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# 3.1.

Visualize:

Solve: (a) To find A + B , we place the tail of vector B on the tip of vector A and connect the tail of vector A with the tip of vector B. (b) Since A − B = A + (− B) , we place the tail of the vector (− B ) on the tip of vector A and then connect the tail

of vector A with the tip of vector (− B ) .

3.2.

Visualize:

Solve: (a) To find A + B , we place the tail of vector B on the tip of vector A and then connect vector A’s tail with vector B’s tip. (b) To find A − B , we note that A − B = A + (− B) . We place the tail of vector − B on the tip of vector A and

then connect vector A’s tail with the tip of vector − B.

3.3.

Visualize:

Solve:

Vector E points to the left and up, so the components Ex and E y are negative and positive,

respectively, according to the Tactics Box 3.1. (a) Ex = − E cosθ (b) Ex = − E sin φ

and

E y = E sin θ .

and

E y = E cos φ .

Assess: Note that the role of sine and cosine are reversed because we are using a different angle. θ and φ are complementary angles.

3.4.

Visualize: The position vector r whose magnitude r is 10 m has an x-component of 6 m. It makes an angle θ with the + x -axis in the first quadrant.

Solve:

Using trigonometry, rx = r cosθ , or 6 m = (10 m)cosθ . This gives θ = 53.1°. Thus the y-component of

the position vector r is ry = r sin θ = (10 m)sin 53.1° = 8 m.
Assess: The y-component is positive since the position vector is in the first quadrant.

3. or v = 15.5. or −10 m/s = −v sin 40°.56 m/s. and the angle θ. Visualize: The figure shows the components vx and vy. . Solve: We have.56 m/s ) cos 40° = 12 m/s. v y = −v sin 40°. Thus the x-component is vx = v cos 40° = (15. Assess: The x-component is positive since the position vector is in the fourth quadrant.

so the components rx and ry are positive and negative. Visualize: We will follow rules in Tactics Box 3.0 m/s 2 )sin 90° = −5. .7 m ry = − r sin θ = −(100 m)sin 45° = −70. so the components vx and v y are both positive: vx = v cosθ = (300 m /s) cos 20° = 282 m/s (c) Vector a has the following components: v y = v sin θ = (300 m/s)sin 20° = 103 m/s ax = −a cosθ = −(5.7 m (b) Vector v points to the right and up. Note the minus signs we have manually inserted according to Tactics Box 3.0 m/s 2 )cos90° = 0 m/s 2 a y = − a sin θ = −(5. Solve: (a) Vector r points to the right and down.1. respectively: rx = r cosθ = (100 m)cos 45° = 70.1.6.3.0 m/s 2 Assess: The components have same units as the vectors.

Visualize: We will follow the rules given in Tactics Box 3. Note the minus signs we have manually inserted according to Tactics Box 3.1.4 m/s 2 (c) Fx = (50 N)sin 36.3.7.9° = 40 N Assess: The components have the same units as the vectors.1. Solve: v y = (5 cm/s)cos90° = 0 cm/s (a) vx = −(5 cm/s)sin 90° = −5 cm/s (b) ax = −(10 m/s 2 )sin 40° = −6.9° = 30 N a y = −(10 m/s 2 )cos 40° = −7.7 m/s 2 Fy = (50 N)cos36. .

3.15 m)cos15° = −3.815 m. Dx and Dy are unitless because D is without units. and the angles θ are shown. Visualize: The components of the vector C and D. Note the minus signs we have manually inserted following rules of Tactics Box 3.1.8 and Dy = −25.67cos30° = −22. For D we have Dx = 25.2. Solve: For C we have C x = −(3.15 m)sin15° = 0. . Assess: The components of the vector C have the same units as C itself.04 m and C y = (3.6sin 30° = 12.8.

