Lactobacillus gasseri

Description and significance
Like the other members of the Lactobacillus genus, Lactobacillus gasseri is an anaerobic, grampositive bacterium that falls into the category of lactic acid bacteria. It is also a rod shaped and of the non-spore-forming type. It is typically found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals due to its largely fermentative function (1,2,3). Although mainly in the GI tract, it can also be found in many other places as well (see Ecology). Isolation of this bacterium was achieved by taking a sample from the gastrointestinal tract and was discovered to be part of the lactobacillus acidophilus complex (4). This bacterium is very important to many applications in daily life. One of its roles, as described above, is fermentation in the GI tract. Recently, its function as a probiotic has been the area of most interest (1).

Genome structure
The complete genome has been sequenced by a combination of efforts from Joint Genome Institute, Fidelity Systems Inc., and North Carolina State University. The final draft was accepted on October 13, 2006. Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 was the strain they used to come up with the sequence (5). (ATCC stands for American Type Culture Collection) The genome is circular and contains 1.894362 Mb (5). The GC content of the sequence was found to be 35.3% which makes the AT content to be 64.7%. There were also 1755 different proteins identified as well as 98 different RNAs present (6). The mapping of the sequence gives great information about the role and function of this bacterium. Dr. Todd Klaenhammer states “L. gasseri is substantially more amenable to DNA introduction and manipulation which has lead to the development of more genetic tools that will be useful in the functional genomic analysis of this species” (5).

Cell structure and metabolism
Lactobacillus gasseri is rod shaped and a gram-positive bacterium. This implies that it has a very thick outer cell wall. It is also classified as a non-spore-forming type. One feature that is still being researched is how this adheres to intestinal cells. It was determined that “mannose-specific proteinaceous adhesion” is responsible for L. gasseri’s ability to attach to the intestinal linings when the mucosal layer is encountered (7). Another interesting feature is the use of Aggregation-

With L. Many of the lactic acid bacteria are useful for this type of process.promoting factor (APF) to create and support the rod shape. (See Current Research) Ecology Even though this bacterium is most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. Pathology In 2004. Fournier's gangrene is a “bacterial infection of the skin that affects the genitals and perineum”. discolored skin. One very important location is in the vaginal tract of reproductive. One example is the use of lactobacillus gasseri in fermenting meat. it can also be found in various other places. Application to Biotechnology Lactobacillus gasseri as well as the rest of the lactobacillus genus are known for their role in fermentation of many different food products. This would produce a much healthier meat product for all to consume (13). Lactobacillus gasseri was identified as a cause of Fournier's gangrene (11). It also participates in fermentative actions which produce lactic acid as well as the energy required for growth. L. but would also function as a probiotic for the intestinal flora of the human GI tract. Current Research . normal women. Some typical symptoms include soft. a significant amount of research has been conducted to try and find out exactly what this bacterium and its fellow genus members actually do as well as how it can operate as a probiotic (10). Its role is to protect the vagina from infections (10). and an odor (12). gasseri was found to be the most dominant in the human gut. it will provide less complications in the digestive system which makes it the best choice to ferment the meat. This bacterium will not only decrease the ability of pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus to grow in the meat. gasseri heavily found in humans and animals. genital pain. It is most typically due to a wound that is infected on the skin between the genitals and the anus. gasseri is an anaerobe so it lives mostly in regions where no oxygen is present. Research was done with cattle to examine the effectiveness of this hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria as a probiotic (9). but L. pus. One other interesting thing that is made by this bacterium is hydrogen peroxide which is found in the vaginal tract. as described in the Cell Structure and Metabolism section. spongy skin. The APF protein was examined and the researchers concluded that it truly did alter the cell shape based on its amount present in the cell (8). This correlates with the hydrogen peroxide produced. It is can also be found in the fecal waste products of adult humans as well as in the mucosa layer of the rectum and oral cavity. With this being said.

