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OF THE AND RESULTS HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM. BY JAMES HAMILTON. PRINCIPLES. Price Sixpence. .HISTORY. PRACTICE.
A LECTURE DELIVERED AT LIVERPOOL AND . CONDON: PUBLISHED BY AND FOR W.THE HISTORY. WHERE ALL MR. BY JAMES HAMILTON. AYLOTT AND CO.. WITH ANSWERS TO THE EDINBURGH AND WESTMINSTER REVIEWS. OF THE AND BESULTS HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM. HAMILTON'S PUBLICATIONS . PATERNOSTER ROW. MAY BE HAD. PBINCIPLES. PEACTICE. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE USE OF THE BOOKS PUBLISHED ON THE SYSTEM. 8.
as a teacher of the German language. " Well I shall I you can teach me a language without grammar.000 banco marks. that I was afraid I was so could not bend it never put a if my mind to the study of grammar. of which he translated one for word. The next morning the General arrived with a book of anecdotes in German. who had been several years trian service. I he proceeded . and was a little piqued at the idea of being told by a military gentleman how a language should be taught. I shall be glad to see you to-morrow morning. and was well acquainted with the best authors in French and English (having re- sided inFrance nearly three years before the Revolution).OV THE TJIUTIRSITT HAMILTONIAN SYSTEM. being established as a merchant in Hamburg. a friend recommended to me strongly. a General D'Angeli. so that. when he had translated and understood it as well as so much A 2 . where I had purchased a house in the Neuen Burg for 48. I knew some Greek." I had studied the Latin for several years. &c. profit filled in the Austo. grammar into your hands But sir. parsing as for me nearly word ended. I considered myself somewhat of a linguist. IN the year 1798. a French emigre. and had been made free of the city. I told the General I should be glad by his talents - y but unfortunately " I" with business.
except that he did not parse was unnecessary for boys who had for many years studied the Latin grammar) 5 but while I took lessons in German. the school of two ancient Jesuits. had established a school in Dublin. . This is the origin of the Hamiltonian System : I then thought as little of becom- ing a teacher as I do now of flying . neral D'Angeli. could read an easy German book and about that time occasion to go to Leipsic and having other parts of Germany. on the disso- by Ganganelli. twenty or txyentj^-five lines of Horace or Virgil every day. . in conjunction with the banking-house ofKarcher and Co. for the lution of their order higher classes. not as an Englishman.French or English. Messrs. I did considerable business with England during the peace of Amiens. Beatty and Mulmen of great talents and learning. should have. I continued my lesson.. and learned thus five or six short anecdotes . but I was amateur of languages enough to appreciate my obligations to Gehere. that if our masters had from the beginning thus translated for their geli translated the (it pupils not twenty lines but several pages. . every day. and thus acquired a tolerable facility in speaking and reading the language. Four years afterwards. at which I remained four years. who. and think it but justice to record them I then recollected something of the same kind at hall. I established a house in Paris. it has occurred to me. I confess I remained astounded at the result but not being able to doubt it. I took care to lodge at German when found houses. It was the custom of one of these gentlemen to translate. learned Latin in a tenth part of the time we we had spent at it. I On T this plan I received about a dozen lessons. in an hour. and often since. in the same manner that General D'An- German. but as a citizen of Hamburg and.
inscribed on it but as a natifof England. of which I thought I knew more This project I put in execution the following year. three days which I it having retraced in that time a journey had taken me three weeks to perform. to go to the United States. I was detained during the war. but the commercial world was then so totally changed. I turned impossible. In 1814. had in France. 1815. how I should be able to bear a frost of four months. during which the ground would be covered with snow. at seven o'clock in the morning in October. that of war. therefore. must become an apprentice . In this state I reflected. of Hamburg in my favour. as I passed through the woods. children and on others. and become a farmer and ma- than the Americans. bravely yielding my horse's head about. I was made pri- soner.At the rupture of the treaty of Amiens. 250 miles to the north-west of New York. had efface : de laliste des prisonniers de guerre/' as a citizen of Hamburg. The cold was severe. and had actually agreed for a small farm. I determined. to the utter astonishment of my sented to me. nufacturer of potash. and the cold much more intense ? I considered it to this impression. that I found to do business again I . though to no great extent. arrived in New York. the new and ideas I had conceived as to teaching the languages . I was then forty-five it was too late. and my name should be effaced from the list of prisoners " my Passport. tried on my own . to the ruin of my business inHam- burg and in Paris. or Carte de Surete. and the pain in both my feet intolerable. that and halted not till afterwards ! we were within I guide. who in vain reprea mile of the farm . 1 revisitedEngland and Holland. and. for my amusement. and was on horseback on my way to see it. notwithstanding the representations of the senate All they could obtain was.
instead of and secondly. Mr. that I gave the details of it in the papers of the day which -. but as a pis-aller. to .was no farmer. in the midst of the ennui and fever of my voyage to New as I York. and thought it at least possible I might not succeed in that business. who so much approved of it. I taught my pupils to . to try the experiment of it. however. indeed. produced so favourable an impression on the public mind. began to think The progress of my pupils was. that my whole time was soon engaged. There was. This was the plan I resolved now to exe- cute for the winter. together with Judge Van Ness. I had determined. that he became himself with his two sons my first pupils at : the same time I taught two other clergymen . although two important principles formed the best possible foundation for one. and all three. Preparatory to this I wrote an Essay on the usual mode of teaching the languages. nothing then that could be called a system. at a dollar a lesson for each person. Feltus. of the Protestant Episcopal Church. in which I explained the ideas I had myself on the subject . / taught. till something better offered. ordering to learn . myself so astonished and delighted at the progress made by these gentlemen. I submitted it to the inspection of the Rev. nothing equal what I have since produced but it was indubitably greater than had ever been effected on the common plan. indeed. in case of need . not as any thing permanent. of the district I was. and I teaching a better trade than farming. promising myself in the spring to set out afresh on my farming expedition. and while I acknowledged I had never given a lesson for money. court. Having finished my manuscript. I stated my confi- dence in the success of the mode of teaching which I proposed. particularly the last. gave me the most flattering testimonials.
I The grammar was incomprehensinumber of my pupils.making them get a grammar had tried to parse also. imagined that the system did really . which lasted from the beginning of February till June. ble parts of which I gave them a copy and from this period my pupils read at their own home. out-heroding Herod. first after . but I found this would translate at once. but particularly the verbs. they found an easy task. My pupils read French with facility and pleasure in twenty. but with this essential difference. instead of heart. ble at this period to the greater : of speech. and changes of the other declinado only with linguists. they were content with their progress. I took no class through the course. and with their progress proclaimed the fame of my system wherever they went. of two hours each they had then no keys. as they had me% in their reading all the inflections of the verbs. who paid me twenty-four dollars each for half a course. They read the English Gospel of St. many teachers. as well as translate.four lessons. But in America as well as England. which they translation afterwards wrote and in the correcting of which I gave me. John into French. I had thus. I therefore deferred it till they had taken half the course by that time. my translation into French was a free in simple but correct language. in the first year. and in class learned the use of the words they had acquired in reading. in precisely the : them the details of the principles or rules of grammar. During the first campaign. and thus taught them to write and speak correctly. : about seventy pupils. first to translate same manner as I had taught them French into English. thousands of times. I then gave them two or three grammar lectures on grammar generally. and which confirmed me a teacher for life. by as D'Angeli had done with rne.
far less by facts. a class of gentlemen went through the whole course triumphantly. of Dumarsais and his followers. of Clarke. A second winter in the New York proved still more successful than first besides the number who took twelve or twentyfour lessons. and consequently taught the grammar of the language with every word I taught my pupil forming thus a THIRD PRINCIPLE of the system. proceeded thence to Philadelphia. a mere mechanical process . for no translation mode . fancied they should get the language infallibly. in September. where my reception was still more flattering than in New York. or that it did all I professed in every instance come like and that teaching would hereafter bethat weaving. . I first perceived . persons who seemed to be of this opinion. or from those French teachers who considered me : an intruder on their profession. and who. and realized the utmost success I had ever predicted. as many by in England yet do. a principle which it is : inconceivable should have escaped the genius of Milton. languages might be obtained not only without study. neither attending nor studying. speaking and writing the French with nearly as much I facility as English.8 more than I professed. and where.that in translating I ANALYZED. because they had paid their subscription. all of whom tional whom eulogized literal translations as the only raof acquiring a language. by the discussions which took place. the ruin of their establishments the introduction of the system into schools generally 5 and though they did not come forward openly to oppose it by arguments. yet did they see with tirades of abuse pleasure the virulent attacks of anonymous writers. But teachers dreaded there. but not one of ever translated one line literally. but even without attending the class* I have had in all my classes since. of Locke.
have disgraced the system and themselves. but which are not analytical. not perfectly and selfishness in thus keeping till guiltless of illiberality my system to myself. provided he be willing to do as much but many pretended Ham iltonian teachers .can justly be called difference all literal which is not analytical. and will for ever fail. no books my system rested wholly with myself and as few men possessed such a knowledge as I did of word of either of . I found as much facility in teaching 100 persons after arrival in I -. and even mischievous. at this failed. supposing a moderate degree of attention. my England. and here my mode of teaching began to assume the character as well as the name of a system . as has been triumphantly proved in England. at all times A3 . lations professedly on the system of Locke not one which can be relied on by the pupil as the precise meaning of the word above it have equally I had. such a reunion and combination of certain fixed fundamental principles. by effecting much less than they promised. In Philadelphia I delivered my first lecture. Here. in order that be without a rival in teaching for on my might system. few or none could rival me. as well as the trans. . the English and French languages (which latter I prinI felt this. cipally taught). I first asserted that the words of all languages have. with few positive results. however. perhaps. This was the sole reason why the translations of these authors have been found inefficient. some time (which I often did) as a class of half a dozen but with books any man could do as much as I. time. and have therefore been justly scouted from the schools of all countries and for this reason it is that the translations lately made. by which I mean. as may enable the teacher to produce certain and from every pupil. professedly Hamiltonian. and was.
reunion of them dividual in a class so constructed. constituted a SIXTH and last principle more important than To distinguish it from other soi-disant all the others. and in all places . with an analytical key. thus conand. I first made the distinction between accent and pronunciation.10 exceptions. the l former the tone or song with which we speak . and the public have confirmed the appellation. John in French. but all accent as far as it goes is a vice . only when it degenerates into brogue. the identically the same. and vice versa. infallible cer- In all my classes I have demonstrated the tainty of acquiring a correct pronunciation. and where number added to the interest and pleasure of the lesson. in which one man could many as could hear him. with few exceptions. when taught. the former is incommunicable $ the latter may be perfect with every accent. Here. however. man to latter being a distinct articulate utterance. so generally confounded. The system. that the latter can be communicated to any person. and should be translated generally by the same word. systems. wanted only books I : printed in Philadelphia the first three chapters of the Gospel of St. that each in- member should be an assistance rather than an teach as incumbrance to every other. by being taught in class by a person possessing himself a correct pronunciation. I pro- . I thought myself justified in calling it Hamil- tonian. simple : it must be as easy for an Englishpronounce French as English. which should stand for its representative at all times. of importance. to be perfect. from which I found immense $ relief to benefit to the pupil and after myself as well as remaining a year. that the stituting a FOURTH principle sounds of all languages being. The reunion of these different principles justified the title of system by their results but the -. one meaning only. FIFTHLY.
the extraordinary pressure wretched state of my health from excessive labour and the heat of the climate. the Hamiltonian school sixty. the yellow fever. that is. above all. who. but who. during which the Hamiltonian System was fully discussed in its theory and results. with such comments on the play and actors. I had no difficulty in procuring a ticket 3 arid using the privilege of a spectator. while. ployed. where the fame of my system had already preceded me. and contrasted so successfully with the systems of the schools. which. three days afterwards I gave the play at full length in one of the newspapers. to occupy the leisure of my wife and daughters I had just taken about twenty children. effected wonders. The President replied with great virulence thence a 5 paper war which lasted three months. school to the teachers obliged me to give up my whom I had emhow fall. not having a single pupil. As they made no secret of their intention. and enabled me to form immediately numerous classes. After teaching here about six months adult pupils. knew not it. unhappily. when I was attacked by the Professors of Baltimore College. and.11 ceeded to Baltimore. I fear not to say. had increased to above one hundred and This school. that the College was obliged to close its doors. endeavoured to ridicule the New Mode of teaching. each occupying a separate room. which counted nearly twenty teachers. when applied to schools. as'raised a good deal of laughter at the expense of the author. all this which made its appearance about July. and suffered it shortly afterwards to to conduct . in a play represented by their pupils. added to an on commerce that year. anaThe want of them caused me enor- mous expense and enormous labour. in the same time. though it wanted an indispensable part of the system lytical translations.
