Freemasonry

1

Freemasonry
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around six million, including approximately 150,000 in Scotland and Ireland, over a quarter of a million under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of England[1] and just under two million in the United States.[2] The fraternity is administratively organised into independent Grand Lodges or sometimes Orients, each of which governs its own jurisdiction, which consists of subordinate (or constituent) Lodges. The various Grand Lodges recognise each other, or not, based upon adherence to landmarks (a Grand Lodge will usually deem other Grand Lodges who share common landmarks to be regular, and those that do not to be "irregular" or "clandestine").

The Masonic Square and Compasses. (Found with or without the letter G)

There are also appendant bodies, which are organisations related to the main branch of Freemasonry, but with their own independent administration. Freemasonry uses the metaphors of operative stonemasons' tools and implements, against the allegorical backdrop of the building of King Solomon's Temple, to convey what has been described by both Masons and critics as "a system of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols."[3] [4]

History
The origins and early development of Freemasonry are a matter of some debate and conjecture. A poem known as the "Regius Manuscript" has been dated to approximately 1390 and is the oldest known Masonic text.[5] There is evidence to suggest that there were Masonic lodges in existence in Scotland as early as the late 16th century[6] (for example the Lodge at Kilwinning, Scotland, has records that date to the late 16th century, and is mentioned in the Second Schaw Statutes (1599) which specified that "ye warden of ye lug of Kilwynning [...] tak tryall of ye airt of memorie and science yrof, of everie fellowe of craft and everie prenteiss according to ayr of yr vocations").[7] There are clear references to the existence of lodges in England by the mid-17th century.[8] The first Grand Lodge, the Grand Lodge of England (GLE), was founded on 24 June 1717, when four existing London Lodges met for a joint dinner. This rapidly expanded into a regulatory body, which most Goose and Gridiron, where the Grand Lodge of English Lodges joined. However, a few lodges resented some of the England was founded modernisations that GLE endorsed, such as the creation of the Third Degree, and formed a rival Grand Lodge on 17 July 1751, which they called the "Antient Grand Lodge of England". The two competing Grand Lodges vied for supremacy – the "Moderns" (GLE) and the "Antients" (or "Ancients") – until they united on 25 November 1813 to form the United Grand Lodge of England (UGLE).[9]

Freemasonry The Grand Lodge of Ireland and The Grand Lodge of Scotland were formed in 1725 and 1736 respectively. Freemasonry was exported to the British Colonies in North America by the 1730s – with both the "Antients" and the "Moderns" (as well as the Grand Lodges of Ireland and Scotland) chartering offspring, or "daughter", Lodges, and organising various Provincial Grand Lodges. After the American Revolution, independent U.S. Grand Lodges formed themselves within each State. Some thought was briefly given to organising an over-arching "Grand Lodge of the United States", with George Washington (who was a member of a Virginian lodge) as the first Grand Master, but the idea was short-lived. The various State Grand Lodges did not wish to diminish their own authority by agreeing to such a body.[10] Although there are no real differences in the Freemasonry practiced by lodges chartered by the Antients or the Moderns, the remnants of this division can still be seen in the names of most Lodges, F.& A.M. being Free and Accepted Masons and A.F.& A.M. being Antient Free and Accepted Masons. The oldest jurisdiction on the continent of Europe, the Grand Orient de France (GOdF), was founded in 1728. However, most English-speaking jurisdictions cut formal relations with the GOdF around 1877 – when the GOdF removed the requirement that its members have a belief in a Deity, thereby accepting atheists. The Grande Loge Nationale Française (GLNF)[11] is currently the only French Grand Lodge that is in regular amity with the UGLE and its many concordant jurisdictions worldwide. Due to the above history, Freemasonry is often said to consist of two branches not in mutual regular amity:

2

• the UGLE and concordant tradition of jurisdictions (mostly termed Grand Lodges) in amity, and • the GOdF, European Continental, tradition of jurisdictions (often termed Grand Orients) in amity. In most Latin countries, the GOdF-style of European Continental Freemasonry predominates, although in most of these Latin countries there are also Grand Lodges that are in regular amity with the UGLE and the worldwide community of Grand Lodges that share regular "fraternal relations" with the UGLE. The rest of the world, accounting for the bulk of Freemasonry, tends to follow more closely to the UGLE style, although minor variations exist.

View of room at the Masonic Hall, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, England, early 20th century

annual general meetings and committees. set down in the UGLE Constitution and the Constitutions of those Grand Lodges with which they are in amity. and under their common constitutions and forms of procedure. and gives individual Freemasons the opportunity to attend Lodge meetings in other recognised jurisdictions. Lodges evolve very distinctive traditions.[15] Each of the two major branches of Freemasonry considers the Lodges within its branch to be "regular" and those in the other branch to be "irregular".[14] Freemasons Hall. membership and subscriptions. A Mason who visits an irregular Lodge may have his membership suspended for a time. For this reason. This recognition allows formal interaction at the Grand Lodge level. Masonic Lodge A Lodge (often termed a Private Lodge or Constituent Lodge in Masonic constitutions) is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. state.Freemasonry 3 Organisational structure Grand Lodges and Grand Orients are independent and sovereign bodies that govern Masonry in a given country. authorising it to meet and work. accounts and tax returns. Except for the very few "time immemorial" Lodges pre-dating the formation of a Grand Lodge. it will build up and manage its property and assets.[12] There is no single overarching governing body that presides over worldwide Freemasonry. A Lodge must hold regular meetings at a fixed place and published dates. The balance of activities is individual to each Lodge. Grand Lodges and Grand Orients that afford mutual recognition and allow intervisitation are said to be in amity. or geographical area (termed a jurisdiction). (The issue is complicated by the fact that the usage of "Lodge" versus "Orient" alone is not an indicator of which branch a body belongs to. masons who meet as a Lodge without displaying this document (for example. all Grand Lodges maintain lists of other jurisdictions and lodges they consider regular. special events and catering. initiate and promote its members and officers. and thus not an indication of regularity). As the UGLE branch is significantly larger. in prisoner-of-war camps) are deemed "Clandestine" and irregular. correspondence and reports. regularity is predicated upon adherence to a number of fundamental principals (known as Landmarks).[13] Regularity Regularity is a constitutional mechanism whereby Grand Lodges or Grand Orients give one another mutual recognition. and it may own. occupy or share its premises. connections between different jurisdictions depend solely on mutual recognition. Even within this definition there are some variations with the quantity and content of the Landmarks from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. and so forth. it will have formal business to manage its meetings and proceedings. including its minutes and records. home of the United Grand Lodge of England. Other Masonic groups organise differently. or he may be expelled. however. Like any organisation. . London. charity funds. The term "irregular" is also universally applied to various self created bodies that call themselves "Masonic" but are not recognised by either of the main branches. regularity proscribes interaction with Lodges that are irregular. Conversely. It will elect. As far as the UGLE is concerned. while those Grand Lodges and Grand Orients in amity with GOdF are commonly referred to "liberal" or "irregular" Masonry. the various Grand Lodges and Grand Orients in amity with UGLE are commonly referred to as being "regular" (or "Mainstream") Masonry. Every new Lodge must have a Warrant or Charter issued by a Grand Lodge.

eat. Several different Lodges. Many offices are replicated at the Provincial and Grand Lodge levels with the addition of the word 'Grand' somewhere in the title. In some Lodges. Masonic appointments or degrees. universities. as over time the membership evolves beyond that envisaged by its "founding brethren". Lodges of Instruction in UGLE may be warranted by any ordinary Lodge for the learning and rehearsal of Masonic Ritual. Masonic premises are Royal Australian Navy.Freemasonry A man can only be initiated. profession or background. or Tiler. No. Shared schools. generally. A visitor should first check the regularity of that Lodge. the membership remains exclusive. with interests in Masonic Research (of history. Freemasons correctly meet as a Lodge. but not necessarily. All lodges will have a Tyler.). sometimes elected and sometimes appointed by the Master. etc. professions and hobbies have all been the qualifications for such Lodges. as well as other Masonic or non-Masonic organisations. Most Lodges consist of Freemasons living or working within a given town or neighbourhood. For example. Stewards. The Worshipful Master (essentially the lodge President) is always an elected officer. do not initiate new candidates. in others. Masonic buildings are also Apprentice Training Base. the word This plaque commemorates a 'formal' fraternal visit by "Lodge" referring more to the people assembled than the place of NIRMAS. many countries. where every lodge has a 'Junior Warden'. or made a Mason. that originally stated at the often referred to as "Lodges". The plaque is styled after the ship's badge for the sometimes called "Temples" ("of Philosophy and the Arts").25. a clergyman). in a Lodge. he may be expected to join it and pay a subscription. medieval European stonemasons would meet. philosophy. hence the name. There are also specialist Lodges of Research. However. In Navy. where the sun warms the stones during the day. not in a Lodge. and must be able to satisfy that Lodge of his own regularity. the Secretary and the Treasurer. The specific offices and their functions vary between jurisdictions. the Masonic association for members of the assembly. and a Chaplain (appointed to lead a non-denominational prayer at the convocation of meetings or activities – often. the foundation and name may now be only of historic interest. A Master Mason can generally visit any Lodge meeting under any jurisdiction in amity with his own. in common usage. If he wishes to visit the same Lodge repeatedly. 4 Lodge Officers Every Masonic Lodge elects certain officers to execute the necessary functions of the lodge's work. Other Lodges are composed of Masons with a particular shared interest. HMAS Nirimba. Most jurisdictions will also elect the Senior and Junior Wardens (Vice Presidents). According to Masonic tradition. The visit was to Lodge Gundagai United. with membership drawn from Master Masons only. a Lodge may well offer hospitality. Grand Lodges have a 'Grand Junior . military units. (who guards the door to the lodge room while the lodge is in session). lodges will have various appointed officers – such as Deacons. and shelter outside working hours in a Lodge on the southern side of a building site. and he may be refused admission if adjudged likely to disrupt the harmony of the Lodge. The social Festive Board (or Social Board)[16] part of the meeting is thus sometimes called the South.[17] Early Lodges often met in a tavern or any other convenient fixed place with a private room. Lodges of Research are fully warranted but. and as well as the formal meeting. In addition to these elected officers. often use the same premises at different times. Masonic Centre or Hall has replaced Temple to avoid arousing prejudice and suspicion. arts. of which he may often remain a subscribing member for life.