Alatossova. Research found that L. W. gasseri does in fact break down oxalate in vitro. Lactobacillus gasseri is found in the vaginal tract. Applied and Enviromental Microbiology. The results were that the levels of the IgE were decreased. S. aureus had “a different type of morphological damage” from the lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide. G.. 4364-4267 . This concluded that lactobacillus gasseri could be used as a probiotic to help combat the infections seen in cattle. Lactobacillus gasseri has formyl coenzyme A transferase (frc) and oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase (oxc) on its genome which may have a role in oxalate degradation.. 65(9). These subjects drank milk fermented with Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356 and were observed. Also an increased resistance to these drugs has been observed as well as increased costs of supplying these drugs. Munro. and Yoghurt by 16S-23S rRNA Gene Intergenic Spacer Region Sequence Comparisons. Tannock. This compound is introduced to the body by plants that are eaten. It was found that oxalate degradation occurred in the section which corresponded to the proximal colon. Also the interaction with Staphylococcus aureus was looked at in the cultures. Research was conducted on the amount of hydrogen peroxide two strains (CRL1421 and CRL141) generated in different conditions. A promising future is ahead of this type of fermented milk. but further research on the effects on the person must be conducted to see if this is a safe way to go. The internal microbiota has been identified to play a part in regulating the immune function in humans. To test this finding in vivo the bacteria was cultured in human fecal matter to simulate colon conditions. J. References 1. These findings give some insight on using L. It was observed that the lactic acid and the hydrogen peroxide had a very strong effect on the pathogen. but no data was found on whether allergic responses were reduced as well. Silage. an experiment was setup with 15 people that showed the enhanced IgE responses.Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by H202-producing Lactobacillus gasseri isolated from vaginal tract of cattle (9) The use of antibiotics in dairy farms to keep the cattle healthy from reproductive problems has left residues in the food products obtained. K. gasseri as a possible treatment for those with kidney stones. Lactobacillus gasseri GasserAM63T degrades oxalate in a multistage continuous culture simulator of the human colonic microbiota (14) Oxalate can cause many problems in the human body including excess urinary oxalate and cause kidney stones to form. (1999) Identification of Lactobacillus Isolates from the Gastrointestinal Tract. This data shows that IgE was reduced. T. A. Preliminary human study for possible alteration of serum immunoglobin E production in perennial allergic rhinitis with fermented milk prepared with Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356 (15) Allergic disease due to enhanced immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses to common stimuli has become more common in the population... Ng. Due to this observation. & Tilsala-Timisjarvi.

M. M... Ota. 217-221 3. Lactobacilli: properties. (2000) Use of DNA sequence of variable regions of the 16SrRNA gene for rapid and accurate identification of bacteria in the Lactobacillus acidophilus complex. H. Crowell and T. C. 11. Otero. T. Wood (ed). Jankovic. Ohlen. 35-41. V. M. 51(4). Kondo. 5.ncbi. and R. pp69-114. R.B.. Routh. physiological role and importance in human health. Falsen. Urological Emergencies: Fournier's gangrene. 36(6-7). K. I. (1998) Lactobacillus acidophilus Group Lactic Acid Bacteria Applied to Meat Fermentation. Anaerobic induction of adherence to laminin in Lactobacillus gasseri strains by contact with solid surface. DOE Joint Genome Institute http://genome. O.R. J. Meylan. 4. Pascual. . Int J Syst Bacteriol. The Lactic Acid Bacteria in Health and Disease. 275-282. Causes.. & Baddour. Lactobacillus gasseri causing Fournier's gangrene. Sanozky_Dawes. L. Itoh. E.html Accessed 8/23/07 6. (2004). http://www.jgipsf.. H.. Zink..com/emergencies/fgangrene. (2005). S. Kanai.J. T.shtml Accessed 8/25/07 13. 49. M. Arihara. D. M.. Bacteriol.. Antibiotiques. Rouvet. B. Microbiol. Appl. Lischer. Animal Reproductive Science. England. Ltd. Nov. Tailliez. Scandinavian Journal for infectious Diseases. (2006) Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by H202producing Lactobacillus gasseri isolated from vaginal tract of cattle. Qutub. Mitsuoka. P. Elli. M. B. Current microbiology. NCBI Genome Project http://www.J. Klaenhammer.Elsevier Science Publishers. T.. Treatment.. Horie. In. Kullen. K. C. Sjoden.. M.. (1992) The human gastrointestinal tract. G. & Collins.. V. J. MD. Yamanaka. Sameshima. I.gov/sites/entrez?db=genomeprj&orig_db=&term=Lactobacillus%20gas seri%20&cmd Accessed 8/23/07 7.nih. The Lactic Acid Bacteria: Volume 1.B. (2004). (1999) Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species from human sources: description of Lactobacillus iners sp.urologychannel. Tleyjeh. M. habitats. 89:511-518. 185:3288-3296 9. M. Symptoms. Y. 8.. & Miki. 35-46 10. Akimoto. (2003) Contribution of aggregation-promoting factor to maintenance of cell shape in Lactobacillus gasseri 4B2. 96(1-2). 63(3). and Nader-Macías M.2. Diagnosis. J. 544–547. E.org/finished_microbes/lacga/lacga. Journal of Food Science.nlm.C. M.home. 501-503 12. Ventura. M. & Horie. Liang. 6(1).. Essex. M.

