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AOE 3024
Thin-Walled Structures
EXAM II: November 15 2010
G.D. Seidel

Closed book, Closed Notes
1 Page Formula Sheet

Questions:

1. The o
xx
stress distribution over an asymmetric cross-section of a bar subjected to
a) uniform (constant) in y and z if the coordinate axis is located at the centroid (y
c
,z
c
)
b) uniform in y but linear in z if coordinate axis is located at y
c
but NOT z
c

c) uniform in z but linear in y if coordinate axis is located at z
c
but NOT y
c

d) linear in both y and z if the coordinate axis is NOT located at either centroidal
location y
c
or z
c

e) uniform in y and z if the coordinate axis is NOT located at the centorid (y
c
,z
c
)
f) the set a), b), c) and d)
g) both a) and e)

2. Sources of distributed forces per unit length include:
a) gravity loads in both uniaxial bars and beams in bending
b) electromagnetic forces in uniaxial bars and beams in bending
c) tug-of-war or fluid flow past a piston loads in uniaxial bars
d) lift and drag distributions over beams in bending
e) body forces in uniaxial bars and beams in bending
f) circumferential shear tractions in uniaxial bars
g) transverse pressure distributions in beams in bending
h) the set of a), b), and d)
i) the set of e), f), and g)
j) all of the above

3. If the distributed load p
x
(x) is a constant, then the displacement is at most:
a) constant.
b) linear.
d) cubic.
e) quartic

Comment [ GDS1] : partial credit
Comment [ GDS2] : partial credit
Comment [ GDS3] : full credit
Comment [ GDS4] : 1/2 partial credit
Comment [ GDS5] : 1/2 partial credit
Comment [ GDS6] : full credit
Comment [ GDS7] : full credit
2-1
4. For a bar undergoing uniaxial extension in the x-direction, the boundary conditions can be
comprised of:.
a) a force boundary condition on each end of the bar.
b) a force boundary condition on one end of the bar, and displacement boundary
condition on the other.
c) a displacement boundary condition on each end of the bar.
d) both a) and b)
e) both b) and c)
f) both a) and c)
g) all of the above

5.The elastic strain is measured by the strain gage, whereas the thermal strain is inferred by
measuring the temperature of the bar at different locations in the bar and multiplying by
the coefficient of thermal expansion.
a) True.
b) False, the elastic strain is inferred from the measured change in length of the
specimen.
c) False, the temperature is measured at different times, not different locations.
d) False, the total strain is measured by the strain gage.
e) False, and the thermal strain is measured by the strain gage
f) both c) and d) correct the statement.
g) both b) and c) correct the statement
h) both b) and e) correct the statement
i) the set b), c) and e) correct the statement

For Questions 6 and 7, refer to Figure 1 below:

Figure 1: All loads are shown and are in the x-direction.

6. The boundary and matching conditions for the uniaxial bar shown in Figure 1 are:
a) P
1
(L
1
)= F
1
, P
1
(L
1
)=P
2
(L
1
)+F
2
, u
x1
(L
1
)=u
x2
(L
1
), u
x1
(0)=0
b) P
1
(L
1
)= -F
1
, P
1
(L
1
)=P
2
(L
1
)+2F
2
, u
x1
(L
1
)=u
x2
(L
1
), u
x2
(L
1
+L
2
)=0
c) P
1
(L
1
)= F
1
, P
1
(L
1
)+F
2
=P
2
(L
1
), u
x1
(L
1
)=u
x2
(L
1
), u
x2
(L
1
+L
2
)=0
d) P
1
(L
1
)= -F
1
, P
1
(L
1
)+2F
2
=P
2
(L
1
), u
x1
(L
1
)=u
x2
(L
1
), u
x1
(0)=0
e) P
1
(L
1
)= F
1
, P
1
(L
1
)=P
2
(L
1
)+F
2
, u
x1
(L
1
)=u
x2
(L
1
), u
x2
(L
1
+L
2
)=0
f) P
1
(L
1
)= -F
1
, P
1
(L
1
)=P
2
(L
1
)+2F
2
, u
x1
(L
1
)=u
x2
(L
1
), u
x1
(L
1
+L
2
)=0
g) P
1
(L
1
)= -F
1
, P
1
(L
1
)=P
2
(L
1
)+2F
2
, u
x1
(L
1
)=u
x2
(L
1
), u
x2
(0)=0