We have: θ = tan −1 Assess: | Ey | Ex ⎛ 250 V/m ⎞ −1 = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = tan 2 = 63. The angle θ is below the positive x-axis. Visualize: Solve: The magnitude of the vector is E = ( Ex ) 2 + ( E y ) 2 = (125 V/m) 2 + ( −250 V/m) 2 = 280 V/m.9.4° 125 V/m ⎠ ⎝ Since | E y | > | Ex | . In the ˆ j expression for E . the − ˆ and +i means that E is in quadrant IV. . θ = 45° for | E y | = | Ex | . the angle θ made with the +x-axis is larger than 45°.3.

we have: B = ( − 4) 2 + (4) 2 = 5.10. (c) v = (−10 m/s) 2 + (−100 m/s) 2 = 100.6° 20 Assess: Note that θ ≤ 45° when | E y | ≤ | Ex |.4 m/s 2 θ = tan −1 = tan −1 0. Visualize: Solve: (a) Using the formulas for the magnitude and direction of a vector.5 = 26. where θ is the angle made with the x-axis. On the other hand.3.3° 10 10 (d) a = (10 m/s 2 ) 2 + (20 m/s 2 ) 2 = 22.6° 100 = tan −1 10 = 84.2 cm 1 2 θ = tan −1 = tan −1 1 = 45° 4 4 θ = tan −1 = tan −1 0.5 m/s θ = tan −1 θ > 45° when | E y | > | Ex | . .5 = 26.7 (b) r = (−2 cm) 2 + (−1 cm) 2 = 2.

3 m/s 2 θ = tan −1 = tan −1 0. where the opposite of this rule applies.4° 6 Assess: Note that the angle θ made with the x-axis is smaller than 45° whenever | E y | < | Ex | . θ is with the y-axis. and θ > 45° for | E y | > | Ex | . we have: A = (4) 2 + ( −6) 2 = 7. In part (d).3.11. Visualize: Solve: (a) Using the formulas for the magnitude and direction of a vector.3 m θ = tan −1 = tan −1 1.7 m/s θ = tan −1 | E y | = | Ex |. .5 = 56.33 = 18.4° 20 2 (d) a = (2 m/s 2 ) 2 + (−6 m/s 2 ) 2 = 6.0° rx ⎠ ⎝ 50 m ⎠ ⎝ 6 4 θ = tan −1 ⎜ 40 = tan −1 2 = 63. θ = 45° for (c) v = (−20 m/s) 2 + (40 m/s) 2 = 44.3° ⎛ ry ⎞ −1 ⎛ 80 m ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ ⎟ = 58.21 (b) r = (50 m) 2 + (80 m) 2 = 94.

Look back at Tactics Box 1.2. and then use the tip-totail rule of graphical addition. we place the tail of − B on the tip of A. which shows how to perform vector subtraction graphically. .3. where − B = ( B. direction opposite B ).12. Visualize: We have C = A − B or C = A + (− B). Solve: To obtain vector C from A and B.

as obtained above. Solve: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (a) We have A = 5i + 2 ˆ and B = −3i − 5 ˆ.6 θ = tan −1 | Cy | ⎛3⎞ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 56° below the + x-axis Cx ⎝2⎠ Assess: The vector C is to the right and down. Thus. thus implying a negative y-component and positive xcomponent. and C y = −3. . C = A + B = (5i + 2 ˆ) + (−3i − 5 ˆ) = 2i − 3 ˆ.3. Therefore. the magnitude and direction of C are j j C = (2) 2 + (−3) 2 = 3. B. j j j j j (b) Vectors A. Cx = 2. B. Visualize: The vectors A. and C are shown with their tails together.13. ˆ ˆ (c) Since C = 2i − 3 ˆ = C xi + C y ˆ. Also θ > 45° since | C y | > | Cx | . and C = A + B are shown.

the angle θ is less than 45°. B and D are shown in the above figure. Dx = 8 and Dy = 7. as it should be. D = A + ( − B) = 8i + 7 ˆ.14. Visualize: Solve: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (a) We have A = 5i + 2 ˆ. the magnitude and direction of D are j j D = (8) 2 + (7) 2 = 10. j j j j (b) Vectors A. Therefore.6 Assess: θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎛ Dy ⎞ −1 ⎛ 7 ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ ⎟ = 41° ⎝8⎠ ⎝ Dx ⎠ Since | Dy | < | Dx | . Thus.3. and − B = +3i + 5 ˆ. B = −3i − 5 ˆ. ˆ ˆ (c) Since D = 8i + 7 ˆ = Dxi + Dy ˆ. .

