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Chapter 1: Chapter 2

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Context of Problematizing Introduction The Research Questions 2.1. Theoretical Framework 2.2. Review of Literature 2.2.1. Publication 1: Manila as a Teaching Destination of Selected High School Teachers from the Provinces 2.2.2. Publication 2: The State of Migration from the Provinces to Manila by Selected High School Teachers 2.2.3. Publication 3: The State of High School Teaching in Manila 2.2.4. Publication 4: Expected Opportunities and Challenges from Teaching in Manila by Selected High School Teachers

Chapter 3: Research Method Proposed Dissertation Topic Title: UNDERSTANDING THE DYNAMICS OF INTERNAL MIGRATION OF TEACHERS Abstract: This study will explore the dynamics of high school teacher migration from the province to Manila in terms of the trend of their mobility and the factors that affected their migration decision to discover whether the opportunities and challenges of metropolis teaching have contributed to their development as an individual or as a member of society. Jonas Widgren and Philip Martin’s (2002) “demand-pull, push-supply, and network” categorization of the factors that encourage migration and Sharon-Kukla-Acevedo’s (2009) “role of workplace conditions in teacher mobility decisions” will be the bases of discussion. Expected output then is a set of academic policies that can make the opportunities and challenges uplift the plight of migrant teachers.

2008) # 8 Migration and the Employment and Wages of Native and Immigrant Workers (Franklin D. 2002) # 6 Migrants and Employment: Challenging the Success Story (Christina Ho and Caroline Alcoroso. 2003) # 3 On the Determinants of International Migration in the Philippines: An Empirical Analysis (Ma. 2004) From Batch 14 . 2001) From Batch 5 # 2 Migration. and Risk Diversification (Kong-Pin Chen. 2002). Elizebeth Midgley. Manolo Abella. Wilson and Gerald Jaynes. 2001) # 7 Research on Internal Migration in the United States: A Survey (Michael J. Greenwood. # 4 Migration Patterns and Income Change: Implications for the Human Capital Approach to Migration (Anthony M. 2008) From Batch 8 # 1 Best Practices to Manage Migration: The Philippines (Philip Martin. Siu Fai Leung. Yezer and Lawrence Thurston. Reinaruth D. ShinHwan Chiang. J. Family.List of Journal Articles From Batch 1 # 3 Managing Migration: The Role of Economic Instruments (Jonas Widgren and Philip Martin. Carlos.

2. Publication 3: The Opportunities and Challenges of Metropolis Teaching to Migrant Teachers 2. Gurak. Review of Literature 2. Elfers. Knapp. 2001) From Batch 22 # 2 Leavers. Publication 4: The Effect of Opportunities and Challenges on the Migrant Teachers’ Development as an Individual and as a Member of Society Chapter 3: Research Method Research method Phenomenology Selection Data Gathering procedure Mode of analysis References .2.4. From Batch 24 # 3 Teacher Mobility: Looking More Closely at “The Movers” Within a State System (Ana M.1.2. Theoretical Framework 2. Plecki. Movers.3. and Michael S.2. 2006) TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Context of Problematizing Introduction Chapter 2: The Research Questions 2.1. Publication 1: Trend Analysis of Teacher Migration 2.2. Publication 2: Teacher Mobility Decisions 2.# 14 The Impact of Immigration on the Internal Migration of Natives and Immigrants (Mary Kritz and Douglas T.2. and Stayers: The Role of Workplace Conditions in Teacher Mobility Decisions (Sharon Kukla-Acevedo) 2006. Margaret L.

migration is an investment in which the income gained along with the other benefits resulting from it. reflecting an involvement whose return can be calculated. Under the human capital theory. (Cohen. According to many studies. must at least exceed the costs associated with it to justify the move. Publication 4: The Effect of the Opportunities and Challenges of Metropolis Teaching on the Migrant Teachers’ Development as an Individual and as a Member of Society Chapter 1 Context of Problematizing Migration is a process with deep roots and many distinctive phases.4. provided that there are no institutional or political . Publication 2: High School Teacher Mobility Decisions 2. 2005).2.2.3. (2001) treated migration as an investment focused on income changes. Publication 1: Trend Analysis of High School Teacher Migration 2.Appendices 2.2.1.2. Yezer and Thurston. It is an act which places the worker in an area where his labor services earn a higher real wage.2. Publication 3: The Opportunities and Challenges of Metropolis Teaching to Migrant Teachers 2.

those dealing with gross migration and those dealing with net migration. Tested by other studies by examining the factors affecting interregional migration in the United States. 2001) Migration may be voluntary or forced. chiefly differences in wages. (Yezer and Thurston. these studies may be conveniently grouped into two categories. 2005). Michael J. Hicks. R. globalization. Voluntary migration can be motivated by economics and is typically tied to local and international vicissitudes in economic growth. Net migration is the difference between two gross flows. 2001). (J. (Greenwood. Cohen considered another kind of migration – contemporary migration – a migration associated with post-industrial movements. 2001). Greenwood (2001) considered two types of migration: gross migration and net migration. . Focusing on voluntary migration. are the main causes of migration.barriers inhibiting migration ( ) Individuals migrate when the discounted value of real income available at a destination exceeds that at the origin by more than the costs of moving. Forced migration is tied to neither growth nor development (Cohen. and transnationalization – that brings with it specific opportunities and challenges. Gross migration consists of a single flow as in migration from origin to destination or the sum of unidirectional flows over either destinations or origins as in total out migrations from origins. Differences in net economic wages.

