You are on page 1of 20

SUSTAINABILITY IN MINING,MINERAL PROCESSING & MATERIAL PRODUCTION

Marrakech, Morocco

WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES TO SUSTAINABILITY ?
ROBERTO C. VILLAS-BÔAS

Marrakech, Morocco

2011

Workshop on Uranium Recovery from Phosphates and Phosphoric Acid

1

ROBERTO C. VILLAS BÔAS CETEM - Center for Mineral Technology CYTED – Science & Technology for Development IMPC – International Mineral Processing Council – SD Committee IAEA – International Atomic Energy Agency – UDEPO & ThDEPO Group Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brazil

Abstract
Materials play a fundamental role in developing a nation and in maintaining or increasing its share in the world economy. However, any material to be produced has in its transformation cycle, at least one extracting, processing, fabrication and manufacturing step in which releases of substances, gases, liquids, or solids, occur to the environment. Besides, social problems may arise when a mine or a plant is installed in a given region, be raising salaries,demanding local inexistent goods and services,bringing new work force and disrupting what was considered a “normal way of life”. This paper addresses some sustainability issues associated to the extracting and processing of some mineral commodities that are of major interest to the mineral processing practicioner in an attempt to design sustainable processes and products.

1. Introduction
The production and utilization of material in general, and as consequence those of ores and metals, obey, within a given framework of industrial development, the economic cycles that are in effect in a certain time period. These cycles have been well-discussed in the literature[1][2][3][4] and might reflect a world, a local or a geopolitical trend. As,normally, the selection of a given set of materials depends upon the predominant cycle in the industrialized countries, these determine, to a greater or lesser extend, the consumption pattern of a given commodity, inducing the market to adapt itself to such a new reality. In materials based industries two general strategies arise: there is a search for materials that suit an available technology, and the development of technology for an available material. The recycled materials, which magnitude of use varies from economy to economy, need, as a general rule, lower capital and energy expenditures and more manpower than that of the primary processing. Also, they require lower pollution control costs than the primary ores. Such a recycling,however, is more intense as the sophistication of the economy increases, since viable quantities of recycled materials must be available in order to reutilize them. However, as important as they are in the world's economy, materials to be produced promote changes in the environment and in society,since they require energy to be processed, land to be installed, disposal sites to receive tailings or disposals, give off gases and dusts, require water and earth moving, and promotes some social disruption. In fact, since early times such impacts have been recognized and some actions and concerns arouse, here and there, to minimize them or at least leaving them within a tolerable and acceptable limit.
* Parts of this manuscript have been available to readers from several sources.However this
present version integrates them for the sake of completeness.

making each orebody unique in its physical and economic characteristics. As for the social impacts. Other factors. may go side by side. Losses are those discards readly identified to the main material produced. Therefore. weak ground.listings of some of the major ones are given as a challenge to planners and entrepreneurs. To the extent that there is a choice of the grade of the ore to be mined. et allia. the higher will be the cost of recovery of the valuable products. reflect on the economy. skill... and . or complete extraction of all available ore is never achieved. 2.what are the effects linked to the production. i.second.what are their availability in a foreseen future?[5]. disposal and use of materials. The average metal recoveries and the production steps For any material to be produced there are corresponding steps in which discards are also produced. there is also a choice of the total tonnage and of the total product recovered. Complete removal of all available ore from mine. forcing legislative decisions that promote technological alternatives which. as social pressures increases. The average metal recoveries In order to systemize the analysis of the environmental impacts of the discards an attempt is going to be made in quantifying such average metal losses. As regarding to the environment. Variations in the grade in the workability of an ore body. etc. two major questions are receiving worldwide attention: first.Such acceptability. or they may partly compensate each other. Other things being equal. thickness and regularity of the ore zone. but not necessarily identified to the main material. 2. the fixing of the cuttoff grade in deposits of irregular grade-distribution may require several computations of alternative tonnages and grades on the basis of different assumptions as to mineable limits. from economy to economy. so are the environmenal impacts caused by primary and secondary metals production.. parts of that material that are left behind throughout the production steps. the lower the grade or the poorer the quality of the ore. as a function of technology. Effluents are the discards coming from these same steps and that are inherent to the applied technology within each production step. changes from time to time. Therefore.e. recoveries and losses figures from metal to metal and even for the same metal from country to country. regulatory laws. in turn. but sufficiently similar in other qualities to be amenable to the same treatment process may be mine or blended to profitable recovery of otherwise para marginal ore. the higher the tonnage. hardness and toughness of the ore. finantial capability. Equally important with grade is the workability of the ore which is measured by the cost of physical removal of the rock. the lower the permissible grade. Ores of many different grades and many different costs. These discards might be of two broad cathegories: losses and effluents.. all must be evaluated when the decision on which ore must be taken should be made. but they migh help to point-out the emergency of the facts and impacts. It is well recognized that ore recoveries. No universal claims are made on the exposed reasonings. such as faults. do vary substantially due to the so called "particularities" of the mining world: the cut-off-grade and the compromise between grade versus recovery optimal combination. from mining to final metal product varies from country to country. Cost per unit recovered rise almost continuosly and . of course.1. such as accessibility from mine openings. presence of interfering structures. even when apparently similar technologies are used.

