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MSE3094 HW#8 Solutions 1)

a) The data is
Equiv Distance, mm (in.) 7 (5/16) 11 (7/16) 14 (9/16) HRC Hardness 49 44 40

April 1, 2011

Radial Position Surface 3/4 R Midradius Center

16 (10/16) 38

Plot looks like

b) The data is:


Radial Position Surface 3/4 R Midradius Center Equiv Distance, mm (in.) 1.5(1/16) 5(3/16) 10(3/8) 11(7/16) HRC Hardness 57 55 47 44

The plot looks like:

c) The data looks like:


Radial Position Surface 3/4 R Midradius Center Equiv Distance, mm (in.) 3(1/8) 7.5(5/16) 14(9/16) 16(11/16) HRC Hardness 64 63 60 59

The plot looks like:


75 mm 8660 Steel quenched in agitated water 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 0 20 40 Radial position, mm 60

Hardness, HRC

d) The data looks like:


Radial Position Surface 3/4 R Midradius Center Equiv Distance, mm (in.) 1.5(1/16) 5(3/16) 10(3/8) 11(7/16) HRC Hardness 57 55 53 51

The plot looks like:


50 mm 8640 Steel quenched in agitated water

Hardness, HRC

58 56 54 52 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Radial position, mm

e) The data looks like:


Radial Position Surface 3/4 R Midradius Center Equiv Distance, mm (in.) 3(1/8) 7.5(5/16) 14(9/16) 16(11/16) HRC Hardness 57 54 46 41

The plot looks like:


75 mm 8640 Steel quenched in agitated water

Hardness, HRC

60 55 50 45 40 35 0 20 40 Radial position, mm 60

- Water is the quickest quenching medium followed by oil. Similar 5140 steel samples cooled in water achieve higher hardnesses than those quenched in oil at the same distance. - The metal additions of nickel and chromium in the 86xx series give it a hardness that is higher than 5140 which only contains chromium. - The carbon content as it increases also increases hardness. This can be seen with the 8660 and 8640 steels which differ only in carbon content, but 8660 is harder. - Finally, comparing the two 8640 samples, the 50 mm bar achieves higher hardness values than the one at 75 mm diameter because heat is conducted through a smaller volume more quickly.

2)

(a) Cu-Be should be hardenable at compositions between about 0.3 and 2.7 wt% Be, where there is a high temperature single-phase solid and a low temperature two-phase solid region. (b) The precipitating phase must be 2, since 1 exists only above 600 degrees and will not be stable as a precipitate for low temperature use. 2 will precipitate from single-phase alpha. (c) 1 and 2 (which are related to the compound CuBe) both contain 10.5 wt% Be. Given this information, a lever rule calculation allows us to determine the maximum amount of precipitated 1. The max amount will form when there is the most possible Be in the single phase (about 2.7 wt%) and at a temperature where Be has the lowest solubility (about 0.3 wt% below 300 deg C). Thus, the maximum amount of precipitate would be: wt% 2 = (2.7-0.3)/(10.5-0.3) = about 23 wt%.

(d) The exact temperatures required will depend on composition. To pick two examples: At 1 wt% Be, a solutionizing treatment between about 500 and 900 degrees would produce a single-phase solid. Following this by an aging treatment at 300 to 450 degrees would produce coherent precipitates. At 2 wt% Be, a solutionizing treatment between about 700 and 850 degrees would produce a single-phase solid. Following this by an aging treatment at 300 to 600 degrees would produce coherent precipitates.

3)

This problem inquires as to the possibility of producing a precipitation-hardened 2014 aluminum alloy having a minimum tensile strength of 380 MPa (53,000 psi) and a ductility of at least 14%EL. In order to solve this problem it is necessary to consult Figures 11.25(a) and 11.25(b). Below are tabulated the times required at the various temperatures to achieve the stipulated yield strength. Temperature (C)Time Range (h) 260 impossible 204 0.5-5 hrs 149 10-250 hrs 121 500-2500 hrs With regard to temperatures and times to give the desired ductility: Temperature (C)Time Range (h) 260 <0.005 or >90 hrs 204 <0.15 or >1000 hrs 149 11 hrs 121 <450 Therefore, an alloy having this combination of yield strength and ductility is possible for only one processing temperature, over a very narrow time range. Specifically, a treatment at 149C for about 11 hrs (underaged) would work. This would not be an especially stable situation in use, as ductility would slowly tend to drop as the material ages further at room temperature. However, based on the trends shown on the diagrams, which represent exponential changes in process rates with changing temperature, these changes would likely take years to occur at 25C.

4) a) 304H stainless is an austenitic stainless steel with added carbon to increase the strength above that of 304 stainless. It contains 18% chromium and 8% nickel. b) 5150 steel is a low alloy, medium carbon steel. It contains 0.5% carbon and 1.0% chromium. c) 3003-H28 Al is a wrought aluminum alloy with manganese metal additions. It has been cold-worked and partially annealed, and is at a fully worked (8/8) condition. d) 2014-T5 Al is a wrought aluminum alloy with copper metal additions. It has been precipitation-hardened (tempered) by cooling from a high T shaping process and artificial aging. 5) a) The two alloys are at the same cold-work condition, but got there by different paths. The 7075 alloy has higher baseline strength than the 1100 (more alloy additions), so with the same amount of cold-work, 7075-H24 will be stronger. b) 3003-H16 alloy is more worked (3/4 hard vs 1/4 hard), and they are otherwise identical, so the H16 alloy is stronger. c) 4170 is stronger (more carbon content, with same alloy additions). d) T9 alloy is stronger. It has been worked in addition to the precipitation hardening. The Al alloys here are otherwise identical.