15. which would be the case if φ were the angle made with the x-axis. the magnitude and direction of E are E = (1) 2 + (−11) 2 = 11. j j j j E = 2 A + 3B = 1iˆ − 11 ˆ. B. This means 2 A = 10i + 4 ˆ and 3B = −9i − 15 ˆ.05 φ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎛ Ex ⎞ ⎛1⎞ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 5.19° right of the − y -axis ⎜|E |⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 11 ⎠ ⎝ y ⎠ Assess: Note that φ is the angle made with the y-axis. Therefore. Hence. j (b) Vectors A . (c) From the E vector.3. . Ex = 1 and E y = −11 . and that is why φ = tan −1 ( Ex /| E y |) rather than tan −1 (| E y |/ Ex ). and E are shown in the above figure. Visualize: Solve: ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (a) We have A = 5i + 2 ˆ and B = −3i − 5 ˆ.

8 θ = tan −1 ⎜ Assess: ⎛ Fy ⎞ −1 ⎛ 22 ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ ⎟ = 52. Visualize: Solve: ˆ ˆ We have A = 5i + 2 ˆ and B = −3i − 5 ˆ. (b) The vectors A.3° ⎝ 17 ⎠ ⎝ Fx ⎠ Fy > Fx implies θ > 45°. (c) The magnitude and direction of F are F = Fx2 + Fy2 = (17) 2 + (22) 2 = 27. F = A − 4 B = 17i j j (a) This means ˆ − 4 B = +12i + 20 ˆ. j Hence. . j j ˆ ˆ + 22 ˆ = Fxi + Fy ˆ with Fx = 17 and Fy = 22. and F are shown in the above figure.3.16. as is observed. B.

(b) False. . because the orientation of the vector relative to the axes can be different. because the size of a vector is fixed.3. (c) True. because the direction of a vector in space is independent of any coordinate system. (a) False. Solve: A different coordinate system can only mean a different orientation of the grid and a different origin of the grid.17.

Thus. Visualize: Solve: j In coordinate system I. Ax = −(4. it has a negative x-component and a positive y-component.3 m)i + (2.0 m)cos30° = −4.0)cos30° = −3.5 m)i . This implies ˆ A = −(2.0 m)sin 30° = −2.0 m and Ay = −(4. Bx = − B sin 30° = −(5.0 m)cos30° = 4. j By = + B cos30° = (5. Thus B = −(2. B = −(4. and makes an angle of 30° with the –y-axis. j In coordinate system II.18. That is. ˆ Bx = −(5.0 m)sin 30° = −2.5 m) ˆ.3 m) ˆ. j The vector B makes an angle of 30° with the +y-axis and is to the left and up.3.3 m. which makes it have an angle of θ = 30° with the –x-axis.0 m)sin 30° = 2. This means we have to manually insert a x-component. Therefore.3 m and By = + (5.5 m. A points to the left and down.0 m)i − (3. The vector B makes an angle of 60° counterclockwise from vertical.5 m. A = −(4 m) ˆ. and minus sign with the ˆ + (4. so Ax = 0 m and Ay = −4 m. Since B points to the left and up.5 m) ˆ.5 m.

v points to the left and up. vx and v y have the same units as v .6 m/s and v y = + v sin 30° = (100 m/s)sin 30° = 50. The velocity vector v points west and makes an angle of 30° with the –x-axis.19. . Visualize: Refer to Figure EX3. implying that vx is negative and v y is positive.19. Solve: Assess: We have vx = −v cos30° = −(100 m/s)cos30° = −86.3.0 m/s.