four pupils. My answer created a considerable sensation in town. I left Boston only in June. On the appointed day the Professor did not come.12 went on to Washington. Secretary of the Treasury. During the examination (in which I took myself no part) they repeatedly expressed their admiration of the accuracy of the translation. but seven gentlemen of acknowledged erudition and respectability. They each gave me next day a distinct testimony. offering my system and my lessons in vain . to Mr. I invited the writer and his friends to come to my apartments on of a charlatan. to the merits of the system. and examined my pupils most minutely. among others. to offer investigation of I my I dicovery to the countrymen. my with which I acknowledge I was much pleased. and treated I my pretensions as those had the day before begun to teach In answer to this attack. and the correctness of their pronunciation. tl\ence proceeded to Boston. convince themselves whether I was or not the person he was pleased to represent me. whose two sons I taught. couched in the strongest language. for I was I $ . and who furnished me with letters to the American Ambassador in London as did several others. determined. did come. and obtained by them not less than two hundred pupils. where healthful air and idleness soon gave me strength to lecture and where I of the got introduced to most of the principal men Federal Government. where my remained for five weeks. These testimonies I published. sooner or later. by their own examination of my pupils. among whom an ex-governor of the State and one or two judges. Crawford. when the heat became . and the result became the object of general interest. and. I could obtain no pupils* At length a celebrated Unitarian Preacher and Professor of the University attacked my advertisement. first class. and. that day fortnight.
where I obtained above three hundred pupils. . I began by articulating . after passing some weeks at Balstown. passed in the States as also the colleges of Schenectady. I gave them all children's only books of the same kind. be- it to pursue this history in the United Kingduring the last five years. let me be permitted to mention a circumstance which occurred in Montreal. dom I had among my pupils the gaoler. I made all the others spell. where the students only attended." &c. seven of these persons knew more or less of readone ing or spelling. word by word. into a class. though some of them very little knew not one letter. In 1822 I went to Montreal. ber of the students. I returned to "Philadel- phia in winter. I visited a great of towns in the interior during the summers I . and succeeded tolerably well ended. where I Princeton. number Besides the places I have mentioned. fore I quit And thus my career in America. in both places. and Middleburg counted as my pupils. not only a very considerable num-. and placing the wholly ignorant of . by whose invitation others. among lishmen confined for different offences. "The cat loves mice 3" " John is a good boy. with the exception of Yale College.13 intolerable j and visiting and. But. man last of the class at my left hand. a sentence composed of words familiar to the pupils. All had imagined the system mere charlatanerie . eight I visited the gaol there were. Yale. which contrasted strongly with their pre-conceived opinions. and thence to Quebec. as. These I Engformed and determined to try on them the effects my system in teaching the English their own language . all recognised its merits before I departed. some other places. &c. but also the professors. in July 1823. Hartford. I experienced in all a degree of liberality.
14 audibly T H E the : the first member at my right E the. schoolmaster of Salford. while I conrepeated in the same tone T H tinued to point 'to each letter as it was pronounced. he repeated with which was read by each member of the to class it till it came : my left hand pupil. with a pleasure and in- terest to pupil and teacher. having called to see them end often days. in any part of the Testament ! I have made many efforts since that . . with few exceptions. and one or two not more than five or six years old. and have been assured. I Manchester. and perfectly acquired in about three-quarters of an hour. met with almost uni- form opposition. gave them one lesson. time to introduce this plan into schools but. I then gave one of the prisoners mising him at the full directions for half a dollar a week . has also introduced it into his school. and has enabled a letter. that. contrasting most strongly with the labour and disgust incident to both on the com- mon plan. prohe exe- cuted so successfully. Andrews. All were wholly ignorant of their letters. to class of very small children. to the pupil on the left hand when the word had come : facility and pleasure. and this task proceeding. five Lately. however. Philip's Church Sunday School. a enter the Testament reading class. they were found fit to Mr. at St. I read the whole phrase. who also read with facility four short phrases were thus read. at the end of about twelve lessons. round to him. I found my pupil could read. E the! Thus did we pointing to the letters T H with each word in succession and after spelling all the words in the same manner. that. . it has. strange to tell. I began a class of children. not knowing one facility in read English with tolerable about two months. with facility and perfect understanding.
I here again offer my gratuitous services to every Institution willing to adopt the system. It will be re- membered what an outcry was caused by ments I ? : my advertise- but wherefore ? Many. without arduous labour or unnecessary delay : above all. arithmetic. that my advertisements had an air of truth that falsehood . with the fullest success* and always to the delight of the pupil always pleased with instruction when he can obtain it and. This history of my success in the United States. in the mine offered of the reader. that J alone appeared to be serious in what I advanced .. as tc promise enable any honest and well-informed teacher to do as though I much as I profess being able to do myself. whether for children or adults whether for English or other languages . and whose unanimous appro bation had doubtless a little inflated a naturally enthusiastic imagination. with a just regard . in any or all its parts. was abused as a quack or impostor ? The reason is. as a test of the truth of what I advanced - } that tna no other man had ever thus come forward. . when it is intelligible. I appeal could.15 Thus tion in plied it is all the Hamiltonian System applicable to educaits parts. and do not engage to work long for nothing. to the result of a feMi and lessons. In my school in Baltimore. to justify the confidence with which 1 my system to the British public. were those line ol gentlemen supposed to be acting in the right their profession. was necessary. I ap- to writing. yet 1 that my instructions shall be so clear. did not others profess to do as no doubt. never can put on that I appealed to almost instantaneous facts and personal experience. every day. for saying the same thing. of all professions. then.. Why. perhaps. whether I to the candid reader. while I. when I counted among my pupils many of the first men in the country. and geography.
it needed the support : of its veteran defenders. and thus was the public imposed on in many instances this. The result was a success beyond what I had ever before experienced. though I have not men- tioned them in this history. as mischievous as the leaving my school in Baltimore .16 to truth. six had above . to abstain from angry repliseven other teachers with myself. repeatedly and kindly pressed on me. One of the quit London faults. German. cation to prejudiced schoolmasters. Latin. Three months afterwards. as to . but one of the many faults I which doubtless have made. many of the first families in the kingdom. who had become my pupil and my friend. and whose advice. at a time when. French. was to the reasons for this have no connection with this history : . for. among them. however. to the public at large. however. though I left my establishment in London I in the hands of persons capable of effecting all had ever professed to do. have said less than I did at that time . at this time the greatest. His Excellency did the honour to acknowledge my letters by a visit at me my house in Cecil-street. I had brought to London above thirty letters of recommennot even those to the dation. did the system much mischief. and Italian) and. so that I was obliged to employ In eighteen months I hundred pupils for the different languages (Greek. yet others also took up the system who knew it not. I handed three of them to his Secretary. together with the knowledge that I was no longer in London. whether I have not since fully and honourably redeemed every pledge I have given. still more boldly. I heartily wish I had This is. followed. assailed on all sides by other teachers frightened at its success. and I appeal. but I used none of them American Ambassador. With the like success. and perhaps it was.
and at least twenty other places. where the memtion. effecting everywhere the utmost I had ever professed in the first three taught Belfast. j $ taught by sections. that my private classes rarely consist of more than from The members being bound only for ten it usually happens that from ill health. may who may remedy the inconvenience be of use for the government of other teachers.. It .17 the number and respectability of my pupils. or one section. five. infalin business are whole course. when they are six to twelve. bers have no more communication than if in church. yet these are usually the smaller part of Many of the members being . for all which had published analytical translations but not often going farther. who libly succeed. &c. Dublin. I have since Manchester. in Liverpool. I have engaged to teach the attend faithfully. one or two drop off at the end of the first as many at the end of the second and so on till the class is too small to attend without loss. in my justification I think it necessary to enter into some details relative to the formation and conduct of my classes. sections of my course that is. . the Recueil Choisi j . to which the rules I have prescribed to myself (and not the system) have I teach adults only and as I find it as subjected me. rin I . and. business. though the class. the in the second. When all. is. in the third. lessons. For this many reasons may beassigned and as I have often been blamed for it. as well as the interest of the pupil. John . my interest. by enabling the pupil to read and analytically to translate. to teach one hundred persons in a class as four or easy . chiefly from the fear of misassociaa thing impossible in my classes. the Fables of PerGospel of St. Edinburgh. in the first section. that I should form large classes. But to this there are so many obstacles. The same thing happens in my public classes.
but if. Hamiltonian System has nothing to do with But the this. others If the teacher were not subclass. for the reasons abovementioned. Its author. longer than is necesssary to form classes. has been able to do. become members of classes. he be restricted to twenty more to enable him to write and speak. in pupil . or German language. the pupil will not have attained the desired degree of proficiency at the end of the course. and that the pupil omit to attend one-half of them. fulfil the utmost wish of the but then the resident teacher must not confine . it is evident that. from reading out of jected to teach the language in the smallest possible number of lessons. and I leave no place without . Now. waiting to see the result of the system in the first and second sections. the non-attendance of the pupil for a lesson or ten lessons would be a trifle . The resident teacher will. that is to say.18 frequently prevented from attending the class. formed often when I have already spent half the time I intend stopping in any place all these persons complain bitterly of my departure. it follows that all who neglect to take the lessons of the course are without remedy. and much more desirous that others obliged to travel should obtain scholars than himself. is but the Hamiltonian Teacher who . leaving behind me many of both descriptions. without any fault in the system. wishing to make it known. as I have hitherto made it a rule not to stop longer than five or six months in any place. Italian. and to perfect those who choose to join them at first. as well as those who. every instance. having taught him to read in thirty lessons the French. and to go through the course. and will therefore do more to satisfy his pupils than the author of the system. wishing to see its adoption by other teachers. remains fixed in one place will not have these inconveniences.
himself absolutely to a fixed number of lessons for a He must permit the member, who has not been class.
able to attend, to obtain extra lessons on paying for them, which the author of the system has never been
able to do.
of his pupils
have complained, but which he has been obliged to persist in, from the rule prescribed to himself, never to take
course or section
a pupil than the public subscription to the never to afford one pupil an advantage ;
great, in any of They think that,
which all did not possess. But the mischief is by no means so
these cases, as
not having been perfected, what they have got is worth they have, however, got what no pupil ever got, in any length of time, on the common plan they can
translate with a degree of accuracy, which no teacher, on the common plan, has ever approached; they analyse
they read, and thus in
they have a
correct pronunciation ; they possess, in fact, all that is to perfect themselves, and they have already necessary
obtained more than
ever obtained on the
and take the
opportunity that presents manuscript,
I perceive I
In reading over
sufficiently described the
latter sections. I
at the beginning of the third section I lecture on grammar generally, particularly the verbs, in which the pupil
exercised during the whole of the third section
voting half of each lesson to this, and the other half to reading. By the exercises on the verbs, I mean orally
teaching them to use with facility, affirmatively, negaand interrogatively, the regular verbs, and about
a dozen others which are of
has not been
ently attended to, or at least not been continued long enough, in my classes hitherto, from a too great confidence in the attention of the classes to know their verbs
perfectly, at a
when they can
obtain a perfect
knowledge of them with so little trouble. The teacher must trust nothing, absolutely nothing, to the pupil, whether boy or adult. . In three classes which I have now in Manchester, after reading for some days the English Testament into
French, I returned to these oral exercises in the use of the verbs and the result has been singularly successful.
has restored confidence to several
who having never
read except in class, were
consequently fearful that, according to my repeated predictions, they would not be able to speak, and has into reading, while, in the time, they use with delight, in writing and speaking, the words of which they have already, by these exercises, obtained a perfect command.
duced them to apply again
Let, I say, these exercises be continued faithfully to
the end of the third section, and four or five lessons of the fourth. At the fifth lesson of the fourth section, I
begin to translate the English Gospel of St. John into pure French simple but correct language. One of the
pupils repeats the phrase as I have given it, arid thus it is repeated four or five times, more or less, until perfectly
a understood by every member of the class is then read in the same manner, diminish:
number of repetitions as the task becomes more easy, until at length, at the third or fourth lesson, it is found that one repetition is sufficient. Of what is thus
read in class, four or five verses are written by the pupil out of class, and brought as an exercise, in the correction of which the teacher points out the faults he
21 have made, and the mode of avoiding them in future, It with the general rules and principles of grammar.
be usually found, that, at the end of six or eight exercises of this kind, he will make no more faults in
grammar. The pupil continues to read the English Testament in the manner above described, until he can
alone without the assistance of his teacher
inuing daily to present some exercise in French, as a commercial or friendly letter or anecdote, till his style be free from Anglicisms, which are the last faults which disappear, and which reading alone can perfectly conquer. To read French at sight with as much facility as English,
to write a friendly or commercial letter correctly to speak with correctness, though not at readily,
the usual degree of facility and acquire in this language ; a knowknowledge ledge, as I have elsewhere remarked, certainly susceptible of extent and accuracy, but much more than has ever
yet been communicated in any length of time on the common system ; indeed, as much as one man can comsocial
municate to another, and, certainly, sufficient for any and this knowledge and commercial purpose
the pupil is immediately able to communicate to another, while it is acquired in so short time, with so much certainty,
and with so
an expense of labour and mo-
ney, that surely no man or woman, acquainted with the existence of the system, will neglect to profit by it.
fact is too
system, to be omitted here.