Freemasonry. the Knights of Pythias. Quite apart from these. Other degrees. the Third Degree.. with UGLE granting at least some degree of recognition. African Lodge re-titled itself as the African Lodge.g. but not to confer degrees. a number of organisations that require being a Master Mason as a prerequisite for membership. an African-American named Prince Hall[19] was initiated into an Irish Constitution military Lodge then in Boston. Number 1 – and became a de facto "Grand Lodge" (this Lodge is not to be confused with the various Grand Lodges on the Continent of Africa). but which have no formal or informal connections with Freemasonry.[22] These bodies have no authority over the Craft. but they appear to be working toward full recognition. however. When the military Lodge left North America.S. Appendant bodies are administered separately from Craft Grand Lodges but are styled Masonic since every member must be a Mason. all U. a Lodge Warrant from the Premier Grand Lodge of England (GLE) and formed African Lodge. Prince Hall Grand Lodges are recognised by some UGLE Concordant Grand Lodges and not by others. Craft Masonic jurisdictions vary in their relationships with such bodies.[21] There are. and this separation has diminished in recent years. Widespread segregation in 19th. form Processions on the days of the Saints John. predominantly African-American Freemasonry in North America. all of whom were free-born. but there were and are many other degrees that have been worked since before the Union. Some bodies are not universally considered to be appendant bodies. orders and bodies There is no degree in Freemasonry higher than that of Master Mason.and early 20th-century North America made it difficult for African-Americans to join Lodges outside of Prince Hall jurisdictions – and impossible for inter-jurisdiction recognition between the parallel U. In 1784. nor to do other Masonic work. Massachusetts. However. there are a number of offices that exist only at the Grand Lodge level. those fifteen men were given the authority to meet as a Lodge. Some of these organisations have additional requirements. In 1775. there are organisations that are often thought of as being related to Freemasonry.[23] . but rather separate organisations that happen to require prior Masonic affiliation for membership. These include such organisations as the Orange Order. When the UGLE was formed in 1813.-based Lodges were stricken from their rolls – due largely to the War of 1812.[20] There are a growing number of both Prince Hall Lodges and non-Prince Hall Lodges that have ethnically diverse membership. such as the Royal Arch and the "chivalric degrees". As with the rest of U. which originated in Ireland.[21] These orders or degrees may be described as additional or appendant. Prince Hall Masonry has always been regular in all respects except constitutional separation. or the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. such as religious adherence (e. and often provide a further perspective on some of the allegorical.Freemasonry Warden' (or sometimes 'Junior Grand Warden'). The Articles of Union of the "Modern" and "Antient" craft Grand Lodges (into UGLE in 1813) limited recognition to certain degrees.S. Number 459. along with fourteen other African-Americans. At present. Masonic authorities.S.[18] 5 Prince Hall Freemasonry Prince Hall Freemasonry derives from historical events in the early United States that led to a tradition of separate. requiring members to profess Trinitarian Christian beliefs) or membership of other bodies. and conduct Masonic funerals. and obtained. Grand Lodge. moral and philosophical content of Freemasonry. Thus. Additionally. separated from both UGLE and any concordantly recognised U. these individuals applied for.S. Prince Hall Freemasonry soon grew and organised on a Grand Lodge system for each state. if a relationship exists at all.

Freemasons. symbolism. Fraternity". as Freemasonry is non-dogmatic. in that certain aspects are private.[21] The most common phrasing is that Freemasonry has. become less a secret society and more of a "society with secrets". all Masonic ritual makes use of the architectural symbolism of the tools of the medieval operative stonemason.[25] Despite the organisation's great diversity. A candidate progresses through degrees[21] gaining knowledge and understanding of himself. There is no one accepted meaning. there are similarities that exist among jurisdictions. Any mason may speculate on the symbols and purpose of Freemasonry. as speculative masons (meaning philosophical building rather than actual building). when an experienced member explains the various concepts of Freemasonry to new members. There is no single Masonic ritual. with varying degrees of competence. use this symbolism to teach moral and ethical lessons of the principles of "Brotherly Love. and indeed all masons are required to some extent to speculate on masonic meaning as a condition of advancing through the degrees.[24] The private aspects of modern Freemasonry are the modes of recognition amongst members and particular elements within the ritual. and others. "Liberty.[26] These moral lessons are communicated in performance of allegorical ritual. Relief. However. However. in the 21st century. They can also be used by experienced members as self-reminders of the concepts they learned as they went through their initiations. Freemasons themselves argue that it is more correct to say that it is an esoteric society. Equality. and Truth. and no one person "speaks" for the whole of Freemasonry. .Freemasonry 6 Principles and activities While Freemasonry has often been called a "secret society". Some Lodges and rituals explain these tools as lessons in conduct: for example. and morality Masons conduct their meetings using a ritualised format. These are painted or printed illustrations depicting the various symbolic emblems of Freemasonry. as James Anderson's Constitutions originally urged amongst brethren. studies that are available to the public. Freemasons. and sometimes informal groups." or as related in France. For example. Two of the principal symbolic tools always found in a Lodge are the square and compasses. Freemasonry's central preoccupations remain charitable work within a local or wider community. frequently publish. and each jurisdiction is free to set (or not set) its own ritual. moral uprightness (in most cases requiring a belief in a supreme being) as well as the development and maintenance of fraternal friendship. They can be used as teaching aids during the lectures that follow each of the three Degrees. Ritual. While the philosophical aspects of Freemasonry tend to be discussed in Lodges of Instruction or Research. that Masons should "square their actions by the square of virtue" and to learn to "circumscribe their desires and keep their passions within due bounds toward all mankind". his relationship with others and his relationship with the Supreme Being (per his own interpretation). there is no general interpretation for these tools (or any Masonic emblem) that is used by Freemasonry as a whole.[27] The Square and Compasses carved into stone Some lodges make use of tracing boards.

management and ritual . within each organisation there is a system of offices. They are administered on a parallel system to Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry. In lodges that follow the Continental tradition other texts may be used.[29] Thus. Freemasons working through the degrees may be asked to prepare papers on related philosophical topics. Entered Apprentice – the degree of an Initiate.Freemasonry 7 The Supreme Being and the Volume of Sacred Law Candidates for regular Freemasonry are required to declare a belief in a Supreme Being.[33] [34] [35] [36] In Lodges with a membership of mixed religions it is common to find more than one sacred text displayed. he interprets them for himself. 3. There is an enormous bibliography of Masonic papers. Master Mason – the "third degree". No Freemason is told that there is only one meaning to the allegories.[30] [31] A Volume of the Sacred Law is always displayed in an open Lodge in those jurisdictions which require a belief in the Supreme Being. these degrees may be considered had taken the three degrees of Craft Masonry in a to be supplements to the Master Mason degree rather than promotions regular lodge from it.[32] A common symbolic structure and universal archetypes provide a means for each Freemason to come to his own answers to life's important philosophical questions.[37] It is essential to be a Master Mason in order to qualify for these further degrees. according to his beliefs. there is no such thing as an exclusive "Masonic Bible". which makes one a Freemason. Allah to a Muslim Mason. as a Freemason works through the degrees and studies their lessons. and to a common source with other oath taking processes. especially those in continental Europe. his personal interpretation being bounded only by the Constitution within which he works. a necessity for participation in most aspects of Masonry. through practical handbooks on organisation. which confer rank within that degree or order alone. others may hold a more complex or philosophical interpretation of the term. etc. or explain. this is frequently the King James Version of the Bible or another standard translation. In some jurisdictions. Para Brahman to a Hindu Mason. Fellow Craft – an intermediate degree. While most Freemasons would take the view that the term Supreme Being equates to God. his interpretation of Supreme Being. Degrees The three degrees of Craft or Blue Lodge Freemasonry are those of: 1. conferring degrees numbered from 4° up to 33°. In English-speaking countries. In the ritual.[32] Furthermore.[22] An example is the Scottish Rite.[21] Although some Masonic bodies and orders have further commonly issued to Masons to show that they degrees named with higher numbers. magazines and publications ranging from fanciful abstractions which construct spiritual and moral lessons of varying value. and present these papers in open Lodge. the candidate is not asked to expand on. There is no degree of Craft Freemasonry higher than that of Master In the 19th century. certificates such as this were Mason. reference to the Supreme Being can mean the Christian Trinity to a Christian Mason. UGLE alludes to similarities to legal practice in the UK. a candidate is given his choice of religious text for his Obligation. involved with learning. The degrees represent stages of personal development.[28] However. the Supreme Being is referred to as the Great Architect of the Universe. 2. including texts that are non-religious in nature. in part so a Mason will not be placed in the situation of having to justify his personal interpretation. The discussion of politics and religion is forbidden within a Masonic Lodge. which alludes to the use of architectural symbolism within Freemasonry.

[44] The penalties are interpreted symbolically. promises to obey the law of his Supreme Being. and is always difficult for an outsider to verify. updating the language used. Today. adding or omitting sections. with regard to the penalties.[39] Therefore. Content which may appear in at least one of the three obligations includes: the candidate promises to act in a manner befitting a member of civilised society. and are not applied in actuality by a Lodge or by any other body of Masonry.[25] In regular jurisdictions these obligations are sworn on the aforementioned Volume of the Sacred Law and in the witness of the Supreme Being and often with assurance that it is of the candidate's own free will. by merging elements of several rituals then in use) was never adopted by any regular jurisdiction. in part. Grand Lodges can and do change their rituals periodically. grips and passwords to the uninitiated.[26] Furthermore. while Duncan's Masonic Monitor (created. However. grips or tokens (handshakes) and words to gain admission to meetings and identify legitimate visitors. grips and passwords. since each Grand Lodge is free to create its own rituals. some versions are published[25] while others are privately printed in books of coded text.[38] From the early 18th century onwards.[25] [41] [42] The obligations are historically known amongst various sources critical of Freemasonry for their so-called "bloody penalties". is a proven hoax. The corresponding text. not all printed rituals are authentic – Léo Taxil's exposure. Obligations Obligations are those elements of ritual in which a candidate swears to abide by the rules of the fraternity. grips and words Freemasons use signs (gestures). an unknown visitor may be required to produce a certificate. and to act towards others in accordance with Masonic tradition and law.Freemasonry performance. Details of the obligations vary.[43] an allusion to the apparent physical penalties associated with each degree. expulsion or reprimand. cheat nor defraud the Lodge or the brethren. A classic response was deliberately to transpose certain words in the ritual.[45] Modern actual penalties may include suspension. promises to obey the law of his sovereign state. the signs. and thus have no ritual books at all. and promises aid or charity to a member of the human family. promises to attend his lodge if he is able. to serious historical and philosophical papers entitled to academic respect. to keep the "secrets of Freemasonry" (which are the various signs. 8 Signs. Still other jurisdictions rely on oral transmission of ritual. so as to catch out anyone relying on the exposé. promises not to wrong.[25] following a decision "that all references to physical penalties be omitted from the obligations taken by Candidates in the three Degrees and by a Master Elect at his Installation but retained elsewhere in the respective ceremonies". grips and passwords can and do differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.[40] Moreover. tokens and words associated with recognition in each degree). many exposés have been written claiming to reveal these signs. does not appear in authoritative. a number of common themes appear when considering a range of potential texts. for example. This leads to some descriptions of the Obligations as "Oaths". . dues card or other documentation of membership in addition to demonstrating knowledge of the signs. endorsed sources. any exposé can only be valid for a particular jurisdiction at a particular time. The descriptive nature of the penalties alludes to how the candidate should feel about himself should he knowingly violate his obligation. brethren and their families in times of need if it can be done without causing financial harm to himself or his dependents. Whilst no single obligation is representative of Freemasonry as a whole.

