- -- ---- -

I,
ANALYTICAL STRENGTH
ASSESSMENT
5t h Edition
VDMA Verlag
I I
Forschungskuratorium II
Maschinenbau
FKM-Guideline
ANALYTICAL STRENGTH ASSESSMENT
OF COMPONENTS
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
5
th
, revised edition, 2003, English Version
Translation by E. Haibach
Title of the original German Version:
RECHNERISCHER FESTIGKEITSNACHWEIS
FUR MASCHINENBAUTEILE
5., iiberarbeitete Ausgabe, 2003
Editor:
Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)
Postfach 71 0864, D - 60498 Frankfurt / Main
Phone *49 - 69 - 6603 - 1345
(c) 2003
byVDMA Verlag GmbH
Lyoner StraBe 18
60528 Frankfurt am Main
www.vdma-verlag.de
All rights reserved
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ISBN 3-8163-0425-7
3
This FKM-Guideline was elaborated under contract between
Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e. V. (FKM), Frankfurt / Main, and
IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik Gmhfl, Dresden,
as contractor in charge,
by
Dr.-Ing. Bernd Hanel,
IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik GmbH, Dresden,
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Erwin Haibach,
Wiesbaden,
Prof. Dr.-Ing. TimID Seeger,
Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Fachgebiet Werkstoffmechanik,
Dipl.-Ing. Gert Wlrthgen,
IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik GmbH, Dresden,
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Zenner,
Technische Universitat Clausthal, Institut fur
Maschinelle Anlagentechnik und Betriebsfestigkeit,
and it was discussed among experts from industry and research institutes
in the FKM expert group "Strength of components" .
Financial grants were obtained from the "Bundesministerium fUr Wirtschaft (BMWi, Bonn)" through
the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen 'Otto von Guericke ' e. V. (AiF,
K6ln)" under contract AiF-No. D-156 and B-9434. The "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e.V."
gratefully acknowledges the financial support from BMWi and AiF and the contributions by the experts
involved.
Terms of liability
The FKM-Guideline is intended to conform with the state of the art. It has been
prepared with the necessary care. The user is expected to decide, whether the
guideline meets his particular requirements, and to observe appropriate care in
its application. Neither the publisher nor the editor, the involved experts, or the
translator shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with
respect to any liability, loss, or damage caused or alleged to have been caused
directly or indirectly by this guideline.
Preface to the English Version of
the 5
th
Edition.
For engineers concerned with construction and
calculation in mechanical engineering or in related fields
of industry the FKM-Guideline for analytical strength
assessment is available since 1994. This guideline was
elaborated by an expert group "Strength of components"
of the "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM),
Frankfurt/Main," with financial support by the
Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaft (BMWi), by the
"Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereini-
gungen 'Otto von Guericke" and by the "Forschungs-
kuratorium Maschinenbau.
Based on former TGL standards and on the former
guideline VDI 2226, and referring to more recent
sources it was developed to the current state of
knowledge.
The FKM-Guideline
- is applicable in mechanical engineering and in related
fields of industry,
- allows the analytical strength assessment for rod-
shaped (lD), for shell-shaped (2D) and for block-shaped
(3D) components under consideration of all relevant
influences,
- describes the assessment of the static strength and of
the fatigue strength, the latter according to an assessment
of the fatigue limit, of the constant amplitude fatigue
strength, or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength
according to the service stress conditions,
- is valid for components from steel, cast steel, or cast
iron materials at temperatures from -40°C to 500 °C, as
well as for components from aluminum alloys and cast
aluminum alloys at temperatures from -40°C to 200 °C,
- is applicable for components produced with or without
machining, or by welding,
- allows an assessment in considering nominal stresses as
well as local elastic stresses derived from finite element
or boundary element analyses, from theoretical
mechanics solutions, or from measurements.
A uniformly structured calculation procedure applies to
all of these cases of application. The calculation
procedure is almost completely predetermined. The user
has to make some decisions only.
The FKM-Guideline is a commented algorithm,
consisting of statements, formulae, and tables. Most of
the included figures have an explanatory function only.
4
Textual declarations are given where appropriate to
ensure a reliable application.
Its content complies with the state of knowledge to an
extend that may be presented in a guideline and it
enables quite comprehensive possibilities of calculation.
The employed symbols are adapted to the extended
requirements of notation. The presented calculation
procedure is complemented by explanatory examples.
Practically the described procedure of strength
assessment should be realized by means of a suitable
computer program. Presently available are the PC
computer programs "RIFESTPLUS" (applicable for a
calculation using elastically determined local stresses, in
particular with shell-shaped (2D) or block-shaped (3D)
components) and "WELLE" (applicable for a calculation
using nominal stresses as it is appropriate in the
frequently arising case of axles or shafts with gears etc).
The preceding editions of the FKM-Guideline observed
a remarkably great interest from which the need of an up
to date guideline for analytical strength analyses
becomes apparent. Moreover the interest of users was
confirmed by the well attended VDI conferences on
"Computational Strength Analysis of Metallic
Components", that were organized for presentation of
the FKM-Guideline at Fulda in 1995, 1998 and 2002.
The contents-related changes introduced with the third
edition from 1998 were mainly concerned with the
consideration of stainless steel and of forging steel, with
the technological size factor, with the section factor for
assessing the static strength, with the fatigue limit of
grey cast iron and of malleable cast iron, with additional
fatigue classes of welded structural details and with the
local stress analysis for welded components, with the
specification of an estimated damage sum smaller than
one for the assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength, with the assessment of multiaxial stresses, and
with the experimental determination of component
strength values.
An essential formal change in the third edition was a
new textual structure providing four main chapters, that
describe the assessment of the static strength or of the
fatigue strength with either nominal stresses or local
stresses, respectively. For ease of application each of
these chapters gives a complete description of the
particular calculation procedure, although this results in
repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in
the corresponding sections.
The major change in the forth edition from 2002 is the
possibility of considering structural components made
from aluminum alloys or cast aluminum alloys by
applying the same calculation procedure that was
developed for components from steel, cast steel and cast
iron materials so far.
The decisions necessary to include aluminum materials
were derived from literature evaluations. It had to be
recognized, however, that some of the relevant factors of
influence were not yet examined with the desirable
clearness or that available results could not be evaluated
objectively due to large scatter. In these cases the
decision was based on a careful consideration of
substantial relations.
Concerning an analytical strength assessment of
components from aluminum alloys or from cast
aluminum alloys this guideline is delivered to the
technical community by supposing that for the time
being it will be applied with appropriate caution and
with particular reference to existing experience so
far.
The involved research institutes and the "Forschungs-
kuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)" will appreciate any
reports on practical experience as well as any proposals
for improvement.
Further improvements may also be expected from
ongoing research projects concerning the procedure of
static strength assessment using local elastic stresses,
Chapter 3, and the fatigue assessment of extremely sharp
notches.
Last not least the fifth edition of the FKM-Guideline is a
revision of the forth edition with several necessary,
mainly formal amendments being introduced. It is
presented in both a German version and an English
version with the expectation that it might observesimilar
attention as the preceding editions on a broadened
international basis of application.
5
Notes of the translator
This English translation is intended to keep as close as
possible to the original German version, but by using a
common vocabulary and simple sentences. If the given
translation is different from a literal one, the technical
meaning of the sentence and/or of the paragraph is
maintained, however.
The translation observes an almost identical structure of
the headlines, of the chapters, of the paragraphs and of
the sentences, and even of the numbering of the pages.
Also the tables and the figures as well as their numbering
and headlines are adapted as they are, while only the
verbal terms have been translated.
In particular the original German notation of the
mathematical symbols, indices and formulas, as well
as their numbering, has not been modified in order to
insure identity with the German original in this
respect.
The applier of this guideline is kindly asked to accept
the more or less unusual kind of notation which is
due to the need of clearly distinguishing between a
great number of variables.
In particular the applier is pointed to the speciality,
that a comma ( , ) is used with numerical values
instead of a decimal point ( . ), hence 1,5 equals 1.5
for example. .
For updates and amendments see
www.fkm-guideline.de
6
References
/1/ TGL 19 340 (1983). Ermiidungsfestigkeit, Dauerfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile.
/2/ TGL 19 341 (1988). Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Eisengusswerkstoffen.
/3/ TGL 19 333 (1979). Schwingfestigkeit, Zeitfestigkeit von Achsen und Wellen.
/4/ TGL 19 350 (1986). Ermiidungsfestigkeit, Betriebsfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile.
/5/ TGL 19 352 (Entwurf 1988). Aufstellung und Uberlagerung von Beanspruchungskollektiven.
/6/ Richtlinie VDI 2226 (1965). Empfehlung fiir die Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile.
/7/ DIN 18 800 Teil 1 (1990). Stahlbauten, Bemessung und Konstruktion.
/8/ DIN ENV 1993 (1993). Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten, Teil1-1:
Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln, ... (Eurocode 3).
/9/ Hobbacher, A.: Fatigue design of welded joints and components. Recommendations of the Joint Working
Group XIII-XV, XIII-1539-96 / XV-845-96. Abbington Publishing, Abbington Hall, Abbington,
Cambridge CB1 6AH, England, 19996
/10/ Haibach, E.: Betriebsfestigkeits - Verfahren und Daten zur Bauteilberechnung, 2.Aufl.
Berlin und Heidelberg, Springer-Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-540-43142-X.
/11/ Radaj, D.: Ermiidungsfestigkeit. Grundlage fur Leichtbau, Maschinenbau und Stahlbau.
Berlin und Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2003, ISBN 3-540-44063-1.
/12/ FKM-Forschungsheft 241 (1999). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Alumininiumwerkstoff.
/13/ FKM-Forschungsheft 230 (1998). Randschichthartung.
/14/ FKM-Forschungsheft 227 (1997). Lebensdauervorhersage II.
/15/ FKM-Forschungsheft 221-2 (1997). Mehrachsige und zusammengesetzte Beanspruchungen.
/16/ FKM-Forschungsheft 221 (1996). Wechselfestigkeit von Flachproben aus Grauguss.
/17/ FKM-Forschungsheft 183-2 (1994). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile, Richtlinie. *1
/18/ FKM-Forschungsheft 183-1 (1994). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile, Kommentare.
/19/ FKM-Forschungsheft 180 (1994). Schweillverbindungen II.
/20/ FKM-Forschungsheft 143 (1989). Schweillverbindungen I.
/21/ FKM-Richtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile,
3., vollstandig iiberarbeitete und erweiterte Ausgabe (1998).
/22/ FKM-Richtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile,
4., erweiterte Ausgabe (2002).
Related Conference Proceedings
Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile, Empfehlungen fur Konstrukteure und Entwicklungsingenieure.
VDI Berichte 1227, Diisseldorf, VDI-Verlag, 1995.
Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile, Empfehlungen fur Entwicklungsingenieure und Konstrukteure.
VDI Berichte 1442, Diisseldorf, VDI-Verlag, 1998.
Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile, Empfehlungen fur Entwicklungsingenieure und Konstrukteure.
VDI Berichte 1698, Dusseldorf, VDI-Verlag, 2002.
Bauteillebensdauer Nachweiskonzepte. DVM-Bericht 800, Deutscher Verband fur Materialsforschung und
-prufung, Berlin 1997.
Betriebsfestigkeit - Neue Entwicklungen bei der Lebensdauerberechnung von Bauteilen. DVM-Bericht 802,
Deutscher Verband fur Materialsforschung und -prufung, Berlin 2003.
1 1'"and 2
nd
Edition ofthe FKM-Guideline
7
Contents
Page
5 Appendices Page
0 General survey
5.1 Material tables. 131
0.1 Scope 9
5.2 Stress concentration factors 178
0.2 Technical background
5.3 Fatigue notch factors 187
0.3 Structure and elements
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded
components of structural steel and of
1 Assessment of the static strength
aluminum alloys 195
using nominal stresses
5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength
1.0 General 19
of welded components 209
1.1 Characteristic stress values
5.6 Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress
1.2 Material properties 22
spectrum to agree with that of the S-N curve
1.3 Design parameters 30
and deriving a stepped spectrum 216
1.4 Component strength 33
5.7 Assessment using classes of utilization 218
1.5 Safety factors 34
5.8 Particular strength characteristics of
1.6 Assessment 36
surface hardened components 222
5.9 An improved method for computing the
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
component fatigue limit in the case of
using nominal stresses
synchronous multiaxial stresses 223
2.0 General 41
5.10 Approximate assessment of the fatigue
2.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum
strength in the case of non-proportional
2.2 Material properties 47
multiaxial stresses 226
2.3 Design Parameters 50
5.11 Experimental determination of
2.4 Component strength 57
component strength values 227
2.5 Safety factors 68
5.12 Stress concentration factor for a substitute
2.6 Assessment 70
structure 230
3 Assessment of the static strength
6 Examples
using local stresses
6.1 Shaft with shoulder 231
3.0 General 73
6.2 Shaft with V-belt drive 236
3.1 Characteristic stress values
6.3 Compressor flange made of grey
3.2 Material properties 76
cast iron 241
3.3 Design parameters 85
6.4 Welded notched component 245
3.4 Component strength 89
6.5 Cantilever subject to two independent loads 250
3.5 Safety factors 90
6.6 Component made of a wrought
3.6 Assessment 93
aluminum alloy 256
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
7 Symbols and basic formulas
using local stresses
7.1 Abbreviations 259
4.0 General 97
7.2 Indices
4.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum
7.3 Lower case characters
4.2 Material properties 103
7.4 Upper case characters 260
4.3 Design parameters 106
7.5 Greek alphabetic characters 261
4.4 Component strength 113
7.6 Basic formulas 262
4.5 Safety factors 125
4.6 Assessment 127
8 Subject index 263
8
9
oGeneral survey
1 Subject of Chapter 5.11 "Experimental determination of component
strength values" is not the realization of an experimental assessment of
strength, but the question how specific and sufficiently reliable
component strength values suitable for the general procedure of strength
assessment may be derived experimentally.
2 In particular, what critical points of the considered cross-sections or
component.
If an application of the guideline is intended outside the
mentioned field of application additional specifications
are to be agreed upon.
The guideline is not valid if an assessment of strength is
required according to other standards, rules or
guidelines, or if more specific design codes are
applicable, as for example for bolted joints.
The guideline is valid for components produced with or
without machining or by welding of steel, of iron or of
aluminum materials that are intended for use under
normal or elevated temperature conditions, and in detail
- for components with geometrical notches,
for components with welded joints,
for static loading,
- for fatigue loading with more than about 10
4
constant or variable amplitude cycles,
- for milled or forged steel, also stainless steel, cast
iron materials as well as aluminum alloys or cast
aluminum alloys,
- for component temperatures
from- 40°C to 500°C for steel,
from- 25°C to 500°C for cast iron materials and
from- 25°C to 200°C for aluminum materials,
- for a non-corrosive environment.
This guideline is valid for components in mechanical
engineering and in related fields of industry. Its
application has to be agreed between the contracting
parties.
For components subjected to mechanical loadings it
allows an analytical assessment of the static strength
and of the fatigue strength, the latter as an assessment of
the fatigue limit, of the constant amplitude fatigue
strength or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength,
according to the service stress conditions.
Other analytical assessments, for example of safety
against brittle fracture, of stability, or of deformation
under load, as well as an experimental assessment of
strength *
1
, are not subject of this guideline.
It is presupposed, that the components are professionally
produced with regard to construction, material and
workmanship, and that they are faultless in a technical
sense.
12
11
13
14
15
16
13
Page
9
10
Contents
0.3.0 General
0.3.1 Procedure of calculation
0.3.2 Service stresses
0.3.3 Methods of strength assessment
0.3.3.0 General
0.3.3.1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses, Chapter 1
0.3.3.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses, Chapter 2
0.3.3.3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses, Chapter 3
0.3.3.4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses, Chapter 4
0.3.4 Kinds of components
0.3.4.0 General
0.3.4.1 Rod-shaped (lD) components
0.3.4.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
0.3.4.3 Block-shaped (3D) components
0.3.5 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses
0.3.0 General
0.2 Technical Background
3 Usually this probability can hardly be quantified, however.
Basis of the guideline are the references listed on page
7, in particular the former TGL-Standards, the former
Vlrl-Guideline 2226, as well as the- regulations of DIN
18 800, the IIW-Recommendations and Eurocode 3.
Moreover the guideline was developed to the current
state of knowledge by taking into account the results of
more recent investigations.
0.3 Structure and elements
An assessment of the static strength is required prior to
an assessment of the fatigue strength.
Before applying the guideline it has to be decided
- what cross-sections or structural detail of the
2
component shall be assessed * and
what service loadings are to be considered.
The service loadings are to be determined on the safe
side, that is, with a sufficient probability they should be
higher than most of the normally occurring loadings *3.
The strength values are supposed to correspond to an
anticipated probability of 97,5 % (average probability of
survival Po =97,5 %).
lRo2 EN.dog oGeneral survey
0.1 Scope
10
oGeneral survey
0.3.1 Procedure of calculation
Figure 0.0.2 Procedure of calculation for an assessment
of the fatigue strength.
At the assessment stage (box at bottom of either Figure)
the characteristic values of service stress occurring in
the component (box at top on the left) and the
component strength values derived from the mechanical
material properties and the design parameters (middle
column) are compared by including the required safety
factors (box at bottom on the right). In specifying
component fatigue strength values the mean stress and
the variable amplitude effects are regarded as essential
factors of influence. The assessment of strength is
successful if the degree of utilization is less or equal
1,00, where the degree of utilization is defined by the
ratio of the characteristic service stress to the component
strength value that has been reduced by the safety factor,
Chapter 1.6.
In Figure 0.0.1 and Figure 0.0.2 the arrangements of the
individual boxes from top to bottom illustrate the
sequential procedure of calculation.
0.3.2 Service stresses
For an application of the guideline the stresses resulting
from the service loadings have to be determined for the
so-called reference point of the component, that is the
potential point of fatigue crack initiation at the cross-
section or at the component under consideration. In case
of doubt several reference points are to be considered,
for example in the case of welded joints the toe and the
root of the weld.
There is a need to distinguish the names and subscripts
of the different components or types of stress, that may
act in rod-shaped (lD), in shell-shaped (2D) or in
block-shaped (3D) components, respectively, Chapter
0.3.4.
The stresses are to be determined according to known
principles and techniques: analytically according to
elementary or advanced methods of theoretical
mechanics, numerically after the finite element or the
boundary element method, or experimentally by
measurement.
All stresses, except the stress amplitudes, are combined
with a sign, in particular compressive stresses are
negative.
To perform an assessment it is necessary to decide about
the kind of stress determination for the reference point
considered: The stresses can be determined
as nominal stresses *5 (notation S and T),
as elastically determined local stresses, effective
6
notch stresses or structural (hot spot) stresses *
(notation o and r).
Safety
factors
Safety
factors
--
Sequential
procedure of
caJc.ulation
Sequential
procedure of
calculation
Component
forzeromean stress :
.,
Component
fatigue
strength
i
I
I
J
Component fatigiielimlt
for-the actualmean stress
Characteristic
service
The procedure of calculation for an assessment of the
static strength is presented in Figure 0.0.1, the almost
identical procedure for an assessment of the fatigue
strength in Figure 0.0.2 *4.
Figure 0.0.1 Procedure of calculation for an assessment
of the static strength.
4 A survey on the analytical procedures of assessment based on the
equations of the guideline may be found in Chapter 7.6.
5 Nominal stresses can be computedfor a well defmedcross-section only.
6 The elastic stress at the root of a notch exceeds the nominal stress by a
stress concentration factor. In the case of welded joints effective notch
stresses are applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength only.
Structural stresses, also termed geometrical or hot spot stresses, are
normally in use with welded joints only. For further information see
Chapter 5.5.
11
oGeneral survey
Figure 0.0.3 Organization of the guideline.
7 Accordingto rod-, shell- or block-shaped components, Chapter 0.3.4.
8 The extreme maximum or minimum stresses for the assessment of the
static strength may be different from the maximum and minimum stresses
for the assessment of the fatigue strength, that are determined from the
largest amplitude and the related mean value of a stress spectrum.
0.3.3.1 Assessment of the static strength using
nominal stresses, Chapter 1
Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the
extreme maximum and extreme minimum values of the
individual types of stress or stress components, e.g.
nominal values of the axial (or tension-compression)
stress, Szd, of the bending stress, Sb, and so forth *7 *8,
Chapter 1.1.
Relevant material properties are the tensile strength and
the yield strength (yield stress or 0.2 proof stress) as
well as the strength values for shear derived from these.
A technological size effect is taken into account if
appropriate. The influence of an elevated temperature
on the material properties - strength at elevated
temperature and creep strength, yield strength at
elevated temperature and I% creep limit - is allowed for
by means of temperature factors, Chapter 1.2.
Design parameters are the section factors, by which an
experienced partial plasticity of the component is
allowed .according to yield strength, type of loading,
shape of cross-section, and stress concentration factor.
From the section factor and from further parameters an
overall design factor is derived, Chapter 1.3.
The nominal values of the static component strength are
derived from the tensile strength, divided by the
respective overall design factor, Chapter 1.4.
As common in practice the safety factor against the
tensile strength is 2,0. For materials with a yield
strength less than 0,75 times the tensile strength the
safety factor is 1,5 against the yield strength, however.
Under favorable conditions these safety factors may be
reduced, Chapter 1.5.
The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree
of utilization is less or equal 1,00 . The degree of
utilization for an individual stress component or type of
stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service
stress value, divided by the allowable nominal static
component strength value, which follows from the
nominal static component strength divided by the safety
factor.
If there are several stress components or types of stress
their individual degrees of utilization are combined to
obtain an entire degree of utilization. The interaction
formula to be applied to that combination allows for the
ductility of the material in question, Chapter 1.6.
For welded components the assessment of the static
strength has to be carried out for the toe section as for
non-welded components, and for the throat section with
I
Fatigue
strength'
assessment
~
Fatii:ue strength
Nominal stresses
. ~ .
Static strength LNoml?al
Nominalstresses ) stresses
;/
Static
strength
aSseSSlllent
~ ~ .
.r" Chapter 3: "<. Chapter 4: -,
( Stade. strength )-. LO.cal. -....ali.ou.estr.c.·.n..~ t b \
".. IAcalstrcsses/" Stresses \.Li .. .)
. ~ ~ ~
In particular the procedure of calculation is completely
presented in everyone of the four chapters, even if this
results in repetitions of the same or almost the same
parts of text in Chapter I and Chapter 3 or in Chapter 2
and Chapter 4, respectively.
The procedure of calculation using nominal stresses is
to be preferred for simple rod-shaped (lD) and for shell-
shaped (2D) components. The procedure of calculation
using local stresses has to be applied to block-shaped
(3D) components, and moreover in general, if the
stresses are determined by a finite-element or a
boundary-element calculation, if there are no well-
defined cross-sections or no simple cross-section shapes,
if stress concentration factors or fatigue notch factors
are not known, or (concerning the assessment of the
static strength) in the case ofbrittIe materials.
0.3.3 Methods of strength assessment
0.3.3.0 General
In order to present the guideline clearly arranged and
user-friendly, it is organized in four chapters, Figure
0.0.3:
- Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses, Chapter I,
Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses, Chapter 2,
Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses, Chapter 3,
Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses, Chapter 4.
Correspondingly the component strength values are to
be determined
as nominal strength values or
as local strength values of the elastic local stress, of
the effective notch stress or of the structural stress.
With the procedures of calculation structured uniformly
for both types of stress determination it is intended that
more or less identical results will be obtained from
comparable strength assessments based on either
nominal stresses or local stresses.
an equivalent nominal stress, that is computedfrom the
components of nominal stress acting in the weld seam
*9.
0.3.3.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using
nominal stresses, Chapter 2
Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the
largest stress amplitudes in connection with the
respective stress spectra and the related mean stress
values. They are determined for the individual stress
components or types of stress, e.g. amplitudes and mean
values of the nominal axial (tension-compression)
7 8
stresses, Sa,zd and Sm,zd, and so forth * *, Chapter 2.1.
Relevant material properties are the fatigue limit for
completely reversed axial stress and the fatigue limit for
completely reversed shear stress of the material in
question. A technological size effect is taken into
account where appropriate. The influence of an
elevated temperature is allowed for by means of
temperature factors, Chapter 2.2.
Design parameters to be considered in particular are the
fatigue notch factors, allowing for the design of the
component (shape, size and type of loading), as well as
the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor, by
which the respective surface properties are accounted
for. By specific combination of all these factors a
summary design factor is calculated, Chapter 2.3.
The nominal values of the component fatigue limit for
completely reversed stresses follow from the derived
fatigue limit values of the material, divided by the
respective design factors, Chapter 2.4.1. From these
fatigue limit values the amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit according to the mean stress values (or the
stress ratios) are to be derived, Chapter 2.4.2. The
amplitudes that specify the variable amplitude fatigue
strength of the component are obtained from the fatigue
limit values multiplied by a factor depending on the
parameters of the stress spectrum (total number of
cycles and amplitude frequency distribution), Chapter
2.4.3.
The basic value of the safety factor is 1,5. Under
favorable conditions this safety factor may be reduced,
Chapter 2.5.
The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree
of utilization is less or equal 1,00 . The degree of
utilization for an individual stress component or type of
stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service
stress amplitude, divided by the allowable amplitude of
the component fatigue limit or of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength. The allowable
9 This assessment of the static strength for welded components is
according to DIN 18 800 part 1. As far as conditionally weldable steel,
stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials or weldable aluminum alloys
are concerned, the rules of DIN 18 800 are provisional and may be
applied with caution only.
12
oGeneral survey
amplitude value follows from the nominal amplitude of
the derived component fatigue strength divided by the
safetyfactor.
If there are several stress components or types of stress
their individual degrees of utilization are combined to
obtain the total degree of utilization. The interaction
formula to be applied to that combination allows for the
ductility of the material in question, that is in the same
way as for the assessment of the static strength, Chapter
2.6.
For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded
components using nominal stresses basic fatigue limit
values for completelyreversed stress are given. They are
independent of the tensile strength of the base material
(which is different to non-welded components). They
are converted by design factors that follow from a
classification scheme of structural weld details. The
combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses
in welded components is considered by means of a mean
stress factor together with a residual stress factor *10.
0.3.3.3 Assessment of the static strength using local
stresses, Chapter 3
Relevant characteristic local service stresses are the
extreme maximum and extreme minimum stresses of
the individual types of stress or stress components, e.g.
local values of the normal (axial and/or bending) stress,
o, and of the shear (shear and/or torsional) stress *
7
*8,
Chapter 3.1.
Relevant material properties are to be determined as for
nominal stresses, Chapter 3.2.
Design parameters are the section factors, by which an
experienced partial plasticity of the component is
allowed according to yield strength, type of loading, and
shape of the component. The section factors are
calculated on the basis of Neuber's formula, but by
observing individual upper bound values that follows
from the plastic limit load (plastic notch factor). From
the .section factors and from further parameters an
overall design factor is derived, Chapter 3.3 *11.
The local values of the static component strength are
derived from the tensile strength, divided by the
respectiveoverall design factor, Chapter 3.4.
The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal
stresses, Chapter 3.5.
10 The assessment of the fatigue strength for welded components makes
reference to the llW-Recommendations and Eurocode 3. As far as
conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials
or weldable aluminum alloys are concerned this kind of calculation is
provisional and may be applied with caution only.
11 The assessment ofthe static strength using local stresses on the basis of
Neuber's formula and the plastic limit load is an approximation which has
to be regarded as provisional and is to be applied with caution only.
13
oGeneral survey
12 The indices yand z describe the direction ofthe related vectors ofthe
bending moments My, Mz and ofthe lateral loads Fy, Fz .
nominal stresses by means of a mean stress factor
together with a residual stress factor *10.
Figure 0.0.4 Rod-shaped (ID) component (round
specimen with groove) in bending. Nominal stress S,
and maximum local stress O"m"" at the reference point W.
'z
"0.0...·
Calculation using nominal stresses
If the assessment of rod-shaped (ID) components is
carried out by using nominal stresses, Chapter I and 2,
the nominal stresses to be computed at the reference
point are Szd from an axial load, Sb from a bending
moment, T, from a shear load, and/or T
t
from a
torsional moment acting at the respective section.
For the equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 it is
provided, that both the bending stress Sb and the shear
stress T, act in the x-z-plane. Otherwise stress
components Sb,y and Sb,z , Ts,y and Ts,z are to be
considered *12.
0.3.4 Kinds of components
0.3.4.0 General
Rod-shaped (10), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) components are to be distinguished, as in each case
other stress components or types of stresses, identified
by differing symbols and subscripts, are of concern. The
distinction is only a formal one, however, and the
procedure of calculation is the same in all cases.
Specific particulars apply to welded components.
0.3.4.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
For rod-shaped (10) components - rod, bar, shaft, or
beam for example - the following system of co-ordinates
is introduced: x-axis is the longitudinal center line of
the component, y- and z-axes are the main axes of the
cross-section that are to be specified so, that for the
moments of inertia I y ~ I
z
is valid, Figure 0.0.4.
0.3.3.4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local
stresses, Chapter 4
Relevant local characteristic service stresses are the
largest stress amplitudes in connection with the
respective stress spectra and the related mean stress
values. They are determined for the individual stress
components or types of stress, e.g. amplitudes and mean
values of the local normal (axial and/or bending) stress,
0"a and O"m , and so forth *
7
*
8
, Chapter 4.1.
The relevant material properties are determined as for
nominal stresses, Chapter 4.2.
Design parameters to be considered in particular are the
Kt-Kf ratios, allowing for the design of the component
(shape and size), as well as the roughness factor and the
surface treatment factor, by which the respective surface
properties are accounted for. By specific combination of
all these factors a summary design factor is calculated,
Chapter 4.3.
The local values of the component fatigue limit for
completely reversed stresses follow from the derived
fatigue limit values of the material, divided by the
respective design factors, Chapter 4.4.1. The
conversions to the amplitude of the component fatigue
limit and to the amplitude of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength are as for nominal stresses,
Chapter 4.4.2 to 4.4.3.
The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal
stresses, Chapter 4.5.
The assessment by means of the degree of utilization is
as for nominal stresses, but with the respective local
values of the characteristic stress amplitude and the
value of the component fatigue limit or of the
component variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter
4.6.
The assessment is carried out by means of the degree of
utilization as for nominal stresses, but with the
respective local values of the characteristic service stress
and the local component strength values, Chapter 3.6.
For welded components the assessment of the static
strength using local stresses is carried out using
structural stresses (not with notch root stresses), for the
weld toe as for non-welded components, for the root of
the weld using an equivalent structural stress, that is to
be derived from the structural stress components acting
in the weld seam *9.
For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded
components using structural stresses or effective notch
stresses the same basic fatigue limit values for
completely reversed stresses apply as for nominal
stresses. They hold for effective notch stresses without
conversion, but for structural stresses they have to be
converted by factors given for some typical weld details.
The combined effect of mean stress and of residual
stresses in welded components is to be considered as for
In case of rotationally symmetrical cross-sections with
circumferential notches a resultant bending stress and a
resultant shear stress can be calculated from these stress
components,
s, ' (0.3.1)
T = T
2
+T
2
s s,y S,z
The equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 may be applied
to Sband T;
In the general case of not rotationally symmetrical
cross-sections a calculation using local stresses is
normally to be preferred.
Additional stresses at notches (as for example the
circumferential stress associated with an axial stress of a
shaft with groove) may be included in the stress
concentration factor, otherwise they will be neglected.
Calculation using local stresses
If the calculation of rod-shaped (ID) components is
carried out using local stresses *13, Chapter 3 and 4, the
local normal stresses at the reference point from axial
and from bending loading (in x-direction), azd = a as
well as the local shear stresses "ts = "t from shear and
from torsion (normal to the x-direction) are considered.
If the local stresses are calculated from the nominal
stresses by multiplication with the respective stress
concentration factors, the equations given in Chapter 3
and 4 are applicable.
However, if the calculation yields the complete local
state of stress at the reference point (as for example a
finite-element calculation does), the principle stresses
0"1, 0"2, 0"3 are computed *14 and treated as described for
block-shaped (3D) components.
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
For rod-shaped (ID) welded components *15 the
notations a and "t apply to structural stresses and the
notation aK and "tK apply to effective notch stresses *16.
13 The assessment of rod-shaped (ID) components should preferably be
carried out using nominal stresses whenever possible.
14 Principle stresses are independent of the chosen coordinate system. In
the special case of a proportional loading the directions of the principle
stresses remain fixed to the coordinates of the component. In the more
general case of non-proportional loading the directions and the amounts
of the three principle stresses will change with time, see Chapter 0.3.5.
14
oGeneral survey
0.3.4.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components Rod-shaped
(ID) welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) components - disk, plate, or shell
for example - the following system of coordinates is
introduced: The x- and y-axis are placed in the surface
at the reference point, the z-axis is normal to the surface
in thickness direction. The normal stress and the shear
stress in thickness direction are supposed to be
negligible, Figure 0.0.5.
Figure O. O. 5 Shell-shaped (2D) component (shell with
cutout detail). Local stresses aa,x at the reference point
W (peak value) and aa,x,ru. at the neighbouring point B.
Calculation using nominal stresses
If the assessment of shell-shaped (2D) components is
carried out using nominal stresses, Chapter 1 and 2, the
nominal stresses at the reference point to be computed
are the normal stresses Szdx = S, and Szdy = S, from
loadings in the x- and y-directions and T, = T from a
shear loading.
Calculation using local stresses
If the assessment of shell-shaped (2D) components is
carried out using local stresses, Chapter 3 and 4, the
local stresses at the reference point azdx = ax and
azdy = ay in the x- and y-directions and the local shear
stress r, = t are considered.
If the local stresses are computed from the nominal
stresses by multiplication with the respective stress
concentration factors, the equations given in Chapter 3
and 4 are applicable.
However, if the calculation yields the complete local
state of stress at the reference point (as for example a
finite-element calculation does), the principle stresses
0"1,0"2,0"3 are computed *14 and treated as described for
block-shaped (3D) components.
15 Rod-shaped (ID) welded components are rolled sections with circular,
tube, 1-, box or other cross-sections connected or joined with butt welds
and/or fillet welds.
15
oGeneral survey
0.3.4.3 Block-shaped (3D) components
In the general case block-shaped (3D) components are
to be calculated using local stresses, Chapter 3 and 4
*17
For block-shaped (3D) components the coordinate
system at the reference point may be of cartesian,
;70.
.. . . ; ( .. ¥ cylindrical or spherical type.
- ...
_.
- ..., ... '. .-Sx The calculation is supposed to yield the complete state
/Io-{ (It'd --of local stress at the reference point (as for example a
<;,fI"c-(<lC<{ ,finite-element calculation does). From that the principle
1:---'=--__ nO)'jJIr'rtfl.{ ..... computed *14, and for these the
, degrees of utilization are determined.
If the reference point W is located at a free surface of a
block-shaped (3D) component, Figure 0.0.8, it is
supposed that 0"1 and 0"2 are the principle stresses at the
surface, while the principle stress 0"3 is supposed to point
normally to the surface inwards the component.
In general stress gradients exist for all three principle
stresses, ·both normal to the surface and in either
direction of the surface. However, only the stress
gradients for 0" 1 and 0"2 normal to the surface can be
considered in the procedure of calculation, while the
stress gradients for 0"1 and 0"2 in any directions of the
surface and the gradients of 0"3 can not.
Block-shaped (3D) components can be calculated as
shell-shaped (2D) components if the stresses O"x , O"y and
't at the load free surface are of concern only. Calculation using effective notch stresses: Maximum stress O"Kx,max
occurring at the weld toe, see Figure 0.0.7.
Calculation using structural stress: Maximum stress O"x,max obtained from
extrapolating the stress distribution towards the weld toe.
Calculation using nominal stresses: Stress Sx .
Top: Joint, Centre: Stress distribution, Bottom: Profile. Relevant is the
stress at the reference point W (at the toe line of the weld).
Figure 0.0.6 Shell-shaped (2D) welded component.
Example: Strap with longitudinal stiffner. After Radaj
/10/.
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) welded components the notations
o"x , O"y and 't apply to structural stresses and the
notations O"Kx , O"Ky and 'tK apply to effective notch
stresses *16 .
Figure 0.0.7 Shell-shaped (2D) welded component.
Example: Cruciform joint and butt weld. After Radaj
/l0/.
Calculation using effective notch stresses: The maximum stress O"Kx,max
occurring at the toe or at the root of the weld has to be computed by
introducing a fictitious effective notch radius r = 1 rom, unless the real
radius is r > 1 rom (the fictitious notch radius is intended for the
assessment of the fatigue strength only).
The fictitious notch radius r = 1 rom applies to welded joints from
structural steel. It is supposed, however, that it is applicable for other
kinds of material as well, although this has to be considered as a
preliminary specification for welded aluminum materials so far.
Figure 0.0.8 Block-shaped (3D) component (flange).
Local longitudinal stress 0"1 and circumferential stress 0"2
at the reference point W (peak values), stresses O"u,s and
at neighboring point B.
F
\/
....... Radius r = 1 mm
/ I \
F
16 Structural stresses can be applied to the assessment of the static
strength and to the assessment of the fatigue strength. Effective notch
stresses can be applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength, but not to
the assessment of the static strength.
17 For block-shaped components the determination of a nominal stress is
not possible since there is no well defmed cross-section.
Block-shaped (3D) welded components
Welds at a load-free surface of block-shaped (3D)
components having no inner defects can be assessed as
shell-shaped (2D) welded components. Then the
notations G
x
, G
y
and 't apply to structural stresses and
the notations O"Kx , O"Ky and 'tK apply to the notch root
stresses at the surface, Figure 0.0.6.
0.3.5 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses
The stresses occurring in the cross-section or at the
reference point of a component may be caused
by a single load or
- by several loads acting simultaneously.
In both cases
an uniaxial stress or
multi axial stresses
may result at the reference point.
An uniaxial stress occurs under special circumstances
only, as for example in a tension loaded prismatic bar,
or at an unloaded edge of shell-shaped (2D) or block-
shaped (3D) components, the latter even if several loads
act on these components simultaneously, Figure 0.0.9.
In addition an uniaxial stress may be assumed at the
reference point if, by comparison, any further stresses
are small.
In general components are subject to multiaxial stresses,
however. Then two or three normal stresses, or normal
stresses and shear stresses occur at the reference point.
s, t Sy t
"-,-+ T
-"-+T
f
t-':
x
-{Q:Jt..:'
+ - ~
+ ~ a t ..
-
~
~ ~
Figure 0.0.9 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses.
Nominal stresses Sx- Sy and T.
Left: multiaxial stresses in a sheet section,
Right: uniaxial stress in a sheet section at the edge ofa cutout.
In this guideline a basic principle is defined both for an
assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue
strength in case of multi axial stresses:
the individual degrees of utilization for everyone of
the computed types of stress or stress components
have to be determined and assessed separately in a
first step, and
thereafter these individual degrees of utilization will
be combined by means of an appropriate interaction
formula to obtain the entire degree of utilization for
final assessment.
16
oGeneral survey
Assessment of the static strength
For the assessment of the static strength the most
unfavorable case to be considered is that the extreme
values of all maximum and minimum stresses occur
simultaneously. Accordingly the entire degree of
utilization has to be computed. However, stresses of
different sign that will decrease the entire degree of
utilization are to be included only if they definitely
occur together with the remaining stresses, Chapter 1.6
or 3.6.
Assessment of the fatigue strength
For the assessment of the fatigue strength *18 multiaxial
stresses varying with time have to be distinguished as
follows:
proportional stresses,
synchronous stresses, or
non-proportional stresses.
Proportional stresses
Normally proportional stresses result from a single
loading acting on the component.
Examples of proportional stresses are the
circumferential and the longitudinal stresses of a
cylindrical vessel loaded by internal pressure, or the
bending and torsional stresses of a round cantilever
loaded eccentrically by a single load.
If this single acting loading is varying with time, all
multiaxial stresses are varying proportionally to that
loading and proportionally to each other, which also is
true with regard to their amplitudes and their mean
values. Further, as a consequence, the principle stresses
observe non-changing directions relative to the
component. The amounts of the stresses, also in the
stress amplitude spectra, may be converted by constant
factors. Hence all stress spectra are of similar shape, but
may differ in intensity (amount of their characteristic
maximum stress).
Proportional stresses my also result from several
loadings that act on the component simultaneously and,
for their part, change proportionally with time as well.
Then several stresses of the same kind are to be overlaid
additively.
For proportional multiaxial stresses, the interaction
formulas given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6 are exactly valid
in the sense of material mechanics, if the related rules of
signs are observed.
18 Both for the assessment ofthe fatigue limit and for the assessment of
the variable amplitude strength.
Synchronous stresses
Synchronous stresses are a simple case of non-
proportional stresses. They are proportional with regard
to their amplitudes, however non-proportional with
regard to their mean values.
Normally synchronous stresses result from a combined
action of a constant loading with a second, different
kind of loading, that is varying with time. Examples are
a shaft with a non-changing torsional loading and a
rotating bending loading. Or a long, lying cylindrical
vessel under pulsating internal pressure, where the
longitudinal stress is non-proportional to the
circumferential stress because of the bending stress from
the dead weight is additively overlaid.
For synchronous multiaxial stresses, the interaction
formulae given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6 - if observing the
related rules of sign - are valid as a useful
approximation, because they are applied to the stress
amplitudes, which are proportional to each other, and
because the fatigue strength is determined by the stress
amplitudes in the first place. Additional rules for
considering the mean stresses are required, however.
An improved procedure for the assessment of the
component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous
multiaxial stresses is presented in Chapter 5.9.
Non-proportional stresses
Non-proportional stresses result from the action of at
least two loadings that vary non-proportionally with
time in a different manner.
In this most general case of non-proportional loading
different spectra apply to the individual types of stress
that result from the combined loadings. In particular the
amounts and the directions of the principle stresses are
variable with time.
The case of variable directions of the principle stresses
can not be considered with the interaction formulas
given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6.
Appropriate methods of calculation proposed for the
assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non-
proportional stresses, that have been developed from a
material mechanics point of view, require much
computing effort and are applicable with computer
programs for short stress sequences only. Their
plausibility is currently subject of investigations.
Therefore only an approximate way of calculation for
the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non-
proportional multi-axial stresses can be given, Chapter
5.10: As proportional stresses result from each of the
acting loadings the degrees of utilization of these
individual loadings can be correctly computed and
assessed as described in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6. The so
17
oGeneral survey
determined degrees of utilization for the individual
loadings are then added linearly in order to estimate the
entire degree of utilization. Compared to usual
interaction formulas developed for proportional stresses
the linear addition may be assumed to produce results
on the safe side *19.
A necessary reservation for applying this approximate
way of calculation is, that a thorough stress analysis is
performed in every case and that careful evaluation of
the result is performed finally.
In order to reach an optimum degree of utilization of the
component fatigue strength in the case of non-
proportional multiaxial stresses, an experimental
assessment of the fatigue strength has to be
recommended according to the contemporary state of
the art.
19 For non-proportional multiaxialloadings the reference point may be at
different positions in the case ofthe combined loadings and in the case of
each ofthe individual loadings, respectively. This is because the most
damaging stresses from the combined loadings may occur at positions
different from the positions ofthe maximum stresses from the individual
loadings. By the above mentioned approximation, however, the full
damaging effect of each loading may be assumed to be superimposed at
the reference point in question.
18
oGeneral survey
1.1 Characteristic stress values
19
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
If in those cases it becomes necessary to make best use
of the long-term load bearing capacity of the component
In all other cases of constant or variable loading the
assessment will be more or less on the safe side if the
values Smax,ex,zd , ... and Smin,ex,zd, ... refer to a stress
distribution with a stress gradient, and/or if they refer to
the peak values of a variable stress history, which are of
short duration only, while for the rest of time the stress
is lower.
Elevated temperature
In case of elevated temperature the values Smax,ex,zd, ...
and Smin,ex,zd,... are relevant for a short-term loading
(related to the high temperature strength or high
temperature yield strength).
For a long-term·loading (related to the creep strength or
1% creep limit) correct results will only be obtained in
case of a constant (static) tensile stress Smax,ex,zd equally
distributed over the section of concern.
According to this chapter the characteristic service
stress values are to be determined.
Relevant are the extreme maximum and rmmmum
stresses Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd, ... of the individual stress
components expectedfor the most unfavorable operating
conditions and for special loads according to
specification or due to physical limits *3. Both the
maximum and minimum stresses can be positive or
negative. It is assumed, that all stresses reach their
extreme values simultaneously.
Page
19
20
General
Characteristic stress values
General
Rod-shaped (ID) components
Shell-shaped (2D) components
Contents
1.1.0 General
1.1.0
1.1.1
1.1.1.0
1.1.1.1
1.1.1.2
1.1 Characteristic stress values
Kt,A
~
-__c------- ~ _
. ~ - - + . _ . _ . -- -------'---- .-...-...
F F
For GGG sorts and wrought aluminium alloys with low
elongation, A < 12,5 % , for all sorts GT and GG as
well as for cast aluminium alloys the assessment of the
static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses
according to Chapter 3 *1.
In the case of very high stress concentration factors the
assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by
using local stresses according to Chapter 3 *2.
For block-shaped (3D) components the assessment of
the static strength is to be carried out by using local
stresses according to Chapter 3.
For all other kinds of material (GGG sorts and
wrought aluminium alloys with high elongation,
A'2 12,5 % , GS, milled steel and forging-steel) and for
smaller stress concentration factors of rod-shaped (lD)
and of shell-shaped (2D) components the assessment of
the static strength using nominal stresses is applicable.
Figure 1.0.1 Different sections for a static failure
occurring as a local failure (A) or as a global failure (B).
1.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the static
strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.
It should be observed that not necessarilythe component
static strength is determined by a failure occurring at a
notched section. Likewise a global failure occurring at a
different, unnotched or moderately notched section of
the component may be determining, Figure 1.0.1.
1 Assessment of the static
strength using nominal stresses
IR>11 N.doq
1 Because these materials lack sufficient plasticity.
2 Because extremely high local strains are associated with a very high
stress concentration factor. The stress concentration factor Kt = 3 ofaflat
bar with ahole issuggested asalimit value.
3 In general the values Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd for the assessment of
the static strength are the extreme values of a stress history. For the
assessment ofthe fatigue strength a stress spectrum is tobe derived from
that history consisting ofstress cycles ofthe amplitudes Sa,zd,i and the
mean values Sm,zd,i , Chapter 2.1.
The largest amplitude ofthis stress spectrum is Sa,zd, 1 , and the related
mean value is Sm,zd,l . The related maximum and minimum values are
Smax,zd,l = Sm,zd,l + Sa,zd,l and Smin,zd,l = Sm,zd,l - Sa,zd,l . The
values Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd may be different from the values
Smax,zd, 1 and Smin,zd, 1 . This is because extreme, very seldom
occurring events are important only for the assessment of the static
strength, but hardly for the assessment ofthe fatigue strength. In a stress
spectrum which issupposed toapply tonormal service conditions they do
not have tobe considered therefore.
1.1 Characteristic stress values
(because otherwise the assessment cannot be achieved)
an expert stress analysis is recommended to define the
appropriate stress value to be used for the assessment.
Such an analysis is beyond the scope of the present
guideline, however.
Superposition
If several stress components act simultaneously at the
reference point, they are to be overlaid. For the same
type of stress (for example tension and tension
Smax,ex,zd,l, Smax,ex,zd,2 , ... ) the superposition is to be
carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single
stress value (Smax,ex,zd, ...) exists for each type of stress
*4. For different types of stress (for example bending
and torsion, or tension in direction x and tension in
direction y) the superposition is to be carried out at the
assessment stage, Chapter 1.6.
Stress components acting opposed to each other and
which do not or can not occur simultaneously, are not to
be overlaid however.
1.1.1 Characteristic stress values
20
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Figure 1.1.1 Components of nominal stress SII' Til' SJ.
and TJ. in welds. After DIN 18800, Part 1.
Left: Butt weld, Right: Fi)let weld; the nominal stress istobecomputed
with the throat thickness a.
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
For rod-shaped (ID) welded components the nominal
stresses are in general to be determined separately for
the toe section and for the throat section *7.
For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be
computed as for non-welded components, Eq. (1.1.1)
.For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses have
to be computed from the nominal stresses resulting from
the particular types of loading, Figure 1.1.1 *8.
The extreme maximum and minimum values of the
equivalent nominal stresses are
1.1.1.0 General
Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D), as well as non-
welded and welded components are to be distinguished.
11.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
For rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components an axial
stress Szd , a bending stress Sb, a shear stress T, *5
and/or a torsional stress T
t
are to be considered. The
extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
2 2 2
Swv,zd = S..L,zd +T..L,zd +1j1 ,zd '
S..L,zd Axial stress normal to the weld seam
T..L,zd Shear stress normal to the weld seam,
TII,zd Shear stress parallel to the weld seam.
Swv,b, T WV,s and T wv,t in analogy.
Smax,ex,wv,zd and Smin,ex,wv,zd, ....
(1.1.2)
(1.1.3)
(1.1.1) Smax,ex,zd, Smax,ex,b, Tmax.exs . Tmax,ex,t,
Smin,ex,zd, Smin,ex,b, Tmin.ex,s, Tmin,ex,t .
Stresses of different sign (Smax,ex,zd positive, Smin,ex,zd
negative for instance) are generally to be considered
separately *6. For shear and for torsion the highest
absolute value is relevant.
4 Stress components having different signs may cancel out each other in
part orcompletely.
5 Bending and shear in two planes (components y and z) are to be
considered ifappropriate, see Chapter 0.3.4.1 .
6 Particularly inthe case ofcast iron materials with different tension and
compression strength values aswell asinthe case ofunsymmetrical cross-
sections.
Stresses of different sign (Smax,ex,wv,zd posiuve,
Smin,ex,wv,zd negative for instance) are generally to be
considered separately. For shear and for torsion the
highest absolute value is relevant.
7 For welded components ingeneral anassessment ofthe static strength
istobe carried out for the toe section and for the throat section, because
the cross-sectional areas may be different and because the strength
behavior is evaluated in a different way. The assessment for the toe
section istobecarried out asfor non-welded components. The assessment
for the throat section is to be carried out with the equivalent nominal
stress Swv.zd . ...
8 According to DIN 18 800 part 1, page 36. The nominal stress SII
(normal stress parallel tothe orientation ofthe seam) istobeneglected.
9 Normally Swv,zd will result mainly from S..Lzd. Further types of
loading analogous.
(1.1.4)
1.1 Characteristic stress values
1.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components normal
stresses in the x- and y-directions Szd,x = Sx and
Szd,y = Sy as well as a shear stress Ts = T are to be
considered.
The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
Smax,ex,x , Smax,ex,y , Tmax,ex ,
Smin,ex,x , Smin,ex,y , Tmin,ex .
Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses
(negative) are generally to be considered separately *10.
For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6,
the nominal stresses are in general to be determined
separately for the toe section and for the throat
section *7.
For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be
computed as for non-welded components, Eq. (1.1.4),
For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses Swv,x,
Swv,y and Twv have to be computed from the nominal
stresses resulting from the particular types of loading,
Figure 1.1.1, according to Eq (1.1.2). The extreme
maximum and minimum values of the equivalent
stresses are
21
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Smax,ex,wv,x and Smin,ex,wv,x , .... (1.1.5)
In case of opposing effect Smax,ex,wv,x is to be regarded
as positive and Smin,ex,wv,x as negative. Tension and
compression are generally to be considered separately.
For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.
10 See footnote *6. And moreover because the second normal stress Sy
may reduce the degree ofutilization.
1.2 Material properties
22
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
1.2.3 Anisotropy factor
1.2.4 Compression strength factor and
shear strength factor
1.2.4.0 General
1.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
1.2.4.2 Shear strength factor
11m EN.dog
fIg)
values '.'
liCCj)tding.
to s.tanqai"ds
Component
values -
24
23.
27
26
Page
22
Component values according to standards
General
Component values according to standards
of semi-finished products or test pieces
Component values according to the
drawing
Special case of actual component values
Technological size factor
General
Dependence on the effective diameter
Effective diameter
Contents
1.2.0 General
1.2.1
1.2.1.0
1.2.1.1
1.2 Material properties
1.2.1.3
1.2.2
1.2.2.0
1.2.2.1
1.2.2.2
1.2.1.2
1.2.0 General
According to this chapter the mechanical material
properties like tensile strength R.n, yield strength R, and
further characteristics for non-welded and welded
components are to be determined *1.
All mechanical material properties are those of the
material test specimen. Values according to standards,
component values and component values according to
standards are to be distinguished, Figure 1.2.1.
1.2.5
1.2.5.0
1.2.5.1
1.2.5.2
1.2.5.3
Temperature factors
General
Normal temperature
Low temperature
Elevated temperature
Figure 1.2.1 Values according to standards and com-
ponent values according to standards, Rm and Rp, or
values specified by drawings, R.n.z and Rp,z .
Top: All kinds of material except GG, R
m
=:; Rm,N, Rp =:; Rp,N .
Semi-logarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties withthe
effectivediameter deft'.
Bottom: GG, Rm =:; or ~ Rm,N . Double-logarithmic decrease of the
mechanicalmaterial propertieswiththe effectivediameter deff.
Specified values according to drawings Rm,zand Rp,z.
Values according to standards
The values according to standards <Rm.N , R.n, Rp,N, Rp)
correspond to an average probability of survival
Po = 97,5 % and depend on the effective diameter cleft'
and on the technological size factor.
Material test specimen
In the context of this guideline the material test
specimen is an unnotched polished round specimen of
do = 7,5 mID diameter *2..
Component values
The component values <Rm , R.n.z , R, , Rp,z ) are valid
for the effective diameter cleft' of the component, they
may correspond to different probabilities of survival Po ,
however.
1 If in this chapter values are given for GT, GG or cast aluminum
alloys, they are needed for the assessment of the fatigue strength
only, Chapter 2, but not for the assessment of the static strength,
which is to be carried out using local stresses for these materials,
Chapter 3.
2 This definition is the basis of the presented calculation, although
specimens for tensile tests may usually have diameters different from
7,5mm.
Special case of actual component values
If specific values for a component <Rm.r , Rp,v have been
determined experimentally, they normally apply to a
probability of survival Po = 50 % ,. and therefore they
1.2 Material properties
23
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
are valid only for the particular component, but not for
the entirety of all those components. They may be used,
for instance, fora subsequent assessment of the strength
of the particular component in case of a service failure,
if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1,00 in
addition.
product *4 , in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it
is the value from the test piece defined by the material
standard.
The yield strength, Rp,N , is the guaranteed minimum
value specified for the smallest size of the semi-finished
product *4 or for the test piece defined by the material
standard *5.
4 If different dimensions of that semi-finished product are given by
the standard.
1.2.1.2 Component values according to the drawing
The component value of the tensile strength, RID, is
(1.2.2)
(1.2.3)
Rm = 0,94 . Rm,z .
The component value according to the drawing Rm,z is
the tensile strength of the material specified on the
drawing. As the value Rm,z is normally verified by
random inspection of small samples only *6, it is
assumed to have a probability of survival less than P
u
=
97,5 % . Eq. (1.2.2) converts the value Rm,z to a
component value R; that is expected to conform with
the probability of survival of P
u
= 97,5 %.
The yield strength R, corresponding to the tensile
strength Rm is *7 .
Rp= Kd,p . Rp,N . Rm,
Kd,m Rm,N
technological size factors, Chapter 1.2.2,
values of the semi-finished product or
of a test piece defined by standards,
Chapter 5.1 .
5 A probability of survival Po = 97,5 % is assumed for the component
according to standards Rm,N ' Rp,N . This probability of
survival should also applyto the values R
m
' R
p
calculated therefrom.
6 The value R
m
Z is checked by three hardness measurements
(n=3) for where every test has to reach or to exceed the
required value. The probability of survival of the lowest ofn=3 tests
may be estimated to 75 % (= 1 - 1/(n+l) = 1 - 11(3+1) = 0,75), and
may be assigned to Rm,Z . With a likely coefficient of variation of
4% the conversion to Po= 97,5 % follows from Eq. (1.2.2).
7 A conversion proportional to R
p
N I R
m
N would not be correct
since the technological size effect is more pronounced for the yield
strength than for the tensile strength.
Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive
stresses the compression strength factor f, , Chapter
1.2.4, for shear stresses the shear strength factor :4 ,
Chapter 1.2.4, and for elevated temperature the
temperature factors Kt,m, ..., Chapter 1.2.5.
3 The term yield strength is used as a generalized term for the yield
stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0.2
proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as
aluminum alloys).
1.2.1.1 Component values according to standards of
semi-finished products or of test pieces
The component values according to standards of the
tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp, are
Rm = KJ,m' K
A
' Rm,N, (1.2.1)
R, = KJ,p . K
A
' Rp,N,
KJ,m, KJ,p technological size factors, Chapter 1.2.2,
KA anisotropy factor, Chapter 1.2.3,
Rm,N , Rp,N values of the semi-finished product or
of a test piece defined by standards,
Chapter 5.1 .
In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the
tensile strength, Rm,N js the guaranteed minimum value
specified for the smallest size of the semi-finished
1.2.1 Component values according to
standards
1.2.1.0 <Teneral
The component values according to standards, Rm and
R, , are to be determined from the values of semi-
finished products or of test pieces defined by standards,
Rm,N and Rp,N , or from the component value specified in
the drawing, Rm,z . As a special case the experimentally
determined actual component values, Rm,r and Rp,r , may
be applied.
Component values according to standards
The component values according to standards <Rm , Rp)
apply to an average probability of survival P
u
= 97,5 %
and are valid for the effective diameter, delI, of the
component. Their application is not limited to a
particular component, and therefore they may be used
for an assessment of strength, valid for the entirety of
all those components.
To determine the tensile strength Rm and the yield
strength R, *3 the technological size factor, the
anisotropy factor and the temperature factors are to be
considered in general. Furthermore compression
strength and shear strength values are to be considered.
1.2 Material properties
24
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
1.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values
If only an experimental value of the tensile strength Rm,r
is known the value of the yield strength Rp,r may be
computed from Eq. (1.2.3) with Rm = Rm,r.
For milled steel there is deff,max,m = deff,max,p = 250 mm.
For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit
values cleff,max, ... ,
(1.2.11)
unless otherwise specified in the material standards.
For stainless steel within the dimensions given in
material standards there is
For GG the following technological size factor applies
to the tensile strength: For cleff 5 7,5 mm
1.2.2 Technological size factor
1.2.2.0 <ieneral
(1.2.13)
(1.2.12)
(1.2.14)
(1.2.15)
:KI,m = :KI,p = 1,
for 12 mm < deff < defl;max.m = defl;max,p = 150 mm
v. = v. = 1 1 . (,I / 7 5 mm) -0,2
, Ueff , ,
for defl;max,m = defl;max,p = 150 mm
:KI,m = :KI,p = 0,6 .
Aluminum alloys
For wrought aluminum alloys the component values of
the tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp,
are given in Chapter 5 according to the type of material
and its condition, and depending on the thickness or
diameter of the semi-finished product. To these values
the technological size factors Kt,m= Kt,p = 1 apply.
For cast aluminum alloys the technological size factors
for the tensile strength and for the yield strength are as
follows: For defl;N,m = defl;N,p = 12 mm
Welded components *11
For all kinds of material the technological size factor for
the toe section and for the throat section of welded
components is *12
For materials such as conditionally weldable steel,
stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent
calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be
applied with caution.
1.2.2.2 Effective diameter
For components with a simple shape of the cross section
the effective diameter is given according to the cross
section in Table 1.2,3.
In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is
specified in the material standards.
For the determination of the effective diameter cleff two
cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material.
(1.2.4)
(1.2.5)
(1.2.7) Kt,m = Kd,p =1.
Kt,m = 1,207,
for cleff > 7,5 mm *9
Kt,m = 1,207 . (cleff /7,5 mm) - 0,1922 .
1.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter
Non-welded components
Steel and cast iron materials
The technological size factor accounts for a decrease of
the material strength values usually observed with
increasing dimensions of the component, It is specified
as a function of the effective diameter, Figure 1.2.1. It
is different for non-welded and for welded components
*8
For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the
technological size factor is: For cleff 5 cleff,N,m
Kt,m = Kd,p=1, (1.2.8)
for cleff,N,m < cleff 5 cleff,max,m *10: (1.2.9)
!Cd, 1-0, 7686·ad,m ·lg(deff /7,5mm)
. m 1- 0, 7686· ad,m·lg(deff,N,m /7,5mm) ,
for cleff deff,max,m it is:
Kt,m = Kt,m (cleff,max,m)· (1.2.10)
cleff effective diameter, Chapter 1.2.2.2 ,
cleff,N,m, constants, Table 1.2.1 and 1.2.2 .
Considering the yield strength the values Kt,m, cleff,N,m ,
and have to be replaced by the values Kt,p , deff,N,p ,
and (except for GG).· .
8 The influence factors according toChapter 1.2.3 (KA ), Chapter 1.2.4
(fer, f't) and Chapter 1.2.5 (KT m- ...) aresupposed tobe valid for both
non-welded and welded
9 Footnote and Eq. (1.2.6) cancelled.
10 0,7686 = l/ig 20.
11 Valid for steel, cast iron material and aluminum alloys.
12 For structural steel and fine grain structural steel according to
DIN 18800, part 1, page 40.
1.2 Material properties
Table 1.2.1 Constants deff,N,m , ... , and adm, ... , for steel
Values inthe upper rowreferto thetensile strength R
m
,
Values in thelower rowreferto theyield strength R
p
.
Kinds of material
1
deff,N,m ad,m
cleff,N,p ad,p
inmm

Non-alloyed structural steel 40 0,15
DIN-EN 10 025 40 0,3
Fine grain structural steel 70 0,2
DIN 17102 40 0,3
Fine grain structural steel 100 0,25
DIN EN 10 113 30 0,3
Heat treatable steel, q&t
16
0,3
DIN EN 10 083-1 16 0,4
Heat treatable steel, n 16 0,1
DIN EN 10083-1 16 0,2
Case hardening steel, bh 16 0,5
DINEN 10 083-1 16 0,5
Nitriding steel, q&t 40 0,25
DIN EN 10 083-1 40 0,30
stainless steel
- -
DIN EN 10 088-2
Steel for big forgings, q&t 250 0,2
SEW 550
250 0,25
Steel for big forgings, n 250 0
SEW 550 250 0,15
q&t=quenched a. tempered, n=normalized, bh=blank hardened
1 Within the kinds of material there arethetypes of material.
More precise values depending on the kind of material (except
for non-alloyed structural steel) seeTable 5.1.2 toTable 5.1.7.
For 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16: deffN m = 40 mm,
values ad,mandad,p as given above. ' ,
No technological size effect within the dimensions mentioned in
thematerial standards.
For 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 or 33 NiCrMo 145: deff,N,m = deff,N,p
= 500mm or 1000 resp., values ad.mandad,p asgiven above.
Case 1
Components (also forgings) made of heat treatable steel,
of case hardening steel, of nitriding steel, both nitrided
or quenched and tempered, of heat treatable cast steel,
of GGG, GT or GG.
The effective diameter cleff from Table 1.2.3, Case 1,
applies.
In general it is:
deff= 4 . V /0, (1.2.16)
V,O Volume and surface
of the section of the component considered.
25
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Table 1.2.2 Constants deff,N,m, ... , and amn, ..., for cast
iron materials
Values intheupper row referto thetensile strength R
m
'
Values inthelower row refer to theyield strength R
p
.
Kinds of material
cleff,N,m 3.d,m
deff,N,p ad,p
inmm
Cast steel 100 0,15
DIN 1681 100 0,3
Heat treatable steel casting,
300 0,15
DIN 17 205 300 0,3
Heat treatable steel casting,
q&t, DIN 17 205, 100 0,3
types No.1, 3, 4 100 0,3
as above 200 0,15
types No. 2 200 0,3
as above 200 0,15
. types No.5, 6, 8 200 0,3
as above 500 0,15
types No.7, 9 500 0,3
GGG 60 0,15
DINEN 1563 60 0,15

15 0,15
DIN EN 1562 15 0,15
q&t= quenched and tempered
1 For GS-30 Mn5 or GS-25 CrMo 4 there is deff Nm = 800 mm
or 500mm respectively, values ad,mandad,pas above.
2 Material types see Table 5.1.11.
Valid for strength level V I, for level VII deff,N,m = deff,N,p
= 100 mm with values ad,mandad,p as above.
The values for GT are needed for the assessment of the fatigue
strength only.
Case 2
Components (also forgings) made of non-alloyed
structural steel, of fine grained structural steel, of
normalized quenched and tempered steel, of cast steel,
or of aluminum materials.
The effective diameter d
eff
is equal to the diameter or
wall thickness of the component, Table 1.2.3, Case 2.
Rod-shaped (1D) components made of quenched and
tempered steel
The effective diameter is the diameter existing while the
heat treatment is performed.
In case of machining subsequent to the heat treatment
the effective diameter cleff is the largest diameter of the
rod. In case of machining prior to the heat treatment the
effective diameter cleff is defined as the local diameter in
question. The diameter cleff according to the first
sequence of machining is an estimate on the safe side .
1.2 Material properties
26
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the
strength values in the main direction of processing is
Table 1.2.4 Anisotropy factor K
A

Steel:
For the strength values transverse to the main direction
of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab. 1.2.4 is
to be applied.
(1.2.22)
(1.2.21)
Rm
up to 600 from 600 from 900 above
in Mpa to 900 to 1200 1200
K
A
0,90 0,86 o.ss 0,80
Aluminum alloys
The anisotropy factor for cast aluminum alloys is
K
A
= 1. (1.2.20)
For forgings ·13, for which material standards specify
the strength values as depending on the testing
direction, the anisotropy factor is not to be applied:
No. Cross section
deff deff
Case 1 Case 2
1
~
d d
2
~
2s s
3
~
2s s
4
~
2b·s s
--
b+s
5
r:£13
b b
Table 1.2.3 Effective diameter deff
uminum a ovs:
Rm
up to 200 from 200 from 400
in Mpa to 400 to 600
K
A
1,00 0,95 0,90
Al II
1.2.4 Compression strength factor and
shear strength factor
1.2.4.0 (;eneral
1.2.3 Anisotropy factor
The anisotropy factor allows for the fact that the
strength values of milled steel and forgings are lower
transverse to the main direction of milling or forging
than in the main direction of processing. It is to be
supposed that the specified strength values are valid for
the main direction of processing. .
In case of multiaxial stresses, and also with shear stress,
the anisotropy factor is
K
A
= 1. (1.2.17)
The compression strength factor allows for the fact that
in general the material strength is higher in compression
than in tension.
Steel and cast iron material
The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is
K
A
= 1. (1.2.18)
For milled steel and forgings *13 the anisotropy factor
in the main direction of processing is
(1.2.19)
For the strength values transverse to the main direction
of processing the anisotropy factor from Table 1.2.4 is
to be applied.
The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the
material strength in shear is different from the tensile
strength.
1.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
For tensile stresses (axial or bending) the compression
strength factor is
(1.2.23)
For compression stresses (axial or bending) the tensile
strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced
by the compression strength Rc,m and the yield strength
in compression Rc,p:
13 With material properties depending on the direction.
(1.2.24)
1.2 Material properties
Rc,m = f, . Rm ,
Rc,F = f, . Rp,
f" compression strength factor, Table 1.2.5,
R
m
, R
p
tensile strength and yield strength, see
Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
The values Rc,m and Rc,p are not explicitly neededfor
an assessment of the static strength, as only the
compression strength factor f, is needed *14.
27
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
1.2.5.1 Normal temperature
Normal temperatures are as follows:
- for fine grain structural steel from -40°C to 60°C,
for other kinds of steel from -40°C to + lOO°C,
for cast iron materials from -25°C to + lOO°C,
for age-hardening aluminum alloys
from -25°C to 50°C,
for non-age-hardening aluminum alloys
from -25°C to lOO°C.
For normal temperature the temperature factors are
Table 1.2.5 Compression strength factor f, and shear
strength factor f,;
KT,m = ... = I. (1.2.26)
(1.2.27)
Kinds of material r, f, f,
for for
~ 1
tension compress.
Case harden' g steel 1 1 0,577
Stainless steel 1 1 0,577
Forging steel 1 1 0,577
Other kinds of steel 1 1 0,577
GS 1 1 0,577
GGG 1 1,3 0,65
Aluminum alloys 1 1 0,577
~ 1 0,577 = 1 /.J3, accordingto v. Mises criterion,
also valid for welded components.
1.2.4.2 Shear strength factor
For shear stresses the tensile strength Rm and the yield
strength Rp are to be replaced by the shear strength Rs,m
and the yield strength in shear Rs,p:
Rs,m = f't . Rm, (1.2.25)
Rs,p = f't . Rp ,
f't shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5
R
m
, Rp tensile strength and yield strength,
Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
The values Rs,m and Rs,p are not explicitly needed for
an assessment of the strength, as only the shear strength
factor f't is needed.
1.2.5 Temperature factors
1.2.5.0 General
The temperature factors allow for the fact that the
material strength decreases with increasing temperature.
Normal temperature, low temperature and higher
temperature are to be distinguished.
14 Tensile strength and yield strength in compressionare supposedto be
positive, Rc,rn, Rc,p > 0, thereforefor compressionf
cr
> 1.
1.2.5.2 Low temperature
Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
the field of application of this guideline.
1.2.5.3 Elevated temperature
In the field of elevated temperatures - up to 500°C for
steel and cast iron materials and up to 200°C for
aluminum materials - the influence of the temperature
on the mechanical properties is to be considered. In case
of elevated temperature the tensile strength R
m
is to be
replaced by the high temperature strength Rrn, T or by
the creep strength Rrn,Tt • The yield strength Rp is to be
replaced by the high temperature yield strength Rp,T or
by the 1%creep limit Rp,Tt *15.
For the short-term values Rm,T and Rp,T as well as for
the long-term values Rm,Tt and Rp,Tt Eq. (1.2.27) to
(1.2.35) apply.
Short-term values
Short term values of the static strength are
Rm,T = KT,m . R
m,
Rp,T = KT,p . R
p
,
KT,m, Kt,p. temperature factors,
Eq. (1.2.28) to (1.2.33),
R
m
, R
p
tensile strength and yield strength,
Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
The values Rm,T and Rp,T are not explicitly needed for
an assessment of the static strength, as only the
temperature factors KT,m and KT,p are needed.
Steel and cast iron materials
According to the temperature T the temperature factors
KT,m and KT,p apply as follows:
15 The relevant temperature factors will be applied in combination
with the safety factors at the assessment stage.
1.2 Material properties
28
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
for fme grain structural steel, T > 60°C *16.
KT,m = KT,p = 1 - 1,2 . 10 -3 • T / DC, (1.2.28)
for other kinds of steel *17, T > 100°C, Figure
1.2.2: (1.2.29)
KT,m = KT,p = 1-1,7' 10-
3
• (T / °C-100),
for GS, T> 100°C: (1.2.30)
Kr,m = Kr,p = 1 - 1,5 . 10 -3 . (T / °c - 100),
- for GGG, T > 100°C:
K
r. m
= Kr,p = 1 - 2,4 . (10 -3 . T / "C) 2. (1.2.31)
Kr,m = 1 - 4,5 . 10-3 . (T / °C - 50) 0,1,
K = 1 - 4 5 . 10 -3 . (T / °C - 50) > 0 1
T,p, - "
- for not age-hardening aluminum alloys:
T> 100°C, Figure 1.2.3 (1.2.33)
Kr,m = 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3 . (T / °C - 100) 0,1,
Kr,p = 1- 4,5' 10-
3
. (T / °C - 100) 0,1,
Eq. (1.2.32) and (1.2.33) are valid from the indicated
temperature T up to 200°C, and in general only, if the
relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
2S0 300
TIT.
20.0
High temperature
strength Rm,T
Rm;T 1
R. 'jm.
Cre.ep.Strength

Rm.Tl. .1
If,;"' i.I
ISO () 5&lliQ
Q
I
.High temperature
fatigueslrength
O,l
<rW,zd,1'. I
CW;Ul.. R
m
'JD
. I
o,s
1.2.3
I 0/0 creep Iimit' Rp."f'
0,3 Rp,TiR
p
I
Rp'Rm'}pt
CreepStreiiglh RmiTt
Rm,TI. I