Comment [ GDS8] : 1/2 credit
Comment [ GDS9] : 1/2 credit
Comment [ GDS10] : full credit
Comment [ GDS11] : 1/2 credit
Comment [ GDS12] : 1/2 credit
Comment [ GDS13] : full credit.
Comment [ GDS14] : correct answer; first
condition was mislabeled...should be P1(0)
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7. Assuming L1=L2=2 m and the magnitudes of F1 and F2 are F1=3 N and F2=5 N, which
of the following internal axial force resultant plots is correct.
a) b)
c) d)
e) f)
g) h)
i) j)

Comment [ GDS15] : correct answer
four things to look for
i) 2F jump
ii) constant in both section
iii)-F starting
iv) shift is downward

From this came up with scaling of 0 for 1 out of 4,
1/4 for 2 out of 4, 2/4 for 3 out of 4 and full credit
for all four.
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8. For the stress state | |
5 3 4
3 0 0 MPa
4 0 0
o
(
(
=
(
(

, located in the positive y and z directions in

the i-face as shown below:

i. a positive moment resultant about the z-axis, M
z
, is generated.
ii. a negative moment resultant about the z-axis, M
z
, is generated.
iii. a positive moment resultant about the y-axis, M
y
, is generated.
iv. a negative moment resultant about the y-axis, M
y
, is generated.
v. a positive shear force resultant in the y-direction, V
y
, is generated.
vi. a negative shear force resultant in the y-direction, V
y
, is generated.
vii. a positive shear force resultant in the z-direction, V
z
, is generated.
viii. a negative shear force resultant in the z-direction, V
z
, is generated.
ix. a positive axial shear force resultant in the x-direction, P
x
, is generated.
x. a negative axial shear force resultant in the x-direction, P
x
, is generated.

a) the set i., iii., v., vii, and ix. is true.
b) the set ii., iv., vi., viii, and x. is true.
c) the set ii., iii., vi., vii and ix. is true.
d) the set i., iv., v., viii, and x. is true.
e) the set i., iii., vi., viii, and ix. is true.
f) the set ii., iv., v., vii, and ix. is true.
g) the set ii., iii., v., viii and ix. is true.
h) the set i., iv., vi., vii and x. is true.

9. For a beam with a constant distributed load over half of its length, to determine the
deflection, we need to integrate a total of four times and have two shear force and two
moment boundary conditions.
a) True.
b) False, we need at least one deflection boundary condition.
c) False, we need at least one rotation boundary condition, or an additional deflection
boundary condition.
d) False, we need to integrate a total of eight times.
e) False, we need shear force and moment matching conditions.
f) False, we need rotation and deflection matching conditions.
g) False, both b) and c) correct the statement.
h) False, the set of b), c) and e) correct the statement.
i) False, the set of b), c), d), e) and f) correct the statement.

Comment [ GDS16] : full credit

5 items needed

Comment [ GDS17] : 1/4 credit
Comment [ GDS18] : 1/2 credit
Comment [ GDS19] : correct answer
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10. Which of the following statements regarding the kinematics of beam bending are true?
a) The neutral axis assumed to bend into the shape of a circle
b) The neutral axis strains proportionally to the applied load
c) Plane sections remain plane and do not bulge
d) Plane sections remain perpendicular to the neutral axis
e) both c) and d) are true.
f) both a) and b) are true.
g) the set a), c) and d) are true
h) the set b), c) and d) are true
i) all of the above are true.