The interpretation of these principles therefore can and does vary. locally. the brethren must wait for the potential candidate to inquire). in others up to three are required).[48] [49] In earlier centuries. George Oliver published a Freemason's Treasury in which he listed 40 Landmarks. one "black ball" is enough to reject. A number of American Grand Lodges have attempted the task of enumerating the Landmarks. In 1858. according to strictly Masonic criteria. nationally and internationally.[55] and the Shriners Hospitals for Children[56] are especially notable charitable endeavours that Masons have founded and continue to support both intellectually and monetarily.[53] • Masonic Child Identification Programs (CHIP).[47] Charitable effort The fraternity is widely involved in charity and community service activities. and is to be devoted to charitable purposes. In contemporary times. charitable funds were collected more on the basis of a Provident or Friendly Society. The brethren will then investigate the candidate. Other jurisdictions allow for varying degrees of solicitation. to Freemasonry initiation. money is collected only from the membership. The number of adverse votes needed to reject a candidate varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction (in some. leading to controversies of recognition. and hold a secret ballot election (often using an old fashioned ballot box). . standards by which the regularity of Lodges and Grand Lodges are judged. • Medical assistance. joining Freemasonry is not by invitation only. in many jurisdictions. The concept of Masonic Landmarks appears in Masonic regulations as early as 1723. Membership requirements Contrary to common misconception.[46] In 1863. • Education with both educational grants[51] or schools such as the Royal Masonic School (UK)[52] which are open to all and not limited to the families of Freemasons. Freemasonry worldwide disburses substantial charitable amounts to non-Masonic charities. In addition to these.Freemasonry 9 Landmarks The Landmarks of Masonry are defined as ancient and unchangeable principles. The Masonic Service Association. Albert G. the official process of becoming a Mason begins when a candidate for Freemasonry formally petitions a lodge. and there were elaborate regulations to determine a petitioner's eligibility for consideration for charity. and seems to be adopted from the regulations of operative masonic guilds. In fact. Each Grand Lodge is self-governing and no single authority exists over the whole of Freemasonry. however. there are thousands of philanthropic organisations around the world created by Freemasons. Mackey attempted to set down 25 Landmarks. However the initial introduction is made. numbers differing from West Virginia (7) and New Jersey (10) to Nevada (39) and Kentucky (54). the brothers of the lodge are not allowed to ask potential candidates to join (in these jurisdictions. 18th century assure themselves of his good character. Some examples of Masonic charities include: • Homes[50] that provide sheltered housing or nursing care.[54] the Masonic Medical Research Laboratory.

women in the 18th and 19th centuries had been admitted into what were known as "adoption lodges" in which they could participate in ritual life. and of good reputation. known as the Swedish Rite. there are (mainly within the borders of the United States) many female orders associated with regular Freemasonry and its appendant bodies. • Be of good morals. this is entirely an historical holdover. if a potential candidate says a disability will not cause problems. Islam. but the interpretation of this term is subject to the conscience of the candidate. As a result. in the irregular Continental European tradition (meaning irregular to those Grand Lodges in amity with the United Grand Lodge of England). accepts only Christians. Freemasonry and women Since the adoption of Anderson's constitution in 1723. men clearly saw this type of adoption Freemasonry as distinct from their exclusively male variety. including (but not limited to) Buddhism. Christianity. in the tradition of Baruch Spinoza and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe – or views of The Ultimate Cosmic Oneness – along with Western atheistic idealism and agnosticism. • Be of sound mind and body (Lodges had in the past denied membership to a man because of a physical disability. i. a candidate must:[21] • Be a man who comes of his own free will. not born a slave or bondsman). Freemasonry accepts men from a range of faiths. many Lodges have multiple VSLs available. candidates being expected to have lived within the jurisdiction for a certain period of time. the Social Order of Beauceant and the Daughters of the Nile. on the other hand. Consequently. now.. .Freemasonry 10 General requirements Generally. it has been accepted as fact by regular Masons that only men can be made Masons. it will not be held against him). However. such as Elizabeth Aldworth. The form of Freemasonry most common in Scandinavia. As UGLE-based Freemasonry also requires that a VSL be present on the Altar. to be accepted for initiation as a regular Freemason. Most Grand Lodges do not admit women because they believe it would violate the ancient Landmarks. and Sikhism. and can be interpreted in the same manner as it is in the context of being entitled to write a will. Judaism. typically six months. as well as one or two references from current Masons.[57] As with the previous. however.[28] [59] Regular Freemasonry requires that its candidates believe in a Supreme Being. • Be at least the minimum age (from 18–25 years old depending on the jurisdiction. In the French context. depending on jurisdiction. While a few women. but are founded on the Masonic model. the Order of the Amaranth. While women cannot join regular lodges. • Be capable of furnishing character references. and a candidate can be obligated on his book of choice. Hinduism. Some jurisdictions have removed this requirement. nor a separate proper name for a deity in any branch of Freemasonry. From the late 19th century onward. a very broad interpretation has been given to a non-dogmatic Supreme Being. • Believe in a Supreme Being (the form of which is left to open interpretation by the candidate). the White Shrine of Jerusalem.e. such as the Order of the Eastern Star. Since the early 19th century. known as a "Lewis". were initiated into British speculative lodges prior to 1723. Freemasonry uses Volume of the Sacred Law (VSL) as a generic term for a religious book. mixed gender lodges have met in France. Some Grand Lodges in the United States have an additional residence requirement. "There is no separate Masonic God". • Be free-born (or "born free". These have their own rituals and traditions. may join at an earlier age than others).[60] officially regular Freemasonry remains exclusive to men. In some jurisdictions the son of a Mason.[58] Membership and religion Freemasonry explicitly and openly states that it is neither a religion nor a substitute for one.

or are based on suspicion of corrupt conspiracy of some form.[69] A number of Papal pronouncements have been issued against Freemasonry. or supposed heterodoxy within the Fraternity itself.[67] Religious opposition Freemasonry has attracted criticism from theocratic states and organised religions for supposed competition with religion. Anti-Masonry consists of widely differing criticisms from diverse (and often incompatible) groups who are hostile to Freemasonry in some form. both by Masons in referring to their critics and as a self-descriptor by the critics themselves. 15 October 1890.[68] Christianity and Freemasonry Although members of various faiths cite objections.Freemasonry In addition. issued Quaesitum est." Thus. Those Grand Lodges in amity with UGLE deny the Church's claims and state that . certain Christian denominations have had high profile negative attitudes to Masonry. The denomination with the longest history of objection to Freemasonry is the Roman Catholic Church. For its part. In 1983.[62] [63] However. there are many non-mainstream Masonic bodies that do admit both men and women or are exclusively for women. which states: ". and has long been the target of conspiracy theories.[65] These hoaxes and exposés have often become the basis for criticism of Masonry. The first was Pope Clement XII's In Eminenti. political groups. and these Lodges continue to gain membership. as in the case of the Taxil hoax. the matter was clarified when Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI). Freemasonry has never objected to Catholics joining their fraternity. The systematic admission of women into International Co-Freemasonry began in France in 1882. as the Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. These Female Masons have founded lodges around the world. the Church’s negative judgment in regard to Masonic association remains unchanged since their principles have always been considered irreconcilable with the doctrine of the Church and therefore membership in them remains forbidden. the most recent was Pope Leo XIII's Ab Apostolici. These often lack context. which is still in use today. the Church issued a new Code of Canon Law. 28 April 1738. The objections raised by the Roman Catholic Church are based on the allegation that Masonry teaches a naturalistic deistic religion which is in conflict with Church doctrine. and conspiracy theorists. there is still a ban on Catholics joining Masonic Lodges. There have been many disclosures and exposés dating as far back as the 18th century. Co-Freemasonry admits both men and women. In more recent times.[66] but also arising in the historical Anti-Masonic Party in the United States). one who promotes or takes office in such an association is to be punished with an interdict.[64] may be outdated for various reasons. banning or discouraging their members from being Freemasons. women have created and maintained separate Lodges.[61] but it is held to be irregular because it admits women. The political opposition that arose after the "Morgan Affair" in 1826 gave rise to the term "Anti-Masonry".[70] The 1917 Code of Canon Law also forbade books friendly to Freemasonry. The faithful who enroll in Masonic associations are in a state of grave sin and may not receive Holy Communion... from a Catholic perspective. especially after the perceived liberalisation of Vatican II. working the same rituals as the all male regular lodges. which see it as an occult and evil power. 11 Opposition to and criticism of Freemasonry Anti-Masonry (alternatively called Anti-Freemasonry) has been defined as "opposition to Freemasonry". Unlike its predecessor." This omission caused both Catholics and Freemasons to believe that the ban on Catholics becoming Freemasons may have been lifted.[71] However.[39] or could be outright hoaxes on the part of the author. The 1917 Code of Canon Law explicitly declared that joining Freemasonry entailed automatic excommunication. Critics have included religious groups. often religious or political in nature (usually by totalitarian dictatorial regimes. it did not explicitly name Masonic orders among the secret societies it condemns. It states in part: "A person who joins an association which plots against the Church is to be punished with a just penalty. there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement.

Pike. however.[72] Masonic scholar Albert Pike is often quoted (in some cases misquoted) by Protestant anti-Masons as an authority for the position of Masonry on these issues. countries such as Turkey and Morocco have established Grand Lodges. appears to harbour some reservations about Masonic ritual." Roberts believed Freemasonry was a "mystery" or "alternate" religion and encouraged his church not to support ministers who were Freemasons. however. The lodges were then disbanded.. In 2003 he felt it necessary to apologise to British Freemasons after he said that their beliefs were incompatible with Christianity and that he had barred the appointment of Freemasons to senior posts in his diocese when he was Bishop of Monmouth. when the first lodge under the UGLE was opened in Basra. this has begun to change. The Orthodox critique of Freemasonry agrees with both the Roman Catholic and Protestant versions: "Freemasonry cannot be at all compatible with Christianity as far as it is a secret organization. acting and teaching in mystery and secret and deifying rationalism. placed a ban on Freemasonry and confiscated all the literature. and even Satanism.T. and there is no separate proper name for a deity in Freemasonry"."[28] In contrast to Catholic allegations of rationalism and naturalism. and later on when the country was under British Mandate just 12 . The current Archbishop of Canterbury. Dr Rowan Williams.[79] In article 28 of its Covenant. Masonic lodges existed in Iraq as early as 1919. Freedom from secret societies is one of the "frees" the Free Methodist Church was founded upon. whilst being anxious to avoid causing offence to Freemasons inside and outside the Church of England. perhaps due to the increasing prominence of the evangelical wing of the church.[28] In recent years. the person involved with Freemasonry cannot partake of the Eucharist. Roberts opposed the society on moral grounds and stated. though other criticisms are made such as linking Freemasonry to Dajjal.[73] Free Methodist Church founder B. nor a substitute for religion. and furthermore an opinion grounded in the attitudes and understandings of late 19th century Southern Freemasonry of the USA alone. many Bishops of the Church of England have been Freemasons.Freemasonry they explicitly adhere to the principle that "Freemasonry is not a religion. However. such as Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher. Rotary.[78] Some Muslim anti-Masons argue that Freemasonry promotes the interests of the Jews around the world and that one of its aims is to rebuild the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem after destroying the Al-Aqsa Mosque. the Orthodox Church of Greece officially declared that being a Freemason constitutes an act of apostasy and thus. Hamas states that Freemasonry.[76] In 1933.[81] while in countries such as Malaysia[82] and Lebanon[83] there are District Grand Lodges operating under a warrant from an established Grand Lodge. representing his personal opinion only. Protestant objections are more likely to be based on allegations of mysticism. few members of the Church of England would have seen any incongruity in concurrently adhering to Anglican Christianity and practicing Freemasonry. Islam and Freemasonry Many Islamic anti-Masonic arguments are closely tied to both Anti-Semitism and Anti-Zionism. then Prime Minister of Pakistan..[74] Since the founding of Freemasonry. occultism. until he repents. Many Masonic websites and publications address these criticisms specifically. In Pakistan in 1972 Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. There is no separate 'Masonic deity'. was not a spokesman for Freemasonry and was controversial among Freemasons in general."[77] Regular Freemasonry has traditionally not responded to these claims. reservations about Freemasonry have increased within Anglicanism. In recent decades. This has been generally affirmed throughout the whole Orthodox Church."[80] Many countries with a significant Muslim population do not allow Masonic establishments within their jurisdictions.[75] In the past. No one voice has ever spoken for the whole of Freemasonry. beyond the often repeated statement that those Grand Lodges in amity with UGLE explicitly adhere to the principle that "Freemasonry is not a religion. nor a substitute for religion. Indeed his book carries in the preface a form of disclaimer from his own Grand Lodge. "The god of the lodge is not the God of the Bible. and other similar groups "work in the interest of Zionism and according to its instructions . However. although undoubtedly learned. Roberts was a vocal opponent of Freemasonry in the mid 19th century.

