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Kagan 371-374 The English Reformation Main Events of the English Reformation: 1529: Reformation Parliament convenes 1532:

2: Parliament passes the Submission of the Clergy 1533: Henry VII weds Anne Boleyn; Convocation invalidates marriage to Catherine of Aragon 1534: Act of Succession makes Ann Boleyns children legitimate heirs to the English throne. 1534: Act of Supremacy declares Henry VIII the only supreme head of the Church of England 1535: Thomas More executed for opposition to Acts of Succession and Supremacy. 1535: Publication of Coverdale Bible 1535: Publication of Coverdale bible 1539: Henry VIII imposes the Six Articles 1547: Edward VI succeeds to the throne under protectorships of Somerset and Northumberland 1549: First Act of Uniformity imposes Book of Common Prayer on English churches. 1538-1558: Mary Tudor restores Catholic doctrine. 1558-1603: Elizabeth I fashions on Anglican religious settlement. The English Reformation: While the reformation took control over much of Europe, England managed to separate itself and maintain a secular, state centered nation. Conflict in the Christian sects created the foundation for some sort of political reformation in England. As Protestantism and its accompanying subsets began to creep into England, King Henry VII made it clear that any sort of reformation of Catholic England would be rooted out. Henry VII defended Catholic sacraments, as opposed to Luthers criticism of it, earning him the title Defender of the Faith from Pope Leo X. Reformation in England began in a fairly unceremoniously. Instead of religious passion or genuine moral outrage, the reformation of England began when Henry VIIIs marriage with his wife Catherine yielded no suitable heirs. Henry VIII desired a new wife, and in order to remarry required a papal annulment. (Henry VII had required a special dispensation from Pope Julius II earlier when he married Catherine, the wife of his brother, a relation that was prohibited by Cannon Laws. After Henry VIII failed to receive the papal annulment he was advised (by Thomas Cromwell and Cranmer) to declare himself supreme in English spiritual affairs as he was in English temporal affairs. Henry VIII was aggressive in the manner he tackled the clergy and papacy, and the Acts of Succession and Supremacy gave him unprecedented reign

over spiritual affairs while diminishing much of the papacys power. The Parliament was also given more influence. Though Henry VIII was aggressive in his approach to politics, he remained a dedicated Catholic. He stuck by Catholic precepts and dedicated the rest of his life to ensuring that Catholicism remained Englands sole religion. The Six Articles of 1539, reaffirmed Catholic principles like transubstantiation (Transubstantiation is the teaching that during the Mass, at the consecration in the Lord's Supper (Communion), the elements of the Eucharist, bread and wine, are transformed into the actual body and blood of Jesus and that they are no longer bread and wine, but only retain their appearance of bread and wine), denied the Eucharistic cup to the laity, declared celibate vows inviolable, provided for private Masses, and ordered the continuation of oral confession, in short teachings that were central to Catholicism. After Henry VIIIs death, England made the transition to a protestant nation, headed by the two Acts of Uniformities. However, when Catherine of Aragons daughter succeeded Edward, she made the switch back to Catholic doctrine.