Cecil-street, private classes were attended in different One of my partners met a class at parts of the town. the house of Mr. John Smith, M.P. This gentleman was
so delighted with the system, that he conceived the idea
of rendering it the national mode of instruction, and of For founding a University for the propagation of it?
was judged necessary to authenticate the
progress of a class of boy's in the Latin language
communicating with me on the subject, he very nobly subscribed one hundred pounds towards the expense of
Several of his friends also subscribed, so it. that 58225. were collected to defray the expense of the experiment, which was confided to me. I had so Jittle doubt of producing the utmost result that the wildest imagination could suppose possible in human beings, that my The fear sole care was to authenticate their progress.
that the public might suppose the success a delusion, deprived me of that judgment and reflection so neces-
sary for its success. I had just given up my establishment in Cecil-street to my son-in-law, Mr. UNDERWOOD; and it was feared that the reception of ten charity boys
into the house
might injure the establishment. I therefore took a house in Gower-street, by which I incurred
a loss of above
300. But the great mistake was, to the experiment of a foreign language on boys who little or nothing of their own they were taken
from an obscure charity school
from the very lowest of human beings knew no language further grade they than the expression of their physical wants or childish pleasures they could scarcely read their Testament they had never read any thing else. I know not how I could be blind enough not to see the impossibility of
teaching such children (from ten to thirteen years of age) Latin, without first teaching them English or how Mr.
Smith himself, and those gentlemen who assisted
examination of these boys before the experiment began, and who fully authenticated their almost total destitution
of either words or ideas in their
language, did not
with a hope of exand thus ren- dering their acquirement of another to any extentpossible. then arose the insurmountable difficulty of communicating the knowledge of new ones and here. . they could comprehend them also them a but when we got beyond the Testament. it was necessary with the Latin word to teach in that language . so far the system operated on them to its utmost extent. which the present plan : . let it be said. the idea a task impossible to perform which they represented . I doubt not. that I made them read English every tending their knowledge in that language. As they understood the greater part of the words of the Testament. and.23 reflect on the utter impossibility of communicating to greater knowledge of Latin than they possessed of English. and. But this consumed the time allowed for the experiment . and in two months made them know of these two : languages as much. en passant. the Epitome of the Historia Sacra. Nepos or Caesar's Commentaries. and the expression of ideas to which their previous ignorance rendered them total strangers. translate it with perfect grammatical accuracy and a correct pronunciation. with both. that they could understand an easy author in either. when these words were turned into Latin for them. John. and the impossibility of which became so evident after they had gone through the Gospel of St. into a language more elevated. is another most formidable difficulty. have sufficed but for one or two other languages in the same time when their English words were exhausted. So far as their knowledge of English went. therefore. than they knew of Latin that is. and the De Viris Illustribus of Aurelius Victor. I turned their attention to the French and Italian languages. or more. simultaneously to any extent. and would. in order that it should not wholly fail. to Cornelius the pupil also the English word. day.
who when they were first May in placed under Mr. still of above workman of six They appeared to consider me as a mere Hurt with a treatment which I think. which can communicate to him neither words It is not. that But another the result is such as we see it every day. . possessed no other instruction common reading and writing. The account given of this examination was as then thought. harmony who induced me arose. the boy is put to study the English or Latin grammar. between to undertake it the gentlemen and myself: they saw me not its full they imagined they had paid for the experiment value. instead of making him begin by in reading a considerable number of easy English authors. They were obtained from a common country school. No" Hamiltonian vember 16th. and months I left follows : Extract from the Morning Chronicle of Wednesday. Hamilton since some time in the month of last. attended this ill-fated experiment a want of difficulty nor ideas. for example. I know not how. while I knew that it occasioned me a loss 500.24 of teaching the Latin opposes to the progress of the pupil common schools. with a view to ascertain the efficacy of his system communicating a knowledge of languages. who takes an active part in pro- . to be wondered at. 1825. as well as a knowledge of his own language. I did not merit. at the end town and the examination of the pupils to the gentlemen who had proposed the experiment. such. all of them between the ages of twelve and fourteen. through the interposition than of a Member of Parliament. as those published by the Society for Education in Ireland. yesterSystem. are the children of poor people. Hamilton. and thus giving him a fund of in- formation and ideas. These eight lads. We day were present at an examination of eight lads who have been under Mr. therefore. in the business.
cannot but think the success has been complete.stating them. Esq. The lads selected for the experiment were parish boys of the most R . boys to the utmost. M. selected by the visitors. and of Caesar's Commentaries. the natural of acquiring language. . even in their third or fourth year and proved that the prin. M. &c. upon the whole. Mill.. not by the cleverness of the boys. from the laudable fear of over. &c. when they have already attained a certain familiarity with any language. and . mode " The same experiments were repeated in French and Italian with the same success and. Cowell. in Latin. French. John Smith. The translation was executed with an ease which it would be in vain to expect in any of the boys who attend our common schools. we . They first read different ." On this statement the Edinburgh Review thus remarks: " Into the truth of this statement we have personally in- quired. Smith. and and yesterday they were examined by se. and only employs the boys in analysing. among whom we . had given them a great familiarity with so much of the language as to. portions of the Gospel of St. Mr. G. possible to conceive a It is im- more impartial mode of putting any system to the test.25 and the moting charity schools throughout the country choice was determined by the consent of the parents. J. " latterly Italian They had been employed in learning Latin. but not so remarkable as the Hamiltonian System follows . the historian of British India Major Camac Major Thompson Mr. veral distinguished individuals. and it seems to us to have fallen short of the facts. than to make such an experiment on the children of our peasantry. during the process by which the meaning of words is fixed in their memory. Esq. P. John. P. is ciple of exciting the attention of contained in the books above alluded Their knowledge of the parts of speech was respectable. recognised .
begin reading. and a selection The visitors put the boys on where of French histories.26 ordinary description. and the translation was (as the reporter says) they pleased. The experiment was begun the middle of May. even in their third or fourth year. and have been made to know I consider the experiment a failure. the experiment would have been complete. and parts of Caesar's Commentaries some after. and totally ignorant of the rudiments of any other language. or. . and concluded on the 16th day of November." This account. though their knowledge of French and Italian was scarcely attended to at the examination. having at the same time translations such as I have since made. was rather under than over the mark. and their or. ideas had been expanded by conversation. and their emptiness of all ideas. if I knowledge of their own language by reading had made these ten boys begin by a course of two months' reading the books above alluded to. reading English worse than Cumberland curates. in the same year mentioned in the extract. John. exactly six months The Latin books set before them were the Gospel of St. who defrayed its They were purposely selected by a gentleman expence. 1825. I have the fullest conviction. book or books (what we know not). as the writer in the Edinburgh Review justly remarked. far less their previous ignorance of Had I all language. whose . . what is the by a two months' course of English them course of thirteen volumes. chosen ten boys from a different class of society. It was a fair and honourable account of it . Italian executed with an ease which in it would be in vain to expect any of the boys who attend our common schools. they could have been taken through a same it on proper subjects. and who had the strongest desire to put strictly to the test the efficacy of the Hamiltonian System. that were I to repeat it thing. perfectly.
B 3 . a progress in the Latin justly estiin three languages mated a three years' progress on the common plan . which on the plan of our sch*ools. 'Tis well : but until the primary schools (I schools) adopt a different guages than that now in use. or in any other manner than by my translations (which were not then made). perhaps. has never been acquired in any length of time whatever. Jones had a attacked the system in Europe j system of his own. the most respectable writer who has but Dr. humble but more useful ambition of rendering the lan- guages an easy acquisition to the youth of this kingdom. the best of them will do little towards a greater diffusion of real science than at present exists. however. a progress manifold greater than had ever been but no man else : effected on the common plan. and SUCCEEDED. for fact or argument. than this : one single but I declare.27 has a right to consider it so it produced. I ought. deserved notice. or until the Universities mar mean those called grammode of teaching the lan- take up the languages themselves on a better plan. obstacle that imagination could offer to its against every success. has been reared but its founders. to mention To menthose who have written for and against it. in the same length of time. -. and an accuracy in translating French and Italian. would alone require a pamphlet larger there. disdaining the more -. tion all the latter. been found among them man of talent one candid and able adversary had ? Jones was. intended to give a full account of the Hamiltonian System. have taken a loftier flight. The late Dr. of which the System gave the first idea. In a work such as this. The University. and his system and his attack were I judged them both utterly unworthy of equally weak : notice. perhaps. I would gladly give his arguments here I have never read a single page which upon my honour.
1 teaching. It postpones the study of grammar till stitutes the cheerfulness 3. Sidney Smith. on the other hand. " Such are the easy initiations of our present methods of The Hamiltonian System. without doubt. and appeared in the Edinburgh Review for June. at beginning with a depth and accuracy which many men never will want. both here and in The best of these is. as well as humour the matter was rich. ceives some little pay from the first moment of his appren- ticeship. . that which drew forth Dr. and the degree of this system will make better scholars we . he is and is not compelled to wait for remuneration till out of his time. He concludes an essay of twenty-three octavo pages in the following manner : after quoting some of the rules of the Eton and West- minster grammars. It is written with great strength of reasoning. which disgusts many from arriving even at moderate attainments. It suba considerable progress has been acquired.28 Several able defences have appeared. He is not overwhelmed with the first appearance of insuperable difficulties he re. and learning something from the very beginning. that. 2. scholarship being given. . 1826. Jones's attack. the time being given. than if attengrammar had been deferred to a later period. certain road to a profound skill in languages. The student having acquired the of what is written in great art of understanding the sense another tongue. In are strongly persuaded. a much shorter time will be needed. : and he has made the most of it. he continues. and is a less easy and not more tion to fine. from the pen of the America. and competition of the Lancasterian means a boy system for the dull solitude of the dictionary. instead of leaving a boy to explore his way by the lexicon or dictionary. By these finds he is making a progress. may go into the study of the language as The old system aims deeply and extensively as he pleases. Rev. teaches an unknown tongue by the closest interlinear trans- lation.
by obliging the pupil often to recur to his dic- tionary for the meaning of the word. therefore. as . Hamilton one of the most useful which fills men of his age for if there is any thing it is reflecting men with melancholy and regret. in the present method of pursuing Latin and Greek. supposed that they might be remedied by a free translation in addition to the inter- lineary one. and have done much mischief by being confounded with my system. that the public found it difficult to form a judgment. which he judged essential to the system. Much good has. while he defended the barbarisms which appeared in the first edition of my Greek Gospel of St. utterly defeated the object of the system. good has not been unmixed with evil. have been sold as mine. founded on his total unacquaintance with the practical part of this mode of teaching. The last Number of the Edinburgh Weekly Journal. it will . but not mak- ing either analytical. I had foreseen this my attack of what was yet only seem illiberal. Sir. but which was so hotly opposed on the one hand. The writer. and to his master for the ordo. and puerile happiness. This unlucky idea." The effect of this critique was to call the attention of the public afresh to a subject which had excited a lively interest for two years. which was as follows: 5 but fearing that ideal " Hamiltonian To the Editor of the Edinburgh System. I did not allude to it in my might answer to the Edinburgh Review. to render the deception complete. of the very first principles of analysis to make these double translations . make Mr. Review contains so able a defence of this system.If there is any truth in this. that. and so highly applauded on the other. induced a number of persons wholly ignorant of the system nay. parental money. John. These books. of which they are as distant as the antipodes. resulted from it but this . the waste of mortal time.
