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1. Stress- Strain curve for 6061-T6 aluminum alloy Data was chosen to obtain a reasonably shaped curve.

6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy Stress-Strain Curve
350 300 250
Yield Strength = 276MPa Tensile Strength = 310 MPa

3. 4 Legs lo = 400mm A (cross section) = 50mm * 25mm P = 6,300,000N ll (leg length under load) = 397.6mm (completely elastic strain) a) The table legs are loaded in compression. The legs, which are shortened under loading, return to their original length when the load is removed; this indicates that all the strain is elastic. b) The cross section area will increase under compression; after the load is released the dimensions will return to their original values. #z = (lf – lo) / lo = (397.6mm-400mm) / 400mm = -0.006 ! = -#y / #z therefore #y = -#z * ! = 0.006 * .30 = 0.0018 #y = (lf – lo) / lo therefore lf = #y* lo + lo lf = (0.0018*25mm)+25mm = 25.045mm ! = -#x / #z therefore, #x = -! * #z = -0.30 *-0.006 = .0018 lf = (0.0018*50mm)+50mm = 50.09mm c) " = P/A = 6,300,000N / 4x(25.045*50.09)mm2 = 1255.5 MPa (NOTE multiplication by 4 in denominator to account for 4 legs…) "z > 1255.5 MPa d) E = " / # = 1255.5 MPa / 0.006 = 209 GPa 4. a) Section 7.20 discusses two ways of incorporating a margin of error into engineering structural calculations for greater safety: design stress and safe stress. The design stress method assumes know conditions, and overestimates them to produce a conservative estimate. The safe stress method assumes know material properties and underestimates them to produce a conservative estimate. Design stress is usually preferred since it is based on the anticipated maximum applied stress instead of the yield strength of the material. b) Case 1- Safe Stress- because the yield strength of the material is known and wind is a factor effecting the yield strength Case 2- Design Stress- because the strength of the bed is unknown and must be estimated (determination of an applied stress) c) In both cases, the stresses are altered to provide a margin of error. The required truck bed strength will be overestimated, while the allowable wind speed will be underestimated.

Strain (%)

Failure Strain = 0.175 = 17.5%

200 150 100 50 0 0 4 8 12 Stress (MPa) 16 20
Slope = Modulus = 69GPa

2.

Annealed Pure Copper
E (GPa) G (GPa) 46 !(unitless) 0.34 "y (MPa) 69 "t (MPa) 200 Ductility (%EL) 45 n 0.44 K (MPa) 530

Copper

110

a) E = "y / # therefore # = "y / E = 69MPa / 110,000MPa = 0.000627 unitless # = (lf – lo) / lo therefore lf = #* lo + lo lf = (0.000627*100mm)+100mm = 100.0627mm (0.0627mm stretched) b) ! = -#y / #z therefore #y = -#z* ! = -0.000627*0.34 = -0.0002132 rf = #* ro + ro = (-0.0002132*5mm)+5mm = 4.999mm c) %EL = % plastic strain at fracture = 45% or .45 Total #f = plastic strain + elastic strain = 0.45 + 0.000627 = 0.450627 #T = ln(1+#f) = ln(1+0.450627) = 0.3720 "T = K#Tn = 530MPa * 0.37200.44 = 343 MPa (NOTE that this is much higher than given value of 200 MPa above) d) "T, f = "f(1+#f) therefore "f = "T,f/(1+#f) "f = = 343 MPa / (1+0.450627) = 237 MPa This answer is questionable because 237 MPa is greater than the given tensile strength of 200 MPa, and we expect fracture strength in engineering stress terms to be below tensile strength. The fact that we have utilized Eqn 7.19 in a case where necking is likely helps explain this discrepancy. 1

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quick.9(. the stress-strain behavior for which is shown in Figure 7. % = 60° and & = 35° Eqn 8.75GPa ! # fs = 220e("5. Since this is less than the critical stress.5) + 0.12. No overall relationship exists between the two values (strength and hardness).9(0) + 0. The max resolved shear stress would occur when both % & & = 45°. since less relaxation has been allowed to occur at the lower time values. Then find (n) by plugging in 25% values 60 = 220e("n(. Temp for PMMA 10000 1000 Relaxation Modulus MPa 100 0. b) The steel alloy (Figure 7. the hardness for brass corresponding to this tensile strength is about 125HB or 70HRB.5) = 16. This corresponds to a hardness of about 560HB or ~55HRC from the line (extended) for steels in Figure 7. when $r would equal 6 MPa. Eqn 8.31. 8.3 gives a resolved shear stress of $r = 4.197 Next solve for 50% values E = 90(1"1.9(0) 2 ) 10 1 0 20 40 60 80 Temperature C 100 120 140 160 E0 = 90GPa 220 = " 0 e " 0 = 220 MPa ( ! n ( 0 )) The glass transition temperature will be 105 to 110 C The melt temperature will be around 140 or 150 C The 0. 7. all possible slip directions would be at angles of 90° [cos(&)=0]. This also influences the T[g] and T[m] estimates to some degree. no yielding will occur.5)2 ) = 24. giving a resolved shear stress of zero. d) Strength-hardness correlations are material dependent.197*0.91 MPa. a) For " =12 MPa.36MPa ! c) If the slip plane normal angle were reoriented to 0°.9 P 2 ) " fs = " 0 e ( ! nP ) Plug in values at P= 0 to find 90 = E0 (1 ! 1.01 hrs 10 hrs E = E0 (1 ! 1.01 hour time yields larger values of Er than the 10 hour time.5.9 P + 0. At the opposite extreme.25)) n = 5. Relaxation Modulus vs.2. the tensile strength is 450MPa.9(. a slip plane normal angle of 90° [cos(%)=0] for any possible slip direction would also give a resolved stress of exactly zero. From Figure 7. 3 4 . and simple. they are often used for quality control. a) For the brass specimen. and the closely related Eqns 8.4.3 & 8.4 shows that an applied tensile stress of 15. $r = " cos(%) cos(&).1 MPa would be needed. b) To reach the critical resolved shear stress. c) Hardness tests are non-destructive. 6.31.33) has a tensile strength of about 1970 MPa. Use Equation 8.

Here. which would occur at d-1/2=0.36 mm-1/2.19… a) The minimum yield strength of 25 MPa shown is at the point where d-1/2=0.9) Refer to Figs 8.15 and 8.5 MPa•mm1/2 (or 0.0 x 10-3 mm gives d-1/2=22. the strength level would be entirely due to grain size and alloying (composition) effects.0069 mm.395 MPa•m1/2). Given the constants from part (a). This will be "0 = 25 MPa. because there is only a single grain). b) As suggested by the method above. The slope of the yield strength line represents kY and can be visually estimated as kY = 12.19 shows an undeformed yield strength of approximately 175 MPa (when no additional dislocation strengthening would exist). this should correspond to a strength of approximately 305 MPa. then the grain size should be d-1/2=12 mm-1/2 or d=0. d) The brass in Fig 8. "0 represents the minimum strength level of the material.15. c) A grain size of 2. or d=! (the strength when there are no grain boundaries present. If the composition is the same as in Fig 8. 5 .