Constantly Rebalanced Portfolio – Is MeanReverting Necessary?
John M. Mulvey (Corresponding Contributor)
Contact Address:
Bendheim Center for Finance
26 Prospect Avenue (Dial Lodge)
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
Telephone: 6092585423
Fax: 6092580771
Email: mulvey@princeton.edu
Woo Chang Kim
Contact Address:
E312, EQuad, ORFE
Princeton University
Princeton, New Jersey 08540
Telephone: 6092586298
Email: wookim@princeton.edu
Element list
0. Information sheet (this page)
1. Title
2. Contributor names
3. Basic contributor affiliations
4. Keywords
5. Abstract
6. Main text
7. References
8. Figures captions
9. Figures
Filename for text file: Constantly Rebalanced Portfolio.docx
Application: Microsoft Office Word 2007
Filenames for figures:
1. Constantly Rebalanced Portfolio – Figures.xlsx (includes all figures in separate sheets)
Additional Files
1. [Responses for comments] Constantly Rebalanced Portfolio.docx: comments on revision
2. Constantly Rebalanced Portfolio.pdf: pdf version of this file
2
Constantly Rebalanced Portfolios – Is MeanReverting Necessary?
John M. Mulvey and Woo Chang Kim
Princeton University
Princeton, NJ, USA
This version: February 13, 2008
Original Submission: December 5, 2007
Keywords: multiperiod models, rebalanced portfolios, fixed mix, rebalancing gains, volatility
pumping, portfolio management, and dynamic diversification
Abstract
One of advantages of adopting multiperiod portfolio models is improved investment
performance via the fixed mix rule, which is called rebalancing gains or volatility pumping. Due
to its similarity to the “buy low, sell high” strategy, it is often misunderstood that it requires
meanreverting processes for assets. In this paper, however, we show that meanreversion is not
necessary to benefit from the fixed mix rule, via a simple multidimensional geometric Brownian
motion. We also list practical examples which are successfully implementing the rule in the
domain of equities, commodity futures, alternative investments, and momentum strategies.
3
INTRODUCTION
There are a number of advantages of adopting multiperiod models over traditional singleperiod,
static models in portfolio managements [1]. One of more important benefits, among others, is
improved performance on portfolio investments via the fixed mix rule [24]. The buyandhold
rule, which represents singleperiod models, does not rebalance the portfolio at any intermediate
juncture; hence the weight on each component might change as asset prices fluctuate in different
proportions. In contrast, when a portfolio is constructed based on the fixed mix rule, it is
rebalanced at every time point so that component weights remain the same as the initial state. In
order to keep the weights unchanged, investors should sell assets whose prices have gone up, and
buy ones whose prices have dropped. Therefore, in some sense, the fixed mix rule is analogous
to the “buy low, sell high” strategy. Possibly due to such an analogy, there seems to be a widely
spread misconception regarding the fixed mix strategy and its benefits – it requires mean
reverting processes for assets. Of course, because of its nature, it is not hard to see that it would
be helpful to have such processes to achieve better performance. However, the truth is that mean
reversion is not necessary for the fixed mix to accomplish superior performance.
THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDS
We first recall performance of the buyandhold strategy. Suppose there are n stocks whose mean
return is r e R
n
and covariance matrix X e R
n×n
. Assuming normality, r
BH
, the average buy
andhold portfolio return with weight w e R
n
, is normally distributed with mean w
1
r and
variance o
p
2
= w
1
Xw. That is,
r
BH
~N(w
1
r, o
p
2
) ÷ N(w
1
r, w
1
Xw). (1)
4
Next, let’s consider a fixed mix portfolio constructed from the same stocks with the same weight
(w) as the previous buyandhold portfolio. Since it is rebalanced at every intermediate juncture,
it is required to model stock prices as processes. Thus, we model them as an ndimensional
geometric Brownian motion whose return distribution for a unit time length would be the same
as the previous case. Then, the price p f s e written as the following SDE. rocess o tock i can b
dS
t
i
S
t
i
= [r
ì
+
c
i
2
2
¸ Jt +JB
t
ì
, (2)
where o
ì
2
is the ith diagonal term of X (hence, variance of stock i) and for the Cholesky
factorization of X, I and the dar n iene (
t
1
· w
t
n
)
1
, stan d ndime sional W r process w
J(B
t
1
· B
t
n
)
1
= IJ(w
t
1
· w
t
n
)
1
. (3)
Since the fixed mix portfolio is rebalanced at each time point to the initial weight (w), its
instantaneous growth rate is the same as the weighted sum of instantaneous growth rates of the
stocks at any given juncture. Therefore, the SDE for the portfolio wealth can be written as
dP
t
FM
P
t
FM
= ∑ w
ì
dS
t
i
S
t
i
n
ì=1
= ∑ w
ì
][r
ì
+
c
i
2
2
¸ Jt +JB
t
ì
¿
n
ì=1
.
(4)
With simple algebra, one can show that, for the standard 1dimensional Wiener process w
t
,
dP
t
FM
P
t
FM
= [w
1
r +
1
2
∑ w
ì
o
ì
2 n
ì=1
¸ Jt +o
p
2
Jw
t
. (5)
Hence, the return of the fixed mix portfolio for a unit time length can be given as
r
PM
~N[w
1
r +
1
2
∑ w
ì
o
ì
2 n
ì=1

1
2
o
p
2
, o
2
¸ ÷ N[w
1
r +
1
2
p
∑ w
ì
o
ì
2 n
1

1
2
ì=
w
1
Xw, w
1
Xw¸
.
(6)
Therefore, returns of both buyandhold (r
BH
) and fixed mix (r
PM
) are normally distributed with
the same variance (o
p
2
), while the mean of the latter contains extra terms, (∑ w
ì
o
ì
2
o
p
2 n
ì=1
)¡2.
These extra terms, which are often referred to as rebalancing gains or volatility pumping,
represent the value of having an option to constantly rebalance the portfolio to initial weights.
5
To observe its effects more closely, let’s consider the following simple example: suppose we
have n stocks where the expected return and the volatility of each are r and o, and the correlation
is given as p. Assuming the portfolio is equally weighted, the amount of the rebalancing gain,
R0 =
1
2
_∑
1
n
o
2 n
ì=1
[
1
n
·
1
n
¸ X [
1
n
·
1
n
¸
1
_ =
(n1)c
2
(1p)
2n
.
(7)
Now it is evident that the fixed mix strategy has benefit over the static buyandhold rule, even
without meanreversion; the rebalancing gain is always positive, except the case that all stock
returns are perfectly correlated, in which it becomes 0. Note that the rebalancing gain is an
increasing function of the number of stocks (n) and the volatility (o), and is a decreasing
function of the correlation (p). See Figure 1 for the illustrations of simulation results for the
effects of o, anu p to rebalancing gains. Therefore, with the wisdom from the portfolio theory,
one can see that volatile stocks should not be penalized when a portfolio is constructed with the
fixed mix rule, as long as their correlations to other stocks are low and they possess reasonable
expected returns; they can serve as good sources of rebalancing gains. The portfolio risks can be
effectively reduced via dynamic diversification. For more complete discussion, see [26].
<Insert figure 1 about here>
PRACTICAL EXAMPLES
Under certain conditions, the fixed mix rule has been proved to be optimal in multiperiod
settings. Early on, Mossin [7] showed that it is the optimal strategy when an investor maximizes
the expected power utility of her terminal wealth, assuming IID asset returns and no intermediate
consumption. Samuleson [8] analyzed the problem in more generalized settings: Using an
6
additive intertemporal power utility function of consumption over time, he proved that it is still
optimal to adopt the fixed mix rule when the investor is allowed to consume at intermediate
junctures. Merton [9] also concluded the same in the continuous time setting model.