Nazi Germany)[87] [88] and the extreme left (e. Nevertheless. and opposition for supposedly thwarting.g. it was felt that any potential loyalties Masons might have. Freemasonry has attracted criticism – and suppression – from both the politically extreme right (e. Historically. Under Licio Gelli’s leadership.[32] The words may be varied across Grand Lodges. In the wake of the French Revolution. based on their vows to support fellow Masons. culminating in the formation of a short lived Anti-Masonic Party which fielded candidates for the Presidential elections of 1828 and 1832."[84] With the fall of the Hussein government in 2003.[85] The Grand Masters of both the Moderns and the Antients Grand Lodges called on the Prime Minister William Pitt (who was not a Freemason) and explained to him that Freemasonry was a supporter of the law and lawfully constituted authority and was much involved in charitable work.[89] [90] [91] The policy of requiring a declaration of masonic membership of applicants for judicial office (judges and magistrates) was ended in 2009 by Justice Secretary Jack Straw. . and state that Freemasonry as an organisation is either bent on world domination or already secretly in control of world politics. the Unlawful Societies Act. and not to countenance disloyalty or rebellion.[85] Freemasonry in the United States faced political pressure following the disappearance of William Morgan in 1826. Conspiracy theorists have long associated Freemasonry with the New World Order and the Illuminati. but a few have initiated Iraqis. in the late 1970s. as the Grand Orient had revoked its charter in 1976. However the position changed in July 1958 following the Revolution. liberal democracy (such as the United States of America). before being made Master of his Lodge. As a result Freemasonry was specifically exempted from the terms of the Act. the P2 Lodge became involved in the financial scandals that nearly bankrupted the Vatican Bank. Freemasonry has become linked to a scandal concerning the Propaganda Due Lodge (aka P2). This position was later reinforced under Saddam Hussein. a number of Lodges have begun to meet on military bases within Iraq. However. were from 1999 to 2009 required to disclose their membership. such as judges and police officers. The licences permitting lodges to meet were rescinded and later laws were introduced banning any further meetings. provided that each Private Lodge's Secretary placed with the local "Clerk of the Peace" a list of the members of his Lodge once a year. as a Lodge for visiting Masons unable to attend their own lodges. under General Qasim.[90] While a parliamentary inquiry found that there has been no evidence of wrongdoing.[89] In the UK. Freemasonry is sometimes viewed with distrust.g. These lodges primarily cater to British and American military units.[86] By 1982 the scandal became public knowledge and Gelli was formally expelled from Freemasonry.Freemasonry after the First World War. should be transparent to the public. or who associate [themselves] with Zionist organisations. Masons working in the justice system. In Italy. (who had initiated the requirement in the 1990s).[85] This continued until 1967 when the obligation of the provision was rescinded by Parliament. by this time the lodge was operating independently and irregularly. to pay a proper respect to the civil magistrates. Several Grand Lodges have expressed a desire to charter Lodges with completely Iraqi membership in the near future.[32] A Freemason makes a further obligation. 13 Political opposition Regular Freemasonry has in its core ritual a formal obligation: to be quiet and peaceable citizens.[66] The Fraternity has encountered both applause for supposedly founding. Even in modern democracies. but the sense in the obligation taken is always there. much of the political opposition to Freemasonry is based upon the idea that Masonry will foment (or sometimes prevent) rebellion. In 1799 English Freemasonry almost came to a halt due to Parliamentary proclamation. together with opposition to Jacksonian democracy (Andrew Jackson was a prominent Mason) helped fuel an Anti-Masonic movement. Reports of the "Morgan Affair". 1799 banned any meetings of groups that required their members to take an oath or obligation. true to the lawful government of the country in which they live. This Lodge was Chartered by the Grande Oriente d'Italia in 1877. the death penalty was "prescribed" for those who "promote or acclaim Zionist principles. including freemasonry. with the abolition of the Monarchy and Iraq being declared a republic. the former Communist states in Eastern Europe).

[96] RSHA Amt VII (Written Records) was overseen by Professor Franz Six and was responsible for "ideological" tasks. the Iraqi legal and penal code was changed by Saddam Hussein's ruling Ba'ath Party. 2005. membership is rising. htm). This coincidence enabled Freemasons to wear the forget-me-not badge as a secret sign of membership. by which was meant the creation of anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic propaganda. In 1980."[93] Professor Andrew Prescott [94]. [7] Second Schaw Statutes (http:/ / www.[92] The rescinding of the rule did not change the disclosure requirements for Police officers. Censor. pdf). of the University of Sheffield. org. but reporting in the popular media is often negative.[98] [99] [100] After World War II. org/ blue/ regius1. For example. the forget-me-not[101] flower was again used as a Masonic emblem at the first Annual Convention of the United Grand Lodges of Germany in 1948. New York: Robert Appleton Company.000 and 200. Retrieved 2009-09-28.Freemasonry Straw stated that the rule was considered disproportionate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Masonic concentration camp inmates were graded as political prisoners and wore an inverted red triangle. doctrine. uk/ what-is-masonry/ frequently-asked-questions/ / ). southchurch. Hermann (1910-10-01). Freemasonry is both successful and controversial in France.org. OCLC 17546610. ISBN 9780521353267. a Nazi charitable organisation which collected money so that other state funds could be freed up and used for rearmament. newadvent. United Grand Lodge of England. OCLC 1017058. Retrieved 2009-09-28. p. or who associate [themselves] with Zionist organisations. [6] Stevenson. in 1926. Freemasons for Dummies. [2] Hodapp.Short Talk Bulletin (http:/ / www. The badge is now worn in the coat lapel by Freemasons around the world to remember all those that have suffered in the name of Freemasonry.[101] [102] 14 Forget-me-not Notes [1] "Frequently Asked Questions" (http:/ / www. it is estimated that between 80. uk/ pdf/ important/ secondschawstatute. Indianapolis: Wiley. David (November 1988).[97] The small blue forget-me-not flower was first used by the Grand Lodge Zur Sonne. la-mason. ugle. since no impropriety or malpractice had been shown as a result of judges being Freemasons. . com/ stb53."[95] The Holocaust The preserved records of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (the Reich Security Main Office) show the persecution of Freemasons. In Remy Lafort. . While the number is not accurately known. org. so it is not surprising that allegations that 11 September was a Zionist plot have been accompanied by suggestions that the attacks were inspired by a masonic world order. including Freemasonry. [3] Gruber. IX. "Masonry (Freemasonry)" (http:/ / www. Germany. especially those during the Nazi era. Masonicsites. org/ cathen/ 09771a. . 52. The Origins of Freemasonry: Scotland's Century 1590-1710. In 1938 the forget-me-not badge – made by the same factory as the Masonic badge – was chosen for the annual Nazi Party Winterhilfswerk. anti-semitism has gone hand in hand with anti-masonry. The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution. Christopher. writes: "Since at least the time of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.[89] In some countries anti-Masonry is often related to anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism. and history of the Catholic Church. discipline. [4] Masonic Service Association . . htm). htm) as reprinted on the website of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. as a Masonic emblem at the annual convention in Bremen.000 Freemasons were killed under the Nazi regime. mesh4us. 1599. [5] "The Regius Manuscript" (http:/ / www. making it a felony to "promote or acclaim Zionist principles. masonicsites.

