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Dr. Juan R. Cspedes, Ph.D.

Lectures on Totalitarianism Communism, Fascism, & Nazism: A Synopsis

International Baccalaureate History Program ----------------------------- COMMUNIST IDEOLOGY ----------------------------- The International Arise ye workers from your slumbers Arise ye prisoners of want For reason in revolt now thunders And at last ends the age of cant. Away with all your superstitions Servile masses arise, arise We'll change henceforth the old tradition And spurn the dust to win the prize.

Refrain: So comrades, come rally And the last ght let us face The Internationale unites the human race. No more deluded by reaction On tyrants only we'll make war The soldiers too will take strike action They'll break ranks and ght no more And if those cannibals keep trying To sacrice us to their pride They soon shall hear the bullets ying We'll shoot the generals on our own side. No savior from on high delivers No faith have we in prince or peer Our own right hand the chains must shiver Chains of hatred, greed and fear E'er the thieves will out with their booty And give to all a happier lot. Each at the forge must do their duty And we'll strike while the iron is hot. ----------------------------- The foundation of modern communist principles occurs in 1848, when Germans Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish The Communist Manifesto.

----------------------------- As technology increased and industry expanded in nineteenth-century Europe and America, it became clear that the general welfare of laborers was not improving. ----------------------------- Although the new democratic governments gave new rights to workers, or "the proletariat," the capitalism that came with democracy had created different means of oppression. ----------------------------- By drawing on existing theories of materialism, labor, and historical evolution, Marx and Engels were identify the reasons why the common man was doomed to abject poverty throughout recorded history. -----------------------------

In The Communist Manifesto Marx and Engels argue that human history was best understood as a continuing struggle between a small exploiting classthe owners of the means of productionand a larger exploited class (laborers in factories and mills who often worked for starvation wages). Dialectic of History: Thesis Antithesis Synthesis

----------------------------- Throughout history, the exploiting class controlled the means of production and proted by employing the labor of the masses. In the capitalism that developed alongside democracy, they saw a progressive concentration of the powers of production placed in the hands of a privileged few. ----------------------------- Although society was producing more goods and services, the general welfare of the middle class, they believed, was declining. This disparity in capitalistic societies predicted capitalism's doom. -----------------------------

Over time, as the anticipated numbers of the middle class, or "bourgeoisie," began to decrease, the conicts between laborers and capitalists would sharpen, and social revolution was inevitable. ----------------------------- Marx and Engels wrote that the transfer of power from the few to the many could only take place by force. ----------------------------- The social revolution envisioned by Marx and Engels would begin with a dictatorship of the proletariat. Once in possession of the means of production, the dictatorship would devise the means for society to achieve the collective ownership of wealth. ----------------------------- Once the transitional period had stabilized the state, the purest form of communism would take shape. It would be a classless society in which property and wealth were distributed equally and without the need for a coercive government. This last stage of Marxian communism has, as of this time in history, never been realized in any country.

----------------------------- The Mind of Karl Marx ----------------------------- A specter is haunting Europe - the specter of communism. Capital is dead labor, which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labor, and lives the more, the more labor it sucks. Capital is reckless of the health or length of life of the laborer... ----------------------------- Capitalist production, therefore, develops technology...only by sapping the original sources of all wealth - the soil and the laborer.

From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs. History is nothing but the activity of men in pursuit of their ends. ----------------------------- Landlords, like all other men, love to reap where they never sowed. Landlords, like all other men, love to reap where they never sowed. Nothing can have value without being an object of utility. ----------------------------- Dialectical MaterialismMan is only matter in motion. Matter is the total explanation for space, nature, man: Religion is the impotence of the human mind to deal with occurrences it cannot understand. Religion is the opium of the masses. The rst requisite for the happiness of the people is the abolition of religion.

-----------------------------The meaning of peace is the absence of opposition to socialism. The more the division of labor and the application of machinery extend, the more does competition extend among the workers, the more do their wages shrink together. The more the division of labor and the application of machinery extend, the more does competition extend among the workers, the more do their wages shrink together. -----------------------------The oppressed are allowed once every few years to decide which particular representatives of the oppressing class are to represent and repress them. The only antidote to mental suffering is physical pain. The theory of Communism may be summed up in one sentence: Abolish all private property. -----------------------------We should not say that one man's hour is worth another man's hour, but rather that one man during an hour is worth just as much as another man during an hour. Time is everything, man is nothing: he is at the most time's carcass. -----------------------------The Mind of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

-----------------------------A lie told often enough becomes the truth. Freedom in capitalist society always remains about the same as it was in ancient Greek republics: Freedom for slave owners. -----------------------------Give me four years to teach the children and the seed I have sown will never be uprooted. It is true that liberty is precious - so precious that it must be rationed. One man with a gun can control 100 without one. -----------------------------The goal of socialism is communism. The history of all countries shows that the working class exclusively by its own effort is able to develop only trade-union consciousness. Sometimes - history needs a push. -----------------------------There are no morals in politics; there is only expedience. A scoundrel may be of use to us just because he is a scoundrel. The way to crush the bourgeoisie is to grind them between the millstones of taxation and ination. We need the real, nation-wide terror which reinvigorates the country and through which the Great French Revolution achieved glory.