Indeed, there are many practical applications which are successfully taking advantage of
rebalancing gains via fixed mix rules. Among others [1012], one of good examples is the S&P
500 equalweighted index (S&P EWI) by Rydex Investments (see Figure 2) [13]. Unlike
traditional capweighted S&P 500 index, it applies the fixed mix rule to the same stocks as S&P
500, rebalancing them every six month to maintain the equally weighted portfolio. During 1994
to 2005, S&P EWI earned 2% excess return with mere 0.6% extra volatility over S&P 500. This
added profit is partially due to superior performance of small/midsized stocks but also can be
accounted for by rebalancing gains.
<Insert figure 2 about here>
Implementations of the fixed mix rule could also lead to successful leverage. Figure 4 illustrates
levered portfolios of buyandhold and fixed mix portfolios constructed in two different domains.
In the figure, (A) compares efficient frontiers of buyandhold and fixed mix portfolios, which
are constructed with six traditional assets (S&P 500, EAFE, Lehman longterm bond index,
Strips, NAREIT, and Goldman Sachs commodity index) and four alternative assets (hedge fund
index, managed futures index, Tremont longshort equity index and currency index) [14]. Both
are equally weighted and levered up to 100% via tbill rate. While the buyandhold portfolio is
not rebalanced, monthly rebalancing rule is adopted for the fixed mix for the entire sample
period (1994~2005). Also, (B) in Figure 4 depicts results from portfolios of industrylevel
momentum strategies across international stock markets for 27year sample period (1980~2006)
7
[15]. Momentum strategies are constructed in five nonoverlapping regions (U.S., E.U., Europe
except E.U., Japan, and Asia except Japan), and aggregated into equally weighted portfolios with
leverage up to 100%. Similar to the previous case, the fixed mix portfolio is rebalanced monthly.
In both cases, the efficient frontiers from the fixed mix dominate ones from the buyandhold.
<Insert figure 3 about here>
IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
The fixed mix rule is now becoming a norm in various financial domains. For instance, it is now
commonplace for large pension plans, such as TIAACREF, to automatically rebalance client
selected portfolios back to clientselected weights, at the client’s requests. Given the
circumstances, it is imperative to address issues regarding practical implementations. First, since
the best sources of rebalancing gains are volatile financial instruments with low intracorrelations,
it is crucial to find a set of relatively independent assets. However, the task is very unlikely to be
perfectly achieved in the real world. Second, even such a set exists at certain time point,
correlations could change over time. For instance, it is wellknown that stock indices across
international markets become highly correlated upon serious market distress. Also, one should
consider transaction costs such as capital gain taxes upon deciding the rebalancing intervals.
Although frequent rebalancing could lead to investment performance close to the theoretical
values, it may deteriorate performance due to transaction costs. Careful analysis on this tradeoff
is required. Good references regarding practical implementations of the fixed mix rules include
[1619].
8
REFERENCES
[1] Mulvey JM, Pauling B, Madey RE. (2003) Advantages of multiperiod portfolio models.
Journal of Portfolio Management 29, 3545.
[2] Fernholz R. (2002) Stochastic Portfolio Theory; SpringerVerlag, New York.
[3] Fernholz R, Shay B. (1982) Stochastic portfolio theory and stock market equilibrium.
Journal of Finance 37, 615624.
[4] Luenberger D. (1997) Investment Science; Oxford University Press: New York.
[5] Mulvey JM, Kaul SSN, Simsek KD. (2004) Evaluating a trendfollowing commodity index
for multiperiod asset allocation. Journal of Alternative Investments 7, 5469.
[6] Mulvey JM, Ural C, Zhang Z. (2007) Improving performance for longterm investors: wide
diversification, leverage, and overlay strategies. Quantitative Finance 7, 175187.
[7] Mossin J. (1968) Optimal multiperiod portfolio policies. Journal of Business 41, 215229.