Eq. (1.2.28) to (1.2.31) are valid from the indicated
temperature T up to 500°C. For a temperature above
350°C they are valid only, if the relevant characteristic
stress does not act on long terms.
o
o 100200 300 400 500
Tin'C
Figure 1.2.2 Temperature dependent values of the
static strength of non-alloyed structural steel plotted for
comparison.
R
p
I R
m
= Rei R
m
= 0,65,
Rm,T/R
m
= KTm = Rp,T/R
r
= KT,p,
Rm,Tt/Rm=KTt,m = Rp,Tt Rp=KTt,p·
Rm,T, Rp,T as well as Rm, Tt- Rp,Tt for t = 10
5
h,
Safety factors according to Chapter 1.5 and 2.5:
jm = 2,0, jp = Jmt = 1,5, jpt = 1,0 .Jn = 1,5 .
Figure 1.2.3 Temperature dependent values of the static
strength of aluminum alloys plotted for comparison.
Static strength values:
Rp,T/Rm= KT,m= KT,p/Rp= KT,p
Rm,Tt/Rm=KTt,m= KTt,p/Rp= KTt,p
Rm,rr. Rp,Tt for 1= 10
5
h.
Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress (N = 10
6
cycles):
O'W,zd I Rm = 0,30; O'W,zd,T I O'w,zd = KT,D.
Safety factors according to Chapter 1.5 and 2.5:
Jm = 2,0 , jp =Jmt = 1,5 , jpt = 1,0, Jn= 1,5 .
(1.2.34)
Aluminum alloys
According to the temperature T the temperature factors
KT,m and KT,p for aluminum alloys apply as follows:
- for age-hardening aluminum alloys: T > 50°C,
Figure 1.2.3 (1.2.32)
16 There is an insignificant discontinuity at T = 60°C.
17 For stainless steel no values are known up to now.
Long-tenn values
Long term values of the static strength are
R""Tt = KTt,m • R", ,
= KTt,p • R, ,
KTt,m, KTt,p temperature factors,
Figure 1.2.2 and 1.2.3, Eq. (1.2.35),
R"" R, tensile strength and yield strength,
Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
1.2 Material properties
29
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
The values Tl and are not explicitly needed for
an assessment of the static strength, as only the
temperature factors KTl,m and KTt,p are needed.
Aluminum alloys
For aluminum alloys and t = 10
5
hours Krt,m is given by
Figure 1.2.4 *20.
Figure 1.2.4 Temperature factor Krt,m Rm,Tt I R.n for
aluminum alloys and t = 10
5
hours.
The given curve is the same as in Figure 1.2.3, except that the factor
(1 / jm ) isdifferent.
Eq. (1.2.35) apply to temperatures from approximately
350°C up to 500°C, but only for stresses acting on long
terms. In general they do not apply to temperatures
below about 350°C *19.
<¢>1 Approximate values, applicable from about 350°Cto500°C.
<¢>2 Not valid for stainless steel.
Cast iron
GS <¢>6 GGG<¢>7
materials
Creep strength
aTt.m
-7,524 2,50
bTLm
9,894 - 1,83
CTtm -3,417 0
em
19,57 20
1% Creep limit
aTtn
- 10,582 0,12
bTt.D
8,127 1,52
cTt.n
- 1,607 - 1,28
Co
35,76 18
<¢>3 Initially for St38,R
m
= 360MPa, similar toSt37.
<¢>4 Initially for H 52, R
m
= 490 MPa, similar to StE 355; theabsolute
values Rill,Tt are thesame asfor St38.
<¢>5 Initially for C45N(normalized) with R
m
= 620 MPa. For C35N,
with R
m
= 550 MPa the constants -3,001 and -3,252aretobereplaced
by-2,949 and -3,198. The absolute values Rill,Tt arethe same asfor
C45N.
Table 1.2.7 Constants aTt,m, ..., Cp
Steel Non- Fine grain Heat-
alloyed structural treatable-
structural steel steel
steel

Creep strength
aTLm
- 0,994 -1,127 - 3,001
bTLm 2,485 2,485 3,987
cTt.m
- 1,260 - 1,260 - 1,423
em
20 20 24,27
1% Creep limit
aTt.n - 5,019 - 6,352 - 3,252
bTLn 7,227 9,305 5,942
Cn n - 2,636 - 3,456 - 2,728
Cn 20 20 17,71
200 300 400
TrC
1\
\
\
\
:
I \..t-
RT 100
o
constants, Table 1.2.7,
operation time in hours h atthe
temperature T.
aTt,m, ..., Cp
t
0,6
1,0
R""TI I R",
0,8
0,4
Steel and cast iron materials
Depending on the temperature T and on the operation
time t at that temperature the temperature factors Krt,m
and KTt,p apply, Figure 1.2.2 *18
2
K
=10(aTt,m+ bTt,m . Pm+ CTt,m . Pm )
Tt,m , (1.2.35)
2
K
=lO(aTt,p+ bTt,p . Pp+ CTt,p . Pp )
np ,
Pm = 10 -4. (T / C + 273)' (C
m
+ 19(t/h)),
P
p
= 10 - 4. (T / C + 273) . (C
m
+19(t/ h)),
0,2
18 Larsen-Miller-parameter P andLarsen-Miller-constant C.
19 Because the values would be unrealistic for temperatures
T < 350°C, where thevalues KT,m and KT,p arerelevant instead.
20 The temperature factor Kt,p is not defmed up to now. It may be
assumed, however, as it is essential for the assessment of the static
strength, thattheterm R
p,
Tt / jpt ismore or less equal toRill,Tt / Jmt ,
see Figure 1.2.2 (required safety factorsjpt =1,0 andjmt = 1,5).
ALarsen-Miller equation similar toEq. (1.2.32) or(1.2.33) applicable to
derive the values of KTt,m and KTt,p according to temperature T and
operation time Thas notbeen specified for aluminum alloys uptonow.
<¢>6 Initially for GS-C 25 with R
m
= 440 MPa.
-c-7 Initially for GGG-40 with R
m
= 423 MPa.
1.3 Design parameters
30
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
According to this chapter the design parameters are to
be determined.
1.3.0 General
1.3 Design parameters
Contents
1.3.0 General
KSK,zd = 1/ a.w, . (1.3.4)
KSK,b = I / (npl,b . a.w ),
KsK,s = 1/ a.w ,
KSK,t = I / (npl,t . a.w ).
For the throat section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the design factors for normal stresses in the
directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
1.3.1.2 Welded components
For welded components the design factors are generally
to be determined separately for the toe section and for
the throat section.
For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as
for non-welded components.
For the throat section of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the design factors for axial (tension or
compression), for bending, for shear and for torsional
stress are
Page
30
31
11m EN.dog
Design factors
General
Non-welded components
Welded components
Section factors
Weld factor a.w
1.3.1
1.3.1.0
1.3.1.1
1.3.1.2
1.3.2
1.3.3
(1.3.5)
1.3.1 Design factors
1.3.1.0 General
Non-welded and welded components are to be
distinguished. They can be both rod-shaped (lD) or
shell-shaped (2D).
KsK,x= 1/ a.w,
KsK,y= 1/ a.w,
KsK,s = I / a.w ,
npl,b ... section factor, Chapter 1.3.2,
a.w weld factor, Chapter 1.3.3.
Weld factors a.w are given for tension, for compression
and for shear stress.
1.3.1.1 Non-welded components
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) non-welded
components for axial (tension or compression), for
bending, for shear, and for torsional stress are
For tension and tension in bending a.w for tension is to
be applied. For compression and compression in
bending a.w for compression is to be applied. For shear
and for torsion a
w
for shear is to be applied.
KSK,zd=l, (1.3.1)
KSK,b = I / npl,b ,
KSK,s = I,
KSK,t = I / npl,t ,
npl,b ... section factor *1, Chapter 1.3.2.
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) non-welded
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are
KSK,x= I,
KsK,y = I,
KsK,s = 1.
(1.3.2)
1.3.2 Section factors
The section factors npl,b and npl,t allow for the influence
of the stress gradient in bending and/or torsion in
connection with the shape of the cross section on the
static strength of components, Figure 1.3.1. They serve
to make best use of the load carrying capacity of a
component by accepting some yielding as the outside
fiber stress exceeds the yield strength.
An essential condition is the existence of a stress
gradient normal to the surface of the component, Figure
1.3.1.
It has to be observed, however, that the derived section
factors only apply to the notched section considered and
not to the component as a whole. Therefore other
sections may have to be considered in addition, see
Chapter 1.0 and Figure 1.0.1.
1 KsK,zd = = 1 means, that the value ofthe related section factor
isnpl,zd = = 1.
1.3 Design parameters
1-SSK,b (npl,b)
1--R
p

31
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
For other types of steel, GS and GGG *4 the section
factors for tension or compression, for bending, for
shear, and for torsion are *5 *6
npl,zd = 1,
npl,b = MIN (JRp,max / R p ; Kp,b ),
npl,s = 1,
npl,t = MIN (JRp,max / R p ; Kp,t),
t
Rp,max
n,
Kp,b,Kp,t
constant, Table 1.3.1,
yield strength, Chapter 1.2,
plastic notch factors, Table 1.3.2.
(1.3.9)
Figure 1.3.1 Definition of the section factor npl,b for
bending of a notched bar, for instance.
Bending moment Mb, yield strength R
p
, static component strength
for bending SSK,b , section factor npl,b = SSK,b I R
p
.
Light straight line: fictitious distribution of the stress calculated
elastically. Solid angular line: real stress distribution when providing
elastic ideal-plastic material behavior.
Surface hardened Components
The section factors are not applicable if the component
has been surface or case hardened, see Table 2.3.5 *2
npl,b, ... = I (1.3.6)
Steel and cast iron material
For austenitic steel in the solution annealed condition *3
the section factors for tension or compression, for
bending, for shear, and for torsion are
Table 1.3.1 Constant Rp,max 1.
Kind of material Steel, GS GGG Aluminum
alloys.
Rp,max'/ MFa 1050 320 250
-c- 1 Constant defining an upper bound value of the sectionfactor
dependingon the kind of material.
Table 1.3.2 Plastic notch factors Kp,b and Kp,t .
Cross-section Bending Torsion
Kp,b Kp,t
rectangle
1
1,5 -
circle
1,70 1,33
circular ring 1,27
1
I-section or box

-
(1.3.15)
npl,zd = I,
npl,b = Kp,b ,
npl,s = 1,
n
p1,t
= Kp,t .
(1.3.8)
1 or plate, 1,70 = 16/ (3 . It), d 1,33 =4/3.
thin-walled, 1,27 = 4 / It.
5 thin-walled, otherwisethere is
3
K
p
t = 1,33' 1- (dID) , (1.3.14)
, 1-(dID)4
d, D inner and outer diameters.
1- (b I B) . (h I H)2
K
p
b = 1,5· --'-----'---'---'-:-
, 1- (b I B)· (h I H)3
b, B inner and outer width, h, H inner and outer hight.
2 Because the plasticity of a hard surface layer - for example as a
result of case hardening - is limited, it may observe cracks when
yielding occurs, particularly at notches where the calculation of
nominal stress neglects the stress and strain concentration.
Possibly this rule is too far on the safe side, as npl = 1,1 is allowedfor
casehardenedshafts accordingto the recent DIN743 (launchedin 2000).
3 Because of the high ductility of austeniticsteel in the solutionannealed
conditionthe plastic notch factors Kp,b and Kp,t are relevant and not the
givenmaterial dependentsectionfactors.
4 GT and GO are not consideredhere becausethe assessmentof the static
strengthhas to be carriedout usinglocal stressesfor these materials.
5 MIN means that the smaller value fromthe right side of the equationis
valid.
6 Upper and lower bound values of the section factors are the plastic
notch factor and 1,00
1.3 Design parameters
Aluminum alloys
For ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A2 12,5 %) the
section factors are to be determined from Eq (1.3.9) *7.
1.3.3 Weld factor U
w
The weld factor Ci.w accounts for the effect of a weld. It
applies to the throat section of welded components only,
Tab. 1.3.3 *8.
Table 1.3.3 Weld factor Ci.w ~ 1 .
32
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Joint Weld quality
Type of RmS R
m
>
stress 360 MPa 360Mua
full all Compression
penetration
~ 2
weld verified 1,0 1,0
or with Tension 10
back weld not
verified
partial all Compression 0,95 0,80
penetration or 0,80
or fillet Tension
weld
all all Shear
welds
butt weld Tension 0,55 -
~ 3
055
~ 1 Accordingto DIN 18 800 part 1, Table 21 and Eq. (75).
~ 2 For aluminum alloys (independent of Rm ) the values typed in
in boldface should be applied for the time being.
~ 3 Butt welds of sectional steel from St 37-2 or USt 37-2 with a
product thickness t> 16 mm.
7 Less ductile aluminum alloys (A < 12,5 %) and cast aluminum alloys
are not consideredhere because the assessmentof the static strengthhas to
be carried out using local stressesfor these materials.
8 For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as for non-
welded components.
1.4 Component strength
33
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
According to this chapter the nominal values of the
component static strength are to be determined.
Non-welded and welded components are to be
distinguished. They can be both rod-shaped (10) or
shell-shaped (2D).
1.4.1 Non-welded components
The nominal values of the component static strength of
rod-shaped (lD) components for axial (tension or
compression), for bending, for shear, and for torsional
stress are * 1 *2 *3
SSK,zd = fa' Rut/ KSK,zd, (1.4.1)
SSK,b = fa . Rut/ KSK,b ,
TSK,s = f't . Rut/ KSK,s,
TSK,t = f't' Rut/ KSK,t.
The nominal values of the component static strength of
shell-shaped (2D) components for normal stresses
(tension or compression) in the directions x and y as
well as for shear stress are
1.4.2 Welded components
For welded components the strength values are
generally to be determined separately for the toe section
and for the throat section.
(1.4.5) SSK,x = fa . Rut/ KsK,x ,
SSK,y = fa . Rut/ KsK,y ,
TSK = f't' Rut/ KsK,s,
compression strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4,
tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1,
design factor, Chapter 1.3.1.
shear strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4.
fa
Rut
KsK,zd, ...
f't
For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as
for non-welded components.
For the throat section of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the nominal values of the component static
strength for axial (tension or compression), for bending,
for shear, and for torsional stress are
SSK,zd = fa' Rut/ KSK,zd, (1.4.4)
SSK,b = fa . Rut/ KSK,b ,
TSK,s = f't' Rut/KSK,s,
TSK,t = f't . Rut/ KSK,t .
For the throat section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the nominal values of the component static
strength for axial (tension or compression) stresses in
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
1R14 E N . d o ~
Page
33
Contents
1.4.0 General
1.4.1 Non-welded components
1.4.2 Welded components
1.4.0 General
1.4 Component strength
SSK,x = fa . Rut/ KsK,x ,
SSK,y = fa . Rut/ KsK,y ,
T
SK
= f't' Rut/ KsK,s,
(1.4.2)
fa
Rut
SSK,zd ...
f't
compression strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4,
tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1,
design factor, Chapter 1.3.1,
shear strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4.
1 The component static strength values are different for normal stress and
for shear stress, and moreover they are different due todifferent section
factors according tothe type ofstress.
2 Basically the tensile strength R
m
is the reference value of static
strength, even if inthe case ofa low R
p
/ R
m
ratio the yield strength
should tobe used for the assessment ofthe static strength, afact that is
accounted for in Chapter 1.5.5, however.
3 The tensile static strength isthe reference value for the bending static
strength, too. The difference instatic strength inbending compared tothe
static strength intension orcompression is accounted for by the design
factor. Torsional static strength inanalogy.
1.5 Safety factors
34
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
1.5.1 Steel
According to this chapter the safety factors are to be
determined.
Safety factors that generally apply to the tensile strength
and to the yield strength, to the creep strength and to the
creep limit are given in Table 1.5.1.
The safety factors are valid under the condition that the
design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and
that the material properties correspond to an average
probability of survival of Po = 97,5 % *1 .
The safety factors may be reduced under favorable
conditions, that is depending on the probability of
occurrence of the characteristic stress values in question
and depending on the consequences of failure.
The safety factors are valid for both non-welded and
welded components.
The safety factors given in the following are valid for
ductile materials. In this respect any types of steel are
ductile materials, as well as cast iron materials
and wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
A
5
~ 12,5 %. *2.
A5 ~ 12,5 %).
jm
-¢-1
Consequences offailure
jp
-¢-2
severe moderate
jmt
-¢-3
-¢-5
. -¢-4
Jpt
high 2,0 1,75
1,5 1,3
Probability of 1,5 1,3
occurrence of 1,0 1,0
the characteristic.
low 1,8 1,6
service stress
-¢-6
1,35 1,2
values
1,35 1,2
1,0 1,0
1.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
Table 1.5.1 Safety factors jm and jp for steel
(not for GS) and for ductile wrought aluminum alloys
-¢-1 referringtothe tensile strength R
m
ortothe strength at elevated
temperature RmT ,
-¢-2 referring tothe yield strength R
p
ortothe hot yield strength R
p,
T,
-¢-3 referring tothe creep strength Rm,Tt ,
-¢-4 referring tothe creep limit R
p,
Tt .
-¢-5 moderate consequences offailure of a less important component in
the sense of"no catastrophic effects" being associated with a failure; for
example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a
statically undeterminate system. Reduction by approximately 15 %.
-¢-6 or only infrequent occurrences of the characteristic service stress
values, for example stresses due toanapplication ofproof loads ordue to
loads during anassembling operation. Reduction by approximately 10 %.
1.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys
Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are
the same as given for steel in Table 1.5.1, in particular
all types of wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
A5 ~ 12,5 %, see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30 ·2.
35
IR015 EN.dog
Page
34 General
Steel
Cast iron materials
Wrought aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys
Total safety factor
Contents
1.5.0
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4
1.5.5
1.5 Safety factors
1.5.0 General
1.5.2 Cast iron materials
Cast aluminum alloys are non-ductile materials for
which there is no need of giving safety factors here ·2.
Cast iron materials with an elongation
As ~ 12,5 % are considered as ductile, in particular all
types of GS and some types of GGG, see Table 5.1.12.
Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in
Table 1.5.2. Compared to Table 1.5.1 they are higher
because of an additional partial safety factor jp that
accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in
castings. The factor is different for castings that have
been subject to non-destructive testing or have not *3 .
2 All types of GT, GG and cast aluminum alloys have elongations
As < 12,5 % and are considered as non-ductile materials. Wrought
aluminum alloys with elongations As < 12,5 % are considered asnon-
ductile materials, too. Fornon-ductile materials the assessment of the
static strength is to be carried out with local stresses according to
Chapter 3.
3 In mechanical engineering cast components areof standard quality
for which a further reduction of thepartial safety factor tojF = 1,0
does not seem possible up tonow.
1Statistical confidence S= 50 %.
A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast
components inthe aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast
components have to meet special demands and checks on
qualification of the production process, as well as onthe quality and
extent of product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their
mechanical properties.
1.5 Safety factors
35
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
1.5.5 Total safety factor
From the individual safety factors the total safety factor
jgesis to be derived *4:
Simplifications
The following simplifications apply to Eq. (1.5.4) :
In the case of normal temperature the third and j
fourth term have no relevance *6, and moreover
there is KT,m = KT,p = 1,
- for Rp / 0,75 the first term has no relevance,
for Rp / Rm > 0,75 the second term has no
relevance *7.
Table 1.5.2 Safety factors jmand jp for ductile cast iron
materials (GS; GGG with A
5
12,5 %)
jm Consequences offailure
jp severe moderate
jmt
Jpt
castings not subject to non-destructive testing
high 2,8 2,45
2,1 1,8
Probability of 2,1 1,8
occurrence 1,4 1,4
of the characteristic low 2,55 2,2
stress 1,9 1,65
1,9 1,65
1,4 1,4
castings subject to non-destructive testing
high 2,5 2,2
1,9 1,65
Probability of 1,9 1,65
occurrence 1,25 1,25
of the characteristic low 2,25 2,0
stress 1,7 1,5
1,7 1,5
1,25 1,25
1 Explanatory notes for the safety factors see Table 1.5.1.
Compared toTable 1.5.1 anadditional partial safety factor iF= 1,4
isintroduced toaccount for inevitable but allowable defects incastings.
Compared toTable 1.5.1 anadditional partial safety factor iF= 1,25
isintroduced, for which it isassumed that a higher quality ofthe castings
isobviously guaranteed when testing.
jm ...
Kt,m···
safety factors, Table 1.5.1 and 1.5.2,
temperature factors, Chapter 1.2.5 *5.
4 MAX means that the maximum value of the four terms in the
parenthetical expression isvalid.
5 Applicable tothe tensile strength R
m
orthe yield strength R
p
toallow
for the tensile strength at elevated temperature T' the creep strength
Rm,Tt , the hot yield strength or the creep limit Rp,Tt ,
respectively.
6 The terms containing the factors KTt,m and KTt,f must not beapplied
in the case of normal temperature, as they wil produce misleading
results.
7 If there is a ratio ofthesafety factors i
p
lim = 0,75.
36
1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
1.6 Assessment
Contents
1.6.0
1.6.1
1.6.1.1
1.6.1.2
1.6.2
1.6.2.1
1.6.2.2
General
Rod-shaped (ID) components
Individual types of stress
Combined types of stress
Shell-shaped (2D) components
Individual types of stress
Combined types of stress
1*16 EN. dog
Page
36
37
38
39
Superposition
For stress components of the same type of stress the
superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter
1.1.
If different types of stress like axial stress, bending
stress ... *5 are to be considered and if the resulting
state of stress is multiaxial, see Figure 0.0.9 *6, the
particular extreme maximum stresses and the extreme
minimum stresses are to be overlaid as indicated in the
following.
(1.6.1)
1.6.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the static
strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.
In general the assessments for the individual types of
stress and for the combined types of stress are to be
carried out separately *1 *2.
In general the assessments for the extreme maximum
and the extreme minimum stresses (axial stresses in
tension or compression and/or bending stresses in
tension or compression) are to be carried out separately.
For steel or wrought aluminum alloys and a symmetrical
cross-section the highest absolute value is relevant *3.
The calculation applies to both non-welded and welded
components. For welded components assessments are
generally to be carried out separately for the toe section
and for the throat section as indicated in the following.
Kinds of component
Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
to be distinguished. They can be both non-welded or
welded
1.6.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
1.6.1.1 Individual types of stress
Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
The degrees of utilization of rod-shaped non-welded
components for the different types of stress like axial,
bending, shear or torsional stress are
S
- max,ex,zd < 1
aSK,zd - . -,
SSK,zd / Jges
Smax,ex,b
aSK,b = .:s:; 1,
SSK,b / Jges
_ Tmax,ex,t
aSK,t - .:s:; 1,
TSK,t / Jges
:s:; 1,
a - Tmax,ex,s
sK,s - T. / .
SK,s Jges
Smax,ex,zd ... extreme maximum stresses according to
type of stress; the extreme minimum
stresses, Smin,ex,zd ... , are to be considered
in the same way as the maximum stresses,
Chapter 1.1.1.1,
related component static strength,
Chapter 1.4.1,
SSKzd ...
Degree of utilization
The assessments are to be carried out by determining the
degrees of utilization of the component static strength.
In the context of the present Chapter the degree of
utilization is the quotient of characteristic service stress
(extreme stress Smax,ex,zd, ...) divided by the allowable
static stress at the reference point *4. The allowable
static stress is the quotient of the nominal component
static strength, SSK,zd, ... , divided by the total safety
factor jges . The degree of utilization is always a positive
value.
1 It is a general principle for an assessment of the static strength to
suppose that all types of stress observe their maximum (or minimum)
values atthe same time.
2 This is in order to examine the degrees ofutilization ofthe individual
types ofstress ingeneral, and inparticular ifthey may occur separately.
3 Not so for cast iron materials orcast aluminium alloys with different
static tension and compression strength values orfor an unsymmetrical
cross-section.
4 The reference point is the critical point ofthe cross section that observes
the highest degree ofutilization.
total safetyfactor, Chapter 1.5.5.
5 Bending stresses intwo planes,' Sb,z and Sb,y, are different types of
stress, also shear stresses intwo planes, Ts,z and Ts,y .
6 Only inthe case ofstresses acting simultaneously the character ofEq.
(1.6.4) and (1.6.12) is that ofa strength hypothesis. If Eq. (1.6.4) and
(1.6.12) are applied inother cases, they have the character ofan empirical
interaction formula only. For example the extreme stresses from bending
and shear will - as arule - occur atdifferent points ofthe cross-section, so
that different reference points W are tobe considered. As.a rule bending
will be more important. Moreover see Footnote 1.
1.6 Assessment
37
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In
general axial stresses (tension and compression) and
bending stresses (tension and compression) are to be
considered separately. For shear and torsion the highest
absolute value of shear stress is relevant.
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
For the toe section of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components.
For the throat section of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the degrees of utilization for an axial,
bending, shear and/or torsional type of loading follow
from the equivalent nominal stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.1:
aSK,Sv = q . aNH+ (l - q)' aoH:::; 1,
where *8
+4.t
2),
aoH=Js2 +t
2
,
S = aSK,zd + aSK,b ,
t = aSK,s + aSK,t ,
aSK,zd, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.1).
and
(1.6.4)
(1.6.5)
(1.6.6)
(1.6.7)
S
a = max,ex,wv,zd < 1
SK,wv,zd S / . -,
SK,zd Jges
S
a - max,ex,wv,b :::; 1
SK,wv,b - S / . ,
SK,b Jges
Tmax,ex, wv,s
asK,wv,s = .:::; 1,
TSK,s / Jges
T
aSK,wvt= max,ex,wv,t :::; 1,
, T /.
SK,t Jges
(1.6.2)
f, shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress (axial and
bending, or shear and torsion, respectively) always act
unidirectionally at the reference point *10, the degrees
of utilization aSK,zd and aSK,b and/or asK,s and asK,t are
to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.6) with equal (positive) signs
(summation); then the result will be on the safe side. If
they act always opposingly, however, *ll, they are to be
inserted into Eq. (1.6.6) with different signs
(subtraction) *12.
Smax,ex,wv,zd, ... extreme maximum stresses (equivalent
nominal stresses); the extreme minimum
stresses, Smin,ex,wv,zd ... , are to be
considered in the same way as the
maximum stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.1,
SSK,zd ... related component static strength,
values, Chapter 1.4.2,
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5.
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In
general axial stresses (tension and compression) and
bending stresses (tension and compression) are to be
considered separately. For shear and torsion the highest
absolute value of shear stress is relevant.
1.6.1.2 Combined types of stress
Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
For rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components the degree
of utilization for combined types of stresses is *7
7 The applied strength hypothesis for combined types of stress is a
combination ofthe normal stress criterion (NH) and the v. Mises criterion
(GH). Depending on the ductility of the material the combination is
controlled by a parameter q as a function off, according toEq. (1.6.7)
and Table 1.6.1. For steel isq = 0so that only the v. Mises criterion isof
effect. For GOG isq = 0,264 so that both the normal stress criterion and
the v. Mises criterion are of partial influence.
8 Inthe the case ofassessing the static strength the degrees ofutilization
aSK,zd and aSK,b are defined by the static component strength values
SSK,zd and SSK,b . Contained inthese are the section factors for tension
or compression, npl,zd , and for bending, npl,b . aSK,zd and aSK,b are
overlaid linearly when computing the value s. For shear and torsion in
analogy. Compared to a more precise solution this procedure is on the
safe side. .
9 Table 1.6.1 Constant q(f,).
Steel, GOG GT, GG
Wrought Cast
Al-allovs Al-allovs
f', 0,577 0,65
q 0,00 0,264
Caution: Here only ductile wrought aluminium alloys are considered
(elongation A > 12,5 %). For non-ductile wrought aluminium alloys (as
well asfor cast aluminium alloys, and for GT or GG) the assessment of
the static strength istobe carried out according toChapter 3.
10 For example a tension stress from axial loading and a tension stress
from bending acting at the reference point, where both result from the
same single extemalload affecting the component
11 For example a tension stress from axial loading and a compression
stress from bending acting at the reference point, where both result from
the same single external load affecting the component.
12 Stress components acting opposingly may cancel each other inpart or
completely.
38
1.6 Assessment 1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
aSK,wv,zd, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.2).
J(aSK,WV,Zd +aSK,wv,b)2+(aSK,wv,s +aSK, wv.t )2 ,
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
Smin,ex,zd , Smin,ex,b , Tmin.ex,s and Tmin.ex.t are to be included
in this comparative evaluation.
In the general case - without knowing whether the
stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *13 - the
degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.6)
both with equal or with different signs; then the least
favorable case is relevant.
(1.6.9)
Smax,ex,y
aSK,y = ::;; 1,
SSK,y / jges
Smax,ex,x
aSK,x = s 1,
SSK,x / jges
Tmax,ex s 1·
aSK,s = ,
T
SK
/ jges
Smax,ex,x ... extreme maximum stresses according to
type of stress; the extreme minimum
stresses, Smin,ex,x ... , are to be considered
in the same way as the extreme maximum
stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.2,
SSK,x ... related component static strength,
Chapter 1.4.1,
Jges total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5.
All extreme stresses may be positive or negative (or
zero). In general tension and compression stresses are to
be considered separately. For shear stress the highest
absolute value is relevant.
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
For the toe section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components.
For the throat section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the degrees of utilization for normal
stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear
stress follow from the equivalent nominal stresses,
Chapter 1.1.1.2:
1.6,2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
1.6.2.1 Individual types of stress
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
The degrees of utilization of shell-shaped (2D) non-
welded components for the types of stress like normal
stress in the directions x and y as well as shear stress are
(1.6.8) aSK,Swv =
Rod-shaped (1D) welded components
For the toe section of rod-shaped (10) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components.
For the throat section of rod-shaped (10) welded
components the degree of utilization for combined types
of stresses (or loadings) is *14
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress (tension
or compression and bending, or shear and torsion,
respectively) always act unidirectionally at the reference
point *10, the degrees of utilization aSK,wv,zd and aSK,wv,b
and/or aSK,wv,s and aSK,wv,t are to be inserted into Eq.
(1.6.8) with equal (positive) signs (summation); then the
result will be on the safe side. If they act always
opposingly, however, *11, they are to be inserted into Eq.
(1.6.8) with different signs (subtraction) *12.
In the general case - without knowing whether the
stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly '13 - the
degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.8)
both with equal or with different signs; then the least
favorable case is relevant.
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
Smin,ex,wv,zd , Smin,ex,wv,b , Tmin,ex,wv,s and Tmin,ex,wv,t are to be
included in this comparative evaluation.
S
a - max,ex,wv,x < 1
SK,wv,x - S / . -,
SK,x Jges
a =ISmax, ex,wv,y I< 1
SK,wv,y . -,
SSK,y / Jges
(1.6.10)
T.
a = max,ex,wv < 1
SK,wv,s T. / . -,
SK,s Jges
13 For example, iftwo loadings vary with time in a different manner.
14 Eq. (1.6.8) does not agree with the structure ofEq. (1.1.2) onpage 20
in all respects. It is an approximation which has to be regarded as
provisional and therefore it istobeapplied with caution.
Smax,ex,wv,x ... extreme maximum stresses (equivalent
nominal stresses); the extreme minimum
stresses, Smin,ex,wv,x ... , are to be
considered in the same way as the .
maximum stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.1,
1.6 Assessment
39
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
All extreme stresses may be positive or negative (or
zero). In general tension and compression stresses are to
be considered separately. For shear stress the highest
absolute value is relevant.
SSK,x'"
related component static strength,
Chapter 1.4.2,
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5.
Shell-shaped (2D)"welded components
For the toe section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components.
For the throat section of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the degree of utilization for combined types
of stress (or loadings) is *14
1.6.2.2 Combined types of stress
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
The degree of utilization of shell-shaped (2D) non-
welded components for combined stresses is *7
222
asK,Swv = aSK,wv,x +aSK,wv,y +aSK,wv,s' (1.6.16)
aSK,wv,x, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.10).
aSK,Sv = q . aNH + (1 - q) . aGH:::; 1, (1.6.12)
where
aNH=1{lsx + s y l + ~ ( S x _Sy)2 +4.t
2)'
(1.6.13)
J
2 2 2
aaH= Sx +Sy -sx 'Sy +t ,
sx= aSK,x,
Sy= asK,y,
t = aSK,s,
aSK,x, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.9),
and
f't shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
(1.6.14)
(1.6.15)
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress always act
unidirectionally at the reference point *15, the degrees
of utilization aSK,x and aSK,y are to be inserted into Eq.
(1.6.14) with equal (positive) signs (summation). If they
always act opposingly, however *16, the degrees of
utilization aSK,x and asK,y are to be inserted into Eq.
(1.6.14) with different signs.
In the general case - without knowing whether the
stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *13 - the
degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.14)
both with equal or with different signs; then the least
favorable case is relevant.
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
Smin,ex,x , Smin,ex,y and Tmin.ex,s are to be included in this
"comparative evaluation.
15 For example tension in direction x and tension in direction y from a
single loading affecting the component.
16 For example tension in direction x and compression in direction y from
a single loading affecting the component.
1.6 Assessment
40
1 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
41
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
2 Assessment of the fatigue
strength using nominal stresses
1R21 E N . d o ~
A special case is the constant amplitude spectrum,
consisting of one step i = j = 1 only. For axial stress
there is Sa,zd = Sa,zd,i = Sa,zd,1, Sm,zd = Sm,zd,i = Sm,zd,1 .
2.0 General
2.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue
strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.
2.1.0 General 41
2.1.1 Characteristic service stresses
according to the kind of component
2.1.1.0 General
2.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (lD) components
2.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components 42
Superposition
Proportional or synchronous stresses
If several proportional or synchronous stress
components act simultaneously at the reference point,
Chapter 0.3.5, they are to be overlaid. For the same type
of stress (for example unidirectional axial stresses
Sa,zd,l. Sm,zd,1 and Sa,zd,2, Sm,zd,2 , ...) the superposition
is to be carried out at this stage, so that in the following
a single stress component (Sa,zd, Sm,zd, ...) exists for each
type of stress *2. For different types of stress (for
example bending and torsional stress or axial stresses in
x- and y-direction) the superposition is to be carried out
at the assessment stage, Chapter 2.6.
Page Contents
2.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the
component constant amplitude S-N curve
2.1.4 Determination of the parameters
of a service stress spectrum
2.1.4.0 General
2.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum
2.1.4.2 Class of utilization
2.1.4.3 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude
2.1.2
2.1.2.0
2.1.2.1
2.1.2.2
Parameters of the service stress spectrum
General
Mean stress spectrum
Stress ratio spectrum
43
44
45
Non-proportional stresses
If several non-proportional stress components act
simultaneously at the reference point, Chapter 0.3.5,
they are to be overlaid according to Chapter 5.10.
2.1.1 Characteristic service stresses
according to the kind of component
2.1.1.0 General
Rod-shaped (10) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
to be distinguished. They may be both non-welded or
welded.
2.1.0 General
2.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
For rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components an axial
stress Szd , a bending stress Sb, a shear stress Ts- and a
torsional stress T
t
are to be considered *3 . The
respective amplitudes and mean values are
According to this chapter the parameters of the service
stress spectra are to be determined. Spectra are
applicable for N > 10
4
cycles approximately.
Relevant are the stress spectra of the individual stress
components. They are specified by a number of steps,
i = 1 to j , giving the amplitudes Sa,zd,i. ... and the
related mean values Sm,zd,i , ... of stress cycles, Figure
2.1.1, as well as the related numbers of cycles n,
according to the required fatigue life *1.
Sa,zd,i , Sa,b,i , Ta,s,i , Ta,t,i ,
Sm,zd,i, Sm,b,i, Tm.s.i s Tm,t,i .
(2.1.1)
Figure 2.1.1
Stress cycle
Example:
stress cycle (axial stress),
stress ratio:
R . = Sm,zd,i -Sa,zd,i
Zd,1 S d . +S d··
m,Z,1 a,Z,1
Sm,zd,f - -- -
S.,zd,i
S.,zd,1
t
1 As a rule a stress spectrum is to be determined for normal service
conditions, see footnote 3 on page 19. The largest amplitude Sa zd 1 ofa
service stress spectrum with its related mean stress value Sm,zd,1' defme
the step i = 1 and serve as the characteristic stress values.
2 Stress components acting opposingly can cancel each other inpart or
completely.
42
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6,
stress values are in general to be determined separately
for the toe section and for the throat section *4.
Respective amplitudes and mean values see Eq. (2.1.4).
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
For rod-shaped (lD) welded components the (nominal)
stress values are in general to be determined separately
for the toe section and for the throat section *4.
Respective amplitudes and mean values see Eq. (2.1.1).
2.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components the
(nominal) axial stresses in x- and y-direction, Szdx = Sx
and Szdy = Sy, as well as a shear stress T, = T are to be
considered. The respective amplitudes and related mean
values are
2.1.2 Parameters of the stress spectrum
2.1.2.0 General
A stress spectrum describes the stress cycles contained
in the stress history of concern *5 •
If the stress cycles show variable amplitudes a stress
spectrum is to be determined for every stress component
*6. The constant amplitude stress spectrum may be
regarded in the following as a special case '7 , for which
i = I and
(2.1.9)
(2.1.10)
[ )
kO"
j hi Sa zd,i
Yzd = ke L-=""' --'-
i=l H Sa,zd,l
H
Parameters of the stress spectrum are:
n.
1
Sa,zd 1 characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the
, stress spectrum, equal to the amplitude in step 1
Sa,zd,i amplitude in step i,
Sa,zd,i > 0, Sa,zd,i+1 / Sa,zd,i :s: 1,
Sm,zd,i mean value in step i,
N total number of cycles corresponding to the
required fatigue life
(required total number of cycles),
N = Lni (summed up for 1 to j),
related number of cycles in step i,
N, = Lni (summed up for 1 to i),
total number of cycles of a given spectrum,
- 8
H = Hj = Lhi (summed up for 1 to j) * ,
related number of cycles in step i,
Hi = Lhi (summed up for 1 to i),
step, i = 1 to j,
total number of steps, step for the smallest
amplitudes
damage potential. Yzd

1
The damage potential is defined by *5 *9,
j
where 1<" is the exponent of the component S-N curve.
Sa,zd,i / Sa,zd,l and hi /H describe the shape of the stress
spectrum. The amplitudes Sa,zd,i are always positive, the
mean values Sm,zd.i may be positive, negative, or zero.
As a rule a restriction to the following kinds of stress
spectra is possible: Mean stress spectra and stress ratio
spectra (with the fluctuating stress spectra as a special
case), Figure 2.1.2 *10.
(2.1.4) Sa,x,i, , Sa,y,i , Ta,i ,
Sm,x,i, , Sm,y,i, Tm,i .
3 Where appropriate bending and shear stresses in two planes are tobe
considered (components yand z), see Chapter 0.3.4.1 .
4 For welded components separate assessments ofthe fatigue strength for
both the toe section and the throat section ofthe weld are tobe carried
out. Both assessments are ofthe same kind, but ingeneral the respective
stresses and fatigue classes FAT are different.
5 In the following all variables and equations are presented for the axial
stress component Szd only, but written with the appropriate indices they
are valid for all other types ofstress aswell..
6 In this case an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength isto
be carried out.
Sa,zd = Sa,zd,i = Sa,zd,l ,
N= N = ni = n1
(2.1.8)
7 In this case an assessment ofthe fatigue limit istobe carried out for
type I S-N curves if N= N~ ND 0" oranassessment ofthe endurance
limit for type 11 S-N curves if N:"N~ ND,O", 11 , respectively, oran
assessment for fmite life based on the constant amplitude S-N curve
(formally similar to an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength) if N= N < ND,O" or N=N~ ND,O", II for Typ I orTyp 11
S-N curves, respectively. ND,O" or ND,O", 11 isthe number ofcycles at
the fatigue limit ofthe component constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter
2.4.3.2.
8 The valuesN -total number ofcycles required - and if - total n u m ~
ofcycle!!j!f a given spectrum - are different ingeneral. The terms niIN
and hi I H are equivalent.
9 The damage potential is a value characterising the shape of a stress
spectrum. The values ka= 5for normal stress and Ie,; = 8 for shear stress
are valid for non-welded components. The values ka = 3 and k't= 8 are
valid for welded components.
The term hi I Hmay be replaced by ni IN.
lOA mean stress spectrum, for example, results from a static load with
dynamic loads superimposed, a fluctuating stress spectrum, for example,
results for acrane hook when lifting variable loads.
43
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Special case: Fluctuating stress spectrum
A constant stress ratio of zero applies to all steps of a
fluctuating stress spectrum:
2.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match
the component constant amplitude S-Ncurve
This chapter mainly applies to stress spectra, the steps
of which do not have the same stress ratio *11.
A mean stress spectrum, for example, has different
amplitudes Sa,zd,i ' and constant mean stress values
Sm,zd,i = Sm,zd ' and consequently the individual steps
have different stress ratios Rzd,i . On the other hand the
component constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter
4.4.3.2, is derived for a constant stress ratio Rzd . To
allow the proper application of Miner's rule, Chapter
4.4.3.1, all steps of a spectrum, however, must have or
must be converted to that stress ratio RZd,i = Rzd ,
Chapter 5.6.1.
(2.1.16)
(2.1.15)
(2.1.14)
Sm,zd,i / Sa,zd,i = 1.
Sm,zd,i / Sa,zd,i = (1 + ~ d ) / (l - ~ d ) '
or
or
"1"
Smin,zd=O
Figure 2.1.2 Stress spectra
2.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum
A constant stress ratio applies to all steps of a stress
ratio spectrum:
2.1.2.1 Mean stress spectrum
A constant mean stress applies to all steps of a mean
stress spectrum:
Top: Mean stress spectrum. Midle: Stress ratio spectrum. Bottom:
Fluctuating stress spectrum. Example: The presented stress spectra are
standard type stress spectra, basicaUy defined by a binomial frequency
distribution, a coefficient p = 1/3 , a total number of cyclesH= 10
6
, and
extrapolated to the required total number of cyclesN.
2.1.4 Determination of the parameters of a
stress spectrum
2.1.4.0 General
If the stress spectrum of a component under
consideration is not known, or in case of high demands
on its accuracy, the parameters of the stress spectrum
are to be determined by calculation, by simulation, or by
measurement. The determination of the stress spectrum
from a stress history has to be realized according to the
rainflow cycle counting procedure or in the sense of this
procedure.
From a measured and graphically presented continuous
stress spectrum a stepped stress spectrum may be
obtained according to Chapter 5.6.2.
In case of existing experiences - depending on the
component and its application - the determination of the
parameters of a stress spectrum may be simplified by
applying a standard stress spectrum, a class of
utilization, or a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
(2.1.12)
(2.1.11) Sm,zd,i = Sm,zd.
RZd,i = Rzd,
where
~ d = (Sm,zd,i - Sa,zd,i) / (Sm,zd,i -+ Sa,zd,i) (2.1.13)
11 Applies to a mean stress spectrum, for instance, but not for a stress
ratio spectrum or a fluctuating stress spectrum.
44
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
P
2/3
1/3
vzd = 1
0,739
0,499
0,326
2
1

10
6
a
0,5
2.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum
Standard stress spectra are used to describe the shape of
typical stress spectra. Standard stress spectra having a
binomial or an exponential frequency distribution that
may be modified by the spectrum parameter p , are
presented in Figure 2.1.3. In addition, damage
potentials Vzd according to Eq. (2.1.10) and Figure 2.1.1
are given in the graphical presentations. (These apply to
an exponent of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve 1<:" = 5 and a total number of cycles H =10
6
).
Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum
S characteristic (largest) stress amplitude ofthe
a,zd,l
stress spectrum, equal to the amplitude in step 1
N required total number of cycles,
Yzd or Sa,zd,i / Sa,zd,l and hi, i = 1 to j,
according to the shape
of the standard stress spectrum
Sm,zd,i mean values, i = 1 to j.
Step i Sa' / Sal
hi
H-
I
P
0 1/3 2/3
1 1 1 1 2 2
2 0,950 0,967 0,983 16 18
3 0,850 0,900 0,950 280 298
4 0,725 0,817 0,908 2720 3018
5 0,575 0,717 0,858 20000 23000
6 0,425 0,617 0,808 92000 115000
7 0,275 0,517 0,758 280000 395000
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 604982 1000000
Figure 2.1.3 Standard stress spectra.
Top: Binomial distribution. Bottom: Exponential distribution (Straight
line distribution). Spectrum parameter p, total number of cyclesII = Hj
= E hi = 10
6,
number of steps j = 8 , damage potential Yzd for an
exponent ko= 5 of the component constant amplitude SoN curve.
Step i Sa' / Sa
hi
H-
I
P
0 1/3 2/3
1 1 1 1 2 2
2 0,875 0,917 0,958 10 12
3 0,750 0,833 0,917 64 76
4 0,625 0,750 0,875 340 416
5 0,500 0,667 0,833 2000 2400
6 0,375 0,583 0,792 11000 13400
7 0,250 0,500 0,750 61600 75000
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 924984 1000000
......--""'1/3

1
0,5
1,0
Sa,zd,1
Sa,zd,l
non-welded welded
p binom. I expon. binom. expon.
Vzd normal stress
k, = 5 1<:" =3
0 0,326 0,196 0,267 0,155
1/6 0,400 0,297 0,366 0,286
1/3 0,499 0,430 0,483 0,426
1/2 0,615 0,570 0,608 0,569
2/3 0,739 0,713 0,737 0,712
5/6 0,868 0,856 0,868 0,856
1 1 1 1 1
v, shear stress
k, = 8 k, = 5
0 0,399 0,275 0,326 0,196
1/6 0,452 0,330 0,400 0,297
1/3 0,527 0,438 0,499 0,430
1/2 0,627 0,573 0,615 0,570
2/3 0,743 0,713 0,739 0,713
5/6 0,869 0,856 0,868 0,856
1 1 1 1 1
Table 2.1.1 Damage potentials Vzd and v, for standard
stress spectra having a binomial or exponential
frequency distribution, modified by the spectrum
parameter p, a total number of cycles H = 10
6
, for non-
welded and welded components, for normal stress and
shear stress (exponents of the constant amplitude S-N
curve 1<:" and k, ).
45
2.1 Characteristic service stresses 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
2.1.4.2 Class of utilization *12
The appropriate standard stress spectrum has to be
specified separate from this guideline.
characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the
stress spectrum, equal to the amplitude in step 1
class of utilization (a combination of the shape of
the stress spectrum and of the required total
number of cycles),
mean stress *13.
Sm,zd
S,;z!il WL
Figure 2.1.5 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
2;1.5'
S.,UI'l

Analytical relationship: See Chapter 5.7.
Application: In case of existing experiences about the
shape of stress spectrum and the required total number
of cycles a class of utilization may be applied to assess
the variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter 2.4.3.1.
The class of utilization has to be specified separate from
this guideline.
2.1.4.3 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude
The damage-equivalent stress amplitude is a constant
stress amplitude with an assigned number of cycles
equal to the number of cycles at the knee point of the
component constant amplitude S-N curve, ND,cr . It is
damage-equivalent to the stress spectrum in question, In
particular it is defined by the shape of stress spectrum,
the required total number of cycles, N, and the largest
stress amplitude Sa,zd,b Figure 2.1.5.
Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum
Component constant amplitude S-N curve, WL, number ofcycles at the
knee point ND,C" ' component variable amplitude fatigue life curve,
characteristic stress amplitude Sa,zd,l, required total number ofcycles N.
Shown is the situation when full use is made of the fatigue strength
capacity of the component (degree of utilization aBl(,zd = 100 %,
Eq.2.6.3).
B
(2.1.17)
[
Sa,zd,i J = p + (l - p) .[Sa,zd,i J .
Sa,zd,1 p Sa,zd,1 p=o
Example: Welded component, stress spectra with binomial distribution,
axial stress. All three stress spectra are approximately damage-equivalent
and correspond tothe same class ofutilization B5, Table 5.7.4.
N
Figure 2.1.4 Spectra corresponding to the same class of
utilization.
Sa,zd,i
Sa,zd,1
A class of utilization is an approximately damage-
equivalent combination of different shapes of stress
spectra and of specific figures of the required total
numbers of cycles, Figure 2.1.4, see also Chapter 5.7.
Analytical relationship:For standard stress spectra with
spectrum parameters p > 0 (p = 1/6, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 5/6)
there is
Application: In case of existing experiences about the
shape of the stress spectrum a suitable standard stress
spectrum may be applied to assess the variable
amplitude fatigue strength in two ways:
Application of the damage potential Vzd. Eq. (2.1.10)
for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength according to the elementary version of
Miner's rule, Chapter 2.4.3.1.
Application of the data on Sa,zd,i / Sa,zd,1 and hi of the
steps i = I to j from Figure 2.1.3 for an assessment
of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according
to the consistent version of Miner's rule, Chapter
2.4.3.1.
As the damage-equivalent stress amplitude Sa,zd,eff isassigned toND,C"
it allows an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength tobe
performed as an assessment ofthe fatigue limit.
12 According toDIN 15018.
2.1 Characteristic service stresses
Parameters of the so derived stress spectrum
Sa,zd,eff Damage-equivalent stress amplitude
(damage-equivalent to a combination of the
shape of the stress spectrum, the required total
number of cycles and of the largest amplitude
in the stress spectrum).
Sm,zd Related mean value.
Analytical relationship: Based on the elementary
version of Miner's rule the damage-equivalent stress
amplitude is obtained as *14
46
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
1 j
S d ff = k -_. '" Il: ·ska
a,z ,e N.L. 1 a,zd,i
D,« 1=1
(2.1.18)
= (N/ NO,a ) 111m. Vzd . Sa,zd,1 ,
k
a
exponent of the component constant
amplitude S-N curve
No,a number of cycles at the knee point of the
component constant amplitude S-N curve
j, i, ni, ... seeEq. (2.1.9),
Yzd damage potential, Eq. (2.1.10).
Application: In case of existing experiences about the
damaging effect of the stress spectrum a damage-
equivalent stress amplitude Sa,zd,eff may be applied. It
allows an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength to be performed as an assessment of the fatigue
limit, Chapter 2.6.
The damage-equivalent stress amplitude has to be
specified separate from this guideline.
14 Eq. (2.1.18) is valid for a damage sum OM = 1 , see Chapter 2.4.3.1.
2.2 Material properties
47
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Contents
2.2.0 General
2.2 Material properties *1
2.2.1
2.2.1.0
2.2.1.1
2.2.1.2
11m E N . d o ~
Page
47
Component values according to standards
General
Non-welded components
Welded components
fw,cr fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, Chapter 2.2.2,
fw,'t fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
shear stress, Chapter 2.2.2,
R
m
tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1.
Caution: For non-welded wrought and cast aluminum
alloys the fatigue limit is different from the endurance
limit associated with N ~ NO,cr,II =NO,'t,ll= 10
8
cycles.
According to this chapter the material fatigue strength
values (component values according to standards) are to
be determined. These are the material fatigue limit for
completely reversed normal stress, crW,zd , and shear
stress, 'tW,s, as well as further characteristics *2.
2.2.1 Component values according to
standards
2.2.1.0 General
The determination of the material fatigue strength is
different for non-welded and for welded components.
2.2.1.1 Non-welded components
For non-welded components the values according to
standards of the material fatigue strength for completely
reversed normal stress and shear stress *3 and for a
number of cycles N ~ No,cr = No,'t = 10
6
are *4
crW,zd = fw,cr· Rm, (2.2.1)
'tw,s = fw,'t' crW,zd,
I Chapters 2.2 and 4.2 are identical.
2 An influence offrequency on the material fatigue strength values isnot
considered up tonow although itmight be ofimportance for aluminum
alloys.
3 For the tensile strength according tostandards, R
m
, a probability of
survival Po = 97,5 % ispresumed. That probability should also apply to
the values crW,zd and 'tW,s computed from R
m
. Moreover Eq. (1.2.1)
applies here too:
crW,zd = I<d,m . KA' crW,zd,N , (2.2.2)
'tW,s = I<d,m . KA . 'tW,s,N ,
Kd,m technological size factor asfor the tensile strength,
Chapter 1.2.2.
KA anisotropy factor, Chapter 1.2.3,
crW,zd,N, ... semi-fmished product fatigue strength value according to
standards, Chapter 5.1.
Aluminum alloys
For the toe section and for the throat section of
professionally welded components from aluminum
alloys *5 specific values of the fatigue strength apply in
analogy to steel independent of the kind of material.
These are for completely reversed normal stress at
N ~ NO,cr = 5 . 10
6
cycles and for completely reversed
shear stress at N ~ No,'t = 1 . 10
8
cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
crW,zd = crw,w = 33 MPa, (2.2.4)
'tw,s = 'tw,w = 13 MPa.
Caution: These values are provisional and are to be
applied with caution *
7
6 The values crw,w and 'tw.w correspond tothe fatigue limit which is equal
tothe endurance limit ofwelded steel and cast iron material aswell as of
welded aluminum alloys, Figure 2.4.6 and Chapter 5.1.0.
7 Values derived from an average relation of0,36 ofthe FAT classes for
aluminum alloys and for structural steel, Chapter 5.4.
4 The values crW,zd and 'tw., correspond tothe fatigue limit which is equal
to the endurance limit of steel and cast iron material, but not of
aluminum alloys, however, Figure 2.4.5 and Chapter 5.1.0.
5 Weld imperfections occurring with normal production standards are
allowable.
Steel and cast iron materials
For the toe section and for the throat section of
professionally welded components from weldable
structural steel *5 specific values of the fatigue strength
apply independent of the kind of material. These are for
completely reversed normal stress at N ~ No,cr = 5' 10
6
cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at
N ~ No,'t = 1 . 10
8
cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
crW,zd = crw,w = 92 MPa, (2.2.3)
'tw,s = 'tw,w = 37 MPa.
Caution: For other kinds of material (stainless steel
conditionally weldable steel, weldable cast iron
material) these values are to be considered as
provisional and are to be applied with caution.
2.2.1.2 Welded components
For the base material of welded components the material
fatigue strength values for completely reversed stress are
the same as for non-welded components.
48
Temperature factor
General
Normal temperature
Low temperature
Elevated temperature
2.2.3
2.2.3.0
2.2.3.1
2.2.3.2
2.2.3.3
2.2.2 Fatigue strength factors
for normal stress and for shear stress
2.2.0 General
2.2 Material properties
2.2.2 Fatigue strength factors for normal
stress and for shear stress
48
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
For normal temperature the temperature factor is
KT,D = 1. (2.2.5)
2.2.3.2 Low temperature
Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
the field of application of this guideline.
KT,D temperature factor, Eq. (2.2.7) to (2.2.11),
crW,zd, ... material fatigue strength value for completely
reversed normal stress, Chapter 2.2.1.1 and
2.2.1.2.
'tw,s, ... material fatigue strength value for completely
reversed shear stress, Chapter 2. 2. 1. 1 and
2.2.1.2.
2.2.3.3 Elevated temperature
In the field of elevated temperatures - up to 500°C for
steel and cast iron materials and up to 200°C for
aluminum materials - the influence of the temperature
on the fatigue strength is to be considered. For elevated
temperature the fatigue strength values for completely
reversed normal stress and shear stress are
The fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, fw,O" , is the quotient of the axial fatigue
strength value for completely reversed stress divided by
the tensile strength, Table 2.2.1.
The fatigue strength factor for shear stress, ,
considers that the material fatigue strength is lower for
shear stress than for normal stress, Table 2.2.1.
Table 2.2.1 Fatigue strength factors for completely
reversed normal stress, fw,O" , and shear stress, -c- 1.
Kind of material
fw,O"
Case hardening steel
0,40 0,577
Stainless steel
0,40 0,577
Forging steel 0,40 0,577
Steel other than these 0,45 0,577
GS 0,34 0,577
GGG 0,34 0,65
GT 0,30 0,75
GG 0,30 0,85
Wrought aluminum alloys
0,30
0,577
Cast aluminum alloys
0,30
0,75
crW,zd,T = KT,D . crW,zd,
'tW,s,T = KT,D . 'tw,s ,
(2.2.6)
(2.2.11)
-c- 1 fw,O" and fw, arevalid for a number of cycles N = 10
6

fw equal to , Table 1.2.5.
The influence of the carburization on the
component fatigue strength is to by considered by the surface
treatment factor, Ko, Chapter 2.3.4.
0,577 = 1 / J3, according tothe v. Mises criterion. Also valid for
welded components.
Preliminary values.
fW,O" does not correspond tothe endurance limit for N = <:i) here!
2.2.3 Temperature factor
2.2.3.0 General
The temperature factors considers that the material
fatigue strength for completely reversed stress decreases
with increasing temperature.
Normal temperature, low temperature and elevated
temperature are to be distinguished.
2.2.3.1 Normal temperature
Normal temperatures are as follows:
for fine grain structural steel from -40°C to 60°C,
for other kinds of steel from -40°C to + 100°C,
for cast iron materials from-25°C to + 100°C,
- for age-hardening aluminum alloys
from -25°C to 50°C,
- for non-age-hardening aluminum alloys
from - -25°C to 100°C.
According to the temperature T the temperature factor
KT,D is
for fine grain structural steel, T > 60°C:
KT,D = 1-10-
3
. T / DC, (2.2.7)
for other kinds of steel *7, T> 100°C, Figure 2.2.1:
KT,D = 1-1,4' 10-
3
. (T / °C-IOO), (2.2.8)
for GS, T > 100°C:
KT,D = 1- 1,2 . 10 -3. (T / °C_ 100), (2.2.9)
- for GGG, GT and GG, T > 100°C, Figure 2.2.1:
KT,D = 1- aT,D . (10 - 3 . T / oC)2, (2.2.10)
for aluminum alloys, T > 50°C:
KT,D = 1-1,2' 10 -3. (T / °C - 50)2,
Figure 1.2.3 in the Chapter 1.2,
aT,D Constant, Table 2.2.2.
Table 2.2.2 Constant aT,D *8.
Kind of material GGG GT GG
aT,D
1,6 1,3 1,0
8 Forstainless steel values aT.D arenot known uptonow.
2.2 Material properties
49
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Higb 'temperature
strength Rm,T
1i1ghtemperature
yieidStl'ellgthRp,t

o
Eq. (2.2.7) to (2,1.10) apply to steel and cast iron
materials from the indicated temperature T up to 500
o
e.
Eq. (2.2.11) applies to aluminum alloys up to 200
o
e.
The values crW,zd,T and "CW,s,T are not explicitly needed
for an assessment of the fatigue strength, as only the
temperature factor KT,D is used.
For elevated temperature, and in particular when the
mean stress Sill, i- 0 , the fatigue strength in terms of
the maximum stress may be higher than the static
strength so that the assessment is governed by the static
strength.
o lOO 200 300 400 500
nt. Tin·C
It,,.,TI
Rrn;Tt J

Rrn;T
R
ln
. 1m
100 200 300 400 500
Tin·C
2;2,lb
o
o
0,1

aW,m
Figure 2.2.1 Temperature dependent values of the static
strength and of the fatigue strength, plotted for
comparison.
Safety factors j according to Chapter 1.5 or 2.5, respectively.
Rm,T/R
m
= KT,m,
Rm,Tt/Rm = KTt,m,
Rm,T, Rp,T as well as
Rp,T / R
p
= KT,p,
Rp,Tt / Rp = KTt,p .
Rill,Tt, Rp,Tt for t = io' h.
Fatigue strength value at elevated temperature:
crW,zd,T/ crW,zd= KT,O·
Top: Non-alloyed structural steel, as in Figure 1.2.2,
R
p
/ R
m
=n, / R
m
=0,65, crW,zd/ R
m
=0,45,
Jm =2,0, jp =Jmt = 1,5, Jpt = 1,0, In = 1,5 .
Bottom: GG, as in Figure 3.2.2,
crW,zd/ R
m
=0,30, jm =3,0, Jmt =in =2,4.
2.3 Design parameters
50
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
According to this chapter the design parameters are to
be computed in terms of design factors.
2.3.0 General
1R23 EN. dog
fatigue notch factors,
Chapter 2.3.2,
roughness factor, Chapter 2.3.3,
surface treatment factor, Chapter 2.3.4,
coating factor, Chapter 2.3.4,
constant for GG, Chapter 2.3.5.
Kf,zd ...
2.3.1.2 Welded components
For the base material of welded components the design
factors are to be computed as for non-welded
components.
For the toe section and for the throat section of welded
components the design factors are in general to be
determined separately, since the cross-section values,
the nominal stresses and the fatigue classes FAT may be
different.
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) non-welded
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are (2.3.2)
KwK, =[K
f
+_1__1) . 1 _
x ,x KR,cr K y ·K
s
.KNL,E
KWK,y=[K
f y
+_1__1) . 1
, KR,cr K y .K
s
.KNL,E
KwK,s = [Kf,S +_1__1)' 1
KR,'t Ky.K
s
52
54
55
56
51
Page
50
Design factors
General
Non-welded components
Welded components
Fatigue notch factors
General
Fatigue notch factors computed
from stress concentration factors
Fatigue notch factors computed
from experimental values
Fatigue notch factors for
superimposed notches
Roughness factor
Surface treatment and coating factors
Constant KNL,E
Fatigue classes (FAT)
Thickness factor
Contents
2.3.0 General
2.3.1
2.3.1.0
2.3.1.1
2.3.1.2
2.3.2
2.3.2.0
2.3.2.1
2.3.2.2
2.3 Design parameters
2.3.2.3
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.3.6
2.3.7
2.3.1 Design factors
2.3.1.0 General
Non-welded and welded components are to be
distinguished.
2.3.1.1 Non-welded components
Rod-shaped (10) and shell-shaped (2D) non-welded
components are to be distinguished.
The design factors of rod-shaped (ID) non-welded
components for axial, for bending, for shear and for
torsional stresses are *1, (2.3.1)
KWK,Zd=[K
f Zd
+_1__1)' 1
, KR,cr K y ·K
s
.KNL,E
KWKb=[K
fb
+_1__1) . 1
, , KR,cr K y ·K
s
.KNL,E
KwK,s = [Kf,S +_1__1) . 1
KR,'t Ky.K
s
KWK,t =[K
f
t +_1__
1
) , 1 .
, KR,'t Ky.K
s
Rod-shaped (10) and shell-shaped (2D) . welded
components are to be distinguished.
Steel and cast iron material
The design factors of welded rod-shaped (lD)
components made of steel or of cast iron materials *2 for
axial, for bending, for shear and for torsional stress are,
KWK,zd = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E), (2.3.4)
KWK,b = KWK,zd ,
KwK,s = 145/ (FAT' it· Ko ),
KWK,t = KwK,s .
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components made of steel or of cast iron materials for
normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for
shear stress are
1 The additive combination of the fatigue strength notch factor Kfzd ...
with the reciprocal roughness factor Kk,c, ... reduces the effect 'of
roughness for components with sharp notched (Kj is large) incomparison
tocomponents with mild ornonotches (Kf '" 1).
2 To a major part the FAT values where derived with reference to the
nw recommendations and Eurocode 3 (Ref191, 18/). The design factors
are supposed, however, tobe valid notonly for weldable structural steel
but also for other kinds of iron based materials (conditionally weldable
steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials).
2.3 Design parameters
51
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
4 As arule Ky isnot relevant for welded components, that isKy = 1.
2.3.2.1 Fatigue notch factors computed from stress
concentration factors
3 Tosome part the FAT values where derived with reference tothe IIW
recommendations. Moreover the design factors are supposed tobevalid,
however, for all weldable aluminum alloys, except for the aluminum
alloys 5000, 6000 and 7000. Numerical values see Footnote 6 onpage
47.
(2.3.11)
(2.3.10)
Kt,zd ... stress concentration factor according to type
of stress, Chapter 5.2,
ncr (r) ... Kt-K
f
ratio of the component for normal
stress or for shear stress as a function of r,
ncr (d), .. Kj-K, ratio of the component for normal
stress or for shear stress as a function of d,
r notch radius at the reference point,
d diameter or width of the net notch section.
Caution: IfEq. (2.3.10) or (2.3.11) yield a fatigue notch
factors Kfzd, '" < 1 the realistic value to be applied is *7,
Kf,zd = ... = 1. (2.3.12)
a G, bo constants, Table 2.3.2.
Kt-Krratios for normal stress
The Kt-K
f
ratios for normal stress, ncr (r) and ncr (d),
Figure 2.3.1, are to be computed from the related stress
gradients Gcr(r) and Gcr(d), Eq. (2.3.13) to (2.3.15).
ForG
cr
;; 0,1 mrrr ! there is (2.3.13)
-(a
G
- 0,5 + R
m
)
Ocr = 1 +G
cr
. mmTO bG·MPa ,
for 0,1 mrrr ! <G
cr
;; 1 mnr ! there is
-(a
G
+ R
m
)
Ocr = 1 + ~ G c r ' r o m ·10 bG' MPa, (2.3.14)
for 1 mrrr ! < G
cr;;
100 mnr ! there is
-(aG + R
m
)
vo = 1 + ~ G c r -rnm '10 bG.MPa, (2.3.15)
The fatigue notch factors, Kf,x ,... , for normal stress in
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress of shell-
shaped (2D) components are
K
t x
Kf,x =--'(-) ,
n
crx
r
_ Kt,y
Kf,y- Day (r) ,
K - Kt,s
f,s - n't (r) ,
concentration factors, K, , and from the Kj-K, ratios,
l1o(r) , Ilo(d) , nt(r) , n'[(d) , *5.
(2.3.5)
(2.3.7) KwK,x= 81 / (FAT' ft' Ke : Ks),
KwK,y= 81 / (FAT' ft' Kv Ks),
KWK,s = 52 / (FAT' f
t),
KwK,x= 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E),
KwK,y= 225 / (FAT' ft' Ko KNL,E),
KwK,s = 145/ (FAT' it· Ky).
Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
to be distinguished.
The fatigue notch factors , Kf,zd , ... , for axial, for
bending, for shear and for torsional stress of the rod-
shaped (lD) non-welded structural details presented in
Chapter 5.2 are to be computed from the stress
2.3.2 Fatigue notch factors
2.3.2.0 General
The fatigue notch factors, Kf,zd , ... , allow for the
influence on the fatigue strength resulting from the
design (contour and size) of a non-welded component.
They are to be computed from stress concentration
factors or, if these are not applicable or not known, from
experimental values.
FAT fatigue class, Chapter 2.3.6,
f
t
thickness factor, Chapter 2.3.7,
Kv surface treatment factor, Chapter 2.3.4 *4,
Ks coating factor, Chapter 2.3.4,
KNL,E constant for GG, Chapter 2.3.5.
The fatigue classes FAT are in general different for
normal stress in the direction x and in the direction y, as
well as for shear stress.
Aluminum alloys
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components made of aluminum alloys *3 for axial, for
bending, for shear and for torsional stress are
KWK,zd = 81 / (FAT·:tt· Ky' K
s),
(2.3.6)
KWK,b = KWK,zd ,
KwK,s= 52 / (FAT' ft' Kv Ks),
KWK,t = KwK,s .
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) welded com-
ponents made of aluminum alloys for normal stresses in
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
2.3 Design parameters
52
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
1,2
1,1
IJ
r /VV 1/ V 800
1/
.V:/VlI 0,80 V .
. . / /1 .SteeV1200

·/l/Pl/ f/ l/
For surface hardened components *8 (components with
thermal or with chemo-thermal surface treatment) the
K,-K
r
ratios are lower than for non surface hardened
components *9 * 10.
Kt-Kr ratios for shear stress
The Ki-K, ratios for shear stress, n, (r) und n, (d), are to
be computed from the related stress gradients G,(r) and
G,(d) according to Eq. (2.3.13) to (2.3.15), after having
replaced cr by 't and the tensile strength Rm by
fw" . Rm, where fw" is the fatigue strength factor for
shear stress, Table 2.2.1.
Figure 2.3.1 Kj-K; ratios ncr for normal stress.
Z I do=
0;267'
1 I I
2.3.2.2 Fatigue notch factors computed from
experimental values
Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
to be distinguished.
(2.3.17) G
cr
(d) =G,(d) = 2/ d.
Related stress gradients
The related stress gradients as a function of the notch
radius r at the reference point, G
cr
(r) andG,(r), are to be
determined from Table 2.3.3. The related stress
gradients from bending and torsion as a function of the
diameter or width d at the notch net section are
to 5
I
I

1,02 V/tVI
101 '1111
. "", ..
0;01 0,020,050;1 0,2 0,5 1 2
The diagram may be extended up to G
cr
= 100 mm r l
Indicated numerical values 1/0,65 to 1/0,95: Difference of the fatigue
limit for completely reversed stress in tension-compression and in
bending, valid for the material test specimen ofthe diameter do = 7,5 mm.
Not included in the figure 2.3.1:
Stainless steel. Threshold values forG
cr
= I mm -1 :
largest value: ncr = 1,27 for R
m
= 400 MPa and
smallest value: ncr = 1,14 for R
m
= 1070 MPa.
Wrought aluminum alloys: Threshold values forG
cr
= 1 mm -1 :
largest value: ncr = 1,69 for R
m
=95 MPa and
smallest value: ncr = 1,18 for R
m
=590 MPa.
Cast aluminum alloys: Threshold values for: G
cr
= 1mm -1 :
largest value: ncr =2,02 for R
m
= 130 MPa and
smallest value: ncr = 1,88 for R
m
=330 MPa.
Table 2.3.2 Constants l1G and bG.
5 The fatigue notch factor depends on the notch root radius r and
moreover in the case of bending or torsion on the diameter or width d at
the notch net section.
6 See footnote 12.
7 Exception in case of bending: IfKt,b / Ilo(r) < 1 then Kt,b / Ilo (r) = 1 is
to be applied (without considering Ilo(d) ). Accordingly in case oftorsion.
8 Does not apply to cold rolled or shot peened surfaces. See the summary
of special features ofthe fatigue strength ofsurface hardened components,
Chapter 5.8.
Kind Stain- Other GS GGG GT GG
of less kinds
mate- steel of
rial steel
l1G
0,40 0,50 0,25 0,05 -0,05 -0,05
bG 2400 2700 2000 3200 3200 3200
9 The Kt - Kf ratio for a crack originating in the hardened surface layer is
lower because the tensile strength R
m
of the hard surface layer is higher
than the tensile strength R
m
of the core material according to the material
standard.
The Kt - Kf ratio for a crack origgiating the core material is lower
because the related stress gradientG
cr
(or G, ) in the core material has
decreased from its maximum value at the surface.
Kind of material Wrought Cast
Al-alloys Al-alloys
l1G
0,05·
-0,05
bG 850 3200
10 The tensile strength of the surface layer may be estimated
approximately as R
m
= (3,3 . HV) MPa , where HV is the Vickers
hardness number. As this equation, however, was not specifically
established for hardened surface layers, it is to be applied with caution. In
particular the fatigue strength value crW,zd of the hardened surface layer
must not be derived from that estimate of the tensile strength
(crW,zd * fW,cr' Rm)·
2.3 Design parameters
53
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Table 2.2.3 Related stress gradients G c (r) andG't (r)
for simple structural details 1.
11 In this case the fatigue notch factor depends on the notch radii r and
r
p
and for bending and torsion on the diameter or width d at the notch
net section.
(2.3.19)
Kf,zd (dp), .. fatigue notch factor of the test
specimen according to type of stress,
Chapter 5.3 *13,
ncr (rp)... Kt-Kf ratio of the test specimen for normal
stress or for shear stress according to r
p
*14,
ncr (r) ... Kt-Kf ratio of the component for normal
stress or for shear stress according to r *14,
ncr (d)... Kt-Kf ratio of the component for normal
stress or for shear stress according to d,
The fatigue notch factors for shell-shaped (2D) non-
welded components applying to normal stresses in the
directions x and y as well as shear stress are:
K - K (d) n
crx
(rp )
f,x-f,xP' ()'
n
crx
r
Structural detail
G
cr
(r)


2 1
-·(I+<p)
-
. d'
r
r
Fzd . I FZd
t
MbBtfb
2,3
1,15
_( D ·-d' x.,
-'(l+<p)
r
r
FZd I Fzd
t

2
-
-( B--b )-
-. (1+<p)
r
Fzd Fzd

t

2,3. (l +<P)
-
-(-t
B
- -- b )-
r
Fzd ' FZd

t
Mb Mb 2,3
-

-
r
Fzd '- "0 , I Fzd
Round specimen or flat
member
1 r > O. The equations are valid for round members, approximately
they apply to round members with a central borehole too.
12 The basic definitionof the fatigue notch factor Kf,b for bending is:
(2.3.20)
Kf,b = crW,zd/ SWK,b '
crW,zd
SWK,b
fatigue strength value for completely reversed axial stress
of the unnotched test specimen of the diameter do ,
fatigue strength value for completely reversed bending stress
of the notched component of the diameter or width d.
Kfb in bending is dependent on the notch radius r and on the diameter or
width d of the notch net section. Kf,t for torsion in analogy.
The .defmition of the fatigue notch factor for bending derived from
experimental data - under the provision that the unnotched and the
notched specimen have the same diameter dp - is:
rp = 0 for t! d > 0,25 ort! b > 0,25,
q>= 1I(4.M+2) for 0,25 or 0,25.
3 The related stress gradient G
cr
(r) applies to axial stress and to
bending stress; nevertheless there is a difference for bending because of
the Kt-KfTatio ncr(d) additionally contained in Eq. (2.3.10) and (2.3.18).
The related stress gradient applies to shear stress and to
torsion stress; nevertheless there is a difference for torsion because of the
Kt-KfTatio additionally contained in Eq. (2.3.10) and (2.3.18).
flat member of thickness s.
(2.3.18)
The fatigue notch factors, Kf,zd , ... , for axial, for
bending, for shear and for torsional stress of the rod-
shaped (lD) non-welded structural details presented in
Chapter 5.3 are to be computed from the experimentally
derived fatigue notch factors of test specimens given
there, and from the respective Kf -K, ratios. In
particular *II
K - K (d) ncr (rp )
f,zd - f,zd p' --(-)- ,
ncr r
Kf,b (dp) = SW,b,P / SWK,b,P, (2.3.21)
SW,b,P fatigue limit for completely reversed bending stress of the
unnotched test specimen of diameter dp,
SWK,b,P Fatigue limit for completelyreversed bending stress of the
notched test specimen of diameter dp.
Kf,b is dependent on the notch radius rp and on the diameter or width of
the notch net section d. Kf,t for torsion in analogy.
13 The fatigue notch factors given in Chapter 5.3 are applicable to
components from steel without surface treatment. Additionally, however,
a procedure for components being surface hardened and for components
made of cast iron materials and aluminum alloys is describedthere.
14 For computing Kt-Kf ratios the notch radii, r or rp , are required.
Particularly for cases that may produce some doubt the radii are specified
in Chapter 5.3. A possible incorrectness that may occur will be reduced
by the division of ncr(rp ) / ncr(r).
2.3 Design parameters
54
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Caution: If a fatigue notch factors Kf,zd , ... < 1 is
obtained from Eq. (2.3.18) or (2.3.19) the realistic
value to be applied is *15
r notch radius of the component,
d diameter or width of the component,
rp notch radius of the test specimen,
dp diameter or width of the test specimen.
o
00
..
•r:::.::-
'--":
1.1>
:-::::
r--..
i"'-
.,1:'.: r--...
32
i'..
<,
.zz:
'\(
",
63
<,
--.!...
... :::\\.. <, 12
"