71 m)i − (4. Cx = − ( 5.0 m) ˆ j B = (2.3.0 m ) cos 20° = 2.09 m)i − (3.0 m ) sin 20°= −1. Visualize: (a) Solve: (b) The components of the vectors A.0 m) ˆ j ˆ C = (−1. .7 m.09 The direction of D is south of east.7 m) ˆ. and C are Ax = ( 3. ˆ A = (2. This means the vectors can be written.0 m .58 = 74° 1.0 m ) sin 70°= −4. This means j D = (1.9 = tan −1 3.0 m ) cos70° = −1.7 m) 2 = 3.8 m)i − (1. 7 4 ° b elow the positive x-axis.9 m θ = tan −1 3. Bx = 0 m and By = 2 m.7 m) ˆ j ˆ (c) We have D = A + B + C = (1.20.09 m) 2 + (3.8 m and Ay = − ( 3.71 m and C y = − ( 5. B.

21. the resultant for D + 2 E in (b). the diagram shows the resultant for D + E + F in (a). Visualize: Solve: Using the method of tail-to-tip graphical addition.3. . and the resultant for D − 2 E + F in (c).

Also. ˆ ˆ ˆ j (c) Since − E − 2 F = −(2i + 3 ˆ) − 2(2i − 2 ˆ) = −6i + 1 ˆ. ˆ j (b) Since E + F = 4i + 1 ˆ. j j which means Ex = 2 and E y = 3. the magnitude of − E − 2 F is j j (−6) 2 + (1) 2 = 6. j 2 (a) The magnitude of E is given by E = Ex2 + E y = (2) 2 + (3) 2 = 3.1. Solve: We have ˆ ˆ E = Exi + E y ˆ = 2i + 3 ˆ. the magnitude of E + F is (4) 2 + (1) 2 = 4.1. which means Fx = 2 and Fy = −2. ˆ ˆ j F = Fxi + Fy ˆ = 2i − 2 ˆ.6 and the magnitude of F is given by F = Fx2 + Fy2 = (2) 2 + (2) 2 = 2.8. .22.3.

6 m/s . t = 2 s. The particle’s speed at t = 0 s. the direction of r is constant.6 m.ˆ Solve: We have r = (5i + 4 ˆ)t 2 m.40t 2 ) m. and 160 m. 25.23. dr dt 2 ˆ ˆ ˆ (b) The particle’s velocity is v = = (5i + 4 ˆ) j m/s = (5i + 4 ˆ)2t m/s = (10i + 8 ˆ)t m/s j j dt dt (c) The magnitude of the particle’s velocity is given by v = (10 t ) 2 + (8t ) 2 = 12. that is. 25.0 m/s . This means that r does not change the ratio of its components as t j increases. . and t = 5 s is 0 m. and t = 5 s is 0 m/s. and 64.8t m/s. The magnitude of r is given by 3. (a) The particle’s distance from the origin at t = 0 s. t = 2 s. r = (5t 2 ) 2 + (4t 2 ) 2 m = (6.

7 and its angle made with the +x-axis is measured to be 33°. and the geometry of parallelograms. (b) Using the law of cosines. Visualize: Solve: (a) Vector C is the sum of vectors A and B.76) 2 = 4. which is obtained using the tip-to-tip rule of graphical addition. . θC = α + 20° = 35. we obtain C = (3) 2 + (2) 2 − 2(3)(2)cos(140°) = 4. (c) We have: Ax = A cos θ A = 3cos 20° = 2.73 This means: Cx = Ax + Bx = 3.03 By = B sin θ B = 2sin 60° = 1.82 and C y = Ay + By = 2.24.8°.76 ⎞ ⎟ = tan ⎜ ⎟ = 35.8° Cx ⎠ ⎝ 3.71 Thus.82 Bx = B cos θ B = 2cos60° = 1. which shows that φ = 180° − (θ B − θ A ) = 180° − (60° − 20°) = 140°.8° = 2 4.3.00 Ay = A sin θ A = 3sin 20° = 1.76. Its magnitude is measured to be 4. C 2 = A2 + B 2 − 2 AB cos φ .82)2 + (2.71 θC = tan −1 ⎜ ⎛ Cy ⎞ −1 ⎛ 2.82 ⎠ ⎝ Assess: Using the method of vector components and their algebraic addition to find the resultant vector yields the same results as using the graphical addition of vectors.71 Using the law of sines: sin α sin140° ⇒ α = 15. The magnitude and direction of C are given by 2 C = Cx2 + C y = (3.