The factors that encourage a migrant to actually move are grouped into three categories: demand-pull. personal characteristics. Whether national or international. and the determinants of net migration as one consistent with aggregate income measures in migration studies and the other consistent with migrant-specific income measures. to what extent. psychic costs. migration may be national or international. That is why the influence of income on migration can be considered from two different perspectives: that which determines whether migration occurs from low-to-high income or wage areas. (Widgren and Martin 2002). supply-push. National migration is a movement from rural to urban flow of migrants or the other way around. There are two broad categories of migrants: those who migrate to another country primarily for economic reasons and those who move primarily for non-economic reasons. Looking at migration from the perspective of direction of movement. income. the magnitude of the relationship and that which determines whether the migrants themselves benefit by moving and if it does. .Greenwood established the determinants of gross migration as distance. International migration is a movement from one country to another. information. 2002) and the distinction between migrants motivated by economic and non-economic consideration is often blurred (Widgren and Martin. migration is a major individual or family decision carefully considered. 2001). and network. 2002). (Greenwood.(Widgren and Martin. and if it does.

moving away from a place of origin to a desired destination. 2005).1. They are presumed to be after the opportunities and challenges 2. Theoretical framework The thrust of this study is the national rural-urban migration of high school teachers from the province to Manila.Chapter 2 The Research Questions The importance of migration to populations throughout the world is evident in the continued and increasing movement of people (Cohen. The theoretical framework then seen as applicable . The high school teachers of the Philippines make a group of this population.

2.1 Publication 1: Trend Analysis of High School Teacher Migration Human capital theory implies that an individual who moves must expect the discounted value of income at the destination to exceed that at the origin by an amount at least equal to costs of moving and job search at the destination. the following questions are likely to be asked: . and a second component is due to differences in attractiveness between the origin and destination. Technically the differential would be measured by the compensating variation in income needed to render an individual indifferent between location at the origin or the destination. Review of literature 2.to use for this study is the human capital theory concretized by Jonas Widgren and Philip Martin’s as “demand-pull. The necessary income differential consists of two components: one is based on differences in real earnings from given work effort. The size of this attractiveness differential depends on physical attributes of the areas in question and the presence of emotional ties to the origin. and network” categorization of the factors that encourage migration either for economic reasons or non-economic reasons. J. (Anthony M. 2001) Based on the discussion to be made.2. push-supply. This will be backed up by “the role of workplace conditions in teacher mobility decisions” modeled after the study made by Sharon-Kukla-Acevedo. Yezer and Lawrence Thurston. 2. 2009.

The kind of school they have before migration b.2 Publication 2: High School Teacher Mobility Decisions * * * The potential migrant will presumably select that locality at which the real value of the expected net benefit that accrues to him from migration is greatest. the magnitude of relationship.2. & Smith. The kind of students d. What is the perception of high school teachers about their place of destination? 3. Lee. Most . Greenwood) Teacher turnover can negatively affect the cohesiveness and effectiveness of school communities by disrupting educational programs and professional relationships intended to improve student learning (Bryk. one consistent with aggregate income measures in migration studies and the other consistent with migrant-specific income measures. How did their place of origin differ from their place of destination in terms of the following: a. The location of the school c. Their administrators e. and if it does. Ingersoll. 2001a). The first perspective involves the determination of whether migration occurs from low-to-high income or wage areas. What is the trend of migration within the country of high school teachers for a teaching job? 2. The influence of income on migration can be considered from two different perspectives.1. The second perspective involves the determination of whether and to what extent migrants themselves benefit by moving? (Michael J. Their fellow teachers 2. 1990.

the school where they taught? b. What kind of school life do the high school teachers have in the province before they migrated to Manila in terms of the following: a. Why do high school teachers migrate from the provinces to Manila in order to teach? 2. Where do the migrant teachers live in Manila? 5. the administrators with whom they are working? d.agree that some attrition is normal and that healthy turnover can promote innovation in schools (Macdonald. the fellow teachers with whom they are working? 7. What kind of school life do the migrant high school teachers have in Manila in terms of the following: a. Often missing from the research Based on the discussion to be made. the fellow teachers they had worked with? 3. the students they taught? c. the school where they are teaching? b. For how long had they taught in the province before they migrated to Manila? 4. the following questions are likely to be asked: 1. For how long have the migrant high school teachers been teaching in Manila? . 1999). the administrators with whom they had worked? d. the students they are teaching? c.