25
.
'\ r'.
i' $
J-.
2b
0,1
0,6
1,0
KR,ta

(2.3.22) rid = rpl dp.
The Kt-Kf ratios Ila (rp), .., are to be computed
according to the related stress gradient Gcr(rp ) with
reference to Chapter 2.3.2.1 ....
Because of similarity of the test specimen and
component it is
Kf,zd = ... = 1. (2.3.12) 0,4
300500 700. 1000 2000
2,Uil Rlil in MPil
Figure 2.3.3 Roughness factor KR,cr .
OJ. ,
200 30ll 400
R
m
in MPa fUr
"r .... J
100
Top, Steel.
Bottom: Cast iron materials with skin, steel with rolling skin for
comparison
KR;l!
0;9
40n 600800 lOtIO
Rm hll\-IPafiir as, Cfu'G;GT
2.3.3 Roughness factor
The roughness factor KR,cr or KR;t accounts for the
influence of the surface roughness on the fatigue
strength of the component.
The roughness factor valid for a polished surface is
KR,cr = KR,'t = 1. (2.3.25)
For a rolling skin, a forging skin or the skin of castings
an average roughness value R, = 200 11m applies.
The roughness factors for normal stress, Figure 2.3.3,
and for shear stress are *17
2.3.2.3 Fatigue notch factors for superimposed
notches
For superimposed notches (for example a fillet and a
borehole), the partial fatigue notch factors of which are
Kf,1 and Kf,2 , the resulting fatigue notch factor in the
most unfavorable case is
Kf= 1 + (Kf,l- 1) + (Kf,2- 1). (2.3.24)
If the distance of notches is 2 r or above
(where r is the larger one of both notch radii) *16 a
superposition does not need to be considered.
Rm
Rm,N,min
fw,'t
KKR,cr (2.3.26)
= 1 - aR,cr . 19(Rz111m) . 19(2RmI Rm,N,min ),
KKR,'t=
= 1 - fw,'t . aR,cr -lg (Rz/um) -lg(2Rm!Rm, N, min),
aR,cr constant, Table 2.3.4,
R
z
average roughness value of the surface
in 11m , according to DIN 4768,
tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,
minimum tensile strength, Table 2.3.4,
fatigue strength factor for shear stress,
Table 2.2.1.
15 Exception in case of bending: If Kr.b(lip ) . Ilo(r
p
) / Ilo(r) < 1 then
Kf,b(lip) . Ilo(r
p
) / Ilo(r) = 1 is to be applied (without considering Ilo(d) ).
Accordingly in case of torsion.
16 The distance of 2 r is likely to be on the safe side.
17 In particular residual stresses as a result of manufacturing and of a
surface treatment are determining the influence of the surface on the
component fatigue limit, rather than the surface roughness. According to
the current state of knowledge, however, improved regulations to allow
for the surface effect are not yet developed, so that the traditional
equations based on a roughness value have to be accepted for the time
being.
2.3 Design parameters
55
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Table 2.3.4 Constant aR,cr and nummum tensile
strength. , for the kind of material considered.
Table 2.3.5 Upper and lower limits of the surface
treatment factor for steel and cast iron materials
R
z
average surface roughness of the component in urn,
Rz,p average surface roughness of the specimen in urn,
Kind of Wrought Cast
material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys
aR,cr
0,22 0,20

133 133
inMPa
Kind of Steel GS GGG GT GG
material
aR,cr 0,22 0,20 0,16 0,12 0,06
Rm,N,min
400 400 400 350 100
inMPa
For surface hardened components *8 and an expected
crack origine at the surface the roughness factor is less
favorable (smaller) than for components not surface
hardened, because of the higher tensile strength of
the hardened surface layer *10.
Normally, in the case of experimentally determined
fatigue notch factors the roughness factor does not need
to be considered (KR,cr =KR,'t = 1). Otherwise, in the
case of fatigue notch factors that are experimentally
determined for specimens with a different surface
roughness, KR,cr and KR,'t are to be replaced by
Surface unnotched notched
treatment components components

Steel
Chemo-thermal treatments
Nitriding 1,10 - 1,15 1,30 - 2,00
Depth of case 0,1...0,4 mm
(1,15 - 1,25) (1,90 - 3,00)
Surface hardness
700 to 1000 HV 10
Case hardening 1,10 - 1,50 1,20 - 2,00
Depth of case 0,2 ... 0,8 mm
(1,20 - 2,00) (1,50 - 2,50)
Surface hardness
670 to 750 HV 10
Carbo-nitriding
Depth of case 0,2 ... 0,8 mm
(1,80)
Surface hardness
670 to 750 HV 10
Mechanical treatment
Cold rolling 1,10 - 1,25 1,30 - 1,80
(1,20 - 1,40) (1,50 - 2,20)
Shot peening 1,10 - 1,20 1,10 - 1,50
(1,10 - 1,30) (1,40 - 2,50)
Thermal treatment
Inductive hardening
1,20 - 1,50 1,50 - 2,50
Flame-hardening
(1,30 - 1,60) (1,60 - 2,80)
Depth of case 0,9 ... 1,5 mm
Surface hardness
51 to 64 HRC
Cast iron materials
Nitriding 1,10 (1,15 ) 1,3 (1,9)
Case hardening 1,1 (1,2) 1,2 (1,5)
Cold rolling 1,1 (1,2) 1,3 (1,5)
Shot peening 1,1 (1,1) 1,1 (1,4)
Inductive hardening, 1,2 (1,3) 1,5 (1,6)
Flame-hardening
(2.3.27) KR,o = KR,cr (Rz ) / KR,cr (Rz,p ),
KR,'t = KR,'t (Rz) / KR,'t (Rz,p),
2.3.4 Surface treatment and coating factors
The surface treatment factor, Kv , allows for the
influence of a treated surface layer on the fatigue
strength of the component.
Without a surface treatment there is
For components with surface treatment *8 the surface
treatment factor depends on whether a crack origin is to
be expected at the surface or in the core. Essential
factors of influence are the ratio of the fatigue limits of
the surface layer and of the core material, as well as the
ratio of the local stress values on the surface and in the
core just below the surface layer.
Upper and lower limits of the surface treatment factors
for steel and cast iron materials are given in Table 2.3.5.
A definite value is to be determined by the user *18.
Kv= 1. (2.3.28)
1 Concerning typical component values and further kinds of treatments,
see also FVA-worksheet "Schwingfestigkeitssteigerung (increasing the
fatigue strength)".
2 The given values typically apply to the component fatigue limit.
Values applying to the variable amplitude fatigue strength are in general
somewhat lower.
The values are valid for specimens of 30 to 40 mm diameter; values in
parenthesis for specimens of 8 to 15 mm diameter.
3 For unnotched or slightly notched components.
18 Provided that the procedures of surface treatment can be applied to
components of aluminum alloys, the Ko-values for cast iron material
may approximately be taken into account.
2.3 Design parameters
56
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Ks for example after Figure 2.3.4 (provisional values).
The coating factor K
s
allows for the influence of a
surface coating on the fatigue strength of a component
made of an aluminum alloy.
For steel and cast iron material there is
Ks = 1.
For aluminum alloy without coating there is
Ks = 1.
For aluminum alloy with coating there is
K
s
< 1.
(2.3.29)
(2.3.30)
(2.3.31)
2.3.6 Fatigue class (FAT)
The fatigue classes (FAT) for nominal stresses allow for
the influences of both the form of welded components,
of the shape of the weld seam and of the weld seam
itself on the fatigue strength of the toe section or of the
throat section) *19.
A complete catalogue of fatigue classes with reference to
the IIW Recommendations is given in Chapter 5.4.1 *20
2.3.7 Thickness factor
--..,J I
I 1I!' ,.
•• Ii I;!! • .;- ! ; ;-1
r.
'"""
, I
"f -'111T1-
,"'"
I. o . .r...........
.I
'ffi'!r
n
---
_...LL.1.J

.ld··· r-irti.
.I
I 1--1-'rn.-rr
I 1 I .•: l:\!.
i . iiTi'Y

!
l _:1 _ "j j- :!:J'iJ
! f4+!-
r
r '
..iH+i-H
I! !',•.1i
'Ks 0.9
0,1
0.7

o..s

o,a

0;1
o
1 10 100
Thickness ·.of layerinp.ID
When using nominal stresses for the calculation of
transversely loaded welds the thickness factor f
t
accounts for the influence of the sheet metal thickness
on the fatigue strength *21 ..
The thickness factor f
t
is of no effect, however,
- if there is no weld,
- if there is no transversely loaded weld, or
- if the sheet metal thickness is t :::: 25 mm. -
In these cases the thickness factor is
f
t
=1. (2.3.33)
For a transversely loaded weld and a sheet metal
thickness t > 25 min the thickness factor is a function of
the sheet metal thickness t (in mm):
Table 2.3.7 Exponent n for the thickness factor.
Figure 2.3.4 Influence of anodic coating on the fatigue
limit (at 10
6
cycles) of a component from aluminum
alloy as a function of the layer thickness (after Wilson).
Provisional values.
:tt = (25 mm / t) n,
n after Table 2.3.7.
(2.3.34)
2.3.5 Constant KNL,E
The constant KNL,E accounts for the non-linear elastic
stress strain behavior of GG when loaded in tension-
compression or bending.
For all kinds of material except for GG there is
KNL,E = 1.
KNL,E for GG after Table 2.3.6.
(2.3.32)
Type of the welded joint n
cruciformjoints, transverse T-joints, plates with
transverse attachments
- as welded 0,3
- toe ground 0,2
transverse butt welds,
- as welded 0,2
butt welds ground flush, base material, longitudi-
nal welds or attachments, - as welded or ground 0,1
Table 2.3.6 Constant KNL,E I.
Kind of
GG IGG GG IGG GG IGG
material -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35
KNL,E
1,075 1,05 1,025
-e- 1 For unnotched or slightly notched components intension-compression
KNL.E = 1.
19 Different from an assessment with structural stresses or with effective
notch stresses, see Chapter 4.3 and Chapter 5.5.
20 All fatigue classes, except those for the base material, are considered
here: for steel FAT::;; 140 for nomial stress and FAT::;; 100 for shear
stress, for aluminum alloys FATS; 50 for normal stress and FAT::;; 36
for shear stress.
The assessment ofthe base material ofwelded components is to be carried
out as for non-welded components.
21 The thickness factor is supposed to be valid for steel, but also for
aluminum alloys.
57
2.4 Component strength
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
with nominal stresses
2.4.0 General
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit 58
according to mean stress
2.4.2.0 General
2.4.2.1 Mean stress factor 59
Calculation for type of overloading F2
Calculation for type of overloading Fl 60
Calculation for type of overloading F3
Calculation for type of overloading F4 61
2.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress
2.4.2.3 Residual stress factor 62
2.4.2.4 Mean stress sensitivity
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue
strength 63
2A.3.G General
2.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor 64
Calculation for a constant amplitude
spectrum
Calculation for a variable amplitude
spectrum
Elementary version of Miner's rule
based on the damage potential
Calculation according to the consistent
version of Miner's rule 65
Calculation using a class of utilization 66
Calculation using a damage-equivalent
stress amplitude
2.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
(2.4.2)
(2.4.1)
SWK,zd = crW,zd I KWK,zd ,
SWK,b = crW,zd I KWK,b *2 ,
TwK,s='tw,sl KwK,s,
TWK,t ='tw,sl KWK,t,
crW,zd, 'tW,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress, Chapter
2.2.1,
KWK,zd... design factor, Chapter 2.3.1.
SWK,x =crW,zd l KwK,x ,
SWK,y = crW,zd I KwK,y ,
TWK = 'tw,s I KwK,s ,
crW,zd, 'tw,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1,
KWK,x, ... design factor, Chapter 2.3.1.
The component fatigue limits of shell-shaped (2D)
components for completely reversed normal stresses in
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
Eq. (2.4.1) is based on thefatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (2.2.1) or (2.2.3) and (2.2.4), and on
the design factor, Eq. (2.3.1) or (2.3.4) and (2.3.6). It
applies to non-welded and to welded components.
Eq. (2.4.2) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (2.2.1) or (2.2.3) and (2.2.4), and on
the design factor, Eq. (2.3.2) or (2.3.5) and (2.3.7). It
applies to non-welded and to welded components.
Caution: See the comment in the second paragraph of
Chapter 4.4.2.
Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
to be distinguished.
The component fatigue limits of rod-shaped (lD)
components for completely reversed axial, bending,
shear and torsional stress are *
1
\R24 EN.dog
Page
57
Content
2.4.0 General
2.4 Component strength
According to this chapter the component fatigue
strength is to be calculated as follows:
Step 1: component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress in considering the design factor,
Chapter 2.4.1,
Step 2: component fatigue limit in considering the
mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2,
Step 3: component variable amplitude fatigue
strength in considering the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor, Chapter 2.4.3.
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress
According to this chapter the component fatigue limit
for completely reversed stress is to be calculated in
considering the design factor.
1 The component fatigue limits for completely reversed stress are
different for normal stress and for shear stress, and moreover because of
different stress gradients ordifferent weld characteristics depending onthe
type ofstress.
2 The material fatigue limit forcompletely reversed stress isthebasis for
both axial and bending stress. The difference isallowed for bythe design
factor. Forshear and torsion inanalogy.
2.4 Component strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
58
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
The residual stress factor accounts for the influence of
the residual stress on the fatigue strength. For non-
welded components the residual stress factor for normal
stress and for shear stress is
In combination with a stress spectrum the indicated
stress ratio Rzd, ... commonly refers to step I of the
stress spectrum (maximum amplitude), R
zd,l,
.,. *1 *2.
The mean stress factor, Figure 2.4.1, allows for the
influence of the mean stress on the fatigue strength.
Without mean stress the mean stress factor is
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to
mean stress 1R242 EN.dog
2.4.2.0 General
According to this chapter the amplitude of the
component fatigue limit is to be determined according to
a given mean stress, and where appropriate, in
considering a multi axial state of stress.
Comment: For non-welded components of austenitic
steel, or of wrought or cast aluminum alloys the
component fatigue limit is different from the component
endurance limit for N = 00 , Chapter 2.4.3.2.
Observing the specific input values the calculation
applies to non-welded and to welded components.
An improved procedure for non-welded components of
steel to compute the component fatigue limit in the case
of synchronous multiaxial stresses is given in Chapter
5.9.
KAK,zd ..,
KE,cr ...
SWK,zd ...
mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.1,
residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1.
Eq. (2.4.6) applies to non-welded and to welded
components.
SAK,x = KAK,x . KE,cr' SWK,x, (2.4.7)
SAK,y = KAK,y . KE,cr . SWK,y,
TAJ( = KAK,s' KE,'t' TWK,
KAK,x... mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.1,
KE,cr... residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
SWK,x ... component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1.
Eq. (2.4.7) applies to non-welded arid to welded
components.
Type of overloading
The mean stress factor KAK,zd, ... is dependent on the
type of overloading, FI to F4. It distinguishes the way
how the stress may increase in the case of a possible
overload in service (not by crash). Therefore it is to be
determined in the sense of "safety of operation in
service", that is for normal stress as follows:
Shell-shaped (2D) components
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit of shell-shaped (2D) components for
normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for
shear stress are
(2.4.4) KAK,zd = ... = I.
Rod-shaped (ID) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
to be distinguished.
Rod-shaped (ID) components
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit of rod-shaped (lD) components for axial,
for bending, for shear and for torsional stress are
SAK,zd = KAK,zd . KE,cr . SWK,zd,
SAK,b = KAK,b . KE,cr' SWK,b,
TAK,s = KAK,s . KE;t . TWK,s ,
TAK,t = KAK,t . KE,'t . TWK,t ,
(2.4.5)
(2.4.6)
- Type FI:
the mean stress Sm,zd remains the same,
- TypeF2:
the stress ratio Rzdremains the same,
- Type F3:
the minimum stress Smin,zd remains the same,
- TypeF4:
the maximum stress Smax,zd remains the same.
For bending, shear or torsion Sm,zd, R
zd,
.., are to be
replaced by Sm,b, ~ , ... , Trn.s- Rg, ... or Tm.t- Rt .
Intermediate types of overloading are possible.
Dependent on the type of overloading the amplitude of
the component fatigue limit is different, Figure 2.4.1.
1 This definition is necessary only for mean stress spectra, not for
stress ratio spectra or for fluctuating stress spectra, for which the
stress ratios of all steps areidentical.
2 For more details see Chapter 5.6.
Fields of mean stress
In determining the mean stress factor KAK,zd, ... four
fields of mean stress are to be distinguished. These are
dependent on the stress ratio Rzd, ..., or on the mean
stress Sm,zd, ... , respectively, see Chapter 2.4.2.2.
59
2.4 Component strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
R =-1
zd
SAK,zd,Fl
S .
WK.zd

®

R =-=
ad
®
b2U
Example: Nonnal stress, types of overloading F1 and F2.
Given: Component fatigue strength for completelyreversed
stress SWK,zd , service stress amplitude Sa,zd ,
stress ratio Rzd ,
Derived: Amplitudes of the componentfatigue limit SAK,zd
for the types of overloading F1 and F2.
Figure 2.4.1 Amplitude of the component fatigue
strength as a function of mean stress or stress ratio
(Haigh diagram), described in four fields of mean stress
Normal stress:
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by the index 1.
Field I: Rzd > 1, field of fluctuating compression stress,
where Rzd = +or - ex) is the zero compression stress.
Field II: - ex) 0, where Rzd < -1 is the field of
alternating compression stress, Rzd = -1 is the
completely reversed stress, Rzd > -1 is the field of
alternating tension stress.
Field III: 0 < Rzd < 0,5, field of fluctuating tension
stress, where Rzd = 0 is the zero tension stress.
Field IV: Rzd 0,5, field of high fluctuating tension
stress.
For bending b the index zd is to be replaced by the index
b, "tension stress" by "tension bending stress", and
"compression stress" by "compression bending stress".
(2.4.9)
(2.4.12)
(2.4.10)
(2.4.13)
Field IV, 0,5:
K - 3+Mcr
AK,zd- 3.(I+M
cr
) 2 '
1
KAK,zd- ,
1+M
cr
. Sm,zd / Sa,zd
Calculation for the type of overloading F2 * 4
In case of a possible overload in service the stress ratio
Rzd remains the same.
Field I: Rzd > 1:
KAK,zd = 1 / ( 1 - Ma) ,
Normal stress:
Field III, 0< Rzd < 0,5:
1+M
cr
/3
I+M
cr
KAK,zd = M S '
1+_cr_ . m,zd
3 Sa,zd
(not existing),
(lower boundary changed),
(unchanged),
(unchanged).
Shear stress: *3:
Field I:
Field II: - 1 0
Field III: 0 < n, < 0,5
Field IV: 0,5
2.4.2.1 Mean stress factor
The mean stress factor KAK,zd ... is dependent on the
mean stress and on the mean stress sensitivity.
Rzd stress ratio *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
Ma mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4,
Sm,zd mean stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
Sa,zd stress amplitude.
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
3 The fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for normal stress shows
. increasing amplitudes for Rzd < -1 (negative mean stress). For negative
mean stress the fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for shear stress is
the same as for positive mean stress and symmetrical to Tm,s = O.
Practically it is restricted to the fields of positive mean stress or a
stress ratio R
s
-1 , as the mean stress in shear is always regardedto
be positive, Tm,s O.
4 The type of overloading F2 is describedfirst because it is of primary
practical importance .
5 Sm,zd / Sa,zd=(l+R
zd)/(l-Rzd)'
(2.4.11)
Using the term Sm zd I Sa zd instead of (1 + Rzd ) I (1 - Rzd ) avoids
numerical whenthe stress ratio becomes Rzd =- 00.
6 Or equivalent mean stress, equivalent minimum stress, equivalent
maximum stress, Chapter 2.4.2.2.
2.4 Component strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
60
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Shear stress:
For KAK,s Field I is not existing and Field II is
restricted to positive mean stresses R, ~ -1 . For
positive mean stress, or R, ~ -1 , the same equations
are valid if M
cr
is replaced by M.
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t.
Calculation for the type of overloading Fl
In case of a possible overload in service the mean stress
Sm,zd remains the same.
For positive mean stresses, tm,s ~ 0, the same equations
are valid if Sm,zd is replaced by tm,s and M, is replaced
by M,
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t.
Calculation for the type of overloading F3
In case of a possible overload in service the minimum
stress Smin,zd remains the same.
Normal stress:
Normal stress:
Smin,zd -2 *7
For Smin,zd = < there is
KE,cr ,SWK,zd I-Moo
Field II
for -1 1(1 - Ma) s Sm,zd s 1 1(1 + Ma) there is
Smzd
For Sm,zd = '
KE,oo ,SWK,zd
KAK,zd = 11 (1 - M
cr),
-1
<--- there is *7
I-M
cr
(2.4.14)
KAK,zd = 11(1 - Ma ),
Field II
for - 2 1(1 - M a ) ~ Smin,zd ~ 0 there is
1-M
cr
. Smin,zd
I+M
oo
(2.4.18)
(2.4.19)
KAK,zd = 1 - Ma . Sm,zd, (2.4.15)
Field III
Field III
1 3 +M
cr
for --< Sm,zd < ( )2 there is
I+M
oo
I+M
cr
(2.4.16)
2. 3+M
oo
for 0 < Smin,zd < - there is
3 (1 +M
cr
)2
1+M
cr
13 M
cr
1+ M - -3-' Smin,zd
KAK, d - __----"'cr _
z - I+M
oo
13
(2.4.20)
Field IV
(2.4.21)
_
2 . 3 + Moo
for Smin,zd;?: there is
3 (I+M
oo
Y
K - 3+Moo
AK,zd - ( )2'
3· I+M
oo
Shear stress:
minimum stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1,
M, mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4.
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
(2.4.17)
Field IV
Sm,zd
KE,cr
SWK,zd
mean stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1,
M, mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4.
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
Shear stress:
For KAK,s Field I is not existing and Field II is
restricted to positive mean stresses tm,s ~ 0 or
o ~ t m , s = Tm,s I(K
E
,< ' TWK,s) ~ 1/(1 + M"t).
7 The abbreviation Srn,zd = Sm,zd / (KE,cr' SWK,zd) applies inthe
following to Smin,zd, Smax,zd , tm,s , ..., accordingly.
For KAK,s Field I is not existing and Field II is
restricted to positive mean stresses Tm,s ~ 0 or
- 1 s tmin,s = Tmin,s 1(K
E
,< . TWK,s) s 0 .
For positive mean stresses, tm,s ~ 0 , the same equations
are valid if Smin,zd is replaced by tmin,s and M, is
replaced by Mr .
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t.
Normal stress:
KAK,zd = 1 1(l - 110- ), (2.4.22)
(2.4.29)
(2.4.28)
(2.4.27)
individual stress amplitude,
equivalent stress ratio,
equivalent minimum stress,
equivalent maximum stress.
Sm,v = q . Sm,v,NH + (l - q) . Sm,v,GH,
13-(l/f-c)
q=
13-1
Sm,v,NH )
Sm,vGH +3.T
2
.
, m m
Smin,zd,v = Sm,v - Sa,zd ,
Smax,zd,v = Sill,v + Sa,zd ,
Rzd,v = Smin,zd,v l Smax,zd,v,
where
Sa,zd
Rzd,v
Smin,zd,v
Smax,zd,v
Equivalent mean stress
In the case "bending and torsion", which is typical for
numerous applications in machine design, and in
similar cases, where normal stresses are combined with
shear stresses, the variables Smin,zd,v , Smax,zd,v and
Rzd, v are to be used. They are derived from an
equivalent mean stress Sm,v , to be computed as a
function of the respective individual mean stress values,
Eq. (2.4.28). For normal stress there is
For bending, shear and torsion the appropriate variables
are Smin,b,v, ..., Tmin,s,v , ..., Rs,v or Tmin,t,v
Rt,v
The equivalent mean stress, Eq. (2.4.27), for normal
stress is
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Individual mean stress
As a rule the individual mean stress Sm,zd is used to
determine Smin,zd , Smax,zd and Rzd . For normal stress
the respective equations are
Smin,zd = Sm,zd - Sa,zd , (2.4.26)
Smax,zd = Sm,zd + Sa,zd ,
Rzd= Smin,zd 1Smax,zd ,
Sa,zd stress amplitude,
Smin,zd minimum stress,
Smax,zd maximum stress,
Rzd stress ratio.
For bending, shear and torsion the appropriate variables
are Smin,b, ..., Tmin,s , ..., R, or Tmin,t , ... , Rt·
61
(2.4.24)
(2.4.25)
(2.4.23)
there is
there is
1+ M
cr
13 M
cr
- --. smax,zd
1+M
cr
3
I-M
cr
/3
I-M
cr
'smax
I-M
cr
maximum stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1,
mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4.
KAK,zd =------"-------
KAK,zd
Field IV

3+Mcr
for Smax,zd- ( )2
3 1+ M
cr
Smax,zd
KE•cr
SWK,zd
Field III
2 4 . 3 +M
cr
for --- < Smax,zd <-
I+M
cr
3 (1+ M
cr)2
For shear stress the type of overloading F4 (Tmax,s
remaining constant) can practically not being realized.
Smax,zd *7
For Smax,zd = < 0 there is
KE,cr ,SWK,zd
Field II
for O:s; Smax,zd s 2 1(l + 110-) there is
Calculation for the type of overloading F4
In case of a possible overload in service the maximum
stress Smax,zd remains the same.
2.4 Component strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
Shear stress:
2.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress
In each case Rzd , ... , Smin,zd, ... and Smax,zd , ... are
. determined by mean stress and stress amplitude. The
mean stress may be taken either as the individual mean
stress according to type of stress or as an equivalent
mean stress from the individual mean stresses of all
types of stress.
2.4 Component strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
62
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
q material dependent parameter
after Table 2.6.1.
Sm, Tm individual mean stress,
Eq. (2.4.31) and (2.4.32),
For shear stress there is
Tm,v=fw,, ' Sm,v,
fw" shear strength factor, Table 2.2.1.
(2.4.30)
High residual stresses are to be assumed in case of
welding without residual stress reducing precautions.
Moderate residual stresses are to be assumed in case of
welding with residual stress reducing precautions, for
example by observing a suitable weld sequence.
Low residual stresses are to be assumed in case of
welding with subsequent stress-relief heat treatment, or
if residual stress may evidentially be excluded.
Rod-shaped (ID) components
For rod-shaped (lD) components the equivalent mean
stress after Eq. (2.4.28) is to be computed only if
Sm,zd + Sm,b ~ O. It is
Sm= Sm,zd + Sm,b, (2.4.31)
T
m
= Tm,s +Tm,t,
Sm,zd, ... individual mean stresses, Chapter 2.1.1.1.
Sm,zd , Sm,b , Tm,s and Tm,t are to be inserted into Eq.
(2.4.31) with proper sign to be added or subtracted.
Shell-shaped (2D) components
For shell-shaped (2D) components the equivalent mean
stress afterEq. (2.4.28) is to be computed only if
Sm,y = 0 and Sm,x ~ 0 (or in reverse). It is
Sm= Sm,x (or Sm= Sm,y), (2.4.32)
T
m
= Tm,s,
Sm,x, ... individual mean stress, Chapter 2.1.1.2.
2.4.2.3 Residual stress factor
The residual stress factor for non-welded components is
KE,cr = KE;t = 1. (2.4.33)
For welded components of structural steel and of
aluminum alloys the residual stress factor is different for
high, moderate or low residual stresses. It is given for
normal stress and for shear stress in Table 2.4.1, see
also Chapter 5.5.
Table 2.4.1 Residual stress factor KE,cr , KE;t and mean
stress sensitivity Mcr, M, for welded components.
Residual KE,cr Mcr KE,'t
M ~ 1
't
stress
high 1,00 0 1,00 0
moderate 1,26 0,15 1,15 0,09
low 1,54 0,30 1,30 0,17
~ 1 For Shear Stress there is M't = fwr ' M
cr
fw,'t =0,577 ,
Table 2.2.1. "
2.4.2.4 Mean stress sensitivity
The mean stress sensitivity M, or M, , in connection
with the mean stress factor, describes to what extent the
mean stress affects the amplitude of the component
fatigue strength, Figure 2.4.1.
For non-welded components the mean stress sensitivity
for normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case
of normal or elevated temperature, is
M, = aM' 10 -3. Rm/ MPa + bl\.:f, (2.4.34)
M't =fw" . Mq,
aM, bM constants, Table 2.4.2,
f
w
" shear fatigue strength factor, Table 2.2.1.
For components that have been surface hardened *8 the
mean stress sensitivity is greater because of the tensile
strength R.n of the hardened surface being higher than
that of components not surface hardened.
For welded components the mean stress sensitivity for
normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case of
normal or elevated temperature, is dependent on the
intensity of the residual stress, but independent of the
tensile strength R.n of the base material. Values are
given in Table 2.4.1, see also Chapter 5.5.
Table 2.4.2 Constants aMand bM.
Kind of Steel ~ 1
GS GGG GT GG
material
aM
0,35 0,35 0,35 0,35 0
b
M
- 0,1 0,05 0,08 0,13 0,5
Kind of Wrought Cast
material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys
aM 1,0 1,0
bM - 0,04 0,2
~ 1 also stainless steel.
8 Not applicable tocomponents being cold rolled or shot-peened.
2.4 Component fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
63
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Rod-shaped (1D) components
The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum)
of rod-shaped (lD) components for axial stress,
bending stress, shear stress and for torsional stress are,
Figure 2.4.2,
SBl<,zd = KSK,zd . SAK,zd, (2.4.41)
SSK,b = KSK,b . SAK,b,
TSK,s = KsK,s . TAK,s ,
TSK,t = KSK,t . TAK,t ,
KSK,zd, ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor,
Chapter 2.4.3.1,
SAK,zd ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 2.4.2.
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure
2.4.3:
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue
strength \R243 EN.dog
2.4.3.0 General
According to this chapter the amplitude of the
component variable amplitude fatigue strength is to be
derived from the stress spectrum and the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2.
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK,zd ,
. ... , to be calculated depends on the stress spectrum, that
is on the required total number of cycles '1 and on the
shape of the stress spectrum, as well as on the
component constant amplitude S-N curve, and in
addition it depends on the type of stress (normal stress
or shear stress).
It has to be distinguished, whether in case of a constant
amplitude spectrum an assessment of the fatigue limit
(or endurance limit) or an assessment of the fatigue
strength for finite life is intended, or whether in case of
a variable amplitude spectrum an assessment of the
variable amplitude fatigue strength is intended *2.
The calculation for a constant amplitude stress
spectrum is a special case of the more general case of
calculation for a variable amplitude stress spectrum. In
each case the way of calculation is the same, but the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factors are different.
Observing the specific input values the calculation
applies to both non-welded components (component
constant amplitude S-N curve model I or model II) and
to welded components (component constant amplitude
S-Ncurve model I only).
Rod-shaped (10) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
to be distinguished.
N,N
N ComponentScbrcurve
N; N* Componentfatigue lifecurve
4
Figure 2.4.3 Restriction of the amplitudes of the
variable amplitude fatigue strength, SBK,I , or of the
maximum value Sm + SBK and the minimum value
Sm - SBK respectively, in relation to the yield strength,
displayedin terms of the Haigh-diagram.
1 Required total number ofcycles and required component fatigue life are
corresponding denotations.
2 In a simplified manner the variable amplitude fatigue strength can be
derived on the basis ofa damage-equivalent stress amplitude. Then the
assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength turns out to be an
assessment ofthe fatigue limit being sufficient.
Figure 2.4.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve,
component fatigue life curve derived by the consistent
version of Miner's rule, and influence of the critical
damage sum D
M
.
Highest amplitude in stress spectrum SBK , component fatigue limit SAl(,
number ofcycles N after the component constant amplitude S-N curve,
ofcyclesNaft3the com.£?nent fatigue life curve for DM < 1 or
N *for DM = 1. Itis N =N + (N *- N) . DM. This formula implies that
anumber ofcycles N -7 N isobtained for se:.ctra ofincreasing damage
potential and the exact of cycles N = N for the constant
amplitude stress spectrum as N *-N-7 O.
In German the fatigue life curve is usually termed 'Gassner curve' and
the constant amplitude SoN curve is usually termed 'Woehler curve'.
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,
Kp,b, Kp,t plastic notch factors, Table 1.3.2,
shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
(2.4.42) SSK,zd s 0,75 Rp,
SSK,b s 0,75 Rp' Kp,b,
TsK,s s 0,75 fW,"t . Rp ,
TSK,t f"t' Rp' Kp,t,
2.4 Component fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
64
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Shell-shaped (2D) components
The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum)
of shell-shaped (2D) components for normal stresses in
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are,
Figure 2.4.2,
SBK,x = KBK,x . SAK,x, (2.4.43)
SBK,y = KBK,y . SAK,y ,
TBK,s = KBI<,s . TAK ,
KBI<,x" ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor,
Chapter 2.4.3.1,
SAK,x, ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 2.4.2.
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure
2.4.3,
SBK,x s 0,75 R
p
,
SBK,y ::; 0,75 R
p
,
TBK,s ::; 0,75 fw,'t . Rp ,
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,
fw.'t shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
(2.4.44)
ka slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve for N < No,cr , Chapter 2.4.3.2.
NO,cr,II number of cycles at second knee point of the
component constant amplitude S-N curve,
Chapter 2.4.3.2,
ko,cr slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve for N > No,cr , Chapter 2.4.3.2,
f n.e factor by which the endurance limit is lower than
the fatigue limit, Chapter 2.4.3.2, Table 2.4.4.
Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum
As a rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
is to be computed by using the elementary version of
Miner's rule (not necessary for a constant amplitude
stress spectrum). Somewhat more favourable results,
however, may be obtained by using the consistent
version of Miner's rule. Moreover, the classes of
utilization can be applied as a simplified method of
calculation; the so derived results approximately
correspond to those obtained by the elementary version
of Miner's rule. In an even more simplified manner the
variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on
the basis of a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
2.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factors
KBK,zd , ... , are to be derived as follows *3:
Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum *4
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model I:
horizontal for N > ND,cr (steel and cast iron material)
Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite life:
KBK,zd = (No.e / N) l/k
cr
forN ::; No,cr . (2.4.47)
Assessment ofthe fatigue limit = endurance limit:
Elementary version of Miner's rule based on the
damage potential
Using the elementary version of Miner's rule, Figure
2.4.4, the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to
be computed directly as follows *5. The calculation
applies to both component constant amplitude S-Ncurve
model I and model II (2.4.53)
KBK,zd = [( 1k -I) .DM +1] k ~ . ( N~ c r ) :0 ,
(vzd) cr N
where the damage potential is *6 *7
KBK,zd = 1 forN > No,cr. (2.4.48)
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model II:
slopingfor N > ND,cr (non-welded aluminum alloys)
Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite life:
KBK,zd = (NO,cr / N) l/k
cr
for N'< No,cr. (2.4.49)
KBK,zd = (NO,cr / N) l/kO,cr for No,cr<N s NO,cr,II ,
(2.4.50)
Assessment ofthe fatigue limit:
3 The following is written for axial stress, KBK.zd , k", ... , but applies to
other types of stress accordingly.
4 For welded components only model I of the component constant
amplitude SoNcurve is of concern, not model II.
KBK,zd = 1 forN > No,cr. (2.4.51)
j h (S )k
cr
_ k
cr
'" i a,zd,i
Vzd- L.=-' -- ,
. i=l H l Sa,zd,l
(2.4.54)
Assessment ofthe endurance limit:
N number of cycles of the component constant
amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
N required number of cycles,
No,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
(2.4.55)
KBK,zd = f n,e forN > NO,cr,II. (2.4.52)
5 Direct calculation without iteration. The results obtained from the
elementary version of Miner's rule approach the results obtained from the
consistent version of Miner's rule on the safe side.
6 When computing the damage potential (and also in the following
equations) the values ni and N according to the required total number of
cycles can be replaced by the values hi andH according to the total
number of cycles in the given standard type spectrum, see Chapter 2.1.
7 Instead of Alcon after Eq. (2.4.58) is here
A = 11 (v d)kcr
ele z
2.4 Component fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
65
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
j
H

1
(2.4.60)
(2.4.58)
(2.4.61)
(2.4.62)
(2.4.59)
[ )
kcr
v h. S .
N2=L -.:.
i=l H Sa,zd,l
Calculation according to the consistent version of
Miner's rule *9 *10
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model I:
horizontal/or N > ND,u (Steel and cast iron material)
In case of a component constant amplitude S-N curve
model I ( horizontal for N > ND,cr or slope kD,o = (0) the
number of cycles N to be computed for an value Sa,zd,l
is (2.4.57)
[
s )kcr
N= {[ A
kon
- 1 ] . D
M
+ I}' SAK,zd . ND,cr ,
a,zd,l
where
A
_ [ Sa,zd,l )k
cr-1
[ZI j Z2]
k - -- . -+ L-
on SAK,zd Nl v=m N2
[ )
kcr - 1 [S )k
cr-1
Zl = _ Sa,zd,m ,
a,zd,l a.zd.l
Z2 = )k
cr-1
_ [S;,Zd,V+1 )k
cr-1
a,zd,l a,zd,l
m-1 h. [S d.i )k
cr
Nl= L -.:
i=l H Sa,zd,l
For the summation of the term Z2, Eq. (2.4.60), it is to
be observed that Sa,zd,j+l = O.
N number of cycles of the component constant
amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
ND,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
DM critical damage sum, Table 2.4.3,
Sa,zd,i stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum,
Sa,zd,l stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum,
SAK,zd amplitude of the component fatigue limit,
ka slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve for N < ND,cr , Chapter 2.4.3.2,
j total number of steps in the spectrum,
10 The consistent version ofMiner's rule was first developed by Haibach.
Asimplifiedversion allowing for the decrease ofthe fatigue limit became
known as the modified version orthe Haibach method ofMiner's rule.
9 The consistent version of Miner's rule allows for the fact, that the
component fatigue limit will decrease as the damage sum increases.
The decrease applies tocomponent constant amplitude S-N curves model
I as well as tomodel II for ND,s 10
6
.
Using the consistent version of Miner's rule the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computes!
iteratively for differing values of Sa,zd,l , until a value N
equal to the required total number of cycles N is
obtained. The respective value of Sa,zd,l is used to derive
the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.
non-welded welded
components components
Steel, GS, 0,3 0,5
Aluminum alloys
GGG, GT, GG 1,0 1,0
Stress spectrum
2:U N (lg)
Figure 2.4.4 Elementary version of Miner's rule, com-
ponent constant amplitude S-N curve model I, D
M
= 1.
8 hi / H may be replaced by n, / N ,
N Required total number ofcycles according to the required fatigue life,
N = ni (summed up for 1toj),
nj number ofcycles instep i according tothe required fatigue life.
Table 2.4.3 Critical damage sum DM , recommended
value.
Characteristics ofthe stress spectrum according toChapter 2.1,
component constant amplitude SoNcurve according toChapter 2.4.3.2.
s
a
(lg)
v,Sa.l
KBK,zd = 1. (2.4.56)
If for a component constant amplitude S-N curve model
II (sloping for N > ND,cr ) a value KBK,zd is obtained
from Eq. (2.4.53) that is smaller than the value obtained
from Eq. (2.4.50) or (2.4.52), then the higher value
from Eq. (2.4.50) or (2.4.52) is to be used.
slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve for N < ND,cr , Chapter 2.4.3.2,
DM critical damage sum, Table 2.4.3,
ND,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
total number of cycles of the given spectrum,
H = H, = L hi (summed up for i = 1 toj),
related number of cycles in step i,
Hi = L hi (summed up for i = 1 to i) *8,
total number of steps in the spectrum,
number of the step in the spectrum,
Sa,zd,i stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum,
Sa,zd,l stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum.
If for a component constant amplitude S-N curve model
I (horizontal for N > ND,cr ) a value KBK,zd < 1 is
obtained from Eq. (2.4.53), then the value to be used is
2.4 Component fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
66
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
i number of the step in the spectrum,
m number i = m of the first step below SAK,zd,
H total number of cycles in the given spectrum,
H = Hj = L hi (summed up for I to j),
hi number of cycles in step i,
Hi = L hi (summed up for I to i) "8.
The computation is to be repeated iteratively for
differing values Sa,zd,1 > SAK,zd , until a..!alue N equal
to the required total number of cycles N is obtained.
From the respective value of Sa,zd,1 the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as
Calculation using a class of utilization
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK,zd is
to be determined according to the appropriate class of
utilization "12 , Chapter 5.7.
Calculation using a damage-equivalent stress
amplitude
When using a damage-equivalent stress amplitude the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor for both
constant amplitude S-N curves model I and model II is
KBI<,zd = Sa,zd,1 / SAK,zd. (2.4.63)
KBK,zd = 1. (2.4.69)
If a value KBK,zd < I is obtained from Eq. (2.4.63), then
the value to be applied is
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model II:
slopingfor N > ND, 0' (non-welded aluminum alloys)
*11
If a value N = N* > N is obtained then the calcu-
lation of N, Eq. (2.4.65), is to be continued for
differing values Sa,zd,1 > SAK,zd / ( fn,O' )1/3 until a value
N equal to the required total number of cycles N is
obtained. From the respective value of Sa,zd,1 the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as
KBK,zd = Sa,zd,1 . (fn,O' )1/3 / SAK,zd (2.4.66)
In case of a component constant amplitude S-N curve
model II (sloping for N > ND,O' or slope kD,a < kD,a < (0)
the number of cycles N is first to be computed for a
.' 1/3
smgle value Sa,zd,1 = SAK,zd / (fn,O' ) as follows
N={[A -1]'D +1}.[SAK'Zd)k
O
ND,a
kon M S f )kal3
a.zd.l ( II a
with (2.4.65)
A
kon
after Eq. (2.4.58) to (2.4.62)
and the explanations as before,
fn,O' factor by which the endurance limit is lower
than the fatigue limit, Table 2.4.4.
2.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
Component constant amplitude S-N curves for non-
welded components (without surface hardening) and for
welded components *13 are shown for normal stress and
for shear stress in Figure 2.4.5 and 2.4.6. The particular
number of cycles at the knee point ND,O' , ... and the
values of slope ka, ... are given in Table 2.4.4.
The component fatigue limit SAK,zd, ... is the reference
fatigue strength value for calculation. It follows from
Chapter 2.4.2. For S-N curves Model I the fatigue limit
SAK and the endurance limit SAK,n for N = 00 are
identical, while for S-N curves Model II (valid for non-
welded components of austenitic steel or of aluminum
alloys) they are different by a factor fn,O' , Table 2.4.4
and Figure 2.4.5.
A lower boundary of the numbers of cycles is implicitly
defined by the maximum stress being limited according
to the static strength requirements, Chapter 1.
For surface hardened components "14 the slope of the
component constant amplitude S-N curves is more
shallow. Instead of the values of slope kO' = 5 and k, = 8
for not surface hardened components, Table 2.4.4, the
values that apply to surface hardened components are
ka = 15 and k, = 25 ,while the number of cycles at the
knee point ND,O' and ND,'t remain unchanged, see also
Chapter 5.8.
The component constant amplitude S-N curves for
welded components are valid for the toe section and for
the throat section.
(2.4.64) KBK,zd = 1.
If a value N = N* ~ N is obtained then the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factor is
If a value KBK,zd < fn,O' is obtained from Eq. (2.4.67)
then the value to be applied is
KBK,zd = fn,O' .
(4.4.67)
(2.4.68)
II Simplified and approximate calculation.
12 Class of utilization as a characteristic of the stress spectrum. It is an
approximately d a m ~ e equivalent combination of the required total
number of cycles N with the shape of a particular standard stress
spectrum the frequency distribution of which is of binomial or exponential
type modified by a spectrum parameter p. It provides a result that
corresponds to a calculation based on the elementary version of Miner's
rule.
13 With reference to nW-Recommendations and Eurocode 3.
14Not applicable to cold rolled or shot-peened components.
2.4 Component fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
67
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Table 2.4.4 Number of cycles at the knee point, slope
of the component constant amplitude S-N curves, and
values of fu,o- and fu,t.
Normal stress
Shear stress
Component
IND,o- IND,o-,II Ik, IkD,o-
fu,o-
Steel and cast iron materials ( S-N curve model I )
non-welded 110
6
1- 15 1- 1,0
welded 15 ' 10
6
1- 13 1- 1,0
Aluminum alloys (S-N curve modell II
non-welded 110
6
110
8
15 115 0,74
welded 15' 10
6
1- 13 1-
1,0
Component
IND,t 1ND,t,ll Ik, IkD;t
fu,t
Steel and cast iron materials (S-N curve model I)
non-welded 110
6
1- 18 1- 1,0
welded 110
8
1- 15 1- 1,0
Aluminum alloys (S-N curve model II \
non-welded 110
6
110
8
18 125 10,83
welded 110
8
1- 15 1- 11,0
Sa,zd
(Ig)
SAC
SAK.zd
N
c
= NDo-=
2 '10
6
5 .'10
6
aila bIJdw12
N (lg)
T
a
.
s
(Ig)
T
AC
T
AK.s
N
c= ND' 7 8
. 0
6
=10
ails bildll'l5 N (lg)
N (Ig)
II
N (lg)
I
II
aif. bildwl6
T
AK
.
s
+--
TAK,s,II
ails bildw.
T
a

s
(lg)

SAK.zd.IlI-----------t-
(lg)
Figure 2.4.5 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
for non-welded components *14
Top: Normal stress S.
Bottom: Shear stress T.
Steel and cast iron materials, except austenitic steel, (Model I):
horizontal for N > ND,cr, kD,cr = co
or for N > ND,"t, k D,"t = co
Aluminumalloys and austenitic steel (Model II):
Sloping for N > ND cr, kD o»
or for N > ND:"t,
horizontal for N > ND cr II, kD e II = co
or for N > ND:"t.it" ' kD:"t:II= co.
Figure 2.4.6 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
for welded components *13
Top: Normal stress S.
Bottom: Shear stress T.
Steel, cast iron materials and aluminum alloys, welded (Model I):
horizontal for N > ND,cr, kD,cr = co
or for N>ND,"t, kD,"t=co
NC is the referencenumber of cycles
correspondingto the characteristicstrength values SAC and TAC.
SAK,zd/ SAC= (Nc / ND,cr) 11ko = 0,736 and
TAK,s/ TAC = (Nc / ND,"t ) 11 kr = 0,457.
2.5 Safety factors
2.5 Safety factors *1
Contents
2.5.0 General
2.5.1 Steel
!R25 EN.docl
Page
68
68
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
2.5.2 Cast iron materials
2.5.2.0 General
Ductile and non-ductile cast tron materials are to be
distinguished.
2.5.0 General
2.5.2
2.5.2.0
2.5.2.1
2.5.2.2
2.5.3
2.5.3.0
2.5.3.1
2.5.3.2
2.5.4
2.5.5
Cast iron materials
General
Ductile cast iron materials
Non-ductile cast iron materials
Wrought aluminum alloys
General
Ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys
Total safety factor
69
2.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials
Cast iron material with an elongation As :2: 12,5 % are
considered as ductile cast iron materials, in particular
all types of GS and some types of GGG. Values of
elongation see Table 5.1.12.
Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in
Table 2.5.2. Compared to Table 2.5.1 they are higher
because of an additional partial safety factor jF that
accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings
*4. The factor is different for severe or moderate
consequences of failure and moreover for castings that
have been subject to non-destructive testing or have not.
According to this chapter the safety factors are to be
determined.
The safety factors are valid under the condition that the
design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and
that the material properties correspond to an average
probability of survival of Po = 97,5 % *2.
The safety factors apply both to non-welded and welded
components.
2.5.1 Steel
Table 2.5.2 Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials
GS; GGG) (A,:2: 12,5%\
JD
Consequences of failure
severe I moderatev!
castings not subject to non-destructive testing ~ 2
regular no 2,1
I
1,8
Inspection yes ~ 3 1,9
I
1,7
castings subject to non-destructive testing ~ 4
regular no 1,9
I
1,65
Inspection yes ~ 3 1,7
I
1,5
Table 2.5.1 Safety factors for steel *3 (not for GS) and
The basic safety factor concerning the fatigue strength
'IS
This value may be reduced under favorable conditions,
that is depending on the possibilities of inspection and
on the consequences of failure, Table 2.5.1.
.in = 1,5. (2.5.1)
~ 1 See footnote ~ 1 of Table 2.5.1.
~ 2 Compared to Table 2.5.1 an additional partial safety factor
jF = 1,4is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects
in castings.
~ 3 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. Reduction
by about 10 %.
~ 4 Compared to Table 2.5.1 an additional partial safety factor
jF = 1,25 is introduced, for which it is assumed that a higher quality
of the castings is obviously guaranteed when testing.
for ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A:2: 12,5 %).
jD Consequences offailure
severe moderate ~ 1
regular no 1,5 1,3
inspections
y e s ~ 2
1,35 1,2
~ 1 Moderate consequences of failure of a less important component
in the sense of "non catastrophic" effects of a failure; for example
because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statical
indeterminate system. Reduction by about 15 %.
~ 2 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. Reduction
by about 10 %.
1 Chapters 2.5 and 4.5 are identical.
2 Statistical confidenceS ; 50 %.
3 Steel is always considered as a ductile material.
4 In mechanical engineering cast. components are of standard quality
for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = 1,0
does not seem possible up to now.
A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast
components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast
components have to meet special demands on qualification and
checks of the production process, as well as on the extent of quality
and product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their
mechanical properties.
2.5 Safety factors
2.5.2.2 Non-ductile cast iron materials
Cast iron materials with an elongation AS < 12,5 %
(for GT A3 < 12,5 %) are considered as non-ductile
materials, in particular some types of GGG as well as
all types of GT and GG. Values of elongation for GGG
and GT see Table 5.1.12 or 5.1.13. The value for GG
is AS = O.
For non-ductile cast iron materials the safety factors
from Table 2.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value
Llj, Figure 2.5.1 *s:
Llj = 0,5 -JAs /50%, (2.5.2)
AS Elongation, to be replaced by A3 for GT.
GG
0,5
Llj
69
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
2.5.3.2 Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloy
Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
A < 12,5 % are considered as non-ductile materials.
Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety
factors from Table 2.5.1 are to be increased by adding a
value Llj , Eq. (2.5.2).
2.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as non-
ductile materials. All safety factors from Table 2.5.2
are to be increased by adding a value Llj , Eq. (2.5.2).
Values of elongation see Table 5.1. 31 to 5.1. 38.
2.5.5 Total safety factor
Similar to an assessment of the component static
strength, Chapter 1.5.5, a "total safety factor" jges is
to be derived:
Figure 2.5.1 Value Llj to be added to the safety
factor In, defined as a function of the elongation As or
A
3
, respectively.
o 1U 12,5 20
As ,A3 in %
jges = i
D
, (2.5.4)
T,D
Jn safety factor, Table 2.5.1 or 2.5.2,
Kt,D temperature factor, Chapter 2.2.3.
2.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys
2.5.3.0 (;eneral
Ductile and non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys are to
be distinguished.
2.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
A"C. 12,5 % are considered as ductile materials. Values
of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are
the same as for steel according to Table 2.5.1.
S For example the safety factor for GG is at least
in = I,S + O,S = 2,0 (2.S.3)
Gn = 1,5 from Table 2.5.2, j = O,S after Eq. (2.S.2) for AS = 0).
70
2.6 Assessment 2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue
strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.
In general the assessments for the individual types of
stress and for the combined types of stress are to be
carried out separately *1.
The procedure of assessment applies to both non-welded
and welded components.
For welded components assessments are generally to be
carried out separately for the toe section and for the
throat section. They are to be carried out in the same
way, but using the respective cross-section values,
nominal stresses and fatigue classes FAT as these are in
general different for the toe and throat section.
2.6.0 General
2.6 Assessment
An assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength and an assessment of the fatigue limit or of the
endurance limit are to be distinguished. In each case the
calculation is the same when using the appropriate
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK,zd , ... ,
Chapter 2.4.3, and when taking
(2.6.2)
(2.6.1) Sa,zd, I = Sa,zd , ... ,
in case of a constant amplitude spectrum, or
Sa,zd,l ~ Sa,zd,eff and N = ND,cr
in case of a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
Sa,zd, ... , constant stress amplitude for which the
required number of cycles is N,
Sa,zd,eff, ... , damage-equivalent stress amplitude,
ND,cr number of cycles at knee point of the
component constant amplitude S-N
curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2.
Superposition
For proportional or synchronous stress components of
same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out
according to Chapter 2.1.
If different types of stress like axial stress,· bending
stress, ... *4 act simultaneously and if the resulting stress
is multiaxial, Chapter 0.3.5 and Figure 0.0.9, both the
individual types of stress and the combined types of
stress are to be considered as described below *5.
72
1R26 EN.dog
Page
70
71
General
Rod-shaped (lD) components
Individual types of stress
Combined types of stress
Shell-shaped (2D) components
Individual types of stress
Combined types of stress
2.6.0
2.6.1
2.6.1.1
2.6.1.2
2.6.2
2.6.2.1
2.6.2.2
Contents
Degree of utilization
The assessment is to be carried out by determining the
degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength.
In the general context of the present Chapter the degree
of utilization is the quotient of the (nominal)
characteristic stress amplitude Sa,zd,l , ..., divided by the
allowable (nominal) stress amplitude of the component
fatigue strength at the reference point *2. The allowable
stress amplitude is the quotient of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength after Chapter 2.4.3,
SBI<,zd, ... , divided by the total safety factor jges . The
degree of utilization is always a positive value *3.
Kinds of component
Rod-shaped (lD) and shell-shaped (2D) components are
to be distinguished. They can be both non-welded or
welded.
1 It is essential to examine the degree of utilization not only of the
combined types ofstress but also that ofthe individual types ofstress in
general, and inparticular ifthese may occur separately.
2 The reference point is the critical point ofthe considered cross-section
that observes the highest degree ofutilization.
3 As the degree of utilization is the quotient of two amplitude which
always are positive.
4 Bending stresses intwo planes, Sa,b,y and Sa,b,z ' are different types of
stress, also shear stresses in two planes, Ta,s,y and Ta.s.z .
5 Proportional, synchronous and non-proportional multiaxial stresses are
tobe distinguished. , Chapter 0.3.5.
Only under special conditions ofproportional stresses the character ofEq.
(2.6.4) and (2.6.12) is that of a strength hypothesis from a material-
mechanics point ofview. For example the extreme stresses from bending
and shear will . as arule - occur atdifferent points ofthe cross-section, so
that different reference points W are tobe considered. As a rule bending
will be more important. More general Eq. (2.6.4) and (2.6.12) have the
character of an empirical interaction formula. They are applicable for
proportional stresses and approximately applicable for synchronous
stresses; an improved procedure for non-welded components is given in
Chapter 5.9. For non-proportional stresses they are not suitable; an
approximate procedure applicable for non-proportional stresses is
proposed inChapter 5.10.
2.6 Assessment
2.6.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
2.6.1.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of rod-shaped (lD)
components for variable amplitude types of stress like
axial, bending. shear and torsional stress are
71
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Table 2.6.1 Values of q as dependent on f
W

t

Steel. GGG GT, GG
wrought cast
AI alloys AI alloys
f
W t
0.577 0.65 0,75 0,85
Q 0 0,264 0,544 0,759
2.6.1.2 Combined types of stress
The degree of utilization of rod-shaped (lD)
components for combined types of stress is *6
Sa,zd,1 • ...• characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress
amplitude in the spectrum) according to
type of stress. Chapter 2.1.1.1 and
Eq. (2.6.1) or (2.6.2),
SSK,zd •... , related amplitude of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength,
Chapter 2.4.3.
jges total safety factor, Chapter 2.5.5.
Sa,zd,l
:5: 1,
aSK,zd
SBK,Zd / jerf
Sa,b,l
:5: 1,
aSK,b
SBK,b / i,
T
a.s, 1
:5: 1,
aSK,s
TBK,s / jerf
=
Ta,!,l
:5: 1. aSK.t
TBK,t / jerf
aSK,Sv = q' aNH + (1 - q) . <lGH:5: 1.
where
+4.t;),
,
Sa = aSK,zd + aSK,b ,
ta = aSK,s + aSK,t •
aSK,zd,'" degrees of utilization after Eq. (2.6.3).
(2.6.3)
(2.6.4)
(2.6.5)
(2.6.6)
Exceptions: For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 , for surface hardened or welded components
q = 1.
Rules of signs: If the individual types of stress (axial
and bending, or shear and torsion, respectively) always
act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of
utilization aSK,zd and aSK,b and/or aSK,s and aSK,t are to
be inserted in Eq. (2.6.6) with the same (positive) signs
*7. If they act always proportional or synchronous 180
0
out of phase, however. the above degrees of utilization
are to be inserted in Eq. (2.6.6) with oposite signs *8 *9.
If the individual types of stresses act non-proportional,
that is neither proportional nor synchronous, the Eq.
(2.6.4) to (2.6.6) are not applicable and the procedure
proposed in Chapter 5.10 is to be applied instead.
2.6.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
2.6.2.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of shell-shaped (2D)
components for variable amplitude types of stress like
normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as shear
are
s.,
:5: 1, (2.6.8)
asK,x =
SBK,X / jerf
aSK,y =
Sa,y,l
:5: 1.
SBK,y / jerf
Ta,l
:5: 1. aSK,s
T
BK
/ jerf
(2.6.7)
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12.5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface
hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be
applied. Otherwise there is, Table 2.6.1.
./3-(l/fw.'t)
q ./3-1
fw,'t shear fatigue strength factor, Table 2.2.1 or 2.6.1.
6 Eq. (2.6.4) or (2.6.12) isa combination ofthe normal stress criterion
(NH) and the v. Mises criterion (GH). Depending on the ductility ofthe
material the combination iscontrolled by a parameter qas a function of
tW,t according toEq. (2.6.7) and Table 2.6.1. For instance q = 0for steel
so that only the v. Mises criterion isofeffect, while q = 0,264 for GGG so
that both the normal stress criterion and the v. Mises criterion are of
partial influence.
7 For example atensile axial stress and atensile bending stress acting at
the reference point that both result from the sam single external load
affecting the component.
8For example antensile axial stress and a compressive bending stress
acting atthe reference point that both result from the sam single external
load affecting the component.
9 Stress components acting opposingly may cancel each other inpart or
completely.
2.6 Assessment
Sa,x,1 , ... , characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress
amplitude in the spectrum) according to
type of stress, Chapter 2.1.1.2 and Eq. (2.6.1)
or (2.6.2),
SB!(,x, ..., related amplitude of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter2.4.3,
jges total safety factor, Chapter 2.5.5.
2.6.1.2 Combined types of stress
The degree of utilization of shell-shaped (2D)
components for combined types of stresses is *7
aBK,Sv = q . aNH+ (1 - q) . 1lGH:::; 1, (2.6.9)
where (2.6.10)
aNH -Sa,y)2 +4.t; ),
J
2 2 2
1lGH = sa,x + sa,y - sa,x . sa,y + t
a
'
72
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
sa,x = aBK,x , (2.6.11)
(2.6.12)
Sa,y = aBK,y ,
t
a
= aBK,s,
aBK,x ... degrees of utilization after Eq. (2.6.8).
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface
hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be
applied. Otherwise there is, Table 2.6.1,
13-(lIfw,'t)
q
13-1
fw,'t shear fatigue strength factor, Table 2.2.1 or 2.6.1.
Rules of signs: If the normal stresses Sx and Sy always
act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of
utilization aBK,x and aBK,y are to be inserted in Eq.
(2.6.11) with the same (positive) signs *10. If they act
always proportional or synchronous 180
0
out of phase,
however, the degrees of utilization aBK,x and aBK,y are
to be inserted in Eq. (2.6.11) with oposite signs *11.
If the individual types of stress act non-proportional,
that is neither proportional nor synchronous, the Eq.
(2.6.9) to (2.6.11) are not applicable and the procedure
proposed in Chapter 5.10 is to be applied instead.
10 For example a tensile stress in direction x and a tensile stress in
directions y that both result from the same external load affecting the
component.
11 For example a tensile stress indirection xand a compressive stress in
directions y that both result from the same external load affecting the
component.
3.1 Characteristic stresses
73
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
3 Assessment of the static
strength using local stresses
r-I
IU
-
1
---= EN-'-.-'- do-' q
maximum and mirumum stresses can be positive or
negative. It is assumed, that all stresses reach their
extreme values simultaneously.
3.1 Characteristic stress values
3.0 General
Figure 3.0.1 Different locations for a static failure
occurring as a local failure (A) or as a global failure (B).
assessment of the fatigue strength a stress spectrum is to be derived from
that history consisting of stress cycles of the amplitudes Ga,i and the mean
values Grn,i ' Chapter 2. I.
The largest amplitude of this stress spectrum is Ga,1 ' and the related
mean value is Grn,1 . The related maximum and minimum values are
G
max,1
= Grn,1 + Ga,1 and Gmin,1 =Grn,1 - Ga,1 . The values Gmax,e.x
and Gmin,ex may be different from the .values Gmax,1.and Gmin,1 . This
is because extreme, very seldom occunng events are Important only for
the assessment of the static strength, but hardly for the assessment of the
fatigue strength. In a stress spectrum which is supposed to apply for
normal service conditions they do not have to be considered therefore.
3 Stress components having different sign may cancel out each other in
part or completely.
Elevated temperature
In case of elevated temperature the values O"max,ex ,
and O"min,ex , . . . are relevant for a short-term loading
(related to the high temperature strength or high
temperature yield strength).
For a long-term loading (related to the creep strength or
1% creep limit) correct results will only be obtained in
case of a constant (static) tensile stress O"max,ex equally
distributed over the section of concern.
In all other cases of constant or variable loading the
assessment will be more or less on the safe side if the
values O"max,ex , . . . and O"min,ex , ... refer to a stress
distribution with a stress gradient, and/or if they refer to
the peak values of a variable stress history, which are of
short duration only, while for the rest of time the stress
is lower.
If in those cases it becomes necessary to make best use
of the long-term load bearing capacity of the component
(because otherwise the assessment cannot be achieved)
an expert stress analysis is recommended to define the
appropriate stress value to be used for the assessment.
Such an analysis is beyond the scope of the present
guideline, however.
Superposition
If several stress components act simultaneously at the
reference point, they are to be overlaid. For same type of
stress (for example normal stress and normal stress,
O"max,ex,1 , O"max,ex,2, ... ) the superposition is to be carried
out at this stage, so that in the following a single stress
value (O"max,ex, ... ) exists for every type of stress *3. For
different types of stress (for example normal stress and
shear stress, or normal stress in direction x and normal
74
75
Page
73 General
Characteristic stress values
General
Rod-shaped (ID) components
Shell-shaped (2D) components
Block-shaped (3D) components
3.1.0
3.1.1
3.1.1.0
3.1.1.1
3.1.1.2
3.1.1.3
Contents
3.1.0 General
...-.;.. _._.
F
1 The assessment of the static strength with local stresses based on
Neuber's rule and the plastic. limit load, Chapter 3.3, is an approximation
that has to be regarded as provisional and therefore it should be applied
with caution. Also the assessment of the static strength for welded
components using structural stresses has to be regarded as provisional and
therefore it is to be applied with caution, as well.
2 In general the values Gmax,ex and Gmin,ex for the assessment of the
static strength are the extreme values of a stress history. For the
According to this chapter the characteristic service
stress values are to be determined as elastic stresses.
Relevant are the extreme maximum and minimum
stresses O"max,ex and O"min,ex , ... of the individual stress
components expected for the most unfavourable
operating conditions and for special loads according to
specification or due to physical limits *2. Both the
According to this chapter the assessment of the static
strength using local stresses is to be carried out *1.
It should be observed that not necessarily the component
static strength is determined by a local failure occurring
at a notch. Likewise a global failure occurring ata
different, unnotched or moderately notched section of
the component may be determining, Figure 3.0.1.
3.1 Characteristic stresses
74
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
Stresses of different sign (O'max,ex positive, O'min,ex
negative for instance) are generally to be considered
separately *6. For shear and for torsion the highest
absolute value is relevant.
stress in direction y) the superposition is to be carried
out at the assessment stage, Chapter 3.6.
Stress components acting opposed to each other, and
which do not always occur simultaneously, are not to be
overlaid however.
3.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
Rod-shapedHD) non-welded components
For rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components a normal
stress O'zd =0' and a shear stress ". =" are to be
considered *5. The extreme maximum and minimum
stresses are
(3.1.2)
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
For rod-shaped (I D) welded components the local
stresses (structural stresses only) are generally to be
determined for the weld toe and for the root of the weld
separately *7.
For the weld toe the local stresses are to be computed as
for non-welded components, Eq. (3.1.1)..
For the root of the weld equivalent structural stresses
have to be computed from the structural stresses
resulting from the normal and shear loadings, Figure
3.1.1, *8
/
t ~ · ·
/-
Left: Butt weld. Right: Fillet weld. The structural stress is to be computed
with the throat thickness a.
O'.L normal stress normal to the weld seam *9,
".l shear stress normal to the weld seam,
"II shear stress parallel to the weld seam.
"wv in analogy.
The extreme maximum and muumum values of the
equivalent nominal stresses are
(3.1.1)
O'max,ex , "max,ex ,
O'min,ex , "min,ex .
3.1.1 Characteristic stress values
3.1.1.0 General
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) as well as non-welded and welded components are
to be distinguished.
For welded components the local stresses are _to be
'determined as structural stresses. An assessment of the
'stailc-stiength'- ()fwelcleclcomponents using effective
notch stresses is not possible up to now *4.
When using local stresses it is not necessary that a well
defined cross-section does exist. Hence it cannot be
presupposed that nominal stresses can be determined as
well.
O'max,ex,wv and O'min,ex,wv, ....
(3.1.3)
Stresses of different sign (O'max,ex,wv positive, O'min,ex,wv
negative for instance) are generally to be considered
separately. For shear and for torsion the highest absolute
value is relevant.
4 See Figure 0.0.6 and 0.0.7 for definition ofstructural stresses and of
effective notch stresses. For effective notch stresses the assessment
procedure has not been developed up to now.
5 For rod-shaped (ID) components the different types of stress (axial,
bending, shear and/or torsion) may also occur independent of each other.
This case is not considered in the following, however, as it is supposed
that (Jwill contain all normal stresses and t will contain all shear stresses.
6 Particularly in the case of cast iron materials with different tension and
compression strength values, and moreover because of the non-linear-
elastic stress-strain characteristic ofgrey cast iron.
7 For welded components in general an assessment of the static strength
is to be carried out for the toe section and for the throat section, because
the cross-sectional areas may be different and because the strength
behavior is evaluated in a different way. The assessment for the toe
section is to be carried out as for non-welded components. The assessment
for the throat section is to be carried out with the equivalent structural
stress (Jwv.
8 According to DIN 18 800 part 1, page 36. The structural stress (JII
(normal stress parallel to the orientation ofthe weld) is to be neglected.
9 Normally (Jwvwill result mainly from (J.l. 'twv in analogy.
3.1 Characteristic stresses
75
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses
(negative) are generally to be consideredseparately*10 .
For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components normal
stresses in the x- and y-directions O"zd,x = o, and O"zd,y= O"y
as well as a shear stress "t
s
= r are to be considered. The
extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
3.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
The calculation for shell-shaped (2D) components can
be applied also for block-shaped (3D) components, if the
stresses O"x, O"y, 't at the surface are of interest only,
otherwise Chapter 3.1.1.3 applies.
Note: Independent of the value of the stresses the
directions of the stresses <J1 and <Jz are parallel to the
free surface, and direction 3 points normally to the
surface into the interior of the component.
Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses
(negative) are generally to be considered separately *11.
(3.1.6)
<J1,max,ex, <JZ,max,ex , <J3,max,ex ,
<J1,min,ex, <JZ,min,ex , <J3,min,ex .
Block-shaped (3D) welded components
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
welds. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses at
the surface, <JX' <J
y
and 't, are of interest only.
(3.1.4) O"rnax.ex.x , O"rnax.ex.y , "trnax.ex ,
O"rnin,ex.x , O"rnin,ex.y , 'trnin,ex .
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6,
the local stresses (structural stresses only) are in general
to be determined separately for the weld toe and for the
root of the weld *7.
For the weld toe the local stresses are to be computedas
for non-welded components, Eq. (3.1.4).
For the root of the weld an equivalent structural stresses,
O"wv,x , has to be computed from the structural stresses
resulting from the loading in x-direction, Eq. (3.1.2)
and Figure 3.1.1. Stresses O"wv,y and"t
wv
in analogy. The
extreme maximum and minimum values of the
equivalent stresses are
O"max,ex,wv,x and O"min,ex,wv,y, ... (3.1.5)
Stresses of different sign (<Jmax,ex,wv,x positive,
<Jmin,ex,wv,x negative for instance) are generally to be
considered separately. Tension and compression are
generally to be considered separately. For shear the
highest absolute value is relevant.
3.1.1.3 Block-shaped (3D) components
Block-shaped (3D) non-welded components
For block-shaped (3D) non-welded components the
principal stresses <J1,zd = <J1 , <JZ,zd = <Jz and <J3,zd = <J3
are to be considered. The extreme maximum and
minimum stresses are
10 See footnote *6. And moreover because the second normal stress 0y
may reduce the degree ofutilization.
11 See footnote *6. An moreover because the second and/or third
principle stress 0zand 03 may reduce the degree ofutilization.
3.2 Material properties
76
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
1R32 EN.dog
-deff
Values
according
to standards
Component
values -
(Jg)
d
eff
.
N
Rm,N
77
78
81
80
Page
76
Component values according to standards
General
Component values according to standards
of semi-finished products or test pieces
Component values according to
the drawing
Special case of actual component values
Technological size factor
General
Dependence on the effective diameter
Effective diameter
Contents
3.2.0 General
3.2.1
3.2.1.0
3.2.1.1
3.2.1.3
3.2.2
3.2.2.0
3.2.2.1
3.2.2.2
3.2.1.2
3.2.3 Anisotropy factor
3.2.4 Compression strength factor and
shear strength factor
3.2.4.0 General
3.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
3.2.4.2 Shear strength factor
3.2 Material properties
3.2.5
3.2.5.0
3.2.5.1
3.2.5.2
3.2.5.3
Temperature factors
General
~ o r m a l temperature
Low temperature
Elevated temperature
Figure 3.2.1 Values according to standards and com-
ponent values according to standards, Rm and Rp, or
values specified by drawings, Rm,z and Rp,Z .
Top: All kinds of material except GG, Rm ::: Rm.N, R" ::: R",N
Semi-logarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the
effective diameter d.n- .
3.2.0 General
According to this chapter the mechanical material
properties like tensile strength R.n, yield strength R, and
further characteristics for non-welded and welded'
components are to be determined.
All mechanical material properties are those of the
material test specimen. Values according to standards,
component values and component values according to
standards are to be distinguished, Figure 3.2.1.
Bottom: GG, Rm ::: or ~ Rm.N . Double-logarithmic decrease of the
mechanical material properties with the effective diameter dell'.
Specified values according to drawings Rm.z and R",z.
Values according to standards
The values according to standards (R.n,N , Rm , Rp,N , Rp)
correspond to an average probability of survival
Po = 97,5 % and depend on the effective diameter deff
and on the technological size factor.
Material test specimen
In the context of this guideline the material test
specimen is an unnotched polished round specimen of
do= 7,5 mm diameter *1.
Component values
The component values CRm , R.n.z , R, , Rp,z ) are valid
for the effective diameter deff of the component, they
may correspond to different probabilities of survival Po,
however.
1 This definition is the basis of the present calculation, although
specimens for tensile tests may usually have diameters different from
7,5 mm.
Special case of actual component values
If specific values for a component (R.n,r , Rp,r) have been
determined experimentally, they normally apply to a
probability of survival Po = 50 % , and therefore they
are valid only for the particular component, but not for
the entirety of all those components. They may be used,
for instance, for a subsequent assessment of the strength
3.2 Material properties
77
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
3.2.1.2 Component values according to the drawing
The component value of the tensile strength, Rm, is
Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive
stresses the compression strength factor fa , Chapter
3.2.4, for shear stresses the shear strength factor f, ,
Chapter 3.2.4, and for elevated temperature the
temperature factors Kt,m , ..., Chapter 3.2.5.
product *3 , in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it
is the value from the test piece according to the material
standard.
The yield strength, Rp,N , is the guaranteed minimum
value specified for the smallest size of the semi-finished
product *3 or for the test piece defined by the material
standard *4.
of the particular component in case of a service failure,
if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1,00 in
addition.
Component values according to standards
The component values according to standards <Rm , Rp)
apply to an average probability of survival PD= 97,5 %
and are valid for the effective diameter, c1eff, of the
component. Their application is not limited to a
particular component, and therefore they may be used
for an assessment of strength, valid for the entirety of
all those components.
To determine the tensile strength Rm and the yield
strength R, *2 the technological size factor, the
anisotropy factor and the temperature factors are to be
considered in general. Furthermore compression
strength and shear strength values are to be considered.
Rm = 0,94 . Rm.z. (3.2.2)
3.2.1 Component values according to
standards
3.2.1.0 General
The component values according to standards, Rm and
R, , are to be determined from the values of semi-
finished products or of test pieces defined by standards,
Rm.N and Rp,N , or from the component value specified in
the drawing, Rm,z . As a special case the experimentally
determined actual component values, Rm.r and Rp,r , can
be applied.
For GG the yield strength is not defined and Eq. (3.2.1)
is not applicable.
3.2.1.1 Component values according to standards of
semi-finished products or of test pieces
The component values according to standards of the
tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp, are
Rm =Kd,m . K
A
' Rm.N, (3.2.1)
R, = K<J,p . K
A
' Rp.N,
K<J,m, K<J,p technological size factors, Chapter 3.2.2,
K
A
anisotropy factor, Chapter 3.2.3,
Rm.N, Rp.N values of the semi-finished product or
of a test piece according to standards,
Chapter 5.1 .
In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the
tensile strength, Rm.N , is the guaranteed minimum value
specified for the smallest size of the semi-finished
2 The term yield strength is used as a generalized tenn for the yield
stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0.2
proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as
aluminum alloys).
The component value according to the drawing Rm,z is
the tensile· strength of the material specified on the
drawing. As the value Rm.z is normally verified by
random inspection of small samples only *5, it is
assumed to have a probability of survival less than
PD= 97,5 % . Eq. (1.2.2) converts the value R
m