far from the sustainable target of total utilization. and MR is the mass recovery.. Table 2 .2% Ore MR = 81% MC = 28% Ore MR = 65% MC = 0.3% Ore MR = 66% MC = 2. with the recovery plant given. to some extent.Selected mineral commodities recovery/grade ORE Nb2O5 (3. the .e.22 Ore MR = 70% GRADE 60% Nb2O5 Conc. for the aforementioned reasons.95% > 20h 70 .80% 3 to 4h 40 . 55% TiO2 Conc.49% Ore MR = 74% MC = 1. 48% Sn Conc.16%) tantalite RECOVERY MC = 3. the mining method usually limits the recovery of the ore in the mine[6] [7]. As well as the utilized processing technology. the mass of the produced concentrate. of course.5%) ilmenite Cr2O3 (17%) chromite WO3 (0.Gold leaching recoveries[8] OPERATION PARTICLE SIZE Agitation Vat Heap < 0. It can be readly seen that the problem associated to earth moving and tailing disposal is quite a severe one. Table 1 . 49% Ta2O5 Conc. In the short run. the recovery figures are those shown in Table 1. 37% . the percent extraction of metal will depend.usually with increasing steeps as attempts are made to increase the percent extracted.3%) cassiterite Ta2O2 (0. 75% WO3 Conc.1% MC = 0. For gold leaching. Cr2O3 COMPANY CBMM (9) RIB (9) FERBASA (9) TUNGSTÊNIO (9) RENISON (10) BERNIC (10) As already pointed out MC stands for the mass of produced concentrate.9% Ore MR = 69.0%) piroclore TiO2 (1. on the grade of the ore itself.5%) scheelite Sn (1. as related to that of the ore total.60% 3 to 4w h = hour w = week COSTS IN OP IN IN OP IN = investment costs OP = operational costs Lets have a look on some select mineral commodities.1mm < 10mm > 10mm METTALURGICAL RECOVERY 90 . as shown in Table 2. for example. as regarding recoveries and grades. as related to that of the ore total (MC) and the mass recovery itself (MR) are. since from the grade of the ore up to the production of a salable concentrate.46% Conc. in percent. i.

. it generates five times the mass of gypsum as that of the concentrate. stamping and forging.. processing. .S. i. and heavy metals dusts). the losses are parts of metal resulting from such mechanical treatments that does not produce the aimed product. identifying four steps. the application of mechanical operations for the shaping of metals by machining. however in other parts of the world such figure might be still reasonably valid. the effluents are water vapors and industrial gases. SOx).extracting step..processing step. The Production Steps Lets describe such production steps and their discards. a clear picture. earth moving. The production steps. 2. etc.. would be included. do exist.2. i. liquids (heavy metals contamined waters) and solids (sediments. without any net loss of metal. from volcanic rock. It is acknowledged that this last figure is well obsolete for the U. process waters and contaminated freatic waters. for the purposes of this presentation. flotation.recovered amount of the valuable commodity as related to the original amount in the ore.e. mass recovery. helps to seek solutions related to the discards involved in each production step. and the effluents generated are gases (COx. those operations devoted to produce rods. A similar chart might be attempted in terms of overall mass flows (MC's). for a given particular case. namely extracting.e. the mining and beneficiation of the ore to a commercial concentrate. Lets try that! For this. generated by-products is the production of phosphate fertilizers. if defined for each production step.. when such a concentrate reacts with sulphuric acid to produce the fertilizer. as follows: . sheets. that besides the usual earth-moving and disposal problems associated to the production of the concentrate. losses are depend upon the chosen technologies and skills involved (pyro. etc. denominated "home scrap"[11] endlessly recirculated. room-and-pillar. Such a flowchart. and large departures from these figures. Tunneling into each of the aforementioned four production steps. the effluents generated are CO x NOx from machinery and equipment. As for those of HASIALIS they are average figures. etc. the losses are scrap materials resulting from those operations.) and beneficiation techniques (gravity separation. bars. A very illustrating example of recovery..). cutand-fill. the extractive metallurgy or chemical operations to convert a concentrate into a metal.manufacturing step. .fabrication step.e. will then be achieved... involving the extracting and processing steps are those of HASIALIS[15] and for the manufacturing step that of MAR[14]. i. and earth moving disposals/rearrangements. fabricating and manufacturing. or Sankey diagram. P2O5 based. being denominated "new scrap" or "prompt scrap" [11][13][14][12]. since earthmovings. grade. the effluents are waste waters and industrial gases. The losses are dependent upon the mining method (open pit. resulting in more impacting figures. where it was obtained in 1954(!). particulate material.. other than those of the fabrication step.. are all illustrated in Figure 1.. NOx. i. The utilized average metal recoveries figures from ore to metal. hopefully..e. some explanations are needed to follow Figures 1 the remaining Figures of the text: . hydro and/or electro). then. as indicated. which recycling is well organized and efficient[12][13].