my system. And. Those . Unand painful has it often been to me to pass for one hour for a puffer or boaster . editors. it would be desirable but the mode of avoiding it. regret that . and sometimes condemned advocate in the Review thinks this cirI would certainly coincide with him in opinion. general ignorance in society of what a right system of teachNo doubt. for it has cost me above one thousand pounds. if this appearance of ing ought to produce. that the few points on which he supposes it deficient or vulnerable. I think I cannot with propriety delay the public expression of my gratitude to the eloquent writer of it. neither friends nor enemies have yet pointed out. In its doing this. abundantly guarded from the inconveniences he fears. provided he or any other person will point out to me any other way under Heaven in which I could have forward with the slightest hope of success. candour and impartiI had not an it opportunity of conversing with him would have been so easy to prove to his satisfaction. to statesmen. in order to have my system ushered to the notice of mankind. or men of learning generally. as to the mariner in which this system has been brought before the public. my intention is not to add any thing to what he has said in commendation of the system. are. but if a faithful and brought it fortunate. indeed. first. know . puffing could have been avoided. who think it was only necessary to demonstrate its effects to the heads of colleges or schools. but in the simple representation of its results. by ADVERTISING this has been . as they are in truth on the common plan. without abandoning my profession. the fault is not in me.30 author. if a fair exposition of appear incredible or impossible. with all the honours which attended inoculation or the vaccine. often attacked by ' my by my friends. My cumstance unfortunate / and opposers. in fact. but rather to reply to those criticisms ality which a spirit of I has induced him to make. clergymen.
and by the application of this one mighty wonders. the force of mental habits. I appealed continually to I gave not the names of my patrons. instead of being able in ten years. . by the re-union I TAUGHT. so.31 of the world. told the infallible result of my lessons. When I entered my scholastic career. tell Is this. and proposed to society in a perfect state the next rivality. but the names of my pupils. repeti- and the other principles which now compose it. single principle of what has since. ' . in the truth only . the basis of the Hamiltonian tion. had one ordering to learn lever. jealousy. I ask. and doing facts . who suppose a system of teaching can be widely formed in one day. opposition. I effected a progress. By the use of this one principle. They are. experience. be. being but the handmaids of this one mighty but universally neg- lected principle. I effected yet. I to count ten thousand pupils formed should probably find myself with thirty or forty children in some obscure village of the United States. System analytical translation. it. and defied ? investigation. become a system. for I is know them not. besides. This is which had lain rusty for centuries. If I had not advertised. and at every step invited inquiry. publicity. are necessary. : practice. friends. discussion. of preconceived opinions. believed. absolutely necessary> to perfect and of those the Hamiltonian System has had I its full share. I raised a world. I said I published this progress $ but. But there advertising. puffing or quackery If it me what truth and simplicity are. little or scholastic pride. I should never have had a pupil and if I had not in my advertisements . I say. they know not the prejudices of education. of private interests. impossible on the usual plan. and truly believed. mistaken. instead of of other principles.' and ever will be. or of the classes of men they speak of. which is another and very simple argument for not always taken into account by my affect to when they condemn it as unworthy the .
it would instantly rethe unhappy pupil into the chaotic confusion and plunge uncertainties of dictionaries. is. I had to live by it : it has me and my . become the most lively members of the class. that it boys the loss of time would be enormous . enter my classes. are there any other terms on which society could justly require of to the purpose of diffusing the benefits of it ? life me to devote my knowledge and the " The second objection made by the eloquent advocate of my system is. there * is/ he says. absolutely neces- I do not contend for it sary in all analytical translation. that I ascribe to one word one meaning This is a vital principle. the delight and surprise of the pupil at the perception of his progress at every step. The third objection only. but the principle it has lost sight of. produces all the effects of emulation or jealousy in other I systems. last ten years family an honourable support for the and I would ask. . have known parents. Jubeo and dolor. I infinitely itself know is fewer than many exceptions. and the most zealous co-opera- tors in its exercises. forjubeo and dolor a number of other forced. before the end of three lessons. and with besides. which the Reviewer quotes as a proof that words may have two meanings. Grief : and sorrow the same will find - } but if he will look into Ainsworth. expressly stipulating not to be called on to recite. nay. ' no change of seats.32 author of an useful discovery afforded . as a theoretic invaluable truth. that emulation is discarded from it. but as an operative and practical principle. though generally supposed. from which it is the object of must never be the Hamiltonian system to rescue him.' This would be below the dignity of the rank and age of my pupils generally. grandfathers and grandmothers. do not form exceptions command he to to this principle or to order are riot two meanings. has been found unnecessary. but one.
you. The Reviewer.33 figurative. and that this day or hour may not be at the distance of one year. German in five. But what if he does not attend ? What if he be sick. of the Hamiltonian system is. must be utterly " The fourth objection. advance. and studying four hours a. ! his reputation. the very hour. he can GUARANTEE. my translations. . with the slightest exertion on the part of the pupil and teacher. at the end of one month and that such is the certainty with which the teacher undertakes the task. or implied meanings for each of these words. Sir." Your most obe" JAMES HAMILTON. utterly ignorant of a language. in short. or stupid ? Here is precisely the use of the guarantee \this is all I give him his lessons over again : mean. and an accuracy of translation analysis. with the utmost moral certainty. I guarantee the progress of my This objection has been made for want of accurate pupils. \bth Aug. or idle. that a boy of common capacity. His conviction of and perfect timid or cautious father. I on the result .is full . with respect. shall be able to translate any given easy book in it with a correctness of pronunciation. in Italian in . . when a pupil. on this System. be his own taught the four Gospels in Greek in six weeks or French in three this. fallen from experiments and observations which have under notice/ ASSERTS. that he is willing to stake all he possesses. as would be usually required and grammatical on the common plan. on the principles of rejected. 18*26'. might. nay. which an adept in language may equal but not surpass .can predict the day. that. am. which. . but. '" B 5 " Edinburgh.' information relative to the nature of ' it. " The triumph that. dient Servant. or to the why then not GUARANTEE it to the who pays for this acquirement in modest pupil who fears such a progress to be beyond his power.day.
There are in this town. and the whole town was collected in groups to hear the speech of Mr. the mode of prove . LADIES AND GENTLEMEN. in this respect. LECTURE. I give it nearly in the words in which I delivered it to one of the smallest audiences I have ever I addressed. that is. know how to read and write at present than before the introduction of the Lancasterian System and Sunday Schools. has advanced one step. It is certainly true that an infinitely greater number of will persons.34 Such is the History of the Hamiltonian System. Peel on this all-absorbing question. This is. in proportion to our population. more especially that of the Languages. better educated now than they were a century ago. as well as in every other of the . imparting knowledge. unluckily. a good and happy result but this does not that education as a science. appointed my same hour when the result of the Catholic was expected every moment. in which I It was. The opinion that the science of Education has much improved within the it last thirty years is so general. so far. which have brought down to the moment of delivering the following Lecture in Liverpool. As it may tend to elucidate some points in education which I have not before treated on. or that the higher classes are. however. lecture at the Bill but I had. that be thought little less than heresy to deny it. delivered in the same room had twice before addressed an audience of 1600 persons.
idle- own want but erroneously. as far as in him lies. as the fathers. in the fond hope that a better improvement of their time and opportunity than they themselves have done. and given up exclusively to it. yet does it se. and sincerely imagine they are taking the necessary steps to obviate so great a misfortune to their offspring.. but rather insuring. This is not educating his son. thousands of persons who bewail their of literary instruction. doubtless. sacrificed real reasonable time spent in the successful study of them.35 United Kingdom. attribute to their inattention* and ness while at school. by sending them to the schools who where the nobility send their children will theirs. per of itself. his ignorance and consequent degradation for though the knowledge of . return to the paternal mansion almost as empty of either as when they left it. History. more important. the result turns out in- make The sons. which they modestly. our own language. as is usually the case. and Marquis B. that that literature alone would suffice to make him a man of Education. But the cause being the same. Greek and Latin does not tend to degradation. The Languages of Greece and Rome are. a sound scholar of the present day. but no man in his senses will say that it is a rational act of the parent to make his son study these languages seven or eight years. Natural . if lead infallibly to this result 5 for eight years are given up to this study. Geography. containing information infinitely more precious. he learn nothing else. having and useful knowledge to the vain and futile advantage of studying Greek and Latin with Lord A. well worth a variably the same. Astronomy. with the almost absolute certainty that even in that time he will not have obtained such a knowledge of them as to render the ancient nations familiar to if literature of these if him : or that even he did.
must be sacrificed to it and yet all these are absolutely . and Physic. with tenfold more ardour than he has ever studied Greek and Latin . be conceded to me. and are in themselves a far more essential part of it than Greek and Latin. and remains happy for ever degraded. and have risen to emi- nence. his very existence in after and grant that many have conquered " all these difficulties. and often placed . and laws. exclusive of the liberal sciences. habits. victims of the system of Education I have here signalized. own country and of others . the commercial. as As those objects to which I have above alluded. commerce. Law. I think. and scientific relations of the different nations of the earth with each other their manners. that thousands in the different professions of Divinity. it must. and by the necessity in quently more by a which he now finds himself. the unstudent is degraded by such a course. to apply his time and talents to some professional pursuit. and rendered distaste for learning too frecontracted at school. and Natural Philosophy the literature of our own and other nations. have been unable to raise themselves to respect or real usefulness. he betake himself to the study of far.36 History. customs. necessary to constitute a right education. if they were not assisted by relatives and friends. 'on his success in which is to depend his ease. and that fund of indirect information which can be acquired by reading. that is. ignorance can degrade. on his quitting school. a task of still uncommon difficult difficulty in itself. nor would be able to procure a subsistence by their profession. however ardent their endeavours. and riches. therefore. religion. . unless at this period of life. the knowledge of the produc. life 5 and if I respectability. respect. on the other hand. affluence. and reading alone. tions of our political.
it whom they officiate. the pure ING ! him from READmankind seem to be . in our very customs. without which no man ever yet possessed extensive information. that no habits. will ever be able to compensate READING. inde- pendent of those for Still. nor the most intimate acquaintance with the rules of syntax and prosody. must be granted that the Greek and Latin lanare so wound up in all our institutions. the only cure for all our ignorances . and which constitutes it now less than ever and to the contemptible vanity of being sup5 posed a classical scholar. their feels this and the parent who importance. profesguages sions. consents. READING. by prescription. and not knowing however reluctantly. the only real the only effectual source of instruction READING. that can be conceived : by taking up all the time of the student. the most valuable gift of the Divinity. sciences. without being sufficiently aware of the still greater importance of the other species of overwhelming importance I knowledge to which how to attain both. has 3 been sacrificed to the acquirement of what never constituted real learning. which alone constitutes the difference . in a great measure. READING. ING. literature. nay. man will be hardy enough to deny . to suffer his son to tread the same barren rugged road he had himself trodden and thus has the work of Education been carried on. conversation. and consequently preventing utterly READING. READING. have alluded. for the last two centuries. often without the shadow of a . amusements and social religion. language.37 in positions which render them. But how does the study of Greek and Latin cause all this mischief? By the most simple process . spring of nine-tenths of our intellectual enjoyments. between the blockhead and the man of learning READthe loss of which no knowledge of Greek particles. whose effects unaware of.