z
to a
component value Rm that is expected to conform with
the probability of survival of Pr, = 97,5 %.
The yield strength R, corresponding to the tensile
strength Rm is *6 .
R, =Kd,p . Rp,N . Rm, (3.2.3)
Kd,m Rm,N
technological size factors, Chapter 3.2.2,
values of the semi-finished product or
of a test pieces defined by standards,
Chapter 5.1 .
3 If different dimensions of that semi-finished product are given by
the standard.
4 A probability of survival Pii = 97,5 % is assumed for the component
properties according to standards Rm,N , Rp,N . This probability of
survival should also apply to the values R
m
' R
p
is calculated therefrom.
5 The value R
m
Z is checked by three hardness measurements
(n=3) for e x a m p l ~ , where every test has to reach or to exceed the
required value. The probability of survival of the lowest of n= 3 tests
may be estimated to 75 % (= I - I/(n+ 1) = 1 - 1/(3+1) = 0,75), and
may be assigned to R
m
Z . With a likely coefficient of variation of
4% the conversion to P; = 97,5 % follows from Eq. (3.2.2).
6 A conversion proportional to R
p
N f R
m
N would not be correct
since the technological size effect is more pronounced for the yield
strength than for the tensile strength.
3.2 Material properties
78
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
For milled steel there is deff,max,m = deff,max,p = 250 mm.
For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit
values deff,max, ... ,
3.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values
If only an experimental value of the tensile strength Rm,I
is known the value of the yield strength Rp,I may be
computed from Eq. (3.2.3) with Rm = Rm,I.
deft:max.m = deft:max.p = 00 ,
(3.2.11)
unless otherwise specified in the material standards.
For stainless steel within the dimensions given in
material standards there is
For GG the following technological size factor applies
to the tensile strength: For deff :s; 7,5 mm
3.2.2 Technological size factor
3.2.2.0 General
Kd,m = Kct,p =1. (3.2.7)
For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the
technological size factor is: For deff s deff,N,m
(3.2.13)
(3.2.12)
(3.2.14)
(3.2.15) KcI,m = Kct,p = 1.
:KI.m = :KI.p = 1,
:KI.m = :KI.p = 0,6 .
for 12 mm < deft'< deft:max.m = deft:max.p = 150 mm
v. = v. = 1 1 . (d /7 5 mm) -0,2
, Ueff , ,
for deft:max.m = deft:max.p = 150 mm
Aluminum alloys
For wrought aluminum alloys the component values of
the tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp,
are given in Chapter 5 according to the type of material
and its condition, and depending on the thickness or
diameter of the semi-finished product. To these values
the technological size factors Kj., = :KI.p = 1 apply.
For cast aluminum alloys the technological size factors
for the tensile strength and for the yield strength are as
follows: For deft':::; deft:N,m = deft:N,p = 12 mm
For materials such as conditionally weldable steel,
stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent
calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be
applied with caution.
Welded components *10
For all kinds of material the technological size factor for
the toe section and for the throat section of welded
components is *11
(3.2.4)
(3.2.5)
(3.2.8) .
(3.2.9)
Kd,m = 1,207,
for deff > 7,5 mm *8
Kd,m = 1,207' (d
eff/7,5
mm)-0,1922.
KcI,m = Kd,p =1,
for deff,N,m < deff :s; deff,max,m *9:
3.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter
Non-welded components
Steel and cast iron materials
The technological size factor accounts for a decrease of
the material strength values usually observed with
increasing dimensions of the component. It is specified
as a function of the effective diameter, Figure 3.2.1. It
is different for non-welded and for welded components
*7
1-0, 7686·ad,m ·lg(deff /7,5mm)
KcI,m ,
1-0, 7686·ad,m .lg(deff,N,m /7,5mm)
for deff deff,max,m it is:
= (deff,max,m). (3.2.10)
deff effective diameter, Chapter 3.2.2.2 ,
deff,N,m, ad,m constants, Table 3.2.1 and 3.2.2.
Considering the yield strength the values Kct,m , deff,N,m ,
and act,m have to be replaced by the values , deff,N,p ,
and ad,p (except for GG).
3.2.2.2 Effective diameter
For components with a simple shape of the cross section
- as far as a cross section may be defined - the effective
diameter is given according to the cross section in Table
3.2.3.
In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is
specified in the material standards.
For the determination of the effective diameter deff two
cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material.
Table 3.2.1 Constants deff,N,m, ... , and adm, ... , for
steel
7 The influence factors according toChapter 3.2.3 (KA), Chapter 3.2.4
(fer, f't) and Chapter 3.2.5 (KT m- ...) are supposed tobe valid for both
non-welded and welded
8 Footnote anEq. (3.2.6) cancelled.
9 0,7686 = 1fig 20.
10 Valid for steel, cast iron material and aluminum alloys.
11 For structural steel and fine grain structural steel according to
DIN 18800, part 1, page 40.
3.2 Material properties
Table 3.2.1 Constants deff,N,m, ... , and adm' ... , for
steel
Values inthe upper row refer tothe tensile strength R
m
,
Values inthe lower row refer tothe yield strength R
p
.
Kinds of material -¢o1
cleff,N,m ad,m
cleff,N,p ad,p
inmm
-¢o2
Non-alloyed structural steel 40 0,15
DIN-EN 10 025 40 0,3
Fine grain structural steel 70 0,2
DIN 17 102 40 0,3
Fine grain structural steel 100 0,25
DIN EN 10 113 30 0,3
Heat treatable steel, q&t
16 -¢o3
0,3
DIN EN 10 083-1 16 0,4
Heat treatable steel, n 16 0,1
DIN EN 10083-1 16 0,2
Case hardening steel, bh 16 0,5
DIN EN 10 083-1 16 0,5
Nitriding steel, q&t 40 0,25
DIN EN 10 083-1 40 0,30
stainless steel
- -
DIN EN 10 088-2 -¢o4
Steel for big forgings, q&t 250 0,2
SEW 550-¢os
250 0,25
Steel for big forgings, n 250
°
SEW 550 250 0,15
q&t=quenched a. tempered, n=normalized, bh=blank hardened
-e-I Within the kinds ofmaterial there are the types ofmaterial.
-¢o2 More precise values depending on the kind of material (except
for non-alloyed structural steel) see Table 5.1.2 toTable 5.1.7.
-¢o2 For 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16: deffN m = 40 mm,
values ad,m and ad,p asgiven above. ' ,
-¢o4 No technological size effect within the dimensions mentioned in
the material standards.
»s For 28 NiCrMoV 85 or 33 NiCrMo 145: deff Nm= deffN p
= 500mm or 1000 mm resp., values ad.m and given
79
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Table3.2.2 Constants cleff,N,m , ..., and adm, ... , for
cast iron materials
Values inthe upper row refer tothe tensile strength R
m
,
Values inthe lower row refer tothe yield strength R
p
.
Kinds of material
deff,N,m
cleff,N,p
inmm
Cast steel 100 0,15
DIN 1681 100 0,3
Heat treatable steel casting,
300 -¢o1
0,15
DIN 17205 300 0,3
Heat treatable steel casting,
q&t, DIN 17 205, 100 0,3
types -¢o2 No.1, 3,4 100 0,3
as above 200 0,15
types -s No.2 200 0,3
as above 200 0,15
types No.5, 6, 8 200 0,3
as above 500 0,15
types No.7, 9 500 0,3
GGG 60 0,15
DIN EN 1563 60 0,15
GT-¢o4
15 0,15
DIN EN 1562 15 0,15
q&t= quenched and tempered
» l For GS-30 Mn 5 orGS-25 CrMo 4 there is deff,N,m = 800 mm
or 500 mm respectively, values ad,m and ad,p asgiven above.
-¢o2 Material numbers see Table 5.1.11.
-¢o3 Valid for strength level VI, for level VII deff,N,m = deff,N,p
= 100 mm with values ad,m and ad,p asabove.
Case 2
Components (also forgings) made of non-alloyed
structural steel, of fine grained structural steel, of
normalized quenched and tempered steel, of cast steel,
or of aluminum materials.
V,O Volume and surface
of the section of the component considered.
Case 1
Components (also forgings) made of heat treatable steel,
of case hardening steel, of nitriding steel both nitrided
or quenched and tempered, of heat treatable cast steel,
of GGG, GT or GG.
The effective diameters deff from Table 3.2.3, Case 1,
apply.
In general it is:
deff= 4· V / 0, (3.2.16)
The effective diameter d
eff
is equal to the diameter or
the wall thickness of the component, Table 3.2.3, case 2.
Rod-shaped (ID) components made of quenched and
tempered steel
The effective diameter is the diameter existing while the
heat treatment is performed.
In case of machining subsequent to the heat treatment
the effective diameter deffis the largest diameter of the
rod. In case of machining prior to the heat treatment the
effective diameter deff is defined as the local diameter in
question. The diameter deff according to the first
sequence of machining is an estimate on the safe side.
3.2 Material properties
80
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the
strength values in the main direction of processing is
Table 3.2.4 Anisotropy factor K
A
.
Steel'
Aluminum alloys
The anisotropy factor for cast aluminum alloys is
(3.2.22)
(3.2.21)
Rm
up to 600 from 600 from 900 above
inMpa to 900 to 1200 1200
KA 0,90 0,86 0,83 0,80
for the strength values transverse to the main direction
of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab. 3.2.4 is
to be applied.
K
A
= 1. (3.2.20)
For forgings ·13, for which material standards specify
the strength values as depending on the testing
direction, the anisotropy factor is not to be applied:
No. Cross section
defi' defi'
Case 1 Case 2
1
~
d d
2
~
2s s
~ s[
3 2s s
4
~
2b·s s
--
b+s
5
r:fE
b b
Table 3.2.3 Effective diameter defi'
umtnum a oys:
Rm
up to 200 from 200 from 400
inMpa to 400 to 600
KA 1,00 0,95 0,90
3.2.4 Compression strength factor and
shear strength factor
3.2.4.0 (;eneral
Al II
The anisotropy factor allows for the fact that the
strength values of milled steel and forgings are lower
transverse to the main direction of milling or forging
than in the main direction of processing. It is to be
supposed that the specified strength values are valid for
the main direction of processing.
In case of multiaxial stresses, and also with shear stress,
the anisotropy factor is
3.2.3 Anisotropy factor
KA = 1. (3.2.17)
The compression strength factor allows for the fact that
in general the material strength is higher in compression
than in tension.
Steel and cast iron material
The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is
For the strength values transverse to the main direction
of processing the anisotropy factor from Table 3.2.4 is
to be applied.
KA = 1. (3.2.18)
For milled steel and forgings *12 the anisotropy factor
in the main direction of processing is
(3.2.23) fa= 1.
The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the
material strength in shear is different from the tensile
strength.
3.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
For tensile stresses (axial or bending) the compression
strength factor is
For compression stresses (axial or bending) the tensile
strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced
by the compression strength Rc,m and the yield strength
in compression Rc,p:
(3.2.19) KA = 1.
12 With material properties depending on the direction.
Rc,m =fa ' Rm,
Rc,F = fa . Rp ,
(3.2.24)
3.2 Material properties
81
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
compression strength factor, Table 3.2.5,
tensile strength and yield strength, see
Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3).
3.2.5 Temperature factors
3.2.5.0 General
The values Rc,m and Rc,p are not explicitly needed for
an assessment of the static strength, as only the
compression strength factor fa is needed. *13.
The temperature factors allow for the fact that the
material strength decreases with increasing temperature.
Normal temperature, low temperature and higher
temperature are to be distinguished.
3.2.5.2 Low temperature
Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
the field of application of this guideline.
3.2.5.1 Normal temperature
Normal temperatures are as follows:
- for fine grain structural steel from -40°C to 60°C,
- for other kinds of steel from -40
DC
to + lOODC,
- for cast iron materials from -25
DC
to + lOODC,
for age-hardening aluminum alloys
from -25
DC
to 50
DC,
- for non-age-hardening aluminum alloys
from - -25°C to lOODC.
For normal temperature the temperature factors are
Table 3.2.5 Compression strength factor fa and shear
strength factor f,
Kinds of material fO" fO" f,
for for
~ l
tension compress.
Case harden's steel 1 1 0,577
Stainless steel 1 1 0,577
Forging steel 1 1 0,577
Other kinds of steel 1 1 0,577
GS 1 1 0,577
GGG 1 1,3 0,65
GT 1 1,5 0,75
GG 1 2,5 0,85
Wrought aluminum 1 1 0,577
Cast aluminum 1 1,5 0,75
~ 1 0,577 = 1 /.J3, according tov.Mises criterion,
also valid for welded components.
KT,m =... = 1. (3.2.26)
3.2.4.2 Shear strength factor
For shear stresses the tensile strength Rm and the yield
strength Rp are to be replaced by the shear strength R, m
and the yield strength in shear Rs,p: '
Rs,m = f, . Rm, (3.2.25)
Rs,p = f, . Rp,
f, shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5
R
m,
Rp tensile strength and yield strength,
Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3).
The values Rs,m and Rs,p are not explicitly needed for
an assessment of the strength, as only the shear strength
factor f, is needed.
13 Tensile strength and yield strength incompression are supposed tobe
positive, Rc,rn, Rc,p > 0, therefore for compression fO" > 1.
3.2.5.3 Elevated temperature
In the field of elevated temperatures - up to 500°C for
steel and cast iron materials and up to 200 °C for
aluminum materials - the influence of the temperature
on the mechanical properties is to be considered. In case
of elevated temperature the tensile strength R
m
is to be
replaced by the high temperature strength Rrn,T or by
the creep strength Rrn,Tt . The yield strength Rp is to be
replaced by the high temperature yield strength Rp,T or
by the 1% creep limit Rp,Tt *14.
For the short-term values Rm,T and Rp,T as well as for
the long-term values Rm,Tt and Rp,Tt the Eq. (3.2.27) to
(3.2.35) apply.
14 The relevant temperature factors will be applied in combination
with the safety factors at the assessment stage.
3.2 Material properties
82
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Short-term values
For GG a yield strength value is not defined and
therefore the value Rp,T does not exist.
Short term values of the static strength are
Rm,T = KT,m . R
m
, (3.2.27)
Rp,T = KT,p . Rp ,
KT,m, Kt,p. temperature factors,
Eq. (3.2.28) to (3.2.33),
R
m,
R
p
tensile strength and yield strength,
Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3).
The values Rm,T and Rp,T are not explicitly needed for
an assessment of the static strength, as only the
temperature factors KT,m and KT,p are needed.

0,11----1-----4---'4-4-'--\-1.
Hightemperarure
yieldstrength R
p

T
I% creep limit Rp,Tt
Rp,Tt Rp I

Creep Strength R;";Tt
Rrn.Tt I

CreepStrength Rrn,Tt
RIlj;TI I
Rm'jmt
High temperature
strengtli R,.,T
Rm,T
R
m
'jm
160 200 360 400 500
Tin ·C
o
1.2.2
o
0,21---+---+---+--·+\----,""1
0,3: I---t---t=""'-.;;;:c--/-'--
OA r---,....,.--,--------,--------...,
Steel and cast iron materials
According to the temperature T the temperature factors
KT,m and KT,p apply as follows:
for fine grain structural steel, T > 60 °C *15:
K
T.m
= KT,p = 1 - 1,2' 10.
3
. T / DC, (3.2.28)
for other kinds of steel *16, T > 100°C, Figure
1.2.2: (3.2.29)
KT,m = KT,p = 1-1,7' 10,3. (T / °C -100),
for GS, T> 100
D
C: (3.2.30)
-3 0
KT,m = KT,p = 1- 1,5 . 10 . (T / C - 100),
for GGG, GT and GG, T > 100
D
C, Figure 3.2.2:
K
T.m
=Kr,p = 1- aT,m . (10 -3. T / DC) 2. (3.2.31)
aT,m Constant
Figure 3.2.2 Temperature dependent values of the
static strength of non-alloyed structural steel and of GG
plotted for comparison.
Safety factors after Chapter 3.5.
Rm,T/R
m=
KT,m, Rp,T/Rp=KT,p,
Rm,Tt / R
m
= KTt,m, Rp,Tt / Rp = KTt,p'
Top: Non-alloyed structural steel with R
p
/ R
m
=R
e
/ R
m
=0,65,
Rm,T, Rp,T aswell as Rm,T1> Rp,Tt fort = 10
5
h,
Jm=2,0, jp =Jmt= 1,5 , Jpt= 1,0.
Bottom: 00,
Rm,T aswell as Rm,Tt fort = 10
5
h,
Jm=3,0, jmt =2,4.
Eq. (3.2.28) to (3.2.31) are valid from the indicated
temperature T up to 500
DC.
For a temperature above
350° C they are valid only, if the relevant characteristic
stress does not act on long terms.
Table 3.2.6 Constant aT,m.
Kind of material GGG GT GG
aT,m
2,4 2,0 1,6
o
3.2.2b
100 200300 400 500
Tin ·C
15There isaninsignificant discontinuity at T =60°C.
16For stainless steel no values are known upto now.
3.2 Material properties
83
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
(3.2.34)
The values R""Tt and are not needed explicitly for
an assessment of the static strength, as only the
temperature factors KTt,m and KTt,p are needed.
Steel and cast iron material
For GG a yield strength value is not defined and
therefore the value Rp,Tt does not exist.
Depending on the temperature T and on the operation
time t at that temperature the temperature factors KTt,m
and KTt,p apply, Figure 3.2.2 *17
2
K
= 10(aTt,m+bTt,m . Pm+ cTt,m . Pm )
Tt,m , (3.2.35)
2
K = lO(aTt,p+bTt,p ·Pp+cTt,p .pp )
np ,
Pm = 10 -4. (T / C + 273)' (C
m
+ 19(t/ hj),
P
p
= 10 - 4. (T / C + 273) . (C
m
+ 19(t / hj),
aTt,m, ..., Cp constants, Table 3.2.7,
t operation time in hours h at the
temperature T.
Eq. (3.2.35) applies to temperatures from approximately
350°C up to 500°C, but only for stresses acting on long
terms. In general they do not apply to temperatures
below about 350°C *18.
Long-term values
Long term values of the static strength are
R""Tt = KTt,m . R; ,
= KTt,p .
KTt,m, KTt,p temperature factors,
Figure 3.2.2 and 3.2.3, Eq. (3;2.35),
Rm, R, tensile strength and yield strength;
Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3).
High temperaturc
strengthRm,T
Ri'D;'l'l
R. 'Jm
CrecpStrellgth
. IR..Tt
Rm,Tt 1
}fn7'jlllt
0,5
I
Higll temperature
fatigueslrength
0,1 . __
6W;.d.T .00W••d 1
crw.>.d . R., .jo
Aluminum alloys
According to the temperature T the temperature factors
KT,mand KT,p for aluminum alloys apply as follows:
- for age-hardening aluminum alloys: T > 50 DC,
Figure 3.2.3 (3.2.32)
Kr,m = 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3. (T / DC - 50) ;:: 0,1,
Kr,p = 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3. (T / DC - 50) ;:: 0,1,
- for non-age-hardening aluminum alloys:
T> 100°C, Figure 3.2.3 (3.2.33)
Kr,m= 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3. (T / °C - 100) 0,1,
Kr,p = 1 - 4,5 . 10 -3 . (T / °C - 100) 0,1,
Eq. (3.2.32) and (3.2.33) are valid from the indicated
temperature T up to 200°C, and in general only, if the
relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
o
1.2.3
o so 100 150 200
250 100
T/'C
Figure 3.2.3 Temperature dependent values of the static
strength of aluminum alloys plotted for comparison.
Static strength values:
Rm,T/Rm=KT,m =Rp,T/Rp=KT,p'
Rm,Tt/ R
m
=KTt,m =Rp,Tt / Rp=KTt,p .
Rm,Tt,Rp,Tt for t = 10
5
h.
Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress (N = 10
6
cycles):
crW,zd / Rm = 0,30 ; crW,zd,T / crW,zd = KT,D .
Safety factors according to Chapter 3.5 and 4.5:
17 Larsen-Miller-parameter P andLarsen-Miller-constant C.
18 Because the values would be unrealistic for temperatures
T < 350°C, where thevalues KT,m andKT,p are relevant instead.
3.2 Material properties
84
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Aluminum alloys
For aluminum alloys and t = 10
5
hours KTt,m is given by
Figure 1.2.4 *19.
Figure 3.2.4 Temperature factor KTl,m R.n.Tt/ R.n for
aluminum alloys and t = 10
5
hours.
The given curve is the same as in Figure 3.2.3, except that the factor
(1 / jm) is different.
\
\
\
\ i
i
Table 3.2.7 Constants aTt,m, ... , C
p

Steel Non- Fine grain Heat-
alloyed structural treatable-
structural steel steel
steel

Creep strength
aTt.m
- 0,994 -1,127 - 3,001
b
Tlm
2,485 2,485 3,987
CTtm
- 1,260 - 1,260 - 1,423
C
m
20 20 24,27
1%Creep limit
aTt.n
- 5,019 - 6,352 - 3,252
bTt.n
7,227 9,305 5,942
cTt.n
- 2,636 - 3,456 - 2,728
Co
20 20 17,71
Cast iron GS GGG,GT GG
material

Creep strength
aTtm
-7,524 2,50 -1,46
bTtm
9,894 - 1,83 2,36
CTtm
- 3,417
°
-0,90
C
m
19,57 20 25
1% Creep limit
aTtn
- 10,582 0,12 -
b
Tln
8,127 1,52 -
CTt.n
- 1,607 - 1,28 -
C
n
35,76 18 -
<-I Approximate values, applicable from about 350
0
e to 500
o
e.
Not valid for stainless steel.
Initially for 8t 38, R
m
= 360 MPa, similar to sr37.
Initially for H 52, R
m
= 490 MPa, similar to 8tE 355; the absolute
values Rm,Tt are the same as for St 38.
Initially for e 45 N (normalized) with R
m
= 620 MPa. For C 35 N,
with R
m
= 550 MPa the constants -3,001 and -3,252 are to be replaced
by -2,949 and -3,198. The absolute values Rm,Tt are the same as for
C45N.
Initially for 08-C 25 with R
m
= 440 MPa.
7 Initiallyfor 000-40 with R
m
= 423 MPa.
7 Initially for 00-25 with R
m
= 250 MPa.
1,0
R"..TI {R".
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
o
RT -100 200 300 400
Trc
19 The temperature factor Kt,p is not defmed up to now. It may be
assumed, however, as it is essential for the assessment of the static
strength, that the term R
p,
Tt / jpt is more or less equal to Rm,Tt / jmt , see
Figure 1.2.2 (required safetyfactorsjpt = 1,0 andjmt = 1,5).
A Larsen-Millerequation similar to Eq. (3.2.32) or (3.2.33) applicable to
derive the values of KTt,m and KTt, according to temperature T and
operationtime T has not been specifieffor aluminum alloys up to now.
3.3 Design parameters
85
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
Contents
3.3.0 General
3.3 Design parameters
3.3.0
3.3.1
3.3.1.0
3.3.1.1
3.3.1.2
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
General
Design factors
General
Non-welded components
Welded components
Section factors
Plastic notch factors
Weld factor CI.w
Constant KNL
1R33 EN.dog
Page
85
87
88
3.3.1.2 Welded components
For welded components the design factors are generally
to be determined separately for the toe and for the root
of the weld.
For the toe of the weld the calculation is to be carried
out as for non-welded components.
For the root of the weld of rod-shaped (ID) welded
components the design factors for normal stress (tension
or compression) and for shear stress are
KSK,a = 1/ (npl,a . fJ.
w
· KNd , (3.3.4)
= 1 / . fJ.
w
) .
For the root of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the design factors for normal stress (tension
or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for
shear are
Weld factors CI.w are given for tension, for compression,
for shear and for torsion of the throat section.
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
welds. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses at
the surface ax, a
y
and 1: are of interest only.
According to this chapter the design parameters are to
be determined.
3.3.1 Design factors
3.3.1.0 General
Non-welded and welded components are to be
distinguished. They can be both rod-shaped (lD),
shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped (3D).
3.3.1.1 Non-welded components
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) non-welded
components for normal stress (tension or compression)
and for shear stress are
KSK,ax = 1 / (npl,ax . CI.w ..KNL),
KsK,cry = 1 / (npl,cry . CI.w' KNL),
= 1 / . CI.w),
npl,a, ... section factor, Chapter 3.3.2
fJ.
w
weld factor, Chapter 3.3.4.
KNL constant for GG, Chapter 3.3.5
(3.3.5)
KSK,a = 1/ (npl,a . KNd, (3.3.1)
KSK;t = I / npl;t .
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) non-welded
components for normal stress (tension or compression)
in the directions x and y as well as for shear are
KSK, ax = 1/ (npl,a . KNd, (3.3.2)
KsK, ay = I / (npl,a . KNL),
= 1 / .
The design factors of block-shaped (3D) non-welded
components for the principle stresses (tension or
compression) in the directions 1, 2 and 3 (normal to the
surface of the component) *1 are
3.3.2 Section factors
The section factors npl,a , ... allow for the influence of
the stress gradient in connection with the shape of the
cross section on the static strength of the component,
Figure 1.3.1. They serve to make best use of the load
carrying capacity by accepting some yielding as the
outside fiber stress exceeds the yield strength.
An essential condition is the existence of a stress
gradient of the stress a and/or 1: normal to the surface of
the component, Figure 3.3.1. A stress gradient parallel
to the surface is not considered for the section factor *1.
KSK,al = 1 / (npl,a . KNL),
KSK,a2 = I / (npl,a . KNL),
KSKa3 = 1/ KNL*',
(3.3.3)
npl,a ...
KNL
section factor, Chapter 1.3.2,
constant for GG, Chapter 3.3.4
1 For the stress components ax, a
y
, t, a, and a2the stress gradient of
interest is normal tothe direction ofthestress, Figure 3.3.1. A stress
gradient of a3it is not considered and n
p
l,53 = I , because the stress
gradient as defined above isparallel toa3.
3.3 Design parameters
86
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
(3.3.9)
Young's modulus, Table 3.3.1,
limit value of total strain, Table 3.3.1,
yield strength, Chapter 3.2,
plastic notch factors.
npl,a =Kp,a , (3.3.8)
npl;t = Kp, .
For all other kinds of material the section factors for
normal stress and for shear stress are *5 *6
npl,a =MIN /Rp ; Kp,a),
=MIN /Rp ;
E
For austenitic steel in the solution annealed condition
according to Table 5.1.8 the section factors for normal
stress (tension or compression) and for shear stress
are *4
Aluminum alloys
For cast aluminum alloys as well as for wrought
aluminum alloy with small elongation, A '< 8 %, the
section factors are *3:

Rp/E
15 10
3.3.1

npl'''=R
,
Table 3.3.1 Young's modulus E and limit values of
total strain Eertr .
For ductile wrought aluminum alloys, A:2: 8 %, the
section factors are to be determined from Eq. (3.3.9).
Kinds of material Steel GS GGG GT AI
alloys
10-
5.
E / MPa 2,1 2,1 1,7 1,8 0,70
Eertr/ % 5 5
2
2
2
Figure 3.3.1 Definition of the section factor npl,a of a
notched component, for instance.
Top: Detail of the component. Yield strength R
p
, component
static strength for normal stress aSK section factor
npl,a = aSK / R
p
, load F.
Continuous curve: Fictitious distribution of the elastically computed
stress. Curve limited to R
p:
Real stress distribution providing elastic
ideal-plastic material behavior.
Bottom: Stress-strain curve of the component (relative scales).
Plastic notch factor Kp,a , limit value of total strainSertr , Young's'
modulus E.
npl,a = .., = 1. (3.3.10)
Surface hardened components
The section factors are not applicable if the component
has been surface or case hardened, see Table 2.3.5 *2:
1Sertr / %'" 5 means Sertr = 0,05
Valid for As < 12,5 %. ForAj z 12,5%thereis Sertr=4%.
Valid for A < 12,5%. For 12,5%thereis Sertr = 5 %.
npl,a = ... = 1. (3.3.6)
Steel and cast iron material
For GG as well as for types of GT or GGG with small
elongation, A
3
< 8 % or A5 < 8 %, the section factors
are *3:
npl,a = ... = 1. (3.3.7)
2 A hard surface layer - for example as a result of case hardening
and particularly at notches - may observe cracks when yielding
occursbecauseof the limited plasticity of the hardened surface layer.
Possibly this rule is too far on the safe side, as npl = 1,1 is allowed
for case hardened shafts according to the recent DIN743 (launched in
2000).
3 Because of the lowplasticity of these materials.
4 Because of the high ductility of austenitic steel in the solution
annealed condition the plastic notch factors Kp,a and Kp;r are
relevant instead of the material dependent sectionfactors.
5 MIN means that thesmaller valuefrom therightsideoftheequation is
valid.
6 Section factor basedon Neuber's formula.
3.3 Design parameters
87
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
(3.3.11)
..
-n.o .
Cross section Bending Torsion
Kp,b Kp,t
rectangle
1
1,5
-
circle
1,70 1,33
circular ring
1,27
p5
I-section or box

-
Table 3 3 2 Plastic notch factors K and K
The section factors according to Eq. (3.3.8) and (3.3.9)
are limited by the plastic notch factors Kp,a and
that depend on the plastic limit load:
plastic limit load
K K = -=--------
p,a, elastic limit load
3.3.3 Plastic notch factors
Table 3.3.3 Weld factor CI..w .
3.3.4 Weld factor U
w
The weld factor CJ..
w
accounts for the effect of a weld. It
applies to the root of the weld of welded components
only, Table 3.3.3 *9 .
The elastic limit load for normal stress (and for shear
stress) is defined as the load for which the maximum
local stress exceeds the yield stress.
The plastic limit load of a component may be obtained
most reliable from an elastic-plastic finite element
analysis. To reduce the computing effort for such an
analysis a simplified elastic-ideal-plastic stress strain
curve may be used and the finite element mesh may be
less fine than for computing notch stresses.
Approximately the plastic limit load may be derived as
follows:
Definition and plotting of the cross section which
will determine the limit state,
Entering the yield stresses o = ±Rp and 't = ± Rp
into the plotted cross section from Table 3.2.5),
. Balancing the areas of the section under +Rp and
R
p
to obtain a similarity between these stresses and
the external loading situation.
In general realization of the described procedure is not
easy and the formulation of an appropriate algorithm is
difficult.
or plate, 1,33=4/3.
thin-walled, 1,27 = 4/1t.
5 thin-walled, otherwisethere is
K = 133
1-(dlD)3
p.t v r- 4 '
1-(dlD)
d, D inner and outer diameters.
1- (b 1B)· (h 1H)2
Kp,b = 1,5 . 3
1- (b 1B) . (h 1H)
b, B inner and outer width, h, H inner and outer hight.
(3.3.14)
(3.3.15)
Particular case
In case of a component for which nominal stresses may
be defined for the section of concern, and the
corresponding stress concentration factors for tension or
compression, for bending, for shear and for torsion are
known *7 *8, the plastic notch factors are as follows:
Kp,a =Kt,zd, (3.3.13)
Kp,a = Kp,b . Kt,b ,
= Kt,s,
=Kp,t' Kt,t.
Kt,zel, stress concentration factor, Chapter 5.2,
Kp,b, plastic notch factors, Table 3.3.2.
It has to be observed, however, that the so-derived
plastic notch factors only apply to the notched section
considered and not to the component as a whole.
Therefore other sections may have to be considered in
addition, see Chapter 3.0 and Figure 3.0.1.
Joint Weld quality
Type of R
m
::; R
m
>
stress 360 MPa 360 MPa
full all Compression
penetration

weld verified 1,0 1,0
or with Tension 10
back weld not
verified
partial all Compression 0,95 0,80
penetration or or 0,80
fillet weld Tension
all all Shear
bun weld Tension 0,55 -
055
Accordingto DIN 18800 part 1, Table 21 and Eq. (75).
For aluminium alloys (independent of Rm ) the values typed in
boldfaceshould be applied for the time being.
Butt welds of sectional steel from St 37-2 and USt 37-2 with a
product thickness t > 16 mm,
7 Usually stress concentractionfactors do nor exist in combinationwith
local stresses.
8 The stress concentrationfactors Kt.o and Kt., given in Chapter 5.12 for
a substitute structure are intendedto be used in Chapter 4.3.1.1 only and
should not be used in the present context.
9 For the toe of a weld the calculation is to be carried out as for non-
welded components.
(3.3.16)
3.3 Design parameters
3.3.5 Constant K
NL
The Constant KNL allows for the non-linear elastic
stress strain characteristic of GG in tension and
compression or in bending.
For all kinds of material except for GG there is
K
NL
= 1.
For GG the values
K
NL
= KNL,Zug (3.3.17)
apply to the tension side of the cross section (tension or
tension from bending).
The reciprocal values
KNL,Druck = 1/ KNL,Zug (3.3.18)
apply to the compression side of the cross section
(compression or compression in bending).
Values of the KNL,Zug and KNL,Druck from Table 3.3.4.
Table 3.3.4 Constant KNL -c- 1.
Type of GG GG GG GG GG GG
material -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35
KNL,Zug
1,15 1,15 1,10 1,10 1,05 1,05
KNL,Druck
0,87 0,87 0,91 0,91 0,95 0,95
~ 1 For unnotched and slightly notched components at tension or
compression there is KNL = 1.
88
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
3.4 Component strength
89
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
3.4 Component strength
Contents
3.4.0 General
3.4.1 Non-welded components
3.4.2 Welded components
3.4.0 General
1R34 EN.dog
Page
89
3.4.2 Welded components
For welded components the strength values are
generally to be determined separately for the toe and for
the root of the weld.
For the toe of the weld the calculation is to be carried
out as for non-welded components.
For the root of the weld of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the local values of the component static
strength for normal stress (tension or compression) as
well as for shear stress are
(3.4.2)
For the root of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the local values of the component static
strength for normal stresses (tension or compression) in
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
welds. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses at
the surface crx , cry and r are of interest only.
(3.4.4)
(3.4.5)
crSK,x = fa . RmI KSK,ax ,
crSK,y = fa . RmI KsK,cry ,
TSK = f ~ ' Rml K S K , ~ ,
compression strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4,
shear strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4.
tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1,
design factor, Chapter 3.3.1.
csx = fa . RmI KSK,a ,
'tSK = f ~ ' Rml K s K , ~ .
fa
f ~
Rm
KsK,a, ...
O'SK,x = fa . RmI KSK,ax ,
O'SK,y =fa . R
m
I KsK,cry ,
'tSK = f ~ ' Rml K s K , ~ .
compression strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4,
shear strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4,
tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1,
design factor, Chapter 3.3.1.
O'sK=fa'Rm/KSK,a, (3.4.1)
'tSK =f ~ . Rm I K S K , ~ .
The local values of the component static strength of
shell-shaped (2D) components for normal stresses
(tension or compression) in the directions x and y as
well as for shear stress are
3.4.1 Non-welded components
The local values of the component static strength of rod-
shaped (lD) components for normal stress (tension or
compression) and for shear stress are *1 *2
According this chapter the local values of the
component static strength are to be determined.
Non-welded and welded components are to be
distinguished. They can be both rod-shaped (10), shell-
shaped (2D), or block-shaped (3D).
The local values of the component static strength of
block-shaped (3D) components for the principal stresses
(tension or compression) in the directions 1, 2 and 3 are
(3.4.3) O'l,SK = fa . Rm I KSK,a1 ,
0'2,SK =fa . RmI KSK,a2 ,
0'3,SK = fa . Rm I K
SK,a3
,
compression strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4,
tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1,
design factor, chapter 3.3.1.
fa
Rm
KSK,al ...
1 The component static strength values are different for normal stress and
for shear stress, and moreover they are different due to different section
factors according to the type of stress.
2 Basically the tensile strength R
m
is the reference value of static
strength, even if in the case of a low R
p
/ R
m
ratio the yield strength is
to be used for the assessment of the static strength, a fact that is accounted
for in Chapter 1.5.5.
3.5 Safety factors
90
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
Contents
As> 12,5 %).
jm
->1
Consequences of failure
jp
->2
severe moderate
jmt
->3
->S
jpt
->4
high 2,0 1,75
1,5 1,3
Probability of 1,5 1,3
occurrence of 1,0 1,0
the characteristic
low 1,8 1,6
service stress
->6
1,35 1,2
values
1,35 1,2
1,0 1,0
Table 3.5.1 Safety factors jm and jp for steel
(not for GS) and for ductile wrought aluminum alloys
91
92
1R35 EN.docl
Page
90 General
Steel
Cast iron materials
General
Ductile cast iron materials
Non-ductile cast iron materials
Wrought aluminum alloys
General
Ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys
Global safety factor
3.5.0
3.5.1
3.5.2
3.5.2.0
3.5.2.1
3.5.2.2
3.5.3
3.5.3.0
3.5.3.1
3.5.3.2
3.5.4
3.5.5
3.5 Safety factors
3.5.0 General
According to this chapter the safety factors are to be
determined *1.
The safety factors are valid under the condition that the
design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and
that the material properties correspond to an average
probability of survival of Po = 97,5 % *2.
The safety factors may be reduced under favorable
conditions, that is depending on the probability of
occurrence of the characteristic stress values in question
and depending on the consequences offailure.
The safety factors are valid both for non-welded and
welded components.
The safety factors given in the following are valid for
ductile and for non-ductile materials. In this respect any
types of steel are ductile materials, as well as cast iron
materials and wrought aluminum alloys with an
elongation A s ~ 12,5 %, while GT, GG and cast
aluminum alloys are always considered as non-ductile
materials here. *3
3.5.1 Steel
Safety factors applicable to the tensile strength and to
the yield strength, to the creep strength and to the creep
limit are given in Table 3.5.1.
1 The safety factors in Chapter 1.5 are the same, but with the
difference, that non-ductile cast iron materials and non-ductile
aluminum alloys are considered here aswell.
2Statistical confidence S= SO %.
3 All types of GT, GG and cast aluminum alloys have elongations
As < 12,S % and are considered asnon-ductile materials here. Wrought
aluminum alloys with elongations As < 12,S % are considered asnon-
ductile materials, too. For non-ductile materials the assessment of the
static strength istobecarried outwith local stresses.
->1 referring tothe tensile strength R
m
ortothe strength at elevated
temperature RmT,
->2 referring tothe yield strength R
p
ortothe hot yield strength R
p,
T,
->3 referring tothe creep strength Rm,Tt ,
->4 referring tothe creep limit R
p,
Tt .
->S moderate consequences of failure of a less important component in
the sense of "no catastrophic effects" being associated with a failure; for
example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a
statically undeterminate system. Reduction byapproximately IS%.
->6 or only infrequent occurrences of the characteristic service stress
values, for example due toanapplication ofproof loads or due to loads
during anassembling operation. Reduction byapproximately 10 %.
3.5.2 Cast iron materials
3.5.2.0 General
Ductile and non-ductile cast iron materials are to be
distinguished.
3.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials
Cast iron materials with an elongation
A 5 ~ 1 2 , 5 % are considered as ductile, in particular all
types of GS and some types of GGG (not GT and not
GG). Values of elongation see Table 5.1.12.
Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given
by Table 3.5.2. Compared to Table 3.5.1 they are
higher because of an additional partial safety factor jF
that accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in
castings. The factor is different for castings that have
been subject to non-destructive testing or have not *4.
4 Inmechanical engineering. cast components areof standard quality
for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor tojr = 1,0
does not seem possible up tonow.
A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast
components inthe aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast
components have to meet special demands and (cont'dpage 91)
3.5 Safety factors
91
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
Ductile and non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys are to
be distinguished.
3.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys
3.5.3.0 General
20
As ,A3 in %
1U 12,5
GG
0,5
Aj
o
3.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Wrought aluminum alloy with an elongation
A ~ 12,5 % are considered as ductile materials. Values
of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
The safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys
are the same as for steel, Table 3.5.1.
Figure 3.5.1 Value L\j to be added to the safety factors
jm and jp , defmed as a function of the elongation As or
A3 respectively.
Table 3.5.2 Safety factors jm and jp for ductile cast iron
materials (GS; GGG with A 5 ~ 12,5 %) -}1
jm
Consequences of failure
jp
severe moderate
jmt
Jpt
castings not subject to non-destructive testing-}2
high 2,8 2,45
2,1 1,8
Probability of 2,1 1,8
occurrence of 1,4 1,4
the characteristic low 2,55 2,2
service stress 1,9 1,65
values 1,9 1,65
1,4 1,4
castings subject to non-destructive testing -}3
high 2,5 2,2
1,9 1,65
Probability of 1,9 1,65
occurrence of 1,25 1,25
the characteristic low 2,25 2,0
service stress 1,7 1,5
values 1,7 1,5
1,25 1,25
3.5.2.2 Non-ductile cast iron materials
-}1 Explanatory notes for the safety factors see Table 3.5.1.
-}2 Compared to Table 3.5.1 an additional partial safety factor jF = 1,4
is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects in castings.
-}3 Compared to Table 3.5.1 an additional partial safety factor jF = 1,25
is introduced, for which it is assumed that a higher quality of the castings
is obviously guaranteed when testing.
Cast iron materials with an elongation As < 12,5 %
(A3 < 12,5 % for GT) are considered as non-ductile
materials, in particular some types of GGG as well as
all types of GT and GG. Values of elongation for GGG
and GT see Table 5.1.12 or 5.1.13. The value for GG
is As = 0 *5.
For non-ductile cast iron materials the safety factors
from Table 3.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value
L\j, Figure 3.5.1 *6:
L\j = 0,5 - ~ A 5 /50%. (3.5.2)
3.5.3.1 Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Wrought aluminum alloy with an elongation
A < 12,5 % are considered as non-ductile materials.
Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety
factors from Table 3.5.2 are to be increased by adding a
value L\j, Figure 3.5.1 and Eq. (3.5.2).
3.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as non-
ductile materials. Values of elongation see Table 5.1.31
to 5.1.38.
For cast aluminum alloys all safety factors from Table
3.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value L\j, Figure
3.5.1 and Eq. (3.5.2).
AS Elongation, to be replaced by A3 for GT.
( jm = 2,0 from Table 3.5.2, moderate consequences, non-
destructively tested, low probability, ~ j = O,S for AS = 0 from Eq.
(3.S.2) ).
checks' on qualification of the production process, as well as on the
quality and extent of product testing in order to guarantee little
scatter of their mechanical properties.
5 For GG the values Jp and Jpt are not relevant since the yield strength
and the creep limit ofGO are not specified.
6 For example the safety factor Jm for GG is at least
jm = 2,0 + O,S = 2,S . (3.S.3)
3.5 Safety factors
3.5.5 Total safety factor
From the individual safety factors the total safety factor
jges is to be derived *7:
jges = (3.5.4)

KT,m ' KT,p R
p
' KTt,m ' KTt,p n, ,
92
3 Assessment of the static strength
using local stresses
.lm...
Kt,m ...
safety factors, Table 3.5.1 and 3.5.2,
temperature factors, Chapter 3.2.5 *8.
Simplifications
The following simplifications apply to Eq. (3.5.4):
In the case of normal temperature the third and
fourth term have no relevance *9, and moreover
there is KT,m = K
T.p
=1 ,
for Rp / Rms 0,75 the first term has no relevance,
for Rp / Rm > 0,75 the second term has no
relevance *10,
for GG the second and fourth term have no
relevance *11.
7 MAX means that the maximum value of the four terms in the
parenthetical expression is valid.
8 Applicable to the tensile strength R
m
or to the yield strength R
p
to
allow for the tensile strength at elevated temperature T ' the hot yield
strength the creep strength Rm,Tt , or the creep limit Rp,Tt,
respectively'
9 The terms containing the factors KTt,m and KTt,p must not be applied
in the case of normal temperature, as they will produce misleading results.
10 If there is a ratio of the safety factorsjp I jm = 0,75.
11 Since a yield strength and a creep limit are not specified.
3.6 Assessment
93
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
3.6 Assessment
Contents
3.6.0
3.6.1
3.6.1.1
3.6.1.2
3.6.2
3.6.2.1
3.6.2.2
3.6.2
3.6.2.1
3.6.2.2
General
Rod-shaped (ID) components
Individual types of stress
Combined types of stress
Shell-shaped (2D) components
Individual types of stress
Combined types of stress
Block-shaped (3D) components
Individual types of stress
Combined types of stress
!R36 EN.dog
Page
93
94
95
96
strength, O"SK , ..., divided by the total safety factor jges.
The degree of utilization is always a positive value.
Superposition
For stress components of the same type of stress the
superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter
3.1.
If different types of stress like normal stress and shear
stress act simultaneously and if the resulting state of
stress is multiaxial, see Figure 0.0.9 *5, the particular
extreme maximum stresses and the extreme minimum
stresses are to be overlaid as indicated in the following.
3.6.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the
component static strength using local stresses is to be
carried out.
In general the assessments for the individual types of
stress and for the combined stress are to be carried out
separately * I *2.
In general the assessments for the extreme maximum
and minimum stresses (normal stresses in tension and
compression and/or shear stress) are to be carried out
separately. For steel or wrought aluminum alloys the
highest absolute value of stress is relevant *3.
The calculation applies to both non-welded and welded
components. For welded components assessments are
generally to be carried out separately for the toe and for
the root of the weld as indicated in the following.
Degree of utilization
The assessments are to be carried out by determining the
degrees of utilization of the component static strength.
In the context of the present Chapter the degree of
utilization is the quotient of the characteristic stress
(extreme stress O"max,ex, , ...) divided by the allowable
static stress at the reference point *4. The allowable
static stress is the quotient of the component static
I It is a general principle for an assessment of the static strength to
suppose that all types of stress observe their maximum (or minimum)
values atthe same time.
2 This is in order toexamine the degrees ofutilization ofthe individual
types ofstress in general, and in particular ifthey may occur separately.
3 Different in the case ofcast iron materials or cast aluminium alloys with
different static tension and compression strength values.
4 The reference point isthe critical point ofthe cross section that observes
the highest degree ofutilization.
Kinds of component
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) components are to be distinguished. They can be
both non-welded or welded
3.6.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
3.6.1.1 Individual types of stress
Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
The degrees of utilization of rod-shaped non-welded
components for the different types of stress like normal
stress or shear stress are
aSK,O' =
Ci max, ex
~ 1, (3.6.1)
CiSK / jges
a S K , ~ =
'tmax,ex
s 1,
'tSK / jges
O"max,ex, , ... extreme maximum stresses according to
type of stress; the extreme minimum
stresses, O"min,ex, , ..., are to be considered
in the same way as the maximum stresses,
Chapter 3.1.1.1,
O"SK, ... related component static strength,
Chapter 3.4.1,
jges total safetyfactor, Chapter 3.5.5.
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In
general normal stresses in tension or compression are
to be considered separately. For shear the highest
absolutevalue of shear stress is relevant.
5 Only in the case ofstresses acting simultaneously the character ofEq.
(1.6.4) and (1.6.12) isthat ofa strength hypothesis. If Eq. (1.6.4) and
(1.6.12) are applied in other cases, they have the character ofan empirical
interaction formula only. For example the extreme stresses from bending
and shear will -as arule - occur atdifferent points ofthe cross-section, so
that different reference points W are tobe considered. As a rule bending
will be more important. Moreover see Footnote 1.
94
3.6 Assessment
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
For the toe of the weld of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components.
For the root of the weld of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the degrees of utilization for normal stress
and/or shear stress follow from the equivalent nominal
stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.1:
(3.6.7)
. O"max,ex wv
aSK, = '.$; 1,
wv,e / .
O"SK Jges
't max, ex,wv
aSK,wv,'t = ..$; 1,
'tSK / Jges
(3.6.2)
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
./3-(l/f't) 7
q *
./3-1 '
f, shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
For the toe of the weld of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components.
For the root of the. weld of rod-shaped (ID) welded
components the degree of utilization for combined types
of stress (or loadings) is *8
O"SK, ...
aSK,wv,cr, ... degree of utilization , Eq. (3.6.2).
3.6.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
3.6.2.1 Individual types of stress
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
The degrees of utilization of shell-shaped (20) non-
welded components for the types of stress like normal
stress in the directions x and y as well as shear stress are
(3.6.8)
(3.6.9)
O"max,ex,x
asK,crx = ..$; 1,
O"SK,x / Jges
O"max,ex,wv , ... Extreme maximum equivalent structural
stresses; the extreme minimum stresses,
Smin,ex,wv,zd .. , , are to be considered in
the same way as the maximum stresses,
Chapter 3.1.1.1,
related component static strength
values, Chapter 3.4.2,
total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In
general normal stresses in tension or compression are to
be considered separately. For shear the highest absolute
value of shear stress is relevant.
3.6.1.2 Combined types of stress
Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
For rod-shaped (lD) non-welded components the degree
of utilization for combined types of stress is *6
O"max,ex,y
asK,cry = ..$; 1,
O"SK,y / Jges
'tmax, ex
I----I.$; 1,
'tSK / jges
aSK,crv = q . aNH + (l - q) . llGH.$; 1,
where
aNH=±{lsl + ~ s 2 +4.t
2)'
(3.6.4)
(3.6.5)
O"max,ex,x, ... Extreme maximum stresses according to
type of stress, Chapter 3.1.1.1; the
extreme minimum stresses, O"min,ex,x , ...,
are to be considered in the same way as
the maximum stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.2,
6 The applied strength hypothesis for combined types of stress is a
combination ofthe normal stress criterion (NH) and the v. Mises criterion
(GH). Depending on the ductility of the material the combination is
controlled by a parameter q as a function off, according toEq. (1.6.7)
and Table 1.6.1. For steel isq= 0so that only the v. Mises criterion isof
effect. For GG isq= 0,759 so that both the normal stress hypothesis and
the v. Mises criterion are of partial influence.
s = aSK,cr ,
t = aSK,cr ,
aSK,cr, .., degree of utilization, Eq. (3.6.1).
(3.6.6)
7Table 1.6.1 Constant q(f
t
) .
Steel, GOO GT,
GG
Wrought Cast
AI-alloys Al-alloys
r, 0,577 0,65 0,75 0,85
q 0,00 0,264 0,544 0,759
Caution: For non-ductile wrought aluminium alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) there is q= 0,5.
8Eq. (3.6.8) does not agree with the structure ofEq. (3.1.2) on page 74.
It is an approximation which has to be regarded as provisional and
therefore itis tobe applied with caution.
95
3.6 Assessment 3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
crSK,x , ... related static component strength,
Chapter 3.4.1,
Total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
J2 2· 2
<lQH= sx+Sy-sx'Sy+t ,
Sx = aSK,crx ,
(3.6.14)
total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In
general normal stresses in tension or compression are to
be considered separately. For shear stress the highest
absolute value is relevant.
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In
general normal stresses in tension or compression are to
be considered separately. For shear stress the highest
absolute value is relevant.
(3.6.15)
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
For the toe of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components.
For the root of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the degree of utilization for combined types
of stress (or loadings) is "8
(3.6.16)
J
2 2 2
aSK, crwv = aSK,wv,crx +aSK,wv,cry +aSK,wv,. '
f. shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
Sy = aSK,cry ,
t = aSK,.,
asK,crx, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (3.6.9).
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
./3-(lIf.) 9
q *
./3-1 '
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress always act
unidirectionally at the reference point *9, the degrees of
utilization aSK,crx and asK,cry are to be inserted into Eq.
(3.6.14) with equal (positive) signs (summation). If they
always act opposingly, however *10, the degrees of
utilization aSK,crx and aSK,cry are to be inserted into Eq.
(3.6.14) with different signs.
In the general case - without knowing whether the
stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly *11 - the
degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.14)
both with equal or with different signs; then the least
favorable case is relevant.
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
crmin,ex,x , crmin,ex,y and 'tmin,ex,s are to be included in this
comparative evaluation.
(3.6.10)
0"
aSK, - max,ex,wv,x ~ 1,
wv.ox - / .
O"SK,x Jges
'tmax,ex,wv
aSK,wv;t = . ~ 1,
'tSK / Jges
0"
a - max,ex,wv,y s 1
SK,wv,cry - / . ,
O"SK,y Jges
O"SK,x ...
O"max,ex,wv, ... extreme maximum stresses (equivalent
local stresses); the extreme minimum
stresses, O"min,ex,wv, ... , are to be
considered in the same way as the
maximum stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.1,
related static component strength values,
Chapter 3.4.2,
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
For the toe of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the calculation is to be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components.
For the root of the weld of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components the degrees of utilization for normal
stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear
stress follow from the equivalent local stresses, Chapter
3.1.1.2:
3.6.2.2 Combined types of stress
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
The degree of utilization of shell-shaped (2D) non-
welded components for combined stresses is *6
aSK,wv,crx, ... degrees of utilization, Eq. (3.6.10).
aSK,ov = q . aNH+ (l - q). < l Q H ~ 1,
where
(3.6.12)
9 For example tension in direction x and tension in direction y from a
single loading affecting the component.
10 For example tension indirection xand compression indirection yfrom
a single loading affecting the component.
11 For example, iftwo loadings vary with time ina different manner.
(3.6.23)
3.6 Assessment
3.6.3 Block-shaped (3D) components
3.6.3.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of block-shaped (3D) non-
welded components in terms of the principal stresses in
the directions 1,2 and 3 are
96
3 Assessment of the static strength
using nominal stresses
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
/3- (lIf't) *9
q
/3-1 '
f't Shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
O'I,max,ex,'" extreme maximum principal stresses; the
extreme minimum principal stresses,
O'I,min,ex , ..., are to be considered in the
same way as the extreme maximum
principal stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.3,
O'SK,1 , ... related static component strength,
Chapter 3.4.1,
(J
aSK,O'I I, max, ex < 1
(Jl,SK / jges - ,
aSK,O'2 =1 1 1,
(J2,SK / Jerf
a =I (J3,max,ex 1 < 1
SK,O'3 / . -,
(J3,SK Je-r
(3.6.17)
Rules of sign: If the individual principal stresses always
act unidirectionally at the reference point *13, the
degrees of utilization aSK,O'I , aSK,cr2 and aSK,cr3 are to be
inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) with equal (positive) signs
(summation). If they always act opposingly, however
*14, the degrees of utilization aSK,crl , aSK,cr2 and aSK,cr3
are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) with different signs.
In the general case - without knowing whether the
stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly - the degrees
of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) both
with equal or with different signs; then the least
favorable case is relevant.
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
O'l,min,ex , 0'2,min,ex and 0'3,min,ex are to be included in this
comparative evaluation.
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.3.
All extreme principal stresses may be positive or
negative (or zero). Tension and compression are
generally to be considered separately.
3.6.3.2 Combined types of stress
The degree of utilization of block-shaped non-welded
components for the combined principal stresses is *8
aSK,crv =q . aNH + (l - q) . 1,
where *12
SI =aSK,O'I ,
s2 =aSK,O'2 ,
s3= aSK,O'3 ,
aSK, 0'1, ... degrees of utilization, Eq. (3.6.17).
(3.6.20)
(3.6.21)
(3.6.22)
12 Max means that the maximum value of the three terms in the
parenthetical expression is valid.
13 For example tension indirection 1and tension indirection 2from a
single loading affecting the component.
14 For example tension indirection 1 and compression indirection 2
from asingle loading affecting the component.
4.1 Characteristic service stresses
4 Assessment of the fatigue
strength using local stresses *1
C"IR:-:-4l:-=EN:-:-.--=-do-'q
4.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue
strength using local stresses is to be carried out.
4.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum
Contents Page
4.1.0 General 97
4.1.1 Characteristic service stresses
according to the kind of component
4.1.1.0 General
4.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (lD) components 98
4.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
4.1.1.3 Block-shaped (3D) components 99
4.1.2 Parameters of the service stress spectrum
4.1.2.0 General
4.1.2.1 Mean stress spectrum
4.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum
4.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrumto match the 100
component constant amplitude S-Ncurve
4.1.4 Determination of the parameters
of a service stress spectrum
4.1.4.0 General
4.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum
4.1.4.2 Class of utilization 102
4.1.4.3 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude
4.1.0 General
According to this chapter the parameters of the service
stress spectra are to be determined (spectra for
elastically determined local stresses). Spectra are
applicable for N > 10
4
cycles approximately.
Relevant are the stress spectra of the individual stress
components. They are specified by a number of steps,
i = I to j , giving the amplitudes O"a,i, ... and the related
mean values O"m,i , ... of stress cycles, Figure 4.1.1, as
well as the related numbers of cycles ni according to the
required fatigue life *2.
1Chapters 4.1 and 2.1 are basically identical.
2 As a rule a stress a spectrum istobe determined for normal service
conditions, see Footnote 2 on page 73. The largest amplitude 0a,1 ofa
service stress spectrum with its related mean stress value am,1serves as
the characteristic stress value.
97
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
Figure 4.1.1
Stress cycle
Example:
stress cycle (normal stress),
stress ratio
a . -a .
Rai= m,1 a,l
, crm,i + 0' a.i
t
A special case is the constant amplitude spectrum,
consisting of one step i =j = 1 only. For normal stress
there is O"a = O"a,i = 0"a,1, O"m = O"m,i = O"m,1 .
Superposition
Proportional or synchronous stresses
If several proportional or synchronous stress
components act simultaneously at the reference point,
Chapter 0.3.5, they are to be overlaid. For the same type
of stress (for example unidirectional normal stresses
0"a,1, 0"m,1 and O"a,2 , 0"m,2) the superposition is to be
carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single
stress component (O"a, O"m ...) exists for each type of stress
*3. For different types of stress (normal stress and shear
stress or normal stress in x- and y-direction) the
superposition is to be carried out at the assessment
stage, Chapter 4.6.
Non-proportional stresses
If several non-proportional stress components act
simultaneously at the reference point, Chapter 0.3.5,
they are to be overlaid according to Chapter 5.10.
4.1.1 Characteristic service stresses
according to the kind of component
4.1.1.0 General
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) components are to be distinguished. They may be
both non-weldedor welded.
For welded components the local stresses may be
determined as either structural stresses or effective
notch stresses.
Local stresses may be applied even if nominal stresses
can not be computed because a nominal cross-section
can not be clearly defined.
3 Stress components acting opposingly can cancel each other in part or
completely.
4.1 Characteristic service stresses
4.1.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
Rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components
For rod-shaped (ID) non-welded components a local
normal stress Cl"zd = cr and a shear stress 'ts ='t are to be
considered *4. The respective amplitudes and mean
values are
98
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
4.1.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
The calculation for shell-shaped (2D) components may
also be applied to block-shaped (3D) components, if the
stresses Cl"x, Cl"y and 't at the surface are of interest only.
Rod-shaped (ID) welded components
For rod-shaped (lD) welded components the local
stresses (structural stresses or effective notch stresses *5)
are in general to be determined for the toe and the root
of a weld separately *6.
Shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) non-welded components the
(local) normal stresses in x- and y-direction, Cl"zdx = Cl"x
and Cl"zdy = Cl"y, as well as a shear stress 'ts = 't are to be
considered. The respective amplitudes and related mean
values are
Cl"a,i , 'ta,i ,
Cl"m,i ,'tm,i·
(4.1.1)
Cl"a,x,i , Cl"a,y,i , 'ta,i ,
Cl"m,x,i , Cl"m,y,i , 'tm,i .
(4.1.4)
Calculation with structural stresses
Structural stresses are to be applied to the toe of a weld
only. For the root of a weld the calculation is to be
carried out with effective notch stresses *7.
When performing a calculation of welded rod-shaped
(ID) components with structural stresses a normal stress
(normal stress) rr and a shear stress 't are to be
considered. The respective amplitudes and mean values
are
Cl"a,i , 'ta,i ,
Cl"m,i , 'tm,i .
(4.1.2)
Shell-shaped (2D) welded components
For shell-shaped (2D) welded components,
Figure 0.0.6 and 0.0.7, the local stresses (structural
stresses or effective notch stresses) are in general to
be determined for the toe and the root of a weld
separately *6.
Calculation with structural stresses
Structural stresses are to be applied to the toe of a weld
only. For the root of a weld the calculation is to be
carried out with effective notch stresses *
7

When performing a calculation of welded shell-shaped
(2D) components with structural stresses, the normal
stresses in the directions x and y , Cl"x and Cl"y , as well as
a shear stress 't are to be considered. The respective
amplitudes and mean values are
Calculation with effective notch stresses
Effective notch stresses may be applied to the toe and to
the root of a weld *6.
When performing a calculation of welded rod-shaped
(ID) components with effective notch stresses a normal
stress Cl"K and a shear stress 'tK are to be considered. The
respective amplitudes and mean values are
Cl"a.x.i » Cl"a.y.i » 'ta,i,
Cl"m,x,i, Cl"m,y,i, 'tm,i·
(4.1.5)
4 Rod-shaped (10) components may be subject to normal stresses
resulting from tension-compression and from bending and to shear
stresses resulting from shear and torsion. The case that these stresses may
occur separate from each other, is not considered here, however, as both
tension-compression stresses and bending stresses as well as both shear
stresses and torsion stresses are supposed to be contained in cr or in 't,
respectively.
5 Definition ofstructural stresses and of effective notch stresses see
Figure 0.0.6 and Figure 0.0.7, Chapter 5.4 and 5.5
6 For welded components separate assessments of the fatigue strength for
both the toe and the root of the weld are to be carried out. Both
assessments are of the same kind, but in general the respective stresses
and fatigue classes FAT are different.
Calculation with effective notch stresses
When performing a calculation of welded shell-shaped
(2D) components with effective notch stresses, the
normal stress in the direction of the maximum effective
notch stress, Cl"K , as well as the shear stress, 'tK , are to
be considered. The respective amplitudes and mean
values are
Cl"K,a,i , 'tK,a,i ,
Cl"K,m,i , 'tK,m,i .
(4.1.3)
Cl"K,a,x,i , Cl"K,a,y,i , 'tK,a,i,.
Cl"K,m,x,i, Cl"K,m,y,i, 'tK,m,i·
(4.1.6)
7 An alternative is an assessment of the throat section using nominal
stresses.
4.1 Characteristic service stresses
99
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
4.1.2 Parameters of the stress spectrum
4.1.2.0 General
Caution: Independent of the particular values of the
principle stresses the directions 1 and 2 are defined here
to be parallel to the free surface, the direction 3 to point
normally to the surface into the interior of the
component.
Block-shaped (3D) welded components
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
may be welded at the surface, for example by a surfacing
welds. Then the calculation can be carried out as for
shell-shaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses
o"x, O"y and 't are of interest only.
A stress spectrum describes the stress cycles contained
in the stress history of concern *8.
If the stress cycles show variable amplitudes a stress
spectrum is to be determined for every stress component
*9. The constant amplitude stress spectrum may be
regarded in the following as a special case *10, for
which i = 1 and
(4.1.10)
. [ )kcr. J h· O"ai
Ye = ke L I. -'-
i=1 H 0" a,I
H
N
4.1.2.1 Mean stress spectrum
A constant mean stress applies to all steps of a mean
stress spectrum:
where k, is the exponent ofthe component S-N curve.
O"a,i /O"a,I and hi / H describe the shape of stress
spectrum. The amplitudes O"a,i are always positive, the
mean values O"m.i may be positive, negative, or zero.
As a rule a restriction to the following kinds of stress
spectra is possible: Mean stress spectra and stress ratio
spectra (with the fluctuating stress spectra as a special
case), Figure 2.1.2 *13.
O"m,i mean value in step i,
total number of cycles corresponding to the
required fatigue life
(required total number of cycles),
N = Lni (summed up for 1 toj),
related number of cycles in step i,
N, =Lni (summed up for 1 to i),
total number of cycles of a given spectrum,
H =Hj = Lhi (summed up for 1 to j) *11,
related number of cycles in step i,
Hi = Lh
i
(summed up for 1 to i),
step, i = 1 toj,
total number of steps, step for the smallest
amplitudes,
Vzd damage potential.
The damage potential is defined by *12,
n'
I