Ei = is the effluent.The production steps X = the metal content of the "in situ" ore LE = is the loss in metal resulting in the extracting step. Tailing 0.) Concentrate 0.3625 X. LF = is the loss metal resulting from fabrication and is equivalent to O X (endless recirculated). . 2. generated in each stage. PE = is the product in metal originated from the extracting step. LM = is the loss in metal resulting from manufacturing. and is equivalent to 0. Proc. and is equivalent to 0.0637 5 X.5MWh/ton *See footnote Table 3. PF = is the product in metal resulting from fabrication.Figure 1 .6375 X. and is equivalent to 0.Income/outcome of the extracting step.3625X Bulk "in situ" ore X EXTRACTING (Mining + Min.5737 5 X. Proc. EE EFFLUENTS Gases from Machining H. PM = is the product in metal resulting from manufacturing.1147 5 X.M. and is equivalent to P P. Waste Waters Particulate/Dust Earth Movings Figure 2 .3. Identifyable environmental impact and prospects in the extracting step LE LOSSES Left Ore + Min. PP = is the product in metal resulting from processing and is equivalent to 0. LP = is the loss in metal resulting from processing.6375X PE ENERGY* < 17. and is equivalent to 0.

Process Waters 0. EP EFFLUENTS Generated Gases Waste Waters Particulate Solid Wastes Figure 3 . solids. water regimes. earth moving impacts associated to land reclamation. C. rooms for gains pending on improvements in the next step (processing). Energy: Taking up of energy. 16.4. Little room for improvements in present process waters and dust.5 Mining: disruption of day mining methods.420). function of cut-off and mining method. 2. per tonne of primary metal.1 Mining. since commercial grade concentrates are inputs to a given processing technology.4 C.Income/outcome of the processing step. Losses: B. Mineral processing: improvement.57375 PP ENERGY* < 113 MWh/ton *See footnote Table 3.1 Left ore. Effluents: C.) OX Metal 0. There are technical rooms for improvements. Physical disturbances are permanent. Al (10. Cu (17.From Figure 2: A. C. Zn (1.175).06375X 0. Sludges. and control of acid generation.2 Mining: gases from machinery and equipment (as well as noises and vibrations).2 Mineral Processing tailings. Figures in kWh (thermal). still technical rooms for Mineral processing: tailing disposals. Identifiable environmental impacts and prospects in the processing step LP LOSSES Slags. there are technical rooms for improvement. as reported in ref. B. rooms for improvement based upon compromises between legislation (function of social pressures) and costs of reclayming. there are technical rooms forimprovement. B.3 C. Dusts. .6375X PE PROCESSING (Extractive Metallugy.240). dust C.

still rooms for technical improvements.. specially those devoted to recover metal from slags. Figures in kWh per tonne (thermal) as reportes in ref. B. NOx. electrodes..). waste waters after eventual removal of metal(s) from process waters. Identifiable environmental impacts and prospects in the fabricating step LF LOSSES Home Scrap OX 0. Other figures are reported for Al and Mg if hydro-based power is available (much lower figures). continuous converting for Cu and the still pending solution to the red mud problem in Al. Mg (103.560).. Energy: Taking up of energy. There are rooms for improvements. Effluents: Generated process gases (COx..5.520).e. sludges. Al (35.384). SOx).57375X ENERGY* < 6 MWh/ton *See footnote table 3 EF EFFLUENTS Industrial Gases Waste Waters Figure 4 . 16. spent potlinings. 2.. etc.000). etc.). There are rooms for improvements. Zn (17.From Figure 3: A. C.57375X Metal Bards Rods FABRICATING PP OX PF 0. Losses: Left metal as function of the process technology utilized. drosses. Cu (26. sludges and dusts of existing technologies or new technologies based on decreasing the number of operations/equipment stages (i. . particulates throughout the processing stages and solid wastes other than slags. (for the Al industry.Income/outcome of the fabrication step. skills and legislation. for instance.

Figures in kWh/tonne (thermal).11475X 0. Losses: They are the so called new scrap that usually goes to secondary production. as reported in ref.From Figure 4: A. Energy: Quite variable depending on the particular metallic product through forging. Energy: Taking up of energy. rooms to reduce such generations as fabrication operations/equipments become more efficient. Cu (5. . Zn (1.492). From Figure 5: A. no net losses. B. stamping and machining. However. Identifiable environmental impacts and prospects in the manufacturing step LM LOSSES New Scrap.4590X ENERGY* <<6MWh *See footnote table 3 EM EFFLUENTS Industrial Gases Water Vapors Figure 5 .970). Borings Trimmings Rejects 0. Al (4.937). B. Effluents: Industrial gases and water vapors. Much less than any other of the previous production stages. 16. Losses: Generation of home scrap.57375X Metallic Product PM MANUFACTURING PF OX 0. There are rooms for some improvements. C. 2.6.Income/outcome of the manufacturing step.