----------------------------- FASCIST IDEOLOGY -----------------------------


Giovinezza Hail, heroic people, hail, immortal Motherland, your sons were born again with faith in the ideal. Your warriors' valour, your pioneers' virtue, Alighieri's view, today shine in every heart. CHORUS: Youth, Youth, Spring of beauty, your song rings and goes through the sorrows of life! For Benito Mussolini, Eja eja alal. For our beautiful Motherland, Eja eja alal. In the Italian borders, Italians have been remade, Mussolini has remade them for tomorrow's war.

For the glory of work, for peace and for laurel, to pillory those who have disowned our Motherland. CHORUS The poets and the artisans, the lords and the countrymen, with Italian pride trust Mussolini. There isn't any poor quarter, which does not send its ranks, which does not unfurl the redeeming

ags of Fascism. ----------------------------- Fascism is a response to the "dangers" of both Marxist/communist thought and unrestrained laissez-faire capitalism. Fascism is the negation of that doctrine which formed the basis of the so-called Scientic or Marxian Socialism. ~ Benito Mussolini -----------------------------

Fascism was founded in 1919 by Benito Mussolini. The Italian name of the movement, fascismo, is derived from fascio ("bundle, political group") but also refers to the movement's emblem, the fasces, a bundle of rods bound around a projecting axe-head that was carried before an ancient Roman magistrate by an attendant as a symbol of authority and power. ---------------------------- The Principles of the Corporate State Class collaboration is an alternative to class conict. To its voters, fascism presented itself as a form of new and even revolutionary conservatism that could reconcile the interests of the elite with those of the common man. ----------------------------- The nation is like a body, the body parts act in harmony with each other. Under the corporate state, persons willingly submit to the authority of those above them in exchange for the gratication they derive from reaping the benets of a productive society.

---------------------------- For example, Japanese fascists believed that owners of stores and workshops should exercise paternal authority over their assistants, clerks, workers, servants, and tenants. Subordinates were not permitted to organize themselves into unions, and the small bosses assumed the leadership of town and village councils. ---------------------------- In Italy, business owners, employees, trades-people, professionals, and other economic classes were organized into 22 guilds, or associations, known as "corporations" according to their industries. These groups were given representation in a legislative body known as the Camera dei Fasci e delle Corporazioni. -----------------------------

A Place in the Economy for Private Capital Under the Guidance of the State But when brought within the orbit of the State, Fascism recognizes the real needs which gave rise to socialism and trade-unionism, giving them due weight in the guild or corporative system in which divergent interests are coordinated and harmonized in the unity of the State. ~ Benito Mussolini ----------------------------- The corporate State considers that private enterprise in the sphere of production is the most effective and useful [sic] instrument in the interest of the nation. In view of the fact that private organization of production is a function of national concern, the organizer of the enterprise is responsible to the State for the direction given to production. ~ Benito Mussolini ----------------------------- State intervention in economic production arises only when private initiative is lacking or insufcient, or when the political interests of the State are involved.

~ Benito Mussolini Thus, fascism attempted to be both conservative and radical. Benito Mussolini embraced this supercially-contradictory formulation, saying "I am a reactionary and a revolutionary." ----------------------------- .Fascism recognizes the real needs which gave rise to socialism and trade unionism, giving them due weight in the guild or corporative system in which divergent interests are coordinated and harmonized in the unity of the State. ----------------------------- The Mind of Benito Mussolini -----------------------------Fascism afrms the irremediable, fruitful and benecent inequality of men, who cannot be leveled by such a mechanical and extrinsic fact as universal suffrage.

----------------------------- Fascism believes neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace. War alone brings up to its highest tension all human energy and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples who have courage to meet it. Political doctrines pass; nations remain. ----------------------------- Fascism wants man to be active and to engage in action with all his energiesIt conceives of life as a struggle in which it behooves a man to win for himself a really worthy place, rst of all by tting himself (physically, morally, intellectually) to become the implement required for winning it. As for the individual, so for the nation, and so for mankind. -----------------------------

No action is exempt from moral judgment; no activity can be despoiled of the value which a moral purpose confers on all things.The Fascist disdains an easy" life. the Fascist conception of life stresses the importance of the State and accepts the individual only in so far as his interests coincide with those of the State ----------------------------- NAZI IDEOLOGY - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Horst Wessel Lied Flag high, ranks closed, The S.A. marches with silent solid steps. Comrades shot by the red front and reaction march in spirit with us in our ranks. The street free for the brown battalions, The street free for the Storm Troopers.

