V|ad|mer 8Ŧ Sah|ron

ICk 49
Assessment of 8|od|vers|ty |n the Þh|||pp|nes
I|ora| D|vers|ty |n Þh|||pp|ne Iorests
1he flora of Lhe Þhlllpplnes ls composed of aL leasL 13ţ300 specles whlch represenL flve percenL
of Lhe worldƌs floraŦ 1he ferns and fern alllesţ gymnosperms and aglosperms consLlLuLe 22Ŧ3
percenL of Lhe Maleslan and 3Ŧ88 percenL of Lhe worldƌs vascular floraŦ
1wenLyŴflve genera of Lhe planLs are endemlc Lo Lhe ÞhlllpplnesŦ Among Lhese are Lhe
8ublaceae famlly (four genera)ţ Lhe Asclepladaceae and Crchldaceae (Lhree each)ţ Lhe
MelasLomaLaceaeţ LoranLhaceaeţ Zlnglberaceaeţ and Saplndaceae (Lwo each) and ComposlLaeţ
Luphorblaceaeţ Legumlnosaeţ 8uLaceae and urLlcaceae (one each)ţ and Lwo endemlc fern
generaŦ nlneLeen of Lhese are monoLyplcŦ
Among flowerlng planL famlllesţ Lhe Crchldaceaeţ 8ublaceaeţ Luphorblaceaeţ MyrLaceae
andMoraceae have Lhe greaLesL number of lndlgenous and endemlc speclesţ whlle Cramlnaeţ
Llllaceaeţ ulmaceaeţ Legumlnosaeţ and 8uLaceae have lower endemlsmŦ
1he gymnosperms are poorly represenLed wlLh only 33 specles and 18 percenL endemlsm whlle
Lhere are 1ţ011 specles of ferns and fern allles wlLh 30 percenL endemlsmŦ 8ecorded are abouL
306 specles of mosses wlLh 23 percenL endemlsmŦ LlverworLs and hornworLs number Lo 318
specles whlle more Lhan 700 specles of fungl and 790 specles of llchens are on recordŦ A furLher
3Ŵ8Ʒ of Lhe counLryƌs flora are belleved Lo be sLlll unldenLlfledŦ
Iauna| D|vers|ty |n Þh|||pp|ne Iorests
An esLlmaLed 1ţ084 specles of LerresLrlal verLebraLes are found ln Þhlllpplne foresLsţ of whlch
43 percenL are endemlcŦ Cf Lheseţ 179 specles are mammals wlLh 61 percenL endemlsmţ 13 of
whlch are sLlll ln Lhe process of belng namedŦ 1here are 338 specles of blrds are mammals wlLh
61 percenL endemlsmţ 13 of whlch are sLlll ln Lhe process of belng namedŦ 1here are 338
specles of blrds recorded ln Lhe counLry wlLh 31 percenL endemlsmţ 38 percenL of whlch are
conflned Lo slngle lslandsŦ AbouL 71 percenL are known Lo breed ln a dlverslLy of hablLaLs from
beach Lo monLane foresLs buL Lhere are no breedlng lnformaLlon on 40 percenL of Lhese
breedlng speclesŦ 1here are 232 specles of repLlles wlLy 63 percenL endemlsmŦ 1here are four
ma[or subgroups of repLllesť Lhe llzards (126 speclesţ 73 percenL endemlsm)ţ snakes (112
speclesţ 34 percenL endemlsm)ţ LurLles (10 speclesţ 10 percenL endemlsm)ţ and crocodlles (Lwo
speclesţ 30 percenL endemlsm)Ŧ A LoLal of 96 amphlblan specles are recognlzed Laxonomlcally ln
Lhe counLryţ namelyť wlLh 33 endemlsmŦ MosL are also slngleŴlsland endmlcsŦ Cf Lheseţ four
were lnLroduced specles ln Lhe counLryţ namelyť Lhe marlne Load (8ofo motloos)ţ Lhe Amerlcan
bullfrog (kooo cotesbeloooţ Lhe leopard frog (kŦ 1lqtloo)ţ and Lhe 1alwanese frog (kŦ toqoloso)Ŧ
1he marlne Load was lnLroduced ln Lhe 1930s Lo conLrol sugarcane beeLle lnfesLaLlon whlle Lhe
lasL Lhree were lnLroduced for breedlng and exporL as foodŦ 1hese specles have escaped from
capLlvlLy and are now wldespread LhroughouL Lhe counLryŦ 1helr lmpacL on lndlgenous specles
and Lhe ecosysLemţ ln generalţ are unknownŦ
1he number of specles of mllllpedes and cenLlpedes ls 34 and 44ţ respecLlvelyţ whlle more Lhan
20ţ000 specles of lnsecLs have been ldenLlfledŦ Poweverţ only Lhe lacewlngsţ fleasţ caddlsfllesţ
LwoŴwlnged fllesţ and buLLerfly specles have been fully lnvenLorledŦ
1here are 341 specles of splders found ln rlce and nonŴrlce hablLaLsţ whlch ls less Lhan Lwo
percenL of Lhe worldƌs LoLalŦ Poweverţ many more specles remaln Lo be dlscovered and
ldenLlfledţ slnce more Lhan 73 percenL of Lhese are new Lo sclence and llve on hablLaLs LhaL
have noL been fully exploredŦ
So farţ 2ţ782 specles of mollusks have been ldenLlfled ln all of Lhe counLry's ecosysLemsŦ
Poweverţ Lhe level of endemlsm ls undeLermlned buL esLlmaLed Lo range from hlgh Lo very
hlghŦ
1he level of endemlsm of lnverLebraLes ls generally poorly known buL ls suspecLed Lo be hlghŦ
Lndemlsm ranged from 44 percenL Lo 87 percenL wlLh a mean of 64 percenL for Lhe slx lnsecL
orders lnvenLorledŦ
LlghLy slx specles of blrds found ln Lhe counLry are under varlous forms of LhreaLţ from belng
vulnerable Lo belng exLlncL ln Lhe wlldŦ Cf Lheseţ 43 specles are elLher exLlncL ln Lhe wlldţ
crlLlcalţ or endangeredŦ lorLy of Lhe 43 aforemenLloned specles are endemlcţ whlch makes Lhe
Þhlllpplnes Lhe number one counLry ln Lhe world ln Lerms of number of LhreaLened endemlc
specles of blrdsŦ
ln conLrasLţ 30 specles of LerresLrlal mammals are classlfled under varlous LhreaL caLegorlesţ
from belng rare Lo belng endangeredţ whlle only Lwo specles of amphlblans and Lhree specles
of repLlles ln Lhe Þhlllpplne foresLs are classlfled under varlous LhreaLened caLegorlesŦ 1hls
number ls deflnlLely a conservaLlve esLlmaLe as llLLle lnformaLlon abouL Lhese Lhree groupsţ as a
wholeţ ls knownŦ
1he mosL LhreaLened endemlc mammal ls Lhe Lamarawţ 8obolos mloJoteoslsţ whlle Lhe mosL
LhreaLened endemlc blrd ls Lhe Þhlllpplne eagleţ lltbecopboqo jeffetyllŦ 8oLh specles are
esLlmaLed Lo have a wlld populaLlon of less Lhan 200 eachŦ 8oLh are also Lhe sub[ecL of capLlve
breedlng sLudles wlLh very llmlLed successŦ