11. The bending stress is proportional to the Young's modulus, varies quadraticly over the
cross-section, and is maximum at the neutral axis.
a) True
b) False, it varies linearly over the cross-section.
c) False, it is independent of the Young's modulus.
d) False, it is zero at the neutral axis.
e) Both b) and c) correct the statement.
f) Both b) and d) correct the statement.
g) Both c) and d) correct the statement.
h) The set b), c) and d) correct the statement.

12. Identify the boundary and matching conditions needed to determine the reaction forces
and moments at the wall and the support for the beam shown below:

a) M
y2
(L)=0,M
y1
(L/2)=M
y2
(L/2)-M
1
,V
z1
(L/2)=V
z2
(L/2)-F
1
+p
0
L/2
b) M
y2
(L)=0,M
y1
(L/2)=M
y2
(L/2)+M
1
,V
z1
(L/2)=V
z2
(L/2)-F
1

c) M
y2
(L)=0,M
y1
(L/2)=M
y2
(L/2)-M
1
,V
z1
(L/2)=V
z2
(L/2)-F
1
+p
0
L/2, V
z2
(L)=0
d) M
y2
(L)=0,M
y1
(L/2)=M
y2
(L/2)+M
1
,V
z1
(L/2)=V
z2
(L/2)+F
1
, V
z2
(L)=0
e) u
z1
(0)=0,
1
0
0
z
x
du
dx
=
= ,u
z1
(L/2)=u
z2
(L/2),
1 2
/ 2 / 2
z z
x L x L
du du
dx dx
= =
=
f) u
z1
(0)=0,
1
0
0
z
x
du
dx
=
= , u
z1
(L/2)=u
z2
(L/2),
1 2
/ 2 / 2
z z
x L x L
du du
dx dx
= =
= , u
z2
(L)=0
g) both a) and f) are needed
h) both c) and e) are needed
i) both b) and f) are needed
j) both d) and e) are needed

Comment [ GDS20] : 1/2 credit
Comment [ GDS21] : full credit
Comment [ GDS22] : 1/4 credit
Comment [ GDS23] : 1/4 credit
Comment [ GDS24] : 1/4 credit
Comment [ GDS25] : full credit
Comment [ GDS26] : 1/4 credit
Comment [ GDS27] : 1/2 credit
Comment [ GDS28] : full credit
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13. For determining the shear stress in a square beam undergoing bending due to an applied
distributed transverse force load in the y-direction, using the top-down approach, the
shear stress depends on the shear force resultant V
y
, the first area moment of a subset of
the cross-section from the location of interest to the top of the cross-section Q
z
, the
thickness at the location of interest t, and the total cross section moment of inertia I
zz

a) True.
b) False, it depends on Qy of the subset of the cross-section.
c) False, it depends on Iyy of the subset of the cross-section.
d) False, Izz is for a subset of the cross-section.
e) False, it depends on Iyy for the total cross-section
f) Both b) and c) are needed to correct the statement.
g) Both b) and e) are needed to correct the statement.

14. For determining the shear stress in a square beam undergoing bending due to an applied
distributed transverse force load in the y-direction, using the top-down approach, the
shear stress is:
a) Maximum at the centroid
b) Varying quadraticly over the cross section
c) Zero at the top and bottom of the cross-section
d) All of the above.

15. The differences in minus signs between the bending of beams with symmetric cross-
sections about the z-axis and bending about the y-axis is directly connected to the use of
a right handed coordinate system based on positive forces, moments and displacements.
a) True
b) False

16. The purpose of locating the centroid of the cross-section and applying equivalent forces
and moments there is to:
a) Simplify the stress distributions over the cross-section.
b) Decouple axial extension and beam bending internal force and moment resultants.
c) Simplify the flexure formula by eliminating the product of inertia terms
d) Both a) and b).
e) Both b) and c)
f) Both a) and c)
g) All of the above

