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Discovering Computers 2011

Living in a Digital World

The System Unit


The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

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The System Unit


The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes:
Drive bay(s) Power supply Sound card Video card Processor Memory
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The System Unit


The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit
A computer chip contains integrated circuits

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MacBook Air

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Mac Air motherboard (back)


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Game Consoles Motherboards


XBOX 360 Nintendo Wii

Playstation 3 (American)
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iPad logic board

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THE PROCESSOR OR CPU (the brain of the computer)


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Processor
The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer
Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
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Processor
The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMD
VIA
3RD largest

IBM
Video game consoles
Cell chip for PS3

ARM
Cell phones and mobile devices
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Multi-core processor

Dual-core processor

Quad-core processor

Hexa-core processor

These chips generally runs at a slower clock speed, but increase overall performance

8-core chip? 12-core chips? 16-core chips?

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Intels Core 2 Duo Processor (demo) AMDs Dual Core Opteron

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Worlds fastest processor test video

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Processor
The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Control Unit below Chapter 4

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Processor
For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle

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Processor
Most current personal computers support pipelining
Processor begins fetching a second instruction before it completes the machine cycle for the first instruction Also known as pipeline processing
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Processor How do you measure its speed?


The processor contains registers, that temporarily hold data and instructions

The system clock controls the timing of all computer operations


(small quartz crystal circuit)
The pace of the system clock is called the clock speed, and is measured in Hertz (ticks/second). Current PC processors: gigahertz (GHz) & superscalar The faster the clock the more performance you get
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Processor
A processor chip generates heat that could cause the chip to burn up Require additional cooling
Heat sinks Heat piples Liquid cooling technology
Faster clock speed and less noise
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Some mobile computers and devices often use Low Voltage or Ultra Low Voltage (ULV) processors

HEAT PIPE FOR NOTEBOOKS (LAPTOPS OR PORTABLE PCS)


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DATA REPRESENTATION

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Data Representation
Analog signals are continuous and vary in
strength and quality

Digital signals are in one of two states:


on or off
Most computers are digital The binary system uses two unique digits (0 and 1) bit (binary digits) is the smallest unit of data the computer can process, but it is not very informative
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Data Representation
A computer circuit represents the 0 or the 1 electronically by the presence or absence of an electrical charge

Eight bits grouped together as a unit are called a byte.


A byte represents a single character in the computer

Origins 1956
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Data Representation
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data
Up to 256 characters and symbols

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Unicode

16-bit (216 = 65,536 characters) Coding scheme capable of representing all worlds languages
30.000 reserved for future use (e.g. Egyptian hieroglyphs)

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A four-megabyte RAM card measuring about 56 by 38 centimeters (twenty-two by fifteen inches); made for the VAX 8600 minicomputer (ca. 1986)

MEMORY

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Memory
Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed by the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data Stores three basic categories of items:
The operating system and other system software
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Application programs

Data being processed and the resulting information


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Memory
The system unit contains two types of memory:

Volatile memory
Loses its contents when power is turned off

Nonvolatile memory
Does not lose contents when power is removed Examples include ROM, flash memory, and CMOS
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Example includes RAM

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Memory
Three basic types of RAM (main memory) chips exist:
Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Static RAM (SRAM) Magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM)

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Memory
Each location in memory has an address Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB)

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Memory
RAM chips usually reside on a memory module and are inserted into memory slots

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Laptop Memory SODDIM slots

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SODDIM installation on laptop

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Memory
The amount of RAM necessary in a computer often depends on the types of software you plan to use

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Memory
Memory cache speeds the processes of the computer
because it stores frequently used instructions and data

saves a trip all the way back to slower main memory

Some processor chips now include all 3 types of cache

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Cache Memory
L1 cache built into processor L2 cache slower but has larger capacity L2 advanced transfer cache is faster, built directly on processor chip L3 cache is separate from processor chip on motherboard (L3 is only on computers that use L2 advanced transfer cache)
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Memory

Read-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions
Firmware
Many household appliances use this chip. EEPROM
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CMOS technology

Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor memory


Uses battery power to retain information when other power is turned off Helps store

High speed technology

chip

date, time, and computers startup information

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CMOS Batteries

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Memory
Access time is the amount of time it takes the processor to read from memory
Measured in nanoseconds or MHz
The fewer ns, the faster is the RAM.

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Learn for the test

CPU Registers

Fast access but very little storage

Level 1 cache Level 2 cache Level 3 cahce Physical RAM Virtual Memory Optical Disc Drives Hard Drive
Huge amounts of storage but slow speeds

A computer systems memory has many different levels, ranging from the small amounts in the CPU to the much slower but more plentiful storage of a hard drive.53

EXPANSION SLOTS AND ADAPTER CARDS


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Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards


With Plug and Play, the computer automatically can configure adapter cards and other peripherals as you install them

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Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards


Removable flash memory includes:
Memory cards, USB flash drives, and PC Cards/ExpressCard modules

Mac Air 64GB


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Ports and Connectors


A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit (sometimes referred to as a jack) A connector joins a cable to a port
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Ports and Connectors


On a notebook computer, the ports are on the back, front, and/or sides

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Ports and Connectors

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Ports and Connectors


A Bluetooth wireless port adapter converts a USB port into a Bluetooth port

A smart phone might communicate with a notebook computer using an IrDA port

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Ports and Connectors


A USB port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector
You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with a USB hub
USB ports eliminate the need to install cards in expansion slots like older computers.

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Wireless USB
allows up to 127 devices to connect directly to the host computer

SuperSpeed USB 3.0


480Mbps at 3 meters and 110Mbps at 10 meters.
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Buses (electrical channel)


A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other
Data bus (transfer actual data) Address bus (transfer info about where data should reside in memory)
FSB or system bus is the most important.
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The wider the bus the faster the transfer of data (bus width) Every bus has a clock speed (MHz)
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Power Supply
The power supply converts the wall outlet AC power into DC power Some external peripherals have an AC adapter, which is an external power supply
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Factors that affect the speed of the processor


The clock speed (clock rate) Type of processor chip Amount of cache memory Memory access time Bus width (measured in bits) Bus clock speed (system bus or FSB) Heat and Heat dissipation
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End of Chapter 4
Remember: There will be a computer ad from which you will have to answer questions on the next test.

Chapter 8 and Open quiz from chapter 4 on next class. Second Partial test: Next week (5, 6 & 7)

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Summary

Components of the system unit

How memory stores data, instructions, and information

Sequence of operations that occur when a computer executes an instruction

Comparison of various personal computer processors on the market today

How to clean the exterior and interior of a system unit

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Discovering Computers 2011


Living in a Digital World

Chapter 4 Complete

Silicon wafer

Chips are packaged so


they can be attached to a circuit board How chips are made videoclip AMD video
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Available chip packages


dual inline package (DIP)

single edge contact (SEC) cartridge

flip chip-PGA (FC-PGA) package

pin grid array (PGA)


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