25 in your textbook. B = ( −6) 2 + (2) 2 = 6.3. j j ˆ (b) We have B = Bxi + By ˆ with Bx = −6 and By = 2.25. θ < 45° as is obtained above. Thus. the angle θ made by B is with the –x-axis and it is above the –x-axis. Assess: Since | By | < | Bx |. . ˆ ˆ ˆ j j (a) We are given that A + B + C = −2i with A = 4i . Solve: Visualize: Refer to Figure P3. ˆ ˆ ˆ B = ( A + B + C ) − ( A + C ) = (−2i ) − (4i − 2 ˆ) = −6i + 2 ˆ. This means A + C = 4i − 2 ˆ. Hence. and C = −2 ˆ.3 j θ = tan −1 By | Bx | = tan −1 2 = 18° 6 Since B has a negative x-component and a positive y-component.

Visualize: Solve: (a) θ E = tan −1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = 45° ⎜ ⎟ ⎝1⎠ 2 θ F = tan −1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = 63.0 and Fy = +2. E = 2 and F = 5.00. Assess: The graphical solution and the vector solution give the same answer within the given significance of figures.6° (b) From the figure. Furthermore.975 5 Since θ E = 45° .0.6°) ⇒ G = 3.0 ) + ( 3.0 ⎠ That is.0 2 ( 0. (c) We have Ex = +1. ⇒G = and E y = +1.3.0. . the angle made by the vector G with the +x-axis is θG = (α + θ E ) = 45° + 45° = 90°.4° ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Thus φ = 180° − θ E − θ F = 71. Fx = −1.0. using sin α sin(180° − 71. Using G 2 = E 2 + F 2 − 2 EF cos φ = ( 2) 2 + ( 5) 2 − 2( 2)( 5)cos(180° − 71.6°) = ⇒ α = 45° 2. 2 and θ = tan −1 |G y | |Gx | ⎛ 3.0.0 ) = 3.0 ⎞ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 90° ⎝ 0. Gx = 0.26. the vector G makes an angle of 90° with the x-axis.0 and G y = 3.

97 By = +2sin10° = 0.6. Also.1i − 2.97i − 0.1i − 3.3.1 and Ay = 4sin 40° = 2.0 ˆ.27.27. and we have Ax = 4cos 40° = 3. Bx = −2cos10° = −1. A + B + C = 0. j j j .35. From the rules of trigonometry. Solve: Visualize: Refer to Figure P3. Since ˆ ˆ ˆ C = − A − B = (− A) + (− B) = (−3.35 ˆ) = −1.6 ˆ) + (+1.

Assess: The resultant vector can be obtained graphically by using the rule of tail-to-tip addition.28.9 m)i + (2. The magnitude of this vector is D = 5.3. .9 m) ˆ.7 m. Visualize: D u Solve: In the tilted coordinate system. j ˆ ˆ j j Therefore.9 m/4. and it makes an angle of θ = tan −1 (2.9 m) = 31° with the +x-axis. the vectors A and B are expressed as: ˆ A = (2sin15° m)i + (2cos15° m) ˆ j and ˆ B = (4cos15° m)i − (4sin15° m) ˆ. D = 2 A + B = (4 m)[(sin15° + cos15°)i + (cos15° − sin15°) ˆ] = (4.

Visualize: ˆ j ˆ j The magnitude of the unknown vector is 1 and its direction is along i + ˆ .and y-components of A are both unity.29. so we have 2 B = Bx2 + By = 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⇒ ⎜ B⎟ + ⎜ B ⎟ = 1 ⇒ B2 = 1 ⇒ B = 1 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Hence. the unknown vector must make an angle of 45° with the +x-axis and have unit magnitude. That is. Let A = i + ˆ as shown in the ˆ j diagram. Since θ = tan −1 ( Ay / Ax ) = 45°. A = 1i + 1 ˆ and the x.3. 1 ˆ 1 ˆ ˆ B = Bxi + By ˆ = j i+ j 2 2 1 2 2 2 . ˆ Solve: Let the unknown vector be B = Bxi + By ˆ where j Bx = B cos 45° = 1 B 2 and By = B sin 45° = 1 B 2 We want the magnitude of B to be 1. Bx = By = Finally.