38 title to it. at an age when it is wholly useless thousand other contrivances which it would seem that the enemy of" of mankind could alone have put into the heads school-masters. roll down every night. That this picture is not charged. that is. because it is the mother of them all j and as it must not be sacrificed to Greek or Latin. the physician. : who compose before it be too late to prevent its baneful effects upon his offspring. READING is. Neither should it be sacrificed grammar or composition. It must not. then. the gentleman. large hand. As reading is the source of instruction. to read with propriety before we have acquired a considerable fund of knowledge and experience of life. to see it life. the lawyer. to en- deavouring to recite. in order to be able to write small j to arith- nor to the metic. . as is . for years. or to read with propriety . to every man whose position in society has given him an opportunity of knowing those it I would appeal to the minister of the I Gospel. is impossible and useless. to prevent the child from READING. I would appeal to the experience of almost every man capable of understanding me. Nothing can. so neither should it be sacrificed to any thing else. be sacrificed in childhood to spelling. and then be obliged every morning all real to renew the disgusting task. the whole time of his scholastic rolling up the stone of science all the day. in any case. because these are utterly unattainable beto fore we have read a great deal. often thousand-fold the importance of any other science. because. to speak. it is the solid nourishment of : the grown man . from learning any thing. nor to getting by heart any thing whatever. and thus keep him. would entreat every parent to inquire into its truth. be substituted for it it is the milk of the intellectual child . it is the wine of old age. like another Sisyphus. therefore. nor to writing.
or variety of style. No man has ever yet become a critic with regard to language no man has ever written or spoken with elegance and propriety. lectively. still however. by any other means. so far reaches the copiousness. singly or col. if this be correct with regard to our correct own is it lan- how much more demonstrably with regard to a foreign idiom. his vocabulary smaller than can well be imagined. in the study of which we remain occupied till we have no longer time to study at all till . and no know farther ! The man whohas not learned to read.39 self-evident to it is any man who the only reflects on the subject . or elegance. and directed to obtain a j knowledge of the language by grammatical rules. But to write purity. It is inconceivable that those persons. proportioned and analogous to the company he has is kept. knows only those words which he has learned in conversation. by philological criticisms. should not have found out this obvious truth. we must know it in this it by heart. . and good authors. and with' it forms gradually his judgment as to their fitness. whose business is the instruction of others in the languages. and that so far as we manner. in which we derive no assistance from conversation ? Here reading must do the whole and here precisely it is that we are prevented from reading by our masters. that to speak or write a language. and variety of our style in speaking or in writing. and speak with any pretensions to must have read The first book reads impresses on his mind and memory a number of words he either knew not before. we read a great deal. or knew so ima perfectly that he did not dare to use man them every succeeding book augments this number. Now guage. harmony. so also the sole means by which the words of a dead language can be acquired.
not one in a thousand of those for whom I write. instead of being a hinderance to real and useful information. does not. from the reading of the authors in every branch all may. nay. in the study of the Lawyer. Still. the Physician. know or feel that the words of a language are to be got by read: ing only selves if they did. with interest and delight. and the Greek and we Latin languages are the cause of all the evil how are to get over this difficulty? how remedy the evil without putting away the cause ? for. the most important and useful portion of it. there is is no time for reading DIFif it : what. and seek and find one. BUT IT DOES EXIST is FERENT PLAN. instead of giving them a dictionary for that purpose. will be found. the Latin and Greek lan- guages. instead of being confined to the Fellows of Colleges. I say. may be acquired without difficulty. constitute in themselves . if we study them as : we have hitherto done. of literature found in these languages. can be man who has never inquired. existence it demonstrated by evidence as clear as light denied by none it can be doubted only by the . and the Apo- . conscious that I shall be thought verbose and dif- fuse on this subject: "It is ridiculous. we all feel and know it. sir. I have admitted the absolute necessity of acquiring the Greek and Latin languages.40 we I am are called to take an active part in the duties of life. they would practise it it for them- and prescribe to others. and with them a fund of that infor- mation which I have above signalized as more valuable than they. Yes. The knowledge of them. to be done? if STUDY THEM ON A its . instead of occupying eight or ten years' disgusting labour. such a plan exists ." I beg your pardon. then. utility of READING ." exclaims the " to tell us so much of the critic. be acquired with infallible certainty in eighteen months or two years and will thus. where they ought to be found.
of the followers of Dumarsais who. in our own days.scouted translations of Indies . when they were only taking the pupil back to the justly. . to the testimony of his pupils. of Clarke. 7" They have. and. and the ng the scrutiny of its enemies . ^ have given false and incorrect translations interlineally. as is now usuallythe case. and proclaimed their progress to the world every where inviting the investigation of its friends. in the connting-house of the Merchant. They are known on the Continent of Europe under the name of "Systeme Naturel. land by numbers. pardon for this long introduction. His books have now an extensive circulation. the United States. rendered homage to the merits of that system which they attempted thus to appropriate But I come to my exposition. The Hamiltonian System has been now ." they are used in Calcutta. but has taught many thousands of pupils. parlour of every private Gentleman every man of Education will possess them really. has been supposed that there are in the Greek and Latin. of Stirling. and they have been counterfeited in Engwho imagined they were writing on the Hamiltonian System.41 in the thecary. the unmerited reputation of .. instead of possessing. and defy. at least. and ask to themselves. i every where appealing whose patronage alone he has ever sought or obtained. it will not be pleasing system I propose of me that I should enter into the proof of every required I shall now : fact I advance. not perceiving the difference between interlinear and analytical translations. knowing them. enter into the details of the easy and in doing this. if not in all other languages. its Author has not before the public for many years been content with explaining it in every city of the United Kingdom. certain fixed stamina. It . West ' f Locke.
I believe. as the Dictionary only contains the root of each of these words. to study or to comprehend. to use them he can look for their meaning. secondly. tenses. but to get by heart. to learn the meaning of words. the preliminary knowledge of which is absolutely necessary to the ac- quirement of the language itself. with their derivation and declension. The first is a Herculean labour. but it is would be altogether preTO ENABLE HIM TO LOOK FOR HIS ! WORDS IN THE DICTIONARY put to translate the words da Thus. utterly unknown hands of to the Greeks and Romans).42 certain fundamental rules or principles. that is. do. to use it in all its moods. ego and panis. He must first know how ego. that is. in all their has thus really to learn the language twice first. most inconceivable folly. in by the use he is obliged to make of which a number (often from ten to . and persons. is at the outset of his labours. by the help of his Dictionary. he would not be able to find them. But the object of getting the Grammar by heart is not. it appears the . do. that would be impossible). before and the noun panis. The latter is rendered inconceivably tedious and difficult. to give the student a critical. and put into the every student (not. posterous. These soi-disant fundamental rules and principles are collected into what is called a Grammar (a book. to study the rules by which the words of a language are connected. to conjugate the verb. as usually supposed. rnihi if the boy were panem. and to decline the pronoun cases. without this preliminary knowledge. indeed. etymologically. before he is permitted to translate at first sight. a grammatical knowledge of the language 5 such an idea. in order to be able to use his Dictionary He 3 and. and such as assuredly no ancient Greek or Roman ever attempted. before we know their meaning. this Dictionary.
knows it to : be exact. but the power of acquiring them. or figurative meanings are literal meaning of the is among which the inexperienced student ordered to find or guess at the right . at length. this account to be exact. and many are yet unacquainted with it. Let us wait to condemn till they refuse to adopt a better mode. but in learning to study . and prevent the progress of the I unhappy pupil. the nonperception of his progress. and as they were taught themselves many have already adopted. of the But the present teachers are not the authors present system of the school they teach as thousands of the best and wisest of mankind have taught before them. not the words of the language. I fairly demonstrated to be truly such. Meantime. And when. The heads of schools know man who has these languages. the mode which he is obliged to use it is arduous in the extreme.43 thirty) of implied. of which neither Homer nor Virgil ever heard. that the pupil is occupied many months. add the difficulty of the ordo of this foreign idiom. shewing its accordance with rules. forced. or at least studied. the necessity imposed on him of parsing every word. and exceptions to rules. not in studying. and sometimes years. in whole or in part. and if we add to this the idea of coercion. in thus describing the process of ac- quiring these languages. and every learned. that is. wish not to hurt the feelings of any man. mixed up with the one true and word. the Hamil: tonian System. he has acquired that power. and the disgust arising from such an apparently useless and endless labour. much less to satirize one of the most useful and respectable professions in society. in acquiring. we ought in not to be surprised that so many years are thus spent . and that seem invented only to vex and torment. appeal to their testimony. to this.
of a dictionary. Give the pupil. the case of every noun. E\Q Chapter viii.. Ae And to avrw him elffeXOorn (2. a-) came to aiVw. eKaroirap^og a centurion TrpocrrjXOev (2. an author which he had not thus previis the See the easy and effectual process by which it is obviated. Ei<7eX0oVn $e CLVTW Kawepvaovp. TrpoffrjXdev avroj arorrap^oQ Trapa/caAwv 6. 5. MATTHEW. or to understand without considerable labour and the help ously fagged over for many months. The above chief hinderance to the success of our Education. to him. and person of every verb. . but be able. at the same time.rat iv rrj om'a 7. furnish a perfect analysis of the phrase and of every word in it. aor. /3e\r. ST. Kat \eyet avVw 6 'IrjcrovQ' 'Eyw eXdwv SepaTrevffw CLVTOV. JJLOV Kat \syit)v' Kv'jOte. that is. book with infallible certainty in the tenth part of the time hitherto requisite. but every word let such a Dictionary point out the mood. six or seven authors that the pupil would be able to read with pleasure. instead of a Grammar and Dictionary on the common plan. tense. a Dictionary for every Book he reads. so that the pupil shall not only be able to . 5. comprehending not simply the roots of the words. praying him. 5. to parse it. CLVTOV* 6 TTCUC. Now this Dictionary is translate his precisely a Hamiltonian Translation ! take the following examples.44 in the acquirement of a very imperfect knowledge of and that it then rarely happens . TrapaKaXwv CLVTOV. to have a perfect knowledge of its Grammar also.) having entered elg into Capernaum.
ejus loci potuerit saltare ad hoc Quidam autem ex Heus tu. si verum hoc aderant. dicebat se habere. qui est. him. the child detvtig fjLov of me has been cast iv in rrj olidq. fuerunt. multa many atque other (things) manfully etiam also saltasse to (saltavisse) places. eXOui' (2. deinde afterwards suam his patriam. respondens ait est tibi opus testibus En Rhodus en et saltus. and have leaped . 'Irjffovg j3a the 7.) And the Jesus having come will heal avrov. peregrinatus. qui ibi interiis. quern nullus et testes. TrapaXvTiKog. a. Lord. of JACTATOR. house 6 dreadfully tormented. AFFABULATIO. The Boaster. . atque etiam Rhodi . FABLE VIR quidam versus. rei demonstrate sit. omnem sermonem supervaciium JACTATOR. 6. QUIDAM A certain reversus having returned vir man in into peregrinatus. having travelled-abroad. XI. nisi prompta esse. deinde in suam patriam remulta in diversis viriliter gessisse locis aliaque jactabat.45 6. alia own jactabat did boast viriliter que both in in gessisse to have performed diversis different locis. saltasse saltum. country. Kcu XeywV saying. 7. Fabula significat. And O 6 TTCUQ Kvpie. 'Eya> I Kat Xeygi says avYw* to him. non : . paralytic.
die kleinste von Allen. . says. sermonem speech supervacuum. significat. of (at) Rhodes. of a thing may every ROBINSON CRUSOE IN GERMAN. quidam some-one ex us there. dicebat he did say himself hahere to testes ad to qui (those) have witnesses who qui interfuerunt were present ibi. signifies. Alle. saltare to leap J quern which et nullus no-one ejus loci of that place se potuerit may have been able and hoc. Hamburg. behold Rhodus Rhodes : : en behold and (also) the leap. out of those ! who hoc this : aderant were present est if respondens answering est (there) is Heus tu. wie ihre eigenen Kinder. und zwei Ihr . theils durch wechselseitige Liebe genau Der Hausvater and die Hausmutter liebten vereiniget. true. R und B war auf dem Lande. ungeachtet nur Lotte. Ho! opus et tibi thou. superfluous. Fabula The Fable rei sit. Diese waren theils durch die Bande der Natur. this. Autem But ait.46 saltum a leap Rhodi. die aus kleinen und grossen Leuten bestand. APPLICATION. si verum. if non not testibus en : to thee with witnesses saltus. ihre leibliche Auferithalt Freunde des Hauses. nisi prompta a ready esse to be demonstrate demonstration unless omnem be. nahe vor den Thoren von Tochter war. Es war einmahl eine zahlreiche Familie. thaten dasselbe.
