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Avoiding plagiarism and how to use the Harvard referencing system What is plagiarism?

Plagiarism is passing off someone else’s work, whether intentionally or unintentionally, as your own for your own benefit -Quoted in Jude Carroll (2002), A Handbook for Deterring Plagiarism, Oxford: Oxford Brookes University; 9. This means you cannot copy another person’s work, or use their ideas, without crediting them as the source of your information. Please refer to the College’s (and your award body’s) Plagiarism Policy for more details and on the consequences of plagiarising someone else’s work.

Harvard referencing system
This system uses a ‘flag’ (usually the authors surname and date of publication in brackets) in your text at the point where you make reference to another author’s work. This referencing system is also known as the author-date system because of its use of the author-date ‘flag’. Referring to an author’s ideas/work in general (when not referring to a specific page) 1 For a single author: The traditional position (Smith, 1989) has now been surpassed by a more modern approach (Johnson, 2005). 2 For works with two authors: It has been argued (Smith and Jones, 1982) … 3 For works by more than two authors use the first authors name and et al. (et alia is Latin for ‘and others’): Some commentators (Stephenson et al., 1987) have argued that … 4 When referring to more than one work: Others (Enfield, 1996; Whitehouse, 1994) contradict this viewpoint …


n.d. 2 .Referring to specific ideas 1 When referring to a single page: This has now been disproved (Everitt. 6). 2006b)… Referring to works with no date If you know roughly the year that the work was published in.d. 67-70) illustrates this approach … Referring to an author who has published more than one work in the same year Assign each work a letter alphabetically: This view is now seen as outdated (Wise. (no date) e. (Jones. If you do not know the publication date then use n. 2001 cited in Davies. Research recently carried out (Jones. Referring to works with no author Give the title (in italics if it is a complete work or without italics if the work is part of another work e. 56-67) … Second-hand references Also known as ‘secondary sources’ – this is when you cite or quote a work which you have not consulted directly but which you saw cited in another work e. 2001. (Smith. 2 When referring to multiple pages: The best study (Vaughan.g. 2006.). 67-8) … Referring to a work when the author is mentioned in the text Only the date and pages are bracketed: Morecombe (1998. c2000).g.g. 2006.g. if it is an unsigned newspaper article) followed by the date. then use the abbreviation c for circa (about) e.

All photographic images (or still images from films) are copyrighted so should include a copyright notice and you will need the permission of the rights holder if you want to reproduce the image for publication of your article. tables or works of art When referencing in your text then use the same conventions as for written works. Plagiarism can be defined as ‘passing off someone else’s work.g. In Orwell’s Animal Farm the character of …. whether intentionally or unintentionally.g.g. 2 For long quotations: Quotations should be indented and in a new paragraph – they do not need quotation marks e. A whole table or diagram can be incorporated into your work and referenced with the author and date. 9).g. literature. as your own for your own benefit’ (Caroll. Mrs Gorse replies that ‘Master Miles only said “We must do nothing but what she likes!”’. 2002. If you have adapted the table or diagram you will need to state this. photographs etc) only require the name of the author (or artist) and the title of the work (in italics) – you do not normally have to include the date the work was produced e.g. For works of art you should state the dimensions .these can be put in brackets under the image you have used. If there’s unanimity about any aspect of the Information Age economy. it’s that you have a better chance of getting a gold watch from a street vendor than you do from a corporation (Stewart. Quotations 1 For short quotations: Quotations of up to two lines in length can be included in the body of your text and are shown by using single quotation marks (‘) around the text e. General references to works of art (e.Referring to images. diagrams. 3 For quotations within quotations: Quotations within quotations need to be in double quotation marks (“) in short quotations and in single quotation marks (‘) in long quotations e. 3 . paintings. 1997. 136).

D. edition.g. 4 . Satisfying the viewer.this makes it easier to sort references alphabetically. You may find it more convenient to present your sources in a table (as in the examples below) or by using indents. 2-23. by Martin. Buckley Owen. Books Author’s surname. London: Facet. websites. (year and letter if there is more than one worked listed for that author in that year). These are also listed alphabetically by the author’s surname and the format is the same as for references. References should be listed alphabetically by author in the formats given below. Articles in journals The journal name is shown in italics and the volume number is put before the page numbers of the whole article: Spikes. (1970) ‘The Jacobean History Play and the Myth of the Elect Nation’. A. When using tables the author-date goes in the first column and the other details in the second column . (2003b) British Broadcasting Corporation (2005) Articles in books The title of the article appears in single quotes. and Rader. Renaissance Drama. T. ed. Success at the Enquiry Desk: Successful Enquiry Answering – Every Time. London: Facet. Initials. films etc) you have referred to – these will be headed ‘References’. London: BBC. You will also have a Bibliography which is the list of works you have looked at but not referred to in your assignment. H. the reference should finish with the full page range for that article: Martin. (2003) ‘Towards E-literacy’ in Information and IT Literacy: Enabling Learning in the 21st Century. J.. A. place of publication : publisher e. 117-149. 8. 4th edn.References and bibliography At the end of your assignment you will have a list of works (books. title of the book in italics with the first letter of all principal words capitalized – separate the title from the sub title by using a colon.