0 km is reasonable for Carlos to run in 10 minutes if he is an athlete. Carlos ends up 1.27 km north of his starting position. .7 km i + 1.30. The displacement of 3. or θ = 25° from the +x-axis. Model: Carlos will be represented as a particle and the particle model will be used for motion under constant acceleration kinetic equations. The total distance he travels is found from kinematics: r1 = r0 + v0 Δt = 0 m + ( 5 m/s )( 600 s ) = 3000 m This displacement is north of east. Thus the position r1 becomes ˆ ˆ r1 = (3000 m)(cos 25°i + sin 25° ˆ) = 2.3. Visualize: Solve: Carlos runs at constant speed without changing direction.27 km ˆ j j That is. Assess: The choice of our coordinate system is such that the x-component of the displacement is along the east and the y-component is along the north.

y. that is. The vectors S morning (shortened as S m ). ˆ ˆ (b) S total = Sa + S m = (500i + 5000 ˆ − 100k ) m.z) is shown here.3. The total displacement is the sum of the individual displacements. (500 m east) + (5000 m north) – (100 m vertical). 100 m lower. Safternoon (shortened as Sa ). that is.31. Visualize: The coordinate system (x. ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ j j Solve: S m = (2000i + 3000 ˆ + 200k ) m. and the total displacement vector S total = Sa + S m are also shown.03 km 2 2 . and Sa = (−1500i + 2000 ˆ − 300k ) m. the +z-direction is vertically up. (a) The sum of the z-components of the afternoon and morning displacements is Sza + Szm = −300 m + 200 m = −100 m. While +x denotes east and +y denotes north. The j magnitude of your total displacement is S total = ( 500 ) 2 + ( 5000 ) + ( −100 ) m = 5.

ˆ j j Solve: (a) We have S8:00 = (2.0 cm) ˆ.3. The vector thus is to the right and points down.m.74 cm)i − (3. in quadrant IV.87i − 1. j j Assess: The displacement vector in part (a) has a positive x-component and a negative y-component. The displacement vector is Δr = S8:20 − S8:00 ˆ = (2.0 cm)[0. Visualize: Only the minute hand is shown in the figure. This is where the vector drawn from the tip of the 8:00 a. The displacement vector is Δr = S9:00 − S8:00 = 0.0 cm)cos30°i − (2.0 cm)[cos30°i − (sin 30° + 1) ˆ] j ˆ = (2.00 cm) ˆ (b) We have S8:00 = (2. .0 cm) ˆ and S8:20 = (2. arm to the tip of the 8:20 a.0 cm) ˆ and S9:00 = (2. arm will point.32.m.0 cm)sin 30° ˆ.50 ˆ] j ˆ j = (1.

3. These answers are in close agreement to part (b). 59.4° ⎝ 183 m ⎠ This means D = (360 m.4° north of east).75 times the measured length of vector A . (c) The measured length of the vector D on the graph (with a ruler) is approximately 1.33. We want A + B + C + D = 0. Since A = 200 m. . Visualize: (a) Note that +x is along the east and +y is along the north. Similarly. ˆ j j Solve: (b) We are given A = −(200 m) ˆ. this gives D = 1. and can use trigonometry to obtain B = −(283 m)i − (283 m) ˆ and ˆ + (173 m) ˆ.75 × 200 m = 350 m. the angle θ measured with the protractor is close to 60°. This means C = (100 m)i j D = −A − B − C ˆ ˆ ˆ = (200 m ˆ) + (283 m i + 283 m ˆ) + (−100 m i − 173 m ˆ) = 183 m i + 310 m ˆ j j j j The magnitude and direction of D are D = (183 m) 2 + (310 m) 2 = 360 m and θ = tan −1 Dy Dx ⎛ 310 m ⎞ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 59.