primarely devoted to the processing step.4 5.Energy utilized in each production step PRODUCTION STEPS Extracting Processing Fabrication Manufacturing ENERGY (MWh) [thermal]/ton* < 17.5 < 113.3. i. Ti) The role of the mp practicioner is to seek for processes that minimizes energy consumption.0 < 6. Zn. the energy take up by the whole step and not just the direct one. then. following the extracting step and. energywise. his/her tasks are.5 6. Energy Table 3 lists the energy taken up in each production step. as related to the Gibbs Free Energy. et al. G. Table 3 . and FORREST & SZEKELY[22].1 * Energy take up by the whole step. as compared to the thermodinamical Gibbs Free Energy. Indeed.0 * Figures as mentioned. not averages but maximum.e.1. Mg. appearing in other papers dealing with the subject of environment. are of interest. The overall energy efficiences in the processing step. losses and effluents. metals production and energy such as YOSHIKI-GRAVELSINS. thus. since they give a strong indication to where to search for process improvements. the efficiences of processing operations have been compared by CHAPMAN & ROBERTS[13]. for that same processing step. Table 4 lists some selected metals and their overall efficiencies[13][16]. Cu. namely energy. Table 4 .0 << 6. thus hopefully enhancing chances of designing environmentally sound processes which in turn produce sustainable products.[16].1 4. PRIMARY METALS Al Cu Zn Mg Ti OVERALL ENERGY EFFICIENCIES* (%) 13 1. Let's raise some major points in each of the income/outcome of the production steps. 3. . fabrication and manufacturing. Role of the mineral processor practicioner and engineer The points to be raised in this section are those of a general nature that may guide the practicioner towards a better understanding of the overall effect a given process has upon the environment. for a selected class of metals (Al.The processing step overall energy efficiences for selected metals.

. several improvements have been and are still made through process optimization and process improvements[16][17][18]. the relationship is made referring to acceptable environmental standards in OECD's countries and they may vary considerable from country to country and from metal to metal. due to the greenhouse effect. the gaseous and the solid states. The losses of the manufacturing step usually goes to secondary recovery and besides the strategic/economic aspect to the enterprise itself. responsible for the greatest losses. no major role of the hydrometallurgist is to be foreseen.06375 X * Average metal loses as referred in the text.. as previously discussed. process.Of great concern is the power source of energy. the discards to the environment are several assuming the liquid. Here. and to a lesser degree to the manufacturing step. in general.2.. however.3625 0 0. giving to the hydrometallugist an extraordinary opportunity and offering several challenges. .e. that those average figures may be misleading. For each particular metal/substance that the hydrometallurgist is studing he/she has to refer to the actual values that are particular to the mining method. Such a concern was extensively dwelled by FORREST & SZEKELY[22]. Nevertheless. since such efficiencies are rather linked to the mechanical/electronics/physical metallurgical aspects of the issue. 3. etc.Metal losses to the environment per production step PRODUCTION STEP Extracting Processing Fabrication Manufacturing AVERAGE METAL LOSSES* 0. In-situ mining techniques. metal. that usually refer to the injection of a leach solution through boreholes into the ore are to be taken into account whereas possible[17]. per production step. It is worthy point out. skill. the mp practiconer has to focus his/her attention to the extracting step. In the processing step. mining and minerals processing techniques are. country. as discussed by CHAPMANN and ROBERTS[13] through the GER (gross energy requirement) concept.3. i. compairing in relative terms the land. hydro or coal based.11475 X X 0. Table 6 gives a list of problems that seek solutions at each of the production steps. water and air impacts. first. 3. Effluents Regarding the effluents. Table 5 .. Losses Table 5 list the average metal losses to the environment.

etc.Comparison between the impacts of the effluents in each production step PRODUCTION STEP Extracting Processing Fabrication Manufacturing L M S  low impact  moderate impact  severe impact LAND S MS L L IMPACT WATER S MS L L AIR M S S L For the identification of the specific problems that face the particular metal industry. tar pitch volatiles. spent pot linings. lack of transparency and last but not least the “ hole left in the ground” and negative externalities. royalty distribution and application. heavy metal effluents CHCs. primarely. HF. However. dust tailing disposal. mine run-off water. lists some environmental impacts associated to selected mineral industries.. gas generation).severe dusts and particulate emissions Gipsum. dioxin FeCl3.e. Cd. CO2 Metal carbonyl.Table 6 .. acid generation. for instance. to references[23] and [24].e. cyanide SO2.in general terms they are related to land ocuupation. volatile chlorides. water regimes. Table 7 . heavy metal effluents Iron oxide. membranes.) and the processing step (i. heavy metal leachate. revegetation. etc. land disturbance. from ore to ore . disposal of solids. see references[17][18] and [19]). SO2. heavy metals effluents. the reader is referred. liquid-liquid exchange..from plant to plant and from commodity to commodity..Major environmental impacts for selected mineral industries METAL Al Cu Zn Mg Ti Ni P2O5 IMPACT Red mud slurry. radiation 4. water consumption (whenever present) and disposal. CO2. electrowinning of dilute solutions. Table 7. soil erosion. metal fumes. For the specific techniques (biosorption.. local health. taxes. local employment. Thus the role of the mp practicioner in developing sustainable processes has to be focused on the extracting step (i.. Social issues Social issues in mineral processing and extraction operations may vary from place to place. .