5%. J. (2007).[1] Genome structure In 2003..274 base pairs and contains 3. Lewanika. [2] [1] . He. [1] Cell structure and metabolism Lactobacillus plantarum is a Gram-positive..052 protein-encoding genes as well as three plasmids (1. TR. Morita. Homolactic fermentation uses the EMP pathway and heterolactic fermentation uses the phosphoketolase pathway. FEMS microbiology ecology. organotrophic.069-bp. Therefore. Apart from plants. Preliminary human study for possible alteration of serum immunoglobin E production in perennial allergic rhinitis with fermented milk prepared with Lactobacillus gasseri TMC0356. Lactobacillus gasseri Gasser AM63(T) degrades oxalate in a multistage continuous culture simulator of the human colonic microbiota. Lactobacillus plantarum strain WCFS1 is known to have 3. Michiel Kleerebezem mapped out the complete genome of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. M. 50(9)..917-bp. Kubota. F. Lactobacillus plantarum Description and significance Lactobacillus plantarum is a Gram-positive.. H.) which accounts for its high adaptability. Kurisaki. and 36. 2. aerotolerant. Kawase. A. bacteria which ferments plants and is used industrially to make yogurt. and pickled vegetables. Its ability to survive in the GI tract has made this bacteria a target for further research in using it as a vehicle to deliver recombinant vaccines and treatments for diseases. & Salminen. L. rod-shaped. (2006). but the plasmids contain slightly less G+C content. plantarum is a facultative heterofermentative lactobacilli. bacteria often called lactic acid bacteria because it gets most of its energy from converting glucose to lactate via homolactic and heterolactic fermentation. Microbiology and Immunology. plantarum is found in the human GI tract and acts as a probiotic bacteria.308. & Lewanika. 110-120 15. M.. cheese. L. 701-6. Hiramatsu. The G+C content of the chromosome is 44.365-bp.14.. 61(1). S.

L. The study found that L. Michael Schultz studied the effects of treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on immunodeficient mice prone to the development of colitis. However. Jean-Marie Perrier-Cornet discovered a way to control food fermentation by using Lactobacillus plantarum. A cold pasteurization method without freezing the food and thus altering the composition of the food is a new technology of interest to the food industry. and is recommended to be consumed regularly to support the immune system. plantarum 299v is found in various fermented foods such as yogurt. and pH level. it is also found in other fermented foods such as yogurt and cheese and it is also found in animal GI tracts. plantarum 299v administered orally with water to interleukin-10 deficient mice produced significant results of reduced immune-mediated colitis. Perrier-Cornet found optimization of the procedure when pasteurizing L. L.Ecology Lactobacillus plantarum is a highly adaptive bacteria that can survive at temperatures between 1º to 60º Celsius and also a great range of atmospheric pressures. a common food bacteria with resistance to a good range of temperature. In addition. such as kimchee. low pH levels of the GI tract. human saliva and vagina. [1] [3] [4] Applications to Biotechnology In 2004. plantarum 299v has the potential to be used against clinical inflammatory bowel disease. plantarum for 10 min at temperatures between −20 and 25 °C and pressure between 100 and 350 MPa. coli in the host after contaminated meat consumption." L. Due to its ability to survive in the human GI tract for >6 days. [5] Current Research In 2006. plantarum is found particularly in fermented plants. kimchee. plantarum 299v can inhibit the growth of other harmful bacteria such as E. pressure. The name "plantarum" indicates that this bacteria is a "species of the plants. cheese. [3] [4] [1] Cheese Yogurt Kimchee Human GI Tract Pathology Lactobacillus plantarum 299v is actually considered to be a probiotic. [6] . plantarum 299v to produce lactic acid helps maintain healthy. the ability of L. This suggests that L.

