŦ S18uC1u8L Cl ÞCL18?

1Ŧ 8LAnk vL8SL ls poeLry wrlLLen ln unrhymed lamblc
penLameLer llnesŦ 1hls verse form was wldely used by
LllzabeLhan dramaLlsLs llke Wllllam ShakespeareŦ

2Ŧ A 8Ll8Aln ls a repeaLed llne or group of llnes ln a poem
or songŦ

3Ŧ A S1AnZA ls a formal dlvlslon of llnes ln a poemţ
consldered as a unlLŦ CfLen Lhe sLanzas ln a poem are
separaLed by spacesŦ SLanzas are someLlmes named
accordlng Lo Lhe number of llnes found ln LhemŦ

aŦ 2 llnes ŴŴŴŴ coupleL

bŦ 3 llnes ŴŴŴŴ LerceL

cŦ 4 llnes ŴŴŴŴ quaLraln

dŦ 3 llnes ŴŴŴŴ clnqualn

eŦ 6 llnes ŴŴŴŴ sesLeL

fŦ 7 llnes ŴŴŴŴ hepLasLlch

gŦ 8 llnes ŴŴŴŴ ocLave

4Ŧ ML1L8 of a poem ls lLs rhyLhmlcal paLLernŦ 1hls paLLern
ls deLermlned by Lhe number and Lypes of sLressesţ or beaLsţ
ln each llneŦ

eŦ SCunu uLvlCLS

lŦ ALLl1L8A1lCn ls Lhe
repeLlLlon of lnlLlal consonanL soundsŦ WrlLers use
alllLeraLlon Lo glve emphasls Lo wordsţ Lo lmlLaLe soundsţ and
Lo creaLe muslcal effecLsŦ

º1here wlll come sofL ralns

and Lhe smell of Lhe ground

and swallows clrcllng

wlLh Lhelr shlmmerlng soundŤ

llŦ ASSCnAnCL ls Lhe
repeLlLlon of vowel sounds followed by dlfferenL consonanLs
ln Lwo or more syllablesŦ

1Ŧ ºweak and weary" ln º1he 8aven"

lllŦ CCnSCnAnCL ls Lhe
repeLlLlon ln Lwo or more words of flnal consonanLs ln
sLressed syllablesŦ

1Ŧ ºaddŴread"

lvŦ ulALLC1 ls Lhe form of a
language spoken by people ln a parLlcular reglon or groupŦ
ÞronunclaLlonţ vocabularyţ and senLence sLrucLure are
affecLed by dlalecLŦ

vŦ CnCMA1CÞCLlA ls Lhe
use of words LhaL lmlLaLe soundsŦ Whlrrţ Lhudţ slzzleţ buzzţ
and hlss are Lyplcal examplesŦ

vlŦ 8LÞL1l1lCn ls Lhe useţ
more Lhan onceţ of any elemenL of language Ŷ a soundţ a
wordţ a phraseţ a clauseţ or a senLenceŦ ÞoeLs use many
klnds of repeLlLlonŦ AlllLeraLlonţ assonanceţ rhymeţ and
rhyLhm are repeLlLlons of cerLaln sounds and sound paLLernsŦ

vllŦ 8Ll8Aln ls a repeaLed llne
or group of llnesŦ

vlllŦ 8P?ML ls Lhe repeLlLlon of
sounds aL Lhe ends of wordsŦ

1Ŧ Lnd rhyme occurs when Lhe rhymlng words come aL Lhe
end of llnesŦ

2Ŧ lnLernal rhyme occurs when Lhe rhymlng words appear ln
Lhe same llneŦ

lxŦ 8P?ML SCPLML ls a
regular paLLern of rhymlng words ln a poemŦ 1he rhyme
scheme of a poem ls lndlcaLed by uslng dlfferenL leLLers of Lhe
alphabeL for each new rhymeŦ

xŦ 8P?1PM ls Lhe paLLern
of beaLsţ or sLressesţ ln spoken or wrlLLen languageŦ Some
poems have a very speclflc paLLernţ or meLerţ whereas prose
and free verse use Lhe naLural rhyLhms of everyday speechŦ

fŦ WA?S 1C MLAnlnC

lŦ Ll1L8AL LAnCuACL
uses words ln Lhelr ordlnary sensesŦ lL ls Lhe opposlLe of
flguraLlve languageŦ

llŦ llCu8A1lvL LAnCuACL
ls wrlLlng or speech noL meanL Lo be lnLerpreLed llLerallyŦ

1Ŧ SlMlLL uses ºllke or as" Lo make a comparlson

aŦ 8eLween Lwo unllke ldeas

bŦ !lm ls as fasL as 8lck ŴŴŴŴ noL a slmlle

cŦ !lm runs llke a deer ŴŴŴŴ slmlle

2Ŧ ML1AÞPC8 one Lhlng ls spoken of as Lhough lL were
someLhlng elseŦ

aŦ uCLS nC1 uSL LlkL C8 AS

bŦ !lm ls a deerŦ

3Ŧ lMACL8? ls a word or phrase LhaL appeals Lo one or more
of Lhe flve senses Ŷ slghLţ hearlngţ Louchţ LasLeţ or smellŦ
WrlLers use lmages Lo reŴcreaLe sensory experlences ln
wordsŦ

4Ŧ ÞA8Cu? ls a work done ln lmlLaLlon of anoLherţ usually ln
order Lo mock lLţ buL someLlmes [usL ln funŦ 1he followlng
llnes are Lewls Carroll's parody of Lhe famlllar chlldren's
rhymeţ º1wlnkleţ 1wlnkleţ LlLLle SLar"ť



1wlnkleţ Lwlnkleţ llLLle baL!

Pow l wonder whaL you're aL!

up above Lhe world you flyţ

Llke a LeaLray ln Lhe skyŦ



3Ŧ ÞL8SCnlllCA1lCn ls a Lype or flguraLlve language ln
whlch a nonŴhuman sub[ecL ls glven human characLerlsLlcsŦ

THFHF
1he messag1one ť
T0tF ALLlLude a wrlLer Lakes Loward Lhe sub[ecL or audlence of a poemŦ 1he sub[ecL of Lhe poem ls
crocodllesŦ 1he auLhor's aLLlLude Lowards crocodlles ls LhaL Lhey are dangerousŦ º1he Crocodlle" Pow
doLh Lhe llLLle crocodlle lmprove hls shlnlng Lallţ And pour Lhe waLer of Lhe nlle Cn every golden scale!
Pow cheerfully he seems Lo grlnţ Pow neaLly spreads hls clawsţ And welcomes llLLle flshes ln WlLh genLly
smlllng [aws!eţ polnL of vlew and ldea of Lhe poemŦ

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