amongst others..effluents : solids.org.cetem.as ..rocks and water).olami. Sustainable Mineral Industry A SUSTAINABLE mineral industry has to observe some requirements : MINIMIZING : 1.edu. due to. The MINING industry committments to sustainable mining practices and operations might be found explicited on several webpages.such committments might be seen at the website of major MINING COMPANIES . the associeted costs of said procedures.ca/www/Towards_Sustaining_Mining/index.International :http://www.icmm.mining. see.gov. . Investigations on past to present data on mining in Australia (http://civil.is looked upon as fundamental for VOLUNTARY actions which target their overcomings. available for free download at the aforementioned site.social satisfaction . in the book “Technological Challenges Posed by Sustainable Development to the Mineral Extraction Industry” . for its GLOBAL OPERATION.php IBRAM – Brasil: http://www.on their lower limits. MAXIMIZING : 4.eng.for instance : ICMM .com/icmm_principles. see (http://civil.au/about/staff/muddpersonal/rr5/. as.uk/cepmlp/journal/html/Vol16/article16_12. In this way.ibram.au/about/staff/gmudd/) .in several opportunities and as well quantified(http://w3.at length.concluded that the sustainability in that country still hangs in ballance..cetem.our book “ A Review on Indicators of Sustainability for the Minerals Extraction Industries “ freely available at http://w3. the purposes and actions preconized by sustainable development are already widelly accepted by the responsable and competitive mining industry ! Also.5.php?lang=pt MAC – Canada: http://www..masses involved in mining and processing(earth moving.monash.for instance.edu. are too obvious to stress the company´s interests in thus proceeding.br/cyted-xiii .for instance.ar According to these committments.php) and such measurement project is in development throughout the world .eng. the company thus becoming a TRUSTER of its GLOBAL RESPONSABILITY and taking as garanteed committment.issues as minimizing of EFFLUENTS.dundee.ac.br/ OLAMI – Argentina : http://www. be measured .gov.even beyond the limits imposed by legislation.via the proposition of INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABILITY FOR THE MINERALS EXTRACTION INDUSTRIES( http://www. and must.whatever and whenever ! Others.as minimizing of ENERGY.process energy : the free energy ! 3.liquids and gases . Such requirements were already discussed by us. as SOCIAL CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY.br/cyted-xiii). These can.for instance.monash. 2. at the restricted levels of contamination.org.

Tsukuba City.the widening concept of the fourth mining unit operation.1. asked me..nowadays..cetem. there living. the language of natives.and probable the MOST IMPORTANT contact with the locals ! In fact. I said. now in English.due to the actual existence. I am speaking the language of the locals. If we like to have success in whatever endeavour we are having in prospecting or else. and avoid too much expectations out of the prospecting results. I was participating at one AIST workshops in Japan.at the beginning.GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING SOCIAL SATISFACTION :once.anti-mining concerns and .and still today is an open subject.certainly.gov.since enlarges and extrapolates it. understandable to all ? Then . speak in the official workshop language... the first concern is to be understood and be able to communicate ! Someone of our team has to speak the local language since it is the FIRST .years back.pardon.however with many local competent solutions . the official language was English. Mine closure is.aforementioned. but not all ! And some conflicts might start. quite politelly. “Mine Closure in Iberoamerica” in http://w3.. I asked to speak and started delivering a speech in . thus preparing for a decent mine closure operation.costly.normally of low grade associated. Case Studies : 6. 6.professional movements. since as a PRINCIPLE of modern mining.besides. and even chemical processing. and.kindly. of severe social and environmental damages. right here ! .in several cases. how the enterprizes have faced it ? Quite reluctant.do not create big expectations or frustations from the prospecting results on the said community ! That was an international seminar.the companies realized that one of their strongest issues might be that of local community alliances . are been detected and coordinated in several parts of the Globe. huges masses are to be extracted .detect signs.for instance.transcending the mere reclayming operation .. but by past mining activities leaving unsolved.As for the issue of MASSES involved in mining and mineral processing.thus maximizing the ore body and the mine.neither linear. Then. There is no other branch of industry that provides more resources towards these goals in achieving strong community alliances than mining.even some. As well.ingeniousity in handling and discarding of such masses is the priority. Portuguese ! Everyone there present was a bit astonished and.not all this is a rosen garden. And that of te SOCIAL SATISFACTION.not necessarly provoqued by the same industry that now operates in these areas.it is a quite more subtle issue. problems.br/cyted-xiii .developing several quite interesting social and environmental projects together with its stakeholders. see. In this regard..would you. all major prospecting companies do have in their prospecting team experienced anthropologists who could speak.where the discussion was how to start a prospecting operation in a given locality without causing too much disturbance on local habits and normal life of the community. Ofcourse.