I
j
(4.1.7) O"I,a,i , 0"2,a,i , 0"3,a,i,
O"I,m,i , 0"2,m,i, 0"3,m,i·
4.1.1.3 Block-shaped (3D) components
Block-shaped (3D) non-welded components
For block-shaped (3D) non-welded components the
(local) principal stresses in the directions 1, 2 and 3,
O"I,zd = 0"1 , 0"2,zd = 0"2 and 0"3,zd = 0"3 , are to be
considered. The respective amplitudes and related mean
values are
(4.1.8)
2.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum
A constant stress ratio applies to all steps of a stress
ratio spectrum:
O"a =O"a,i =0"a,1 .
N= N = nj = nl
Parameters of stress spectrum are:
0"a,1 characteristic (largest) stress amplitude equal to
the amplitude in step 1 of the stress spectrum,
O"a,i amplitude in step i,
O"a,i > 0, O"a,i+1/ O"a,i s 1,
O"m,i = O"m·
Res,i = Res ,
(4.1.11)
(4.1.12)
8 In the following all variables and equations are presented for the local
normal stress o only, but written with the appropriate indices they are
valid for all other types ofstress as well.
9 In this case anassessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength is
tobe carried out.
lOinthis case an a s s e s s ~ n t ofthe fatigue limit istobe carried out for
type I SoN curves if N= N;:: ND,cr.,.2r an assessment ofthe endurance
limit for type II SoN curves if N= N;:: NDcr II , respectively, oran
assessment for finite life based on the constant amplitude SoN curve
(formally similar.20 an assessment ~ the variable amplitude fatigue
strength) if N= N < ND,cr or N= N;:: ND,cr, II for Typ I orTyp II
SoN curves, respectively. ND,cr orND,cr, II isthe number ofcycles at
the fatigue limit ofthe component constant amplitude SoN curve, Chapter
2.4.3.2.
11 The valuesN-total number ofcycles required -and II -total n u m ~
ofcycles ofa given spectrum - are different ingeneral. The terms ni IN
and hi IHare equivalent.
12 The damage potential is a characteristic for the shape of a stress
spectrum. The values kcr = 5for normal stress and k't = 8for shear stress
are valid for non-welded components. The values kcr = 3and ~ = 8are
valid for welded components.
The term hi IH may be replaced by ni IN .
13 A mean stress spectrum, for example, results from a static load with
dynamic loads superimposed, a fluctuating stress spectrum, for example,
results for acrane hook when lifting variable loads.
4.1 Characteristic service stresses
100
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
<Tmin '..'.-H' = 10
6
Top: Mean stress spectrum. Midle: Stress ratio spectrum. Bottom:
Fluctuating stress spectrum. Example: The presented stress spectra are.
standard type stress spectra, basically defined by a binomial frequency
distribution, a coefficient p = 1/3 , a total number of cyclesH= 10
6
, and
extrapolated to the required total number of cyclesN.
4.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match
the component constant amplitude S-Ncurve
This chapter mainly applies to stress spectra the steps of
which do not have the same stress ratio.
A mean stress spectrum, for example, has different
amplitudes Ga,i ' and constant mean stress values Gm,i =
G
m
' and consequently the individual steps have different
stress ratios Ra,i . On the other hand the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2, is
derived for a constant stress ratio Ra . To allow the
proper application of Miner's rule, Chapter 4.4.3.1, all
steps of a spectrum, however, must have or must be
converted to that stress ratio Ra,i = Ra, Chapter 5.6.1.
4.1.4 Determination of the parameters of a
stress spectrum
4.1.4.0 General
If the stress spectrum of a component under
consideration is not known, or in case of high demands
on its accuracy, the parameters of the stress spectrum
are to be determined by calculation, by simulation, or by
measurement. The determination of the stress spectrum
from a stress history has to be realized according to the
rainflow cycle counting procedure or in the sense of this
procedure.
From a measured and graphically presented continuous
stress spectrum a stepped stress spectrum may be
obtained according to Chapter 5.6.2.
In case of existing experiences - dependent on the
component and its application - the determination of the
parameters of a stress spectrum may be simplified by
applying a standard stress spectrum, a class of
utilization or a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
"I"
1
20'a,1
- 6
-H=10
20'a,l
<T
max
O'roin = 0
Figure 4.1.2 Stress spectra *14.
Special case: Fluctuating stress spectrum
A constant stress ratio of zero applies to all steps of a
fluctuating stress spectrum:
where
Ra = (Gm,i - Ga,i) / (Gm,i + Ga,i)
or
Gm,i / Ga,i = (1 + Ra) / (l - Ra).
(4.1.13)
(4.1.14)
4.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum
Standard stress spectra are used to describe the shape of
typical stress spectra. Standard stress spectra having a
binomial or an exponential frequency distribution, and
modified by the spectrum parameter p , are presented in
Figure 4.1.3. In addition, damage potentials v,
according to Eq. (4.1.10) and Figure 4.1.1 are given in
the graphical presentations. (These apply to an exponent
of the component constant amplitude S-N curve k, = 5
and a total number of cycles H = 10
6
).
Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum
Ra,i =Ra = 0,
or
Gm,i / Ga,i = 1.
(4.1.15)
(4.1.16)
Ga,l
N
characteristic (largest) stress amplitude equal to
the amplitude in step 1 of the stress spectrum,
required total number of cycles,
14 To derive the steps of a spectrum see chapter 5.6.2.
Vcr or Ga,i / Ga,l and hi , i = 1 to j, according to the
shape of the standard stress spectrum
Sm,i mean values, i = 1 to j.
4.1 Characteristic service stresses
Step i
Ga i / Ga I h· H-
I 1
P
°
1/3 2/3
1 1 1 1 2 2
2 0,950 0,967 0,983 16 18
3 0,850 0,900 0,950 280 298
4 0,725 0,817 0,908 2720 3018
5 0,575 0,717 0,858 20000 23000
6 0,425 0,617 0,808 92000 115000
7 0,275 0,517 0,758 280000 395000
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 604982 1000000
1
2 ~ 3 1,0
4
1
aa,i
p
aa,l
8
2/3
0,5
1/3
Step i G
a
i / Gal hi H·
1
P
°
1/3 2/3
1 1 1 1 2 2
2 0,875 0,917 0,958 10 12
3 0,750 0,833 0,917 64 76
4 0,625 0,750 0,875 340 416
5 0,500 0,667 0,833 2000 2400
6 0,375 0,583 0,792 11000 13400
7 0,250 0,500 0,750 61600 75000
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 924984 1000000
Figure 4.1.3 Standard stress spectra
Top: Binomial distribution. Bottom: Exponential distribution (straight
line distribution). Spectrum parameter p, total number of cyclesH = Hj
= ~ hi = 10
6,
number of steps j = 8 , damage potential Vcr for an exponent
k
cr
= 5 of the component constant amplitude S-N curve.
101
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
Table 4.1.1 Damage potential v, and v- for standard
stress spectra having a binomial or exponential
frequency distribution, modified by the spectrum
parameter p, a total number of cycles H = 10
6
, for non-
welded and welded components, for normal stress and
shear stress (exponents of the constant amplitude S-N
curve k, and k, ).
non-welded welded
p binom. I expon. binom. Expon,
Vcr
normal stress
ka= 5 k, = 3
°
0,326 0,196 0,267 0,155
1/6 0,400 0,297 0,366 0,286
1/3 0,499 0,430 0,483 0,426
1/2 0,615 0,570 0,608 0,569
2/3 0,739 0,713 0,737 0,712
5/6 0,868 0,856 0,868 0,856
1 1 1 1 1
V
t
shear stress
k, = 8 k, = 5
°
0,399 0,275 0,326 0,196
1/6 0,452 0,330 0,400 0,297
1/3 0,527 0,438 0,499 0,430
1/2 0,627 0,573 0,615 0,570
2/3 0,743 0,713 0,739 0,713
5/6 0,869 0,856 0,868 0,856
1 1 1 1 1
Analytical relationship: For standard stress spectra
with spectrum parameters p > ° (p = 1/6, 1/3, 1/2, 2/3,
5/6) there is
[
: a,i ) = p + (1- p) .[:a,i) (4.1.17)
a.l p a,l p=o
Application: In case of existing experiences about the
shape of the stress spectrum a suitable standard stress
spectrum may be applied to assess the variable
amplitude fatigue strength in two ways:
- Application of the damage potential v.,; Eq. (4.1.10)
for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength according to the elementary version of
Miner's rule, Chapter 4.4.3.1.
- Application of the data on Ga,i / Ga,1 and hi of the
steps i = 1 to j from Figure 4.1.3 for assessing the
variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the
consistent version of Miner's rule, Chapter 4.4.3.1.
The appropriate standard stress spectrum has to be
specified separate from this guideline.
4.1 Characteristic service stresses
102
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
ND,Q' N Iii'
Figure 4.1.5 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude
is defined by the shape
cra. WL
question. In particular it
of the stress
Component constant amplitude S-N. curve WL, number of cycles at the
knee point ND cr, component variable amplitude fatigue life curve LL.
Characteristic stress amplitude 0"a,1, required total number ofcycles.
The damage-equivalent stress amplitude O"a,eff is. assigned toND,O" and
hence itallows an assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength to
be performed asan assessment ofthe fatigue limit.
cra,1
Cl'a,cJt ~ ~ . . . . . . , - , . . . - - - - i ....- - ~ ~ - -
4.1.4.2 Class of utilization *15
A class of utilization is an approximately damage-
equivalent combination of different shapes of stress
spectra and of specific figures of the required total
numbers of cycles, Figure 4.1.4, see also Chapter 5.7.
N
Figure 4.1.4 Spectra corresponding to the same class of
utilization
Example: Welded component, stress spectra with binomial distribution,
normal stress. All three stress spectra are approximately damage-
equivalent and correspond to the same class of utilization B5,
Table 5.7.4.
spectrum, the required total number of cycles and the
characteristic (largest) stress amplitude, Figure 4.1.5.
Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum
0"a,1 characteristic (largest) stress amplitude equal to
the amplitude in step 1 of the stress spectrum,
B class of utilization (a combination of the
shape of the stress spectrum and the required
total number of cycles),
O"m mean stress *16.
Parameters of the so derived stress spectrum
O"a,eff damage-equivalent stress amplitude
O"m related mean value.
Analytical relationship: Based on the elementary
version of Miner's rule the damage-equivalent stress
amplitude is obtained as d7
1 j
0" ff "" k -_. '" n' ·cr
k
<!
a.e N L. 1 a I
D,cr i=1 '
Analytical relationship: See Chapter 5.7.
Application: In case of existing experiences about the
shape of stress spectrum and the required total number
of cycles a FEM-class of loading may be applied to the
assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength,
Chapter 2.4.3.1.
The appropriate class of utilization has to be specified
separate from this guideline.
ND,O"
j, i, n, ...
VO"
(4.1.18)
(N / ND,cr )11ks . Vcr . 0"a,1 ,
exponent of the component constant
amplitude S-N curve
number of cycles at the knee point of the
component constant amplitude S-N curve,
see (4.1.9),
damage potential, Eq. (4. 1.10).
4.1.4.3 Damage-equivalent stress amplitude
The damage-equivalent stress amplitude is a constant
stress amplitude with an assigned number of cycles
equal to the number of cycles at the knee point of the
component constant amplitude S-N curve, N
D
CJ • It is
damage-equivalent to the stress spectrum in
Application: In case of existing experiences about the
damaging effect of the stress spectrum a damage-
equivalent stress amplitude O"a,eff may be applied. It
allows an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength to be performed as an assessment of the fatigue
limit, Chapter 2.6.
The damage-equivalent stress amplitude has to be
specified separate of this guideline.
15 Following DIN 15018.
16 The determination ofan individual mean stresses crm,i is not possible.
17 Eq. (4.1.18) is based on acritical damage sum DM = 1, Chapter
4.4.3.1.
4.2 Material parameters
103
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
with local stresses
The determination of the material fatigue strength is
different for non-welded and for welded components.
4.2.1 Component values according to
standards
4.2.1.0 General
According to this chapter the material fatigue strength
values (component values according to standards) are to
be determined, These are the material fatigue limit for
completely reversed normal stress, aW,zd , and shear
stress, "Cw,s ' as well as further characteristics *2
4.2.1.1 Non-welded components
For non-welded components the values according to
standards of the material fatigue strength for completely
reversed normal stress and shear stress *3 and for a
number of cycles N = 10
6
*4 are
(4.2.4)
aW,zd = aw,w = 33 MPa,
"Cw,s = "Cw,w = 13 MPa.
Caution: For non-welded wrought and cast aluminum
alloys the fatigue limit is different from the endurance
limit associated with N ~ No.e.n =ND,"t,n= lOS cycles.
4.2.1.2 Welded components
For the base material of welded components the material
fatigue strength for completely reversed stress are the
same as for non-welded components.
Steel and cast iron materials
For the toe and the root of the weld of professionally
welded components from weldable structural steel *5
specific values of the fatigue strength apply independent
of the kind of material. These are for completely
reversed normal stress at N ~ ND,cr = 5' 10
6
cycles
and for completely reversed shear stress at
N ~ ND,"t = 1 . lOS cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
aW,zd = aw,w = 92 MPa, (4.2.3)
"Cw,s = "Cw,w = 37 MPa.
Caution: For other kinds of material (conditionally
weldable steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron
material) these values are to be considered as
provisional and are to be applied with caution.
Aluminum alloys
For the toe and the root of the weld of professionally
welded components from aluminum alloys *5 specific
values of the fatigue strength apply in analogy to steel
independent of the kind of material. These are for
completely reversed normal stress at N ~ ND,cr = 5 . 10
6
cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at
N ~ ND,"t = 1 . 10
8
cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
fw,cr fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, Chapter 4.2.2,
fW,"t fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
shear stress, Chapter 4.2.2,
R
m
tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1.1.
48
(4.2.1)
1R42 EN.dog
Page
47
Component values according to standards
General
Non-welded components
Welded components
Fatigue strength factors
for normal stress and for shear stress
Temperature factor
General
Normal temperature
Low temperature
Elevated temperature
aW,zd =fw,cr . Rm ,
rw., =fW,"t' aW,zd,
4.2.0 General
4.2 Material properties *1
Contents
4.2.3
4.2.3.0
4.2.3.1
4.2.3.2
4.2.3.3
4.2.0 General
4.2.1
4.2.1.0
4.2.1.1
4.2.1.2
4.2.2
I Chapters 2.2 and 4.2 are identical.
2 An influence offrequency on the material fatigue strength values is not
considered up tonow although it might be ofimportance for aluminum
alloys.
Caution: These values are provisional and are to be
applied with caution *
7
.
3 For the tensile strength according tostandards, R
m
, a probability of
survival Po = 97,5 % ispresumed. That probability should also apply to
the values crW,zd and "tW,s computed from R
m
. Moreover Eq. (1.2.1)
applies here too:
crw zd = Kd m. KA . crw zd N,
" t w ~ = Kd:n· KA'"tW s'N',
" "
Kd,m
KA
crW,zd,N, ...
(2.2.2)
technological size factor asfor the tensile strength,
Chapter 3.2.2.
anisotropy factor, Chapter 3.2.3,
semi-finished product fatigue strength value according to
standards, Chapter 5.1.
4 The values crW.zd and "tw.s correspond tothe fatigue limit which isequal
to the endurance limit of steel and cast iron material, but not of
aluminum alloys, however, Figure 4.4.5 and Chapter 5.1.0.
5 Weld imperfections occurring with normal production standards are
allowable.
6 The values crw.w and "tw.w correspond tothe fatigue limit which is equal
tothe endurance limit ofwelded steel and cast iron material aswell as of
welded aluminum alloys, Figure 4.4.6 and Chapter 5.1.0.
7 Values derived from an average relation of0,36 ofthe FAT classes for
aluminum alloys and for structural steel, Chapter 5.4.
4.2 Material parameters
104
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
with local stresses
4.2.2 Fatigue strength factors for normal
stress and for shear stress
The fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, fw,O" , is the quotient of the axial fatigue
strength value for completely reversed stress divided by
the tensile strength, Table 4.2.1.
The fatigue strength factor for shear stress, ,
considers that the material fatigue strength is lower for
shear stress than for normal stress, Table 4.2.1.
For normal temperature the temperature factor is
KT,D'" 1. (4.2.5)
4.2.3.2 Low temperature
Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
the field of application of this guideline.
4.2.3.3 Elevated temperature
In the field of elevated temperatures - up to SOO°Cfor
steel and cast iron materials and up to 200°C for
aluminum materials - the influence of the temperature
on the fatigue strength is to be considered. For elevated
temperature the fatigue strength values for completely
reversed normal stress and shear stress are
(4.2.6)
(4.2.11)
temperature factor, Eq. (4.2.7) to (4.2.11),
material fatigue strength value for completely
reversed normal stress, Chapter 4.2.1.1 and
4.2.1.2.
material fatigue strength value for completely
reversed normal stress, Chapter 4.2. 1. 1 and
4.2.1.2.
<JW,zd,T = KT,D . <JW,zd,
't:W,s,T = KT,D . 't:w,s ,
KT,D
<JW,zd
According to the temperature T the temperature factor
KT,Dis
for fme grain structural steel, T > 60 DC:
KT,D"'I-1O-3'T/oC, (4.2.7)
for other kinds of steel *7, T> 100°C, Figure 4.2.1:
KT,D = 1-1,4' 10-
3.
(T / °C-100), (4.2.8)
for GS, T> 100°C:
KT,D = 1- 1,2 . 10 -3. (T / °C- 100), (4.2.9)
- for GGG, GT and GG, T > 100°C, Figure 4.2.1:
KT,D'" 1- aT,D' (10 - 3. T / 0C)2, (4.2.10)
for aluminum alloys, T > 50°C:
KT,D = 1- 1,2' 10 -3. (T / °C - 50)2,
Figure 3.2.3 in the Chapter 3.2,
't:W,s
Kind of material
fw,O"
Case hardening steel
0,40 0,577
Stainless steel 0,40
0,577
Forging steel 0,40
0,577
Steel other than these 0,45 0,577
GS 0,34 0,577
GGG 0,34 0,65
GT 0,30 0,75
GG 0,30 0,85
Wrought aluminum alloys 0,30
0,577
Cast aluminum alloys 0,30
0,75
4.2.3 Temperature factor
4.2.3.0 General
Table 4.2.1 Fatigue strength factors for completely
reversed normal stress, fw,O" , and shear stress,
1 fw 0" and fw arevalid fora number of cycles N = 10
6

fw' is equal 'to , Table 3.2.5.
Bla'nk-hardened. The influence of the carburization on the
component fatigue strength is to be considered by the surface
treatment factor, Kv, Chapter 4.3.4.
0,577 = 1//3, according tothe v. Mises criterion. Also valid for
welded components.
Preliminary values.
fW,O" does not correspond tothe endurance limit for N = co here!
The temperature factor considers that the material
fatigue strength for completely reversed stress decreases
with increasing temperature.
Normal temperature, low temperature and elevated
temperature are to be distinguished.
aT,D Constant, Table 4.2.2.
4.2.3.1 Normal temperature
Normal temperatures are as follows:
for fine grain structural steel from -40°C to 60°C,
- for other kinds of steel from -40°C to + 100°C,
for cast iron materials from -25°C to + 100°C,
- for age-hardening aluminum alloys
from -25°C to 50°C,
- for non-age-hardening aluminum alloys
from -25°C to 100°e.
Table 4.2.2 Constant aT,D*8.
Kind of material GGG GT GG
aT,D
1,6 1,3 1,0
8 Forstainless steel novalues areknown upto now.
4.2 Material parameters
105
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
with local stresses
Eq. (4.2.7) to (4.2.10) apply to steel and cast iron
materials from the indicated temperature T up to 500°C.
Eq. (4.2.11) applies to aluminum alloys up to 200°C.
The values CYW,zd,T and 1:W,s,T are not explicitly needed
for an assessment of the fatigue strength, as only the
temperature factor KT,D is used.
For elevated temperature, and in particular when the
mean stress Sm, i:- 0 , the fatigue strength in terms of
the maximum stress may be higher than the static
strength so that the assessment is governed by the static
strength.
High temperature
strength Rm,T
High temperature
yieldstreilgth Rp,T
Rm,T
R
m
'jm
I I
o4 Rp,T Rp I
, Rp'R
m
' jp
o
0;1
1% creep limit Rp;Tt
0,3t----K:--+---",;:t-''':--tt--r---,.-J .Rp,Tt It
p
'1
R
p
. R
m
' jpt
Creep Strength R,.,Tt
0,2 m ......... 1
R';;"""' jmt
o 100 ZOO 300 400 500
2.2.1. Tin "C
Creep$trengthR,.;Tt
Rm,Tt I
Rm 'jmt
100 200 300 400 500
Till 'c
o
Z,2.1b
o
0,1 t====J=::='=b--L....,,=-1-..+1
Figure 4.2.1 Temperature dependent values of the
static strength and of the fatigue strength plotted for
comparison.
Safety factorsj according to Chapter 3.5 or 4.5, respectively.
Rm,TI R
m
= KT,m,
Rm,Tt l Rm = KTt,m,
Rm,T, Rp,T as well as
Rp,T I Rp = KT,p,
Rp,Tt
l
Rp = KTt,p'
R
m,
Tt, R
p,
Tt for t = 10
5
h.
Fatigue strength value at elevated temperature :
crW,zd,T I crW,zd = KT,D·
Top: Non-alloyed structural steel, as in the Figure 3.2.2,
R
p
I R
m
= n, I R
m
=0,65 , crW,zdI R
m
=0,45,
Jm =2,0, Jp =jmt = 1,5, Jpt = 1,0, in = 1,5 .
Bottom: GG, as in Figure 3.2.2,
crW,zdI R
m
=0,30, Jm =3,0, Jrnt =in =2,4 .
Table 4.3.1 Constant K, .
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
1
Kt-K
f
ratio, Chapter 4.3.2,
constant, Table 4.3.1,
if no better estimate is available,
roughness factor, Chapter 4.3.3,
surface treatment factor, Chapter 4.3.4,
coating factor, Chapter 4.3.4,
constant for GG, Chapter 4.3.5.
KWK,crl = (4.3.3)
n:,1 {1+ -I)) >
KWK,cr2 =
=_1.(1+-2-.(_1-1)]
n
cr
,2 K
f
K R,«
KWK,cr3 =
++ -( -I)) >
ncr, ..,
Kf
The design factors of block-shaped non-welded
components for the principle stresses in the directions 1,
2 and 3 (normal to the surface) are *2
KwK,crx = (4.3.2)
=_1_'(1+_1_.(_1__1)) 1
ncr,x K
f
KR,cr K y .K
s
.KNL,E '
K
w
: ,O"Y
1=
-1)1
ncr,y K
f
KR,cr ) K
y
.K
s
.KNL,E
=
n
1,
{1+ -( -I)J Ky l
Ks
>
KR,cr, ...
K y
K
s
KNL,E
106
4.3 Design parameters
4.3.0 General
According to this chapter the design parameters are to
be determined in terms of design factors.
4.3 Design parameters 1R43 EN. dog
Content Page
4.3.0 General 106
4.3.1 Design factors
4.3.1.0 General
4.3.1.1 Non-welded components
4.3.1.2 Welded components 107
4.3.2 Kt-K
f
ratios 108
4.3.2.0 General
4.3.2.1 Computation of Kj-K, ratios
4.3.2.2 Kj-K, ratio for superimposed notches 109
4.3.3 Roughness factor
4.3.4 Surface treatment and coating factor 110
4.3.5 Constant KNL,E III
4.3.6 Fatigue classes (FAT) 112
4.3.7 Thickness factor
4.3.1 Design factors
4.3.1.0 General
Non-welded and welded components are to be
distinguished.
4.3.1.1 Non-welded components
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) non-welded components are to be distinguished.
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) non-welded
components for normal stress and for shear stress are ·1
KWK,cr = (4.3.1)
n
1
0
{I+ -( -I)) >K
y
'
=
=_1 -1))' 1
n, x, Ky.K
s
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) non-welded
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are
Kind of Steel GS GGG GT GG
material wrought cast
Al-alloys Al-alloys
Kf
2,0 2,0 1,5 1,2 1,0
A better estimate of Kf may be obtained from stress
concentration factors Kt,cr and of a substitute
structure, Chapter 5.12, and the Kt-K
f
ratios, Chapter
4.3.2.1: or
1 About the purpose ofthe constant Kf see Footnote 1 inChapter 2.3.
2 The Kt-Kf ratio in direction 3 normal to the surface, ",,3. , is not
contained inEq. (4.3.3) since a stress gradient normal tothe surface isnot
considered.
4.3 Design parameters
4,3.1.2 Welded components
For the base material of welded components the design
factors are to be computed as for non-welded
components.
The design factors for the toe and for the root of a weld
are in general to be determined separately, since the
local stresses and the fatigue classes (FAT) maybe
different.
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) welded components are to be distinguished. The
calculation can be carried out with structural stresses or
with effective notch stresses.
107
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
FAT fatigue class, Chapter 4.3.6,
f
t
thickness factor, Chapter 4.3.7,
Kv surface treatment factor, Chapter 4.3.4 *5,
Kg coating factor, Chapter 4.3.4;
KNL,E constant for GG, Chapter 4.3.5.
The fatigue classes FAT are in general different for
normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for
shear stress.
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
welds. Then the design factors are to be calculated as for
shell-shaped (2D) welded components.
Calculation with structural stresses
Steel and cast iron material
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components made of steel or of cast iron materials *3 for
normal stress and for shear stress are,
KWK,cr = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E), (4.3.4)
= 145/ (FAT' ft' Ko ),
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are
The design factors of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components for normal stresses in the directions x and y
as well as for shear stress are
Aluminum alloys
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components from aluminum alloys *4 for normal stress
and for shear stress are,
KWK,crx = 225 / (FAT' ft' Ky' KNL,E),
KwK,cry = 225 / (FAT' ft' Kv KNL,E),
= 145/ (FAT' ft' Ko ).
KWK,cr = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Kg),
= 52 / (FAT' ft' Ky' K
s).
KWK,sx = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Kg),
KwK,sy = 81 / (FAT' ft' Ky' Kg),
= 52/ (FAT' fi' Ky' Kg),
(4.3.5)
(4.3.6)
(4.3.7)
Calculation with effective notch stresses
Steel and cast iron material as well as aluminum
alloys
The design factors of rod-shaped (lD) welded
components made of steel, of cast iron materials l'' and
f 1
,
o a uminum alloys for normal stress and for shear
stress are *6,
KWK,crK = 1/ (Kv Kg' KNL,E), (4.3.8)
= 1/ !Ky' Kg).
For shell-shaped (2D) welded components, as a rule,
only the effective notch stress in direction of the
maximum effective notch stress and the corresponding
shear stress are to be considered. The design factors are
as before
KWK,crK = 1 / (Ko . Kg . KNL,E ), (4.3.9)
= 1/ (Ky' Kg),
Kv surface treatment factor, Chapter 4.3.4 *5,
K
s
coating factor, Chapter 4.3.4,
KNL,E constant for GG, Chapter 4.3.5
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing
welds. Then the design factors are to be calculated as for
shell-shaped (2D) welded components.
3 To some part the FAT values where derived with reference to the IIW
recommendations and Eurocode 3 (Ref. /9/, /81). Moreover the design
factors are supposed tobe valid, however, not only for weldable structural
but also for other kinds of steel (conditionally weldable steel,
stainless steel) and weldable cast iron materials).
4 To some part the FAT values where derived with reference tothe IIW
(Ref. /91). Moreover the design factors are supposed to
be v.ahd, however, for all weldable aluminum alloys, except the
aluminum alloys 5000, 6000 and 7000. Numerical values see Footnote 7
on page 103.
5 As arule Ky is not relevant for welded components, that is Ky = I.
6 On principle for steel: KWK,crK = 225 / (FAT ... ) where FAT = 225,
and = 145 / (FAT ... ) where FAT = 145; aluminum alloys
accordingly, Weld quality conforming tonormal production standard.
In combination with effective notch stresses the thickness factor ft is not
applied, since the thickness effect isaccounted for by the stress analysis.
4.3 Design parameters
108
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
4.3.2 Kt-Kr ratios
4.3.2.0 General
The Kj-K, ratios nO", ... allow for an influence on the
fatigue strength resulting from the design (contour and
size) of a non-welded component.
Condition for the application of a Kj-K; ratio is a stress
gradient normal to the direction of stress as shown in
Figure 3.3.1 *7.
4.3.2.1 Computation of Kt-Kr ratios
Kt-Kr ratios for normal stress
The Kt-K
r
ratio for normal stress, Ocr, Figure 4.3.1, is to
be computed from the related stress gradient GO" after
Eq. (4.3.13) to (4.3.15).
ForG0" ;;;; 0,1 rnm" 1 there is (4.3.13)
-(a
o
-0,5+ R
m
)
n = 1 +G . mm r Itl bo ·MPa
0" 0" ,
800
400
800
1200
100
350
400
900
800
400
10 5 0,5 2
in MP;---::



/ V
[GGG
,
"/
-:
/ 1/0.65'
V
/
v ., ',.I
/ 1 10,70
7'""
i
GS
V/
.
-:
/ 1 10,75 :/
II

/V 1/
-:
//'
/

V
/
-:

/ 1/0,85
V
./J
V

,,-/
j /I/;;/ I
/ //
il /
/
110,95 /
II
{III
ill
/v
/
Iff;
1/
1 //

/II
til

(f;
,
2/ do = r
0,267-
! \ I I
2
3
1,4
1,1
1,2
1,04
1,01
.0,01 0,02 0,05 0,1 0,2
1,02
(4.3.14)
(
R) - ao+ m
n = 1 G . mm . 10 bo . MPa
0" 0" ,
for 0,1 mm" 1 <00" ;;;; 1 mm" 1 there is
Kind Stain- Other GS GGG GT GG
of less kinds
mate- steel of
rial steel
aa
0,40 0,50 0,25 0,05 -0,05 -0,05
bo 2400 2700 2000 3200 3200 3200
for 1 mrrr ! < GO";;;; 100 mm" 1 there is
(
R) - ao+ m
n = 1 -rnm r l O bo·MPa
0" 0" ,
ao, bo constants, Table 4.3.2.
Table 4.3.2 Constants aa and bo .
(4.3.15)
Figure 4.3.1 Kt-K
r
ratios Ocr for normal stress.
The diagram may be extended up to GO"; 100 mm -1.
Indicated numerical values 1/0,65 to 1/0,95: Difference of the fatigue
limit for completely reversed stress in tension-compression and in
bending, valid for the material test specimen of the diameter do = 7,5 mm.
Not included in the figure 4.3.1:
Stainless steel. Threshold values forGO" = 1 mm -1 :
largest value. n-, = 1,27 for R
m
= 400 MPa and
smallest value: "cr = 1,14 for R
m
= 1070 MPa.
Wrought aluminum alloys: Threshold values forGO" = 1 mm -1 :
largest value:"cr = 1,69 for R
m
= 95 MPa and
smallest value:"cr = 1,18 for R
m
=590 MPa.
Cast aluminum alloys: Threshold values for: GO" = 1 mm -1 :
largest value: "cr = 2,02 for R
m
= 130 MPa and
smallest value: "cr = 1,88 for R
m
= 330 MPa.
Kind of material Wrought Cast
Al-allovs Al-allovs
aa
0,05 -0,05
b
o
850 3200
For surface hardened components *8 (components with
thermal or with chemo-thermal surface treatment) the
KcK
r
ratios are lower than for non surface hardened
components *9 *10.
7 A stress gradient in direction of stress is supposed not to cause any
effect. This restriction concerns block-shaped (3D) components only.
8 Does not apply to cold rolled or shot peened surfaces. See the summary
ofspecial features of the fatigue strength of surface hardened components,
Chapter 5.8
4.3 Design parameters
Kt-K, ratios for shear stress
The Kj-K. ratio for shear stress, n, , is to be computed
from the related stress gradient G, according to Eq.
(4.3.13) to (4.3.15), after having replaced a by 't and
the tensile strength Rmby fw" . Rm , where f
w"
is the
fatigue strength factor for shear stress, Table 4.2.1.
109
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
The point below the surface is to be chosen such that the
maximum values of G
a
and G, being calculated.
If stress amplitudes below the surface (as in Figure 4.3.2
provided by an FE analysis, e.g.) are not available, an
approximate computation of the related stress gradients
for normal stress and for shear stress is as follows:
(4.3.16)
With the radius r at the reference point (influence of the
contour) and the dimension d (influence of a loading in
bending or torsion) there is *12
4.3.2.2 Kt-K, ratio for superimposed notches
For superimposed notches - for example a boring
located in a groove, the partial K-K; ratios of which are
n1 and n2 according to the related stress gradients G I
and G2 - a most favorable Kj-K, ratio n is to be
computed for a related stress gradient
Related stress gradients
The related stress gradients normal to the direction of
stress , G
a
and G, necessary to compute the KcK
r
ratios, are to be determined from the stress amplitudes
for normal stress, ()a , and for shear stress, 't
a
, at the
reference point and a point below the reference point,
Figure 4.3.2 *11,
G
a=_l-
. ",,"aa =_1 . (1- a2a),
a la ",,"s ",,"s a la
G, =_1_ . ",,"'t
a
=_1 '(1- 't2a) ,
't la ",,"s ",,"s 'tl
a
G
a
= 2 / r + 2 / d,
G, = 1 / r + 2 / d.
G=Gl+G 2 '
(4.3.17)
(4.3.24)
ala, 'tla
a2a, 't2a
",,"s
stress amplitudes at the reference point,
stress amplitudes in a distance ",,"s below,
distance between the reference point and
the neighboring point belowthe surface,
Figure 4.3.2.
If the distance of notches is 2 r or above
(where r is the larger one of both radii) *13 a
superposition is not to be considered. If a value of a
radius is missing, a fictitious radius may be estimated
fromEq. (4.3. 17)(for example r:::o 2/G
a
) .
Rm
Rm,N,min
fw"
Figure 4.3.2
Stress amplitudes at the
reference point and below
the surface.
9 The K
t
- Kf ratio for a crack originating inthe hardened surface layer is
lower because the tensile strength R
m
ofthe hard surface layer is higher
than the tensile strength R
m
ofthe core material according tothe material
standard.
The Kt - Kf ratio for a crack origklating i!!,.the core material is lower
because the related stress gradient Oa (or 0, ) in the core material has
decreased from its maximum value atthe surface.
10 The tensile strength of the surface layer may be estimated
approximately as R
m
= (3,3 . HV) MPa , where HV is the Vickers
hardness number. As this equation, however, was not specifically
established for hardened surface layers, it istobe applied with caution. In
particular the fatigue strength value awzd ofthe hardened surface layer
must not be derived from that estimate of the tensile strength
(aW,zd* fW,a' Rm)·
11 For Eq. (4.3.16) the tangent at al. isapproximately replaced by the
secant.
If no stress gradient exists, then n
a
= n, = I . In general a stress
gradient normal tothe direction ofstress and normal tothe surface does
exist for the stress components ax , ay, t , at and cr2 . A stress gradient in
direction ofstress isnot considered, that is"cr,3 = I.
4.3.3 Roughness factor
The roughness factors KRcr or KR" accounts for the
influence of the surface roughness on the fatigue
strength of the component.
The roughness factors valid for polished surface is
KR,cr = KR" = 1. (4.3.25)
For a rolling skin, a forging skin or the skin of castings
an average roughness value R, = 200 urn applies.
The roughness factors for normal stress, Figure 4.3.3,
and for shear stress are *14 (4.3.26)
KR,cr = 1- aR,a . 19 (R
z
/ urn) . Ig(2Rm / Rm,N,min ),
KR" = 1- f
w"
. aR,cr . 19 (R, /um) . Ig(2R
m
1Rm, N, miJ,
aR,cr constant, Table 4.3.4,
R, average roughness of the surface of the
component in um, according to DIN 4768,
tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1.1,
constant, Table 4.3.4,
fatigue strength factor for shear stress,
Table 4.2.1.
4.3 Design parameters
110
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
1
r
Kind of Steel GS GGG GT GG
material
aR,oo
0,22 0,20 0,16 0,12 0,06
Rm,N,min
400 400 400 350 100
inMPa
Kind of Wrought Cast
material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys
aR,oo
0,22 0,20
Rm,N,min
133 133
inMPa
Table 4.3.4 Constant aR,oo and minimum tensile
strength, Rm,N,min , of the kind of material considered.
..,
=
==
e

o
o
....
;:::--::
1-
1,6

;::::r-...
l-
t--..
3,2

:-----

r-,
I--...
R

"-
... >:1'\., f"
r-

r-.,

25

i'

J.Q.
20
0,7
0,6
0,5
0,8
1,0
(4.3.28) k y = 1.
4.3.4 Surface treatment factor and
coating factor
The surface treatment factor, Kv , allows for the
influence of a treated surface layer on the fatigue
strength of the component.
Without a surface treatment there is
For components with surface treatment ·8 the surface
treatment factor depends on whether a crack origin is to
be expected at the surface or in the core. Essential
factors of influence are the ratio of the fatigue limits of
the surface layer and of the core material, as well as the
ratio of the local stress values on the surface and in the
corejust belowthe surface layer.
Upper and lower limits of the surface treatment factors
for steel and cast iron materials are given in Table 4.3.5.
A definite value is to be determined by the user *15.
The coating factor Ks allows for the influence of a
surface coating on the fatigue strength of a component
made of an aluminum alloy.
For steel and cast iron materials there is
• !
300 400
• 14
200
R
m
in MPa fiir cc
'.
500 700 1000 2000
RminMPa
100
0,
400 600 800 IOOO
Rut in .MPa fiir GS, ('..GG, GT
0,8
1,0
0,4
300
Z.3.3b
KR,11 --l"
O

'0
I
I
2.3.3a
Figure 4.3.3 Roughness factor KR,oo .
Top: Steel.
Bottom: Cast iron material with skin,
steel with rolling skin for comparison
For surface hardened components '8 and an expected
crack origin at the surface the roughness factor is less
favorable (smaller) than for components not surface
hardened, because of the higher tensile strength Rm of
the hardened surface layer *10.
Ks = 1. (4.3.29)
For aluminum alloys without coating there is
Ks = 1. (4.3.30)
For aluminum alloys with coating there is
Ks for example after Figure 4.3.4 (provisional values).
12 --
For shell-shaped (2D) Goo,x , r
x
an.!Goo,y , r
y.
For block-shaped (3D) components Goo,l, q and G
oo,2
, r2 "
13 The value 2r is likely to be on the safe side.
Ks < 1. (4.3.31)
14 In particular residual stresses as a result of manufacturing and ofa
surface treatment are determining the influence of the surface on the
component fatigue limit, rather than the surface roughness. According to
the current state of knowledge, however, improved regulations toallow
for the surface effect are not yet developed, so the traditional equations
based on aroughness value have tobe accepted for the time being.
15 Provided that the procedures ofthe surface treatment can be applied to
components ofaluminum alloys, the Ko -values for cast iron. material
may approximately be taken into account.
4.3 Design parameters
III
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
Kind of
GG I GG GG I GG GG I GG
material -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35
KNL,E
1,075 1,05 1,025
Figure 4.3.4 Influence of anodic coating on the fatigue
limit (at 10
6
cycles) of a component from aluminum
alloys as a function of the layer thickness (after Wilson).
Provisional values.
4.3.5 Constant KNL,E
The constant KNL,E accounts for the non-linear elastic
stress strain behavior of GG when loaded in tension-
compression or bending.
For all kinds of material except for GG there is
Table 4.3.6 Constant KNL,E ?
1
.
(4.3.32)
10 100
Thickness of layer in /lID
--...,J. I
.j -W-W
1""- __
I
I I I I I i I! i
..
r
ffi-rTf1 I .Lu.u
--+-.llllif
. ,l_LLU+
iI, I. II :
. __---.4_,__
I : til ll !i
"1----r-_-.- .....···Tr
i I I i 111.1
I
I--·-Ti-t.-i-i..

!I i '+1; . II ,I
I ! rn rr
2.3.•
Ks 0.9
0.8
0,7

0,6
0."
0;1
0.2
o.t
o
1
KNL,E = 1.
KNL,E for GG after Table 4.3.6.
Surface unnotched notched
treatment components components
?3
Steel
Chemo-thermal treatments
Nitriding 1,10-1,15 1,30 - 2,00
Depth of case 0,1...0,4 nun
(1,15 - 1,25) (1,90 - 3,00)
Surface hardness
700 to 1000 HV 10
Case hardening 1,10 - 1,50 1,20 - 2,00
Depth of case 0,2 ... 0,8 nun
(1,20 - 2,00) (1,50 - 2,50)
Surface hardness
670 to 750 HV 10
Carbo-nitriding
Depth of case 0,2 ... 0,8 nun
(1,80)
Surface hardness
670 to 750 HV 10
Mechanical treatment
Cold rolling 1,10 - 1,25 1,30 - 1,80
(1,20 - 1,40) (1,50 - 2,20)
Shot peening 1,10 - 1,20 1,10-1,50
(1,10 - 1,30) (1,40 - 2,50)
Thermal treatment
Inductive hardening
1,20 - 1,50 1,50 - 2,50
Flame-hardening
(1,30 - 1,60) (1,60 - 2,80)
Depth of case 0,9 ... 1,5 nun
Surface hardness
51 to 64 HRC
Cast iron materials
Nitriding 1,10 (1,15) 1,3 (1,9)
Case hardening 1,1 (1,2) 1,2 (1,5)
Cold rolling 1,1 (1,2) 1,3 (1,5)
Shot peening 1,1 (1,1) 1,1 (1,4)
Inductive hardening, 1,2 (1,3) 1,5 (1,6)
Flame-hardening
Table 4.3.5 Upper and lower limits of the surface
treatment factor for steel and cast iron materials ?1?2.
? 1 Concerning typical component values and further kinds of treatments,
see also FVA·worksheet "Schwingfestigkeitssteigerung (increasing the
fatigue strength)".
? 2 The given values typically apply to the component fatigue limit.
Values applying to the variable amplitude fatigue strength are in general
somewhat lower.
? 1 For unnotched or slightly notched components in tension-compression
KNL,E = 1.
4.3.6 Fatigue class (FAT)
The values are valid for specimens of 30 to 40 nun diameter; values in
parenthesis for specimens of 8 to 15 nun diameter.
? 3 For unnotched or slightly notched components .
Calculation with structural stresses
The fatigue classes (FAT) for structural stresses allow
for the influence of the toe of a weld on the fatigue
strength *16 (For the root of a weid a fatigue class FAT
for structural stresses is not applicable up to now; only
effective notch stresses are applicable).
16 Fatigue classes for structural stresses do not depend on the of design
of a component, because the influence of design on the fatigue strength is
allowed for when computing structural stresses, see Chapter 5.5 (This is
different from computing nominal stresses, Chapter 2.3.)
4.3 Design parameters
112
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
A complete catalogue of the fatigue classes of structural
stresses according to the IIW-Recommendations is given
in Chapter 5.4.2 *17.
Calculation with effective notch stresses
Effective notch stresses are applicable for the toe and for
the root of a weld and do not require a fatigue classes to
be considered as the fatigue strength values given by Eq.
(4.3.8) or (4.3.9) are those determined for effective
notch stresses (normal stress or shear stress,
respectively) *18.
4.3.7 Thickness factor
When using structural stresses for the calculation of
transversely loaded welds the thickness factor f
t
accounts for the influence of the sheet metal thickness
on the fatigue strength *19.
The thickness factor f
t
is of no effect, however,
- if the calculation uses effective notch stresses,
- if there is no weld,
- if there is no transversely loaded weld, or
- if the sheet metal thickness is t < 25 mm.
In these cases the thickness factor is
(4.3.33)
For a transversely loaded weld and a sheet metal
thickness t > 25 mrn the thickness factor is a function of
the sheet metal thickness t (in mrn):
Table 4.3.7 Exponent n for the thickness factor.
Type of the welded joint n
cruciform joints, transverse T-joints, plates with
transverse attachments
- as welded 0,3
- toe ground 0,2
transverse butt welds,
- as welded 0,2
butt welds ground flush, base material, longitudi-
nal welds or attachments, - as welded or ground 0,1
it = (25 mm / t) n.
n after Table 4.3.7.
(4.3.34)
17 All fatigue classes for structural stresses given in the IIW-
Recommendations are considered except those for the base material.
Considered are for steel FAT::; 140 for normal stress and FAT:::;; 100 for
shear stress, or for aluminum alloys FAT::; 50 for normal stress and
FAr::; 36 for shear stress.
The calculation for the base material of welded components is to be
carried out as for non-welded components.
18 The generally applicable fatigue strength values do not depend on the
design of a component nor on the shape of the weld, because all these
influences on the fatigue strength are considered when computing
effective notch stresses. Chapter 5.5 (This is different from computing
nominal stresses or structural stresses, see Chapter 5.5).
19 'Thethickness factor is supposed to be valid for steel, but also for
aluminum alloys
4.4 Component strength,
4.4.1 Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
113
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
4.4 Component strength
Component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress
Component fatigue limit 114
according to mean stress
General
Mean stress factor 115
Calculation for type of overloading F2
Calculation for type of overloading FI 116
Calculation for type of overloading F3
Calculation for type of overloading F4 117
Individual or equivalent mean stress
Residual stress factor 118
Mean stress sensitivity
Component variable amplitude fatigue 119
strength
General
Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor 120
Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum
Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum
Elementary version of Miner's rule
based on the damage potential
Calculation according to the consistent
version of Miner's rule 121
Calculation using a class of utilisation 123
Component constant amplitude S-N curve
(4.4.2)
(4.4.1)
aWK,x = aW,zd I KWK,crx ,
awK,y =aW,zd I KWK,cry ,
1:WK=1:w,s I KwK,s ,
aW,zd, 'tw,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1
KwK,crx,... design factor, Chapter 4.3.1
Eq. (4.4.1) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (4.2.1), (4.2.3) or (4.2.4), and on the
design factor, Eq. (4.3.1), (4.3.4), (4.3.6) or (4.3.8). It
applies to non-welded components for calculations with
local stresses and to welded components both for
calculations with structural stresses or with effective
notch stresses *2.
Eq. (4.4.2) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (4.2.1), (4.2.3) or (4.2.4), and on the
design factor, Eq. (4.3.2), (4.3.5), (4.3.7) or (4.3.9). It
applies to non-welded components for calculations with
local stresses and to welded components both for
calculations with structural stresses or with effective
notch stresses.
aWK =aW,zd I KwK,cr ,
1:WK=1:w,s I KWK;t ,
aW,zd,1:W,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1
KWK,cr ... design factor, Chapter 4.3.1
The component fatigue limits of shell-shaped (2D)
components for completely reversed normal stresses in
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
1R44 EN.dog
Page
113 General
4.4.3.2
4.4.3.0
4.4.3.1
4.4.2.2
4.4.2.3
4.4.2.4
4.4.3
4.4.2.0
4.4.2.1
4.4.2
Content
4.4.0
4.4.1
(4.4.3)
4.4.0 General
According to this chapter the component fatigue
strength is to be calculated as follows:
- Step 1: component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress in considering the design factor,
Chapter 4.4.1,
- Step 2: component fatigue limit in considering the
mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2,
- Step 3: component variable amplitude fatigue
strength in considering the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor, Chapter4.4.3.
4.4.1 Component fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress
According to this chapter the component fatigue limit
for completely reversed stress is to be calculated in
considering the design factor.
Caution: See the comment in the second paragraph of
Chapter 4.4.2.
The component fatigue limits of block-shaped (3D)
components for completely reversed principal stresses in
the directions 1, 2, and 3 are
al,WK = aW,zd l KWK,crl ,
a2,WK = aW,zd l KWK,cr2,
a3,WK =aW,zd l KWK,cr3,
aW,zd,1:W,s material or weld specific fatigue limit for
completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1
K WK, I ... design factor, chapter 4.3.1
Eq. (4.4.3) is based on the fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Eq. (4.2.1), and on the design factor,
Eq. (4.3.3). It applies to non-welded components.
For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components
may be welded at the surface, for example through
surfacing welds. Then the calculation is to be carried
out as for shell-shaped (2D) welded components.
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) components are to be distinguished.
The component fatigue limits of rod-shaped (lD)
components for completely reversed normal stress and
shear stress are *I
1 The component fatigue limits for completely reversed stress are
different for normal stress and for shear stress, and moreover because of
different stress gradients or different weld characteristics depending on the
type of stress.
2 Structural stresses crWK, ... or effective notch stresses crWK,K . The
index K is to be added where appropriate.
114
4.4 Component strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
4 assessment of the fatigue strength
with nominal stresses
--r
I
i
I
Rod-shaped (ID) components
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit of rod-shaped (10) components for normal
stress and for shear stress are
Block-shaped (3D) components
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit of block-shaped (3D) components *4 for
principal stresses in the directions I, 2 and 3 are
Shell-shaped (2D) components
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component
fatigue limit of shell-shaped (2D) components for
normal stress in the directions x and y as well as for
shear stress are
(4.4.6)
(4.4.7)
(4.4.7)
mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,
residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.
applies to non-welded and to welded
O'I,AK = KAK.,crl . KE,cr . O'I,WK ,
O'2,AK = KAK.,cr2 . KE,cr . 0'2, WK ,
O'3,AK = KAK.,cr3 . KE,cr . O'3,WK ,
0' AK,x = KAK.,x . KE,cr . O'WK,x ,
0' AK,y = KAK.,y . KE,cr . O'WK,y ,
1:AK = K A K . , ~ . K E , ~ . 1:WK ,
0' AK = KAK,cr . KE,cr . O'WK ,
1:AK = KAK;t . K E , ~ . 1:WK ,
KAK.,x, ...
KE,cr, '"
O'WK,x' .. ,
mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,
residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.
Eq. (4.4.6) applies' to non-welded and to welded
components.
KAK,cr, .. ,
KE,cr, .
O'WK, .
Eq. (4.4.7)
components.
KAK,cr =KAK;t = 1. (4.4.4)
The residual stress factor accounts for the influence of
the residual stress on the fatigue strength. For non-
welded components the residual stress factor for normal
stress and for shear stress is
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to
mean stress 1R442 EN.dog
In combination with a stress spectrum the indicated
stress ratio R, , ... commonly refers to step I of the
stress spectrum (maximum amplitude), Ra,I, ... *2 *3.
The mean stress factor, Figure 4.4.1, allows for the
influence of the mean stress on the fatigue strength.
Without mean stress the mean stress factor is
K E,cr=KE;r = 1. (4.4.5)
Rod-shaped (10), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) components are to be distinguished.
4.4.2.0 General
According to this chapter the amplitude of the
component fatigue limit is to be determined according to
a given mean stress and, where appropriate, in
considering a multiaxial state of stress.
Comment: For non-welded components of austenitic
steel, or of wrought or cast aluminum alloys the
component fatigue limit is different from the component
endurance limit for N = 00 , Chapter 4.4.3.2.
Observing the specific input values the calculation
applies to non-welded components (with local stresses)
and to welded components (with structural stresses or
effective notch stresses) *1.
An improved procedure for non-welded components of
steel to compute the component fatigue limit in the case
of synchronous multiaxial stresses is given in Chapter
5.9.
KAK.,crl , ...
KE,cr, .
O'I,WK, ..
mean stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.1,
residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1.
1 Struktural stresses crWK' ... or effective notch stresses crWK.,K . In
the following the missing index K is to be added where appropriate.
2 This definition is necessary only for mean stress spectra, not for
stress ratio spectra or for fluctuating stress spectra, for which the
stress ratios of all steps are identical.
3 For more details see Chapter 5.6.
4 For certain applications block-shaped (3D) components may be
welded at the surface, for example by surfacing welds. Then the
calculation may be carried out as for shell-shaped (2D) components.
115
4.4 Component strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
Figure 4.4.1 Amplitude of the component fatigue
strength as a function of mean stress or stress ratio
(Haigh diagram), described in four fields of mean stress
Example: Normal stress, types of overloading FI and F2.
Given: Component fatigue strength for completely reversed
stress crwK ' service stress amplitude cr
a
,
stress ratio Ra ,
Derived: Amplitudes of the component fatigue limit oAK
for the types of overloading FI and F2.
4 assessment of the fatigue strength
with nominal stresses
R :-=
" Q
@

CD

®
Type of overloading
The mean stress factor, KAK,cr or depends on
the type of overloading, Fl to F4. It distinguishes the
way how the stress may increase in the case of a possible
overload in service (not by crash). Therefore it is to be
determined in the sense of a safety of operation in
service, that is for normal stress as follows:
Shear stress: *5:
Field I:
Field II: - 1S; 0
Field III: 0 < < 0,5
Field IV: 0,5
(not existing),
(lower boundary changed),
(unchanged),
(unchanged).
- Type Fl:
the mean stress am remains the same,
- Type F2:
the stress ratio Rcr remains the same,
- Type F3:
the minimum stress amin remains the same,
- Type F4:
the maximum stress a
max
remains the same.
For shear stress a is to be replaced by L. Intermediate
types of overloading are possible. Dependent on the type
of overloading the amplitude of the component fatigue
limit is different, Figure 4.4.1.
4.4.2.1 Mean stress factor
The mean stress factor for normal stress, KAK,cr , or
shear stress, KAK,1: , depends on the mean stress and on
the mean stress sensitivity.
Calculation for the type of overloading F2 *6
In case of a possible overload in service the stress ratio
Rcr remains the same.
Normal stress:
Fields of mean stress
In determining the mean stress factor, KAK,cr , ... , four
fields of mean stress are to be distinguished. These
depend on the stress ratio Rcr or on the mean stress am
respectively, see Chapter 4.4.2.2.
Normal stress:
Field I: n, > 1:
KAK,cr= 1/ (1 - Ma), (4.4.9)
(4.4.10)
Field I: Rcr > I, field of fluctuating compression stress,
where Rcr = + or - 00 is the zero compression stress.
Field II: -00 S; Rcr S; 0, where R, < -1 is the field of
alternating compression stress, R, = -1 is the
completely reversed stress, R; > -1 is the field of
alternating tension stress.
Field III: 0 < Rcr < 0,5, field of fluctuating tension stress,
where R, = 0 is the zero tension stress.
Field IV: R, 0,5, field of high fluctuating tension
stress.
5 The fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for normal stress shows
increasing amplitudes for R < -1 (compression mean stress). For
negative mean stress the fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) for shear
stress is the same as for positive mean stress and symmetrical to = O.
Practically it is restricted to the fields of positive mean stress or a
stress ratio 2:- 1 , as the mean stress in shear is always regarded to
be positive, 2:0 .
6 The type of overloading F2 is described first because it is of primary
practical importance.
(4.4.11)
Using the term crm / cr
a
instead of (1 + R
cr
) / (1 - R
cr
) avoids
numerical problems, when the stress ratio becomes Ra = - 00.
116
4.4 Component strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
4 assessment of the fatigue strength
with nominal stresses
For KAK,'[ Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted
to positive mean stresses R'[ -I . For positive mean
stresses, or R'[ -I , the same equations are valid if
M, is replaced by M'[
Field III, Q< n, < 0,5:
I+M
cr
/3
K - I+Mcr
AK,cr - M '
crm
3 c a
Field IV, n, 0,5:
K - 3+Mcr
AK,cr - ( \2 '
3· 1+Mcrl
n, stress ratio *8, Chapter 4.4.2.2,
M; mean stress sensitivity,
Chapter 4.4.2.4,
am mean stress *8, Chapter 4.4.2.2,
aa stress amplitude.
Shear stress:
(4.4.12)
(4.4.13)
Field IV
(4.4.17)
am mean stress *8, Chapter 4.4.2.2,
KE,cr residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
aWK component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4. I,
M, mean stress sensitivity,
Chapter 4.4.2.4.
Shear stress:
For KAK,'[ Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted
to positive mean stresses ° t
m
= Om / (K
E,'
. 0WK)
1 / (1 + M'[) . For positive mean stresses the same
equations are valid if Sm is replaced by t
m
and M, is
replaced by M'[ .
Calculation for the type of overloading F3
In case of a possible overload in service the minimum
stress amin remains the same.
Calculation for the type of overloading Fl
In case of a possible overload in service the mean stress
am remains the same.
Normal stress:
Normal stress:
Field I
For sm= crm / (KE,a . crWK) < -1 / (l -M
cr
) there is *9
-2
For smin= crmin / (KE,a . crWK) <--- there is *9
I-M
cr
(4.4.18)
(4.4.14)
Field II
for -I / (l - M
cr
) sm s 1 / (l + M
cr
) there is
Field II
for - 2 /(1 - Smin °there is
1-M
cr
. Smin.,zd
I+M
cr
(4.4.19)
(4.4.15)
Field III
(4.4.20)
1+ M
cr
/3 M
cr
---·s·
I+M 3 mm
cr
I+M
cr
/3
KAK, cr =
2 3+M
for °< Smin < - . cr there is
3 (I+M
cr
) 2
(4.4.16)
Field III
Field IV
8 Or equivalent mean stress, equivalent minimum stress, equivalent
maximum stress, Chapter 4.4.2.2.
9 In the following the abbreviation sm= crm I (KE.cr . 0"Wl() applies
accordingly tosmin , smax , t
m
, ... .
117
4.4 Component strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
4 assessment of the fatigue strength
with nominal stresses
(4.4.21)
Shear stress:
For shear stress the type of overloading F4
('t
max
remaining constant) can practically not being
realized.
Individual mean stress
As a rule the individual mean stress O"m is used to
determine O"min , O"max and Ra . For normal stress the
respective equations are
(4.4.26) O"min = O"m - O"a ,
O"max = O"m + O"a ,
Ra = O"min I O"max ,
4.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress
In each case Ra , O"min , and O"max are determined by
mean stress and stress amplitude. The mean stress may
be taken either as the individual mean stress according
to type of stress or as an equivalent mean stress from the
individual mean stresses of all types of stress.
Calculation for the type of overloading F4
In case of a possible overload in service the maximum
stress O"max remains the same.
Shear stress:
For KAK" Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted
to positive mean stresses, that is - 1 :::; tmin =
'tmin I (KE,t . 'tWK ) :::; O. For positive mean stresses,
'tm 2: 0 , the same equations are valid if Smin is
replaced by tmin and M
cr
is replaced by M,
K - 3+M cr
AKa - (1 + M cr)2 '
O"min minimum stress *8, Chapter 4.4.2.2,
KE,a residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
O"WK component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1,
M, mean stress sensitivity,
Chapter 4.4.2.4.
Normal stress:
For Smax= CY
max
I (KE,a . CYWK) < 0 there is *9
KAK,a = 1 I (1 - M, ), (4.4.22)
O"a stress amplitude,
O"min minimum stress,
O"max maximum stress,
Ra stress ratio.
For shear stress 0" is to be replaced by t .
Field IV
(4.4.27)
individual stress amplitude,
equivalent stress ratio,
equivalent minimum stress,
equivalent maximum stress.
O"min,v = O"m,v - O"a ,
O"max,v = O"m,v + O"a,
Ra,v = O"min,vl O"max,v,
O"a
Ra,v
O"min,v
O"max,v
Equivalent mean stress *10,
In the case "bending and torsion which is typical for
numerous applications in machine design, and in
similar cases, where normal stresses are combined with
shear stresses, the variables O"min,v , O"max,v and Ra,v are
to be used. They are derived from an equivalent mean
stress O"m,v , to be computed as a function of the
respective individual mean stress values, Eq. (4.4.28).
For normal stress there is
For shear stress 0" is to be replaced by r .
(4.4.23)
(4.4.24) KAK.,a = ----:;:...------
I-M
cr
,smax
KAK. = ---.,;;---:,:;:::;.:.
.o 1- M
cr
'
Field III
2 4 . 3 +M
cr
for --- < Smax <- there is
1+M
cr
3 (I +M
cr
?
I+M
cr
13 M
cr
l+M --3-, smax
cr
I-M
cr
13
for 0:::; smax :::; 2 I (I + M
a
) there is
(4.4.28)
(4.4.29)
O"m,v =q . O"m,v,NH + (1 - q) . O"m,v,GH,
where
.J3 -(lIf-c)
q=
.J3-1 '
The equivalent mean stress, Eq. (4.4.27), for normal
stress is
(4.4.25)
maximum stress *8, Chapter 4.4.2.2,
residual stress factor, Chapter 4.4.2.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1,
mean stress sensitivity,
Chapter 4.4,2.4.
118
4.4 Component strength
4.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
q Material dependent parameter after Table 4.6.1
am , T
m
Individual mean stresses,
Eq. (4.4.31) and (4.4.32).
For shear stress there is
4 assessment of the fatigue strength
with nominal stresses
High residual stresses are to be assumed in case of
welding without residual stress reducing precautions.
Moderate residual stresses are to be assumed in case of
welding with residual stress reducing precautions, for
example by observing a suitable weld sequence.
Low residual stresses are to be assumed in case of
welding with subsequent stress-relief heat treatment, or
if residual stresses may evidentially be excluded.
Rod-shaped (ID) components
For rod-shaped (ID) components the equivalent mean
stress after Eq. (4.4.28) is to be computed only if
a m ~ O.
Tm,v =f w,< . am,v,
fw,< shear strength factor, Table 4.2.1.
(4.4.30)
4.4.2.4 Mean stress sensitivity
The mean stress sensitivity M, or M. , in connection
with the mean stress factor, describes to what extent the
mean stress affects the amplitude of the component
fatigue strength, Figure 4.4.1.
For non-welded components the mean stress sensitivity
for normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case
of normal or elevated temperature, is
(4.4.34)
Shell-shaped (2D) components
For shell-shaped (2D) components the equivalent mean
stress after Eq. (4.4.28) is to be computed only if
am,y =0 and am,x ~ 0 (or in reverse). It is
am = am,x (or am = am,y), (4.4.32)
am,x, ... individual mean stresses, Chapter 4.1.1.2.
4.4.2.3 Residual stress factor
The residual stress factor for non-welded components is
KE,cr =KE;[ = 1. (4.4.33) .
For welded components of structural steel and of
aluminum alloys the residual stress factor is different for
high, moderate or low residual stresses. It is given for
normal stress and for shear stress in Table 4.4.1, see
also Chapter 5.5.
Table 4.4.1 Residual stress factor KE,cr, K
E;[
and mean
stress sensitivity M
cr
, M. for welded components.
Residual
KE,cr Ma K
E;[
M 1>1

stress
high 1,00 0 1,00 0
moderate 1,26 0,15 1,15 0,09
low 1,54 0,30 1,30 0,17
1> 1 For Shear Stress there is M. = fw.· M
cr
fw,. = 0,577,
Table 4.2.1. "
10 The equivalent mean stress applies to rod-shaped and shell-shaped
components as indicated, but not to block-shaped components.
M, =aM . 10.
3
. Rm/ MFa + bM,
M. = fw,< • Ma: '
aM, bM constants, Table 4.4.2,
f
w
,< shear fatigue strength factor, Table 4.2.1.
For components that have been surface hardened *11 the
mean stress sensitivity is greater because of the tensile
strength Rm of the hardened surface is higher than that
of components not surface hardened.
For welded components the mean stress sensitivity for
normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case of
normal or elevated temperature, is dependent on the
intensity of the residual stress, but independent of the
tensile strength R; of the base material. Values are
given in Table 4.4.1, see also Chapter 5.5.
Table 4.4.2 Constants aM and bM .
Kind of Steel 1>1 GS GGG GT GG
material
aM
0,35 0,35 0,35 0,35 0
bM - 0,1 0,05 0,08 0,13 0,5
Kind of Wrought Cast
material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys
aM
1,0 1,0
b
M
- 0,04 0,2
1> 1 also stainless steel.
11 Not applicable to components being cold rolled or shot-peened.
4.4 Component fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
119
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
Figure 4.4.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve,
component fatigue life curve derived by the consistent
version of Miner's rule, and influence of the critical
damage sum DM.
Highest amplitude in stress spectrum GSK, component fatigue limit GAJ(,
number of cycles N after the component constant amplitude S-N curve,
number of cyclesN after the component fatigue life curve for DM < 1 or
N' for DM = 1. It isN = N + (N' - N) DM. This formula implies
that a number of cycles N -7 N is for spectra of increasing
damage potential and a of cycles N = N for the constant
amplitude stress spectrum as N' - N-7 O.
In German the fatigue life curve is usually termed 'Gassner curve' and
the constant amplitude S-N curve is usually termed' Woehler curve'.
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure
4.4.3:
crSK 0,75 Rp . Kp,o , (4.4.42)
'tBK s 0,75 f.' Rp' K
p
,. ,
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,
Kp,o , K
p,.
plastic notch factors, Table 1.3.2,
f. shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
lOB
N Component s-N curve
N, '!Ii
N, '!Ii. Component fatigue life curve
2
4
2.••2
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue
strength 1R443 EN.dog
4.4.3.0 General
According to this chapter the amplitude of the
component variable amplitude fatigue strength is to be
derived from the stress spectrum and the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2.
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor K
BK

a
, ... ,
to be calculated depends on the stress spectrum, that is
on the required total number of cycles *1 and on the
shape of the stress spectrum, as well as on the
component constant amplitude S-N curve, and in
addition it depends on the type of stress (normal stress
or shear stress).
It has to be distinguished, whether - in case of a
constant amplitude spectrum - an assessment of the
fatigue limit (or endurance limit) or of the fatigue
strength for finite life is intended, or whether - in case
of a variable amplitude spectrum - an assessment of the
variable amplitude fatigue strength is intended *2.
The calculation for a constant amplitude stress
spectrum is a special case of the more general case of
calculation for a variable amplitude stress spectrum. In
any case the way of calculation is the same, but the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factors are different.
Observing the specific input values the calculation
applies to both non-welded components (component
constant amplitude S-N curve model I or model II) and
to welded components (component constant amplitude
S-N curve model I only).
Rod-shaped (lD), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) components are to be distinguished.
(4.4.41)
Rod-shaped (ID) components
The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum)
of rod-shaped (lD) components for normal stress and
for shear stress are, Figure 4.4.2,
crSK =KsK,o . c AK ,
'tSK =KsK,•. 'tAK,
KSK,o , ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor,
Chapter 4.4.3.1,
crAK,... component fatigue limit, Chapter 4.4.2.
1 Required total number of and required component fatigue life
are corresponding denotations.
2 In a simplified manner the variable amplitude fatigue strength can be
derived on the basis of a damage-equivalent stress amplitude. Then the
assessment ofthe variable amplitude fatigue strength turns out to be an
assessment of the fatigue limit.
Figure 4.4.3 Restriction of the amplitudes of
the variable amplitude fatigue strength, or of the
maximum value crrn,1 + crBK,1 and the minimum value
crrn,1 - crBK,1 respectively, in relation to the yield strength,
displayed in terms of the Haigh-diagram.
4.4 Component fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
120
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
Assessment ofthe fatigue Limit:
Assessment ofthe fatigue limit = endurance Limit:
Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum *4
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model I:
horizontal for N > No,cr (steel and cast iron material)
Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite Life:
(
-)lIk -
KBK,cr= No,cr/N cr forN:<:;No,cr. (4.4.47)
forN > No,cr. (4.4.48)
forN > No,cr. (4.4.51)
KBK,cr = I
KBK,cr = I
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model II:
sloping for N > Nn,cr (non-welded aluminum alloys)
Assessment ofthe fatigue strength for finite Life:
KBK,cr = (ND,« I N) IIk
cr
for Nz; No,cr. (4.4.49)
KBK,cr = (ND,« I N)lIk
o,cr
for No,cr<N:<:; No.e.n ,
(4.4.50)
Shell-shaped (2D) components
The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum)
of shell-shaped (2D) components for normal stresses in
the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are,
Figure 4.4.2,
O"BK,x = KBK,crx· O"AK,x, (4.4.43)
O"BK,y = KBK,cry . 0"AK,y ,
'tBK = KBK,'t . 'tAK,
KBK,crx , ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor,
Chapter 4.4.3.1,
O"AK,x, ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 4,4-.2.
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure
4.4.3,
O"BK,x :<:;0,75 Rp' Kp,crx, (4.4.44)
O"BK,y :<:; 0,75 Rp . Kp,cry,
'tBK :<:; 0,75 f't' R
p'
Kp,'t,
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,
Kp,crx, ... plastic notch factors, Chapter 3.3.2,
f't shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
(4.4.45)
Assessment ofthe endurance Limit:
Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum
As a rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
is to be computed by using the elementary version of
Miner's rule (not necessary for a constant amplitude
stress spectrum). Somewhat more favourable results,
however, may be obtained by using the consistent
version of Miner's rule. Moreover, the classes of
utilization can be applied as a simplified method of
calculation; the so derived results approximately
correspond to those obtained by the elementary version
of Miner's rule. In an even more simplified manner the
variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on
the basis of a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
N number of cycles of the component constant
amplitudeS-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2,
N required number of cycles,
No,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2,
ka slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve for N < No,cr, Chapter 4.4.3.2.
No.e.n number of cycles at second knee point of the
component constant amplitude S-N curve,
Chapter 4.4.3.2,
ko,cr slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve for N > No,cr , Chapter 4.4.3.2,
f n.e factor by which the endurance limit is lower than
the fatigue limit, Chapter 4.4.3.2, Table 4.4.4.
forN > NO,cr,ll. (4.4.52) KBK,cr = f n,e
O"l,BK = KBK,crl . O"l,AK,
O"Z,BK = KBK,crZ . O"z,AK,
0"3,BK = KBK,cr3 . 0"3,AK,
KBK,crl , ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor,
Chapter 4.4.3.1,
O"l,AK, ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 4.4.2.
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure
4.4.3:
Block-shaped (3D) components
The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum)
of block-shaped (3D) components for the principal
stresses in the directions I, 2 and 3 are, Figure 4.4.2,
4 For welded components model 1 of the component constant amplitude
S-N curve is of concern only, not model II.
4.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factors
KBK,cr, ... , are to be derived as follows *3:
3 The following is written for axial stress, KBK,o , k,; ... , but applies to
other types of stress accordingly. For effective notch stresses the index K
is to be added.
O"l,BK s 0,75 Rp . Kp,crl , (4.4.46)
O"Z,BK s 0,75 Rp . Kp,crz,
0"3,BK :<:; 0,75 Rp ,
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,
Kp,crl , Kp,crz plastic notch factors, Chapter 3.3.2
f't shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
4.4 Component fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
121
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
Calculation using the elementary version of Miner's
rule based on the damage potential
N
Figure 4.4.4 Elementary version of Miner's rule, com-
ponent constant amplitude S-N curve model I, D
M
= 1.
Characteristics ofthe stress spectrum according toChapter 4.1,
component constant amplitude S-N curve according toChapter 4.4.3.2.
l1
a
(lg)
1\r,11••
1
(4.4.54)
. [ )k
a
_ k J hi Ga,i
Vcr - a L=' -- ,
i=1 H Ga,l
K -[( 1
BK,cr - (vzd )ka
where the damage potential is *6 *7
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be
computed directly as follows *5. Both for model I and
for model II of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve the elementary version of Miner's rule yields,
Figure 4.4.4, (4.4.53-)
I)-D
M
+f r ~ · · J:..
H

I
j
Ga,i
Ga,1
slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve for N < No,a , Chapter 4.4.3.2,
critical damage sum, Table 4.4.3,
number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2,
total number of cycles of the given spectrum,
H = H, = L: hi (summed up for i = 1 to j),
related number of cycles in step i,
Hi = L: hi (summed up for i = 1 to i) *8,
total number of steps in the spectrum,
number of the step in the spectrum,
stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum,
stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum.
Table 4.4.3 Critical damage sum DM, recommended
values.
non-welded welded
components components
Steel, GS, 0,3 0,5
Aluminum alloys
GGG,GT,GG 1,0 1,0
Calculation according to the consistent version of
Miner's rule *9 *10
If for a component constant amplitude S-N curve model
I (horizontal for N > No,a ) a value KBl<,cr < 1 is
obtained from Eq. (4.4.53), then the value to be used is
(4.4.56)
If for a component constant amplitude S-N curve model
II (sloping for N > NO,a ) a value KBK,cr is obtained
from Eq. (4.4.53) that is smaller than the value obtained
from Eq. (4.4.50) or (4.4.52), then the higher value
from Eq. (4.4.50) or (4.4.52) is to be used.
5 Direct calculation without iteration. The results from the elementary
version ofMiner's rule approach the results from the consistent version of
Miner's rule on the safe side.
6 When computing the d ~ g e potential (and also in the following
equations) the values ni and N according toth.:..;equired total number of
cycles can be replaced by the values hi and H according to the total
number ofcycles inthe given standard type spectrum, see Chapter 4.1.
Using the consistent version of Miner's rule the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed
iteratively for differing values of Ga,l , until a value N
equal to the required total number of cycles N is
obtained. The respective value of Ga,1 is used to derive
the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model I:
horizontal for N > ND,a (Steel and cast iron material)
In case of a component constant amplitude S-N curve
model I ( horizontal for N > No,a or slope kD,o = (0) the
number of cycles N to be computed for a value Sa,1 is
(4.4.57)
N= {[ A
kon
-1] . D
M
+ I}' [GAI< )k
a
. NO,a,
Ga.l
where
8 hi / H may also be replaced by n, / N ,
NRequired total number ofcycles according tothe required fatigue life,
N = Eni(summed up for I toj),
ni number ofcycles instep i according tothe required fatigue life.
7 Instead ofAJcon after Eq. (4:4.57) and (4.4.63) ishere
A
ele
= I / (va)ke . (4.4.55)
9 The consistent version of Miner's rule allows for the fact, that the
component fatigue limit will decrease asthe damage sum increases.
The decrease applies tocomponent constant amplitude S-N curves model
Ias well astomodel IIfor ND,s 2': 10
6
.
10 The consistent version ofMiner's rule was first developed byHaibach.
A simplified version allowing for the decrease ofthe fatigue limit became
known as the modified version orthe Haibach method ofMiner's rule.
4.4 Component fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
122
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
(4.4.67)
(4.4.68) KSK,a = fn,a .
In case of a component constant amplitude S-N curve
model II (sloping for N > No,a or slope kD,a < kD,a < (0)
the number of cycles N is first to be computed for a
single value aa,1 = aAK/ (fn,a )1/3 as follows
N= {[ A
kon
- I ] , D
M
+ I}' (aAK ) k
a
ND:" / 3
a a.l ([n,,,)
with (4.4.65)
A
kon
after Eq. (4.4.58) to (4.4.62)
and the explanations as before,
fn,a factor by which the endurance limit is lower
than the fatigue limit, Table 4.4.4.
If a value KSK,a < fn,a is obtained from Eq. (4.4.67)
then the value to be applied is
If a value N = N* > N is obtained then the calcu-
lation of N, Eq. (4.4.65), is to be continued fqr
differing values aa,1 > aAK / ( fn,a )1/3 until a value N
equal to the required total number of cycles N is
obtained. From the respective value of aa,1 the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as
KSK,a = aa,1 . (fn,a )1/3/ aAK (4.4.66)
If a value N = N*:s N is obtained then the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factor is
Component constant amplitude S-N curve model II:
sloping for N > ND,a (non-welded aluminum alloys)
*11
(4.4.60)
(4.4.59)
(4.4.61)
(4.4.58)
(4.4.62)
( )
ka - I [ . ]
a a I ZI J Z2
Akon = a ~ . NI +v ~ m N2 '
( )
k-I ( )k -I
ZI = a AK a _ a a,m a
a a.l a a.I
( )
k-I ( )k -I
Z2 = a a,v a _ a a,v+! a
a a.l a a,1
Nl = m-J hi (aa,i )k
a
L -=-' - ,
i=1 H a a,1
N2 = v hi (aa,i )k
a
L-=-' -
i=1 H aa,1

I
For the summation of the term Z2, Eq. (4.4.60), it is to
be observed that aaj+! = O.
N number of cycles of the component constant
amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2,
ND,« number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude S-N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2,
DM critical damage sum, Table 4.4.3,
stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum,
stress amplitude in step 1 of the spectrum,
component fatigue limit,
slope of the component constant amplitude S-N
curve for N < No,a , Chapter 4.4.3.2,
total number of steps in the spectrum,
number of the step in the spectrum,
number i = m of the first step below aAK,
total number of cycles in the given spectrum,
H = Hj = L: hi (summed up for 1 to j),
number of cycles in step i,
Hi = L: hi (summed up for I to i) '8.
j
i
m
H
The computation is to be repeated iteratively for
differing values aa,I > aAK , until a value N equal to the
required total number of cycles N is obtained. From the
respective value of aa,1 the variable amplitude fatigue
strength factor is obtained as
Calculation using a class of utilization
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KSK,a is
to be determined according to the appropriate class of
utilization *12 , Chapter 5.7.
If a value KSK,a < I is obtained from Eq. (4.4.63), then
the value to be applied is
KSK,a = aa,1 / aAK·
KSK,a = 1.
(4.4.63)
(4.4.64)
Calculation using a damage-equivalent stress
amplitude
When using a damage-equivalent stress amplitude the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor for both
constant amplitude S-N curves model I and model II is
KSK,a = 1. (4.4.69)
II Simplified and approximate calculation.
12Class ofutilization asa characteristic ofthestress spectrum. It isan
approximately damage equivalent combination oftherequired total
number ofcycles Nwith theshape ofa particular standard stress
spectrumthefrequency distribution ofwhich isofbinomial orexponential
type modified bya spectrum parameter p.It provides a result that
corresponds toa calculation based ontheelementary version ofMiner's
rule
4.4 Component fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
4.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
Component constant amplitude S-N curves for non-
welded components (without surface hardening) and for
welded components *13 are shown for normal stress and
for shear stress in Figure 4.4.5 and 4.4.6. The particular
number of cycles at the knee point No,cr , ... and the
values of slope kcr, ... are given in Table 4.4.4.
The component fatigue limit crAK , ... is the reference
fatigue strength value for calculation. It follows from
Chapter 4.4.2. For S-N curves Model I the fatigue limit
crAK and the endurance limit oAK,II for N = 00 are
identical, while for S-N curves Model II (valid for non-
welded components of austenitic steel or of aluminum
alloys) they are different by a factor fII,cr , Table 4.4.4
and Figure 4.4.5.
A lower boundary of the numbers of cycles is implicitly
defined by the maximum stress being limited according
to the static strength requirements, Chapter 1.
For surface hardened components "14 the slope of the
component constant amplitude S-N curves is more
shallow. Instead of the values of slope kcr = 5 and k, = 8
for not surface hardened components, Table 4.4.4, the
values that apply to surface hardened components are
k
cr
= 15 and k, = 25 , while the number of cycles at the
knee point No,cr and N o , ~ remain unchanged, see also
Chapter 5.8.
The component constant amplitude S-N curves for
welded components are valid for the toe section and for
the throat section.
13 With reference to IIW-Recommendations and Eurocode 3.
14 Not applicable to cold rolled or shot-peened components.
123
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
4.4 Component fatigue strength
4.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
124
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
Table 4.4.4 Number of cycles at the knee point, slope
of the component constant amplitude S-N curves, and
values of flI,cr and flI,<'
Normal stress Shear stress
Component
IND,cr IND,cr,II Ik, IkD,cr
flI,cr
Steel and cast iron materials (S-N curve model I )
non-welded 110
6
1- 15 1-
1,0
welded 15 . 10
6
1- 13 1-
1,0
Aluminum alloys (S-N curve modell II
non-welded 110
6
110
8
/5 /15 0,74
welded 15 . 10
6
1- 13 1-
1,0
Component
IND,< IND,<,II Ik, IkD,< IflI,<
Steel and cast iron materials (S-N curve model I )
non-welded
110
6
1- 18 1- 11,0
welded 110
8
1- 15 1- 11,0
Aluminum alloys (S-N curve model II )
non-welded 110
6
110
8
18 125 10,83
welded 110
8
1- 15 1- 11,0
1
O"AK
O"AK,1I
(lg)
O"AC 1---------""
(JAK
!Iifa bildll'JI
N =10
6
D,D
N (lg)
aifa bild'W13
N (lg)
T
AK