4i + 35. Dnet = ( Dnet ) 2 + ( Dnet ) 2 = 38 m.4 ˆ ) m j j ˆ D2 = −70i m D3 = −20 ˆ m j ˆ j Thus Sparky’s displacement is Dnet = ( −35i + 15. Solve: (b) Dnet = D1 + D2 + D3 .34. . Visualize: (a) The figure shows Sparky’s individual displacements and his net displacement.3. x y θ net = tan −1 ⎜ ⎛ ( Dnet ) y ⎞ ⎟ = 24° ⎝ | ( Dnet ) x | ⎠ Sparky’s net displacement is 38 m in a direction 24° north of west. where individual displacements are ˆ ˆ D1 = (50cos 45°i + 50sin 45° ˆ ) m = (35. (c) As a magnitude and angle.4 ˆ) m.

Using trigonometry. The magnitude of r ˆ is displace-ment is r = A + B + C = (7.5 m is a reasonable displacement. The ˆ.12 m)i − (2. Visualize: Solve: total ˆ ˆ ˆ j We are given A = 5 m i and C = (−1 m)k .5 m.12 m) ˆ − (1 m)k j r = (7.12)2 + (2.3. B = (3cos 45° m)i − (3sin 45° m) ˆ.35.12) 2 + (1)2 m = 7. . Assess: A displacement of 7.

. For the small angle of 30°.6 m/s for the horizontal component is reasonable. v|| = v cosθ = (100 m/s)cos30° = 86.36. Thus.6 m/s. Visualize: Solve: Assess: We have ˆ v = vxi + v y ˆ j ˆ = v||i + v⊥ ˆ j ˆ j = v cosθ i + v sin θ ˆ.3. the obtained value of 86.

Solve: .37.0 m/s)cosθ ⇒ θ = cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 34°.7 m/s.0 m/s) sin 34° = 1.0 m/s ⎠ (b) The vertical component is v y = v sin θ = (3.5 m/s ⎞ (a) Since vx = v cosθ . we have 2. ⎝ 3.3.5 m/s = (3. Visualize: ⎛ 2.

8 m/s2. Visualize: The coordinate system used here is tilted with x-axis along the slope. or 16 feet.38. This is the speed toward the ground. This is the speed down the slope. Note that g = –9.4 m/s. . Solve: The component of the velocity parallel to the x-axis is v|| = −v cos70° = −v sin 20° = −10 m/s (0.34) = −3.3.94) = −9. The component of the velocity perpendicular v⊥ = −v sin 70° = −v cos 20° = −10 m/s (0. Assess: A speed of approximately 10 m/s implies a fall time of approximately 1 second under free fall. This time is reasonable for a drop of approximately 5 m.4 m/s.

But while she’s doing so. If Mary rows due north at a constant speed of 2. the current sweeps her boat sideways a distance 1 m/s × 50 s = 50 m. it will take her 50 s to row across. .3. Mary’s net displacement is the vector sum of the displacement due to her rowing plus the displacement due to the river’s current. (b) Mary’s net displacement is shown on the figure. She lands 50 m east of the point that was directly across the river from her when she started.39.0 m/s. Visualize: Solve: (a) The river is 100 m wide.

. Vector A is A = (100i + 500 ˆ) paces.6° ⎝ 350 ⎠ 2 You should head 24. From the figure A = B + C.Visualize: Establish a coordinate system with origin at the tree and with the x-axis pointing east. ˆ ˆ B = (300sin 60°i + 300cos60° ˆ ) paces = (260i + 150 ˆ ) paces j j Solve: Now let C be the displacement vector from your position to the treasure. you follow the road for 300 paces and undergo displacement 3. You need to walk distance C = Cx2 + C y = 385 paces to get to the treasure. ˆ So the displacement you need to reach the treasure is C = A − B = (−160i + 350 ˆ) paces. then east 100 paces. Instead.40. θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎛ 160 ⎞ ⎟ = 24.6° west of north. j If θ is the angle measured between C and the y-axis. Let ˆ A be a displacement vector directly from the tree to the treasure. j This describes the displacement you would undergo by walking north 500 paces.