R R war was und and auf upon B B . e cosi di :ore disse : me avrai A sia cui pesca- io sarei ben pazzo. ungeachet although nur only own von of Lotte. vhich Diese These waren were genau closely vereiniget. Ihr Their Aufenthalt residence lem L Lande. sso lo voleva persuadere che gli desse liberta. FAVOLA IL XXII. io per isperanza di guadagno futuro. nahe near vor before den to the -Thoren gates von of o the Hamburg. numerous aus out of kleinen little und and grossen great Leuten. ove. e tu mi prenderai poi quando maggior frutto. se quel guadagno ch' io ho il presentemente lasciassi nelle mani. theils durch through die the wechselseitige partly mutual liebten loved Der Hausvater The wie as und and Hausmutter housemother housefather ihre their eigenen Kinder. ill. thaten did dasselbe. house. family. avvegna che piccolo. und and zwei two Freunde friends des of the Hauses. PESCATORE ED IL PICCOLO PESCE. . children. ancor che fosse arande. laughter.47 Es There lie war was bestand consisted einmahl once eine a zahlreiche Familie. . io crescero. country. people. Charlotte. Pescatore avendo preso in mare un picciolo pesce. Hamburg. the same. ma se tu mi lasci : UN mdare. der of the Natur. united) theils durch through die the partly Sande mnds Liebe. nature. die the kleinste least Allen all war was ihre their leibliche bodily Fochter. dicendo lo ono or si piccolo ch' io ti faro poco pro . io il saro >rande. ille.
vit pignon. Faquin. faro shall do poco pro ma but e se if tu thou lasci lettest to thee little profit j mi me poi then andare. si pres de tes superieurs? lui dit-il. having taken in sea voleva did will liberta. FABLE LXXXI. UN A esso he gli to him Pescatore avendo preso in mare un picciolo pesce. quelle est ta hardiesse d' appro cher Race de fumier ! comment oses- tu lever la tete dans une place ennoblie par mes ancetres Ne sais-tu pas qui jesuis? depuis tant de generations? . shall increase. lasciassi may I might leave it per for speranza hope grande. tu thou e prenderai will take mi me and quando when saro shall be grande. greater io A To cui fruit of me. very-foolish.48 IL PESCATORE ED IL and the PICCOLO PESCE. ancora-che fosse although it might be PERRIN'S FABLES. to go. big. lo sono ora si piccolo che io now so little that I I am . a ses cotes un cham- LE CHAMPIGNON ET LE GLAND. ti persuadere to persuade lo che that desse he might give him dicendo saying . little The Fisher Fish. futuro future guadagno. UN gland. be little. quel that guadagno gain I io should be che which ho have presentemente at-present io nelle in the mani. gain. il avvegna-che although di of / sia it piccolo. maggiore frutto di me. great. tombe d'un chene. whom se if the fisher pescatore disse said. cosi avrai I and thus il thou wilt have . hands. sarei ben-pazzo. liberty.. io I io crescero. Fisher a little fish.
oak. comparer d'ou je suis venu pas 5 . et vos ancetres aussi je vous connais parne pretends pas la vous disputer 1'honneur de votre naissance. dit le champignon. fallen tombe d'un from an Faquin. j'avoue que je avec la mienne . ni docteur. chene. vous n'etes propre qu' engraisser des lieu les plus exquises et les cochons. On asouvent reproehe a 1' son defaut de fesseur! il auteur du systeme Hamiltonien titres il n'est ni reverend. ni pro! n'est rien d accord 5 mais ses traductions sont bonnes servons-nous en. donne un fumet delicieux aux viandes au plus dedicates : avec tout 1'orgueil de vos ancetres et de que vous. a to ses his cotes sides saw un champignon. vit UN An a gland. mais j'ai peine des qualit6s que vous n*avez et je sais a je flatte le palais des hommes. vos I the know : vous parfaitement you perfectly et and ancetres aussi your ancestors also: je I . well. mushroom. ni au contraire. Scoundrel. d' quelle est ta said he to him. LE The CHAMPIGNON ET Mushroom and LE GLAND. APPLICATION. je : faitement bien. champignon. je mushroom. dit said lord.49 Illustre seigneur. bien. dit-il lui. acorn. si what is thy hardiesse boldness approcher to of approach so pres near de of tes thy superieurs? superiors ? Race de Race of dans in futnier! dunghill ! comment how ennoblie ennobled oses-tu lever la tete darest thou to raise the head une a f place place par by mes my ancetres ancestors depuis since je tant 50 de of generations? generations ? Sais-tu qui suis? many Knowest thou who le I am ? connais Illustre Illustrious seigneur. the Acorn. votre extraction.
disputer to dispute vous to 1* honneur de votre honour of . APPLICATION. ni reverend. I the student possibly wish for would ask what can more than he has here the precise (not implied. hogs. of them. On One a has souvent often reproche reproached a to P the auteur author il da of the est n' Hamiltonien Systeme son defaut his want Hamiltonian System de of titres titles il he is not ! ni docteur. suis I . I des know d'ou je whence I venu come . I le have of the que vous avez that you have n'pas not. but- agreed ! his translations are good.50 pretends ne-pas pretend naissance. not forced. je flatte I flatter palais the palate des of the men. avoue confess que that ai je sais a-peine scarcely contrary. d' accord! est n'rien is he nothing ! mais ses traductions sont bonnes. vous you are propre ne-qu' proper but a to engraisser fatten cochons. place avec with votre tout all T the orgueil pride de of tes vos ancetres ancestors de of your and your des of the extraction. au to the que that et vous. ni professeur nor professor nor reverend. birth. not figurative) meaning . Servons Let us serve nous ourselves en. you. Now. nor doctor. et je donne and I give les mi a et owe? delicieux delicious les fumet flavour aux to the viandes meats lieu the plus most exquises exquisite the plus most dedicates. mais but j* qualites qualities am . delicate. not ni you with the la your comparer to la it avec mienne mine j au to the nor j* compare the contraire. as far as translation goes. homines. extraction.
and some of . Aurelius Victor. Eutropius. each perfect vith analytical translations. 3eing able to do so before he shall have read them all. 2 vols. . he ordo. "Nothing. them have passed hrough several editions greater schools. Ill the above authors have the penultima marked when it is short . seven shilthe Metamorphoses of Ovid. lave published still more of them. so that he shall know ver he may hereafter meet it. or any but I would not answer for his . at four shillings each. already published. John. Comrnenand sixpence Selectae . it are ever read (even in part) in will be asked. in thirteen volumes. riood. Terence. a number than But. leven shillings ire and sixpence . the case of every noun and adjective the . and person of every verb.51 f each word. what more can be required or /ished for than is here given ? The experience of twelve ears." But for the Latin. arid as many thousand pupils. sixpence ings and . six shillings aries of Ca3sar. with facility and pleasure )ther classical author Cicero. c 3 it is long 5 and thus. Seneca. seven shillings : and sixpence. the Gospel f St. by appropriate ? nd unchanging signs I repeat my question : as far as perfect translation goes.een volumes will be able to read. pointing out the grammatical analysis f the phrase . Horace. Cornelius Nepos. that meaning wherand however connected . or order. the Fables of Esop. when it is not marked. and all six books of Virgil. 'Li vy. enables me to reply riumphantly. and may not some )f them be omitted without loss ? Those who make this nquiry have forgotten all I have said of the necessity of eading every one of them should be read and I would : . Phaedrus. . the Epitome Historian Sacrae. tense. Are not several of these mthors nearly of the same facility. Profanis. did I not know that he student who has a perfect knowledge of these thir. ten shillings Sallust.
and a perfect intelligence of every word. than he had before. or at least to avoid leave being thought stupid or idle by his fellows. is and consequent- acquired. and treated as an enemy he is loved and cherished as a friend.52 by this easy contrivance. And to accomplish this unspeakably happy revolution. Italian. no effort is the constitution of required on the part of the teacher he has no more trouble. as before. or in some other modern language. . is acquired by the pupil from the desire to fulfil his duty. especially READING in his own language. and even sooner. without costing the pupil a moment's study. part of prosody. Each of these ly useful. In fifteen months he will be able to take up any one of them and read it with ease and pleasure. his school remains the same He prescribes nay. the practical. volumes can (with delight and interest) be acquired by the pupil in four or five weeks. because on this plan alone is the success certain. . this mode will not teach him grammar! Those who make which : this objection cannot see the wood for trees ! to analyze . what is so easy to be acquired. Here is no need of coercion the pupil acquires lines merely. or German.as English. The master is now no longer dreaded. but . infinitely less. and which the pupil may learn to read in a few months with Here then is the plan as much pleasure . and the time devoted to it not extravagant. But there are two objections to this improvement first. but a pleasing and an intelligible one j a task . it with facility. for conciliates and renders rational the study of Latin and Greek. and without fear of hi& making a false quantity in reading. This will him time for every other useful and pleasing study. which books are prepared on the same plan. if it be thought necessary that he should devote his whole time to this study. the French. not a dozen or twenty from five to ten pages.
let his master prescribe the study which may be necessary for him to satisfy his superiors a few days will abundantly -. is not this the very essence of grammar ? Could Horace or Virgil do more ? Ay. Take an example of one grossly wrong : the sign of the potential mood is may or can. the master will be at liberty to make him as profound a grammarian as the author of the Her- mes. if he please. however. guard him the positive errors of both the futility of several against of Clarke's rules. and that without the expence of more than one week. the thirteen volumes above-mentioned. though do not insist on an extensive knowledge of the they meaning of words. I would. give him Clarke's Introduction to the making of Latin him read the rules in both with attention. . or even half of them. and let . . but the rules ? Horace and Virgil knew none of these rules. I suffice for would caution him against the signs of the tenses given in the Eton Grammar. I am sorry for it but let us see if we cannot satisfy them when the pupil has read with sity do. give him an Eton Grammar. the purpose. But all this is that when I meant to shew straying from my subject the boy can read and understand a Latin au: thor with facility. now I defy the most learned friend of this establishment to form a single phrase in English in which the word can is the sign of a time. and to point out the grammatical con- the mutual dependance of all struction of the phrase the words of a sentence on each other. the extreme complexity of others. But the examiners at the Univer- and insist on the knowledge of them. let him read it over with attention . to translate it by corresponding parts of speech. of which scarcely one is right.53 a phrase word for word. : that degree of accuracy which constitutes the very essence of the Hamiltonian System.
how can the teacher count. there no fear common substitute the barbarisms discourse or writing. There has hitherto been no instance of such an anomaly. who on the present system would never have thought of fill it. To speak or write good English. as at present. is. as marked out by nature. in liberal education). so singularly contrasted with its enthusiastic reception from all those who have had an . and not that of his own the pupil will therefore contract the habit of : speaking bad English an objection as rational as the former. the translation is in bad Eng- following the idiom of the Latin language. can- not be changed by any change in the mode of communi- cating that instruction . the least important: will not the introduction of perhaps. will while the and never world lasts. whether living or dead. one more objection. this system destroy our schools ? If fifteen months sufis But there fice for the Latin. not. The opposition this system has every where met with from school-masters.54 The second objection lish. so that the adoption of this system will the schools instead of emptying them . we must converse with those. and though last. or write it well: if we do this (and we must do to have is who speak it in order any just pretensions to a that. will double the number of pupils instead of lessening it. on keeping the pupil four or five years ? The time for the reception of instruction. and that the certainty of arriving at this desired point (a certainty which never before existed) will induce thousands to give their chil- dren a classical education (because it will be as cheap as any other). . that the student will quit his school an accomplished scholar and a well-informed gentleman . the difference will be. we shall of a foreign idiom for that purity of diction and style which is acquired by reading the classical authors of our own country.