[8] Samuelson PA. (1969) Lifetime portfolio selection by dynamic stochastic programming.
Review of Economics Statistics 51, 239246.
[9] Merton RC. (1969) Lifetime portfolio selection under uncertainty: the continuoustime
case. Review of Economics Statistics 51, 247257.
[10] Mulvey JM, Gould G, Morgan C. (2000) An asset and liability management system for
Towers PerrinTillinghast. Interfaces 30, 96114.
[11] Mulvey JM, Thorlacius AE. (1998) The Towers Perrin global capital market scenario
generation system: CAP Link. World Wide Asset and Liability Modeling, Ziemba W,
Mulvey J (ed). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 286312.
[12] Perold AF, Sharpe WF. (1998) Dynamic strategies for asset allocation. Financial Analysts
Journal 44,1627.
[13] Mulvey JM. (2005) Essential portfolio theory. A Rydex Investment White Paper (also
Princeton University report), 1417.
[14] Mulvey JM, Kim WC. (2007) The role of alternative assets in portfolio construction. to
appear in the Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Assessment (to be published). John Wiley
and Sons, Ltd, UK.
[15] Mulvey JM, Kim WC. (2007) Constructing a portfolio of industrylevel momentum
strategies across global equity markets. Princeton University Report
9
[16] Davis MHA and Norman AR. (1990). Portfolio selection with transaction costs.
Mathematics of Operations Research 15, 676713.
[17] Dumas B and Luciano E. (1991). An exact solution to a dynamic portfolio choice problem
under transaction costs. Journal of Finance 46, 577595.
[18] Mulvey JM and Simsek KD. (2002) Rebalancing strategies for longterm investors.
Computational Methods in DecisionMaking, Economics and Finance: Optimization
Models, Kontoghiorghes EJ, Rustem B and Siokos S (ed). Kluwer, 1533
[19] Shreve SE and Soner HM (1991). Optimal investment and consumption with two bonds
and transaction costs. Mathematical Fianace. 1, 5384.
10
FIGURES AND CAPTIONS
Figure 1: Effects of Volatility (σ) and Correlation (ρ) to Rebalancing Gains (n = 5)
0.0%
0.5%
1.0%
1.5%
2.0%
2.5%
3.0%
3.5%
0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30%
R
e
b
a
l
a
n
c
i
n
g
G
a
i
n
Volatility (σ)
ρ = 0.0 ρ = 0.3
ρ = 0.6 ρ = 0.9
Figure 2: Log Prices of S&P 500 and S&P EWI during July 2003 to December 2006
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
J
u
n
‐
0
3
O
c
t
‐
0
3
F
e
b
‐
0
4
J
u
n
‐
0
4
O
c
t
‐
0
4
F
e
b
‐
0
5
J
u
n
‐
0
5
O
c
t
‐
0
5
F
e
b
‐
0
6
J
u
n
‐
0
6
O
c
t
‐
0
6
S&P EWI S&P 500
Figure 3: Efficient Frontiers of Levered BuyandHold and Fixed Mix Portfolios
(A) mix of traditional and alternative assets (19942005) (B) mix of momentum strategies of 5 regions (19802006)
9%
10%
11%
12%
13%
14%
15%
16%
6% 8% 10% 12% 14%
R
e
t
u
r
n
Volatility
Buy‐and‐Hold Fixed Mix
16%
18%
20%
22%
24%
26%
28%
15% 18% 21% 24% 27% 30% 33%
R
e
t
u
r
n
Volatility
Buy‐and‐Hold Fixed Mix
Mulvey and Woo Chang Kim Princeton University Princeton. fixed mix. 2008 Original Submission: December 5. alternative investments. . we show that meanreversion is not necessary to benefit from the fixed mix rule. We also list practical examples which are successfully implementing the rule in the domain of equities. commodity futures. NJ. it is often misunderstood that it requires meanreverting processes for assets. via a simple multidimensional geometric Brownian motion. however. rebalanced portfolios. volatility pumping. sell high” strategy.2 Constantly Rebalanced Portfolios – Is MeanReverting Necessary? John M. USA This version: February 13. which is called rebalancing gains or volatility pumping. 2007 Keywords: multiperiod models. and momentum strategies. portfolio management. In this paper. Due to its similarity to the “buy low. and dynamic diversification Abstract One of advantages of adopting multiperiod portfolio models is improved investment performance via the fixed mix rule. rebalancing gains.