for it is re-issued every year. [11] "GLNF: Grande Loge Nationale Francaise" (http:/ / www. co. [24] "Freemasonry Revealed: The Secrets of Freemasonry" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-05-08. Criminal Justice System for England and Wales. . Grand Lodge of North Carolina. html#2642) on 2006-10-13. . html). org. [9] S. pdf) on 2007-01-15. 2002. . pp. Retrieved 2006-02-23. org/ masonry/ A2L-religion. grandlodge-england.M. archive. ISBN 9780880530545. org/ freemasonryrevealed/ secrets. 2002. [19] Johnson. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry. . org/ bogusmasonry/ regularitypha. grandlodge-england. OCLC 18976592. [28] "Is Freemasonry a religion?" (http:/ / www. co. Retrieved 2005-11-14. Alpha/Penguin Books. html) (abridged portion). [33] "UK Government information on Courts system" (http:/ / web. 27. Brent Morris (2006). Alpha/Penguin Books. [30] William K. Grand Lodge F. uk/ masonry/ YQA-other-orgs. Richmond. html) on 2007-02-22.A. it is issued by the Grand Lodge of California to its constituent lodges. htm). Emulation Ritual. and we are summoned to refreshment. htm) (excerpt). tripod. org/ web/ 20070222082444/ http:/ / www. [21] United Grand Lodge of England (2005) [1815]. "G. Coil's Masonic Encyclopedia (Revised and Updated by Allen E. Grande Loge Nationale Francaise (GLNF). . [22] Jackson. Freemasons for Dummies p. ISBN 0760760039. William L. lodge/ html/ festive_board. Walkes Jr. ISBN 9780853181187. ISBN 1-59257-490-4. 1997. England) (1991). Godolphin Lodge No. with the admonition that this book is to be kept in each lodge for reference in receiving visitors and on applications for affiliation. Retrieved 2007-04-09.&A. The Indiana Freemason. Henry Wilson (1961). 7790. htm). ugle. [12] "Constitution" (http:/ / web. archive. mindspring..). org/ web/ 20071008145111/ http:/ / www. cjsonline.but when [the sun] reaches the south. & Masonic Supply Co. htm). org/ web/ 20060506034646/ http:/ / myweb. . Va. archive. 2005.T. lodge/ html/ festive_board. uk/ defendant/ walkthrough/ the_trial/ faqs/ index. Brent Morris (2006). mqmagazine. Va: Macoy Pub. Example letter to request recognition. Committee on Ritual. pp. org/ education/ code/ 000. com/ 1997-08/ Bissey. Institute of Early American History and Culture (Williamsburg. [29] Becoming a Mason . Indianapolis: Wiley. 2007.To become one.. Retrieved 2006-06-12. nhgrandlodge. tiscali. 2002. London: Lewis Masonic. ISBN 9780807847503. Retrieved 2005-11-14. OCLC 16542250. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . ISBN 1-59257-490-4. Grand Lodge FAAM (Free And Accepted Masons) of Washington. Albert Gallatin (2004). org/ ___Becoming_a_Mason/ body____becoming_a_mason. org/ web/ 20070609110514/ http:/ / www. Handbook for Candidate's Coaches. "South". htm). asso. Donald G. org/ dcrecreq. Commission on Bogus Masonic Practices. (1997).. archive. cjsonline. London: Lewis Masonic. [10] Bullock. ". 2006-10-03. org/ masonry/ A2L-promises. D. 1730-1840. htm). Masonic Quarterly Magazine (10). grandlodge-nc. Lexicon of Freemasonry. . [17] Mackey. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry. uk/ godolphin. Archived from the original (http:/ / myweb." (http:/ / srjarchives.C. Keith B. 212. [34] "What promises do Freemasons take?" (http:/ / www. html).Freemasonry [8] Coil. OCLC 58654158. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. tiscali. Harold Van Buren Voorhes. William M. . United Grand Lodge of England. php). "Masonic ritual: Spoilt for choice" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-04-09. . . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Brown. (1980). "The Festive Board" (http:/ / web. phylaxis. org/ pdf/ cr-rule-update2-141205. fr/ ) (in French). Retrieved 2007-04-07. Christopher. Steven C. org/ masrec/ phamapshistorical. archive. 15. 445. grandlodge-england. Roberts. org/ index. W. phylaxis. htm). glnf. . Retrieved 2006-03-08. uk/ godolphin. Lawrence (1996). gov." [15] "Report From The United Grand Lodge of England: Prince Hall Masonry and the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Massachusetts" (http:/ / web. ed. htm). archive. of California. Cummings. pdf) (pdf). Retrieved 2007-05-08. [25] Freemasons. "The Master Mason. OCLC 33334015. Retrieved 2007-04-09.O. html).J. htm) (Annex A: Regularity). the hour is high twelve. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. p. [27] Hodapp. Christopher. x–xii. [14] Campbell. "The solution of the problem [of irregular Masonry] lies in the publication furnished every California lodge. United Grand Lodge of England. Committee on Masonic Recognition. htm) on 2007-10-08. . [16] Bourne. ask one: What is Freemasonry? (http:/ / web. grandlodge-england. grandlodge-nc. grandlodge-england. New York: Barnes & Noble. [26] Gilkes. Entitled "List of Regular Lodges Masonic". htm). [23] Q&A: Other organisations (http:/ / www. "Who is Prince Hall? And other well known Prince Hall Masons" (http:/ / www. Joseph A. org/ education/ code/ 000. Irregular and Clandestine Lodges" (http:/ / mastersjewel. London: Freemason's Hall. "Aims and Relationships of the Craft" (http:/ / web. p. Paul M.. Grand Lodge of North Carolina. Beyond the Craft. Freemasons for Dummies. 15 . p. 97-104. OCLC 40357899. Emulation Lodge of Improvement (London. [31] S. org/ pdf/ cr-rule-update2-141205. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. gov. (the District of Columbia). Bissey (Spring 1997). Retrieved 2006-02-06. ." [18] Hodapp. 1995 ed. Constitutions of the Antient Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons. United Grand Lodge of England. co. See Preamble.U. Retrieved 10 June 2007. uk/ defendant/ walkthrough/ the_trial/ faqs/ index. org/ web/ 20070115223551/ http:/ / www. com/ ~johnsonx/ whoisph..) (1996). grandlodge-nc. [13] "Form letter to request mutual recognition" (http:/ / bessel. org/ web/ 20061013151242/ http:/ / www. uk/ issue-10/ p-61. ISBN 9780853181873. htm) on the UGLE webpage. Phylaxis Society. Retrieved 2007-05-07. org/ bogusmasonry/ regularitypha. Retrieved 2007-05-08. There may well be an old copy which you can use. html) on 2006-05-06. Revolutionary brotherhood: Freemasonry and the transformation of the American social order. com/ masons/ mm/ MM07. Retrieved 2007-05-08. Peter (July 2004). .. . [32] "The United Grand Lodge of England — Home Page" (http:/ / www. [20] Bessel. "Prince Hall Masonry Recognition details: Historical Maps" (http:/ / bessel.

Brent Morris (2002-08-18). Bristol Masonic Ritual: The Oldest and Most Unique Craft Ritual Used in England. [62] Anti-Masonry . .com (http:/ / dictionary. htm). webster-dictionary. [43] "One is made to swear secrecy to the point that bloody penalties of death are involved. org/ ). [45] Firestone. srmason-sj. xviii (1905) p. htm) on 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2011-01-15. uk/ charity/ intro. ca/ aqc/ aldworth. archive. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum vol viii (1895) pp. (2005). or other Communist states. Postwar revivals of Freemasonry in Czechoslovakia and Hungary were suppressed in 1950. . p. A Pilgrim's Path. (February 2002). net/ d. org/ web/ journal-files/ Issues/ Feb02/ botelho. by Edward Conder. rmbi. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. org/ ). China. Retrieved 2007-05-07. php). 16 . org/ writrits. (1989). p. uk/ feudal. Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. ISBN 9781592574902. org/ web/ 20070502051433/ http:/ / www. Mont. Earnest (April 2005). ISBN 9780871316028. (2004) [1996]. sch. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry. ISSN 1076-8572. Albert G. Retrieved 2006-03-08. [52] "Royal Masonic School for Girls" (http:/ / web. Paul M. com/ masonic_charity. Grand Lodge of Illinois. [41] Cohoughlyn-Burroughs. uk/ issue-13/ p-46. Indianapolis: Wiley. vol. Roger (2001-12-01). html). co. 56. ." Robinson also states that the presence of the requirement meant that Freemasonry was organisationally much older than the 1717 founding of the Premier Grand Lodge of England. pp. htm). Christopher. Past Worshipful Master (http:/ / www. Freemasons for Dummies. OCLC 68042376. "Masonic Landmarks" (http:/ / web. Margaret C. org). 16-23. html). edu/ ). mqmagazine. 1990. bcy. p. Arturo. Evans and Co. Oxford University Press.Definition of Antimasonry by Webster Dictionary (http:/ / www. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. uk/ pages/ default. Leger and Freemasonry (http:/ / freemasonry.: Kessinger. . "Difficult Questions About Freemasonry" (http:/ / web.). ephesians5-11.Oxford English Dictionary (Compact Edition). Kila. tpl?& ng_view=18).129 [40] Bessel. ephesians5-11. royalmasonic. archive. Lists many books which perpetuate Masonic ritual hoaxes. org. [51] "Royal Masonic Trust for Girls and Boys" (http:/ / www. herts. Retrieved 2007-05-08. msana. Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. 18 and p. herts. . Freemasonry does not exist today in the Soviet Union. and reprinted on the website of the Grand Lodge of BC&Y. uk/ ). [39] John J. . org/ index. OCLC 1480641. Retrieved 2007-07-07. html). Preface.Freemasonry [35] Jacob. OCLC 20419501. [67] infoplease. Masonic Quarterly Magazine (13).. . Charles E. [38] Hodapp. . New York. Retrieved 2007-05-08. . org/ web/ 20070806171141/ http:/ / ilmason. 53-6. Michael A. Robinson. ca/ anti-masonry/ taxilhoax. org/ web/ journal-files/ Issues/ Feb02/ botelho. shrinershq. 10 September 1998. Brent (2006).. html). (2006-11-29). [58] "Become a Mason: Requirements" (http:/ / web. (Transcribed by Eugene Goldman. org/ requirements. html) Soviet Russia outlawed Masonry in 1922. htm). Retrieved 2007-05-08. Privately published. p. 46. "Leo Taxil Hoax — Bibliography" (http:/ / freemasonry. html). historylearningsite. "Landmarks of Freemasonry" (http:/ / freemasonry. rmtgb. Retrieved 2007-05-08. Chris. org/ web/ 20060421024923/ http:/ / www. Inc. ca/ grandlodge/ landmarks. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. [57] Robinson." (http:/ / www. Northern Jurisdiction – United States of America. edu/ dryfoo/ Masonry/ Misc/ emu-pref. nmsf. by the late fifteenth century virtually every man in England was free. Retrieved 2007-07-08. asp). co-masonry. 1979. ilmason. Retrieved 2007-07-08. mit. Ancient Free & Accepted Masons. . org/ requirements. org/ bks/ freemasonry. OCLC 78368255. ephesians5-11 (http:/ / www. . [59] Smart." Testimony of Duane Washum. M. bcy. historylearningsite. [50] "Royal Masonic Benevolent Institute" (http:/ / www. . org/ web/ 20070427131329/ http:/ / www. a sworn oath on the Bible was a very important thing and one which few men would dare to break as it would condemn them to Hell. htm) [49] "Masonic Charity" (http:/ / www. edu/ dryfoo/ www/ Masonry/ Questions/ difficult. London. sch. New York: Evans. trosch. OCLC 61478025. mit. ISBN 9781417915668." [37] "Scottish Rite Freemasonry — Ritual and Degrees.369 [63] Antimasonry . org/ washum. (October 1858). [60] The Hon. The Scottish Rite Journal. 85 (also discussed in chapters 13 and 16). New York: Alpha Books. [54] Masonic Service Association (http:/ / www. The origins of freemasonry: facts & fictions. Miss St. [36] Trueman. [65] de Hoyos. "Faith and Freemasonry" (http:/ / www. srmason-sj. co. uk/ pages/ default. 25. England: Lewis Masonic. aspx?w=Antimasonry) [64] Morris. uk/ feudal.. Freemasons-freemasonry. ISSN 0741-790X. org/ ) [44] Freemasons. com/ ). Scottish Rite Freemasonry. "Feudalism" (http:/ / web. freemasons-freemasonry.com. mmrl. Retrieved 2007-04-09. supremecouncil.) [47] Botelho. [66] " The New Catholic Encyclopedia (1967) (http:/ / www. . OCLC 21360724. htm) on 2006-04-21. 2005. [48] UGL (http:/ / www. [55] Welcome to the Masonic Medical Research Laboratory (http:/ / www. asp) on 2007-04-27. archive. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. html). "They had to swear an oath of loyalty to William. Retrieved 2007-05-08. org.. com/ anti-mason) definition of "anti-mason". American Quarterly Review of Freemasonry and its kindred sciences ii: 230.. Emulation Lodge of Improvement. [53] "New Masonic Samaritan Fund" (http:/ / www. archive. "Printed Rituals" (http:/ / bessel. Retrieved 2007-05-08. Emulation Ritual (http:/ / web.Welcome (http:/ / www. co. royalmasonic. html) on 2007-08-06.org (http:/ / www. [56] Shriners . htm). infoplease. org/ Site/ English/ ) Official site. ". [61] co-masonry. ugle. html) (8th ed. Retrieved 2007-05-08. S. Retrieved 2007-03-15. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. John J. [42] Craft Ritual. [46] Mackey. bcy. ISBN 9780812239010. S.