Millions, full of hope, look up at the swastika; The day breaks for freedom and for bread. For the last time the call will now be blown; For the struggle now we all stand ready. Soon will y Hitler-ags over every street; Slavery will last only a short time longer. Flag high, ranks closed, The S.A. marches with silent solid steps. Comrades shot by the red front and reaction march in spirit with us in our ranks. --------------------------- Nazism, the political movement led by Adolf Hitler in Germany, is widely viewed as a form of fascism. The Nazis shared the extreme nationalism, militarism, corporatism and anti-communism of the original Italian Fascists. ----------------------------- Hitler initially admired Mussolini, going as far as to copy the Roman salute used by Italian Fascists. However, the Nazis added racism and anti-Semitism to the original fascist ideas. The Italian Fascists were not interested in racism at rst; nevertheless, they eventually began to pass anti-Semitic laws when pressured by their German allies.

-----------------------------The Mind of Adolf Hitler - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - All great movements are popular movements. They are the volcanic eruptions of human passions and emotions, stirred into activity by the ruthless Goddess of Distress or by the torch of the spoken word cast into the midst of the people. -----------------------------Any alliance whose purpose is not the intention to wage war is senseless and useless. Anyone who sees and paints a sky green and elds blue ought to be sterilized. Hate is more lasting than dislike. -----------------------------By the skillful and sustained use of propaganda, one can make a people see even heaven as hell or an extremely wretched life as paradise. How fortunate for governments that the people they administer don't think. ------------------------------

Humanitarianism is the expression of stupidity and cowardice. I use emotion for the many and reserve reason for the few. It is not truth that matters, but victory. -----------------------------Struggle is the father of all things. It is not by the principles of humanity that man lives or is able to preserve himself above the animal world, but solely by means of the most brutal struggle. -----------------------------The very rst essential for success is a perpetually constant and regular employment of violence. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Fascist Ultra-nationalism Communist Internationalist Fascist Authoritarian to totalitarian.

Communist Totalitarian Fascist Stated Anti-democratic Communist Stated Democratic -- in practice undemocratic Fascist Capital largely in private hands Communist Capital in state hands Fascist Racial hatred

Communist Class hatred Communist Collective leadership Cult of personality Fascist Cult of personality syndicalism representation Fascist scapegoats: foreigners or racial/ethnic group Communist scapegoat: bourgeoisie/upper classes Fascist xenophobia based on nationality/race Communist xenophobia based on class/social standing

Fascist religion emphasized or at least tolerated (if serves state) Communist religion banned and persecuted Fascist Sacrice for the nation Communist Sacrice for the party Communist/Fascist police state/repression to retain control ------------------------------------------------

"I leave you, hoping that the lamp of liberty will burn in your bosoms until there shall no longer be a doubt that all men are created free and equal." ~ Abraham Lincoln (picture of Lincoln & his son) Sources Fascism, Noel O'Sullivan, l983 pg 138: referencing; Mussolini's Roman Empire, by Mack Smith Penguin, ed., l979, rst published in l976, pg 247. The Doctrine of Fascism, by Benito Mussolini, 1935, Firenze: Vallecchi Editore. Fascism: Doctrine and Institutions, by Benito Mussolini, 1935, 'Ardita' Publishers, Rome. Translation of the 1932 Enciclopedia Italiana essay "Doctrines" by Mussolini. This translation is by Mr. I. S. Munro, from "Fascism to World-Power" (Alexander Maclehose, London, 1933). It is part of a

1984 compilation book: Readings on Fascism and National Socialism; Swallow Press, Athens, Ohio, 1984. A Primer of Italian Fascism. Book by Jeffrey T. Schnapp, Olivia E. Sears, Maria G. Stampino; University of Nebraska Press, 2000. My Autobiography. Book by Benito Mussolini; Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928. The Doctrine of Fascism, (Fascist government publication) 1935, Fascism Doctrine and Institutions, by Benito Mussolini, Ardita Publishers, Rome, pages 7-42. Communism, Free Dictionary, http://legaldictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Communism The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln edited by Roy P. Basler, Volume II, "Speech at Chicago, Illinois" (July 10, 1858), p. 502. The Internationale, Written by: Eugne Pottier - Paris, June 1871, Music by: Pierre Degeyter 1888 "Giovinezza" (The Youth, Words by: Salvator Gotta, Music by: Giuseppe Blanc, In use: 1922-1943

Horst Wessel Lied, also known as Flags on High, September 1929, attributed to "Der Unbekannte SA-Mann" (the Unknown SA-Man).