is improved performance on portfolio investments via the fixed mix rule [24]. sell high” strategy. That is. ~N . One of more important benefits. . the average buyand andhold portfolio return with weight variance . the truth is that meanreversion is not necessary for the fixed mix to accomplish superior performance. In contrast.3 INTRODUCTION There are a number of advantages of adopting multiperiod models over traditional singleperiod. In order to keep the weights unchanged. Suppose there are n stocks whose mean return is and covariance matrix . investors should sell assets whose prices have gone up. Assuming normality. (1) . Of course. Therefore. is normally distributed with mean N . in some sense. and buy ones whose prices have dropped. among others. does not rebalance the portfolio at any intermediate juncture. static models in portfolio managements [1]. which represents singleperiod models. . hence the weight on each component might change as asset prices fluctuate in different proportions. because of its nature. when a portfolio is constructed based on the fixed mix rule. THEORETICAL BACKGROUNDS We first recall performance of the buyandhold strategy. Possibly due to such an analogy. it is not hard to see that it would be helpful to have such processes to achieve better performance. it is rebalanced at every time point so that component weights remain the same as the initial state. the fixed mix rule is analogous to the “buy low. However. The buyandhold rule. . there seems to be a widely spread misconception regarding the fixed mix strategy and its benefits – it requires meanreverting processes for assets.
variance of stock i) and for the Cholesky . ∑ These extra terms. for the standard 1dimensional Wiener process ∑ . ∑ and fixed mix ( . . (6) Therefore. Since it is rebalanced at every intermediate juncture. Then. let’s consider a fixed mix portfolio constructed from the same stocks with the same weight (w) as the previous buyandhold portfolio. we model them as an ndimensional geometric Brownian motion whose return distribution for a unit time length would be the same as the previous case. Since the fixed mix portfolio is rebalanced at each time point to the initial weight (w). the return of the fixed mix portfolio for a unit time length can be given as ~ ∑ .4 Next. Therefore. . Thus. one can show that. its instantaneous growth rate is the same as the weighted sum of instantaneous growth rates of the stocks at any given juncture. returns of both buyandhold ( the same variance ( are normally distributed with /2. which are often referred to as rebalancing gains or volatility pumping. and the standard ndimensional Wiener process With simple algebra. ). it is required to model stock prices as processes. . while the mean of the latter contains extra terms. . represent the value of having an option to constantly rebalance the portfolio to initial weights. (5) (4) (3) (2) factorization of . the SDE for the portfolio wealth can be written as ∑ ∑ . the price process of stock i can be written as the following SDE. . where is the ith diagonal term of (hence. Hence.
Assuming the portfolio is equally weighted. Early on. For more complete discussion. see [26]. one can see that volatile stocks should not be penalized when a portfolio is constructed with the fixed mix rule. let’s consider the following simple example: suppose we have n stocks where the expected return and the volatility of each are r and . the rebalancing gain is always positive. as long as their correlations to other stocks are low and they possess reasonable expected returns. except the case that all stock returns are perfectly correlated. in which it becomes 0. assuming IID asset returns and no intermediate consumption. (7) Now it is evident that the fixed mix strategy has benefit over the static buyandhold rule. and to rebalancing gains. ∑ . Therefore. Samuleson [8] analyzed the problem in more generalized settings: Using an . they can serve as good sources of rebalancing gains. the amount of the rebalancing gain. the fixed mix rule has been proved to be optimal in multiperiod settings. with the wisdom from the portfolio theory.5 To observe its effects more closely. and is a decreasing function of the correlation ( . The portfolio risks can be effectively reduced via dynamic diversification. <Insert figure 1 about here> PRACTICAL EXAMPLES Under certain conditions. Mossin [7] showed that it is the optimal strategy when an investor maximizes the expected power utility of her terminal wealth. See Figure 1 for the illustrations of simulation results for the effects of . Note that the rebalancing gain is an increasing function of the number of stocks (n) and the volatility ( ). and the correlation is given as . even without meanreversion.