H. Andrew. "In preparing this work [Pike] has been about equally Author and Compiler. [89] Hodapp. pp. [75] Beresiner. law. Populist Saints. uk/ news/ main. Michigan: William B. OCLC 3250405. ISBN 9780132918404. cfm?recnum=5285). uk/ issue-18/ p-07. biz/ persecution. 2.J. . "Saddam to be formally charged" (http:/ / washingtontimes. Bishops Concerning Masonry" (http:/ / www. Supreme Council of the Thirty-Third Degree for the Southern Jurisdiction (1950) [1871]. mqmagazine. [73] Pike. Englewood Cliffs. p. W. grandlodge-england. Orthodoxinfo. co. The Washington Times. Transactions of Texas Lodge of Research 27: 86–97. James (1996-12-27). iii. CatholicCulture. asp). "Roman Catholic Church Law Regarding Freemasonry" (http:/ / www. United Grand Lodge of England. Retrieved 2 October 2007.uk. net/ servlet/ Satellite?cid=1119503547288& pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/ FatwaE/ FatwaEAskTheScholar) (asp). 13–14. uk/ history/ staff/ research_fellows/ andrew_prescott. Bernard (1985-04-19).204. David R (2004-07-01). so far as they go beyond the realm of Morality into those of other domains of Thought and Truth. shef. com/ ecumenism/ masonry.co. Albert. Freemasons for Dummies. Retrieved 2011-01-15. php?PHPSESSID=c59cd231db419873a6a6). Police want judges and MPs to reveal Masonic links too (http:/ / www. com/ ~janebm/ churchlaw. Yasha (July 2006). DC: House of the Temple. [77] "Freemasonry: Official Statement of the Church of Greece (1933)" (http:/ / www. uk/ news/ main. OCLC 12870276. Celil. .com. org/ library/ view.) . [81] Leyiktez. Retrieved 2007-05-07. [94] http:/ / www. Mill Valley Lodge #356. telegraph. com/ prescott03. [85] "The United Grand Lodge of England — Two Grand Lodges" (http:/ / www. New York: Leon Amiel Publisher. . pp. (p. . Otto (1976). Concise History of Great Nations: History of Germany. & A. State of New York (http:/ / www. Scottish Rite (Masonic order). Retrieved 7 November 2009. html). . The Study of Freemasonry as a New Academic Discipline (http:/ / www. htm) (in German). com/ world/ 20040701-120129-6565r. edu/ 20th_century/ hamas. aspx). p.org . Hugo. OCLC 31009810. 2002. Brent. .S. 104. Washington. telegraph. catholicculture. org/ web/ 20071123132655/ http:/ / www. The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. The Guardian [91] Cusick. uk/ news/ police-want-judges-and-mps-to-reveal-masonic-links-too-1316095. Andrew (5 November 2009). Retrieved 2007-07-09. 2005. freemasons-freemasonry. M. htm). James. Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. . Howard (2006). com/ layiktez1.yale. iv)" [74] Snyder. Indianapolis: Wiley. or teaching. [69] Cardinal Law. OCLC 47204246. org/ contacts/ contacts. [79] "Can a Muslim be a freemason?" (http:/ / www. Chris. co. In Israel Gutman. 1 July 2004.de.. Contemporary Europe: A History. "P2 Lodge" (http:/ / www. 2006. Grand Rapids. vol.com. [76] Hastings. 1988-08-18. org/ ugle/ the-history-of-grand-lodge-1. yale. bcy.org. uk/ politics/ blog/ 2009/ nov/ 05/ jack-straw-judges-masons). asp). Christopher. [90] Bright. co. xml& sSheet=/ news/ 2003/ 04/ 20/ ixhome. masonicinfo. Eerdmans Publishing Company. 33. . .. Die wahre Geschichte" (http:/ / www. (2007). . Reid (1991). Retrieved 2008-12-18. html) on 2007-11-23. chick. The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite uses the word "Dogma" in its true sense of doctrine. Retrieved 2007-05-08. freemasons-freemasonry. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. aspx) [83] Districts Online | Grand Lodge F. p. guardian. 17 . 237. 531. [98] "Das Vergißmeinnicht-Abzeichen und die Freimaurerei. independent. 1933-10-12. The Independent [92] Sparrow. org/ cms/ districtsonline). html). htm). [86] King. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2003/ 04/ 20/ nmason20. Retrieved 2007-09-29. [72] Jack Chick. html [95] Prescott. [97] Katz. Elizabeth Day (2003-04-20). "Jack Straw scraps rule saying judges must declare if they are masons" (http:/ / www. 13-14. guardian. guardian. freemasonry.: Prentice Hall. and is not dogmatic in the odious sense of that term. .edu. com/ reading/ tracts/ 0093/ 0093_01. ISBN 9780814806739. Avalon. co. com/ p2_lodge. io. S. . Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon. Retrieved 2006-05-21. p. [78] Prescott. T. Retrieved 2006-06-18. html). Washington Times. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Freemasonry. 1917 Code of Canon Law from "Canon Law regarding Freemasonry. "Rowan Williams apologises to Freemasons" (http:/ / web. ca/ anti-masonry/ canon. The Daily Telegraph. [82] DGLME. Islamonline. [71] McInvale. 30. html). . [87] Wilkenson.law. html). uk/ politics/ 2005/ jun/ 12/ uk. freedomofinformation1). xml& sSheet=/ news/ 2003/ 04/ 20/ ixhome. dglme. 1917-1983" (http:/ / freemasonry. Retrieved 2007-07-09. de/ arst/ forgetd. orthodoxinfo. co. 86. [88] Zierer. ISBN 9780028971667 OCLC 20594356. "Jews and Freemasons in Europe". The teachings of these Readings are not sacramental. Retrieved 2011-01-15. html). Martin (2005-06-12). archive. Retrieved 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2006-07-08. . Edward L. htm).Freemasonry [68] Morris. [84] "Saddam to be formally charged". Alpha books. islamonline. ac. nymasons. [80] "Hamas Covenant 1988" (http:/ / avalon. [70] Canon 2335. htm). [93] Sands. . . MPs told to declare links to Masons (http:/ / www. internetloge. jhtml?xml=/ news/ 2003/ 04/ 20/ nmason20. "Freemasonry in the Islamic World" (http:/ / www. Internetloge. p. [96] "World War II Documents showing the persecution of Freemasonry" (http:/ / mill-valley. "Letter of 19 April 1985 to U.The District Grand Lodge of the Middle East (http:/ / www. N. Masonic Quarterly Magazine (18). p. "Archbishop Fisher – A Godly man and a Brother" (http:/ / www. "The Curse of Baphomet" (http:/ / www. co. Retrieved 2006-03-08. Stuart Hughes (1995). Everyone is entirely free to reject and dissent from whatsoever herein may seem to him to be untrue or unsound (p.

brad.. A database of donated Masonic material. .shef. [101] "Das Vergissmeinnicht The Forget-Me-Not: The True Story Behind This Beloved Emblem of the Craft in Germany" (http:/ / www. Bayreuth: Quatuor Coronati. com/ monlou522/ forget~me~not. by William Morgan. Retrieved 2006-07-08.Also in: Francke. Karl Heinz.. html). Ernst-Günther Geppert (1988) (in German). mastermason. OCLC 1560509 • The United Grand Lodge of England's Library and Museum of Freemasonry (http://www.org/files/18136/18136-h/18136-h. 522. • Web of Hiram (http://www. com/ bernheim3.freemasons-freemasonry. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.dept.edu/libraryscience/25/) (1734). • Masonic Books Online (http://www. [100] Francke.unl. html).uk/ library-and-museum/).ac.) Encyclopedia Britannica.oztorah. Ernst-Günther Geppert (1974) (in German).uk/) at the University of Sheffield. co. London • The Centre for Research into Freemasonry (http://freemasonry.htm). freemasons-freemasonry.).gutenberg.org/) the world's oldest Masonic website.Freemasonry [99] Bernheim.org. [102] "About the. Nachschlagewerk über 248 Jahre Geschichte der Freimaurerei in Deutschland. galenlodge. No. org/ web/ 20060209084239/ http:/ / mastermason. Retrieved 2006-02-06. UK • A Page About Freemasonry (http://MasonryPage.com/category/freemasonry/) • Anti-Masonry: Points of View (http://masonicinfo. Paul Royster. Die Freimaurer-Logen Deutschlands und deren Grosslogen 1737 . . OCLC 75446479. Galen Lodge.ac. 2394.com/masonic_books_online.1985 : Matrikel und Stammbuch.html) article from the 1911 (11th Ed. uk/ forgetmenot. Forget-Me-Not" (http:/ / web.org/details/alegislativeinv00hallgoog) at the Internet Archive. No. 2001-02-08. . James Anderson. ed. html) on 2006-02-09.html) of the Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry • The Constitutions of the Free-Masons (http://digitalcommons.jrank.com/) . ISBN 9783925749056. from Project Gutenberg • A Legislative Investigation Into Masonry (1832) (http://www.org/FRA_GAE/FREEMASONRY. Bayreuth: Quatuor Coronati. Alain (2004-09-10).uk/webofhiram/) at the University of Bradford. "The Blue Forget-Me-Not": Another Side Of The Story" (http:/ / www.archive.ugle. Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry. archive. Retrieved 2006-03-04. Karl Heinz. Die Freimaurer-Logen Deutschlands und deren Grosslogen 1737-1972 (Second rev. Hosted by the Libraries at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln • The Mysteries of Free Masonry (http://www. 18 External links • Freemasonry (http://encyclopedia. com/ monlou522/ forget~me~not. • Articles on Judaism and Freemasonry (http://www. htm). Benjamin Franklin. Monitor Lousbury Lodge.