TAK,1I
N (lg)
Nn,T
8
=10
N
c
=
2 '10
6
etra bild,,14
T
AK

N (lg)
N =10
6
D,T
Bifa bildwl7
(Ig)
Figure 4.4.5 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
for non-welded components *14
Figure 4.4.6 Component constant amplitude S-N curve
for welded components *13
Top: Normal stress a.
Bottom: Shear stress t.
Top: Normal stress a.
Bottom: Shear stress t;
Steel and cast iron materials, except austenitic steel, (Model I):
horizontal for N > NO,a, kO,a = co
or for N > k = co
Aluminum alloys and austenitic steel (Model II):
sloping for N > NO a, kO a,
or for N >
horizontal for N > NO,a,lI, kO,a,1I = co
or for N > N0, ' kO, = co.
Steel, cast iron materials and aluminum alloys, welded (Model I):
horizontal for N >NO a, kO a = co
or for N > NO' k D = co
NC is the reference number of cycles
correspondingto the characteristic strength values aAC and AC.
aAK / aAC = (Nc / NO,a ) 11ko = 0,736 and
/ = (Nc / 11kr = 0,457.
4.5 Safety factors
125
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
4.5 Safety factors *1
Contents
4.5.0 General
4.5.1 Steel
IR25 EN.docl
Page
68
4.5.2 Cast iron materials
4.5.2.0 General
Ductile and non-ductile cast iron materials are to be
distinguished.
4.5.0 General
4.5.2
4.5.2.0
4.5.2.1
4.5.2.2
4.5.3
4.5.3.0
4.5.3.1
4.5.3.2
4.5.4
4.5.5
Cast iron materials
General
Ductile cast iron materials
Non-ductile cast iron materials
Wrought aluminum alloys
General
Ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys
Total safety factor
69
4.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials
Cast iron materials with an elongation A5 ~ 12,5 %are
considered as ductile cast iron materials, in particular
all types of GS and some types of GGG. Values of
elongation see Table 5.1.12.
Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in
Table 4.5.2. Compared to Table 4.5.1 they are higher
because of an additional partial safety factor jp that
accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings
*4. The factor is different for severe or moderate
consequences of failure and moreover for castings that
have been subject to non-destructive testing or have not.
4.5.1 Steel
The basic safety factor concerning the fatigue strength
is
According to this chapter the safety factors are to be
determined.
This value may be reduced under favorable conditions,
that is depending on the possibilities of inspection and
on the consequences of failure, Table 4.5.1.
Table 4.5.2 Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials
(GS; GGG) ( A 5 ~ 12,5 %).
?3 Regular inspection in the senseof damage monitoring. Reduction
by about 10 %.
? 1 See footnote? I of Table4.5.1.
Jo
I
Consequences of failure
Severe I moderate?
1
castings not subject to non-destructive testing ?2
regular no
I
2,1
I
1,8
inspection yes?3 I 1,9
I
1,7
castings subject to non-destructive testing ?4
regular no
I
1,9
I
1,65
inspection yes ?3 I 1,7
I
1,5
?2 Compared to Table 4.5.1 an additional partial safety factor
jF = 1,4 is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects
in castings.
(4.5.1) Jo = 1,5.
The safety factors are valid under the condition that the
design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and
that the material properties correspond to an average
probability of survival of Po = 97,5 % *2.
The safety factors apply both to non-welded and welded
components.
Table 4.5.1 Safety factors for steel *3 (not for GS) and
for ductile wrought aluminum alloys ( A ~ 12,5 %).
jo Consequences of failure
severe moderate ?1
regular
I
no 1,5 1,3
inspections I yes?2 1,35 1,2
? 1 Moderate consequences of failure of a less important component
in the sense of "non catastrophic" effects of a failure; for example
because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statical
indeterminate system. Reduction by about 15 %.
?4 Compared to Table 4.5.1 an additional partial safety factor
jp = 1,25 is introduced, for which it is assumed that a higher quality
ofthecastings isobviously guaranteed when testing.
2 Statistical confidence S= 50% .
3 Steel is always considered as a ductile material.
4 In mechanical engineering cast components are of standard quality
for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = 1,0
does not seempossible up to now.
?2 Regular inspection in the senseof damage monitoring. Reduction
by about 10 %.
1 Chapters 4.5and2.5areidentical.
A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast
components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast
components, have to meet special demands on qualification and
checks of the production process, as well as on the extent of quality
and product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their
mechanical properties.
4.5 Safety factors
126
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
1
I
4.5.2.2 Non-ductile cast iron materials
Cast iron materials with an elongation As < 12,5 %
(for GT A3 < 12,5 %) are considered as non-ductile
materials, in particular some types of GGG as well as
all types of GT and GG. Values of elongation for GGG
and GT see Table 5.1.12 or 5.1.13. The value for GG
is As = O.
For non-ductile cast iron materials the safety factors
from Table 4.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value
Figure 4.5.1 *s:
= 0,5 As /50%, (4.5.2)
AS Elongation, to be replaced by A3 for GT.
4.5.3.2 Non-ductile wrought aluminum alloy
Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
A < 12,5 % are considered as non-ductile materials.
Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety
factors from Table 4.5.1 are to be increased by adding a
value Aj , Eq. (4.5.2).
4.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as non-
ductile materials. All safety factors from Table 4.5.2
are to be increased by adding a value 4i , Eq. (4.5.2).
Values of elongation see Table 5.1. 31 to 5. 1. 38.
Figure 4.5.1 Value to be added to the safety
factor Jn , defined as a function of the elongation As or
A
3
, respectively.
(4.5.4)
. _ In
,
T,O
safety factor, Table 4.5.1 or 4.5.2,
temperature factor, Chapter 4.2.3.
4.5.5 Total safety factor
Similar to an assessment of the component static
strength, Chapter 3.5.5, a "total safety factor" .lges is
to be derived:
20
As, A3 in %
10 12,5
GT

o
GG
0,5

4.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys
4.5.3.0 General
Ductile and non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys are to
be distinguished.
4.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation
12,5 % are considered as ductile materials. Values
of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are
the same as for steel according to Table 4.5.1.
S For example the safety factor for GG is at least
Jn = 1,5 + 0,5 = 2,0 (4.5.3)
(Jn = 1,5 from Table 4.5.2, j = 0,5 after Eq. (4.5.2) for AS = 0).
4.6 Assessment
127
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
4.6 Assessment
Contents
4.6.0
4.6.1
4.6.1.1
4.6.1.2
4.6.2
4.6.2.1
4.6.2.2
4.6.3
4.6.3.1
4.6.3.2
General
Rod-shaped (lD) components
Individual types of stress
Combined types of stress
Shell-shaped (2D) components
Individual types of stress
Combined types of stress
Block-shaped (3D) components
Individual types of stress
Combined types of stress
1R46 EN.doq
Page
127
128
129
fatigue strength after Chapter 4.4.3, GBK , ... , divided
by the total safety factor jges. The degree of utilization is
always a positive value *4.
An assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength, an assessment of the constant amplitude
fatigue strength for finite life, or an assessment of the
fatigue limit or of the endurance limit are to be
distinguished. In each case the calculation is the same
when using the appropriate variable amplitude fatigue
strength factors KBK,o , ... , Chapter 2.4.3, and when
taking
G
a,l
= G
a
, ... , (4.6.1)
in case of a constant amplitude spectrum, or
Ga, l = Ga,eff
(4.6.2)
4.6.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue
strength using local stresses is to be carried out.
In general the assessments for the individual types of
stress and for the combined types of stress are to be
carried out separately *1.
The procedure of assessment applies to both non-welded
and welded components.
For welded components the assessment is to be carried
out with structural stresses or effective notch stresses *2.
Assessments are generally to be carried out separately
for the toe and for the root of a weld. They are to be
carried out in the same way, but using the respective
local stresses and fatigue classes FAT as these are in
general different for the toe and the root of a weld.
Degree of utilization
The assessment is to be carried out by determining the
degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength.
In the general context of the present Chapter the degree
of utilization is the quotient of the (local) characteristic
stress amplitude Ga,l> ... , divided by the allowable (local)
stress amplitude of the component fatigue strength at
the reference point *3. The allowable stress amplitude is
the quotient of the component variable amplitude
1 It is essential to examine the degree of utilization not only of the
combined types of stress but also of the individual types of stress in
general, and in particular if these may occur separately.
2 The additional index K marking effective notch stresses is to be added
to the stress symbols where appropriate.
3 The reference point is the critical point of the considered component
that observes the highest degree of utilization.
in case of a damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
Ga , ... , characteristic constant amplitude stress for
which the required number of cycles is N,
Ga"eff, ... , damage-equivalent stress amplitude.
Superposition
For proportional or synchronous stress components of
same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out
according to Chapter 4.1.
If different types of stress like normal stress and shear
stress act simultaneously and if the resulting stress is
multiaxial, Chapter 0.3.5 and Figure 0.0.9, both the
individual types of stress and the combined types of
stress are to be considered as described below *5.
Kinds of component
Rod-shaped (10), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) components are to be distinguished. They can be
both non-welded or welded.
4 As the degree of utilization is the quotient of two amplitude which
always are positive.
5 Proportional, synchronous and non-proportional multiaxial stresses are
to be distinguished. , Chapter 0.3.5.
Only under special conditions of proportional stresses the character of Eq.
(4.6.4), (4.6.9) and (4.6.14) is that of a strength hypothesis from a
material-mechanics point of view. For example the extreme stresses from
bending and shear will - as a rule - occur at different points of the cross-
section, so that different reference points W are to be considered. As a rule
bending will be more important. More general the Eq. (4.6.4), (4.6.9) and
(4.6.14) have the character of an empirical interaction formula. They are
applicable for proportional stresses and approximately applicable for
synchronous stresses; an improved procedure for non-welded components
is given in Chapter 5.9. For non-proportional stresses the Eq. (4.6.4),
(4.6.9) and (4.6.14) are not suitable; an approximate procedure
applicable for non-proportional stresses is proposed in Chapter 5.10.
128
4.6 Assessment 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
4.6.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
4.6.1.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of rod-shaped (ID)
components for variable amplitude types of stress like
normal stress and shear stress are
Table 4.6.1 Values of q as dependent on f
w
,<
Steel, GGG GT, GG
wrought cast
Al alloys Al alloys
f w<
0,577 0,65 0,75 0,85
q 0 0,264 0,544 0,759
O"a,1 , ... characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress
amplitude in the spectrum) according to type of
stress, Chapter 4.1.1.1 and Eq. (4.6.1) or (4.6.2),
O"SK, ... related amplitude of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter 4.4.3,
jges total safety factor, Chapter 4.5.5.
I, (4.6.3)
Exceptions: For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 , for surface hardened or welded components
q = I.
4.6.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
4.6.2.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of shell-shaped (2D)
components for variable amplitude types of stress like
normal stress in the directions x and y as well as shear
are
0'., x, I
1, (4.6.8)
aSK,crx =
4.6.1.2 Combined types of stress
0' BK,x / j erf
The degree of utilization of rod-shaped (ID)
O'.,y,]
1,
components for combined types of stress is
*6
aSK,cry =
0' BK,y / j erf
aSK,cr, ... degrees of utilization after Eq. (4.6.3).
aSK,Sv = q' aNH+ (l - q) . aoH s 1,
where
aNH =1{Isal + + 4· t; ).
aoH =Js; +t; ,
Sa= aSK,cr ,
(4.6.4)
(4.6.5)
(4.6.6)
0"a,x,1,... characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress
amplitude in the spectrum) according to type of
stress, Chapter 4.1.1.2 and Eq. (4.6.1) or
(4.6.2),
O"SK,x, ... related amplitude of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter
4.4.3,
jges total safety factor, Chapter 4.5.5.
fw,'t shear fatigue strength factor, Table 4.2.1 or 4.6.1.
4.6.1.2 Combined types of stress
The degree of utilization of shell-shaped (2D)
components for combined types of stresses is *6
aSK,crv = q . aNH+ (l - q) . 1, (4.6.9)
where (4.6.10)
aNH =1{lsa,x -Sa,y)2 +4.t;),
J
2 2 2
aoH = sa,x + sa,y - sa,x . sa,y + t
a
'
(4.6.7) q
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface
hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be
applied. Otherwise there is, Table 4.6.1,
J3-(l/fw"t)
J3-1
sa,y= aSK,cry ,
ta = aSK,"t ,
aSK,crx, ... degrees of utilization after Eq. (4.6.8) .
6 Eq. (4.6.4), (4.6.9) and (4.6.14) is a combination ofthenormal stress
criterion (NH) and the v. Mises criterion (GH). Depending on the
ductility ofthematerial thecombination iscontrolled bya parameter qas
a function of fw,< according to Eq. (4.6.7), (4.6.12) or (4.6.17) and
Table 4.6.1. For instance q = 0forsteel sothat only thev. Mises criterion
is of effect, while q = 0,264 for GGG so that both the normal stress
criterion and thev. Mises criterion areof partial influence.
sa,x= aSK,crx , (4.6.11)
129
4.6 Assessment 4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
(4.6.14)
(4.6.15)
aSK,sv =q . aNH+ (1 - q) . a G H ~ 1,
aNH= MAX (Isa,d ,I
S
a,21,I
S
a,31) ,
4.6.3.2 Combined types of stresses
The degree of utilization of block-shaped (3D)
components for combined types of stresses is *6 *9
(4.6.12) q
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12.5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface
hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to' be
applied. Otherwise there is, Table 4.6.1,
J3-(l/fw,)
J3 -1
fw" shear fatigue strength factor, Tab. 4.2.1.
Sa,2 = aSK,a2 ,
Sa,3 =aSK,a3 ,
aSK,al ... degrees of utilization after Eq. (4.6.13).
aoH =
1/ 2 2 2)
"2\(Sa,1 -Sa,2) +(Sa,2 -Sa,3) +(Sa,3 -Sa,l) ,
Sa,I = aSK,al , (4.6.16)
(4.6.17) q
Rules of signs: If the principle stresses al , a2 and a3
always act proportional or synchronous in phase the
degrees of utilization aSK,al , aSK,a2 and aSK,a3 are to
be inserted in Eq. (4.6.16) with the same (positive)
signs. If they act always proportional or synchronous
180
0
out of phase, however, the respective degrees of
utilization aSK,aI , aSK,a2 and aSK,a3 are to be inserted
in Eq. (4.6.16) with opposite signs *12. If the individual
principle stresses act non-proportional (that is in a non-
constant direction), the Eq. (4.6.14) to (4.6.16) are not
applicable and the procedure proposed in Chapter 5.10
is to be applied instead.
For non-ductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation
A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface
hardened or for welded components q = 1 is to be
applied. Otherwise there is, Table 4.6.1,
J3-(l/fw,)
J3-1
(J l,a,1
~ 1, (4.6.13) aSK,al =
(J I BK / j erf
(J 2,0,1
~ 1, aSK,a2 =
(J 2,BK / j erf
(J 3,0,1
~ 1, aSK,a3 =
(J3 BK / jerf
4.6.3 Block-shaped (3D) components *8
4.6.3.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of block-shaped (3D)
components for the principle stresses in the directions 1,
2 and 3 are
Rules of signs: If the normal stresses ax and a
y
always
act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of
utilization aSK,ax and aSK,cry are to be inserted in Eq.
(4.6.11) with the same (positive) signs. If they act
always proportional or synchronous 180
0
out of phase,
however, the degrees of utilization aSK,ax and aSK,cry are
to be inserted in Eq. (4.6.11) with opposite signs *7 .
If the individual types of stress act non-proportional,
that is neither proportional nor synchronous, the Eq.
(4.6.9) to (4.6.11) are not applicable and the procedure
proposed in Chapter 5.10 is to be applied instead.
f
w"
shear fatigue strength factor, Table 4.2.1 or 4.6.1
al,a,l , ... characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress
amplitude in the spectrum) ofthe particular
principle stress, Chapter 4.1.1.3 and
Eq. (4.6.1) or (4.6.2),
al,SK, ... related amplitude of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter 4.4.3,
jges total safety factor, Chapter 4.5.5.
7 For example normal stresses iii thedirections xand ythatresult from
the same single external load affecting the component.
8 Sometimes block-shaped (3D) components may be welded at the
surface, for example bysurfacing welds. Then assessment can becarried
out as for shell-shaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses ax, ay
and, areofinterest only.
9 MAX means themaximum ofthevalues inparenthesis tobevalid.
4.6 Assessment
130
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength
using local stresses
5.1 Material tables
131
5 Appendices
I Kinds of material (e.g. non-alloyed structural steel) and types of
material within the kind ofmaterial (e.g. St37-2) are distinguished.
2 Ifdifferent dimensions ofasemi-finished product are given.
3 For the values Rm,N ' Rp,N, R
m
' R
p
, an average probability of
survival PO = 97,5 % is supposed that should also apply tothe further
values crW,zd,N ' "" crW,zd , "', derived therefrom.
All following equations are supposed to be valid for a
material test specimen of the diameter do = 7,5 mm
independent of the real dimension of the semi-finished
product or of the raw casting (index N left out, e.g.
crW,zd instead of crW,zd,N , etc.)
Material fatigue strength for completely reversed normal
stress
No responsibility can be taken for the mechanical
material properties indicated in the material tables
below, see page 3 "Terms of liability". The newest
versions of the standards are decisive. The data given
are not to be used for selecting the material in design
since this would require additional material properties
to be considered that are not contained in the tables
below.
The tables *I contain mechanical properties according
to standards Rm,N , ... . They apply in the case of steel to
the smallest dimension of a semi-finished product *2, in
the case of cast iron materials and cast aluminum alloys
for the test piece. In the case of wrought aluminum
alloys the tables give component values R
m
= Rm.N, ... ,
of the semi-finished product indicated. Properties ac-
cording to standards, component values and component
properties according standards are to be distinguished,
as explained in the Chapters 1.2,2.2, 3.2 or 4.2.
Rm,N or R
m
are the minimum value, the guaranteed
value or the lower boundary of the specified range of the
tensile strength. The minimum value or the guaranteed
value ofthe yield strength are Rp,N or R, *3 *4.
The material fatigue strength values in the tables for
completely reversed loading, crW,zd,N , or for zero-
tension loading, crSch zd N ' ..., are intended for
information only, because they can be computed as
described below and are not necessary for the
assessment therefore.
4 R
p
stands both for the yield stress R, orthe 0.2 proof stress R
p
O,2 .
5 Eq. (5.3) for bending (and Eq. (5.4) for torsion in analogy) results from
acombination ofthe following equations:
- Eq. (2.4. I) (crW,b in the meaning ofacomponent value SWK,b )
- Eq. (2.3.1) (KWK,b = K(b),
- Eq. (2.3. 10) (Kt,b = I ; ncr(r) = I ; K(b= 11ncr(d) ),
- Eq. (2.3.14) (ncr(d) with d= do= 7,5 mrn for the material in question,
- Eq. (2.3.17) (Ocr (do) = 2/ do =0,267 mrn -I ).
6 Eq. (5.5) follows from Eq. (2.4.10) with Rzrl = 0 orSm,zd / Sa,zd = I,
respectively.
-CW,t = nldo)' -cw,s, (5.4)
nld
o)
Kt-Kfratio, Eq.(2.3.14) *5, with do = 7,5 mm.
Material fatigue strength for zero-tension axial stress
(amplitude)
crSch,zd = crW,zd / (1 + Mo- ), (5.5)
M, Mean stress sensitivity, Eq. (2.4.34) *6.
Comment: The values crw zd , ... , Eq. (5.1) to (5.5), apply
, 6
to a number of cycles N = ND,s = ND,t = 10 .
For steel and cast iron materials (constant amplitude
S-N curve modell, Figure 2.4.4 and Table 2.4.4)
crW,zd, ..., is the fatigue limit = endurance limit.
Example: Quenched and tempered steel,
- fw,o- = 0,45 (Tab. 2.2.1),
- fatigue limit crW,zd = fw,o- . Rm = 0,45 Rm .
For aluminum alloys (constant amplitude S-N curve
model II, Figure 2.4.4 and Table 2.4.4) crW,zd, ..., is the
fatigue limit, while the endurance limit crW,II,zd, ..., is
achieved at a number of cycles N = N
D,
II,o- = ND,II;, = 10
8
.
It is lower than crW,zd or -cw,s by a factor f
II,
0- or fn,t :
_ fILo- = (10
8/106
) 1/15 = 0,74
(kD,o-= 15 for normal stress) and
_ f
ILt
= (10
8/106
) 1/25 = 0,83
(kD,t = 25 for shear stress).
Example:
- fw,o- = 0,30 (Tab. 2.2.1),
fILo- = 0,74,
- Endurance limit crW,II,zd = fILo- . fw,o- . Rm=
= 0,74 . 0,30 . Rm = 0,22 . Rm .
fw,o- Fatigue strength factor for completely reversed
normal stress, Table 2.2.1.
Material fatigue strength for completely reversed shear
stress
-Cw,s = fW,t' crW,zd, (2.2.1) (5.2)
fW,t Shear fatigue strength factor, Tab. 2.2.1.
Material fatigue strength for completely reversed
bending stress
c W,b = ncr(do) . crW,zd, (5.3)
no-(d
o)
Kj-Kj ratio, Eq.(2.3.14) *5, with do = 7,5 mm.
Material fatigue strength for completely reversed
torsional stress
Page
131
132
132/ 142
IRT51 EN. dog
(2.2.1) (5.1) crW.zd = fw,o- . Rm ,
5.1.0 General
Contents
5.1.0 General
5.1.1 Material tables for steel and
cast iron materials
5.1.2 Material tables for
for aluminum alloys
5 Appendices
5.1 Material tables
5.1 Material tables
5.1.1 Material tables for steel and cast iron
materials
The tables 5.1.1 to 5.1.14, from page 132 on, contain
mechanical properties according to standards, Rm.N, ... ,
for the following kinds of material: for rolled steel (non-
alloyed structural steel, weldable fine grain structural
steel, quenched and tempered steel, case hardening
steel, nitriding steel and stainless steel), for forging steel
and for cast iron materials (cast steel, heat treatable steel
castings, nodular cast iron (GGG), malleable cast iron
(GT) and cast iron with lamellar graphite (GG)).
From these and according to Chapter 1.2.1 or 3.2.1 the
component properties according to standards R
rn
are to
be computed under observation of the technological size
factor according to the diameter or width of the semi-
finished product or of the raw casting, respectively.
The fatigue limit values O"W.zd.N. .., correspond to the
endurance limit as well.
132
5 Appendices
5.1.2 Material tables for aluminum alloys
Table 5.1.21 on page 142 gives a survey of the
aluminum materials.
The tables 5.1.22 to 5.1.30, from page 143 on, contain
component properties according to standards, R.ll , ... ,
for wrought aluminum alloys according to the type of
material and its condition. They are valid for the
indicated dimensions.
The tables 5.1.31 to 5.1.38, from page 172 on, contain
material properties according to standards, R
rn

N
, ... , for
cast aluminum alloys according to the type of material
and its condition, from which - and according to
Chapter 1.2.1 or 3.2.1 - the component properties
according to standards, Rm , ... , are to be computed
under observation of the technological size factor
according to the width of the raw casting.
The fatigue limit values O"W.zd , O"W.zd.N , ... , are different
from those of the endurance limit, however, see page
131.
Table 5.1.1 Mechanical properties in MPa for non-alloy structural steels, after DIN EN 10 025 (1994-03-00) c- 1.
Type of Type of material, Material
Rm.N
s, <>2
'tW.s.N 'tW.I,N
material after DIN 17 100 No.
.N O"W,zd,N O"Sch,zd,N O"W,b,N
S185 St 33 1.0035 310 185 140 138 155 80 90
S235JR St 37-2 1.0037 360 235 160 158 180 95 105
S235JRGI USt 37-2 1.0036
S235JRGlC UQSt 37-2 1.0121
S235JRG2 RSt 37-2 1.0038
S235JRG2C RQSt 37-2 1.0122
S235JO St 37-3 U 1.0114
S235JOC QSt 37-3 U 1.0115
S235J2G3 St 37-3 N 1.0116
S235J2G4 1.0117
S235J2G3C QSt 37-3N 1.0118
S275JR St 44-2 1.0044 430 275 195 185 215 110 125
S275JRC QSt 44-2 1.0128
S275JO St 44-3 U 1.0143
S275JOC QSt 44-3 U 1.0140
S275J2G3 St 44-3 N 1.0144
S275J2G4 1.0145
S275J2G3C QSt 44-3N 1.0141
S355JR 1.0045 510 355 230 215 255 130 150
S355JO St 52-3 U 1.0553
S355JOC QSt 52-3 U 1.0554
S355J2G3 St 52-3 N 1.0570
S355J2G4 1.0577
S355J2G3C QSt 52-3 N 1.0569
S355K2G3 1.0595
S355K2G4 1.0596
E295 St 50-2 1.0050 490 295 220 205 245 125 145
E335 St 60-2 1.0060 590 335 265 240 290 155 170
E360 St 70-2 1.0070 690 360 310 270 340 180 200
<> 1 EffectiveDiameter del(N= 40 mm. c- 2 Re.N / Rrn,N < 0,75 for all types ofmatenal hsted.
5.1 Material tables
133
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.2 Mechanical properties in MFa for weldable fine grain structural steels in the normalized condition, after
DIN 17102 (1983-10-00) ~ 1 .
Type of material Material
Rm,N Re,N ()W,zd,N ()Sch,zd,N ()W,b,N 1:W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn ad,p
No. ~ 2 ~ 3 ~ 3
StE 255 1.0461 360 255 160 160 180 95 105 0,33 0,41
StE 285 1.0486 390 285 175 170 195 100 115 0,31 0,38
StE 315 1.0505 440 315 200 190 220 115 130 0,28 0,35
StE 355 1.0562 490 355 220 205 245 125 145 0,26 0,30
StE 380 1.8900 500 380 225 210 250 130 145 0,26 0,34
StE 420 1.8902 530 420 240 220 265 140 155 0,24 0,31
StE 460 1.8905 560 460 250 230 280 145 165 0,23 0,30
StE 500 1.8907 610 500 275 245 300 160 180 0,22 0,31
~ 1 Effective Diameter for the tensile strength deff,N =70 mm, for the yield strength deff,N =40 mm.
~ 2 Re,N / ~ N < 0,75 up to and including StE 355, Re,N / ~ N > 0,75 from StE 380 on.
~ 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
Table 5.1.3 Mechanical properties in MFa for weldable fine grain structural steels in the normalized condition, after
DIN EN 10 113 (1993-04-00) -c- 1.
Type of material Material Rrn,N Re,N ()W,zd,N ()Sch,zd,N ()W,b,N 1:W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn ad,p
No. ~ 2 ~ 3 ~ 3
S 275 N 1.0490 370 275 165 160 185 95 110 0,30 0,30
S 275 NL 1.0491
S 355 N 1.0545 470 355 210 200 235 120 140 0,25 0,28
S 355 NL 1.0546
S 420N 1.8902 520 420 235 215 260 135 150 0,23 0,30
S 420 NL 1.8912
S460N 1.8901 550 460 245 225 275 140 160 0,00 0,22
S 460 NL 1.8903
S275M 1.8818 360 275 160 158 180 95 105 0,30 0,30
S 275 ML 1.8819
S 355M 1.8823 450 355 205 190 225 115 130 0,25 0,28
S 355 ML 1.8834
S420M 1.8825 500 420 225 210 250 130 145 0,23 0,30
S 420 ML 1.8836
S460M 1.8827 530 460 240 220 265 140 155 0,00 0,22
S 460 ML 1.8838
~ I Effective Diameter for the tensile strength deff,N = 100 mm, for the yield strength deff,N =30 mm.
~ 2 Re,N / ~ N < 0,75 up to and including S 275 NL, Re,N / ~ N > 0,75 from S 355 Non.
~ 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
5.1 Material tables
134
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.4 Mechanical properties in MFa for quenched and tempered steels in the quenched and tempered
condition, after DIN EN 10 083-1 (1996-10-00) -¢-1. Notes? 1to -¢-4 see next page.
Type of Type of Material
Rm,N R,N
llci,p
material, material, No.
crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N LW,s,N LW,t,N ad,rn
after DIN EN after ?2 -¢-3 -¢-3 ?3 ?3 ?3 ?4 ?4
10 027-1 DIN 17200
C22E Ck 22 1.1151
C22R Cm22 1.1149 500 340 225 210 250 130 145 0,19 0,43
C22 C 22 1.0402
C25E Ck 25 1.1158 550
C25R Cm25 1.1163 370 250 225 275 145 160 0,29 0,40
C25 C25 1.0406
C30E Ck 30 1.1178
C30R Cm30 1.1179 600 400 270 245 295· 155 175 0,26 0,37
C30 C 30 1.0528
C35E Ck 35 1.1181
C35R Cm35 1.1180 630 430 285 255 310 165 185 0,20 0,39
C35 C 35 1.0501
C40E Ck40 1.1186
C40R Cm40 1.1189 650 460 295 260 320 170 190 0,12 0,36
C40 C40 1.0511
C45E Ck45 1.1191
C45R Cm45 1.1201 700 490 315 275 345 180 205 0,16 0,36
C45 C45 1.0503
C50E Ck 50 1.1206
C50R Cm50 1.1241 750 520 340 290 365 195 215 0,21 0,35
C50 C 50 1.0540
C55E Ck 55 1.1203
C55R Cm55 1.1209 800 550 360 305 390 210 230 0,19 0,35
C55 C 55 1.0535
C60E Ck60 1.1221
C60R Cm60 1.1223 850 580 385 320 415 220 245 0,18 0,34
C60 C60 1.0601
28Mn6 28Mn6 1.1170 800 590 360 305 390 210 230 0,30 0,38
38Cr2 38 Cr 2 1.7003 800 550 360 305 390 210 230 0,37 0,52
38CrS2 38 CrS 2 1.7023
46Cr2 46 Cr 2 1.7006 900 650 405 335 435 235 260 0,41 0,54
46CrS2 46 CrS 2 1.7025
34Cr4 34 Cr4 1.7033 900 700 405 335 435 235 260 0,33 0,49
34CrS4 34 CrS 4 1.7037
37Cr4 37 Cr4 1.7034 950 750 430 345 460 245 270 0,32 0,46
37CrS4 37 CrS 4 1.7038
41Cr4 41 Cr 4 1.7035 1000 800 450 360 480 260 285 0,30 0,44
41CrS4 41 CrS 4 1.7039
25CrMo4 25 CrMo4 1.7218 900 700 405 335 435 235 260 0,33 0,49
25CrMoS4 25 CrMoS 4 1.7213
34CrMo4 34 CrMo 4 1.7220 1000 800 450 360 480 260 285 0,30 0,44
34CrMoS4 34 CrMoS 4 1.7226
42CrMo4 42 CrMo 4 1.7225 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,32 0,43
42CrMoS4 42 CrMoS 4 1.7227
50CrMo4 50 CrMo4 1.7228 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,28 0,38
36CrNiMo4 36 CrNiMo 4 1.6511 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,32 0,38
34CrNiM06 34 CrNoMo6 1.6582 1200 1000 540 410 570 310 340 0,33 0,39
30CrNiMo8 -¢- 1 30 CrNiMo 8 1.6580 1250 1050 565 420 595 325 355 0,36 0,42
36NiCrMo16?1 1.6773 1250 1050 565 420 595 325 355 0,28 0,32
51CrV4 50 CrY 4 1.8159 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,28 0,33
5.1 Material tables
135
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.5 Mechanical properties in MPa for quenched and tempered steels in the normalized condition,
after DIN EN 10 083-1 (1996-10-00) -9-1.
Type of Type of Material
Rn,N Re,N crW,zd,N CJSch,zd,N CJW,b,N 't W,s,N 'tW,I,N ~ m
ad,p
material, material, No. -9-2 -9-3 -9-3
after DIN EN after
10 027-1 DIN 17200
C22E Ck22 1.1151
C22R Cm22 1.1149 430 240 195 185 215 110 125 0,08 0,19
C22 C 22 1.0402
C25E Ck 25 1.1158
C25R Cm25 1.1163 470 260 210 200 235 120 140 0,10 0,18
C25 C 25 1.0406
C30E Ck 30 1.1178
C30R Cm30 1.1179 510 280 230 215 255 135 150 0,10 0,19
C30 C 30 1.0528
C35E Ck 35 1.1181
C35R Cm35 1.1180 550 300 250 225 275 145 160 0,10 0,19
C35 C 35 1.0501
C40E Ck40 1.1186
C40R Cm40 1.1189 580 320 260 235 285 150 170 0,09 0,19
C40 C40 1.0511
C45E Ck45 1.1191
C45R Cm45 1.1201 620 340 280 250 305 160 180 0,10 0,20
C45 C45 1.0503
CSOE Ck50 1.1206
C50R Cm50 1.1241 650 355 295 260 320 170 190 0,10 0,19
C50 C 50 1.0540
C55E Ck 55 1.1203
C55R Cm55 1.1209 680 370 305 270 335 175 195 0,09 0,20
C55 C 55 1.0535
C60E Ck60 1.1221
C60R Cm60 1.1223 710 380 320 280 350 185 205 0,09 0,19
C60 C60 1.0601
28Mn6 28Mn6 1.1170 630 345 285 250 310 165 185 0,07 0,17
-9- 1 Effective diameter deff,N = 16 rom.
-9- 2 Re,N / Rm,N < 0,75 for all types of material listed.
-9- 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
Notes referring to Table 5.1.4:
-9- 1 Effective diameter deff,N;= 40 rom for 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16, deff,N = 16 rom for all other types of material listed.
-9- 2 Re,N / Rm,N < 0,75 up to and including 46 Cr 2, 46 CrS 2; Re,N / Rm,N > 0,75 from 34 Cr 4, 34 CrS 4 on.
-9- 3 The fatigue strength values of the sulphur bearing steels 38 CrS 2 to 42CrMoS 4 are lower than the values listed for 28 Cr 2 to 42 CrMo 4.
-9- 4 M ore specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
5.1 Material tables
136
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.6 Mechanical properties in MPa for case hardening steels in the blank hardened condition -:> 1,
after DIN EN 10 084 (1998-06-00) (selected types of material only) -:>2.
6
Type of material Material Rm,N Re,N O'W,zd,N O'Sch,zd,N O'W,b,N 1: W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn
-:>
-:>3
No.
4 5
ad,p
-:> -:>
ClOE 1.1121 500 310 200 185 220 115 130 0,56
C15E 1.1141 800 545 320 270 345 185 205 0,68
C16E 1.1148 800 545 320 270 345 185 205 0,68
17Cr3 1.7016 800 545 320 270 345 185 205 0,37
28Cr4 * 1.7030 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,33
16MnCr5 * 1.7131 1000 695 400 320 430 230 255 0,44
20MnCr5 * 1.7147 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,48
18CrMo4 * 1.7243 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,52
18CrMoS4 * 1.7244 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,52
22CrMoS3-5 * 1.7333 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,28
20MoCr3 1.7320 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,33
20MoCr4 1.7321 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,33
16NiCr4 1.5714 1000 695 400 320 430 230 255 0,30
10NiCr5-4 * 1.5805 900 620 360 295 385 210 230 0,61
18NiCr5-4 * 1.5810 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
l7CrNi6-6 * 1.5918 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
l5NiCr13 * 1.5752 1000 695 400 320 430 230 255 0,30-
20NiCrMo2-2 * 1.6523 1100 775 440 340 470 255 280 0,52
l7NiCrMo6-4 * 1.6566 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
20NiCrMoS6-4 * 1.6571 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
* 1.6587 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
14NiCrMo13-4 * 1.6657 1200 850 480 365 510 280 305 0,37
-:> 1Values after DIN EN 10084Appendix F ("tensile strength values after quenching and tempering at 200°C") given for information only.
-c- 2 Effective diameter deff,N = 16 mm,
-c- 3Only up to 40mm diameter, types of material marked by * up to 100 mm diameter, however.
-:> 4 Re,N after DIN 17210(Draft 1984-10-00), fitted.
-:> 5Re,N / < 0,75 for all types of material listed.
-:> 6 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
Table 5.1. 7 Mechanical properties in l\1Pa for nidriding steels in the quenched and tempered condition,
after DIN EN 10 085 (2001-07-00) -:>1.
Type of material Material
Rm,N Re,N O'W,zd,N O'Sch,zd,N O'W,b,N 1: W,s,N 1:W,t,N ad,rn ad,p
No. -:>2 -:>3 -:>3
24CrMo13-6 1.8516 1000 800 450 360 480 260 285 0,22 0,26
31CrMo12 1.8515 1030 835 465 370 495 270 295 0,21 0,27
32CrAIMo7-1O 1.8505 1030 835 465 370 495 270 295 0,21 0,27
3lCrMoV5 1.8519 1100 900 495 385 525 285 315 0,31 0,36
33CrMoV12-9 1.8522 1150 950 520 395 550 300 330 0,30 0,35
34CrAINi7-1O 1.8550 900 680 405 335 435 235 260 0,17 0,17
41CrAlMo7-1O 1.8509 950 750 430 345 460 250 275 0,23 0,24
40CrMoV13-9 1.8523 950 750 430 345 460 250 275 0,23 0,24
34CrAIMo5-1O 1.8507-:>4 800 600 360 305 390 210 230 0,00 0,00
-:> 1Effective diameter deff,N = 40mm.
-:> 2 Re,N / > 0,75 for all types of material listed.
-:> 3 More specific values for the individual types of materiaI compared to the average values for the kind of material given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
-:> 4 Only up to 100 mm diameter.
137
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices
Table 5.1.8 Mechanical properties in MFa for stainless steels, after DIN EN 10 088-2 (1995-08-00) (selected types of
material only) v I v 2
Type of material Type of material, Mate- Kind of
Rm,N R,N
after DIN / SEW rial product
CJW,zd,N CJSch,zd,N CJW,b,N '"CW,.,N '"CW,t,N
No.
v3
d d ali
al d di .
1 . tl
Femtic stee s ill ie anne e con ition, stan ar qu HIes,
X2CrNi12 - 1.4003 P(25) 450 250 180 170 205 105 120
X6CrAl13 X6CrAI13 1.4002 P(25) 400 210 160 155 180 90 110
X6Crl7 X6Cr17 1.4016 P(25) 430 240 170 165 195 100 115
X6CrMo17-1 X6CrMo 17 1 1.4113 H(12) 450 260 180 170 205 105 120
d d oualiti d d" I' h h Martensitic stee s ill t e eat treate con inon, stan ar qua ities.
X20Cr13 X20Cr 13 1.4021 P(75)
QT650 650 450 260 230 290 150 170
QT750 750 550 300 260 330 175 195
X4CrNiMo16-5-1
- 1.4418 P(75)
QT840 840 680 335 280 410 195 220
d
I . tll h d .
P ..
ecipitation ar emng martensitic stee s ill e heat treate condition, special qualities.
X5CrNiCuNb16-4
-
1.4542 P(50)
P1070 1070 1000 430 335 460 245 275
P950 950 800 380 310 410 220 245
P850 850 600 340 285 370 195 220
d d oualiti
I d di , I' hi' Austemtic stee s ill t e so ution annea e con ition, stan ar qua ities.
X10CrNi18-8 X12CrNi 177 1.4310 C(6) 600 250 240 215 270 140 160
X2CrNiNI8-1O X2CrNi 18 10 1.4311 P(75) 550 270 220 200 245 125 145
X5CrNil8-10 X5CrNi 18 10 1.4301 P(75) 520 220 210 190 235 120 140
X6CrNiTi18-1O X6CrNi 18 10 1.4541 P(75) 500 200 200 185 225 115 135
X6CrNiMoTil7-12-2 X6CrNiMoTi 1722 1.4571 P(75) 520 220 210 190 235 120 140
X2CrNiMoN17-13-5 X2CrNiMoN17135 1.4439 P(75) 580 270 230 210 260 135 155
v I The fatigue strength values are provisional values.
v 2 An effective diameter deff,N is not required, as there is no technological size effect within the dimensions covered by the standard.
v 3 Kind of product: P(2S) hot rolled plates up to 25 mm thickness, H(12) hot rolled strip up to 12 mm thickness, C(6) cold r ~ l 1 e d strip up to
6 mm thickness, QT650 heat treated to a tensile strength of650 MPa, PI070 hot rolled plate with a tensile strength of 1070 MPa.
5.1 Material tables
138
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.9 Mechanical properties in MFa of steels for bigger forgings, after SEW 550 (1976-08-00) <, I <,2.
Type of material Material
Rn,N R,N O"W,zd,N O"Sch,zd,N O"W,b,N 1: W,s,N 1:W,t,N ~ , m ad,p
No. <,3 <03
Quenched and tempered condition.
Ck22 1.1151 410 225 165 155 185 95 105 0,00 0,16
Ck 35 1.1181 490 295 195 185 215 115 130 0,00 0,22
Ck45 1.1191 590 345 235 215 260 135 155 0,00 0,19
Ck 50 1.1206 630 365 250 280 275 145 165 0,00 0,25
Ck60 1.1221 690 390 275 240 300 160 180 0,00 0,27
20Mn5 1.1133 490 295 195 185 215 115 130 0,00 0,22
28Mn6 1.1170 590 390 235 215 260 135 155 0,26 0,31
20 MnMoNi 45 1.6311 580 420 230 210 255 135 150 0,18 0,23
22 NiMoCr 47 1.6755 560 400 225 205 245 130 145 0,00 0,00
24 CrMo 5 1.7258 640 410 255 230 280 150 165 0,24 0,26
34 CrMo4 1.7220 690 460 275 240 300 160 180 0,23 0,30
42 CrMo 4 1.7225 740 510 295 255 320 170 190 0,34 0,37
50 CrMo 4 1.7228 780 590 310 265 340 180 200 0,23 0,30
32 CrMo 12 1.7361 880 685 350 290 380 205 225 0,27 0,33
34 CrNiMo 6 1.6582 780 590 310 265 340 180 200 0,19 0,26
30 CrNiMo 8 1.6580 880 685 350 290 380 205 225 0,19 0,22
28 NiCrMoV 85<>' 1.6932 780 635 265 225 290 155 170 0,22 6,26
33 NiCrMo 145<0
2
1.6956 930 785 315 260 340 185 200 0,35 0,37
Normalized condition.
Ck22 1.1151 410 225 165 155 185 95 105 0,00 0,16
Ck 35 1.1181 490 275 195 180 215 115 130 0,00 0,19
Ck45 1.1191 590 325 235 215 260 135 155 0,00 0,16
Ck 50 1.1206 620 345 250 220 270 145 160 0,00 0,15
Ck60 1.1221 680 375 270 220 295 155 175 0,00 0,14
<> I The fatigue strength values are provisional values.
<> 2 Effective diameter deff,N = 500 nun for 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 und deff,N = 1000 nun for 33 NiCrMo 145, deff,N = 250 nun for
all other types of material listed.
<> 3 More specific values for the individual types of material compared to the average values for the kind of material given in Table 1.2.1 and 3.2.1.
139
5.1 Material tables 5 Appendices
Table 5.1.10 Mechanical propertiesin:MFafor steel castingsfor general applications,
after DIN 1681 (1985-06-00) ~ 1.
2
Type of material Material No.
Rm,N Re,N
~
crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N L W,s,N . LW,t,N
GS-38 1.0420 380 200 130 125 150 75 90
GS-45 1.0446 450 230 150 130 180 90 105
GS-52 1.0552 520 260 175 145 205 100 125
GS-60 1.0558 600 300 205 160 235 120 140
~ 1 Effective diameter deff,N = 100 mm. ~ 2 Re,N / ~ N < 0,75 for all types of material listed.
If- ar ene an tempere con inon
2
Type of material Material No.
Rm,N Re,N
~
crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N LW,s,N LW,t,N
GS-30 Mn 5 ~ 1 1.1165 520 260 175 145 205 100 125
GS-25 CrMo4 ~ 1 1.7218 550 300 185 150 215 110 130
GS-34 CrMo 4 1.7220 650 380 220 175 250 130 150
GS-42 CrMo 4 1.7225 700 400 240 185 270 135 160
GS-30 CrMoV6 4 1.7725 650 400 220 175 250 130 150
GS-35 CrMoV104 1.7755 800 650 270 205 305 155 185
GS-25 CrNiMo4 1.6515 700 400 240 185 270 135 160
GS-34 CrNiMo6 1.6582 800 550 270 205 305 155 185
GS-30 NiCrMo8 5 1.6570 800 600 270 205 305 155 185
GS-33 NiCrMo7 4 4 1.6740 800 600 270 205 305 155 185
Table 5.1.11 Mechanical properties in:MFafor quenched and tempered steel castingsfor general applications,
after DIN 17205 (1992-04-00).
A' h d d d d di (LV) ~ 1
3
Liquid-hardened and temperedcondition, strengthlevel VI (upperline) or VII (line below) ~ .
GS-30 Mn 5 1.1165 520 400 175 145 205 100 125
(No. J) ~ 4
700 550 240 185 270 135 160
GS-25 CrMo4 1.7218 600 450 205 160 235 120 140
(No.2) 750 600 255 195 285 145 175
GS-34 CrMo4 1.7220 750 600 255 195 285 145 175
(No, 3) 850 700 290 215 320 165 195
GS-42 CrMo4 1.7225 780 650 265 200 295 155 180
(No.4) 900 800 305 225 340 175 205
GS-30 CrMoV64 1.7725 850 700 290 215 320 165 195
(No.5) 900 750 305 225 340 175 205
GS-35 CrMoV104 1.7755 850 700 290 215 320 165 195
(No.6) 1050 850 355 250 390 205 235
GS-25 CrNiMo4 1.6515 700 550 240 185 270 135 160
(No.7) 800 650 270 205 305 155 185
GS-34 CrNiMo 6 1.6582 850 700 290 215 320 165 195
(No.8) 900 800 340 225 370 195 225
GS-30 NiCrMo8 5 1.6570 850 700 290 215 320 165 195
(No. 9) ~ 5
1050 950 355 250 390 205 235
GS-33 NiCrMo7 4 4 1.6740 850 700 290 215 320 165 195
(No. 9) ~ 5
1050 950 355 250 390 205 235
~ 1 Effective diameter defT,N = 800 mm for GS-30 Mn 5 and defLN =500 mm for GS-25 CrMo 4, defLN =300 mm for all other materials listed.
~ 2 Air-hardened condition: Re,N / ~ N ::;; 0,75 for all types of material listed.
Liquid-hardened condition: Re,N / ~ N > 0,75 for all types of material listed.
~ 3 Effective diameter
deff,N = 100 mm for type of material-No.2 (strength level VII only) and for type of material-No. 1, 3, 4 (strength levels VI and VII);
deff,N = 200 mm for type of material-No. 2 (strength level VI only) and for type of material-No. 5,6,8 (strength levels VI and VII);
deff,N = 500 mm for type ofmaterial-No.7, 9 (strength levels VI and VII);
~ 4 Numbers indicating types of material for Table 1.2.2 and 3.2.2.
-c- 5 The mechanical properties for GS-30 NiCrMo 8 5 and GS-33 NiCrMo 74 4-are the same.
5.1 Material tables
140
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.12 Mechanical properties in MPa for spheroidal graphit cast irons, after DIN EN 1563 (1997-08-00)
or after DIN 1693/01 (1973-10-00) (namings given in brackets) {ol.
2
As {o3
Type of material Material
Rm,N RpO,2,N
{o
CYW,zd,N CYSch,zd,N CYW,b,N 1: W,s,N 1:W,t,N
No.
EN-GJS-350-22-LT EN-JS1015 350 220 22 120 100 160 75 110
(GGG-35.3) (0.7033)
EN-GJS-350-22-RT EN-JS1014
EN-GJS-350-22 EN-JS1010
EN-GJS-400-18-LT EN-JS1025 400 240 18 135 110 185 90 120
(GGG-40.3) (0.7043)
EN-GJS-400-18-RT EN-JS1024 250
EN-GJS-400-18 EN-JS1020 250
EN-GJS-400-15 EN-JS1030 400 250 15 135 110 185 90 120
(GGG-40) (0.7040)
EN-GJS-450-10 EN-JS1040 450 310 10 155 125 205 100 135
EN-GJS-500-7 EN-JS1050 500 320 7 170 135 225 110 150
(GGG-50) (0.7050)
EN-GJS-600-3 EN-JS1060 600 370 3 205 160 265 135 180
(GGG-60) (0.7060)
EN-GJS-700-2 EN-JS1070 700 420 2 240 180 305 155 205
(GGG-70) (0.7070)
EN-GJS-800-2 EN-JS1080 800 480 2 270 200 340 175 235
(GGG-80) (0.7080)
EN-GJS-900-2 EN-JS1090 900 600 2 305 220 380 200 260
{o 1 Effective diameter deff,N = 60 mm.
{o 21)J0,2,N / ~ , N < 0,75 for all types of material listed.
{o3 Elongation in %. For non-ductile materials, A
5
< 12,5%, the assessment ofthe static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses, Chapter 1.0,
and all safety factors are to be increased by adding a value 6.j, Eq. (2.5.2), ... , see Chapters 2.5, 3.5 or 4.5 , respectively.
Table 5.1.13 Mechanical properties for malleable cast irons see next page.
Table 5.1.14 Mechanical properties in MPa for grey cast irons, after DIN EN 1561 (1997-08-00)
or after DIN 1691 (1985-05-00) (namings given in brackets) {> 1.
Type of material Material
Rm,N
{o2 3
RpO,I,N CYW,zd,N {o
CYSch,zd,N CYW.b.N 1: W.s,N 1:W,t,N
No.
EN-GJL-100 EN-JL1010
100 30 20 45 25 40
(GG-10) {>4 (0.6010)
-
EN-GJL-150 EN-JL1020
150 100 45 30 70 40 60
(GG-15) (0.6015)
EN-GJL-200 EN-JL1030
200 130 60 40 90 50 75
(GG-20) (0.6020)
EN-GJL-250 EN-JL1040
250 165 75 50 110 65 95
(GG-25) (0.6025)
EN-GJL-300 EN-JL1050
300 195 90 60 130 75 115
(GG-30) (0.6030)
EN-GJL-350 EN-JL1060
350 230 105 70 150 90 130
(GG-35) (0.6035)
{> 1 Effective diameter deff,N = 20 mm.
{> 2 After supplement 1 of the standard; not to be used for an assessment ofstrength.
{o3 0W,zd,N / Rrn,N = 0,30; different from DIN EN 1561.
{o 4 Not to be used for load carrying components.
141
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.13 Mechanical properties in MPa for malleable cast irons, after DIN EN 1562 (1997-06-00)
or after DIN 1692 (1982-01-00) (namings given in brackets) ~ 1.
5 Appendices
2
~ 3
Type of material Material
Rm,N RpO.2,N ~ A
3 O"W,zd,N O"Sch,zd,N O"W,b,N 'tW,s,N 'tW,t,N
No.
Black heart malleable (non-decarburized) cast irons.
EN-GJMB-300-6 EN-JMlllO 300
-
6 90 75 130 70 100
(-) (-)
EN-GJMB-350-1O EN-JMl130 350 200 10 105 85 150 80 115
(GTS-35-1O) (0.8135)
EN-GJMB-450-6 EN-JMl140 450 270 6 135 105 190 100 145
(GTS-45-06) (0.8145)
EN-GJMB-500-5 EN-JMl150 500 300 5 150 115 210 115 160
(-) (-)
EN-GJMB-550-4 EN-JM1160 550 340 4 165 125 230 125 175
(GTS-50-04) (0.8155)
EN-GJMB-600-3 EN-JM1l70 600 390 3 180 135 250 135 190
(-) (-)
EN-GJMB-650-2 EN-JMl180 650 430 2 195 145 265 145 205
(GTS-65-02) (0.8165)
EN-GJMB-700-2 EN-JM1l90 700 530 2 210 155 285 160 220
(GTS-70-02) (0.8170)
EN-GJMB-800-1 EN-JM1200 800 600 1 240 170 320 180 250
(-) (-)
White heart malleable (decarburized) cast irons.
EN-GJMW-350-4 EN-JM1010 350
- 4 105 85 150 80 115
(GTW-35-04) (0.8035)
EN-GJMW-360-12 EN-JM1020 360 190 12 110 85 155 80 120
(GTW-S 38-12) (0.8038)
EN-GJMW-400-5 EN-JM1030 400 220 5 120 95 170 90 130
(GTW-40-05) (0.8040)
EN-GJMW-450-7 EN-JM1040 450 260 7 135 105 190 100 145
(GTW-45-07) (0.8045)
EN-GJMW-550-4 EN-JM1050 550 340 4 165 125 230 125 175
(-) (-)
~ 1 Effective diameter deff,N = 15 mm.
-c- 2 Table on top: R
pO,2,N
/ Rm,N < 0,75; except for GTS-70-02 there is R
pO,2,N
/ Rm,N > 0,75; Table below: R
pO,2,N
/ Rm,N < 0,75 throughout.
~ 3 Elongation in %. For non-ductile materials, A
5
< 12,5%, the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses, Chapter 1.0,
and all safety factors are to be increased by adding a value t.j , Eq. (2.5.2), ... , see Chapters 2.5,3.5 or 4.5 , respectively.
Table 5.1.14 Mechanical properties for grey cast irions see previous page.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.21. Survey of the Aluminum materials.
142
I
5 Appendices
Table Kind of material Semi-finished product / Type of casting Material standard (Edition)
5.1.22 Wrought Strips, sheets, plates DIN EN 485-2 (03/95)
5.1.23
Aluminum alloys
Strips, sheets DIN 1745 T. 1 (02/83)
5.1.24 Cold drawn rods / bars and tubes DIN EN 754-2 (08/97)
5.1.25 Rods / bars DIN 1747 T. 1 (02/83)
5.1.26 Extruded rods / bars, tubes and profiles DIN EN 755-2 (08/97)
5.1.27 Extruded profiles DIN 1748 T. 1 (02/83)
5.1.28 Forgings DIN EN 586-2 (U/94)
5.1.29 Die forgings DIN 1749 T. 1 (12/76)
5.1.30 Hand forgings DIN 17606 (12/76)
5.1.31 Cast Sand castings DIN EN 1706 (06/98)
5.1.32
Aluminum alloys
Permanent mould castings DIN EN 1706 (06/98)
5.1.33 Investment castings DIN EN 1706 (06/98)
5. 1.34 High pressure die castings DIN EN 1706 (06/98)
5.1.35 Casting alloys for general applications DIN 1725 T. 2 (02/86)
5. 1.36 Alloys with special mechanical properties DIN 1725 T. 2 (02/86)
5. 1.37 Alloys for special applications DIN 1725 T. 2 (02/86)
5.1.38 Alloys for high pressure die castings DIN 1725 T. 2 (02/86)
Tables 5.1.22 to 5.1.38 give the respective values of elongation: For non-ductile materials,
A < 12,5%, the assessment of the component static strength is to be carried of using local stresses, Chapter 1.0,
and all safety factors are to be increased by adding a value , see Eq. (2.5.2), ... in Chapter 2.5, 3.5 or 4.5,
respectively.
Attention:
The fatigue limit values GW,zd, ... given in the Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.38 refer to the knee point of the S-N curve
at N =ND,O' =N
D,<
= 10
6
cycles.
The endurance limit values GW,Il,zd , ... refer to a number of N =ND,O'.II =N
D.<
,II = 10
8
cycles, and are lower than
the fatigue limit by a factor fIl,O' or fIl, < (see also page 131):
- fIl,O' =(10
8
/ 10
6
) 1/15 =0,74 (kD,O' = 15 for normal stress),
- fIl,< = (10
8
/ 10
6
) 1/25 = 0,83 (k
D,<
=25 for shear stress).
5.1 Material tables
143
5 Appendices
strips, s eets, pJates, er DIN EN 485-2 (03/95) (selected types 0 maten o ly),
Material Condition Nom, thickness R
m Re crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b ~ W , s ~ W , t
A{>1
Hardness
inmm number
from to % HB
ENAW-2014 T3 <: 0,4 1,5 395 245 120 85 140 70 85 14 III
1,5 6,0 400 245 120 90 140 70 85 14 112
AlCu4SiMg T4 <: 0,4 1,5 395 240 120 85 140 70 85 14 110
T451 1,5 6,0 395 240 120 85 140 70 85 14 110
6,0 12,5 400 250 120 90 140 70 85 14 112
T451 12,5 40,0 400 250 120 90 140 70 85 10* 112
40,0 100,0 395 250 120 85 140 70 85 7* 111
T42 <:0,4 6,0 395 230 120 85 140 70 85 14 110
6,0 12,5 400 235 120 90 140 70 85 14 III
12,5 25,0 400 235 120 90 140 70 85 12* III
T6 <: 0,4 1,5 440 390 130 95 150 75 95 6 133
T651 1,5 6,0 440 390 130 95 150 75 95 7 133
6,0 12,5 450 395 135 95 155 80 95 7 135
T651 12,5 40,0 460 400 140 95 160 80 100 6* 138
40,0 60,0 450 390 135 95 155 80 95 5* 135
60,0 80,0 435 380 130 95 150 75 95 4* 131
80,0 100,0 420 360 125 90 145 75 90 4* 126
100,0 120,0 410 350 125 90 145 70 90 4* 123
T62 <: 0,4 12,5 440 390 130 95 150 75 95 7 133
12,5 25,0 450 395 135 95 155 80 95 6* 135
ENAW-2017A T4 <: 0,4 1,5 390 245 115 85 135 70 85 14 110
T451 1,5 6,0 390 245 115 85 135 70 85 15 110
AICu4MgSi(A) 6,0 12,5 390 260 115 85 135 70 85 13 III
T451 12,5 40,0 390 250 115 85 135 70 85 12* 110
40,0 100,0 385 240 115 85 135 65 85 10* 108
100,0 120,0 370 240 110 85 130 65 80 8* 105
120,0 150,0 350 240 105 80 125 60 75 4* 101
T42 <:0,4 3,0 390 235 115 85 135 70 85 14 109
3,0 12,5 390 235 115 85 135 70 85 15 109
12,5 25,0 390 235 115 85 135 70 85 12* 109
ENAW-2024 T4
<: 0,4 1,5 425 275 130 90 145 75 90 12 120
1,5 6,0 425 275 130 90 145 75 90 14 120
AICu4Mgl T3 <:0,4 1,5 435 290 130 95 150 75 95 12 123
T351 1,5 3,0 435 290 130 95 150 75 95 14 123
3,0 6,0 440 290 130 95 150 75 95 14 124
6,0 12,5 440 290 130 95 150 75 95 13 124
T351 12,5 40,0 430 290 130 95 150 75 90 11* 122
40,0 80,0 420 290 125 90 145 75 90 8* 120
80,0 100,0 400 285 120 90 140 70 85 7* 115
100,0 120,0 380 270 115 85 135 65 85 5* 110
120,0 150,0 360 250 110 80 130 60 80 5* 104
T42 <: 0,4 6,0 425 260 130 90 145 75 90 15 119
6,0 12,5 425 260 130 90 145 75 90 12 119
12,5 25,0 420 260 125 90 145 75 90 8* 118
T8 <:0,4 1,5 460 400 140 95 160 80 100 5 138
T851 1,5 6,0 460 400 140 95 160 80 100 6 138
6,0 12,5 460 400 140 95 160 80 100 5 138
T851 12,5 25,0 455 400 135 95 155 80 95 4* 137
25,0 40,0 455 395 135 95 155 80 95 4* 136
T62 <:0,4 12,5 440 345 130 95 150 75 95 5 129
12,5 25,0 435 345 130 95 150 75 95 4* 128
Table 5.1.22 Mechanical properties in MPa for wrought aluminum alloys,
h I aft f ial nl
-c- 1 Elongation A for gaugelengthof 50 mm, or (with*) Elongation A
5
for gaugelength of 5 xspecimen diameter
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.22 Continued, page 1 of 7.
144
5 Appendices
Material Condition Nom. thickness R
m
R
e crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b 1W,S 1W,t
A ~ l
Hardness
inmm number
from to % HB
ENAW-4006 H12 0,2 0,5 120 90 35 35 50 20 30 4 38
0,5 1,5 120 90 35 35 50 20 30 4 38
AISi1Fe 1,5 3,0 120 90 35 35 50 20 30 5 38
H14 0,2 0,5 140 120 40 40 55 25 35 3 45
0,5 1,5 140 120 40 40 55 25 35 3 45
1,5 3,0 140 120 40 40 55 25 35 3 45
T4 0,2 0,5 120 55 35 35 50 20 30 14 35
0,5 1,5 120 55 35 35 50 20 30 16 35
1,5 3,0 120 55 35 35 50 20 30 18 35
3,0 6,0 120 55 35 35 50 20 30 21 35
ENAW-4007 O1H111 0,2 0,5 110 45 35 30 45 20 25 15 32
0,5 1,5 110 45 35 30 45 20 25 16 32
AISi1, 5Mn 1,5 3,0 110 45 35 30 45 20 25 19 32
3,0 6,0 110 45 35 30 45 20 25 21 32
6,0 12,5 110 45 35 30 45 20 25 25 32
H12 ~ 0 , 2 0,5 140 110 40 40 55 25 35 4 44
0,5 1,5 140 110 40 40 55 25 35 4 44
1,5 3,0 140 110 40 40 55 25 35 5 44
ENAW-5049 O/H111 0,2 0,5 190 80 35 50 75 35 45 12 52
0,5 1,5 190 80 35 50 75 35 45 14 52
AI Mg2MnO,8 1,5 3,0 190 80 35 50 75 35 45 16 52
3,0 6,0 190 80 35 50 75 35 45 18 52
6,0 12,5 190 80 35 50 75 35 45 18 52
12,5 100,0 190 80 35 50 75 35 45 17* 52
Hl12 ~ 6 , 0 12,5 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 12 62
12,5 25,0 200 120 60 50 75 35 45 10* 58
25,0 40,0 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 12* 52
40,0 80,0 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 14* 52
H12 0,2 0,5 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 4 66
0,5 1,5 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 5 66
1,5 3,0 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 6 66
3,0 6,0 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 7 66
6,0 12,5 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 9 66
12,5 40,0 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 9* 66
H14 0,2 0,5 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 3 72
0,5 1,5 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 3 72
1,5 3,0 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 4 72
3,0 6,0 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 4 72
6,0 12,5 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 5 72
12,5 25,0 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 6* 72
H16 0,2 0,5 265 220 80 65 100 45 60 2 80
0,5 1,5 265 220 80 65 100 45 60 3 80
1,5 3,0 265 220 80 65 100 45 60 3 80
3,0 6,0 265 220 80 65 100 45 60 3 80
H18 0,2 0,5 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 1 88
0,5 1,5 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 2 88
1,5 3,0 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 2 88
H22/H32 0,2 0,5 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 7 63
0,5 1,5 220 130 65 . 55 85 40 50 8 63
1,5 3,0 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 10 63
3,0 6,0 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 11 63
6,0 12,5 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 10 63
12,5 40,0 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 9* 63
H241H34 0,2 0,5 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 6 70
0,5 1,5 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 6 70
1,5 3,0 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 7 70
3,0 6,0 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 8 70
6,0 12,5 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 10 70
12,5 25,0 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 8* 70
H26/H36 0,2 0,5 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 4 78
0,5 1,5 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 4 78
1,5 3,0 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 5 78
3,0 6,0 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 6 78
H28/H38 0,2 0,5 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 3 87
0,5 1,5 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 3 87
1,5 3,0 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 4 87
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.22 Continued, page 2 of 7.
145
5 Appendices
Material Condition Nom.thickness R
m
R
e crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b ~ W , s ~ W , t
A ~ 1
Hardness
inmm number
from to % HB
EN AW-5052 OIHIlI 0,2 0,5 170 65 50 45 65 30 40 12 47
0,5 1,5 170 65 50 45 65 30 40 14 47
AI Mg2,5 1,5 3,0 170 65 50 45 65 30 40 16 47
3,0 6,0 170 65 50 45 65 30 40 18 47
6,0 12,5 165 65 50 45 65 30 40 19 46
12,5 80,0 165 65 50 45 65 30 40 18* 46
HIl2
<: 6,0
12,5 190 110 55 50 75 30 45 7 55
12,5
40,0 170 70 50 45 65 30 40 10* 47
40,0
80,0 170 70 50 45 65 30 40 14* 47
H12 0,2 0,5 210 160 65 55 80 35 50 4 63
0,5 1,5 210 160 65 55 80 35 50 5 63
1,5 3,0 210 160 65 55 80 35 50 6 63
3,0 6,0 210 160 65 55 80 35 50 8 63
6,0 12,5 210 160 65 55 80 35 50 10 63
12,5 40,0 210 160 65 55 80 35 50 9* 63
H14 0,2 0,5 230 180 70 60 85 40 55 3 69
0,5 1,5 230 180 70 60 85 40 55 3 69
1,5 3,0 230 180 70 60 85 40 55 4 69
3,0 6,0 230 180 70 60 85 40 55 4 69
6,0 12,5 230 180 70 60 85 40 55 5 69
12,5 25,0 230 180 70 60 85 40 55 4* 69
H16 0,2 0,5 250 210 75 60 95 45 55 2 76
0,5 1,5 250 210 75 60 95 45 55 3 76
1,5 3,0 250 210 75 60 95 45 55 3 76
3,0 6,0 250 210 75 60 95 45 55 3 76
H18 0,2 0,5 270 240 80 65 100 45 60 1 83
0,5 1,5 270 240 80 65 100 45 60 2 83
1,5 3,0 270 240 80 65 100 45 60 2 83
H22IH32 0,2 0,5 210 130 65 55 80 35 50 5 61
0,5 1,5 210 130 65 55 80 35 50 6 61
1,5 3,0 210 130 65 55 80 35 50 7 61
3,0 6,0 210 130 65 55 80 35 50 10 61
6,0 12,5 210 130 65 55 80 35 50 12 61
12,5 40,0 210 130 65 55 80 35 50 12* 61
H24/H34 0,2 0,5 230 150 70 60 85 40 55 4 67
0,5 1,5 230 150 70 60 85 40 55 5 67
1,5 3,0 230 150 70 60 85 40 55 6 67
3,0 6,0 230 150 70 60 85 40 55 7 67
6,0 12,5 230 150 70 60 85 40 55 9 67
12,5 25,0 230 150 70 60 85 40 55 9* 67
H26IH36 0,2 0,5 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 3 74
0,5 1,5 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 4 74
1,5 3,0 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 5 74
3,0 6,0 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 6 74
H28IH38 0,2 0,5 270 210 80 65 100 45 60 3 81
0,5 1,5 270 210 80 65 100 45 60 3 81
1,5 3,0 270 210 80 65 100 45 60 4 81
EN AW-5251 OIHIlI 0,2 0,5 160 60 50 45 65 30 40 13 44
0,5 1,5 160 60 50 45 65 30 40 14 44
AlMg2 1,5 3,0 160 60 50 45 65 30 40 16 44
3,0 6,0 160 60 50 45 65 30 40 18 44
6,0 12,5 160 60 50 45 65 30 40 18 44
12,5 50,0 160 60 50 45 65 30 40 18 44
H12 0,2 0,5 190 150 60 50 75 35 45 3 58
0,5 1,5 190 150 60 50 75 35 45 4 58
1,5 3,0 190 150 60 50 75 35 45 5 58
3,0 6,0 190 150 60 50 75 35 45 8 58
6,0 12,5 190 150 60 50 75 35 45 10 58
12,5 25,0 190 150 60 50 75 35 45 10* 58
Hl4 0,2 0,5 210 170 65 55 80 35 50 2 64
0,5 1,5 210 170 65 55 80 35 50 2 64
1,5 3,0 210 170 65 55 80 35 50 3 64
3,0 6,0 210 170 65 55 80 35 50 4 64
6,0 12,5 210 170 65 55 80 35 50 5 64
H16 0,2 0,5 230 200 70 60 85 40 55 1 71
0,5 1,5 230 200 70 60 85 40 55 2 71
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.22 Continued, page 3 of 7.
146
5 Appendices
Material Condition Nominal thickness R
m Re crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b "tW,s "tW,t
A?1
Hardne
inmm ss
number
from to % HB
AlMg2 H16 1,5 3,0 230 200 70 60 85 40 55 3 71
continued 3,0 4,0 230 200 70 60 85 40 55 3 71
H18 0,2 0,5 255 230 75 65 95 45 60 1 79
0,5 1,5 255 230 75 65 95 45 60 2 79
1,5 3,0 255 230 75 65 95 45 60 2 79
H221H32 0,2 0,5 190 120 55 50 75 35 45 4 56
0,5 1,5 190 120 55 50 75 35 45 6 56
1,5 3,0 190 120 55 50 75 35 45 8 56
3,0 6,0 190 120 55 50 75 35 45 10 56
6,0 12,5 190 120 55 50 75 35 45 12 56
12,5 25,0 190 120 55 50 75 35 45 12* 56
H241H34 0,2 0,5 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 3 62
0,5 1,5 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 5 62
1,5 3,0 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 6 62
3,0 6,0 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 8 62
6,0 12,5 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 10 62
H26/H36 0,2 0,5 230 170 70 60 85 40 55 3 69
0,5 1,5 230 170 70 60 85 40 55 4 69
1,5 3,0 230 170 70 60 85 40 55 5 69
3,0 4,0 230 170 70 60 85 40 55 7 69
H281H38 0,2 0,5 255 200 75 65 95 45 60 2 77
0,5 1,5 255 200 75 65 95 45 60 3 77
1,5 3,0 255 200 75 65 95 45 60 3 77
ENAW-5154A OlHlll 0,2 0,5 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 12 58
0,5 1,5 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 13 58
AIMg3,5(A) 1,5 3,0 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 15 58
3,0 6,0 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 17 58
6,0 12,5 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 18 58
12,5 50,0 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 16* 58
H112 ~ 6 , 0 12,5 220 125 65 55 85 40 50 8 63
12,5 40,0 215 90 65 55 80 35 50 9 59
40,0 80,0 215 90 65 55 80 35 50 13* 59
H12 0,2 0,5 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 3 75
0,5 1,5 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 4 75
1,5 3,0 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 5 75
3,0 6,0 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 6 75
6,0 12,5 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 7 75
12,5 40,0 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 6* 75
H14 0,2 0,5 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 2 81
0,5 1,5 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 3 81
1,5 3,0 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 3 81
3,0 6,0 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 4 81
6,0 12,5 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 5 81
12,5 25,0 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 4* 81
H18 0,2 0,5 310 270 95 75 110 55 70 1 94
0,5 1,5 310 270 95 75 110 55 70 1 94
1,5 3,0 310 270 95 75 110 55 70 1 94
H19 0,2 0,5 330 285 100 75 120 55 75 1 100
0,5 1,5 330 285 100 75 120 55 75 1 100
H221H32 0,2 0,5 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 5 74
0,5 1,5 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 6 74
1,5 3,0 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 7 74
3,0 6,0 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 8 74
6,0 12,5 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 10 74
12,5 40,0 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 9* 74
H241H34 0,2 0,5 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 4 80
0,5 1,5 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 5 80
1,5 3,0 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 6 80
3,0 6,0 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 7 80
6,0 12,5 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 8 80
12,5 25,0 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 7* 80
H261H36 0,2 0,5 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 3 87
0,5 1,5 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 3 87
1,5 3,0 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 4 87
3,0 6,0 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 5 87
H28/H38 0,2 0,5 310 250 95 75 110 55 70 3 93
0,5 1,5 310 250 95 75 110 55 70 3 93
1,5 3,0 310 250 95 75 110 55 70 3 93
5.1 Material tables
147
5 Appendices
4 f 7 d T bl 5122 C a e .. ontmue , page 0
Material Condition Nominalthickness R
m
R
e crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b 'tW,s vw..
A Hardness
inmm number
from to % HB
EN AW-5454 O1H111 0,2 0,5 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 12 58
0,5 1,5 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 13 58
AIMg3Mn 1,5 3,0 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 15 58
3,0 6,0 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 17 58
6,0 12,5 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 18 58
12,5 80,0 215 85 65 55 80 35 50 16* 58
Hl12 12,5 220 125 65 55 85 40 50 8 63
40,0 215 90 65 55 80 35 50 9* 59
120,0 215 90 65 55 80 35 50 13* 59
HI2 0,2 0,5 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 3 75
0,5 1,5 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 4 75
1,5 3,0 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 5 75
3,0 6,0 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 6 75
6,0 12,5 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 7 75
12,5 40,0 250 190 75 60 95 45 55 6* 75
H14 0,2 0,5 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 2 81
0,5 1,5 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 3 81
1,5 3,0 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 3 81
3,0 6,0 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 4 81
6,0 12,5 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 5 81
12,5 25,0 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 4* 81
H221H32 0,2 0,5 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 5 74
0,5 1,5 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 6 74
1,5 3,0 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 7 74
3,0 6,0 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 8 74
6,0 12,5 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 10 74
12,5 40,0 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 9* 74
H24/H34 0,2 0,5 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 4 80
0,5 1,5 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 5 80
1,5 3,0 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 6 80
3,0 6,0 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 7 80
6,0 12,5 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 8 80
12,5 25,0 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 7* 80
H26/H36 0,2 0,5 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 3 87
0,5 1,5 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 3 87
1,5 3,0 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 4 87
3,0 6,0 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 5 87
H28/H38 0,2 0,5 310 250 95 75 110 55 70 3 93
0,5 1,5 310 250 95 75 110 55 70 3 93
1,5 3,0 310 250 95 75 110 55 70 3 93
ENAW-5754 O/HU1 0,2 0,5 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 12 52
0,5 1,5 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 14 52
AI Mg3 1,5 3,0 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 16 52
3,0 6,0 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 18 52
6,0 12,5 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 18 52
12,5 100,0 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 17* 52
HIl2 ?: 6,0 12,5 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 12 62
12,5 25,0 200 120 60 50 75 35 45 10* 58
25,0 40,0 190 80 55 50 75 30 45 12* 52
40,0 80,0 190 80 55 50 75 30 45 14* 52
H12 0,2 0,5 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 4 66
0,5 1,5 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 5 66
1,5 3,0 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 6 66
3,0 6,0 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 7 66
6,0 12,5 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 9 66
12,5 40,0 220 170 65 55 85 40 50 9* 66
H14 0,2 0,5 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 3 72
0,5 1,5 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 3 72
1,5 3,0 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 4 72
3,0 6,0 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 4 72
6,0 12,5 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 5 72
12,5 25,0 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 5* 72
H16 0,2 0,5 265 220 80 65 100 45 60 2 80
0,5 1,5 265 220 80 65 100 45 60 3 80
1,5 3,0 265 220 80 65 100 45 60 3 80
3,0 6,0 265 220 80 65 100 45 60 3 80
H18 0,2 0,5 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 1 88
0,5 1,5 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 2 88
1,5 3,0 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 2 88
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.22 Continued, page 5 of 7.
148
5 Appendices
Material Condition Nominal thickness R
m
R
e crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b ToW,S vw.r
A<?
Hardness
inmm
1
number
from to % HB
ENAW-5754 HI8 0,2 0,5 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 1 88
AlMg3 0,5 1,5 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 2 88
continued 1,5 3,0 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 2 88
H22/H32 0,2 0,5 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 7 63
0,5 1,5 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 8 63
1,5 3,0 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 10 63
3,0 6,0 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 11 63
6,0 12,5 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 10 63
12,5 40,0 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 9* 63
H24/H34 0,2 0,5 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 6 70
0,5 1,5 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 6 70
1,5 3,0 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 7 70
3,0 6,0 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 8 70
6,0 12,5 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 10 70
12,5 25,0 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 8* 70
H26/H36 0,2 0,5 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 4 78
0,5 1,5 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 4 78
1,5 3,0 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 5 78
3,0 6,0 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 6 78
H28/H38 0,2 0,5 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 3 87
0,5 1,5 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 3 87
1,5 3,0 290 230 85 70 105 50 65 4 87
ENAW-5083 O/Hll1 0,2 0,5 275 125 85 65 100 45 60 11 75
0,5 1,5 275 125 85 65 100 45 60 12 75
AI Mg4,5MnO,7 1,5 3,0 275 125 85 65 100 45 60 13 75
3,0 6,0 275 125 85 65 100 45 60 15 75
6,0 12,5 275 125 85 65 100 45 60 16 75
12,5 50,0 275 125 85 65 100 45 60 15* 75
50,0 80,0 270 115 80 65 100 45 60 14* 73
80,0 120,0 260 110 80 65 95 45 60 12* 70
120,0 150,0 255 105 75 65 95 45 60 12* 69
H112 <:6,0 12,5 275 125 85 65 100 50 60 12 75
12,5 40,0 275 125 85 65 100 50 60 10* 75
40,0 80,0 270 115 80 65 100 45 60 10* 73
H116"}
<: 1,5 3,0 305 215 90 70 110 55 70 8 89
3,0 6,0 305 215 90 70 110 55 70 10 89
6,0 12,5 305 215 90 70 110 55 70 12 89
12,5 40,0 305 215 90 70 110 55 70 10* 89
40,0 80,0 285 200 85 70 105 50 65 10* 83
HI2 0,2 0,5 315 250 95 75 115 55 70 3 94
0,5 1,5 315 250 95 75 115 55 70 4 94
1,5 3,0 315 250 95 75 115 55 70 5 94
3,0 6,0 315 250 95 75 115 55 70 6 94
6,0 12,5 315 250 95 75 115 55 70 7 94
12,5 40,0 315 250 95 75 115 55 70 6* 94
HI4 0,2 0,5 340 280 100 80 120 60 75 2 102
0,5 1,5 340 280 100 80 120 60 75 3 102
1,5 3,0 340 280 100 80 120 60 75 3 102
3,0 6,0 340 280 100 80 120 60 75 3 102
6,0 12,5 340 280 100 80 120 60 75 4 102
12,5 25,0 340 280 100 80 120 60 75 3* 102
H16 0,2 0,5 360 300 110 80 130 60 80 1 108
0,5 1,5 360 300 110 80 130 60 80 2 108
1,5 3,0 360 300 110 80 130 60 80 2 108
3,0 4,0 360 300 110 80 130 60 80 2 108
H22/H32 0,2 0,5 305 215 90 70 110 55 70 5 89
0,5 1,5 305 215 90 70 110 55 70 6 89
1,5 3,0 305 215 90 70 110 55 70 7 89
3,0 6,0 305 215 90 70 110 55 70 8 89
6,0 12,5 305 215 90 70 110 55 70 10 89
12,5 40,0 305 215 90 70 110 55 70 9* 89
H24/H34 0,2 0,5 340 250 100 80 120 60 75 4 99
0,5 1,5 340 250 100 80 120 60 75 5 99
1,5 3,0 340 250 100 80 120 60 75 6 99
3,0 6,0 340 250 100 80 120 60 75 7 99
6,0 12,5 340 250 100 80 120 60 75 7 99
12,5 25,0 340 250 100 80 120 60 75 7* 99
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.22 Continued, page 6 of 7.
149
5 Appendices
Material Condition Nom. thickness R
m
R
e crW,zd crSch,zd
crW,b
~ W , s ~ W , t
A
V 1
Hardness
m mm number
from to % HB
ENAW-5083 H26/H36 0,2 0,5 360 280 110 80 130 60 80 2" 106
AI Mg4,5MnO,7 0,5 1,5 360 280 110 80 130 60 80 3 106
continued 1,5 3,0 360 280 110 80 130 60 80 3 106
3,0 4,0 360 280 110 80 130 60 80 3 106
ENAW-5086 OlHlIl 0,2 0,5 240 100 70 60 90 40 55 11 65
0,5 1,5 240 100 70 60 90 40 55 12 65
AlMg4 1,5 3,0 240 100 70 60 90 40 55 13 65
3,0 6,0 240 100 70 60 90 40 55 15 65
6,0 12,5 240 100 70 60 90 40 55 17 65
12,5 150,0 240 100 79 60 90 40 55 16* 65
H1I2 2: 6,0 12,5 250 125 75 60 95 45 55 8 69
12,5 40,0 240 105 70 60 90 40 55 9* 65
40,0 80,0 240 100 70 60 90 40 55 12* 65
H1I6 2: 1,5 3,0 275 195 85 65 100 50 60 8 81
3,0 6,0 275 195 85 65 100 50 60 9 81
6,0 12,5 275 195 85 65 100 50 60 10 81
12,5 50,0 275 195 85 65 100 50 60 9* 81
H12 0,2 0,5 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 3 81
0,5 1,5 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 4 81
1,5 3,0 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 5 81
3,0 6,0 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 6 81
6,0 12,5 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 7 81
12,5 40,0 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 6* 81
H14 0,2 0,5 300 240 90 70 110 50 65 2 90
0,5 1,5 300 240 90 70 110 50 65 3 90
1,5 3,0 300 240 90 70 110 50 65 3 90
3,0 6,0 300 240 90 70 110 50 65 3 90
6,0 12,5 " 300 240 90 70 110 50 65 4 90
12,5 25,0 300 240 90 70 110 50 65 3* 90
H16 0,2 0,5 325 270 100 75 120 55 70 1 98
0,5 1,5 325 270 100 75 120 55 70 2 98
1,5 3,0 325 270 100 75 120 55 70 2 98
3,0 4,0 325 270 100 75 120 55 70 2 98
H18 0,2 0,5 345 290 105 80 125 60 75 1 104
0,5 1,5 345 290 105 80 125 60 75 1 104
1,5 3,0 345 290 105 80 125 60 75 1 104
H22/H32 0,2 0,5 275 185 85 65 100 50 60 5 80
0,5 1,5 275 185 85 65 100 50 60 6 80
1,5 3,0 275 185 85 65 100 50 60 7 89
3,0 6,0 275 185 85 65 100 50 60 8 80
6,0 12,5 275 185 85 65 100 50 60 10 80
12,5 40,0 275 185 85 65 100 50 60 9* 80
H24/H34 0,2 0,5 300 220 90 70 110 50 65 4 88
0,5 1,5 300 220 90 70 110 50 65 5 88
1,5 3,0 300 220 90 70 110 50 65 6 88
3,0 6,0 300 220 90 70 110 50 65 7 8 88
6,0 12,5 300 220 90 70 110 50 65 7* 88
12,5 25,0 300 220 90 70 110 50 65 88
H261H36 0,2 0,5 325 250 100 75 115 55 70 2 96
0,5 1,5 325 250 100 75 115 55 70 3 96
1,5 3,0 325 250 100 75 115 55 70 3 96
3,0 4,0 325 250 100 75 115 55 70 3 96
ENAW-6082 T4 2:0,4 1,5 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 12 58
T451 1,5 3,0 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 14 58
AISiMgMn 3,0 6,0 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 15 58
6,0 12,5 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 14 58
T451 12,5 40,0 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 13* 58
40,0 80,0 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 12* 58
T42 2: 0,4 1,5 205 95 60 55 80 35 50 12 57
1,5 3,0 205 95 60 55 80 35 50 14 57
3,0 6,0 205 95 60 55 80 35 50 15 57
6,0 12,5 205 95 60 55 80 35 50 14 57
12,5 40,0 205 95 60 55 80 35 50 13* 57
40,0 80,0 205 95 60 55 80 35 50 12* 57
T6 2: 0,4 1,5 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 6 94
T651 1,5 3,0 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 7 94
T62 3,0 6,0 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 10 94
6,0 12,5 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 9 91
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.22 Continued, page 7 of 7.
150
5 Appendices
Material Condition Nom. thickness R
m
Re crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b ~ W , s ~ W , t
A-}I
Hardness
in mm number
from to % HB
EN AW-6082 T651 12,5 60,0 295 240 90 70 110 50 65 8* 89
AlSiMgMn T62 60,0 100,0 295 240 90 70 110 50 65 7* 89
continued 100,0 150,0 275 240 85 65 100 50 60 6* 84
150,0 175,0 275 230 85 65 100 50 60 4* 83
T61 20,4 1,5 280 205 85 70 105 50 65 10 82
T6151 1,5 3,0 280 205 85 70 105 50 65 11 82
3,0 6,0 280 205 85 70 105 50 65 11 82
6,0 12,5 280 205 85 70 105 50 65 12 82
T6151 12,5 60,0 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 12* 81
60,0 100,0 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 10* 81
100,0 150,0 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 9* 81
150,0 175,0 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 8* 81
EN AW-7020 T4 20,4 1,5 320 210 95 75 115 55 70 11 92
T451 1,5 3,0 320 210 95 75 115 55 70 12 92
AI Zn4,5Mg1 3,0 6,0 320 210 95 75 115 55 70 13 92
6,0 12,5 320 210 95 75 115 55 70 14 92
T6 20,4 1,5 350 280 105 80 125 60 75 7 104
T651 1,5 3,0 350 280 105 80 125 60 75 8 104
T62 3,0 6,0 350 280 105 80 125 60 75 10 104
6,0 12,5 350 280 105 80 125 60 75 10 104
T651 12,5 40,0 350 280 105 80 125 60 75 9* 104
40,0 100,0 340 270 100 80 120 60 75 8* 101
100,0 150,0 330 260 100 75 120 55 75 7* 98
150,0 175,0 330 260 100 75 120 55 75 6* 98
ENAW-7021 T6 21,5 3,0 400 350 120 90 140 70 85 7 121
AI Zn5,5Mg1,5 3,0 6,0 400 350 120 90 140 70 85 8 121
ENAW-7022 T6 >3,0 12,5 450 370 135 95 155 80 95 8 133
AIZn5Mg3Cu T6 12,5 25,0 450 370 135 95 155 80 95 8* 133
T651 25,0 50,0 450 370 135 95 155 80 95 7* 133
50,0 100,0 430 350 130 90 150 75 95 5* 127
100,0 200,0 410 330 125 90 145 70 90 3* 121
ENAW-7075 T6 20,4 0,8 525 460 160 105 175 90 110 6 157
T651 0,8 1,5 540 460 160 110 180 95 115 6 160
AIZn5,5MgCu T62 1,5 3,0 540 470 160 110 180 95 115 7 161
3,0 6,0 545 475 165 110 180 95 115 8 163
6,0 12,5 540 460 160 110 180 95 115 8 160
T651 12,5 25,0 540 470 160 110 180 95 115 6* 161
T62 25,0 50,0 530 460 160 105 180 90 110 5* 158
50,0 60,0 525 440 160 105 175 90 110 4* 155
60,0 80,0 495 420· 150 100 170 85 105 4* 147
80,0 90,0 490 390 145 100 165 85 105 4* 144
90,0 100,0 460 360 140 95 160 80 100 3* 135
100,0 120,0 410 300 125 90 145 70 90 2* 119
120,0 150,0 360 260 110 80 130 60 80 2* 104
T76 21,5 3,0 500 425 150 105 170 85 105 7 149
T7651 3,0 6,0 500 425 150 105 170 85 105 8 149
6,0 12,5 490 415 145 100 165 85 105 7 146
T73 21,5 3,0 460 385 140 95 160 80 100 7 137
T7351 3,0 6,0 460 385 140 95 160 80 100 8 137
6,0 12,5 475 390 145 100 160 80 100 7 140
T7351 12,5 25,0 475 390 145 100 160 80 100 6* 140
25,0 50,0 475 390 145 100 160 80 100 5* 140
50,0 60,0 455 360 135 95 155 80 95 5* 133
60,0 80,0 440 340 130 95 150 75 95 5* 129
80,0 100,0 430 340 130 95 150 75 95 5* 126
5.1 Material tables
151
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.23 Mechanical properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys, strips and sheets with a thickness
from 0,35 mm on, after DIN 1745 T. I (1983-02-00) (selected types of material only).
Material Thickness R
m
R
p crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b ~ W , s ~ W , t
A5 AlO Hardness Condo
inmm % % number
DINnotation No. from to
~ 1 ~ 1
HB ~ 2
A1Mg2,5 3.3523 0,35 3,0 170 60 50 45 65 30 40 20 17 50 w
W17 .10 0,35 10
F21 .24 0,35 3,0 210 160 65 55 80 35 50 10 8 65 kg
0,35 10
G21 .25 0,35 3,0 210 130 65 55 80 35 50 12 10 65 rg
0,35 10
F23 .26 0,35 3,0 230 180 70 60 85 40 55 5 4 73 kg
0,35 10
G23 .27 0,35 3,0 230 150 70 60 85 40 55 10 8 73 rg
0,35 10
F25 .28 0,35 3,0 250 210 75 60 95 45 55 4 3 80 kg
0,35 4,0
G25 .29 0,35 3,0 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 7 6 80 rg
0,35 4,0
F27 .30 0,35 3,0 270 240 80 65 100 45 60 3 2 85 kg
0,35 3,0
G27 .31 0,35 3,0 270 210 80 65 100 45 60 6 5 85 rg
0,35 3,0
A1Mg3 3.3535 0,35 3,0 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 20 17 50 w
W19 .10 0,35 6,0
W19 .10 - - 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 18 - 50 w
6,0 50
F19 .07 - - 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 12 - 50 wg
25 50
F20 .07 - - 200 120 60 50 75 35 45 10 - 60 wg
10 25
F21 .07 3 - 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 12 - 60 wg
5,0 10
F22 .24 0,35 10 220 165 65 55 85 40 50 9 7 65 kg
0,35 10
G22 .25 0,35 3,0 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 14 12 65 rg
0,35 10
F24 .26 0,35 3,0 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 5 4 73 kg
0,35 10
G24 .27 0,35 3,0 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 10 8 73 rg
0,35 4,0
F27 .28 0,35 3,0 265 215 80 65 100 45 60 4 3 80 kg
0,35 4,0
G27 .29 0,35 3,0 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 7 6 80 rg
0,35 4,0
F29 .30 0,35 3,0 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 3 2 85 kg
0,35 3,0
A1Mg2MnO,8 3.3527 0,35 3,0 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 20 17 50 w
W19 .10 0,35 6,0
W19 .10 - - 190 80 55 50 75 35 45 18 - 50 w
6,0 50
F19 .07 -
.
190 80 55 50 75 35 45 12 - 50 wg
25 50
F20 .07 - - 200 120 60 50 75 35 45 10 - 60 wg
10 25
F21 .07 - - 210 140 65 55 80 35 50 12 - 60 wg
6,0 10
F22 .24 0,35 3,0 220 165 65 55 85 40 50 9 7 65 kg
0,35 10
022 .25 0,35 3,0 220 130 65 55 85 40 50 14 12 65 rg
0,35 10
F24 .26 0,35 3,0 240 190 70 60 90 40 55 5 4 73 kg
0,35 10
G24 .27 0,35 3,0 240 160 70 60 90 40 55 10 8 73 rg
0,35 10
F27 .28 0,35 3,0 265 215 80 65 100 45 60 4 3 80 kg
0,35 10
~ 1 see page153 ~ 2 kg = coldrolled, rg = recrystallization annealed, w= soft annealed, wg= hot rolled.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.23 Continued, page 1 of2.
152
5 Appendices
Material Thickness R
m
R
p crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b 'tW,s 'tW,t
A5 AlO
Hardness Condo
inmm
t'"1
% number
DINnotation No. from to
-¢>1
HB ~ 2
AlMg2MnO,8 .29 0,35 3,0 265 190 80 65 100 45 60 7 6 80 rg
G27 0,35 10
F29 .30 0,35 3,0 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 3 2 85 kg
0,35 10
AlMg2,7Mn 3.3537 - - 215 100 65 55 80 35 50 17 - 55 wg
F22 .07 4,0 25
F22 .07 - - 215 100 65 55 80 35 50 12 - 55 wg
25 50
G25 .25 - - 245 180 75 60 90 40 55 10 - 75 rg
4,0 6,0
G25 .25 - - 245 180 75 60 90 40 55 8 - 75 rg
6,0 12
G27 .27 - - 270 200 80 65 100 45. ·60 9 - 85 rg
4,0 6,0
G27 .27 - - 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 7 - 85 rg
6,0 12
AlMg4Mn 3.3545 - - 240 310 70 60 90 40 55 18 - 65 w
W24 .10 1,0 6,0
W24 .10 - - 240 95 70 60 90 40 55 17 - 60 w
6,0 50
F28 .24 - - 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 7 - 80 kg
1,0 6,0
G28 .25 - - 275 190 85 65 100 50 60 12 - 80 rg
.27 1,0 6,0
G30 .27 - - 300 230 90 70 110 50 65 8 - 90 rg
1,0 6,0
AlMg4,5Mn 3.3547 0,35 3,0 275 125 85 65 100 45 60 17 15 70 w
W28 .10 0,35 50
F28 .07 - - 275 125 85 65 100 45 60 12 - 70 wg
4,0 50
G31 .25 - - 310 205 95 75 110 55 70 10 - 85 rg
2,0 40
G35 .27 1,0 3,0 345 270 105 80 125 60 75 6 5 100 rg
1,0 6,0
AlMgSil 3.2315 0,35 3,0 - :S: 85 - - - - - 18 15 35 w
W .10 0,35 10
F21 .51 0,35 3,0 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 16 14 65 ka
0,35 3,0
F21 .51 - - 205 110 60. 55 80 35 50 14 12 65 ka
3,0 20
F28 .71 0,35 3,0 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 14 12 85 wa
0,35 3,0
F28 .71 - - 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 12 - 85 wa
3,0 60
F32 .72 0,35 3,0 315 255 95 75 115 55 70 10 8 95 wa
0,35 10
F30 .72 - - 295 245 90 70 110 50 65 9 - 95 wa
0,35 20
F30 .72 - - 295 240 90 70 110 50 65 8 - 90 wa
2,0 100
AlMglSiCu .10 0,35 3,0
- :S: 80 -
.
- - - 18 15 40 w
W 0,35 6,0
W .10 - - - :S: 80 - - - - -
17 14 40 w
6,0 12
F21 .51 0,35 3,0 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 14 12 60 ka
0,35 3,0
F21 .51 - - 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 12 10 60 ka
3,0 12
F29 .71 0,35 3,0 290 240 85 70 105 50 65 10 8 90 wa
0,35 3,0
F29 .71 - - 290 240 85 70 105 50 65 9 - 90 wa
3,0 12
~ 2 ka = naturallyaged, kg = coldrolled, rg = recrystallization annealed, w= softannealed, wa = artificially aged, wg= hot rolled.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.23 Continued, page 2 of2.
153
5 Appendices
Material Thickness R
m
R
p O'W,zd O'Sch,zd O'W,b ~ W , s ~ W , t
A5 AIO
Hardness Condo
inmm
~ I
% number
DINnotation No. from to
-}1
HB .;..2
AlCuMgI 3.1325 0,35 3,0 - s 140 - - - - - 13 II 50 w
W .10 0,35 12
F40 .51 0,35 3,0 395 265 120 85 140 70 85 13 II 100 ka
0,35 3,0
F39 .51 - - 390 265 115 85 135 70 85 13 - 100 ka
3,0 12
F39 .51 - -
385 245 115 85 135 65 85 12 - 95 ka
12 60
AlCuMg2 3.1355 0,35 3,0 - s 140 - - - - - 13 II 55 w
W .10 0,35 12
F44 .51 0,35 3,0 440 290 130 95 150 75 95 13 II 110 ka
0,35 12
AlCuSiMn 3.1255 - - - ~ 140 - - - - - 13 - 55 w
W .10 6,0 12
F40 .51 - - 400 250 120 90 140 70 85 12 - 105 ka
1,5 25
F40 .51 - - 400 250 120 90 140 70 85 II - 100 ka
25 50
F39 .51 - - 390 250 115 85 135 70 85 8 - 100 wa
50 100
F46 .71 - - 460 400 140 95 160 80 100 7 - 125 wa
1,5 25
AlZn4,5Mg1 3.4335 - - - s 140 - - - - - 15 13 45 w
W .10 1,5 6,0
F35 .71 0,35 3,0 350 275 105 80 125 60 75 10 8 105 wa
0,35 15
F34 .71 - -
340 270 100 80 120 60 75 9 - 105 wa
15 60
AlZnMgCuO,5 3.4345 - - 450 370 135 95 155 80 95 8 - 125 wa
F45 .71 6,0 25
F45 .71 - - 450 370 135 95 155 80 95 7 - 125 wa
25 50
F43 .71 - - 430 350 130 95 150 75 95 5 - 110 wa
50 100
F41 .71
- -
410 330 125 90 145 70 90 3 - 100 wa
100 200
AlZnMgCu1,5 3.4365 - - 530 450 160 105 180 90 110 8 - 140 wa
F53 .71 6,0 12
F53 .71 - - 530 450 160 105 180 90 110 5 - 140 wa
12 25
F53 .71 - -
530 450 160 105 180 90 110 3 - 140 wa
25 50
F50 .71 - - 500 430 150 105 170 85 105 2 - 130 wa
50 63
F48 .71 - - 480 410 145 100 165 85 100 2 - 130 wa
63 75
F48 .71 - - 480 390 145 100 165 85 100 2 - 130 wa
75 100
-c- 1 The elongation As is to be usedfor the assessment.
.;.. 2 ka = naturallyaged, w= soft annealed, wa = artificially aged.
5.1 Material tables
154
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.24 Mechanical properties in MPa for wrought aluminum alloys,
cold drawn rods / bars and tubes, after DIN EN 754-2 (1997-08-00).
Material, Condition Rods/ Bars Tubes R
m
R
p crW,zd crsch,zd crW,b 'tW,s 'tW,t
A A50
D; 8 ~ 1 e ~ I
~ 2 ~ 2 ENnotation
DINnotation MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa
% %
mm mm
No. von to von to
ENAW-2007 T3 - 30 - - 370 240 110 85 130 65 80 7 5
AlCu4PbMgMn 30 80 - - 340 220 100 80 120 60 75 6 -
3.1645 - - - 20 370 250 110 85 130 65 80 7 5
T351 - 80 - - 370 240 110 85 130 65 80 5 3
T3510 - - - 20 370 240 110 85 130 65 80 5 3
T3511
ENAW-2011 T3 - 40 - - 320 270 95 75 115 55 70 10 8
AlCu6BiPb 40 50 - - 300 250 90 70 110 50 70 10 -
3.1655 50 80 - - 280 210 85 70 105 50 65 10 -
- - - 5 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 10 8
ENAW-2011A - - 5 20 290 240 85 70 105 50 65 8 6
AlCu6BiPb(A) T8 - 80 - - 370 270 110 85 130 65 80 8 8
- - - 20 370 275 110 85 130 65 80 8 6
ENAW-2014 0 - 80 - 20 <240 < 125 70 60 90 40 55 12 10
AlCu48iMg Hill
3.1255 T3 - 80
- 20 380 290 115 85 135 65 85 8 6
T351 - 80 - - 380 290 115 85 135 65 85 6 4
T3510 - - - 20 380 290 115 85 135 65 85 6 4
T3511
ENAW-2014A T4 - 80 - - 380 220 115 85 135 65 85 12 10
AlCu48iMg(A) - - - 20 380 240 115 85 135 65 85 12 10
T451 - 80 - - 380 220 115 85 135 65 85 10 8
T4510 - - - 20 380 240 115 85 135 65 85 10 8
T4511
T6 - 80 - 20 450 380 135 95 155 80 95 8 6
T651 - 80 - - 450 380 135 95 155 80 95 6 4
T6510 - - - 20 450 380 135 95 155 80 95 6 4
T6511
ENAW-2017A 0 - 80 - 20 <240 < 125 <70 <60 <90 40 55 12 10
AlCu4Mg8i(A) HIll
3.1325 T3 - 80 - 20 400 250 120 90 140 70 85 10 8
T351 - 80 - - 400 250 120 90 140 70 85 8 6
T3510 - - - 20 400 250 120 90 140 70 85 8 6
T3511
ENAW-2024 0, Hill - 80 - - <250 < 150 <75 <60 <90 <45 < 55 12 10
AlCu4Mgl - - 20 <240 < 140 <70 <60 >90 <40 < 55 12 10
3.1355 T3 - 10 - - 425 310 130 90 145 75 90 10 8
10 80 - - 425 290 130 90 145 75 90 9 7
- - - 5 440 290 130 95 150 75 95 10 8
- - 5 20 420 270 125 90 145 75 90 10 8
T351 - 80 - -
425 310 130 90 145 75 90 8 6
T3510 - - - 20 420 290 125 90 145 75 90 8 6
T3511
T6 - 80 - - 425 315 130 90 145 75 90 5 4
T651 - 80 - - 425 315 130 90 145 75 90 4 3
T8 - 80 - - 455 400 135 95 155 80 95 4 3
T851
- 80 - -
455 400 135 95 155 80 95 3 2
ENAW-2030 T3 - 30 - - 370 240 110 85 130 65 80 7 5
AlCu4PbMg 30 80 - - 340 220 100 80 120 60 75 6 -
T351 - 80 - - 370 240 110 85 130 65 80 5 3
T3510 - - - 20 370 240 110 85 130 65 80 5 3
T3511
ENAW-3003 0, HIli - 80 - - 95 35 30 25 40 15 25 25 16
AlMnlCu - - - 20 95 35 30 25 40 15 25 25 10
3.0517 HI4 (D) 40 - 10 130 110 40 35 50 25 30 6 4
(8) 10 - - 130 110 40 35 50 25 30 6 4
H16 (D) 15 - 5 160 130 50 45 65 30 40 4 3
(8) 5
- - 160 130 50 45 65 30 40 4 3
HI8 (D) 10 - 3 180 145 55 45 70 30 40 3 2
(8) 3
- - 180 145 55 45 70 30 40 3 2
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.24 Continued, page I of 2.
155
5 Appendices
Material Condition Rods/ Bars Tubes R
m
R
p O"W,zd O"sch,zd O"W,b 'tW,s 'tW,t
A A50
D ; 8 ~ I e -e- I
ENnotation ~ 2 ~ 2
DINnotation mm mm MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa % %
No. von to von to
ENAW-3103 0, HIll
~ ~ ?
80 - 20 95 35 30 25 40 15 25 25 20
AlMnI 60 - ·
95 35 30 25 40 15 25 25 20
3.0515 H14 (D) 40
·
10 130 110 40 35 50 25 30 6 4
(8) 10
- - 130 110 40 35 50 25 30 6 4
H16 (D) 15 - 5 160 130 50 45 65 30 40 4 3
(8) 5 - -
160 130 50 45 65 30 40 4 3
H18 (D) 10 - 3 180 145 55 45 70 30 40 3 2
(8) 3 - - 180 145 55 45 70 30 40 3 2
ENAW-5005 0,H111 (D) 80 - 20 100 40 30 30 40 15 25 18 16
AlMg1(B) (8) 60 - - 100 40 30 30 40 15 25 18 16
H14 (D) 40 - 5 140 110 40 40 55 25 35 6 4
ENAW·5005A (8) 10 - - 140 110 40 40 55 25 35 6 4
AlMg1(C) H18
~ ~ ?
15 - 3 185 155 55 50 70 30 45 4 2
3.3315 2 - ·
185 155 55 50 70 30 45 4 2
ENAW-5019 0, HIll (D) 80 - 20 250 110 75 60 95 45 55 16 14
AlMg5 (8) 60 - ·
250 110 75 60 95 45 55 16 14
3.3555 H12, H22, (D) 40
·
10 270 180 80 65 100 45 60 8 7
H32 (8) 25 - - 270 180 80 65 100 45 60 8 7
H14, H24, (D) 25
·
- 300 210 90 70 110 50 65 4 3
H34 (8) 10 - ·
300 210 90 70 110 50 65 4 3
- - ·
5 300 220 90 70 110 50 65 4 3
H16, H26, (D)
· ·
3 320 260 95 75 115 55 70 2 2
H36 (8)
- - - · - · - - - · - -
ENAW-5251 0, HIll (D) 80
·
20 150 60 45 40 60 25 35 17 15
AlMg2 (8) 60
· ·
150 60 45 40 60 25 35 17 15
3.3525 H12, H22, (D) - - 10 180 110 55 45 70 30 40 5 4
H32 (8)
· - - · - -
.
- - - - -
H14, H24, (D) 30 - - 200 160 60 50 75 35 45 5 4
H34 (8) 5 - ·
200 160 60 50 75 35 45 5 4
- - 5 200 160 60 50 75 35 45 4 3
H16, H26,
~ ~ ?
- - 5 220 180 65 55 85 40 50 3 2
H36 -
· - - -
·
- -
.
· - -
H18, H28, (D) 20
-
3 240 200 70 60 90 40 55 2 2
H38 (8) 3 - - 240 200 70 60 90 40 55 2 2
ENAW·5052 0, HIll (D) 80 - 20 170 65 50 45 65 30 40 20 17
AlMg2,5 (8) 60 -
·
170 65 50 45 65 30 40 20 17
3.3523 H12, H22, (D) 40 -
·
210 160 65 55 80 35 50 7 5
H32 (8)
- · - - -
·
- - - - - -
H14, H24,
~ ~ ?
25 - 5 230 180 70 60 85 40 55 5 4
H34 - · - - - - - - - - - -
H16, H26, (D) 15
- - 250 200 75 60 95 45 55 3 3
H36 (8)
·
- - - - - - · - -
.
-
H18, H28, (D) 10 - 5 270 220 80 65 100 45 60 2 2
H38 (8)
- - - - - - - · - - - -
ENAW-5154A 0, HIll
~ ~ ?
80
-
20 200 85 60 50 75 35 45 16 14
AlMg3,5(A) 60
·
- 200 85 60 50 75 35 45 16 14
H14, H24, (D) 25
-
10 260 200 80 65 95 45 60 5 4
H34 (8)
- - - - -
·
- - - - - -
H18, H28, (D) 10 - 5 310 240 95 75 110 55 70 3 2
H38 (8)
-
· - ·
-
·
- - -
·
- -
ENAW-5754 0, HIll
~ ~ ?
80
·
20 180 80 55 45 70 30 40 16 14
AlMg3 60
·
- 180 80 55 45 70 30 40 16 14
3.3535 H14, H24, (D) 25 - 10 240 180 70 60 90 40 55 4 3
H34 (8) 5 - - 240 180 70 60 90 40 55 4 3
H18, H28, (D) 10
-
3 280 240 85 70 105 50 65 3 2
H38 (8) 3 - - 280 240 85 70 105 50 65 3 2
ENAW·5083 0, H111
~ ~ ?
80 - 20 270 110 80 65 100 45 60 16 14
AlMg4,5MnO,7 60 - - 270 110 80 65 100 45 60 16 14
3.3547 H12, H22, (D) 30
·
10 280 200 85 70 105 50 65 6 4
H32 (8)
- - - -
.
- - - - - - -
H14, H24,
- - - 5 300 235 90 70 110 50 65 4 3
H34 -
·
- - - - - - ·
.
-
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.24 Continued, page 2 of2.
156
5 Appendices
Material, Condition Rods! Bars Tubes R
m
R
p crW,zd crsch,zd crW,b ~ W , s ~ W , t
A A50
D;S -¢ol e -¢o 1
-¢o2 -¢o2
ENnotation
DINnotation mm mm MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa MPa % %
No. von to von to
ENAW-5086 0, HIlI
~ ~ ?
80 - 20 240 95 70 60 90 40 55 16 14
AlMg4 60 - - 240 95 70 60 90 40 55 16 14
3.3545 H12, H22, (D) 30 - 10 270 190 80 65 100 45 60 5 4
H32 (S)
- - -
·
- - - - - - - -
H14, H24,
· - - 5 295 230 90 70 110 50 65 3 2
H34 - - - - - - - - - - -
H16, H26, - - - 3 320 260 95 75 115 55 70 2 1
H36 - - - - -
·
- -
·
- -
ENAW-6012 T4 - 80 - 20 200 100 60 50 75 35 45 10 8
AlMgSiPb T6 - 80 - 20 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 8 5
3.0615
ENAW-6060 T4 - 80 - -
130 65 40 35 50 25 30 15 13
AlMgSi - - - 5 130 65 40 35 50 25 30 12 10
3.3206 - 5 20 130 65 40 35 50 25 30 15 13
T6 - 80 - 20 215 160 65 55 80 35 50 12 10
-
ENAW-6061 0, - 80 - 20 < 150 < 110 <45 <40 <60 <25 <35 16 14
AlMglSiCu HIll
3.3211 T4
· 80 - 20 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 16 14
T6 - 80 - 20 290 240 85 70 105 50 65 10 8
ENAW·6262 T6 - 80 - 5 290 240 85 70 105 50 65 10 8
AlMglSiPn - - 5 20 290 240 85 70 105 50 65 10 8
T8
· 50 - 10 345 315 105 80 125 60 75 4 3
T9 - 50 - 10 360 330 110 80 130 60 80· 4 3
ENAW-6063 T4 - 80 - - 150 75 45 40 60 25 35 15 13
AlMgO,7Si - - ·
5 150 75 45 40 60 25 35 12 10
- - 5 20 150 75 45 40 60 25 35 15 13
T6 - 80 - 20 220 190 65 55 85 40 50 10 8
T66 - 80 20 230 195 70 60 85 40 55 10 8
T832 - - - 5 275 240 85 65 100 50 60 5 3
ENAW-6063A 0, - 80 - 20 < 140 - <40 <40 < 55 < 25 < 35 15 13
AlMgO,7Si(A) HlIl
T4 - 80 - 20 150 90 45 40 60 25 35 16 14
T6 - 80 - 20 230 190 70 60 85 40 55 9 7
ENAW-6082 0, - 80 - 20 < 160 < 110 <50 <45 <65 <30 <40 15 13
AlSilMgMn HIll
3.2315 T4 - 80 - 20 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 4 12
T6 - 80 - - 310 255 95 75 110 55 70 10 9
- - - 5 310 255 95 75 110 55 70 8 7
- - 5 20 310 240 95 75 110 55 70 10 9
ENAW-7020 T6 (D) 80 - 20 350 280 105 80 125 60 75 10 8
AlZn4,5Mgl (S) 50 - - 350 280 105 80 125 60 75 10 8
3.4335
ENAW-7022 T6 - 80 - 20 460 380 140 95 155 80 100 8 6
AlZn5Mg3Cu - - - - · - - - - - -
3.4345 - - - - -
· · · · ·
.
ENAW-7049A T6
· 80 -
·
590 500 175 115 195 100 120 7 5
AlZn8MgCu T6, T651O,
· - ·
5 590 530 175 115 195 100 120 6 4
T6511
· ·
5 20 590 530 175 115 195 100 120 7 5
ENAW-7075 0,
· 80 - 20 <275 < 165 <85 <65 < 100 < 50 <60 10 8
AlZn5,5MgCu HIll
3.4365 T6
· 80
·
20 540 485 160 110 180 95 115 7 6
T651
· 80 - - 540 485 160 110 180 95 115 5 4
T651O,
· · ·
20 540 485 160 110 180 95 115 5 4
T6511
· · · · · · · · · ·
.
-
.
T73
· 80
·
20 455 385 135 95 155 80 95 10 8
T7351
· 80
· ·
455 385 135 95 155 80 95 8 6
T73510 - - - 20 455 385 135 95 155 80 95 8 6
T73511 - - · · · -
· · · · -
. .
~ 1 Ddiameter of roundrods, S gaugeof squareor hexagonal rods, Sthickness of rectangular rods, e wall thickness of tubes.
~ 2 The elongation Ais to be usedfor the assessment.
5.1 Material tables
157
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.25 Mechanical properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys, rods / bars,
after DIN 1747 T. I (1983-02-00) (selected types of material only).
Material Rods/ Bars Rm R" (JW,zd O'Sch.zd Q"W.b 'tW,s 'tw.t
A, AIO Hdn Condo
% % no. ~ 5
~ 4 ~ 4
DINnotation No. D ~ 1 S ~ 2 S ~ 3
rom rom mm
HB
AlMg3 3.3535 aile aile aile 180 80 55 50 70 30 40 14 12 45
P
F18 .08
W18 .10 aile aile aile 180 80 55 50 70 30 40 16 14 45 P,Z
F25 .26 20 10 5 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 4 3 75 Z
AlMg5 3.3555 aile aile aile 250 110 75 60 95 45 55 13 11 60
P
F25 .08
W25 .10 aile aile aile 250 110 75 60 95 45 55 14 12 60 w
p,z
F26 .24 60 60 15 255 145 75 65 95 45 60 10 8 70 Z
F28 .26 35 25 10 280 200 85 70 105 50 65 6 5 80 Z
AlMg2MnO,8 3.3527 aile aile aile 200 100 60 50 75 35 45 13 11 50 P
F20 .08
W18 .10 aile aile aile 180 80 55 50 70 30 40 16 14 45 w
p,z
F25 .26 20 10 5 250 180 75 60 95 45 55 4 3 75 Z
AlMg4,5Mn 3.3547 aile aile aile 270 140 80 65 100 45 60 12 10 65 P
F27 .08
W27 .10 aile aile aile 270 110 80 65 100 45 60 12 10 60 w
P, Z
AlMgSiO,5 3.3206 aile aile aile 130 65 40 35 50 25 30 15 13 45 ka
F13 .51 p, Z
F22 .71 - 50 - 50 - 50 215 160 65 55 80 35 50 12 10 70 wa
P,Z
F25 .72 - 50 - 50 - 50 145 195 45 40 55 25 35 10 8 75 wa,
p,z
AlMgSil 3.2315 - 80 - 80 - 50 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 14 12 65 ka,
F21 .51 p,z
F22 .71 - 60 - 60 - 50 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 12 13 80 wa
p,Z
F31 .72 - 60 - 60 - 50 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 10 8 95 wa
p,z
F30 .72 60 200 60 200 50 100 300 240 90 70 110 50 65 8 - 95 wa,p
F27 .72 200 250 200 250 100 200 270 200 80 65 100 45 60 6 - 95 wa,p
AlCuMgl 3.1325 - 50 - 50
- 20 380 260 115 85 135 65 85 10 8 110 ka,z
F38 .51
F40 .51 - 80 - 80
- 30 400 270 120 90 140 70 85 10 8 110 ka,p
F36 .51 80 200 80 200 30 70 360 220 110 80 130 60 80 7 - 110 ka,p
F33 .51 200 250 200 250 70 200 330 200 100 75 120 55 75 6 - 110 ka, p
AlCuMg2 3.1355 - 50 - 50 - 30 440 310 130 95 150 75 95 10 8 115 ka, Z
F44 .51
F47 .51 - 100 - 100
- 60 470 330 140 100 160 80 100 8 6 120 ka, p
F40 .51 100 200 100 200 60 150 400 260 120 90 140 70 85 6 - 105 ka,p
AlCuSiMn 3.1255
-
50 - 50 - 30 440 360 130 95 150 75 95 8 7 120 wa,z
F44 .71
F46 .71 - 100 - 100
-
60 460 400 140 95 160 80 100 7 6 125 wap
F43 .71 100 200 100 200 60 150 430 350 130 95 150 75 95 6 - 120 wa,p
AlZn4,5Mgl 3.4335
-
50 - 50
.
30 350 280 105 80 125 60 75 10 8 100 wa,z
F35 .71
F35 .71 - 100 - 100 - 60 350 290 105 80 125 60 75 10 8 105 wa, p
F35 .71 100 250 100 250 60 200 350 270 105 80 125 60 75 7 - 100 wa, p
AlZnMgCuO,5 3.4345 - 50 - 50 - 30 460 380 140 95 160 80 100 .7 6 125 wa,z
F46 .71
F49 .71 - 80 - 80 - 50 490 420 145 100 165 85 105 7 6 130 wa,p
F47 .71 80 200 80 200 50 150 470 400 140 100 160 80 100 7 - 130 wa, p
AlZnMgCul,5 3.4365 - 50 - 50 - 30 510 440 155 105 170 90 105 7 6 140 wa,z
F51 .71
F52 .71 - 80 - 80 - 50 520 460 155 105 175 90 110 7 6 140 wa, p
F51 .71 . 80 120 80 120 50 80 510 450 155 105 170 90 105 7 5 140 wa, p
F50 .71 120 200 120 200 80 150 500 440 150 105 170 85 105 5 - 140 wa,p
~ 1 Ddiameterof roundrods, ~ 2 S gaugeof squareor hexagonal rods, ~ 3 Sthickness of rectangular rods.
~ 4 The elongation A, is to be usedfor the assessment.
~ 5 Condition: ka = naturallyaged, p = extruded, w= soft annealed, wa = artificially aged, Z= extruded and drawn.
5.1 Material tables
158
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.26 Material properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys,
extruded rods / bars, tubes and profiles after DIN EN 755AW-2 (1997-08-00).
IRT51Al-b.doJ
Material Condition Rods/Bars D R
m
R
p O'W,zd O'sch,zd O'W,b ~ W , s ~ W , t
A
notation Rods/BarsS
Tubese
EN-notation Profiles e
DIN-notation v3
No.
mm
%
v 1 v 2 von bis v4 v5
AW-2007 T4 D - 80 370 250 110 85 130 65 80 8
AICuMgPb T4510 S - 80
3.1645 T4511 eR - 25
eP - 30
D >80 200 340 220 100 80 120 60 75 8
S >80 200
eR - -
eP - -
D >200 250 330 210 100 75 120 55 75 7
S >200 250
eR - -
eP - -
AW-2011 T4 D - 200 275 125 85 65 100 50 60 14
AICuBiPb S - 60
3.1655 eR - -
eP - -
T6 D - 75 310 230 95 75 110 55 70 8
S - 60
eR - 25
eP - -
D >75 200 295 195 90 70 110 50 65 6
S - -
eR - -
eP - -
AW-2011A T4 D - 200 275 125 85 65 100 50 60 14
- S - 60
- eR - -
eP -
-
T6 D - 75 310 230 95 75 110 55 70 8
S - 60
eR - 25
eP -
-
D >75 200 295 195 90 70 110 50 65 6
S - -
eR - -
eP - -
AW-2014 0 D - 200 <250 <135 <75 <60 <95 <45 <55 12
AICuSiMn HIll S - 200
3.1255 eR - 20
eP - all
and T4 D - 25 370 230 110 85 130 65 80 13
T4510 S - 25
AW-2014A T4511 eR - 20
-
eP - 25
-
D >25 20 410 270 125 90 145 70 90 12
S >25 25
eR >25 75 10
eP - 75
D >75 75 390 250 115 85 135 70 85 10
S >75 -
eR - 150
eP - 150
D >150 - 350 230 105 80 125 60 75 8
S >150 -
eR - -
eP - -
v 1to 6 seepage 159.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 1 of 9
159
5 Appendices
Material notation Condition Rods/Bars D R
m
R
p crW,zd crsch,zd crW,b
A
Rods/BarsS
EN-notation
Tubes e
Profiles e
DIN-notation