he proved that it is still optimal to adopt the fixed mix rule when the investor is allowed to consume at intermediate junctures. rebalancing them every six month to maintain the equally weighted portfolio. <Insert figure 2 about here> Implementations of the fixed mix rule could also lead to successful leverage. Strips. Also. managed futures index. monthly rebalancing rule is adopted for the fixed mix for the entire sample period (1994~2005). which are constructed with six traditional assets (S&P 500. NAREIT. Lehman longterm bond index. S&P EWI earned 2% excess return with mere 0. Among others [1012]. Unlike traditional capweighted S&P 500 index. Figure 4 illustrates levered portfolios of buyandhold and fixed mix portfolios constructed in two different domains. Merton [9] also concluded the same in the continuous time setting model. In the figure. Indeed. While the buyandhold portfolio is not rebalanced. Tremont longshort equity index and currency index) [14]. it applies the fixed mix rule to the same stocks as S&P 500. Both are equally weighted and levered up to 100% via tbill rate. and Goldman Sachs commodity index) and four alternative assets (hedge fund index. During 1994 to 2005. one of good examples is the S&P 500 equalweighted index (S&P EWI) by Rydex Investments (see Figure 2) [13].6 additive intertemporal power utility function of consumption over time. there are many practical applications which are successfully taking advantage of rebalancing gains via fixed mix rules. EAFE. This added profit is partially due to superior performance of small/midsized stocks but also can be accounted for by rebalancing gains.6% extra volatility over S&P 500. (B) in Figure 4 depicts results from portfolios of industrylevel momentum strategies across international stock markets for 27year sample period (1980~2006) . (A) compares efficient frontiers of buyandhold and fixed mix portfolios.
Although frequent rebalancing could lead to investment performance close to the theoretical values. Given the circumstances. For instance. the efficient frontiers from the fixed mix dominate ones from the buyandhold. such as TIAACREF. Japan. it may deteriorate performance due to transaction costs.U. and aggregated into equally weighted portfolios with leverage up to 100%. However. at the client’s requests.U. even such a set exists at certain time point. to automatically rebalance clientselected portfolios back to clientselected weights. the fixed mix portfolio is rebalanced monthly. it is now commonplace for large pension plans. Good references regarding practical implementations of the fixed mix rules include [1619]. since the best sources of rebalancing gains are volatile financial instruments with low intracorrelations.S. Also. First... Europe except E. the task is very unlikely to be perfectly achieved in the real world. For instance. and Asia except Japan). Careful analysis on this tradeoff is required. <Insert figure 3 about here> IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES The fixed mix rule is now becoming a norm in various financial domains. one should consider transaction costs such as capital gain taxes upon deciding the rebalancing intervals. it is imperative to address issues regarding practical implementations. Second. Momentum strategies are constructed in five nonoverlapping regions (U. correlations could change over time. In both cases. it is crucial to find a set of relatively independent assets.. E. . it is wellknown that stock indices across international markets become highly correlated upon serious market distress. Similar to the previous case.7 [15].