etc.gif .URANIUM MINE WATER MANAGEMENT : http://www-pub..OVERBURDEN.ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES : geological prospecting utilizes machinaries.. ..... .org/MTCD/publications/PDF/te_1463_web. some still pending problems are.waterinfo.iaea.energy.org/uranium-mining .eere.does interact with the environment and cases of acidic water production.deforestation.org/img/actumt.ISR AND WATER MANAGEMENT : http://seekingalpha.URANIUM ORE INDUSTRY For the URANIUM ORE industry. . ...minimization of MASSES involved : .F or GEOLOGICAL PROSPECTING care should be exercized in : . TAILLINGS AND SENSITIVE ENVIRONMENTS : http://www. ..pdf and http://www.. .PUBLIC PERCEPTION .VENTILATION : http://www..PROCESS : http://www1.wise-uranium.CAUSED BY SAMPLING.gov/industry/mining/pdfs/cover.iaea. who utilizes energy.have been reported and should be avoided .minimization of EFFLUENTS : .LONG TERM STABILIZATION OF URANIUM MILL TAILLINGS : http://wwwpub.2..DISCARDS produced ..cvmbs.CAUSED BY SOURCE OF ENERGY..minimization of process ENERGY : .URANIUM MILL TAILINGS ACTIVITY : http://www.ca/pubs_catalogue/uploads/44019-G221E.i.exposition of bedrocks...URANIUM WASTE MANAGEMENT : http://www..youtube.minimization of MASSES : .maximization of SOCIAL SATISFACTION: . ... who creates perforations and takes samples .pdf ..: .SAMPLES taken. issued by the USDHHS in 1999 persists.wise-uranium.org/rup..not exhaustible ..nuclearsafety.WATER utilized.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/te_1403_web.gc.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/te_1244_prn.pdf .edu/erhs/Health%20Physics/ATSDR_Uranium.iaea.just for the sake of examples.com/watch?v=Tj6Zd-hrly8 .com/article/31832-the-water-factor-in-isr-uranium-mining .pdf). .minimizing EXPECTATIONS 6.e.pdf .colostate.ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS during drilling .html#UMT and http://www-pub.pdf .although a comprehensive toxicological profile for uranium (http://www.minimization of ENERGY: here those necessary to make the machinery to work.

parliament.com/ and http://www.com/gsa/2007AM/finalprogram/session_19871.html .nsf/Public/230203 .htm and http://hs.html .3198753.pdf and http://www.org.epa.sric.org/ .ca/canada/north/story/2007/10/18/uranium-inuit.RADIOCLIDES IN URANIUM MINES AND TAILLINGS: http://www.html#RN and http://www.abqtrib.confex.html and http://www.PUBLIC PERCEPTION ON URANIUM MINING : http://www.dailypress.ca/wsib/wopm.ru/radleg/ch1e.au/ssd/uranium-mining/ecotoxicology.org/rup.0.MEDICAL CONCERNS ON URANIUM MINING : http://www.sea-us..html and http://www.org/bcma.praguemonitor.-GROUNDWATER : http://gsa.SOCIAL CONCERNS IN URANIUM MINING : http://hamptonroads.au/news/newsline/story/1147 ..nih.radon.-ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS FROM URANIUM MINING INCIDENTS : http://www.nlm.ABORIGINAL LANDS AND URANIUM MINING : http://www.SAFETY IN URANIUM MINING : http://www.gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&uid=4682428&cmd=showdeta ilview&indexed=google .nlm.com/resulteachpublication.pdf and http://uraniummine.nih.wise-uranium.maximization of social satisfaction ..com/wpdyn/content/article/2008/02/13/AR2008021303253.htm .com/ and .gov/rpdweb00/tenorm/uranium.htm .aspx?cid=6063&codi=3888&level=6&idproducttype =5 .gov.AQUATIC ECOTOXICITY ASSESSMENT FROM URANIUM MINING : http://www.washingtonpost...monash.TENORM : http://www.environmentalexpert..gov/rpdweb00/tenorm/pubs.com/2008/01/lawmakers-find-uranium-mining-still-hot-issue and http://no-uranium.ncbi..html .gov/sites/entrez?db=pubmed&uid=4682428&cmd=showdeta ilview&indexed=google and http://www.com/news/2007/oct/24/navajos-spurn-uranium-mining/ and http://www.spaces.ncbi..PARTICULTES (DUST) IN URANIUM MINING : http://www..minesandcommunities..html and http://www..epa.environment.gov/rpdweb00/docs/tenorm/volume-ii/402-r-05-007-ch5.ISL ISSUES IN URANIUM MINING : http://www.org/uranium/index.epa.gov.pdf .au/pdfs/isl/no2isl.ABANDONNED AND UNRECLAIMED URANIUM MINES : http://www.story ..live.html .ccnr..org/Action/press555.minimization of effluents : .com/en/260/czech_business/17750/ and http://www.html#uraniumdatabase and http://www.com/news/opinion/dp-ed_satltrs_02090feb09.kiae.DECOMMISSIONING OF URANIUM MINES AND PLANTS : http://www.uraniumsa.au/bills/pdf/57_of_2006..tas.environment.gov.au/ssd/uranium-mining/supervision/ecol-assessincidents.wsib.com/radon/radon_EPA.edu.blogspot.cbc.html and http://www.