No.
mm
%
c- I von bis
continued T6 D - 25 415 370 125 90 145 70 90 6
T6510 S - 25
AW-2014 T6511 eR - 10 7
AICuSiMn eP - 25
3.1255
D >25 75 460 415 140 95 160 80 100 7
S >25 75
and
eR - -
eP >25 75
AW-2014A
D >75 150 465 420 140 95 160 80 100 7
-
S >75 150
-
eR - -
eP - -
D >150 200 430 350 130 95 150 75 95 6
S >150 200
eR
- -
eP - -
D >200 250 420 320 125 90 145 75 90 5
S >200 250
eR >10 40 450 400 135 95 155 80 95 6
eP - -
AW-2017A 0 D - 200 <250 <135 <75 <60 < 95 < 45 < 55 12
AlCuMg1 Hili S - 200
3.1325 eR - 20
eP - -
T4 D - 25 380 260 115 85 135 65 85 12
T4510
Is
- 25
T4511 eR - 10
eP - 30 10
D >25 75 400 270 120 90 140 70 85 10
Is
>25 75
eR >10 75
eP - -
D >75 150 390 260 115 85 135 70 85 9
Is
>75 150
eR - -
eP
- -
D >150 200 370 240 110 85 130 65 80 8
Is
>150 200
eR - -
eP - -
D >200 250 360 220 110 80 130 60 80 7
Is
>200 250
eR - -
eP - -
AW-2024 0 D - 200 <250 <150 <75 <60 <95 < 45 < 55 12
AlCuMg2 Hill S - 200
3.1355 eR
.
30
eP - all
-c- 1 Sequence and material notation after DIN EN 755AW-2, page 2,
2 The values "F" are for information only.
3 D diameter of round rods, S gauge of square or hexagonal rods, e wall thickness of tubes and profiles.
-e- 4,,<" for R",and R, means, that only upper bound values ofR", and R, are given in DIN EN 755AW-2,
whereas lower bound values are required for an assessment of strength.
5 Elongation referring to an initial length of the specimen of 5,65x (section of specimen) 1/2,
6 open =open profil, hollow =hollow profil.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 2 of 9
160
5 Appendices
Material notation Rods/Bars D
Condition Rods/BarsS R
m
R
p crW,zd crsch,zd crW,b 'tW,s 'tW,t
A
EN-notation Tubese
DIN-notation Profiles e
No. ~ 3
mm
%
~ 1 ~ 2 von bis ~ 4
~ 5
continued T3 D - 50 450 310 135 95 155 80 95 8
T3510 S - 50
AW-2024 T3511 eR - -
AlCuMg2 eP - -
3.1355 D >50 100 440 300 130 95 150 75 95 8
S >50 100
eR - -
eP - -
D >100 200 420 280 125 90 145 75 90 8
S >100 200
eR - 30
eP >15 50
D >200 250 400 270 120 90 140 70 85 8
S >200 250 125 90 145 75 90 8
eR - 15 395 290 120 85 140 70 85 8
eP
- -
T8 D - 150 455 380 135 95 155 80 95 5
T8510 S - 150
T8511 eR - 30
eP - 50
AW-2030 T4 D - 80 370 250 110 85 130 65 80 8
- T4510 S - 80
- T4511 eR - 25
eP - 30
D >80 200 340 220 100 80 120 60 75 8
S >80 200
eR - -
eP - -
D >200 250 330 210 100 75 120 60 75 7
S >200 250
eR
- -
eP
- -
AW-3003 F D - all 95 35 30 25 40 15 25 25
AlMnCu H112 S - all
3.0517 0 eR - all
H111 eP - all
AW-3103 F D - all 95 35 30 25 40 15 25 25
AlMn1 H112 S - all
3.0515 0 eR - all
H111 eP - all
AW-5005 F D - all 100 40 30 30 40 15 25 18
-
H112 S - all
- eR - all
eP - all
0 D - all 100 40
. 30 30 40 15 25 20
H111 S -
all
eR - all
eP - -
AW-5005A F D - all 100 40 30 30 40 15 25 18
AlMg1 H112 S - all
3.3315 eR - all
eP - all
0 D - all 100 40 30 30 40 15 25 20
H111 S - all
eR - all
eP - -
AW-5051A F D - all 150 50 45 40 60 25 35 16
AlMg1,8 H112 S - all
3.3326 eR - all 150 60 45 40 60 25 35 16
eP - all
0 D - all 150 50 45 40 60 25 35 18
H111 S - all
eR - all 150 60 45 40 60 25 35 18
eP - -
~ 1to 6 seepage 159.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 3 of 9
161
5 Appendices
Material notation Condition Rods/Bars D R
m
R
p O"W,zd O"sch,zd O"W,b 'tW,s 'tW,t
A
Rods/BarsS
EN-notation
Tubese
Profiles e
DIN-notation
~ 3
No. mm %
~ 1 ~ 2 von bis ~ 4 ~ 5
AW-5251 F D - all 160 60 50 45 65 30 40 16
AIMg2MnO,3 H1l2 S - aLL
3.3525 eR - all
eP
·
all
0 D - all 160 60 50 45 65 30 40 17
Hlll S - aLL
eR - all
eP - -
AW-5052 F D - all 170 70 50 45 65 30 40 15
AlMg2,5 H1l2 S - aLL
3.3523 eR - all
eP - all
0 D - all 170 70 50 45 65 30 40 17
HIll S - aLL
eR - all
eP -
.
AW-5154A F D - 200 200 85 60 50 75 35 45 16
- H1l2 S - 200
- eR - 25
eP · 25
0 D - 200 200 85 60 50 75 35 45 18
Hlll S - 200
eR - 25
eP - 25
AW-5454 F D - 200 200 85 60 50 75 35 45 16
AlMg2,7Mn H1l2 S - 200
3.3537 eR - 25
eP - 25
0 D - 200 200 85 60 50 75 35 45 18
Hlll S - 200
eR - 25
eP
· -
AW-5754A F D
· 150 180 80 55 45 70 30 40 14
AlMg3 H1l2 S - 150
3.3535 eR - 25
eP - 25
D >150 250 180 70 55 45 70 30 40 13
S >150 250
eR
- -
eP
- -
0 D - 150 180 80 55 45 70 30 40 17
HIll S - 150
eR - 25
eP - -
AW-5019 F D - 200 250 110 75 60 95 45 55 14
AlMg5 H1l2 S - 200
3.3555 eR - 30
eP - 30
0 D - 200 250 110 75 60 95 45 55 15
Hlll S
- 200
eR - 30
eP -
-
AW·5083 F D - 200 270 110 80 65 100 45 60 12
AlMg4,5Mn 0 S · 200
3.3547 Hlll eR - all
eP - all
D >200 250 260 100 8B 65 95 45 60 12
S >200 250
eR
- -
eP
- -
~ 1to 6 seepage159.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 4 of 9
162
5 Appendices
Material Condition Rods! Bars D R
m
R
p Cl"W,zd Cl"sch,zd Cl"W,b ~ W , s ~ W , t
A
notation Rods r Bars S
Tubese
EN-notation
Profiles e
-¢-3
DIN-notation
mm
%
No.
-¢-1 -¢-2 -¢-6 von bis -¢-4 -¢-5
continued H1l2 D - 200 270 125 80 65 100 45 60 12
AW-5083 S - 200
AUvIg4,5Mn eR - all
3.3547 eP - all
AW-5086 F D - 250 240 95 70 60 90 40 55 12
AUvIg4Mn H1l2 S - 250
3.3545 eR - all
eP - all
0 D - 200 240 95 70 60 90 40 55 18
Hlli S - 200
eR - all
eP - -
AW-61OIA T6 D - 150 200 170 60 50 75 35 45 10
- S - 150
- eR - all
eP - all
AW-6101B T6 D - 15 215 160 65 55 80 35 50 8
E-AUvIgSiO, 5 S - 15
3.3207 eR - 15
eP - 15
T7 D - 15 170 120 50 45 65 30 40 12
S - 15
eR
·
15
eP -
·
AW-6005 T6 D - 25 270 225 80 65 100 45 60 10
- S - 25
-
eR - 5
eP - -
D ->25 50 270 225 80 65 100 45 60 8
S >25 50
eR
-
5
eP
-
-
D >50 100 260 215 80 65 95 45 60 8
S >50 100
eR >5 10
eP - -
T4 open eP - 25 180 90 55 45 70 30 40 15
T4 hollow -¢-6 - 10
T6 open eP - 5 270 225 80 65 100 45 60 8
-¢-6 >5 10 260 215 80 65 95 45 60
>10 25 250 200 75 60 95 45 60
T6 hollow
- 5 255 215 75 65 95 45 60
>5 15 250 200 75 60 95 45 60
AW-6005A T6 D
-
25 270 225 80 65 100 45 60 10
AUvIgSiO,7 S - 25
3.3210 eR
·
5 8
eP -
·
D >25 50 270 225 80 65 100 45 60 8
S >25 50
eR
-
5
eP
- ·
D >50 100 260 215 80 65 95 45 60 8
S >50 100
eR >5 10
eP
- -
T4 open eP - 25 180 90 55 45 70 30 40 15
T4 hollow
-¢-6 - 10
T6 open
eP
·
5 270 225 80 65 100 45 60 8
-¢-6 >5 10 260 215 80 65 95 45 60
>10 25 250 200 75 60 95 45 60
T6 hollow - 5 255 215 75 65 95 45 60
>5
15 I
250 200 75 60 95 45 60
-¢-1 to 6 see page 159.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 5 of 9
163
5 Appendices
Material Condition Rods/Bars D R
m
R
p O"W,zd O"sch,zd O"W,b ~ W , s ~ W , t
A
notation Rods/BarsS
Tubese
EN-notation
Profiles e
{>3
DIN-notation
rom %
No.
{>1 {> 2 -{> 6 von bis -{>-4 -{>5
AW-6106 T6 D - -
- S - -
- eR - -
eP - 10 250 200 75 60 95 45 60 8
AW-6012 T6 D - 150 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 8
AlMgSiPb T6510 S - 150
3.0165 T6511 eR - 30
eP - 30
D >150 200 260 200 80 65 95 45 60 8
S >150 200
eR
- -
eP
- -
AW-6018 T6 D - 150 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 8
- T6510 S - 150
- T6511 eR - 30
eP - 30
D >150 200 260 200 80 65 95 45 60 8
S >150 200
eR
- -
eP
- -
AW-6351 0 D - 200 < 160 < 110 <50 <45 < 65 <30 <40 14
- Hill S - 200
- eR - 25
eP - all
T4 D - 200 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 14
S - 200
eR - 25
eP - 25
T5 open eP - 5 270 230 80 65 100 45 60 8
T5 hollow {>6
- -
T6 open eP - 5 290 250 85 70 105 50 50 8
T6 hollow -{>6 >5 25 300 255 90 70 110 50 65 10
AW-6060 T4 D - 150 120 60 35 35 50 20 30 16
AlMgSiO,5 S - 150
3.3206 eR - 15
eP - 25
T5 D - 150 160 120 50 45 60 30 40 8
S - 150
eR - 15
eP - 5
>5 25 140 100 40 40 55 25 35 8
T6 D - 150 190 150 55 50 75 35 45 8
S - 150
eR - 15
eP - 3
>3 25 170 140 50 45 65 30 40 8
T64 D - 50 180 120 55 45 70 30 40 12
S - 50
eR - 15
eP - 15
T66 D - 150 215 160 65 55 80 35 50 8
S - 150
eR - 15
eP - 3
>3 25 195 150 60 50 75 35 45 8
AW-6061 0 D - 200 < 150 < 110 <45 <40 <60 <25 < 35 16
AlMg1SiCu Hill S - 200
3.3211 eR - 25
eP - 25
{> 1to 6 see page159.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 6 of 9
164
5 Appendices
Material Condition Rods/ Bars D R
m
R
p crW,zd crsch,zd crW,b tw,s tW,t
A
notation Rods r Bars S
Tubese
EN-notation
Profiles e
~ 3
DIN-notation
No. mm
%
~ I ~ 2 ~ 6 von bis ~ 4 ~ 5
continued T4 D - 200 180 110 55 45 70 30 40 IS
S - 200
AW-6061 eR - 25
AlMg1SiCu eP - 25
3.3211 T6 D - 200 260 240 80 65 95 45 60 8
S - 200
eR - 5
8
>5 25 10
eP - 5
.9
>5 25
10
AW-6261 0 D - 100 < 170 < 120 < 50 <45 < 65 <30 <40 14
- Hill S - 100
- eR - 10
eP - 10
T4 D - 100 180 100 55 45 70 30 40 14
S - 100
eR - 10
eP - 25
T6 D - 20 290 245 85 70 105 50 65 8
>20 100
S - 20
>20 100
eR
- 5
>5 10
9
eP - 5
8
>5 10
9
T5 open eP - 5 270 230 80 65 100 45 60 8
~ 6 >5 25 260 220 80 65 95 45 60 9
>25 -
250 210 75 60 95 45 60 9
T5 hollow
- 5 270 230 80 65 100 45 60 8
>5 10
260 220 80 65 95 45 60 9
T6 open eP - 5 290 245 85 70 lOS 50 65 8
~ 6 >5 25 280 235 85 70 105 50 65 8
T6 hollow
- 5 290 245 85 70 lOS 50 65 8
>5 10 270 230 80 65 100 45 60 9
AW-6262 T6 - 200 260 240 80 65 95 45 60 10
- - 200
- - 25
- 25
AW-6063 0 - 200 < 130 - <40 <35 < 50 < 25 <30 18
.
HilI - 200
- - 25
- -
T4 D
.
150 130 65 40 35 50 25 30 14
S - 150
eR - 10
eP - 25
D >150 200 120 65 35 35 50 20 30 12
S >150 200
eR >10 25
eP - -
T5 D
.
200 175 130 55 45 70 30 40 8
S - 200
eR - 25
eP - 3
>3 25 160 110 50 45 65 30 40 7
~ I to 6 seepage 159.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 7 of 9
165
5 Appendices
Material Condition Rods/Bars D R
m
R
p crW,zd crsch,zd crW,b 'tW,s 'tW,t
A
notation
Rods/BarsS
Tubese
EN-notation
Profiles e
~ 3
DIN-notation
No. mm %
-c- 1 ~ 2 ~ 6 von bis ~ 4 ~ 5
continued T6 D - 150 215 170 65 55 80 35 50 10
S - 150
AW-6063 eR - 25
- eP - 10 8
-
D >150 200 195 160 60 50 75 35 45 10
S >150 200
eR
- -
eP >10 25 8
T66 D
-
200 245 200 75 60 90 40 55 10
S - 200
eR - 25
eP - 10 8
>10 25 225 180 70 55 85 40 50 8
T64 D - -
S - -
eR - -
eP - 15 180 120 55. 45 70 30 40 12
AW-6063 0, Hll1 D - 200 < 150
-
< 45 <40 <60 < 25 < 35 16
- S - 200
- eR - 25
eP - -
T4 D - 150 150 90 45 40 60 25 35 12
S - 150
eR - 10
eP - 25
D >150 200 140 90 40 40 55 25 35 10
S >150 200
eR >10 25
eP - -
T5 D - 200 200 160 60 50 '75 35 45 7
S - 200
eR - 25
eP - 10
>10 25 190 150 60 50 75 35 45 6
T6 D - 150 230 190 70 60 85 40 55 7
S - 150
eR - 25
eP - 10
D >150 200 220 160 65 55 85 40 50 7
S >150 200
eR >10 25 220 180 65 55 85 40 50 5
eP - -
AW-6463 T4 D - 150 125 75 40 35 50 20 30 14
- S - 150
- eR - -
eP - 50
T5 D - 150 150 110 45 40 60 25 35 8
S - 150
eR - -
eP - 50
T6 D - 150 195 160 60 50 75 35 45 10
S - 150
eR - 25
eP - 50
AW-6081 T6 D - 250 275 240 85 65 100 50 60 8
- S - 250
- eR - 25
eP -
T6 open eP - 25 275 240 85 65 100 50 60 8
T6 hollow ~ 6 - 15
~ 1to6 seepage 159,
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 8 of 9
166
5 Appendices
Material Condition Rods/Bars D R
m
R
p crW,zd crsch,zd crW,b ~ W , s ~ W , t
A
notation Rods r Bars S
Tubese
EN-notation
Profiles e
->3
DIN-notation
mm
%
No.
->1 ->2 ->6 von bis ->4
->5
AW-6082 0, HIll D - 200 < 160 < 110 < 50 <45 < 65 <30 <40 14
AlMgSiI S - 200
3.2315 eR - 25
eP - all
T4 D - 200 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 14
S - 200
eR - 25
eP - 25
T5 open eP - 5 270 230 80 65 100 45 60 8
T5 hollow ->6 - -
T6 open eP - 5 290 250 85 70 105 50 65 8
T6 hollow ->6 >5 15 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 10
-7003 T5 D - all 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 10
- S - all
- eR - all
eP - all
T6 D - 50 350 290 105 80 125 60 75 10
S - 50
eR - 10
eP - 10
D >50 150 340 280 100 80 120 60 75 10
S >50 150
eR >10 25
eP >10- 25
-7005 T6 D - 50 350 290 105 80 125 60 75 10
- S - 50
- eR - 15
eP - 40
D >50 200 340 270 100 80 120 60 75 10
S >50 200
eR
-
eP
-
-7020 T6 D - 50 350 290 105 80 125 60 75 10
AIZn4,5Mg1 S - 50
3.4335 eR - 15
eP - 40
D >50 200 340 275 100 80 120 60 75 10
S >50 200
eR
-
eP
-
-7022 T6, D - 80 490 420 145 100 165 85 105 7
AlZn5Mg3Cu T6510 S - 80
3.4345 T6511 eR - 30
eP - 30
D >80 200 470 400 140 100 160 80 100 7
S >80 200
eR
-
eP
-
-> 1to 6 see page159.
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.26 Continued, page 9 of 9
167
5 Appendices
Material Condition Rods/ Bars D R
m
R
p Cl"W,zd Cl"sch,zd Cl"W,b 'tW,s 'tW,t
A
notation
RodslBarsS
Tubese
EN-notation
Profiles e
DIN-notation
?3
No. mm %
? 1 ?2 von bis ?4 ?5
-7049A T6, D - 100 610 530 185 115 200 105 125 5
AIZnMgCu0,5 T6510, S - 100
3.4345 T6511 eR - 30
eP - 30
D >100 125 560 500 170 110 185 95 115 5
S >100 125
eR -
-
eP -
-
D >125 150 . 520 430 155 105 175 90 110 5
S >125 150
eR - -
eP - -
D >150 180 450 400 35 95 55 80 95 3
S >150 180
eR
- -
eP
-
-
·7075 0 D - 200 <275 < 165 <100 < 65 <100 < 50 <60 10
AIZnMgCu1,5 Hill S - 200
3.4365 eR - 10
eP - -
T6 D - 25 540 480 180 110 180 95 115 7
T6510 S - 25
T6511 eR - 5 8
eP >25 60 6
D >25 100 560 500 185 110 185 95 115 7
S >25 100
eR 5 10
eP - -
D >100 150 530 470 180 105 175 90 110 6
S >100 150
eR - -
eP - 25 530 460 180 105 175 90 110 6
D >150 200 470 400 160 110 160 80 100 5
S >150 200
eR
- -
eP
- -
T73 D
- 25 485 420 145 100 165 85 100 7
T73510 S - 25
T73511 eR 5 25
eP - 25
D >25 75 475 405 145 100 160 80 100 7
S >25 75
eR >25 50 8
eP - -
D >75 100 470 390 140 100 160 80 100 6
S >75 100 470 400 140 100 160 80 100 7
eR >5 25 485 420 145 100 165 85 105 8
- 5 470 400 145 100 160 80 100 7
eP - -
D >100 150 440 360 130 95 150 75 100 6
S >100 150
eR
- -
eP
- -
? 1to 6 see page159.
5.1 Material tables
168
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.27 Material properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys,
extruded profiles after DIN 1748 T. I (1983-02-00) (selected types of material only).
Material Wall R
m
R
p crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b "tW,s "tW,t
A5 AlO Hard- Con-
thi'*Y
ess ness
d W ~ n
% %
No.
-¢>2 -¢>2
DIN notation No. mm HB
AlMg3 F18 3.3535.08 any 180 80 55 50 70 30 40 14 12 45 p
AlMg5 F25 3.3555.08 to 10 250 110 75 60 95 45 55 13 11 55 p
AlMg2MnO,3 F15 3.3525.08 any 150 60 45 40 60 25 35 14 12 40
P
AlMg2MnO,8 F20 3.3527.08 any 200 100 60 50 75 35 45 13 11 50 p
AlMg4,5Mn F27 3.3547.08 any 270 140 80 65 100 45 60 12 10 65 p
AlMgSiO,5 F13 3.3206.51 any 130 65 40 35 50 25 30 15 13 45 ka
F22 .71 any 215 160 65 55 80 35 50
12
Y
't
lOY't
70 wa
F25 .72 to 10 245 195 75 60 90 40 55
lOY't 8
Y
't
75 wa
AlMgSiO,7 F26 3.3210.71
r J
260 215 80 65 95 45 60 8 6 85 wa
F27 .71
'0
270 225 80 65 100 45 60 8 6 90 wa
AlMgSil F21 3.2315.51 any 205 110 60 55 80 35 50 14 12 65 ka
F28 .71 to 10 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 12 10 80 wa
F31 .72 to 20 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 10 8 95 wa
AlCuMg1 F38 3.1325.51 2 to 30 380 230 115 85 135 65 85 io 8 95 ka
AlCuMg2 F44 3.1355.51 2 to 30 440 315 130 95 150 75 95 10 8 120 ka
AlCuSiMn F45 3.1255.71 2 to 30 450 400 135 95 155 80 95 7 6 135 wa
AlZn4,5Mg1 F35 3.4335.71 3 to 30 350 290 105 80 125 60 75 10 8 105 wa
AlZnMgCuO,5 F49 3.4345.71 2 to 30 490 420 145 100 165 85 105 7 6 140 wa
AlZnMgCul,5 F53 3.4365.71 2 to 30 530 460 160 105 180 90 110 7 6 150 wa
-¢> I The material condition assigned to a profile is determined by the maximum thickness of its wall or web plate.
-¢>2 The elongation A
5
is to be used for the assessment.
-¢>
3
ka =naturally aged, p =extruded, wa = artificially aged.
-¢>4 For profiles where the diameter ofthe circumscribing circle is larger than 250 mm the elongation A
5
is 8% minimum or A
IO
is 6 % minimum.
-¢>5 For solid sections with 6 mm to 10 mm thickness ofthe web plate and for hollow sections up to 10 mm wall thickness.
-¢>6 For solid.sections up to 6 mm thickness of the web plate.
5.1 Material tables
169
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.28 Material properties in MPa for wrought aluminum alloys,
forgings after DIN EN 586AW-2 (1994-11-00).
Material Product Con- Section Testing R
m
R
p crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b 'tW.s 'tW,t
A
dition size I direction %
~ 1
EN AWAW- Forgings, T4 IS 150 L 370 270 110 85 130 65 80 11
2014 any kind
AI Cu4SiMg
Die IS 50 L 440 380 130 95 150 75 95 6
forgings T6 orT 430 370 130 95 150 75 95 3
50 < IS 100
L 440 370 130 95 150 75 95 6
orT 430 360 130 95 150 75 95 3
Hand T652 IS75 L 440 380 130 95 150 75 95 8
forgings orLT 430 370 130 95 150 75 95 4
orST 420 360 125 90 145 75 90 3
75<15150
L 420 370 125 90 145 75 90 7
orLT 420 360 125 90 145 75 90 4
orST 410 350 125 90 145 70 90 3
150 < I S 200
L 410 360 125 90 145 70 90 6
orLT 410 350 125 90 145 70 90 3
orST 400 340 120 90 140 70 85 2
EN AWAW- Forgings, T4 IS 100 L 420 260 125 90 145 75 90 8
2024 any kind
AlCu4Mgl
EN AWAW- Forgings, H112 IS 150 L 270 120 80 65 100 5 60 12
5083 any kind orT 260 110 80 65 95 45 60 10
AlMg4,5MnO,7
EN AWAW- Forgings, Hil2 IS 150 L 180 80 55 50 70 30 40 15
5754 any kind
AlMg3
EN AWAW- Forgings, T6 IS 100 L 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 6
6082 any kind orT 290 250 90 70 105 50 65 5
AlSilMgMn
EN AW·7075 Die T6 IS 50 L 510 430 155 105 170 90 105 7
AI Zn5,5MgCu forgings orT 480 410 145 100 165 85 100 4
50 < 15100
L 500 425 150 105 170 85 105 6
orT 470 400 140 100 160 80 100 4
T73 IS 50 L 455 385 135 95 155 80 95 6
orT 420 360 125 90 145 75 90 4
50<IS 100
L 445 375 135 90 140 80 95 6
orT 410 350 125 100 165 70 90 3
Hand T652 1< 75 L 490 415 145 100 165 85 105 6
forgings orLT 480 400 145 100 160 85 100 4
or ST 470 390 140 100 160 80 100 3
75 < IS 150 L 470 385 140 100 160 80 100 6
orLT 460 375 140 95 160 80 100 4
or ST 445 370 135 95 155 75 95 3
T7352 1575 L 450 370 135 95 155 80 95 6
orLT 440 360 130 95 150 75 95 4
orST 430 350 130 95 150 75 95 3
75 < IS 150
L 420 350 125 90 145 75 90 6
orLT 410 340 125 90 145 70 90 4
or ST 395 330 120 85 140 70 85 3
~ 1 L: Direction parallel to the main grain flow,
LT: Direction parallel to larger cross section dimension (width),
T: Direction not parallel to the main grain flow,
ST: Direction parallel to smaller cross section dimension (thickness) (usually forging direction).
170
5.1 Material tables
Table 5.1.29 Material properties in MFa for wrought aluminumalloys,
die forgings after DIN 1749 T. 1 (1976-12-00) (Selected types of material only).
5 Appendices
Material Thick- Testing-
n,
n, CYW,zd CYSch,zd CYW,b 'tw,s 'tw,t
A5 Hard- Cnd.
ness direct. % ness
DINnotation No.
~ I
HB
~ 2
A1Mg3 F18 3.3535 .08 100 L 180 80 55 45 70 30 40 14 45 s
A1Mg5 F24 3.3555 .08 100 L 240 100 70 60 90 40 55 12 55 s
A1Mg4,5Mn F27 3.3547 .08 100 L 270 120 80 65 100 45 60 12 65 s
T 260 110 80 65 95 45 60 10
A1MgSiO,5 F22 3.3206 .61 100 L 215 160 65 55 80 35 50 12 65 wa
A1MgSiO,8 F28 3.2316 .61 100 L 275 200 85 65 100 50 60 8 75 wa
A1MgSil F20 3.2315 .41 100 L 200 100 60 50 75 35 45 12 60 ka
F28 .61 100 L 275 220 85 65 100 50 60 6 75 wa
T 260 200 80 65 95 45 60 5
F31 .62 100 L 310 260? 95 75 110 55 70 6 wa
A1CuMgl F38 T 290 250 90 70 105 50 65 5
3.1325 .41 100 L 380 230 115 85 135 65 85 10 ka
A1CuMg2 F42 3.1355 .41 100 L 420 260 125 90 145 75 90 8 ka
A1CuSiMn F44 3.1255 .61 50 L 440 380 130 95 150 75 95 6 120 wa
T 430 370 130 95 150 75 95 3
>50 to L 440 370 130 95 150 75 95 6
100 T 430 360 130 95 150 75 95 3
A1Zn4,5Mgl F35 3.4335 .61 100 L 350 280 105 80 125 60 75 10 95 wa
A1ZnMgCuO,5 F48 3.4345 .61 75 L 480 410 145 100 165 85 100 6 135 wa
T 470 400 140 100 160 80 100 3
F47 >75 to L 470 400 140 100 160 80 100 6 130
100 T 460 390 140 95 160 80 100 3
A1ZnMgCul,5 F50 3.4366 .61 50 L 500 420 150 105 170 85 105 6 135 wa
T 480 410 145 100 165 85 100 4
F49 .63 >50to L 490 410 145 100 165 85 105 6 130
100 T 470 400 140 100 160 80 100 4
F34 .63 50 L 450 380 135 95 155 80 95 6 120
T 420 360 125 90 145 75 90 4
F44 >50 to L 440 370 130 95 150 75 95 6 115
100 T 410 350 125 90 145 70 90 3
~ 1 L Direction parallelto the maingrainflow,
T Direction not parallelto the maingrainflow,
~ 2 Condition ka = naturallyaged, s = forged, wa = artificially aged.
5.1 Material tables
171
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.30 Material properties in MFa for wrought aluminum alloys,
hand forgings after DIN 17 606 (1976-12-00) (selected types of material only).
Material Thick- Testing- R
m
R
p crW,zd crSch,zd crW,b tW,s tW,t A5 Hard- Cnd.
ness
d ~ f t .
% ness
DINnotation No. HB
~ 2
AlMg3 F18 3.3535.08 100 L 180 80 55 45 70 30 40 14 45 s
AlMg4,5Mn F27 3.3547.08 100 L 270 120 80 65 100 45 60 12 65 s
LT 260 110 80 65 95 45 60 10 65
AlMgSil F20 3.2315 Al 100 L 200 100 60 50 75 35 45 12 65 ka
F28 .61 100 L 275 220 85 65 100 50 60 6 75 wa
F31 .62 100 L 310 260 95 75 110 55 70 6 90 wa
AlCuMgl F38 3.1325 Al 100 L 380 230 115 85 135 65 85 10 95 ka
AlCuMg2 F42 3.1355.61 100 L 420 260 125 90 145 75 90 8 105 ka
AlCuSiMn F44 3.1255.61 75 L 440 380 130 95 150 75 95 8 120 wa
LT 430 370 130 95 150 75 95 4 120
ST 420 370 125 90 145 75 90 3 120
F42 .61 >75to L 420 370 125 90 145 75 90 7 120 wa
150 LT 420 360 125 90 145 75 90 4 120
ST 410 360 125 90 145 70 90 3 120
F41 .61 >150 to L 410 360 125 90 145 70 90 6 120
200 LT 410 350 125 90 145 70 90 3 120
ST 400 350 120 90 140 70 85 2 120
AlZn4,5Mgl F35 3A335.61 100 L 350 370 105 80 125 60 75 10 90 wa
AlZnMgCuO,5 F48 3A345.61 75 L 480 410 145 100 165 85 100 6 135 wa
LT 470 400 140 100 160 80 100 4 135
ST 460 380 140 95 160 80 100 3 135
F47 .61 >75to L 470 400 140 100 160 80 100 6 130
150 LT 460 390 140 95 160 80 100 3 130
ST 450 370 135 95 155 80 95 2 130
F46 .61 >150to L 460 390 140 95 160 80 100 6 130
200 LT 450 360 135 95 155 80 95 4 130
ST 440 360 130 95 150 75 95 3 130
AlZnMgCul,5 F49 3A365 .61 75 L 490 420 145 100 165 85 105 6 135"" wa
LT 480 410 145 100 165 85 100 4 135
ST 470 390 140 100 160 80 100 3 135
F46 .61 >75 to L 460 380 140 95 160 80 100 6 135
150 LT 450 370 135 95 155 80 95 4 135
ST 440 370 130 95 150 75 95 3 135
F45 .63 75 L 450 380 135 95 155 80 95 6 120 wa
LT 440 370 130 95 150 75 95 4 120
ST 420 360 125 90 145 75 90 3 120
F42 .63 >75 to L 420 350 125 90 145 75 90 6 115
150 LT 410 350 125 90 145 70 90 4 115
ST 400 340 120 90 140 70 85 3 115
~ 1 L: Directionparallelto the maingrainflow,
LT: Direction parallelto largercrosssection dimension (width),
ST: Direction parallel to smallercrosssectiondimension (thickness) (usuallyforging direction).
~ 2 Condition ka =naturallyaged, s =forged, wa =artificially aged.
5.1 Material tables
172
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.31 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminumalloys,
sand castings, test pieces cast separately, after DIN EN 1706 (1998-06-00).
Material Con- Rm,N Rp,N crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N ~ W , s , N ~ W , t , N A50
Hard-
dition % ness
ENnotation DINnotation
HBS
AC-21000 AI Cu4MgTi T4 300 200 90 60 130 65 100 5 90
AC-21100 AI Cu4Ti T6 300 200 90 60 130 65 100 3 95
T64 280 180 85 55 125 65 95 5 85
AC-41000 AI Si2MgTi F 140 70 40 30 65 30 50 3 50
T6 240 180 70 50 lOS 55 80 3 85
AC-42000 AI Si7Mg F 140 80 40 30 65 30 50 2 50
T6 220 180 65 45 100 50 75 I 75
AC-42100 AI Si7MgO,3 T6 230 190 70 50 lOS 50 80 2 75
AC-42200 AI Si7MgO,6 T6 250 210 75 50 110 55 85 I 85
AC-43000 AI SiIOMg(a) F ISO 80 45 35 70 35 50 2 50
T6 220 180 65 45 100 50 75 I 75
AC-43 100 AI SiIOMg(b) F ISO 80 45 35 70 35 50 2 50
T6 220 180 65 45 100 50 75 I 75
AC-43200 AI SiIOMg(Cu) F 160 80 50 35 75 35 55 I 50
T6 220 180 65 45 100 50 75 1 75
AC-43300 AI Si9Mg T6 230 190 70 50 105 50 80 2 75
AC-44000 AISill F ISO 70 45 35 70 35 50 6 45
AC-44100 AISiI2(b) F ISO 70 45 35 70 35 50 4 50
AC-44200 AI SiI2(a) F ISO 70 45 35 70 35 50 5 50
AC-45000 AI Si6Cu4 F ISO 90 45 35 70 35 50 I 60
AC-45200 AI Si5Cu3Mn F 140 70 40 30 65 30 50 I 60
T6 230 200 70 50 105 50 80 < I 90
AC-45300 AI Si5CulMg T4 170 120 50 35 75 40 60 2 80
T6 230 200 70 50 lOS 50 80 <I 100
AC-46200 AI Si8Cu3 F ISO 90 45 35 70 35 50 I 60
AC-46400 AI Si9CulMg F 135 90 40 30 60 30 45 I 60
AC-46600 AI Si7Cu2 F ISO 90 45 35 70 35 50 I 60
AC-47000 AI SiI2(Cu) F ISO 80 45 35 70 35 50 I 50
AC-51000 AI Mg3(b) F 140 70 40 30 65 30 50 3 50
AC-5ll00 AI Mg3(a) F 140 70 40 30 65 30 50 3 50
AC-51300 AI Mg5 F 160 90 50 35 75 35 55 3 55
AC-51400 AIMG5(Si) F 160 100 50 35 75 35 55 3 60
AC-71000 AlZn5Mg T1 190 120 55 40 85 45 65 4 60
5.1 Material tables
173
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.32 Material properties in MFa for cast aluminum alloys,
permanent mold castings, test pieces cast separately, after DIN EN 1706
Material Cnd. Rm,N Rp,N crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N A50 Hard-
% ness
EN DINnotation
HBS
notation
AC-21000 Al Cu4MgTi T4 320 200 95 65 140 70 105 8 95
AC-21100 Al Cu4Ti T6 330 220 100 65 145 75 110 7 95
T64 320 180 95 65 140 70 105 8 90
AC-41000 Al Si2MgTi F 170 70 50 35 75 40 60 5 50
T6 260 180 80 55 115 60 90 5 85
AC-42000 Al Si7Mg F 170 90 50 35 75 40 60 2,5 55
T6 260 220 80 55 115 60 90 1 90
T64 240 200 70 50 105 55 80 2 80
AC-42100 Al Si7MgO,3 T6 290 210 85 60 130 65 100 4 90
T64 250 180 75 50 110 55 85 8 80
AC-42000 Al Si7MgO,6 T6 230 240 95 65 140 70 105 3 100
T64 290 210 85 60 130 65 100 6 90
AC-43000 Al Sil0Mg(a) F 180 90 55 40 80 40 60 2,5 55
T6 260 220 80 55 115 60 90 1 90
T64 240 200 70 50 105 55 80 2 80
AC-43100 Al SilOMg(b) F 180 90 55 40 80 40 60 2,5 55
T6 260 220 80 55 115 60 90 1 90
T64 240 200 70 50 105 55 80 2 80
AC-43200 Al Sil0Mg(Cu) F 180 90 55 40 80 40 60 1 55
T6 240 200 70 50 105 55 80 1 80
AC-43300 Al Si9Mg T6 290 210 85 60 130 65 100 4 90
T64 250 180 75 50 110 55 85 6 80
AC-44000 Al Sill F 170 80 50 35 75 40 60 7 45
AC-44100 Al Si12(b) F 170 80 50 35 75 40 60 5 55
AC-44200 Al Si12(a) F 170 80 50 35 75 40 60 6 55
AC-45000 Al Si6Cu4 F 170 100 50 35 75 40 60 1 75
AC-45100 Al Si5Cu3Mg T4 270 180 80 55 120 60 90 2,5 85
T6 320 280 95 65 140 70 105 <1 110
AC-45200 Al Si5CulMn F 160 80 50 35 75 35 55 1 70
T6 280 230 85 55 125 65 95 < 1 90
AC-45300 Al Si5CulMg T4 230 140 70 50 105 50 80 3 85
T6 280 210 85 55 125 65 95 <1 110
AC-45400 Al Si5Cu3 T4 230 110 70 50 105 50 80 6 75
AC-46200 Al Si8Cu3 F 170 100 50 35 75 40 60 1 75
AC-46300 Al Si7Cu3Mg F 180 100 55 40 80 40 60 1 80
AC-46400 Al Si9Cu1Mg F 170 100 50 35 75 40 60 1 75
T6 275 235 85 55 120 60 95 1,5 105
AC-46600 Al Si7Cu2 F 170 100 50 35 75 40 60 1 75
AC-47000 Al Si12(Cu) F 170 90 50 35 75 40 60 2 55
AC-48000 Al Si12CuNiMg T5 170 185 60 45 90 45 70 < 1 90
T6 275 240 85 55 125 65 95 < 1 100
AC-51000 Al Mg3(b) F 150 70 45 35 70 35 50 5 50
AC-51100 Al Mg3(a) F 150 70 45 35 70 35 50 5 50
AC-51300 Al Mg5 F 180 100 55 40 80 40 60 4 60
AC-51400 Al MG5(Si) F 180 110 55 40 80 40 60 3 65
AC-71000 Al Zn5Mg Tl 210 130 65 45 95 45 70 4 65
5.1 Material tables
174
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.33 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys,
investment castings, test pieces cast separately, after DIN EN 1706 (1998-06-00).
Material Cnd.
Rm,N Rp,N crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N 'tW,s,N 'tW,t,N A50
Hard-
% ness
EN notation DIN notation
HBS
AC-21000 AI Cu4MgTi T4 300 220 90 60 130 70 100 5 90
AC-42000 AI Si7Mg F 150 80 45 35 70 35 50 2 50
T6 240 190 70 50 105 55 80 1 75
AC-42100 AI Si7MgO,3 T6 260 200 80 55 115 60 90 3 75
AC-42200 AI Si7MgO,6 T6 290 240 85 60 130 65 100 2 85
AC-44100 AI SiI2(b) F 150 80 45 35 70 35 50 4 50
AC-45200 AI Si5Cu3Mn F 160 80 50 35 75 35 55 1 60
AC-51300 AlMg5 F 170 95 50 35 75 40 60 3 55
Table 5.1.34 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys,
high pressure die castings after DIN EN 1706 (1998-06-00), without obligation, for information only.
Material Cnd.
Rm,N Rp,N crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N 'tW,s,N 'tW,t,N A50
hard-
% ness
EN DIN notation
HBS
notation
AC-43400 AI SilOMg(Fe) F 240 140 70 50 105 55 80 1 - 70
AC-44300 AI SiI2(Fe) F 240 130 70 50 105 55 80 1 60
AC-44400 AI Si9 F 220 120 65 45 100 50 75 2 55
AC-46000 AI Si9Cu3(Fe) F 240 140 70 50 105 55 80 <1 80
AC-46100 AI Si11Cu2(Fe) F 240 140 70 50 105 55 80 <1 80
AC-46200 AI Si8Cu3 F 240 140 70 50 105 55 80 1 80
AC-46500 AI Si9Cu3(Fe)(Zn) F 240 140 70 50 105 55 80 < 1 80
AC-47100 AI SiI2Cul(Fe) F 240 140 70 50 105 55 80 1 70
AC-51200 AlMg9 F 200 130 60 45 90 45 70 1 70
5.1 Material tables
175
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.35 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys, alloys for general applications,
sand castings and permanent mould castings, after DIN 1725 T. 2 (1986-02-00).
Material Mate- Casting Rm,N Rp,N O'W,zd,N O'Sch,zd,N O'W,b,N 'tW,s,N 'tW,t,N A50
Hard-
DIN
rial process % ness
No.