But after him to use a translation. But though experience and I I reflection have taught me thus to judge of Grammar. that its introduction would prove injurious to their schools. but a grammatical. not such as has often been scouted from our schools. will not Either Mankind are anxious for real knowledge. an boy study this suffer analytical translation six j the loss then will only be the first months. and underlearned than Thousands more"*-* stand at least an easy book in it. do not pretend that other men should see with my eyes. think that the theory of Grammar should be taught only when the pupil can read the language. think it should precede the study of the language. and it. or from the idea that its advantages are really chimerical that I really do not teach Grammar that Grammar is . such as to be practically and really useful to the boy. conclude this lecture. much longer put up with the shadow of the Teacher will find out a mode of communi- cating a knowledge of the learned languages in a shorter . and the remaining progress of it will be the pupil such as I have here described it . To this I think -I have inconsistent with the System. make the his Grammar three or six months. let those who are of the former opinion teach as I do. I. fulfilling really Before I the designs of the parent. Well. and those who are of the latter.55 opportunity of witnessing its effects. already given a sufficient answer. rather than have it forced on him by the unanimous voice of society for indubitably one of these things must be the necessary and immediate result of the impulse now given to Education throughout the civi- lized world. let me entreat the reflect School-master to whether it may not be his in- terest to adopt the mode of tuition here proposed to him voluntarily. from the fears to which I can only arise either have above alluded. if even that.
not the books of disingenuous and ig- norant interlopers. or the study of these languages will be relinquished al- If another mode be not taken . After I had given this pamphlet to the press. if he can continue to make his pupil wade through Grammars. the Hamiltonian System and. tin efficaciously. will give and use. and of good sense and common honesty . swer try it is it will in a few months ? The anbe that of an honest man. It is nature time to yield to the united voice of reason. the honest. will be read with interest and pleasure by all who are in earnest for the dif- fusion of knowledge. for the attainment of what I have here proved . he will . W. more effectual. of Maidstone. with a long and able article on this system. Its theory is as rational as its practice is successful. and Dictionaries for years.of the experiments made on this system. for I will ask the Clergyman. more pleasing mode. This mode is here offered it has been proved by above 20. Exercise Books. more certain. which I have had pleasure in recommending to those who have done me the honour of consulting me on this subject. Thus have acted the heads of the highly respectable schools of Hazelwood and Bruce Castle. Thus has acted the Rev. obvious .may be obtained by a far easier. The Classical Teacher has already made a sufficient stand for the customs of his forefathers. to acquire La- and Greek. our new Universities will be of no avail. in his Establishment. truth. in trying it.000 examples. conscientious Schoolmaster. fair play. but those of the author of the system. whose pamphlet on the success . Stevens. than has been hitherto done. the Westminster Review for April has appeared.56 time/and more together. The writer appears to .
apon account of that mode. secondly. results from this. without wealth. however. c 5 . it will not be thought that these articles were written to please me far less that I paid for them. evidence enough to prove that these results are actually effected by it. He analyses it with talent and interest. This good. without the slightest which it . and after a twelve years' struggle. silenced your adversaries. order. and put a successful end to the war . done it without talent ?" You have won the battle. by a strict philo" that there is sophical anatomy of its principles." It is not a little singular that these eloquent friends of the Hamiltonian System condemn alike the mode in has been offered to the British public and. routed the ingenuity of the it the enemy. whether natural or acquired. however. I say. This writer thinks it necessary to intimate that he thinks my talents. as But ' being a most extraordinary improvement on any plan which human mind had hitherto devised ?" Is " that 1 have not. without name an obscure individual. parently.57 have had a better opportunity of witnessing its effects than the writer in the Edinburgh Review. acknowledge was unavoidable. as you never com- manded more than a few thousand men ! Might I not thus successfully retort ? Without talent. think it useful to their argument to speak of me with the least. without learning. and proves. but you have no claim to personal respect or consideration we are under no obligation to you. which they. and. possible degree of courtesy that one gentleman (if they will allow me that title) can speak of another. a singular reproach to make. in the system to produce all the effects power enough which are said to be accomplished by it" 4< that there is and. personal knowledge of me. . of a very humble is not this a singular reproach to the author of a system which he signalizes with so much talent. first.
have been sold in every part of the kingdom as the production of the author of the Hamiltonian System. . have acknowledged and deplored the want of for centuries namely. out being indebted to these writers. you men of connexions trons. and failed in doing and I have accomplished this with. you gentlemen of wealth and learning. as well as the profit. a rational and efficient . the series of which . his remarks may do when applied the same mischief that those of the Edinburgh Review effected. of the Hamiltonian to every succeeding one. while I trust. I do not believe there was any intention of this kind in the mind of the but as it mentions but writer of the article in question few of the books published by me. or deprive him do of the merit. in the mean and talents.53 as these gentlemen are pleased to represent having passed five and twenty years. not in me . and which. and Dumarsais. or any other for a single principle of my system. false and incorrect. in a literary point of view. and a number of other in my wise and good men. Go. as Hamiltonian . of his invention not neutralize all you have said of good and useful in the system. by dividing the . go and do something great and good and useful. in proportion to the magnitude of your means when compared with mine and. you render a service to your generation. do not point the finger of scorn at the author. by giving your countenance to books utterly at variance with that system. you men who have your rulers for your paand can wield all the influence of the Edinburgh and Westminster Reviews. in pointing out the utility System to teachers and parents. but counting-house. time. and. which they have attempted to supply. contemptible. after my study. constitutes the very essence of the system to schools. by the most disingenuous manoeuvres. for a single idea. system of Education. I have accomplished what Locke and Milton.
He has not only generally a faithful analysis of the system and its necessary given results. falls infallibly the blame of failure in every ex- periment made. edition of the essay written in New I York. . public or private. entitled to the homage of my offer tude. the incorrigibly idle. however. to which I think it necessary briefly to reply. has not hitherto given the system fair play. whether on the Hamiltonian System. pied. upon whom. but he has actually forestalled. Five persons are by no means the best possible number A man totally inept in the mode of teaching this on to this writer. as my readers will perceive. than those which counted from fifty to one hundred members never had any whose exercises were more interesting and pleasing to each particular member. and leading him to believe that any other book may do as well as mine. the really occu. Upon the whole. and that he rnay This deviate widely from the system with impunity. of teaching. who have not condescended to consult the author himself. at the same time. system could alone have given such information I have never had better classes. nor in which a better progress has been made while. or in opposition to all its dictates and principles. I think the system much indebted to the writer of this article. of one or two passages. to introduce my mode pamphlet writer is. The grati- therefore. idea. those obliged frequently to be absent.59 attention of the Teacher. as detailed in the beginning of this an advantage which I had not myself. and the wish to amalgamate other systems with it. however. can get a fund of useful instruction without being exposed to the . especially in the hands of inexperienced persons. which most sincerely and respectfully him j with the reserve. much of what I have here written which he was enabled to do by his having in his hands the second . for a class.
that monitors are superfluous instead of a dozen boyhere. you should not be disposed to read. my lectures or advertisements. when he remarks. and yet. in have never^. one able professor teaches the other . in reading in private. so Hamilton speaks of a language being to be acquired in many hours. for I can neither teach you to write nor that faculty." I appeal to every pupil I have ever taught for the correctness of this statement. asserted that a language was to be learnt any number of hours. I will guarantee that you shall be-able to read a French book with facility in two or three sections but -. pupils. you will do me the honour to become my if. that ' ' when Mr. on the con- my trary. because they may be silent. whole teaches with the same facility as many as can conveniently hear him. then do not come to me for the two latter sections. tion. of language tantamount to this if one excep" Ladies and gentlemen. in to all fairness. I have. I have never used such I language as either in is here imputed to me. strange mention it. when you have acquired speak.60 criticism of a private class. ish and ignorant teachers." be added the number spent Now. though I hope and believe involuntarily. It is truly wonderful that this enlightened critic should have overlooked one of the greatest advantages of the system that which decides more distinctly than any its superiority over the Lancasterian System. the number stated by him is not the true to be a proficient in the tongue 5 number required these must. and whether I have not constantly held the same language to say. I begin to doubt I fear to . nor used - any phrase corresponding to it y nor ever held out such an idea to pupils or the public. in made use every public lecture. The Reviewer does me injustice. before the the thing has been fully authenticated by repeated ex- . without. I believe.
Perrin. . and diffuses its benign and genial influence gradually through the minds of those who once opposed it with violence. I know. the only secret to acquire the words of a language. . -.61 periments. and perhaps not all those. my have never read more than those books. Let. then. above all. I say. Opposed. for they alone give the precise meaning of possible vocabulary in writing the word mon nor would a vocabulary acquired on the comever produce such a result. as I have already mentioned. plan The Hamiltonian System has now To conclude. John. the Gospel of St. But this vocabulary can only be acquired by the use of the books in question. but if the class be rightly and diligently exercised in the use of the verbs. the secret to know things and among them it is. It may. passed through as severe an ordeal to test its practicability and usefulness. as perhaps any other invention which can be mentioned. it has triumphed over all opposers. step by step.who. I fear to teaching a person to write mention the possibility of and speak who may have read only my three class books. that he may get the use of the smallest and speaking. in the cessary to prescribe to himself. ing. be now used same manner as which preceded it. during twelve years. without subjecting any other system the teacher to those rules which the author thought nein schools or private teaching. after the knowledge only of the class books. I believe it an indubitable and pleasing truth. and the Recueil Choisi but the continuance of the im- provement in speaking and writing of several members of public class at present in Manchester. therefore. the teacher apply the system diligently and . becomes every day more is. by those who might justly be supposed the best qualified to judge of its merits. To read all striking and astonishas I have so often said.
in order to convince him there was no delusion but as this fear can no longer exist. the . But division into sections would advise the Hamiltonian teacher to do with all languages as I have myself done with the Latin and I fixed Greek. by the incorrigible dulness or idleness of his pupil. it was necessary. to guarantee any thing. which were or monthly. Nevertheless. he ought not to be obliged will attend. will read. with established purpose of pointing out to the pupil the exact of knowledge guaranteed to him in a certain quantum number of lessons. are. on the plan hitherto adopted. so. whether child or adult. did not appear in the first edition of this pamphlet : . having done . to guarantee it to the pupil. is by no means of indispensable necessity in the system. in my opinion. expressive of the sentiments of a few of them. having neglected their class. I think this mode of ascertaining the progress of the pupil preferable. While this progress was considered impracticable. its and will without a remedy. The course may be given quarterly as for the sole much advantage as by sections. not to stipulate an absolute proficiency in any number of sections. prevent the discontent of those who. will The pupil who who the utmost progress that the system is capable of producing} while the teacher will no longer be the victim of his confidence not the less make in the reality of its powers. but continue to give instrucis satisfied tions until the pupil his teacher can communicate. the following extracts. Almost every the United literary publication of respectability in Kingdom has spoken favourably of the Hamiltonian System .62 honestly but. he possesses as much as This arrangement will render adoption easy to every professor of languages.
: by a rigorous application of the general abstract to particular cases. but do not appear to have satisfied either the public or themIt is. When it is supposed he has acis A child quired a sufficient stock of them. and the next to learn their mutual relations. and to draw from it sound and practical inferences. which it is required of him to submit to two processes the first is to learn the : value of each word separately . general rules are thence drawn for the re- construction and re-arrangement of them. The . of a dictionary either bodily. and thus ascertain the value of the whole first process is performed with the aid the second with the aid of the grammar. 1827:" The plan of teaching languages according to the system named after Mr. Hamilton.63 Extract from the Atlas of March ISth. taught to remember these abstract rules for the composition of words. he learns to apply them : Take the It is given to the student to following simple instance Do tibi out of the following sentence extract the meaning The dictionary gives him the words. what is called a grammar. as connected. they constitute. reasoning in the world could not settle it but the applica. The writers have scribbled about it and about it. in fact. When these rules are reduced to their most general form. has been the subject of much controversy. : . or as its rules are remembered. and the librum. tion of a little judgment and good sense may enable the ex- perimentalist to conduct his investigation in the shortest and safest manner. a question of experiment. All the selves. The mode of teaching languages by grammar is this: parts. with the addition of a few definitions and axioms relative to lan- guage fundamentally considered. By constant use of the dictionary. a piece of language in its constructed state is put into his hands. a language is first resolved into its component and by examining the relations of each class of words to one another. the student in time acquires a a vocabulary rules.
grammar. and it quickly enables is the learner to read the ordinary books . and the most efficient. he expects two cases after it. . sidered too to devote to the object much learned in this country. book. if he is quick and attenlooks. tive." meets with the verb do again. ' found in do. cases grammar shews him that verbs " of giving' 5 and probably finds them if he finds the same words' again. for which Latin best. he may recollect their meaning. For not only is the word given as to meaning in one form. By continuing this comparison a suffihe acquires a vocabulary without the aid grammar. and a dative of the person to whom the thing is given: he gathers. and a life . tu. there seems little doubt but that these purposes are more rapidly answered by the latter system. A put into the student's hands in its supplied with the exact value of each word as it. however.' and dant. a tolerably *"" good Latin scholar is in about seven years. there is nothing to pre- . of Latin should prove a Quintilian. but in all ' forms. I they give . He is nearly the reverse of this. as words are continually occurring. and phrasekind. f thou' but tibiy to thee/ and te. The Hamiltonian plan is piece of composition entire state. to give.' not only it ' thee.64 govern two an accusative of the thing given. and as a man really stands in need of no very large suppellex verborum in order to read many books and hold much conversation. the Hamiltonian plan is certainly the most rapid.' Now. and if he is inclined to carry his investigations deeper. If he give you a book. This vocabulary is of dictionary and liar it of a pecu- embraces dictionary. Not only ' is ' give/ but dare. ciently long time. therefore* " I that the sentence means. stands. If it were desirable to make a perfect master of a language if it were desirable that each student . was not con- then the plan in our public schools would undoubtedly be the pursued For the ordinary purposes. An assiduous practice of this exercise makes a boy.