15. Peters. Alistair W.0 3. 1429-1435 8. (2009). Rae Foshaug. 2. L. (2004). European Molecular Biology Laboratory. Priscilla B. Raymond J. "KimChee and Fermentation. Levinus A. Sander A. 100 (4). Dieleman . Jean-Marie.LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM" European Bioinformatics Institute. ↑ 3. Oscar P. [2] 3. R. Renato Tarchini.D. Nierop Groot. René M. Richard van Kranenburg.2 1. plantarum 299v for up to 28 days. 8 April 2009 Kenyon College. Siezen. ↑ "Lactobacillus. Miguel Aroso. Rob Leer. M. Grenther . Mark W. Michael. Susan L. M.[8] References 1. Journal of Biotechnology. (1). L. [5]High-pressure inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum at subzero temperatures. Robert Kerkhoven.0 1.0 4. Wyrick . Fiers. Because L. [4] 5. Balfour Sartor. plantarum can survive in the GI tract. Maaike de Vries. The results showed that L. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease." 19 April 2005. Churchill. (2006). Sandra Tapin. Beate C. [3] 4. G. Seegers. Dattwyler. 21. ↑ 1. Sandbrink. 115 (4). Jos Boekhorst. (9). Masja N. 21 April 2009. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. and Maria Gomes-Solecki1. 6. (2003). ↑ Beatriz del Rio. and Roland J. Willem M. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. Tonkonogy . Superscript text . [8]Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v treatment in an animal model of irritable bowel syndrome.1 Hwang. Sarah Macfarlane. [1] Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. (2008) [7]Oral Immunization with Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum Induces a Protective Immune Response in Mice with Lyme Disease. [7] In 2009. Fedorak. E. Douwe Molenaar. 21 April 2009. 21 April 2009.. Sally M. Peter A. ↑ Schultz. Thomas A. [6]Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in the treatment and prevention of spontaneous colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice. 71-80. Wiley Interscience. plantarum 299v reduced inflammation and normalized the bowels. ↑ 4. Bron. Serenella Gaeta and Patrick Gervais. de Vos*. Beatriz del Rio studied the use of live recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum as an oral delivery vehicle for a Lyme disease vaccine to invoke a protective immune response in mice. Kuipers. ↑ Waugh. Vera Neves." MicrobeWiki. Sydora. Hoffer. Björn Ursing. 33-37. Alistair W. 405-412. Jos F. J.4 Kleerebezem. 8 (2). Jason SG Doyle. Claudia Veltkamp . Hans M. The mice were then force-fed L. it has been long considered for this type of research. 1990-1995. Wetonia B. 7. Luciana Meirelles. Hamin. G. Willem Stiekema. Michiel.In 2008. Waugh studied the effects of treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on healthy mice induced with irritable bowel syndrome via rectal administration of 1% allyl isothiocyanate in 30% ethanol.3 1.1 1. plantarum successfully expressed vaccine antigens inducing immunity in the mice infected with Lyme disease. ↑ Perrier-Cornet.1 "Bacteria Genomes . Richard N. Klein Lankhorst.

alleviating constipation. casei have a 45-47% G+C content. The optimum pH is at approximately 5. They have a wide temperature range as well as a wide pH range. The organism is mesophilic.7-1.Lactobacillus casei Description and significance Lactobacillus casei is a rod-shaped Gram-positive bacteria. According to US DOE Joint Genome Institute the strain contains a total of 2. The microbe is an organotroph and its metabolism is a homofermentative one.264 base pairs and a circular plasmid 1 with 29. and 75 RNA genes. casei participates in a homolactic fermentation process that can only result in one single major end product.[3] Cell structure and metabolism The cell structure of Lactobacillus casei is typically straight. Scientists have found it to possess beneficial properties that support human health. It can be found naturally in both the human intestine and the mouth. It is non-sporing. L. or even mannose. and antibiotics can lead to a deficient growth of the bacteria. rod-shaped. are "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host.895. Stress.5. it has several applications in biotechnology and in the food industry.0-4.924." Because it is lactic acid producer.771 protein genes. The cell size tends to be around 0. while other strains have an anti-inflammatory effect on the gut. 2. Consistent with other lactic acid bacteria.[4] Ecology . and even modulation of the immune system.1 x 2. Some strains of the bacteria help control diarrhea.325 nucleotides. non-motile. It is able to improve and promote digestion. Unlike heterofermentative lactobacteria which can produce either alcohol or lactic acid from carbohydrates.[1] [2] Genome structure The genome of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334 comprise of a circular chromosome with 2. fructose. Numerous strains have been proven to be probiotics. poor diet. that is according to the World Health Organization. and anaerobic. Lactobacillus casei dwells in environments such as the intestinal tracts of animals and fermented dairy products. It obtains most of its energy by converting glucose into lactic acid. It is also a facultative anaerobe. Some varieties of Lactobacillus casei can produce lactic acid utilizing galactose.0 micrometer. and arranged in chains. this species is acid tolerant.061 base pairs. which means it has an optimum temperature range around 30°C to 40°C. This means it is an organism that is able to grow under both aerobic and anaerobic environments but develops better and more rapidly in the presence of oxygen. Other advantageous effects include reducing lactose intolerance. L.