Allemannster. UnknownForEver.xxx. Sean. EnduranceRace. Alan Liefting. Uris. Zsinj. Saucy626. SchfiftyThree. Accurizer. Favonian. Blueboar. Dfrg. Geminidog. Davidwr. Dave-ros. Nykofade. Ermorse. Shanes. Darby. Argusol. Taxman. Marcus Brute. Viriditas. Thincat. Anthony Appleyard. OhSoOrdinary. Geometry guy. Altimaro. LeaveSleaves. GraceCourt. Stepnwolf. Frenchmason. Hmrox. Pietre-stones. YankeeDoodle14. Logawi. Deor. Smjg. Brion VIBBER. Michigan Knight. Literaryagent. BoNoMoJo (old). Cberlet. JYolkowski. Zef. 142. Freimaurer32. Youkai no unmei. Reddan. Mets501.91. Zoide. Rknasc. Spellcast. Brenont.xxx. Al kirtley. Synergy. M Faulks. Jlaramee. RexRex84. Philip Trueman. TastyPoutine. Maelnuneb. Hairy Dude. Alpha376. Orhan94.m. Jsmack. H64. Christopher754. Nygdan. Free Bear. Xastic. Freakofnurture. Daniel Quinlan. Everyking. Bugwit. NormanEinstein. Eranb. Bucketsofg. Cholmes75. StuffOfInterest. ElTyrant. Gaius Cornelius. Hdt83. Phi beta. Rich Farmbrough. Bdelisle. F1r3r41n. Addshore. PGNormand. Chaos. JesseW. Sonaris. Wasted Time R. Vinyltrash. David. Cantus. Liberal Freemason. Gremial. Bubamara. Byebyeviking. Susvolans. Retew Boy. Furrykef. NB-NB. Chiramabi. 1997 anonymous edits Image Sources. Twaz. Holyrollerjim. Fanoftheworld. Pol098. Mwalbert. PeRshGo. Spinboy. Bruce Condell. Revmaj. Mailer diablo. Vegaswikian. Snacky. Vabniru. Unidiode. Tagishsimon. Isomorphic. Flaxmoore. Sunborn. Rdsmith4. JR98664. Pm356. Snoyes. Jeremyb. Faithlessthewonderboy. Marcok. Alexfoley. Cassavau. ALR. Stevertigo. Magisteriu. Raul654. Julesd. Webbsters. Denis tarasov. Bilbobee. Gustafson. David Gerard. Jwm2004. Robbor. Proyster. Northeast Sitter. KrakatoaKatie. Exe. Genuem. Farquaadhnchmn. SSJ4Buster. UnreferencedPOV. 2B1LIE41. Kabalyonkey. The undertow. Tom Lougheed. Ima User. Old Moonraker. Tradnor. Scimitar. Satanael. Jsanstella. W3y2ohott. Marc Kupper. Ltkaffee. RG. Granpuff. Loren. Edward. Chrislk02. NascarKT. Wfgh66. Boooooom. Amherst5282. Tom. Calmer Waters. Tassedethe.ebon. Dtobias. Unclefester89. Pmlunn. Rsvargas. JDPhD. Fossick. Arisa. Tiptoety. Intuition24. PigottDM. Tooltroll. Visorstuff. Cjewell. Dankelol. Hipocrite. Jacotto. Michal Nebyla. Hydrogen Iodide. ST47. Bogdangiusca. Assianir. Daarznieks. Stephen Gilbert. Leon7. Amour. Rohnadams. Iridescent. DerAnstifter. RucasHost. Marixist101. Meekrob. Dylnuge. Hbrockett. Photomy. Faustus37. Weregerbil. Jason Gortician. Jfliu. Brianga. Vary. The Letter J. Vidkun. M. Commander Keane. AlysWiki. RainbowOfLight. RedWolf. Rhorn. Mistress Selina Kyle. Instantnood. Wikianon. Trödel. BenM. Toblerone flyte. Parkwells. McKeown. Ultiam. Khoshzaban. Neilbeach. NickBush24. Church of emacs. Luna Santin. LightningOffense. Sunray. RexNL. Pax:Vobiscum. WikiDao. Sango123. Everamorc. Kschwerdt514. Andres. Zdszdszdszds. Bellhalla. Dimitrakopulos. Burntsauce. Sade. Jowan2005. Karada. SoWhy. Trandoshan Slaver. Toussaint. Hkhenson. Claunia. Imacomp. Jaaschutz. Schnittlauch. Justin Eiler. Jasonwilkes42. 129. Joshiscool94. Luis215. Haikupoet. Cremepuff222. Splash. Uncle G. Myanw. Alai. Centrx. Forestgarden. Keepsleeping. Samuel J. Inform ation. Skyezx. Ryan1810. Hu. Thiseye. Dwbro1. Noctibus. Temuler. Wiki alf. Agnellous. Nap1815. Vanka5. ElfMage. Eric Beer. Roland zh. Gracenotes. WikiWoo. Minesweeper. Geoffkirby. Jtkiefer. Luk. MMAfan2007. Sexyfoxboy. Yamara. Kintetsubuffalo. Tcsei. Olivier. Ahoerstemeier. Xymmax. Maengpong. OMouse. DreamGuy. Gjs238. KingRichard. KenCavallon. Simonapro. Xaosflux. Muj0. Hayabusa future. Dr who1975. Lars Washington. Lcg. Ben Standeven. Skier Dude. Modulatum. Avador. Anders Torlind. Mharris. Mrpearcee. Cjthellama.128. SirJibby. Trautmann. Tvst28. Wassermann. Multixfer. Cmdrjameson. Vianello. Exert.wda. SecondCurator. Blahm. DH85868993. Asrghasrhiojadrhr. AlexiusHoratius. Nixdorf. CLW. Not050. Katalaveno. Oldpossumgunnar. Gary King. Extransit. Quebec99. Bob Burkhardt. Motlpots. Asaa00. TimBentley. Not a Mason. Cgingold. Anus Goblin. Bobo192. Vashx14. JNShutt. Samir. NormalGoddess. Phentos. Rasmr1013. PaulinSaudi. Cwolfsheep. Ashmoo. Aitias. Earl Andrew. Jawr256. Balazs. Martpol. Orlady. Stagehand. Svanslyck. Nat Krause. Jayen466..wilton. 129. Cjoshuav. Natalie Erin. Eloil. Ambrosia274. C-squared. Joeraybray. Ergative rlt. Lights. Melaen. FayssalF. Kai9er. William M. Kroose. Fuzzypeg. Needlenose. Cresix. Jachin. Ytcracker. Rory096. Rastapopoulos. Terra Xin. Pamri. AllanR. Leibniz. Ed g2s. Citicat. Bjrothschild7. Robertmoray. Lupin. Eshafoshaf. Myheartinchile. Oxymoron83. Lairor. Xinyu. Doncram. Esrever. Rjensen. RxS. Ianblair23. Meekywiki. JodyB. GRYE. Lightbringer (usurped . AntiJew. Anderson12. Salvatorelli. Victrix. Atlas29. Steve G. Whkoh. Psomax. Notreallydavid. Wookipedian. Shada nai. John K. Mu. TonySt. LRJones. Wally11. Branden. Andrea Allais. Josiah Rowe. Phr0gor. Rhobite. Lcenter. Matt Crypto. PullUpYourSocks. YellowMonkey. Caferato. Besselpaulm. Black-Snow. Rklawton. Euchiasmus. CWii. Yorkshirian. Bkell. Rarelibra. Liquidswords. Tyranno324. Mousescribe. Ligulem. Telex. Fashionslide. Pigeon33. Aodhdubh. Panzertank. Gabereal. Pollinosisss. Dan Austin. Alex Kennedy. The Blaque. Ian Pitchford. Rick. UncleBubba. MistrOrnge. Md84419. Gurch. Mike Cline. The murray. Rockpiper. McSly. Mpatel. Commander Nemet. Fharper. Ilikebakedziti. Tpbradbury. Myland. Hephaestos. Chill doubt. Aaron Schulz. CWY2190. Theda. Richard001. Andrew Parodi. RaptorKMS.Dabbah. Blue Square. Juliancolton. Stephenb. Leopheard. Maebmij. BitterMilton.166. East718. Viajero. Bridgeplayer. Geni. Denelson83. JJIG. Romanm. Quadell. Lehk. Junes. Spikemill. Stephen. Skarebo. Jeffery 52. Computerjoe. Takuta-Nui. Athaenara. Blanchardb. Jeffrey O. BMRR. NSLE. Bdhook. Wgfinley. ESkog. Slakr. Kaisershatner. Hackloon. Urocyon. Shamesean. Kadett. John Reaves. Cnyborg. Wfgiuliano. Rchandra. Smile a While. Dismas. Another account.233. Marek69. Felix St. Toolboks. Chris j wood. StephenBuxton. Ori. Kekartopolis. Wolfpeaceful. MesserWoland. Angelicusmaximus. Pinnecco. StAnselm. Trovatore. J M Rice. Elonka. Jackollie. Jeremy68. Jokerst44. Animum. Spidern. Just Another Dan. Jdl32579.msc. Jimmy James. CambridgeBayWeather. Kaliz. Samuel Curtis. Bloomfield. Andy Marchbanks. PM GL PA. Horatio86. Teiladnam. WegianWarrior. Poppyfurkin. Jdhowens90. Timc. Silsor.xxx. Devaigergely. MJD86. Chtirrell. JillandJack. Nabokov. Rwcwalter. Fredf5. Barticus88. Hq3473. AuburnPilot. Pawyilee. Dushant. Kukini. Han Solar de Harmonics. Brendan Moody. Xorkl000. Deltascribe. Shabeky. Chrisfow. Millennium Sentinel. Morganfitzp. Mark83. CanisRufus. Freemasonry is permanently condemned. Rune. R Católico. Collector12. Scott Mingus. JordanITP. PenguinCDF. DDerby. Jacobolus. J S Ayer. VBGFscJUn3. Brian0814. Bali ultimate. Opponent. Aquizard. Jni. E Wing. Billlion. WhisperToMe. Kazrak. Boston. Jossi. Canderson7. Larry660. Cometstyles. Shell Kinney. Garkeith. Helloelan. Menchi. AllyUnion. Peter Ellis. Solitude. Shaxpeer. Paine Ellsworth. Dilvie. John61vermont. Brian Crawford. KnowledgeOfSelf. Erwan. Mboverload. Matusz. AnOddName. Newyorkchk. Rror. Lmateo002. Fvw. Ondenc. Onomonopod. RenniePet. Ping. Lacrimosus. Mysdaao. Iordanis 777. Bjarki S. Bohica1971. Lightmouse. DoubleEagle32. BudJJ. Amaurea. Prodego. Quuxplusone. Seisakusho. Garydave. Tony Sidaway. Augusta2. Warshy. ABF. ThriceGreat. Anibar E. JASpencer. R'n'B. Keolah. Marsman57. Jonathan Webley. Pseudomonas. Shirulashem. Moondyne. Jaques Lafraische. Cederlund. Bogdanb. Etr52. Adam Carr. Gwernol. Basil Rathbone. Mr-Thomas. Sam Spade. ElijahBosley. Btharper1221. Ptdecker. Lm 997. Deconstructhis. Michael Devore. JiriPragman. Jmh123. LapisExCoelis. Mike Rosoft. Can't sleep. Drilnoth. Thunderbird15. Diliff. Hardcore legend. Highvoltage81. Smith2006. Icairns. GazMan7. Silkccut. Glane23. Ergo-Nord. Val42. Nfgii. Carlossuarez46. Mason POV bias ruining this page. Apeloverage. Sjorford. Cate0012. Mister X. Darth Dalek. Michael Hardy. Expositor of truth. Big Smooth. Jaguar2898. Glst2. Arpingstone. Editor2020. Ted Longstaffe. Ryoung122. Blumpkin. Pmanderson. Phatom87. Jj137. Db7178. Baphin. Netscott. Hugh shakespeare. Nlegault. Branko. Lanternshine. Anietor. Antaeus Feldspar. Daniel Matheson. Rbrwr. Bobblewik. Biruitorul. Damicatz. AndrewJFulker. Evergreen1056. Nandesuka. Martin. Pitchka. Evercat. clown will eat me. Sonoiome. Magioladitis. Adashiel. Jpeob. John Carter. Adoniscik. Hut 8. The Brotherhood. Millenn. Sloth monkey.com. MightyWarrior. Kylers. Sparrowman980. FDR. Wimt. Starfoxy. Gravis187. Tarquin. Katecasares. Jarsyl. Dozing. Pre1mjr. Gryffindor. DLand. JeremyA. Gjd001. Crazyfurf. Harry Potter. DakotaDocMartin. Bkonrad. Conversion script. Jvano. Naipicnirp. Pmeisel. Keystrokes. Wandering Writer. EmilioSilva. 序名三. MisfitToys.k. Search4Lancer. Jros83. Thisisbossi. Epbr123. Ardenn. Starwars10. Juanvillalobos. Mu5ti. Catgut. Ortolan88. EEMIV. Fred. Steel. Funnyhat. Hntimmerman. Autiger. Bradeos Graphon. Bolognaking. Ataxerxes. Nakon. Lestervee. HappyCamper. Hadal. FaustX. Gmacnay. Patrick0Moran. Anthonyebert. VoluntarySlave. Antandrus. Mrasdf. JustinH. Ratman9999.nobles. Davinciscode. Nahallac Silverwinds. Ptr123. Aperiodic. Jvedral. AsaRoast. Rintrah. 4B54L0M. Black Falcon. J. Linuxbeak. P-nice. Avillia. Docboat. Grye. Touseefliaqat. Reddog7712. JaGa. PsyberS. StarlitGlitter. Oedipus X. Call of Duty. Kubigula. BjKa. Jdorwin. Rrburke. NormanBro. 999. Oskoreien. Cbrown1023. Goonmaster. Foreigner. CalefTex. CaribDigita. 50blues. Howard. Orinoco-w. King Vegita. Anna2005. Shreshth91. Skull 'n' Femurs. Mav. Lotje. Elipongo. SexyBern. John Vandenberg. Jon Cates. Prsephone1674. Moriori. WaynaQhapaq. VMHman. Савелий В А. Dazzla. ChronicallyUninspired. BeastRHIT. BlueTemplar13. LFaraone. MarmadukePercy. Johnyemes.5. Starghost. Agateller. Arthurchappell. Mhocker. Gbinal. Drigg. Mick Lynn BCL. Ojl. MeriwetherLewis. Novembre 19. Jnorbett. Felix Wiemann. CountZero. Jeff Darby. Insanity Incarnate. Ihcoyc. Moodeyes113. Reedy. Rsoutram. Brian0918. Ciotog. Licenses and Contributors . MerlynWiki. 5ko. Madotobunchi. Specialthings. Martin451. Internette.wikipedia. Laurinavicius. Mycroft. Olegwiki. Medupin. Ambanmba. Jeni. Darrien. Tannalein. Clionescu. Neverquick. Santa Sangre. Targetonmyback. Wlush2. Danielhorner@mail. UNBESIEGBAR. Mrbartjens. El C. Systemworks. NawlinWiki. Sannse. Misza13. Eo. Tangotango. Eduardo Cuellar. Wayne Slam. Sam Korn. Beyahhaahaha. T. Jezzabr.tk. Bedford. Nsbendel. AnnaFrance. Visorman.173. Sunday Service. LouI. RyanCross. Teapotgeorge. JohnPritchard.Wicks. Trevor W. KillerChihuahua. Peter Harding-Roberts. Apsenoj. HairyDan. KrazyCaley. Mamalujo. Jennavecia. Slrubenstein. Benne. MikeEstes. Grandia01. Lapinmies. SarekOfVulcan. Supercoop. JohnSawyer.J. Yamakiri. Chadkeffer. Cyan. Limonns. Brandonstefanik. Kinneyboy90. Mattis. SAWgunner. Ortale. Scoutersig. Bryan Derksen. Yodamaster1. Curps. Cflm001. Cygnis insignis.164. Ground Zero. Bsktcase. Maltos. Goyston. 66. Bolton TI. H2onE2. A Man In Black. JJKotalik. Jcoffland. Donreed. QueenofBattle. Ronline. MSJapan. KamuiShirou.org/w/index. Secfan. Moncrief. Druff. Crocodilicus. Nstott. Scaper8.blocked). Harryboyles. Atlant. 2D. Necrothesp.welsh. Bigjimr. Axl. PrestonH. Lihaas. La Pianista. Perfecto.thomson. Mrpatx. Mista-X. WadeSimMiser. Ed Fitzgerald. Discospinster. DavidH. Bcrowell. Belgarath TS.V. Ian. MER-C. OregonMason. Karlthegreat. The Truthish. AngelOfSadness. Grumpyrob. Scriberius. Katanada. MikeOrrJ. Epachamo. Wtwilson3. GlassFET. Zpearson. Funetikahl. Pail. Harrypotter. Matthewrobinson. Lapsed Pacifist. Altenmann. Iani. Morven. Randomperson101. Gifts of knowledge. Rickard Vogelberg. Adam78. Error. Wandering canadian. Neilc. JFPerry. CesarB. Ikh. Struthious Bandersnatch. Squaredeal. CJames745.A. Localzuk. SuperTyphoon. Toddas. Empirecontact. Setanta747 (locked). Hiberniantears. Jacek Kendysz. Bucinka. Lexicon. Cimon Avaro. Keilana. Tomcully. Master of Puppets. SCFilm29. Jeff Herman. Mani1. MichaelTinkler. Elassint. Dppowell. Stormbay. Draicone. MPerel.varadi. Notcarlos. Wikiklrsc. Sc147. Hmains. Blogbby. NuclearWarfare. Tony1. Worenklein.92. Loremaster. Naidim. Rodondo1. Canton Viaduct. Areopagiticus. Doovinator. Joriki. Twin Bird. MarkSutton. Sdgjake. D. Gabbe. Nufy8. Fredb. Fantabulosa time of your life. Alphachimp. Djkimmons. Haukurth. Howardisshort496. Garethfoot. Fubar Obfusco. Uogl. ParisianBlade. Skizzik. Aesha. Comicsubversion. Franzeska. Thingg. Beginning. Dave Andrew.e. Delldot. Pakaran. Socrates42. Theaterfreak64. Maurice Carbonaro. JForget. Adam bones. Pinkadelica. Pvosta.php?oldid=416159002  Contributors: -Kerplunk-. Joelholdsworth. Infinitysnake. Escaper7. Quintote. Graham87. B. Tom. Not a Banned Editor. Triton Rocker. Surturz.delanoy. Partyboyj911. Alexmb. Matthew Stannard. ZepherG. Closedmouth. Popefauvexxiii. Connolley. Wingover. Pollinator. Devildave. Secretsqurl. Cartoon Boy. MS Japan. Bwt757171.xxx. Werdan7. Joffeloff. Lucian Sunday. Rick Davis. Valerius Tygart. Tktru. Tazio Ratnayeke. Scout32. Joshua BishopRoby. Philistineembassy. Street Scholar. Amniarix. Jack1956. Noname32. Bwilliams. CIreland. SeraphimXI. Jmlk17. Jenda. Gruesome.128. Ahawaiiguy. Cc21002. Mark K. Dominic. Downzero. Melchoir. Dryfoo. Ucypanp. Vaughan Pratt. Jensen. Moly. Magicalpath. Vitruvius. Gigemag76. Amicuspublilius. Generic Character. Peter M Dodge. Edwy. Stephan Leeds. Rsmelt. Abdunnafi. Gershom. Johann Wolfgang. Kingstonp. AnotherObserver. Angela. Ђорђе Д. COGDEN. Frater Xyzzy. Sesmith. Jdlh. Alex AITM. Steve Dufour. Pgk. Bobbyciraldo. Elmer Clark. Clintp. Tothebarricades.Monniaux. Lottamiata. Jake1982. Kyle Barbour. Martin Jackson Eldridge. Tom harrison. Leonardo212. JDoorjam. User2004. Hzan. VQHernandez. Buck Mulligan. Kross. Maxim. Vacio. Violetriga. Perfect Proposal. Божовић. XDev. Jake the wiki. Tirral. MetsFan76. Clarknova. BonanzaforLightbringer. Paddyez. Crobichaud. Fyodor Dos. Wiki-maann. EJSawyer. Finlander. Funky Monkey. Ffirehorse.Article Sources and Contributors 19 Article Sources and Contributors Freemasonry  Source: http://en. Baldrick's Mum. Craigy144. Loki33. Kafziel. Healthy eating.