gov/c fr_2005/julqtr/pdf/40cfr60..3. .edu.ecampus.pdf .WASTE MANAGEMENT: http://www.just for the sake of examples.html and .gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/umtra/monument_valley_title1.fertilizer.ksu.minimization of effluents: .WATER MANAGEMENT: http://elmaa.allbusiness.com/book/0873352254 .html .org/?p=145 6.OVERBURDEN: http://www.asp?ConfID=1035 .iaea.com/features/feature1210/ – PUBLIC PARTICIPATION : http://www.pdf.: .html And http://m-n-j.com/content/h586m88215253u72/ .PHOSPHATE ORE INDUSTRY As for the ORE PHOSPHATE industry some still pending problems are.PHOSPHOGYPSUM: http://www. .SELENIUM: http://www.akamaitech.PARTICULATE MATTER: http://a257.doe.environment. .au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/alisteri/part-c..pdf .asp?id=1176079 and http://www.pdf and http://www.fertilizer.LIFE CYCLE: http://www.pdf .brgm.html . .mitpressjournals.sa/PDF/Articles34/Article340653. not exhaustible .php and http://www-pub.nrcan.gpo.gov/industry/mining/pdfs/phosphate.access.minimization of MASSES involved: .com/article/26797.INPUT/OUTPUT: http://www1.pdf .com/ and http://www.minimization of process ENERGY: . .gc.energy.eere. . .theconservativevoice.energy.org/ifa/publicat/pdf/2001_mining_guide.1075?cookieSet=1&journ alCode=jiec .PROCESS: http://www1.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch11/final/c11s21. . .org/MTCD/Meetings/Announcements. ..eia.eere.ca/geochem/envir/uranium_e.2007.402.mining-technology.gov/industry/mining/pdfs/cover..POLITICAL PARTIES : http://www.org/ifa/publicat/pdf/2001_mining_guide.icrindia.geotimes. .GUERRILLA´s : http://www.FLUORIDE: http://www.pdf .RADIONUCLIDES: http://www.net/7/257/2422/08aug20051500/edocket.1162/jiec. .pdf .html .springerlink.sk.http://gsc.gov.g.keralanext.blogspot.ca/news?newsId=579c4e43-a94e-4f89-acf6-7b6a83f842cd and http://www.org/doi/abs/10.fr/Documents/Description/TheElMaaproject. .org/july04/WebExtra073004.and http://docs.epa.com/India/read.gov.com/government/3620515-1.POLITICAL AND GUERRILLA´S ACTIONS AND URANIUM MINING .NATIONAL HERITAGE AND URANIUM MINING : http://www.

JOB CREATION: http://www. have helped the mineral processor and mining practicioner to better manage and solve the relevant daylife problems and for the researcher engineer to choose the relevant areas of research interests for the sake of designing environmentally and socially sound processes thus promoting sustainability.de/index.5.mindbranch.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VB2-4BKN19P1&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_ version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=824f6ac3be8817d7bde137ff1198abf0 .ecampus.bunge.tudarmstadt.htm#Contents In Conclusion a. and their discussions.us/Education2004/what_is_fipr. .edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu24ee/uu24ee00. energy. .PDF and http://www.BUNGE SUSTAINABILITY REPORT: http://www.. . namely.UNPROVEN FACTS: http://www.fsu.gov/epcd/susb/2004/us/US212392.ISO 14001: http://www.com/AboutUs.sciencedirect.edu/current_students/organizations/ELS/images/256 7. .com/Outlook-Phosphate-Rock-R307-22377/ .asp .com/Documentation/~/media/Pdf/documents/PhosphorusRecy cling%20pdf.unu.fl.htm 8. .ashx and http://www. .phosphorus-recovery.FOREIGN EARNINGS: http://www.fipr.census2010. losses and effluents.com/st/saveThisApp?clickMap=link&webPadID=K203 702321 .thermphos.4.8.PHOSPHATES IN CHINA: http://www. extracting.4. . fabrication.It is hoped that the presentation of the production steps always present in the production of materials.pdf .pdf .state.com/business/ .law.com/reportinfo..ca/~geology/rocks_for_crops/53togo.com.OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE : http://www.stats.htm Also some interesting facts and concerns: .maximization of social satisfaction .http://www.uoguelph.com/eng/pages/JCK.HTM .PERMITS: http://www. . namely.org/stories/2004/tampa_trib_unscientific_jun22_04.ECO-RESTRUCTURING: http://www.br/sustentabilidade/Bunge_Rel_Sustentabilidade_2007. processing.PHOSPHATE RECYCLING: http://www.savethis. the input/output of materials. .com/book/0873352254 .morocco.VALUE ADDED: http://www.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=40&Itemid=50 8.asp?report_id=498250&t=t&cat_id= and http://www.researchandmarkets.SOCIAL DEMAND: http://www.clickability. .puriphos.wengfu. .EDUCATION & TRAINNING: http://www.. and manufacturing that incorporates the incomes/outcomes for each of these steps. .