. Other name brand that also uses L. The natural end product of fermentation for this microbe is lactic acid. fermented Sicilian green olives. Numerous food industries use the probiotic bacteria in their products to promote health. Some are used in the production of cheese. Their occupation within the intestine is significant in maintaining the homeostasis of the gut immune system as well. Their presence helps sustain a stabilized distribution of microflora in the intestine. It is also known to produce DL-lactic acid and amylase that complements the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus.L. yogurt. The bacterium bears a resistance to both gastric acid and bile enabling it to endure the harsh conditions throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Similar to many probiotics it does not permanently stay in the host. casei includes Lifeway Yogurt and Stonyfield Farm Yogurt. another probiotic lactic acid bacterium.casei inhabits the oral and gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Application to Biotechnology L. The production of bacteriocins (a toxin) by L.[5][6] Pathology Lactobacillus casei does not cause any diseases. and other products. casei Shirota strain is able to directly compete with pathogens that resides in the gastrointestinal tract for adhesion sites.casei inhibits the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains preventing overpopulation. It fulfills this role through antimicrobial activity. Not only is it generally considered to be harmless. Yogourmet a probiotic yogurt starter includes Lactobacillus Casei. Another mechanism is by competition inhibition and exclusion. it is well recognized as a beneficial microorganism and a nonpathogenic. This reduces pathogenic bacteria from adhering to the intestinal wall. The mechanism involves creating an acidic habitat that restricts the growth of other bacteria that may be detrimental or cause infections. Bifidus. Studies have shown that this bacterium generates health-promoting effect on the host. and Acidophilus. instead it usually lives in the intestine for a duration of around 10 days after being taken. fermented milks. whereas other strains are utilized for their probiotic properties. It is also known to be used in the development of flavor for selected cheeses. L. casei strains are of industrial significance since they can be applied in a range of fermentation processes. Therefore they are best known as probiotics. which inhibits the development of other organisms as well as decreasing the pH level in the food or beverage product.

The inhibitory effect on LF82 invasion was only found for undifferentiated cells. began producing a probiotic drink called DanActive. It contains 6. casei DN-114 001 before infecting it with adherent-invasive E.com. This research purpose was to demonstrate the in vitro inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 on adherent-invasive E. and milk as the main ingredient. casei DN-114 001 were added together with intestinal epithelial cells in co-incubation. and Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud Lactobacillus casei have been found to be helpful to people with a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) called Crohn's disease. Antony Leplingard. casei Immunitas® is also known as L. The adherentinvasive E. the Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain has been used by Yakult Honsha a Japanese food company to produce a probiotic milk-like product called Yakult. L. coli and L. bulgaricus. It claims that "daily consumption of DanActive with L. coli. casei Immunitas® helps strengthen your body's defenses.5 billion cfu of the bacteria per 65 ml bottle. DANNON the worldwide leader in fresh dairy products.Yakult (Lactobacillus casei Shirota strain) by Casey Yancey at Flickr.[9] Current Research "Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 Inhibits the Ability of Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Isolated from Crohn's Disease Patients To Adhere to and To Invade Intestinal Epithelial Cells" by Isabelle Ingrassia. Intestine-407 and Caco-2 cells are intestinal epithelial cells. Add image caption here. casei Immunitas®. but the effect was slightly higher than the effect on adhesion. thermophilus. reduction in adhesions and invasions were observed as well.coli LF82 from adhering to undifferentiated Caco2 cells by 47% and differentiated Caco-2 cells by 43%. It is generated from the fermentation of the bacteria with skimmed milk. The probiotic was able to inhibit the adherent-invasive ability of LF82 to undifferentiated Intestine407 cells by 62%. The product is contains their own particular strain of the bacteria called L. coli LF82. The experiment included the preincubation of cultured intestinal epithelial cells with L." [7][8] Since 1955. coli was extracted from Crohn's disease patients. It also was able to inhibit E. When the adherent-invasive E. L. These results illustrates that the strain can be effectively used to inhibit the interaction of . casei DN-114001. S.