D|vers|ty |n Wet|ands
Þhlllpplne weLlands are endowed wlLh a rlch dlverslLy of flora (1ţ616 specles) and fauna (3ţ308
specles)Ŧ 1hese conslsL of algae (1ţ177 specles)ţ aquaLlc macrophyLes (439 specles)ţ mollusks
(728 specles)ţ lnsecLs (1ţ764 specles)ţ oLher arLhropods (498 specles)ţ flshes (208 specles)ţ and
waLerfowls (110 specles)Ŧ 1hese specles represenL Lhe domlnanL componenLs of Lhe complex
food webs LhaL have evolved ln Lhe dlfferenL weLland LypesŦ Sponges cnldarlansţ freeŴllvlng
flaLwormsţ annelldsţ and nudlbranchs were noL lncluded ln Lhese lnvenLorlesŦ
D|vers|ty |n Agr|cu|ture
A LoLal of 1ţ210 specles of planLs are relevanL Lo agrlculLure wlLh a varleLy of uses and valuesŦ
Some have food values (477 specles)ţ feed values (363 specles)ţ medlclnal/herbal values (627
specles)ţ and ornamenLal values (201 specles)Ŧ ln addlLlonţ 33 specles are consldered as flber
crops whlle an undeLermlned number have lndusLrlal lmporLanceŦ
1he naLlonal ÞlanL Cermplasm 8esources LaboraLory (nÞC8L) ln uÞ Los 8anosţ as of uecember
1994ţ malnLalns a LoLal of 32ţ446 accesslons of 396 speclesţ whlle Lhe Þhlllpplne 8lce 8esearch
lnsLlLuLe (ÞPlL8lCL)ţ as of 1992ţ malnLalns 12 specles of wlld rlce from Lhe lnLernaLlonal 8lce
8esearch lnsLlLuLe (l88l) germplasm cenLer and from lLs collecLlons ln Lhe dlfferenL parLs of Lhe
counLryŦ 1he germplasm collecLlon of Lhe naLlonal 1obacco AuLhorlLy (n1A) has lncreased Lo
488 accesslons ln 1993Ŧ
1he 8ureau of ÞlanL lndusLry (8Þl) reporLed LhaL beLween 1980 and 1991ţ Lhere was a
subsLanLlal decrease ln Lhe populaLlon of 61 economlcally lmporLanL crops such as coconuLţ
coffeeţ flber crops parLlcularly abacaţ kenafţ plnaţ and ramleţ and mulberry whlle bananaţ
cacaoţ rubberţ and lpllŴlpll dramaLlcally lncreased ln populaLlonŦ Cn Lhe oLher handţ Lhe
domesLlc anlmal populaLlon ln 1991 LoLaled 2ţ766ţ000 carabaosţ 1ţ991ţ000 caLLleţ 286ţ000
horsesţ 7479ţ000 hogsţ 2ţ403ţ000 goaLsţ and 36ţ000 oLher domesLlcaLed speclesŦ AggregaLe
poulLry populaLlonţ whlch lncludes chlckenţ ducksţ quallsţ geeseţ Lurkeysţ and plgeonsţ LoLal
101ţ233ţ000 headsŦ Cnly carabaos showed a subsLanLlal decrease ln numbersŦ

Sourceť hLLpť//wwwŦpsdnŦorgŦph/nbsap/malnŦhLml

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