Solve: From the figure. Visualize: A 3% grade rises 3 m for every 100 m horizontal distance.0 m/s. Establish a tilted coordinate system with one axis parallel to the ground and the other axis perpendicular to the ground.3. But this is only the size. v⊥ is down.41.0 m/s. We also have to note that the direction of component is v⊥ = −15.03) = 1.72°. so the . The angle of the ground is thus α = tan −1 (3/100) = tan −1 (0. the magnitude of the component vector of v perpendicular to the ground is v⊥ = v sin α = 15.

42. where vwind = 6 m/s i and vfly = −v sin θ i − v cosθ ˆ.3.6° west of south. so sin θ = . Visualize: Solve: ˆ ˆ j The resulting velocity is given by v = vfly + vwind . This j means 0 = −8 m/s sin θ + 6 m/s. Thus the ducks should head 48. We need to have vx = 0. 8 ˆ ˆ Substituting the known values we get v = −8 m/s sin θ i − 8 m/s cosθ ˆ + 6 m/s i . 6 and θ = 48.6°.

866) = 1.0 m/s 2 .5) = 1.0 m/s 2 )(0. Assess: Magnitudes of the tangential and perpendicular components of acceleration are reasonable.3. Model: Visualize: The car is treated as a particle in this problem.0 m/s 2 )(0. (b) The perpendicular component is a⊥ = a cos30° = (2. .7 m/s 2 .43. Solve: (a) The tangential component is a|| = a sin 30° = (2.

we have F1 = 3.44. and is therefore in quadrant III.5) 2 + (−4.33/0. The magnitude of F3 is given by j F3 = (−0. The angle F3 makes is θ = tan −1 (4. Assess: The resultant vector has both components negative. Note the minus sign that we have manually inserted with the force F2 . .33 ˆ .3. Solve: ˆ ˆ Expressing the vectors using unit vectors. Since j ˆ F1 + F2 + F3 = 0. Its magnitude and direction are reasonable. Model: Visualize: We will treat the knot in the rope as a particle in static equilibrium.0i and F2 = −5.0cos30° ˆ.5i − 4.4 units.5) = 83° and is below the negative xaxis.33) 2 = 4.0sin 30°i + 5. we can write F3 = − F1 − F2 = −0.

0 N) ˆ. we have F1 = −(3.0 N)i .0 N) + 0 N + (5. Visualize: Use a tilted coordinate system such that x-axis is down the slope.50 N up the slope.67 N) 2 = 1.0 N)cos30° = 1.67 N. (c) The magnitude of Fnet is Fnet = ( Fnet ) x + ( Fnet ) y = (−0. (b) The component of Fnet perpendicular to the floor is ( Fnet ) y = 0 N + (6.50 N ⎠ Fnet is 73° above the floor on the left side of F2 .0 N)sin θ i − (5. The angle Fnet makes is φ = tan −1 ( Fnet ) y |( Fnet ) x | ⎛ 1.67 N ⎞ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 73° ⎝ 0.0 N)sin 30° = −0.0 N) − (5.50 N) 2 + (1. F2 = + (6. or 0. j (a) The component of Fnet parallel to the floor is ( Fnet ) x = −(3.45. ˆ j Solve: Expressing all three forces in terms of unit vectors.50 N.0 N)cosθ ˆ.74 N.3. 00000 . and ˆ F3 = (5.

0 N)sin 35. |( Fnet ) y | ⎛ 7.0 N)cos35. we get θ = tan −1 (100 cm/141 cm) = 35. and FD = + (2. FC = −(6.0 N)i .37 N ⎠ 3-1 . The magnitude of Fnet is Fnet = (1.2 N ⎞ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ = 79° |( Fnet ) x | ⎝ 1.79° below −x in quadrant III).0 N) ˆ.3 N.3 N.46.37 N) 2 + (7.2 N) 2 = 7.2 N ˆ. Visualize: Solve: Using trigonometry to calculate θ.3.3i − (2.3 ˆ = (1.37 N i − 7.3°.16 N) ˆ. The total ˆ j force is Fnet = FB + FC + FD = −1.63 N)i − (1. FB = −(3. Expressing the three forces in unit ˆ ˆ ˆ j j j vectors. θ net = tan −1 Fnet = (7.