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MSE3094 HW#9 Solutions 1) (a) Glass is susceptible to residual stresses because it cools at different rates depending on what location

in the glass is being considered. Therefore this can cause compression or tension relative to other points within the glass. (b) Residual thermal stresses are introduced into a glass piece when it is cooled because surface & interior regions cool at different rates, and, therefore, contract different amounts; since the material will experience very little, if any deformation, stresses are established. Thermal stresses will be introduced because of thermal expansion upon heating for the same reason as for thermal contraction upon cooling. However, in either case, this will only occur below the annealing temperature (c) The lower the thickness of a glass-ware the smaller the thermal stresses that are introduced when it is either heated or cooled. The reason for this is that the difference in temperature across the cross-section of the ware, and, therefore, the difference in the degree of expansion or contraction will decrease with thickness decrease. (d) Thermal tempering takes advantage of residual stresses by manipulating temperatures & times in order to achieve compressive stresses near the surface and tensile stresses in the middle of the material. Surface compressions work against the opening of cracks, and protect the material against fracture by propagation of surface flaws. 2) Chemical tempering of glass also involves the production of compressive stresses at the surface, but it can achieve greater strengthening efficiency by using substituted atoms of relatively large size rather than a thermal process. For example, if the surface of a soda-lime glass is treated to replace some of the sodium atoms with larger potassium atoms, these potassium substitutions will put the surface into compression and reduce susceptibility to fracture. We might also substitute strontium for calcium, etc. Substitutions of smaller atoms Li for Na, or Be for Ca would not work, as they would introduce detrimental tensions at the surface. Most tempered glass used in the aircraft industry today for windows and domes is chemically tempered, and chemical tempering is also widely used industrially to create complex glass shapes that may require significant curvature. 3) (a) Normally, metal cannot be cooled fast enough to be amorphous. It might limit the level of order in the microstructure (e.g., martensite in steel), but it will not be amorphous. When annealed, the metals toughness will improve, as the microstructure changes upon annealing. This decreases strength. (b) Slowly cooled polymers are more likely to crystallize than quickly cooled polymers. Cooling must provide enough time for the chains to untangle and fit into an ordered, crystalline structure. If the polymer is cooled too quickly, the resulting material will be amorphous. When reheated, the extra thermal energy increases the likelihood that the polymer will crystallize and INCREASE in strength. Thus, both classes of materials display decreasing order with increased cooling rate, but with different levels of amorphousness possible. The effect of heat treatment is similar in terms of structural effect (more, larger crystals) but opposite in terms of mechanical property variation (weaker vs. stronger).

MSE3094 HW#9 Solutions 4) To form a good fiber, a material must have high tensile strength, high modulus of elasticity, and high hardness (for abrasion resistance). Polymers must have high molecular weight, and be capable of crystallizing (linear and unbranched chains), since both of these are related to higher tensile strength. Typical polymer fibers thus display rigid, linear chains with strong (polar VDW or hydrogen) interchain bonding. Fibers are formed by spinning. Normally, melt spinning is used, where a viscous molten liquid is pumped through a spinnerette plate with small holes in it. The increased surface area, and the speed of extrusion, cools the streams and freezes them into solid fibers. 5) Numerous answers acceptable, but text emphasizes: Polymers: Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene: Mw > 4x106 g/mol, which has high impact resistance, wear resistance, low coefficient of friction, self lubricating, nonstick surface, high chemical resistance, sound dampening and energy absorption properties, and is electrically insulating. Used for golf balls, bullet proof vests, material handling equipment (coal, grain, high abrasion environments). Liquid Crystal Polymers: extended, rod-shaped, rigid polymers. Used in LCD displays which changes colors when a voltage is applied. Thermoplastic Elastomers: Thermoplastic, but yet display elastomer properties at room temperature. They are often constructed of Styrenic Block Polymers, and are used for automotive trim, electrical insulation, and components in sealant. Ceramics: Heat Engine Applications: Future use in engines would improve efficiency by allowing the engine to operate at a higher temperature. Engine blocks, valves, cylinder liners, pistons and bearings have been demonstrated. Silicon Nitride, Silicon Carbide and Zirconia are three materials used. Ceramic Armor: Less dense than metal, ceramic armor is looking to replace metal. Alumina, Boron Carbide, Silicon Carbide and Titanium Diboride are common materials being researched. Electronic Packaging: Alumina has been used for a long time to package integrated circuits (ICs), but is limited by low thermal conductivity. Ceramics are being sought with higher thermal conductivity: Boron Nitride, Silicon Carbide, and Aluminum Nitride. 6) The stiffness of the composite can be determined from equation 15.1 for the upper limit modulus (Ec = Vp Ep + Vm Em). Specific stiffness will be the composite stiffness divided by the composite density, determinable by an equation of the same basic form (c = Vp p + Vm m). Plotting (or calculating) values between Vf = 0.2 and 0.9 shows that the specific stiffness in this case reaches a maximum at the highest possible level of particles (Vp=0.9).

MSE3094 HW#9 Solutions 7) Yes, the desired specifications can be met at a fiber volume fraction of exactly 0.4255. The given moduli can be determined using Eqns 15.10 and 15.11. 8) The given data dictates a critical fiber length of 3500*0.01/2*75 = 0.23 mm (Eqn 15.3). Thus, equation 15.18 for discontinuous supercritical fibers applies. This gives a strength estimate of:
* " cd = " *f V f (1#

lc ) + " $ (1#V f ) m 2l 0.23 = (3500)(0.4)(1# ) + 8(0.6) = 1340MPa 2(2.5)

9) The given specs indicate a fiber failure strain of 0.0479 and a matrix failure strain of 0.0625. Thus, the fibers will fail first, and the matrix stress at fiber failure will be ! 0.0479*4000 = 192 MPa. Equation 15.17 applies for the continuous composite strength, Using this equation and an equation for the composite density (as the volume average of the component densities), we can find that the desired strength can be achieved at fiber volume fractions above 0.365 but that the necessary density is only possible at fiber volume fractions below 0.260. Thus, this design is not possible with the given materials.