D. for film directors: Clash (1977) Shostakovich. R. C. (1989) Factors in Business Investment. 2. Symphony No. J. (1988) ‘Historical Drama in Great Britain from 1935 to the Present’. CBS. Sunday Times.Articles in newspapers The newspaper is shown in italics and the date of the original article is put before the page numbers: Raphael. Therefore the report of the Leitch Review would be: HM Treasury (2006) Prosperity for All in the Global Economy: World Class Skills.M. Berlin. Giulini. Ford. Cond. Naxos.. University of Manchester.. Theses/Dissertations Unlike for books the title is given in quotation marks rather than being italicized: Ingram.A. F. Cond. 20th Century Fox. 14-15. London: HMSO 5 . unpublished doctoral thesis. Unpublished works References are the same as for a book but include a note on the unpublished nature of the work: Kregel. Wiener Philharmoniker. Official Publications The author of these documents should usually be given as the Government Department responsible rather than an individual. (1984) London Calling. 19 February. (1978) ‘France’s Final Solution’. Audio visual works (films. unpublished conference paper presented at the New Business Technologies conference. The Grapes of Wrath (1940) Dir. J. can be used to show conductors of classical works and Dir. CDs etc) Unlike for books the place of publication is not required.

6 . Usually you would not include a reference for this type of citation in your list of references because it cannot be checked by the reader. the subject/discussion the name of the recipient(s). message to R.g.G. accessed on 17 May 2005. 2006). (2000) Learning Portals and the E-learning Hype (2005) Mobile phone developments. accessed 7 July 2006. sent 7 June 2005. Jones.html. j.Internet references The author is included as for books (this may be a corporate author if only the organisation responsible for the website is known).jmu. The web address and the date accessed are given as in the example below: Aldrich.jones@jones.comm. In the body of the text this would be noted as follows: Most teacher training providers in England have been implementing a mentoring approach since 2005 (pers. the web address and the date accessed (for discussion lists/blogs etc) e. 08:13. E-mails and online discussion lists/blogs These should include the author’s name or e-mail address (where known). the date sent/ with the year of publication given after the title (see The Grapes of Wrath film example above).g. C. Schmidt (r. Personal Communication This would be an interview or informal discussion with the person .gog. These can go at start of your list of references or file them in with the authors by treating the title as the author’s surname. http://gartner. Works with no author These are arranged by title. Hooker.

T. (1984) Example list of references (without using a table) British Broadcasting Corporation (2005). A. T. 4th edn. 2. CBS. London: Facet. (2003a) Buckley Owen.. 2-23. by Martin. Information World Review. Wiener Philharmoniker. (2003b).M. and Rader. Giulini. London: BBC. London: Facet.. Does Informa's recent acquisition of Datamonitor change the market research information landscape?. Giulini. and Rader. ‘Towards E-literacy’ in Information and IT Literacy: Enabling Learning in the 21st Century. 12 July. (1984). (2003) Satisfying the viewer. Naxos. Satisfying the viewer. London: Facet. H. C. 2. Buckley Owen. Information World Review. C. D. ed. Martin. Clash (1977). Shostakovich. Success at the Enquiry Desk: Successful Enquiry Answering – Every Time. (2003a). 14-15. London: Facet. London: BBC. by Martin. Shostakovich. 7 . ‘Towards E-literacy’ in Information and IT Literacy: Enabling Learning in the 21st Century.Example list of references (using a table) British Broadcasting Corporation (2005) Buckley Owen. Naxos. Does Informa's recent acquisition of Datamonitor change the market research information landscape?.. 12 July. Cond. A. 1415. Symphony No. Cond. 2-23. ed. H. T. Wiener Philharmoniker.M. A. A. T. 4th edn. London Calling.. D. Symphony No. CBS. Buckley Owen. (2003b) Clash (1977) Martin. London Calling. (2003). Success at the Enquiry Desk: Successful Enquiry Answering – Every Time.