Christophe Dioux.jpg  Source: http://en.hall.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.hall.5  Contributors: user:MesserWoland Image:Goose and Gridiron..0  Contributors: User:Peter Ellis Image:Square and compasses2.php?title=File:Freemasons.org/w/index.wikipedia.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Calibas at en.wikipedia File:Masonic Register 1876.JPG  Source: http://en. Licenses and Contributors Image:Square compasses.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.wikipedia.as.php?title=File:Square_and_compasses2.london.php?title=File:Square_compasses. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Adrian Pingstone File:NIRMAS_plaque_Lodge_Gundagai_United_1991.arp.wikipedia.org/w/index. Original uploader was Nabokov at en. 1 anonymous edits File:Room at Masonic Hall Bury St Edmunds Suffolk England.org/w/index. 0/ ..svg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:Goose_and_Gridiron.org/w/index.750pix.wikipedia.jpg  Source: http://en.org/w/index. Cincinnati. Baronnet.arp. Cincinnati.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: BLueFiSH.wikipedia.org/w/index. Image:Freimaurer Initiation.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Nabokov.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.php?title=File:Freimaurer_Initiation..php?title=File:Room_at_Masonic_Hall_Bury_St_Edmunds_Suffolk_England. Ohio. Strobridge & Co.jpg  Source: http://en.london.org/w/index.wikipedia 20 License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.wikipedia.org/w/index.jpg  Source: http://en. Liberal Freemason.JPG  Source: http://en. Grye.wikipedia.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons.org/w/index. Publishers.php?title=File:NIRMAS_plaque_Lodge_Gundagai_United_1991. Jones & Co.wikipedia.JPG  Source: http://en.php?title=File:Masonic_Register_1876. Ohio.php?title=File:Forgetmenotflower.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown Image:freemasons. Lith.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: W.Image Sources.750pix.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Liberal Freemason Image:Forgetmenotflower.