kegg.jgi-psf. 22 Mar 2009. Martínez de Morentin BE. One group received three cups per day of the fermented milk with the bacteria and the other group received a placebo for a period of eight weeks.wikipedia.html genome. The two groups were formed randomly.org/w/index.[11] "Modulation of natural killer cell activity by supplementation of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei in habitual smokers" by Morimoto K. 22:52 UTC. The researchers recorded the NK cell activity in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after the intake. which in this case is Lactobacillus casei. One group received the fermented milk containing the probiotic daily and the other group received a placebo daily. Mateos A. Tokudome S. Takeshita T. The Free Encyclopedia. Japan. The goal of this experiment was to examine the effects of Lactobacillus casei DN114001 intake from fermented milk on the immune response capacity in middle-age participants. This case consisted of 45 healthy subjects between the ages of 51 to 58: 24 women and 21 men. 31 Mar 2009 <http://en. This suggests a new possible option for the treating Crohn's disease. Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine. They concluded that "that daily intake of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN114001 could have a positive effect in modulating the innate immune defense in healthy-middle-age people". Nanno M. Martínez JA at Department of Physiology and Nutrition. However there was an increased in oxidative burst capacity of monocytes and an increase in tumoricidal activity of NK cells seen in the group treated with DN114001 strain. 2. The averaged natural killer cell activity adjusted by the numbers of cigarettes was significantly higher for the individuals in the L. ↑ "Lactobacillus casei. This research involves testing L. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the proportion of natural killer cells between the two groups.php?title=Lactobacillus_casei&oldid=279033109>.jgi-psf. can be effective in restoring the natural killer cell activity in habitual smokers.org 3. ↑ http://genome.com/kegg-bin/show_organism?org=lca kegg.home.org/finished_microbes/lacca/lacca. Osaka. Nakayama K at Department of Social and Environmental Medicine.those pathogenic bacteria with intestinal epithelial cells. casei's ability in restoring natural killer cell activity in habitual smokers which tend to have a significant reduction in natural killer cell activity. This experiment was carried out for a duration of three weeks.[10] "Daily ingestion of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN114001 improves innate-defense capacity in healthy middle-aged people" by Parra MD. They concluded that the consumption of fermented milk with lactic acid bacteria.[12] References 1. The results showed no significant changes in immune cell proportions. Spain. The 99 habitually smoking volunteers were randomly placed in to two groups. According to the journal the natural killer cell activity in participants had an inverse relationship with the number of cigarettes smoked. University of Navarra. ↑ http://www. casei group than those in the placebo group. Cobo JM.com ." Wikipedia.

gov/articlerender." Wikipedia. 14 Mar 2009.nih.kenyon. 8.ncbi.wikipedia.PE ntrez.com 6.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.php?title=Actimel&oldid=281256710>. ↑ http://www. <http://microbewiki.ncbi.php?title=Yakult&oldid=277140860>.html www.gov 11.nih.org/w/index. ↑ http://www. Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.nlm. ↑ http://www.nih. ↑ "Yakult. 10.danactive.Pubmed.html 9.org 7.gov/pubmed .Pubmed_ResultsPanel.gov/pubmed/15457926?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.nlm.nlm. 2 Apr 2009.gov 12. 08:50 UTC. ↑ "Lactobacillus casei. ↑ http://jmm." Microbewiki.pubmedcentral.org/w/index.wikipedia.ncbi.com/lactobacillus-casei. ↑ "Actimel.nih. 07:19 UTC." Wikipedia.com/danactive_whatIs_casei.Pubmed. ↑ http://www.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedarticles&log dbfrom=pubmed www. 4 Apr 2009 <http://en. The Free Encyclopedia.probiotics-lovethatbug.nih.4.gov/pubmed/15749143?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.nlm.fcgi?artid=1151832 pubmedcentral.org/cgi/content/full/52/10/925 jmm.PE ntrez.sgmjournals.edu/index.sgmjournals. 4 Apr 2009 <http://en. The Free Encyclopedia.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.php/Lactobacillus_casei> 5. ↑ http://www. Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=3&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed www.ncbi.nih.probioticslovethatbug.