in University of Phyladelphia Publication Series. R. National Materials Policy.(1986) Atrophy in Metal Demand. U. (1987) Strategic Ores: Worldwide and Brazilian Prospectives. Yoshiki-Gravelsins. (1976) Aluminium: Why Search for New Production Roules? Proceedings of the IV National Meeting a Minerals Processing. 1. 15-20. Materials and Society. D. (1979) Technical Economic and other Factors in the Gravity Concentration of Tin. J. B. U.C. . 6. 11.W. 114. A. U. Rio de Janeiro.O. 99-121. (1938) Grade of Ore. D. Italy. 6. L. Ottley. Corry.D. São José dos Campos. Minerals Today. M. vol. J. O. P. Tilton. (1975) Improvements in Minerals Recovery.C. Boston. (1992) The Role of Hydrometallurgy in Achieving Sustainable Devolpment.b.. to have present all still unsolved social issues that as a practicioner. W. Villas Bôas. 10. 4.. see reference (27).C. Washington. and Roberts. References 1.. As for mine closure.(1988) The Concentration of Gold Ores.A. 13. 11. Technology and Space of the Comittee on Commerce. vol. (1988) Transmaterialization: Technology and Materials Demand Cycles. (1981) Testimony at Hearings of the Subcommitee on Science. Energy and the Environment.B. Rio de Janeiro. et al.S. Technology Change and Productivity. Mineral Technology and output per Man Studies.engineer or citizen he/she will be faced in a given development project. K. (1983) Metal Resources and Energy. Malenbaum. USBM. pp.C. 3. Conard.P. (1978) World Demand for Raw Materials in 1985 and 2000. and Labys.E.S. our Materials World: A Special Edition. 30. 8. Engng. (1993) Materials and Environment.(1993) Metals Production. 5.B. Past I: Energy Consumption. Report E-6. et all (1990). Minerals Sci.. August. Blondion and Tantalum Ores.& Kiessling. A. Benvindo da Luz.G. where do we Stand.J. 9.S. n o 1 . Waddell. Mar.Universitá di Trento. Bahr. R. Usinas de Beneficiamento. c. V.C.S. 2. 7. Hasialis. May. II . Amsterdam. JOM. Elsevier. D. (1976) The Recycling of Metals: I . no 4. A. 14.An overall account of the challenges faced by the mining and metallurgical industry to meet sustainable development is given in (26) and the reader is addressed to the issues and solutions therein proposed.NonFerrous Metals. M. Works Progress Administration. 12. Beever. pp. Hydrometallurgy. 1993 Villas Bôas. Manual de publicação avulsa. National Research Project. Washington. Science and Transportation of the Senate. Th.E.F. 17. (1982) Materials. Castelo Ivano.Ferrous Metals. Brasil. Anon. Workshop Rare and Precious Metals. Materials and Society.R.M. no 2. Second Southern Hemisphere Meeting on Minerals Technology. MA: Butterworth. National Academy of Science. p.B.. W. 12. Tungsten. 1-28. 16. vol. F. CETEM. 15. and Priesemann.10. Proceedings.M. Chapman. vol. Conservation & Recycling. M. pp. Proceedings. scientist.Last but not least. Materials & Society vol. April. Beever. no 3.

UNEP. R. Metal Technology. W. 307-307.C. 23. May. 1999 . 19. Metals. 46-54. Doyle.F. (1991) Global Warming an the Primary Metals Industry. Paris. . JOM. C. Metals Technology. M. Budapest-Hungary. 290-299. (1987) Pollution Problems and Solutions in the Non-Ferrous Metals Industry. Rio de Janeiro . 15). July. 28. Nicol. & Szekely. J.408 . vol. p.18. L. (1993) Environmental Management of Nickel Production: A Technical Guide. (1993). First Consultation on the Non-Ferrous Metals Industry.M. All listed http in the text up to 2010. G. JOM. Rio de Janeiro . R. (1993) Minerals in Waste and Effluents Treatment. Industrial Minerals. ID/WG. IMAAC/UNIDO and CYTED . S. Mine Closure in Iberoamerica . & Duyvesteyn. F. pp. p. 27. and finished products. JOM.J. April. L . 470/3. 20. 11. and Barreto . pp. December . 21. 23-30. and Materials. IMAAC/UNIDO and CYTED .C. pp. Hancock. (1984) Energy Requirements for Manufacture of some NonFerrous Metals. 11. Villas-Bôas. 24. Villas-Bôas . 26. 1993 Review of Extraction Processing. pp. Aqueous Processing of Minerals. April. D. Technological Challenges Posed by Sustainable Development : The Mineral extraction Industries . 581 . and Hoskins. pp. vol. 11. 55-58. and Fellows Filho . (Technical Report. UNIDO. 2000. (1993) Progress in Electrometallurgy Research and Applications. (1984) Energy Required to Process Ingots semis. pp. Whitter. Harries-Rees. 22. K. Forrest. 1983 Review of Extractive & Processing. 25. vol. July. 29-39.