meeting deadlines in complying with requirements? d.2. communication with parents of students? 2.2. relationship with administrators? c. professional growth? b. What opportunities did the migrant teachers have in connection with the following: a.4. social relevance? 2. Publication 3: The Opportunities and Challenges of Metropolis Teaching to Migrant Teachers Based on the discussion to be made. relationship with fellow teachers? e. the following questions are likely to be asked: 1. economic growth? c. the following questions are likely to be asked: . Publication 4: The Effect of the Opportunities and Challenges of Metropolis Teaching on the Migrant Teachers’ Development as an Individual and as a Member of Society Based on the discussion to be made.2. classroom management of students? b. What challenges did the migrant teachers have in connection with the following? a.3.

How did the challenges in metropolis teaching contribute to the making of migrant teachers in the societal development of the following? a. professional growth? b. communication with parents of students? . social relevance? 2. meeting deadlines in complying with requirements? d. relationship with fellow teachers? e.How did the opportunities in metropolis teaching affect the individual development of the migrant teachers in the following? a. classroom management of students? b.1. relationship with administrators? c. economic growth? c.

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Usually though. . The factors that encourage a migrant to actually move are grouped into three categories: demand-pull. must at least exceed the costs associated with it to justify the move. . .(2001) treated migration as an investment focused on income changes associated with movement of non-whites from South to northern cities. There are two broad categories of migrants: those who migrate to another country primarily for economic reasons and those who move primarily for non-academic reasons.Context of Problematizing There are as many reasons for migration as there are migrants . (Widgren and Martin 2002).(Widgren and Martin). the magnitude of the relationship and that which determines whether the migrants themselves benefit by moving and if it does. to what extent. international migration is a major individual or family decision carefully considered. Yezer and Thurston. (Greenwood. supply-push. 2001). and if it does. . provided that there are no institutional or political barriers inhibiting migration ( ). Many studies view migration as an investment in which the income gain along with the other benefits resulting from it. and network. Under the human capital theory. The influence of income on migration can be considered from two different perspectives: that which determines whether migration occurs from low-to-high income or wage areas. .

_____________ of which are public high schools and _____________ are private. . there are ____________ high schools. psychic costs. He established the determinants of gross migration as distance. Michael J. income. ______________. personal characteristics. The factors that encourage a migrant to actually move are grouped into three categories: demand-pull. (2001). and the determinants of net migration as one consistent with aggregate income measures in migration studies and the other consistent with migrant-specific income measures There are two broad categories of migrants: those who migrate to another country primarily for economic reasons and those who move primarily for non-economic reasons. From this nature of distribution. _____________ of which are public high schools and _____________ are private. But. ____________ of these are located in the provinces and ___________ are in the cities. ((Widgren and Martin. ____________. Those located in the provinces are distributed as follows: ______________. Greenwood (2001) however considered two types of migration: gross migration and net migration. 2002).and the distinction between migrants motivated by economic and non-economic consideration is often blurred (Widgren and Martin. ________________. _________________ of which are public high schools and _________ are private high schools. 2002). (Yezer and Thurston. human capital theory. Those located in the cities are distributed as follows: _______________. which treats migration as an investment. and network. has focused attention on income changes associated with movement of non-whites from the South to northern cities. All over the country. __________. information. Manila has _____________ of these high schools.. supply-push.

Unstable economic situation in the Philippines. It has undergone rapid economic development since its destruction in World War II and its subsequent rebuilding. Contractual employment arrangement 5. It has been the principal city of the country for four centuries and is the centre of its industrial development as well as the international port of entry. OFWs are now pampered 7. are in her historical landmarks and the hustle bustle of political. social. SMS or instant messaging conversations as primary means of communication.There are many reasons Filipinos work abroad. It also means depriving oneself of guiding children and watch them grow. Missing favorite TV shows. Discriminating in job hiring in the Philippines Manila is the centre of the Philippines economic. 2. It’s not so lonely anymore to go abroad 8. Whether it’s their first choice or just forced to do so. economic. Her attraction or “come on” features to visitors. educational. Poor benefits 6. Leaving the country means detachment from family members and be contended with long distance calls. and cultural activity. there are many underlying reasons behind such OFW phenomenon. But it is now plagued with the familiar urban problems of pollution. going to family hangouts on weekends and many other things are sacrificed in exchange of life abroad. and socio-cultural activities. traffic congestion. and overpopulation. Reasons for going abroad to work: 1. High unemployment rate in the Philippines 3. Low salary offered by local companies 4. .