17. The principal axis for the cross-section is a parallel axis to the centroid where the
product of inertia is zero, and which is dependent on upon the magnitude of the
moments applied.
a) True
b) False, the principal axis is co-located with the centroid.
c) False, the principal axis is a rotation about the centroid.
d) False, the principal axis only depends on the geometry of the cross-section.
e) Both c) and d) correct the statement.
f) The set of b), c), and d) correct the statement.
Comment [ GDS29] : full credit
Comment [ GDS30] : gave 1/4 credit for this b/c
it is important for shear flow boundary condition.
Comment [ GDS31] : full credit
Comment [ GDS32] : correct answer
Comment [ GDS33] : full credit
Comment [ GDS34] : 1/4 credit
Comment [ GDS35] : 1/4 credit
Comment [ GDS36] : 1/4 credit
Comment [ GDS37] : 1/2 credit
Comment [ GDS38] : full credit.
2-1
18. The plane of bending axis is a parallel axis to the centroid where the deflection is
captured in single coordinate direction, y''-direction (u
y''
), due to the moments relative to
the plane of bending being entirely about the z''-axis, and which is dependent on upon
the magnitude of the moments applied.
a) True
b) False, the principal axis is co-located with the centroid.
c) False, the principal axis is a rotation about the centroid.
d) False, the principal axis only depends on the geometry of the cross-section.
e) False, the deflection is entirely in the z''-direction due to the moment being about y''.
f) Both b) and c) correct the statement.
g) Both c) and d) correct the statement.
h) Both c) and e) correct the statement.
i) The set of b), c), and d) correct the statement.
j) The set of b), c), and e) correct the statement.

Short Workout Problems:

19. For the cross-section below, Vy(x) =457.813 N , Vz(x) = 0, and Iyy =0.00005 m
4
,
Izz =0.000457813 m
4
, and Iyz = 0.

If the centroid is located at yc = 0.1625 m and zc = 0.1 m relative to the y'-z' axis, and
w1 = 0.15 m, w2 =0.05m , w3 = 0.20 m , h = 0.25 m , and t = 0.05 m, determine the
shear stress in the middle of the web using a top-down approach. (You may assume all
three sections are centered relative to the y-axis and that the dots correspond to the local
centroid locations.)
a) 29.2969 kPa
b) 52.5001 kPa
c) 26.0157 kPa
d) 33.7500 kPa
e) 26.4844 kPa
f) 80.6251 kPa
g) -29.2969 kPa
h) -33.7500 kPa
i) -52.5001 kPa
j) -26.0157 kPa

Comment [ GDS39] : Full credit because b) , c)
and d) were not changed to plane of bending
Comment [ GDS40] : 1/2 credit because they may
have corrected b) c) and d)
Comment [ GDS41] : 1/2 credit because they may
have corrected b) c) and d)
Comment [ GDS42] : 3/4 credit because they may
have corrected b) c) and d)
Comment [ GDS43] : 3/4 credit plugged in wrong
ybar
Comment [ GDS44] : full credit.
Comment [ GDS45] : 1/2 credit integrated from
wrong direction
Comment [ GDS46] : 1/4 credit integrated from
wrong direction and wrong y bar
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20. A beam with cross-section like the one shown in Problem 19 is fixed to a rigid wall at
the left end (at x=0) and subjected to applied tip moments (at x=L) of Mz(x)=45781.3
Nm and My(x)=6000 Nm , where the length of the beam is L=2 m and the Young's
modulus is 2GPa.

The tip deflection in the plane of bending is:
a) 0.1 m
b) -0.1 m
c) 0.12 m
d) -0.12 m
e) -0.156205 m
f) 0.156205 m
g) -0.153644 m
h) 0.153644 m
i) 0.028168 m
j) -0.028168 m
Comment [ GDS47] : 1/4 credit for uy deflection
Comment [ GDS48] : 1/4 credit for uz deflection
Comment [ GDS49] : full credit
Comment [ GDS50] : 1/2 credit for minus sign
error