" Extract from the Atlas of culty of establishing a May 10. there are is much greater than people generally suppose . which indeed innovateth greatly. is unlocked and ever it mends some. we think superiority. innanzi before to-the the very awkwardness of the English expression impresses the difference on the memory almost indelibly. things are interpreted by corresponding words in the case of two languages. is new . thing word. the grammar. and popular modes to be unlearned. piedi feet. 1829 : "The diffi- that goes fundamentally to uproot our preconceived notions and confirmed habits . but quietly. therefore/ says Lord Bacon. Coleridge describes himself to have done. whatsoever for . without a master.65 vent him. the mother's plan with her child. 'It were good. and the inventor or introducer of novt' theories has not only to struggle against predilections. In the infant's case. in short. new system old prejudices to be conquered. foreign phrase. is is a word. for otherwise. and the very imperfect English phrase. 'that men. without a solely by experience. but to argue the age out of its scepticism. would follow the example of time itself. If a even visit doubt of its person were to Germany and learn German. settled principles to be set aside. that they are received as innovations. and . there is In the case of less all modern languages. wjiich is The Hamiltonian explained by a corresponding plan has another advantage 5 it the readiest way is of acquiring the idiom of another lan- done by the contrast between the perfect guage. as Mr. and pains others and he that . and by degrees scarce to be perceived. Improvements are frequently of so startling a kind. . This Suppose the Italian phrase to ai be thus interpreted. in their innovaions. this would be the Hamiltonian plan which is.
Mr. Few persons are willing to acknowledge that they have been all their lives in the wrong and the natural tendency to defend. the pamphlet before us. that principle discovery which forms a distinctive and remarkable feature in his as well as translating system. the source of failure must prima facie. those opinions which they wanted saga. is for these reasons that a necessity yet exists for a further and repeated elucidation of the Hamiltoniari System. are induced to present our readers with a few illusThe first suggestion of the system is thus candidly related by Mr. for a wrong. with a slight sketch of the history of its This little history furnishes so many instances progress. HAMILTON again propounds his system. and he discovered that the General (D'Angeli's) plan of parsing : would do only with linguists . If it have not knowledge of more crept into the confidence its of the majority not. be attributed to its internal imperfections. of the resistance offered to his scheme by those who were impressed with the paramount 'wisdom of our ancestors/ that "In we trative passages. of thinking people. city to controvert themselves." After having made some extracts from the first edition of this pamphlet. this revealed to him. which has been long enough before the world to spread the It its peculiar merits. and thanks the time and he that is hurt. and which has excited discussion than any other plan for the teaching of languages that has ever been promulgated. operates to prevent them from admitting the fallacies that have been exposed by others. for the first time. but rather to the obstacles that impede conversion. Hamilton. the postponement of grammar until his pupils had accomplished half their reading course. even at the expense of judgment. during which the . the Reviewer proceeds " At first the progress of his pupils was slow. and imputeth it to the author/ .66 is holpen takes it for a fortune.
Clarke. " The opposition given to Mr. Hamilton were unworthy of literary men he was repeatedly taunted with his mode of adver. which it ance of quackery. which. dents spread his fame and/ continues Mr. Locke. Hamilton. and Dumarsais. an inquisition so uncompromising should have sat upon so important an innovation for we sincerely believe that it . that he possessed his no other means of making the world acquainted with system. first.67 inflexions of the verbs. at gressed in practice. taken to harass Mr. ' I had in the first short year about seventy pupils who paid me twenty-four dollars each. after a long experience. that his mode judicious. and the changes of the other decli- nable parts of speech were rendered familiar. should have been tried upon its own internal merits alone 5 second. has fully established the utmost promise which even the Some of the objections 'sanguine teacher anticipated. for half a course. and became The success of the stupractically fixed in their minds. in fairness. and thus . Hamilton while his sys. duce that system which properly bears his name. had of advertising. in fact. of Milton. As he proand. All . a strict analyzation of ciple which he is grammar a prinsurprised should have escaped the genius . and where he perceived that his mode of translation was. whether judicious or innothing to do with the intrinsic value of his system. and to pro. he was enabled to bring his various principles into a more regular form. ' confirmed me a teacher for life/ From New York he pro- ceeded to Philadelphia. where his success was still more flattering. was the natural reof that scepticism with which all novel theories are and it is well for the interests of education that received . new lights broke upon him last. except by giving it publicity in the usual way. tising. tem was sult in course of development. was asserted bore too much the appearTo this taunt there are two answers .
Language exguage. adopting a of the Hamiltonian System. of the component materials of which we to obtain are wholly ignorant. isted first. He " It is unnecessary to discuss this system in detail. had endeavoured to create a motley scheme of struction less decisive than either. Words are rendered strictly by corresponding parts of speech. who. but simple principle. before they knew one word of Latin. first pecu- liarity Hamilton is teaches languages first and grammar after. since has produced such convincing evidence of his strength. We it . It is evidently absurd to teach the nomenclature and government of a science. The next feature of novelty is the literal and analytical translation adopted by Mr. plete inversion of the old mode . therefore. too. and grammar arose afterwards as a conventional harmonizer and assistant. it has no reason to complain of resistance. believe the public are very generally acquainted with but we are anxious to close our notice with a few short observations in elucidation of those prominent points that appear to distinguish it from all others that have been hitherto brought into operation. Grammar is undoubtedly founded upon lanand not language upon grammar. Schoolmasters formerly made pupils get a grammar by rote in Latin. Hamilton. Perhaps the that strikes the inquirer' is. and retaining a portion of the own. To substitute a real for a mechanical progress seems to be the object of this new. that Mr. were charged upon hin as proofs of the deficiencies and inconveniences of his pla Against numerous equally fallacious and superficial obje tions he had to contend the practical results exhibit the : individual and his labours in the most favourable point of view. some acquaintance with the character of a language before we study the method of using it correctly. is The obvious course. of those professors. but it is This a com- more consistent with nature. preserving accu- .68 the errors.
As many pupils may be "taught at the same moment as can be collected in an seems. moods. which the difficulties and embarrassments in the way of acquiring profound philological knowledge. the The signs only by which they are represented differing. the pupil is taught the exact value and relation of each word 5 and learns insensibly. and persons of the original. Mr. much all smooths perplexity. vated quire no further incitement to persevere. He has discovered if that can be called a discodelay. very which is merely the assertion of a truth that had been long manifest to people who reflected on the subject that the simple sounds of all languages are the same. Hamilton has cleared away the old impediments. is they would perceive that a true pronunciation simpler than it much to the advantages belong system that deserve to be noticed. and by interesting his understanding. &c. the whole grammatical construction of the he studies. metis as if were spelt may. admission of that fundamental principle gets rid of a world of pains-taking as if it . his attention is fixed. The . by a close analysis as he proceeds. also. than the pleasure intellectual resources he receives in increasing his toil or without In the pronunciation. tenses.. much language time. is saved by this process. Much labour. although some in elegancies and barbarisms of necessity creep into the translation. he will re. over tasks he did not understand cited. Thus. and his curiosity ex.69 rately the cases. association of the mind and memory is culti- the learner easily recollects that which is thoroughly clear to his sense and finding that at every step he gains a portion of knowledge familiarly and quickly. In all former systems the pupil was disgusted by being forced to labour in this system he comprehends every word as he goes on. Two apartment together : for the instruction that guides and . if people can be taught to pronounce pour it were spelt poor. of foreign languages.
Hamilton quaintly expresses it. and public to the man who had the firmness to persevere in its prosufficiently duction." " There is Extract from th? Atlas of May SQth. involuntary than by the ideas themselves. discharged our duty. impressing It inforce of conviction. and more upon the taking advantage of the effects when they become visible. stils clear notion of the nature of things. are important. is in the main feature of difference between the two systems that our difficulty lies. The Hamiltonian system seems to rely less upon the process by it produces its effects. and ad- . reduces the amount of labour. we have observed his . as Mr. It which reaches the its memory through mind a instructions mainly into the by the the understanding. mode of instruction in full operation. and we are fully im- It pressed with the practicability and utility of his plan. 183O a strong resemblance between the systems of Hamilton and : Jacotot. depending for of its its effects upon the immediate rigour verses. instead of ordering to learn/ hearing ' . the system of Jacotot vigilant and severe means. examined all Our opinions are not lightly delivered we have Mr. beyond all other systems. the Hamiltonian doctrine. who. or nearly It reprogress. so. These advantages teaches. the actual acquirements of the pupil. must be which.70 corrects one is equally applicable to all who are within and the labour of the pupil is transferred to the teacher. and increases. Hamilton's books. rather than its general influence. and worthy of more extensive consideration than we can afford to give them however. is On the other in its hand. abbreviates the period of study. tural They both teach language by gradation and naBut it means. It works less by the association of ideas after all. we may have . rather than their conventional types and agents. by keeping before the a system that is equally honourable to the age.
by those who admitted they knew nothing of the man. and to receive all the attention which our readers may think proper to bestow upon us. The subject is interesting and important. that the its dresses the understanding through the probabilities are. and have no interests to serve. mysterious operations of the mind for the classification and application of the knowledge thus tattooed upon the retention. except such as are suggested entitled to by intrinsic merit and general utility. " Mr Hamilton. " In throwing out these we have no desire either to encourage a useless controversy. has been much talked about. that the pupil. Hamilton laid himself open to the charge of . by their writings. or predilections to indulge. becomes us to state -truly our opinions. " The Hamiltonian system. or unnecessarily impugn a system that is so largely applauded by some of the lite- rary men it of the Continent. and very 1827 : little understood. like many other things. and written about. will hardly become wise. hints. in his extreme watchful- ness of the forms and representatives of wisdom. In the discharge of our ciitical office. If they be erroneous. we feel have our say upon the subject. and his system con: demned. and as we have had an extensive practical acquaintance with that and other methods of teaching. like all other innovators. has had great a deal of opposition and that not of the most liberal kind to contend with he has been reviled." article in Extract teaching from an Languages" on " the Hamiltonian System of the Academic Review for Sept.71 memory. It is so minute and painful in its detail*. that they were as unacquainted with his system reason to be dissatisfied with the result. and who proved. we are open to conversion. by first and then relying upon the making impressions deeply. quite : but he has no " That Mr.
Hamilton's classes. F. It is simply that every word is translated. when he first solicited the attention of the public we are not inclined to deny. was obliged tical to eat his words.--:: .72 quackery. And this repetition produces no tedium. between the lines of the original : word always presents itself to the eye But immediate conjunction with its signification in English. * Would * or. and its exact meaning in grammar effects : English placed beneath so that the foreign in it. Printer. Fleet Street. the continual oral repetition system produces its effect of the words by the teacher and pupils makes an impression through the ear which is not easily obliterated. and its astonishing on two of his young friends who attended one of Mr. And who that presumes to deviate from the beaten tract of custom. and are never tired." C. and 'wisdom of ancestors/ can hope to do himself justice and avoid that imputation ? The monkish manufacturers of missals and breviaries denounced Faustus as a dealer with the devil ! Galileo. and connected with ideas. in this country. it is not by the medium of the eye only that this ." After detailing the process by which words and pracare communicated. - 1 Gough Square. who maintained that the earth went around the sun. 9 not any one rather read UEcho et le Hibou. London. because the words are arranged in sentences. Hodgson. -. La Guenon et sa Guenuche* than two or three columns of ? words in a dictionary The principle exemplified every : hour in common conversation we repeat the commonest words of our native tongue a hundred times a day. the writer continues " Our more learned readers will pardon us if we explain what is meant by an interlinear translation.
14 DAY USE RETURN TO DESK FROM WHICH BORROWED LOAI This book is due on th t on the date ^Renewed books are subjeTto immediate recall.25 APR 2 5 1997 . reB* .