Review of Economics Statistics 51. Samuelson PA. (1998) Dynamic strategies for asset allocation. Cambridge. Journal of Portfolio Management 29. (2004) Evaluating a trendfollowing commodity index for multiperiod asset allocation. 215229. [14] Mulvey JM. SpringerVerlag. (2005) Essential portfolio theory. Shay B. Fernholz R. (1998) The Towers Perrin global capital market scenario generation system: CAP Link. to appear in the Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Assessment (to be published). Journal of Finance 37. (2007) Constructing a portfolio of industrylevel momentum strategies across global equity markets. (1969) Lifetime portfolio selection under uncertainty: the continuoustime case. Merton RC. Mulvey J (ed). 96114. 286312. Ltd. 5469. World Wide Asset and Liability Modeling. UK. Gould G. (2002) Stochastic Portfolio Theory. Review of Economics Statistics 51. (2000) An asset and liability management system for Towers PerrinTillinghast. Ural C. Mossin J. Ziemba W. (1997) Investment Science. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] Mulvey JM. (1969) Lifetime portfolio selection by dynamic stochastic programming. 175187. (1968) Optimal multiperiod portfolio policies. [12] Perold AF. and overlay strategies. Zhang Z. [13] Mulvey JM. Princeton University Report . Luenberger D. Journal of Business 41. A Rydex Investment White Paper (also Princeton University report). Kaul SSN. Fernholz R. New York. Sharpe WF. Mulvey JM. Pauling B. Simsek KD. 1417. Quantitative Finance 7. (2007) The role of alternative assets in portfolio construction. Kim WC. (2003) Advantages of multiperiod portfolio models. 247257. Thorlacius AE. Madey RE. leverage. Oxford University Press: New York. John Wiley and Sons. Cambridge University Press. (2007) Improving performance for longterm investors: wide diversification. UK. 615624. Journal of Alternative Investments 7. 3545. [11] Mulvey JM.1627. [15] Mulvey JM. Morgan C. Financial Analysts Journal 44.8 REFERENCES [1] Mulvey JM. Kim WC. (1982) Stochastic portfolio theory and stock market equilibrium. 239246. Mulvey JM. Interfaces 30.
676713. (1990). Optimal investment and consumption with two bonds and transaction costs.9 [16] Davis MHA and Norman AR. Mathematics of Operations Research 15. An exact solution to a dynamic portfolio choice problem under transaction costs. (1991). Kontoghiorghes EJ. (2002) Rebalancing strategies for longterm investors. [17] Dumas B and Luciano E. Kluwer. Mathematical Fianace. 1. . Portfolio selection with transaction costs. [18] Mulvey JM and Simsek KD. Journal of Finance 46. 1533 [19] Shreve SE and Soner HM (1991). 5384. Computational Methods in DecisionMaking. Rustem B and Siokos S (ed). Economics and Finance: Optimization Models. 577595.
1 0 Jun‐03 Oct‐03 Feb‐04 Jun‐04 Oct‐04 Feb‐05 Jun‐05 Oct‐05 Feb‐06 Jun‐06 Oct‐06 Buy‐and‐Hold 28% 26% Return 24% 22% 20% 18% 16% 6% 8% 10% Volatility 12% 14% 15% 18% 21% 24% Volatility 27% 30% 33% S&P 500 Figure 3: Efficient Frontiers of Levered BuyandHold and Fixed Mix Portfolios Buy‐and‐Hold 16% 15% 14% Return 13% 12% 11% 10% 9% Fixed Mix Fixed Mix (A) mix of traditional and alternative assets (19942005) (B) mix of momentum strategies of 5 regions (19802006) .6 3.0% 2.4 0.0% 0.3 ρ = 0.10 FIGURES AND CAPTIONS Figure 1: Effects of Volatility (σ) and Correlation (ρ) to Rebalancing Gains (n = 5) ρ = 0.5% 1.6 0.5 0.3 0.0% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% ρ = 0.5% 2.5% 3.5% 0.0% 1.2 0.0 ρ = 0.9 Rebalancing Gain Volatility (σ) Figure 2: Log Prices of S&P 500 and S&P EWI during July 2003 to December 2006 S&P EWI 0.