HB
delivered I
G-AlSiI2 3.2581 Sand castings 150 70 45 35 70 35 50 5 45
.01 as-cast condit. (140) (70) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (3) (45)
G- 3.2581 Sand castings 150 80 45 35 70 35 50 6 45
AlSil2g .44 annealed and (140) (70) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (5) (45)
quenched
GK- 3.2581 Perm. mould c. 170 80 50 35 75 40 60 6 50
AlSil2 .02 as-cast conddit. (150) (80) (45) (35) (70) (35) (50) (3) (50)
GK- 3.2581 Perm. mould c. 170 80 50 35 75 40 60 6 50
AlSil2g .45 annealed and (160) (80) (50) (35) (75) (35) (55) (4) (50)
quenched
G- 3.2583 Sand castings 150 80 45 35 70 35 50 I 50
AlSiI2(Cu) .01 as-cast condit. (140) (80) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (l) (50)
GK- 3.2583 Perm. mould c. 180 90 55 40 80 40 60 2 55
AlSiI2(Cu) .02 as-cast condit. (160) (90) (50) (35) (75) (35) (55) (I) (55)
G- 3.2381 Sand castings 160 80 50 35 75 35 55 2 50
AlSilOMg .01 as-cast condit. (150) (70) (45) (35) (70) (35) (50) (2) (50)
G- 3.2381 Sand castings 220 180 65 45 100 50 75 I 80
AlSilOMg .61 wa (200) (170) (60) (45) (90) (45) (70) (I) (75)
wa
GK- 3.2381 Perm. mould c. 180 90 55 40 80 40 60 2 60
AlSilOMg .02 as-cast condit. (180) (90) (55) (40) (80) (40) (60) (2) (60)
GK- 3.2381 Perm. mould c. 240 210 70 50 105 55 80 I 85
AlSilOMg .62 wa (220) (190) (65) (45) (100) (50) (75) (I) (80)
wa
G- 3.2383 Sand castings 170 90 50 35 75 40 60 I 55
AlSiIOMg(Cu) .01 as-cast condit. (150) (80) (45) (35) (70) (35) (50) (1) (55)
G- 3.2383 Sand castings 220 180 65 45 100 50 75 I 80
AlSiIOMg(Cu) .61 wa (200) (180) (60) (45) (90) (45) (70) (0,5) (75)
wa
GK- 3.2383 Perm. mould c. 200 100 60 45 90 45 70 I 65
AlSiIOMg(Cu)I .02 as-cast condit. (180) (100) (55) (40) (80) (40) (60) (0,5) (60)
GK- 3.2383 Perm. mould c. 240 210 70 50 105 55 80 I 85
AlSiIOMg(Cu) .62 wa (220) (190) (65) (45) (100) (50) (75) (0,5) (80)
wa
G- 3.2163 Sand castings 160 100 50 35 75 35 55 I 65
AlSi9Cu3 .01 as-cast condit. (140) (100) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (0,5) (60)
GK- 3.2163 Perm. mould c. 180 110 55 40 80 40 60 I 70
AlSi9Cu3 .02 as-cast condit. (160) (100) (50) (35) (75) (35) (55) (0,5) (65)
G- 3.2151 Sand castings 160 100 50 35 75 35 55 I 60
AlSi6Cu4 .01 as-cast condit. (140) (100) (40) (30) (659 (30) (50) (0,5) (60)
GK- 3.2151 Perm. mould c. 180 120 55 40 80 40 60 I 75
AlSi6Cu4 .02 as-cast condit. (160) (110) (50) (35) (75) (35) (55) (0,5) (65)


wa = artificially aged
Upper line: values for test pieces cast separately,
line below (in brackets): values for test pieces cast integrally or taken from the casting.
5.1 Material tables
176
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.36 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys, alloys with particular mechanical pro-
perties, sand castings, permanent mould castings and investment castings, after DIN 1725 T. 2 (1986-02-00).
Material Mate- Casting
Rm,N Rp,N crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N 'tW,s,N 'tW,t,N A50
Hard-
notation
rial process % ness
no.

HB
delivered 1
G- 3.2211 Sand castings 150 70 45 35 70 35 50 6 45
AlSilI .01 As-cast condit. (140) (70) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (5) (45)
G- 3.221I Sand castings 150 70 45 35 70 35 50 8 45
AlSill .81 annealed (140) (70) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (7) (40)
g
GK- 3.221I Perm.mould c. 170 80 50 35 75 40 60 7 45
AlSill .02 As-cast condit. (150) (80) (45) (35) (70) (35) (50) (6) (45)
GK- 3.2211 Perm.mould c. 170 80 50 35 75 40 60 9 45
AlSill .82 Annealed (150) (80) (45) (35) (70) (35) (50) (8) (40)
g
G- 3.2373 Sand castings 230 190 70 50 100 50 80 2 75
AlSi9Mg .61 Wa (220) (180) (65) (45) (100) (50) (75) (2) (75)
wa
GK- 3.2373 Perm.mould c. 250 200 75 50 110 55 85 4 80
AlSi9Mg .62 Wa (240) (190) (70) (50) (105) (55) (80) (3) (80)
wa
G- 3.2371 Sands 230 190 70 50 105 50 80 2 75
AlSi7Mg .61 Wa (230) (190) (70) (50) (105) (50) (80) (2) (75)
wa
GK- 3.2371 Perm.mould c. 250 200 75 50 1I0 55 85 5 80
AlSi7Mg .62 Wa (250) (200) (75) (50) (1I0) (55) (85) (3) (80)
wa
GF- 3.2371 Investm. casts. 260 200 80 55 1I5 60 90 3 80
AlSi7Mg .63 Wa (230) (190) (70) (50) (105) (50) (80) (3) (70)
wa
G- 3.1841 Sand castings 280 180 85 55 125 65 95 5 85
AlCu4Ti .63 Ta (240) (160) (70) (50) (105) (55) (80) (3) (80)
ta
G- 3.1841 Sand castings 300 200 90 60 130 70 100 3 95
AlCu4Ti .61 Wa (250) (180) (75) (50) (110) (55) (85) (2) (90)
wa
GK- 3.1841 Perm.mould c. 320 180 95 65 140 70 105 8 90
AlCu4Ti .64 Ta (260) (170) (80) (55) (1I5) (60) (90) (4) (85)
ta
GK- 3.1841 Perm.mould c. 330 220 100 65 145 75 110 7 95
AlCu4Ti .62 Wa (280) (200) (85) (55) (125) (65) (95) (3) (90)
wa
G- 3.1371 Sand castings 300 220 90 60 130 70 100 5 90
AlCu4TiMg .41 Ka (240) (180) (70) (50) (125) (55) (80) (3) (85)
ka
GK- 3.1371 Perm.mould c. 320 220 95 60 130 70 105 8 95
AlCu4TiMg .42 Ka (280) (200) (85) (50) (125) (65) (95) (5) (90)
ka
GF- 3.1371 Investm. casts. 300 220 90 60 130 70 100 5 90
AlCu4TiMg .45 Ka (270) (180) (80) (55) (120) (60) (90) (3) (85)
ka


ka = naturally aged, ta = partially aged, wa = artificially aged.
Upper line: values for test pieces cast separately,
line below (in brackets): values for test pieces cast integrally or taken from the casting.
5.1 Material tables
177
5 Appendices
Table 5.1.37 Material properties in MPa for for cast aluminum alloys, alloys for particular applications,
sand castings, permanent mould castings and investment castings, after DIN 1725 T. 2 (1986-02-00).
Material Material Casting Rm,N Rp,N crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N 'tW,s,N 'tW,t,N A50 Hard-
DIN notation No. process, % ness
Condition as

HB

I
G- 3.3541 Sand castings 140 70 40 30 65 30 50 3 50
AlMg3 .01 as-cast condit. (130) (60) (40) (30) (65) (30) (45) (3) (45)
GK- 3.3541 Penn. mould c. 150 70 45 35 70 35 50 5 50
AlMg3 .02 as-cast condit. (150) (70) (45) (35) (70) (35) (50) (4) (50)
GF- 3.3541 Investment c. 150 90 45 35 70 35 50 3 60
AlMg3 .09 as-cast condit. (140) (80) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (3) (55)
G- 3.3241 Sand castings 140 80 40 30 65 30 50 3 50
AlMg3Si .01 as-cast condit. (130) (70) (40) (30) (60) (30) (45) (3) (45)
G- 3.3241 Sand castings 200 120 60 40 90 45 70 2 65
AlMg3Si .61 wa (180) (120) (55) (40) (80) (40) (60) (2) (60)
wa
GK- 3.3241 Penn. mould c. 150 80 45 35 70 35 50 4 50
AlMg3Si .02 as-cast condit. (140) (80) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (4) (50)
GK- 3.3241 Penn. mould c. 220 120 65 45 100 50 75 3 65
AlMg3Si .62 wa (220) (120) (65) (45) (100) (50) (75) (3) (65)
wa
GF- 3.3241 Investment c. 200 120 60 40 90 45 70 2 60
AlMg3Si .63 wa (180) (120) (55) (40) (80) (40) (60) (2) (55)
wa
G- 3.3561 Sand castings 160 100 50 35 75 35 55 3 55
AlMg5 .01 as-cast condit. (140) (90) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (2) (50)
GK- 3.3561 Penn. mould c. 180 100 55 40 80 40 60 4 60
AlMg5 .02 as-cast condit. (150) (100) (45) (35) (70) (35) (50) (2) (55)
G- 3.3261 Sand castings 160 110 50 35 75 35 55 2 60
AlMg5Si .01 as-cast condit. (140) (l00) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (1) (55)
GK- 3.3261 Penn. mould c. 180 110 55 40 80 40 60 2 65
AlMg5Si .02 as-cast condit. (150) (100) (45) (35) (70) (35) (50) (1) (60)
G- 3.2341.0 Sand castings 140 100 40 30 65 30 50 1 55
AlSi5Mg 1 as-cast condit. (130) (90) (40) (30) (60) (30) (45) (0,5) (55)
GK- 3.2341 Penn. mould c. 160 120 50 35 75 35 55 1,5 60
AlSi5Mg .02 as-cast condit. (140) (100) (40) (30) (65) (30) (50) (I) (60)
GK- 3.2341 Penn. mould c. 260 240 80 55 115 60 90 I 90
AlSi5Mg .62 wa (190) (180) (55) (40) (85) (45) (65) (0,5) (90)
wa


wa = artificially aged
Upper line: values for test pieces cast separately,
line below (in brackets): values for test pieces cast integrally or taken from the casting.
Table 5.1.38 Material properties in MPa for cast aluminum alloys,
high pressure casting alloys after DIN 1725 T. 2 (1986-02-00).
Material Material Casting Rm,N Rp,N crW,zd,N crSch,zd,N crW,b,N 'tW,s,N 'tW,t,N A50 Hard-
DIN nataion No. process, % ness
Condition as HB
delivered
GO- 3.2163 High press. c 240 140 70 50 105 55 80 0,5 80
AlSi9Cu3
2)
.05 as-cast
condition
GO- 3.2585 High press. c 220 140 65 45 100 50 75 1 60
AlSi12 .05 as-cast
condition
GO- 3.2982 High press. c 220 140 65 45 100 50 75 I 60
AlSiI2(Cu) .05 as-cast
condition
GO- 3.2381 High press. c 220 140 65 45 100 50 75 1 70
AlSilOMg .05 as-cast
condition
GO- 3.3292 High press. c 200 140 60 45 90 45 70 I 70
AlMg9 .05 as-cast
condition
5.2 Stress concentration factors
178
5 Appendices
5.2 Stress concentration factors
lR52 EN.dog
Page
178
Content
5.2.0 General
5.2.0 General
d
D
+C{
Constants, Table 5.2.1,
See Figure 5.2.1 to 5.2.6.
(5.2.2)
5.2.1.1 Round bars with groove or shoulder fillet
The stress concentration factors for round bars with a
groove or shoulder fillet in tension, in bending and in
torsion are to be computed after Petersen from the
equation below, or are to be taken from the Figures
5.2.1 to 5.2.6, r> 0, diD < 1:
Table 5 2 1 Constants ABC z for round bars
A,B,C,z
r, t, d, D
K, = 1+--;===========
.. , , ,
Groove Shoulder fillet
ten- ben- tor- ten- ben- tor-
sion ding sion sion ding sion
A 0,22 0,2 0,7 0,62 0,62 3,4
B 1,37 2,75 10,3 3,5 5,8 19
C
- - - - 0,2 1
z
- - - - 3 2
180
181
182
183
184
185
Round bars
General
Round bars with groove or shoulder fillet
Round bars with multiple grooves
Round bars with relief groove
Round bars with collar (narrow shoulder)
Flat bars
General
Flat bars with notches or shoulder
fillets on both sides
Flat bars with notch on one side
Flat bars with multiple notches
Flat bars with transverse hole
Flat bars with notches on both sides
or with transverse hole, bending in plane
Flat bars with narrow shoulder
5.2.2.2
5.2.2.3
5.2.2.4
5.2.2.5
5.2.1
5.2.1.0
5.2.1.1
5.2.1.2
5.2.1.3
5.2.1.4
5.2.2
5.2.2.0
5.2.2.1
5.2.2.6
(5.2.1)

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 ,
dID
(5.2.3)
( )
2
r r r
022·-+274·-· 1+2·-
, t ' d d
Kt,zd = 1 +---;===========
Figure 5.2.1 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with groove in tension, r > 0, diD < 1.
1
5.2.1 Round bars
5.2.1.0 General
Stress concentration factors may be determined by the.
user if he has more detailed knowledge at his disposal.
Stress concentration factors for round bars and for flat
bars are to be determined from the following equations
and figures. Stress concentration factors are used
together with Kj-K, ratios for computing fatigue notch
factors, Chapter 2.3.2.1.
Stress concentration factors are applicable in
combination with nominal stresses *1.
Stress concentration factors are given for round bars in
tension (load F), in bending (bending moment M, ) and
in torsion (torsion moment M
t
) *2.
The related nominal stresses are
Szd = 4 F I nd
2
,
Sb = 32 Mbl nd
3
,
T
t
=16 Mtl nd
3
.
The diameter d is shown in the respective figures.
1 Sometimes the nominal stress may be defined in a different way, for
example see Figure 5.2.20.
2 In the following tension or compression or tension-compression are
mentioned as tension throughout.
Stress concentration factors for shear are not available. Therefore no
formula for the nominal shear stress is contained in Eq. (5.2.1)
5.2 Stress concentration factors
179
5 Appendices
rl t
0.2
J'-n-f-1'-¥iffl'rHLH
O. 25


0.5
h"71,.7'J;..<f----7'h47oL-.N----HI

2.5
is>f3....-;7'''b..-s-f'O--f,,L-h7L+i
5


0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 I
diD
F
--
0.06
'>,,+--+--¥->L-,H 0.07
0.06
-+---¥---,+-,oY-Hi-i
o,09
0.1
0.15
0.2
h"'-l7"-7f-r-,>"17'n-f--7'f--rtiO,25
0.3

o.s

I
1.5

-i'7-::$1;:"=::=-+=""...f"::-"-:j;;.;$;:;.<f-;;rti 5

0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 1
diD
(5.2.6)
( )
2
r r r
062·-+7·-· 1+2·-
, t d d
Figure 5.2.4 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with shoulder fillet in tension, r > 0, diD < 1.
1
1< == 1+--,=========

(5.2.4)
( )
2
r r r
o20· - + 5 5. -. 1+ 2. -
, t ' d d
Figure 5.2.2 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with groove in bending, r> 0, d / D < 1.
1
Kt,b== 1 +r==========
MtC
GMt
0.05
0,06
0,07
Kt,t
0.08
0.09
0,1
4
3
2
1
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.9 1
diD
t
0,06
'f-l'-H'HO,07
0,08
-t--+--f--HCf11-iO,09
0.1
t--t--t--H'--loLf--MHIH

1.5
2

10
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
diD
d
D
Figure 5.2.5 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with shoulder fillet in bending, r > 0, diD < 1.
(5.2.7)

,b 062. E+1l6'.!.'(1+2. .!.)2 +02.(E)3
, t ' d d ' t
(5.2.5)
( )
2
r r r
o70· - + 20 6 .-. 1+ 2· -
, t ' d d
Figure 5.2.3 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with groove in torsion, r > 0, d / D < 1.
1
1< == 1+r=========

5.2 Stress concentration factors
180
5 Appendices
d
D
(5.2.8)
Figure 5.2.9 Round bar
with "bolt head".
5.2.1.5 Round bars with collar (narrow shoulder)
The stress concentration factors for the round bars with
bolt head in tension, Figure 5.2.9, are approximately the
same as for the flat bars with shoulder head, Figure
5.2.26 (d = b, D= B).
Figure 5.2.8 Round
bar with relief
groove, type D.
5.2.8
FormD
The stress concentration factors for round bars with
relief groove, type D, Kt,F , Figure 5.2.8, are to be
computed by superposition of the stress concentration
factors for round bars with groove and with shoulder
fillet *4:

K, F = (KtU - K, A.>' -- + K, A, (5.2.9)
, , , D-d '
Kt,U Stress concentration factor of the round bar
with groove, Figure 5.2.1 to 5.2.3.
Kt,A Stress concentration factor of the round bar
with shoulder fillet, Figure 5.2.4 to 5.2.6.
D
1
Smaller diameter,
d Reduced diameter,
D Larger diameter.
MtC
GMt
r
Kt,t
4
.04
.05
.06
3 .07
.08
.
2
,2
4°,3
l' 0.5
1,5
2.5
1
°
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
dID
K, = 1 +-,============
.t +l.O.(f)'
5.2.1.2 Round bars with multiple grooves
Stress concentration factors for round bars with multiple
grooves in tension, in bending and in torsion are to be
determined as for flat bars with multiple notches,
Chapter 5.2.2.3. .
Figure 5.2.6 Stress concentration factors for round bars
with shoulder fillet in torsion, r > 0, d / D < 1.
5.2.1.3 Round bars with relief groove
FormB
Stress concentration factors for round bars with relief
groove, type B, Figure 5.2.7, are to be determined as for
the round bars with shoulder fillet with the diameters
d and D, Figure 5.2.4 to 5.2.6, *3. The fatigue strength
of type B is lower than that of type D.
Figure 5.2.7 Round
bars with relief groove,
type B.
The stress concentration factors for the round bars with
collar, Figure 5.2.10, in tension, in bending and in
torsion, are to be computed from
Eq. (5.2.10):
= 1 + (K, - 1)' Kt,b,LlD -1 , (5.2.10)
, Kt,b,Ll D=2 -1
K,L Stress concentration factor of a collar with
, values L / D and d / D according to type
of stress,
K, Stress concentration factor of the shoulder
fillet with values d / D according to type of
stress, Figure 5.2.4, 5.2.5 or 5.2.6.
3 11 is assumed that the additional small shoulder does not influence the
stress concentration factor considerably as fl / r 5 .
4 Different from type B it is accepted, that the additional small shoulder
does influence the stress concentration factor considerably as f3 / r 2 .
5 Appendices
0,4
4 0,5
0,2
-tJ--r--:o110,25
0,3

1,5
\L.,...:::j,.4-7Fr-t--1:r-::PA1t,5

10

181
Figure 5.2.10
Round bar with
collar.
5.2 Stress concentration factors
K Stress concentration factor in bending for the
"'1,b,UD
actual value LID from Figure 5.2.24 (D = B,
d = b), referring to the diagram providing the
closest approximation ofB lb.
Stress concentration factor in bending for the
value LID =LIB from Figure 5.2.24 (D =B,
d =b), referring to the diagram as before.
5.2.2 Flat bars
5.2.2.0 General
1 .
0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0
biB
Figure 5.2.11 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with notches on both sides in tension, r> 0, biB < 1 .
(5.2.13)
( )
2
r r r
o22· - +17 . -. 1+ 2. -
, t ' b b
= 1 +r=========
The related nominal stresses are normally to be
computed according to the following equations:
Stress concentration factors are given for flat bars in
tension (load F) and in bending (bending moment M, )
'5
The dimensions sand b are shown in the figures. 0,2
0;25
0,3
t-7''-hH'-r*'''''rt--f-.Jf+.A-I
1 .... .
0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0
bIB

1,5
f-:;;.f-:;>""V"74rr:7"f--t"7'H2
2,5
2 1"'75""''-:rl7'''T-""7I''-'7'j7"--t1 5

6..2.12
MJ B .. """'"""""71rTTlrxr--m
r
/ t =
Thickness s 5 ' r:k'
1---+7''-1;;:)'
K
t b
Figure 5.2.12 Stress concentrationfactors for flat bars
with notches on both sides in bending, r > 0, biB < 1.
(5.2.11)
(5.2.12)
1
( )
2
r r r
A·-+2B·-· 1+2·-
t b b
Constants, Table 5.2.2,
See Figures 5.2.11 to 5.2.14.
K, = 1 +---;========
A,B
r, t, b, B
Szd= F I (s . b),
Sb = 6 Mb I (s . b
2
) .
Otherwise the equations to compute the nominal stresses
are presented with the diagrams in question.
5.2.2.1 Flat bars with notches or shoulder fillets on
both sides
The stress concentration factors for flat bars with
notches or shoulder fillets on both sides in tension and
in bending are to be computed from the equations
below, or read from the Figures 5.2.11 to 5.2.14, r> 0,
diD < 1, thickness s:
5 In the following tension or compression or tension-compression are
mentioned as tension throughout. .
(5.2.14)
1
( )
2
r r r
020·-+42·-· 1+2·-
, t ' b b
= 1+r=========
Notch on both sides Shoulder fillet
Tension Bending Tension Bending
A 0,22 0,2 0,5 0,5
B 0,85 2,1 2,5 6
Table 5.2.2 Constants A and B for flat bars
5.2 Stress concentration factors
182
5 Appendices
5:2.15
ss s
..
, .::rrnnTMb(
! _.-
r-
- =0,04
)
r
i
I
.. Thickne
. 0,08
.;...-t-1 I

I
I .
0,2
,
: I
0,4
it' 0,6
I
,
I I
i
I-
..... 3,8
3,6
3,4
3,2
3,0
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
1,&
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,0
1,01,21,41,61,& 2,02,2 2,42,62,M 3,0
. . - "BIb
Stress concentration factors for flat bars with a notch on
one side in bending according to Figure 5.2.15.
5.2.2.2 Flat bar with notch on one side
Figure 5.2.15 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with a notch on one side in bending, after Sors.
(5.2.15)

0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1,0
bIB
(
J
2
r r r
05·-+5·_· 1+2·-
, t b b
5.2.H
F F r/t=
- . B-·- b __ +--+.,-r-r-rr-,.,....,...".,
0,08
0.09
Thickness s r 0 1
5 '
zd == 1 +---;=========
Figure 5.2.13 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with shoulder fillet in tension, r > 0, b / B < 1.
1
Figure 5.2.17 approximately applies for both tension
and bending. With the effective depth t' of a single
notch the stress concentration factors are to be
determined from Figure 5.2.11 and 5.2.12.
5.2.2.3 Flat bars with multiple notches
Stress concentration factors for flat bars with multiple
notches in tension according to Figure 5.2.16.
For a large number of notches arranged in a row on one
side of a flat bar the effective depth t' of an equivalent
single notch is to be computed with a release factor y
from Figure 5.2.17:
r/t==
MJ )Mb-r--r---rTTTTl
Thickness s 5 1-+--1-,.-+---,t--t
Kt,b

0,4 0,5 0,6 0.7 0,8 0,9 I,D
6.2.14 . ) IB
t' == y' t . (5.2.17)
(5.2.16)
Figure 5.2.14 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with shoulder fillet in bending, r> 0, b / B < 1.
1
(
J
2
r r r
05·-+12·-· 1+2·-
, t b b
5.2 Stress concentration factors
183
5 Appendices
5.2.16
F F
--
5.2.2.4 Flat bars with transverse hole
Stress concentration factors for flat bars with a circular
or slotted transverse center hole for different types of
stress are given in Figure 5.2.18 to 5.2.20.
BI r = 18, Thickness s
F
(5.2.19)
bl
Thickness s
21 --
F
s.(B-2t) .
I trt
F
--
+-- D-
1 N-
-'2r
I'
tl r-=
4
I- 1..- r:::l

3,8
J4,ro 3,6
3,4
3,2
3,0
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
0
0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7
5.2.18 rib
Nominal stress: Szd
Figure 5.2.18 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with a circular or slotted transverse center hole in
tension, after Peterson (Ref. Frocht and Leven),
photoelastic study. In addition circular hole after
Peterson (Ref. Howland), elastic analysis. hole: t / r = 1;
limit value for b / r - 0: Kt,z= 2.
(5.2.18)
F F
-- --
r t I I
m.s\\l)
01 notch

...;.+- p
\c\\e
s
c::-
1 nO c\\"
oS
r--
. 5 (\o\c\\
r-
ec limit case (b)
3,2
3,0
2.8
2,6
2,4
1,,2
2,°
2
4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22
e/r
Figure 5.2.16 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with multiple notches in tension. The stress
concentration factor is valid for the first (or last) notch
in the row, after Peterson (Ref. Durelli, Lake and
Phillips), photoelastic study.
Nominal stress: S d F
z s.(B-r)
o 0
b/2
MJ
2t- .
tb
Thickness s
C
2r
1,4 ;Y' J 'f
1,2 1/ I ""''Kt.b,F = '" ±j
H:::.+-.i-+-,.f4I--,f....:,:.=, 1 (1'= 30')f-"

o 0.1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 06 0,7 0& 09 1,0
rIb
I I I
J...-t 1111'"''
V I I I I I I r TT1 1
1/
ll\rJ\lrw
1./
II
,
1,0
Y
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
bIt
Figure 5.2.17 Release factor y for an infinite number of
notches in a row, after Peterson (Ref. Neuber), elastic
analysis.
(5.2.20)
Figure 5.2.19 stress concentration factors for flat bars
with a circular or slotted transverse center hole in
bending, after Peterson (Ref. Procht and Leven),
photoelastic study. Hole: t / r = 1; limit value for
b / r - 0: Kt,z= 2.
Nominal stress (at reference point G):
M
b
Sb G =--------.::::-----
, (1-(2t1B)3).s.B
2/6
5.2 Stress concentration factors
184
5 Appendices
Nominal stresses (away from or at the notched section):
F
S
I I
1'\
'"
I.....
2r I s == I"-- I"--r-
r-, 0
.....
.......
r-,

r-
0,25
r-,
r-... 0,5
I"C'" ....... 1
r-,
1,5
1'-.,2
oc--
r-
3,0
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1'°0 0,] 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7
2r 18
Figure 5.2.22 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with transverse hole in bending in plane, after Peterson,
photoelastic study; strain measurements, 2r / s = 0 after
Peterson (Ref.: Howland), elastic analysis.
c
F
-I- K.t zd ee
0
-I-, ',i SZd,,,,,
I-
!"-B/b== 1
81-
II
2
' F,
6

tr
4

2
'V/
"
°

8
I-
tts
K. - ac
61-
f", t,zd,C - Szd,A-
4
i'-...
"I
"
°
Kt,zd 3,
3,
3,
3,
2,
2,
2,
2,
b
Thickness s
5.2.20
--
F B
2, 0 01
, 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5
rib
Figure 5.2.20 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with excentric hole in tension, after Peterson (Ref.:
Sjoestroem), elastic analysis.
Any B / b ; transverse hole: B / b = I.
5.2.2.5 Flat bars with notches on both sides or with
transverse hole, bending in plane
Stress concentration factors for flat bars with notches on
both sides or with transverse hole in bending in plane
are given in Figure 5.2.21 to 5.2.23.
( s-···
1\
._ ....
I.....
0
. 6M
b
Nominal stress: Sb- . (5.2.22)
(B-2r).s2

2,4
2,2
2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
]'°0 2 3 4 5 6 7
2rls
Figure 5.2.23 Stress concentration factors for broad flat
bars with transverse hole in bending in plane, after
Peterson (Ref.: Goodier and Reissner), elastic analysis,
bending moment per unit of length m, in N.
Nominal stress: Sb= 6 mb/ s2 . (5.2.23)
(5.2.21)
0,08 0,12
rib
0,04
s·(B+b) ,

B b



--
MJ
s
I
I
1\
1\' 1 1 I
,'\I
I,,,·

Bib ==
I'

"
'/"0
oc
'1.
0
.... ::;;: 2.00'
1-1"--1-
I'Sro-
...... 1,50
to-
3,0
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1'°0
Figure 5.2.21 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with notches on both sides in bending in plane, after
Peterson (Ref.: Goodier, G. H. Lee and Neuber), elastic
analysis, (B - b) » s , r> O.
5.2 Stress concentration factors
185
5 Appendices
5.2.2.6 Flat bars with narrow shoulder
Stress concentration factors for flat bars with narrow
shoulder in bending after Figure 5.2.24.
Figure 5.2.24 stress concentration factors for flat bars
with narrow shoulder in bending, after Peterson
(Ref.: Leven and Hartman), photoelastic study.
B / b = 1,25; 2 and 3.
.5.2.24
Thickness s
rIb ==

1,0 LIB 2,0
B/b=3 vf"'" ':"[(f
-- ,
'I V »:
-bd4 / /'
,..-
r/ ......- 1'1
-
f--
r- 0,05'
il ./
......9,°1
6
1/
_.....
/
9,0,g
l-
I-"
/'
-P'\=
-
I I
1 o15
I v
02=
.- " I

;;..--
o's:M.=
, -1,0-
1,4
1,2
1,°
0
1,8
1,6
Kt,b
3,0
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
rIb ==

1,0 LIB 2,0
'''-C:::
p
. 'fT
Bib == 2,... _f- °025
Ii ././ " ,
I ./ _f-
II I / »:
-d,04-
111//
-
l-
I, rlI
,.......
0,05
fl
--
'I V
0,06
'/ ./
6,08-
'/
"..
0,1=
1/ I......
-
I I
" V
0,15

62-


I.......

O'g:.M=
" -1,0=
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,00
Kt,b
3,0
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
rib ==
00\
1,0 LIB 2,0
... '
I
Bib == 1,25 1-:::
f-O,015
,
.......
0,02=
-
......
0,025
I / v-:
-
l-
II /
..,
I-

1 / .....
".
I .=
fI '/
-

II.
--
..... I I

II
'"
.-
- 0,06
(/ V
-
f/ v
-0,08
1.,..00
foo-
0,1-
v.....l-
. ,
w....

02=
V
',-

V

'10=
I '
1,8
1,4
1,2
1,00
1,6
2,2
2,0
2,4
2,8
2,6
Kt,b
3,0
(5.2.24)
Stress concentration factors for flat bars with shoulder
head and concentrated compression loads at the
specified positions according to Figure 5.2.25.
o

3b bis 5b
F/2
"'(
0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 (b - r)
---b-
Ir
\
Thickness s
\ 3b
r-, I
r-,

h£:
.....
0,05 i!J.
0,075 ?
0,1
rl b=
II
3
2
5
4
6
Kt,zd
Stress concentration factors for flat bars with narrow
shoulder in tension may be approximately computed
from Eq. (5.2.24):
T< = 1+ (T< _ I)' Kt,b,LlB -I
K _ -1'
t,b,LlB-2
T< stress concentration factor for the "narrow"

shoulder and values L / Band B / b,
T< Stress concentration factor for the "broad"

shoulder in tension and values b / B after
Figure 5.2.13,
T< Stress concentration factor for the "narrow"

shoulder and values L / B in bending after
Figure 5.2.24 (diagram that is closest to the
value BIb in question).
K, b UB=2 stress concentration factor in bending for
, , L / B = 2 after Figure 5.2.24 (Diagram as
before)
Figure 5.2.25 Stress concentration factors for flat bar
with shoulder and concentrated compression loads at the
specified positions, after Peterson (Ref.: Hetenyi),
photoelastic study.
5.2 Stress concentration factors
Stress concentration factors for flat bars with shoulder
head and distributed compression loads at the specified
line positions after Figure 5.2.26.
Figure 5.2.26 Stress concentration factors for flat bars
with shoulder head and distributed compression loads at
the specified line positions, after Peterson (Ref.:
Hetenyi), photoelastic study. r / b = 0,05; 0,075; 0,1 and
0,2.
186
5.2.26
5 Appendices
Thickness s
3,0
BIb
2,5
Ib = 0,100' I
./
"
./
I
.>

"
.' ,>" ./
V
./
I'-I--
1-» "" I), ./
......
1/ V \)01) ./ ./
"
V ...... \)§Y ./
......
1\).....,:'0;.. ..,::: 7"
".. v".. ".. V
".".
-
- V
::; '-
.-

:;;.
-
.....
I-- \,1.) . ::::::
......
-- \.5
-'
"-
3,0

-
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
2,0
Kt,Zd
11
10
3,0 2,5 2,0
I I I
""
"r., A
II
""
V
./

""'"
1/ / VI),b? v
,
/ ,/ 1/
........11)

/
""
0,
"..-
,/ 1/ V
_
I..... /'
,
1/
1/
_I'
-

L..--
_.......

:-'
1/ _fo-
I-
0,9°095
- ';;;-
-I-
fo- \ ,0F==-

1,2=-
I
-
\,51-
I I I-
-

I I

I-r I b = 0,050
I !
I I I I I r
4
3
1,5
5
10
9
8
7
6
Kt,zd
13
12
11
Bib
I I
rib =0,075
1/
V j
,/
1/

V /
V V
\'Q"? r.," v,/
I). .....
v
./
"" 11)
1/
""
/' '"
./' ".
_, v
fo-
.....
-
- ",v """v' 9\)
r---.
- --- .....
".. \.0. k::;;:-
I'
I"--.
-- \;. -
.....
1--\,5",,-
13,0 -
I I
2,0 2,5 3,0
Bib

,
I

bl)
I),
/' ./ I)b'>
,/ ./
/./
./ 'b0
/'./
V 0
/-
I'
__ :- S__
c-

-.... ,;;;;
3,0
I J I
I I I
Kt,zd
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
3,0
Bib
2,5 2,0
5
4
3
1,5
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
Kt,zd
13
5.3 Fatigue notch factors
5.3 Fatigue notch factors 1R53 EN.dog
187
5 Appendices
5.3.1 Fatigue notch factors derived from
stress concentration factors
Content Page
5.3.0 General 187
5.3.1 Fatigue notch factors derived from
stress concentration factors
5.3.2 Fatigue notch factors for bars
with cone- or wedge-shaped portion
or with longitudinal hole
5.3.2.0 General
5.3.2.1 Round bars with cone-shaped portion
5.3.2.2 Flat bars with wedge-shaped portion 189
5.3.2.3 Round bars with longitudinal hole
5.3.3 Experimentally determined fatigue notch
factors
5.3.3.0 General
5.3.3. 1 Round bars with groove for a snap ring 190
5.3.3.2 Round bars with V-groove
5.3.3.3 Round bars with tranverse hole 191
5.3.3.4 Shafts with keyway
5.3.3.5 Shafts with press-fitted members
5.3.3.6 Shafts with splines 193
5.3.4 Fatigue notch factors for components from
cast iron materials and from aluminum alloys
5.3.5 Fatigue notch factors determined by the 194
user
5.3.0 General
The fatigue notch factors are applicable to round bars
and to flat bars. Concerning their determination the
following cases are to be distinguished:
- Round bars and flat bars, for which stress
concentration factors are given in Chapter 5.2,
- Round bars and flat bars with cone-shaped or wedge-
shaped portion as well as round bars with a
longitudinal hole, Chapter 5.3.2,
- Round bars for which experimentally determined
fatigue notch factors are available, Chapter 5.3.3,
- Components from cast iron materials and from
aluminum alloys, Chapter 5.3.4,
Components with fatigue notch factors determined
by the user, Chapter 5.3.5.
Fatigue notch factors are applicable in combination with
nominal stresses *
1
.
1 The nominal stress may be defined in a different way, see Eq. (5.3.2)
for round bars, Eq. (5.3.5) for round bars with a longitudinal hole or Eq.
(5.3.15) for round bars with tranverse hole.
For structural details for which stress concentration
factors are given in Chapter 5.2 - for example round
bars or flat bars - the fatigue notch factors, Kf,zd(d) , ...,
are to be computed from the stress concentration factors,
Kt,zd , ..., using the Kt-K
f
ratios, ncr(r), according to
Chapter 2.3.2.1.
Nominal stresses
The nominal stresses for tension, for bending and for
torsion are the same as for the stress concentration
factors, Chapter 5.2, Eq. (5.2.1) for round bars or Eq.
(5.2.11) for flat bars *2.
5.3.2 Fatigue notch factors for bars with
cone- or wedge-shaped portion or with
longitudinal hole
5.3.2.0 General
For round bars and for flat bars with cone- or wedge-
shaped portion or with longitudinal hole the fatigue
notch factors are to be determined as follows.
5.3.2.1 Round bars with cone-shaped portion
For round bars with cone-shaped portion, Figure 5.3.1,
the fatigue notch factors for tension, for bending and for
torsion are to be computed in two steps:
1. Step: Computing the fatigue notch factor for the
round bar with shoulder fillet, Kf,zd , ..., from the stress
concentration factor, Kt,zd , ..., and the Ki-K, ratio,
llcr(r), ..., according to Chapter 2.3.2.1:
Kf,zd = Kt,zd / ncr(r), ... , (5.3.1)
2. Step: Determining the fatigue notch factor for the
round bar with cone-shaped portion, Kf,zd,Ol , ..., from
that of the round bar with shoulder fillet, Kf,zd , ...,
modified according to the slope angle co, Figure 5.3.2.
Figure 5.3.1 Round bar with cone-shaped portion.
Slope angle roand length I ofslope.
5.3 Fatigue notch factors
188
5 Appendices
Special case
For round bars with shoulder fillet and with two
different notch radii ro ;::: t and r ;::: t I 4, Figure 5.3.3
(top), the fatigue notch factors are the same as for
round bars with cone-shaped portion where r = 2 t and
co = 30 0, Figure 5.3.3 (bottom).
Kt- Fatigue notch factor of the bar with shoulder,
to Slope angle,
Kr,w Fatigue notch factor of the bar with cone-shaped portion.
The initial diagram - after Peterson (Ref: Leven and Frocht),
photoelastic study - applies to the stress concentration factor for bending
of flat bars with a notch on one-side. It is applied here as an
approximation for the fatigue notch factor of round and flat bars with
different shape of the notch and for all types of stress.
(5.3.3)
(5.3.2)
Figure 5.2.5
Tab. 2.3.3
Eq. (2.3.15)
Eq. (2.3.17)
Eq. (2.3.13)
Eq. (2.3.10)
4 F I 1td
2
,
32 Mbl 1td
3
,
16 Mtl 1td
3
.
Kf,b,w;t: Kt,b,w I ( llcr(r)' llcr(d) ).
1,6;t: 1,82 I (1,24' 1,03) = 1,4.
Note: The stress concentration factor for the round bar
with cone-shaped portion that follows from Kt,b = 2,47
and co = 15 0,
Kt,b,w = 1,82, Figure 5.3.2
must not be applied because of the following inequality,
Figure 5.3.4:
Nominal stresses
The nominal stresses for tension (load F), for bending
(bending moment M, ) and for torsion (torsion moment
M
t
) are '2
Kt,b = 2,47,
G
cr
(r) =2,53 mrrr",
llcr(r) = 1,24,
G
cr
(d) = 2 I d = 0,048 mnr",
ncr(d) = 1,03,
Kf,b =Kt,b I (llcr(r) . llcr(d»
= 2,47 I (1,24 . 1,03) = 1,9.
2. Step: Determining the fatigue notch factor for the
round bar with cone-shaped portion from the value
Kf,b = 1,9 and co = 15°:
Kf, b,e = 1,6. Figure 5.3.2
The diameter d is shown in the respective figures.
Example
For a round bar with cone-shaped portion, Figure 5.3.1,
the fatigue notch factor is to be determined for bending.
Dimensions d = 42 mm, D = 50 mm, t = (D - d) I 2 = 4
mm, r = 1 mm, co = 15 0, 1 = 14,9 mm, Rm = 583 MPa.
1. Step: Computation of the fatigue notch factor for the
round bar with shoulder fillet:
10'
50'
45'
40'
35'
30'
25'
20'
15'
5'
Kr,c.o
Cll = 90"
I
r ),<\'

55'
r
_.-
-.
..... M
t
1
Mb fit'
m.,----::
:-Ii
I
I
,
I
r
4,0
3,8
3,6
3,4
3,2
3,0
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4
J,2
1,0 0'
1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,42,6 2,8 3,03,2 3,4 3,63,84,0
K
r
Figure 5.3.2 Influence of the slope angle co on the
fatigue notch factor of a round bar with cone-shaped
portion.
Cll = 90'
Figure 5.3.3 Round bar with
shoulder fillet, special case
with two notch radii (top)
and equivalent round bar with
cone-shaped portion (bottom).
Kt,b
I
X'
I
ICll
I
I
I
Kr,b '«-------)' Kr,b,c.o
Figure 5.3.4 Relationship between Kt,b , Kf,b , Kt,b,w and
Kf,b,w'
2 In the following tension or compression or tension-compression are
mentioned as tension throughout.
Stress concentration factors for shear are not available. Therefore no
formula for the nominal shear stress is contained in Eq. (5.2.1) or (5.3.2).
5.3 Fatigue notch factors
189
5 Appendices
5.3.2.2 Flat bars with wedge-shaped portion Nominal stress
(5.3.5)
For flat bars with wedge-shaped portion, Figure 5.3.5,
the fatigue notch factors for tension-compression and for
bending are to be determined analytically as for the
round bar with cone-shaped portion, Chapter 5.3.2.1.
The nominal stress for torsion (torsion moment M, ) is
to be calculated according to Eq. (5.3.5):
T - 16Mt
t - 3 4 4
x-d '(l-d
L
/d )
The diameters d and d
L
are shown in Figure 5.3.6.
5.3.$
Figure 5.3.5 Flat bar with wedge-shaped portion.
Slope angle ro, length ofslope I. , plate thickness s .
5.3.3 Experimentally determined fatigue
notch factors
5.3.3.0 General
The following experimentally determined fatigue notch
factors for tension, for bending and for torsion apply to
round bars of rolled steel with tensile strength values
from Rm = 400 to 1250 MFa *2.
Nominal stress
Concerning the consideration of the surface roughness
see Chapter 2.3.3, Eq. (2.3.27).
(5.5.4)
Because of the similarity of bar and component there is
r, rp Notch radii ofthe component and of the test bar,
d, dp Diameters of the component and of the test bar.
From three known values the missing fourth value may
be computed. In the following the distinctive values rp
and dp are indicated if they may not be obvious.
Example
For a shaft with keyway - component diameter
d = 100 mm - the fatigue notch factor for torsion is to be
determined The experimentally determined fatigue
notch factor Kf,t<dp ) of a keyway, detail A or B, and
with tensile strength Rm , may be read from Figure
5.3.10.
Distinctive values of the radius and of the diameter
and conversion of the fatigue notch factor
Normally an experimentally determined fatigue notch
factor Kf(dp) refers to a notched test bar (with radius I'p,
diameter dp ) and not to the component in question
(with radius r, diameter d).
Therefore the experimentally determined fatigue notch
factor is to be converted according to Chapter 2.3.2.2,
Eq. (2.3.18) in order to apply to the different radius r
and diameter d of the component in question *3. For
that the Ki-K, ratios ncr(rp), ncr(r), ncr(d) and nirp),
n1;(r), n1;(d) for the distinctive values rp , rand d have to
be known.
(5.3.6) r / rp = d / dp,
Fatigue notch factors of round bars with longitudinal
hole in tension or in bending are not available, nor a
reliable way of computation based on fatigue notch
factors of round bars without longitudinal hole.
In the case of torsion, however, fatigue notch factors of
a round bar with a longitudinal hole may approximately
be derived from the fatigue notch factors of the round
bar without a longitudinal hole in combination with the
nominal stress for the round bar with longitudinal hole.
~ . m _ - - i _ ~ __ -±_-t ~ ~ \
. D--- ----d- M ____________~ - - t
Figure 5.3.6 Round bar with longitudinal hole.
5.3.2.3 Round bars with longitudinal hole
Longitudinal holes, Figure 5.3.6, are possible for round
bars with groove, with shoulder fillet or with cone-
shaped portion.
The nominal stresses for tension (load F) and for
bending (bending moment M, ) are to be computed
according to Eq. (5.5.4): *2:
Szd = F / (s .. b),
Sb =6Mb/(S. ·b
2
) .
Thickness s and width b are shown in Figure 5.3.5.
3 For consideration of the size effect and for particulars of the method of
calculation see footnote 12 on page 53.
5.3 Fatigue notch factors
190
5 Appendices
The distinctive values for Figure 5.3.10 are rp = 0,18
mm, dp = 15 mm. With d = 100 mm the radius r is, Eq.
(5.3.6),
r = rp . d I dp = 0,18 mm 100 115 = 1,2 mm. (5.3.7)
Then the conversion from the fatigue notch factor of the
test bar, Kf,t(dp), to the fatigue notch factor of the
component in question, Kf,t = Kf,t(d), is possible with
the Ki-K, ratios ..., according to Chapter 2.3.2.2,
Eq. (2.3.18), as follows:
K = K (d)' (rp)
f,t f,t p (5.3.8)
In the special case, if the distinctive values of the
component and of the test bar are identical, d = dp,
r = rp, then
Figure 5.3.7 Round bar with groove for a snap ring.
5.3.3.2 Round bars with V-groove
The fatigue notch factors, Kf,zd(dp), ..., for round bars
with V-groove for tension-compression and for bending
are to be read off Figure 5.3.8 or computed according to
the following equations:
(5.3.9)
Nominal stresses
Kf,zd(dp) = 1,06 + 0,0011 . RmI MFa,
Kf,b(dp) = 0,97 + 0,00095' RmI MFa.
For torsion there is
(5.3.12)
Normally the nominal stresses for tension (load F), for
bending (bending moment Mg) and for torsion (torsion
moment Mt ) are to be computed with the diameters dp
or d according to the equations (5.3.10); the diameter dp
is given with the figures:
Kf,t(dp) = 1 +0,60' (Kf,b(dp) - 1). (5.3.13)
Distinctive values: rp = 0,1 mm, rafter Eq. (5.3.6),
dp= 15 mm, d = given.
Nominal stresses: See Eq. (5.3.10).
Otherwise the equations for computing the nominal
stresses are given with the figures *4.
Szd = 4 F I ndp
2
Sb = 32 MbI ndp
3
T, = 16 M, I ndp
3
(5.3.10)
or Szd = 4 F I nd
2
,
or Sb = 32 Mbl nd
3
,
or T
t
= 16 Mtl 1td
3
.
Test bar: notch radius rp = 0,1 mm, diameter dp = 15 mm,
t / d=(D - d) / 2d =0,05 to0,20. For both smaller and larger values t / d
the fatigue notch factors are smaller.
Figure 5.3.8 Fatigue notch factors for round bars with
V-notch for tension-compression and for bending, after
Tauscher.
800 1000 1200
RmiriMPa
I I I ,,1
Tension
r
Y'
I LA
LA"
Bending
,
'I
r
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
I,D
400 600
5.3.1
2,4
K
. 2,2
f,b (dp) 20
,
5.3.3.1 Round bars with groove for a snap ring
The fatigue notch factors Kf,zd(dp), ... of a round bar
with groove for a snap ring, Figure 5.3.7, for tension-
compression, for bending and for torsion are "S
Kf,zd(dp) =0,9' (1,27 + 1,17 ·J(D-d)/2rf),
Kf,b(dp) = 0,9' (1,14 + 1,08 ·J(D-d)/2rf),
Kf,t(dp) = 1,48 + 0,45 ·J(D-d)/2rf , (5.3.11)
rf = r + 2,9 p* ,
p* =0,3 mm for austenitic steel,
p* = 0,1 mm for other kinds of steel, Rm:s; 500 MFa,
p* = 0,05 mm for other kind of steel, Rm>500 MFa,
p* =0,4 mm for cast steel and for GGG.
Distinctive values given by design: rp = r, dp =d. *6.
Nominal stresses: See Eq. (5.3.10).
If values Kf,zd(dp), Kf,b(dp) > 4 or Kf,t(dp) > 2,5 are
obtained from Eq. (5.3.11) then the values Kf,zd(dp),
Kf,b(dp) = 4 or Kf,t(dp) = 2,5 are to be used instead.
5FollowingDIN 743(2000).
4 See footnote 1.
6 These fatigue notch factors are valid here for the component (rp = r,
dp = d). Nevertheless the conversion described by the example in Chapter
5.3.3.0 is necessary.
5.3 Fatigue notch factors
191
5 Appendices
Test bar: notch radius rp = do,p / 2 (dQ,p diameter ofthe transverse
hole ofthe test bar), diameter dp= 15 rom, 2 r / d= 0,15 to0,25. For both
smaller and larger values 2 r / d the fatigue notch factors are smaller.
Figure 5.3.9 Fatigue notch factors for round bars with
transverse hole for tension-compression, for bending
and for torsion, after Tauscher (Ref.: Hempel).
600 800 1000 1200
'Rm in MPa
,.1 t;;;
r
Detail B
'c... . '/"I'Y
/
i/' : 0"

K
Detail A
I I 1 I
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
1,8
1,6
lA
1,2

Kr.b (dp)
Kf,t (dp )


Fatigue notch factors from Table 5.3.1
The fatigue notch factors for shafts with press-fitted
member for bending, Kf,b(dp), are to be determined from
Table 5.3.1. The structural details no. 2, no. 3 and no. 4
are to be distinguished. The fatigue notch factor for
tension-compression, Kf,zd(dp), is approximately the
same as for bending. The fatigue notch factor for torsion
is
Kf,t(dp)= 1 + 0,45' (Kf,b(dp) - 1). (5.3.16)
The fatigue notch factors apply to the section of the
shaft where the press-fitted member ends.
Distinctive values: dp = 40 mm, rp from Eq. (5.3.6),
r =0,06' d, d = given.
Nominal stresses: See Eq. (5.3.10).
Test bar: notch radius rp = 0,18 mm (Radius atthe basis of the keyway),
diameter dp= 15 mm..
Figure 5.3.10 Fatigue notch factors of shafts with sled-
runner or profiled keyway, structural detail A or B, for
bending and for torsion, after Haenchen.
5.3.3.5 Shafts with press-fitted members
The fatigue notch factors for shafts with press-fitted (or
shrink-fitted) member are to be determined from Table
5.3.1 orfrom Figure 5.3.11.
Distinctive values: rp = 0,18 mm, dp = 15 mm,
d =given, r according to Eq. (5.3.6).
Nominal stresses: See Eq. (5.3.10).
(5.3.14)
n· d
3
(1-16d
Q
1(3nd)) ,
16M
t
4F
n.d
2(1-4.d
Q
I(nd)) ,
32M
b
r
Bendmg .: ..
T' -
'tersion 'po
F=
,
J
'-1
I
I.
,
l
"
f
E)··9:·
.. M.'.·..l...
. Mo ....

i
...;-----+--r-- d
F
Szd
n·d
2/4-2rd
s, M
b
n·d
3
132-rd
2
13
M
t
T
t
n·d
3
116-rd
2
13
Nominal stresses:
(5.3.15)
(JQ
Kf;td (dp ) 2 4
Kf,b(d
p
)
Kr,t (d, )
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,200 600800 1000· 1200·
R
m
ioWa
5.3.3.4 Shafts with keyway
The fatigue notch factors, Kf,b(dp), ..., for shafts with
keyway for bending and for torsion are to be read off
Figure 5.3.10. The values for bending also apply for
tension-compression.
Structural details A and B (sled-runner or profiled
keyway) are to be distinguished. The fatigue notch
factors apply to the end of the keyway. If two keyways
are arranged in the same section of a shaft, Kf,b(dp) is to
be increased by a factor of 1,15.
Kf,zd(dp) = Kf,b(dp) = Kf,t(dp)
= 1,54 + 0,0004 . Rm 1MFa.
Distinctive values: d and r = dq /2 given, dP = 15 mm,
rp according to Eq. (5.3.6).
5.3.3.3 Round bars with tranverse hole
The fatigue notch factors, Kf,zd(dp), ..., for a round bars
with transverse hole for tension-compression, for
bending and for torsion are to be read off Figure 5.3.9 or
computed according to the following equations:
5.3 Fatigue notch factors
192
5 Appendices
100 200 300
pressure p in Mfa
d In mm
v
-\.)
..
./
V ..
V
/

1,0
(J,9
0,8
Q;7
900 1100 0,6
0
"
./v
V
./
./ !
0/
Bmin MPa
30

2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,0
500 700
KC,b.1) I--+-.......J.-I-H.
b}without 1--.....+--+-+
I I I
2 bending moment transmitted
by the press-fitted member
Fatigue notch factors after Figure 5.3.11
The fatigue notch factors for shafts with press-fitted
member for bending are *6
, "
Kf,b(dp) = Kf,b,O(d)' C;; . C;; , (5.3.17)
Kf,b,O(d), C;;' and C;;' , from Figure 5.3.11.
The fatigue notch factor for tension-compression,
Kf,zd(d), is approximately the same as for bending. The
fatigue notch factor for torsion is
Kf,t(dp) = 1 + 0,45' (Kf,b(d) - 1). (5.3.18)
For the fatigue notch factor after Figure 5.3.11 it is to be
determined in addition, whether the loading is
transmitted via the press-fitted member or not. The
fatigue notch factors apply to the shaft where the press-
fitted member ends.
Distinctive values: rp =given, dp = d given.
Nominal stresses: See Eq. (5.3.10).
Comment concerning Figure 5.3.11: The fatigue notch
factors are higher than those from Table 5.3.1. The
shown dependence on the pressure p and the distinction,
whether the bending moment is transmitted via the
press-fitted member or not, may be useful; however.
Figure 5.3.11 Fatigue notch factors of shafts with press-
fitted member for bending, after Kogaev (Ref.: several
authors).
3,2
2,9
2,3
2,6
1200
1,5
NO.3
H8 / u8 interference
fit.
NO.4
H7 / n6 interference
fit.
Test bar: notch radius rp = 0,06 . dp , diameter dp = 40 mm. The bending
moment is transmitted via the fitted member. The same fatigue notch
factors are valid for fits with closer seat.
No.2
H8 / u8 interference
fit.
Table 5.3.1 Fatigue notch factors, Kf,b(dp), of shafts
with press-fitted member for bending, after Tauscher
(Ref.: Lehr).
Note to No.1: The given fatigue notch factors are
approximate values dependent on design. For plain
rotating bending they may be 1,3 times higher.
Note to No.4: The fatigue notch factor is to be
calculated for both the press fit and for the shaft with
shoulder fillet, Chapter 5.3.1. The less favorable case is
relevant. Increasing the difference of the diameters d,
and d is of little influence on the fatigue notch factors of
the press-fit, but if the diameter d, differs only a little
from diameter d an unfavorable interaction may occur
(see No.2 for dj = d).
5.3 Fatigue notch factors
193
5 Appendices
5.3.3.6 Shafts with splines
The fatigue notch factors of a splined or serrated shafts
for torsion are to be determined for the nominal stress
computed with the innermost diameter either from
Figure 5.3.12 or according to the following equation:
Kf,t<dP) = expl4,2.10-
7
.(R
m
/MPa)2 j. (5.3.19)
Comment: In this case the definition of the fatigue notch
factor is that ofEq. (5.3.28), and the surface treatment
factor, is
KV,RSV = 1. (5.3.24)
The fatigue notch factors apply to the section at the
transition from the splined part into the plain part of
the shaft; the shaft diameter must be smaller than
(d- 0,5 mm)!
Distinctive values: rp = 0,6 mrn (structural detail A
and C) and rp =0,25 mm (detail B), rafter
Eq. (5.3.6), dp =29 mm, d given.
Nominal stress: after Eq. (5.3.10) with the innermost
diameter d.
Detail
A,
~ r
d
5.3.4 Fatigue notch factors for components
from cast iron or aluminum materials
Test bar: notch radius rp = 0,6 mm (structural detail A and C) or
rp = 0,25 mm (detail B), innermost diameter: dp = 29 mm. The torsion
momentum is transmitted via the hub.
Figure 5.3.12 Fatigue notch factors of splined or
serrated shafts for torsion, after Meisel, Schuster,
Contag, Koch.
(5.3.25)
The fore-mentioned experimentally determined fatigue
notch factors apply to notched test bars of steel. The
fatigue notch factors of components from cast iron or
aluminum materials are different because the Kj-K,
ratios are material-dependent. For example for
components from cast iron materials the fatigue notch
factors are less than for steel, since the Kj-K; ratios are
higher.
K (d) K (d) ncr,St (rp)
f,b,GA P = f,b,St P . () ,
ncr,GA rp
If fatigue notch factors are not available for notched test
bars from cast iron or aluminum materials, they can
approximately be computed according to the following
equations for tension-compression, for bending and for
torsion:
K (d ) - K (d i ncr,St (rp)
f,zd,GA P - f,zd,St P ( )'
ncr,GA Ip
1000 1200
Rm inMPa
800 600
v
'/
V
V
V
t--
J....-
5.3.12
2,2
Kt;t{dp)
2,0
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1,°400
The fatigue notch factors for bending are to be
computed for splined shafts after Eq. (5.3.20) and for
serrated shafts after Eq. (5.3.21):
The value Kt<dp) is to be determined according to the
type of stress from Figure 5.3.12 or from Eq. (5.3.21).
For case-hardened splined or serrated shafts there is
For tension-compression approximately the same values
apply as for bending.
For serrated shafts with involute profile the lower
fatigue notch factors are valid for all types of stress:
Kf,b(dp) = I + 0,45 . (Kf,t(dp) - 1),
Kf,b(dp) = I + 0,65 . (Kf,t(dp) - 1).
Kf,Ev (dp) = I + 0,75 . (Kf(dp) - 1).
Kf,RSV (dp) = 1.
(5.3.20)
(5.3.21)
(5.3.22)
(5.3.23)
K (d) K (d) n't,St (rp)
f,t,GA p = f,t,St P . () ,
n't,GA rp
Kf,zd,GA(dp),... Fatigue notch factor of the test bar
from cast iron or aluminum material,
Kf,zd,St(dp), ... Fatigue notch factor of the
test bar from steel
I1cr,St(rp), ... Kt-K
r
ratio of the test bar of steel
according to rp ,
ncr,GA(rp), ... KcK
r
ratio of the test bar from
cast iron or aluminum material
according to rp ,
rp Notch radius of the test bar,
dp Diameter of the test bar.
The Kt-K
f
ratios ncr(rp), ... are to be computed according
to the type of stress and according to the related stress
gradient G
cr
(rp ), ... , Chapter 2.3.2.1 and Eq. (2.3.13)
to (2.3.15).
5.3 Fatigue notch factors
If values Kf,zd,GA(dp ), ... < 1 are obtained from Eq.
(5.3.25) then the values to be used are
Kf,zd,GA (dp ), ... = 1. (5.3.26)
According to Chapter 5.3.3.0 the so-derived
experimentally based fatigue notch factors for bars of
cast iron or aluminum materials, Kf,zd,GA (dp) ..., are to
be converted according to Chapter 2.3.2.2, Eq. (2.3.18),
by taking into account the KcK
r
ratios ncr,GA(rp ),
ncr,GA(r), ncr,GA(d) or n"GA(rp), n"GA(r), n"GA(d) '7.
5.3.5 Fatigue notch factors determined by
the user
Generally fatigue notch factors that have been
determined by the user for a particular type of stress are
valid under the following conditions - here only for test
bars from steel :
The fatigue notch factor is valid for a nominal stress
to be specified '8.
It is valid for the test bar with the notch radius rp
and the diameter dp, and it is defined as follows '9
(5.3.27)
K{(dp) =
W. unnotched specimen, no surface treatment
W. notched specimen, no surface treatment
Nominator and denominator are to be determined for
the same diameter dp and for the same type of
stress.
A surface treatment is not to be considered, as
the surface treatment factor KV according to
Chapter 2.3.4 is to be applied additionally.
The roughness R, is experimentally considered, so
that the roughness factor K
R
according to Chapter
2.3.3 is not to be applied (K
R
= 1).
Surface treatment
Fatigue notch factors in case of an existmg surface
treatment are valid under the following conditions:
The definition of the fatigue notch factor is *9
(5.3.28)
Kf,RSV(dp) =
= W. unnotchedspecimen, no surface treatment
W. notched specimen, with surface treatment'
194
5 Appendices
Distinctive values: rp, r, dp, d in accordance with Eq.
(5.3.6).
According to Chapter 5.3.3.0 the so-defined fatigue
notch factors for bars, Kf,RSy(dp) , ..., are to be
converted, see Chapter 2.3.2.2 and Eq. (2.3.18), by
taking into account the Kt-K
r
ratios ncr,GA(rp), ncr,GA(r),
ncr,GA(d) or n"GA(rp), n"GA(r), n"GA(d) for the kind of
material considered.
Nominator and denominator are to be determined
for the same diameter dp and for the same type
of stress.
The surface treatment factor, Ky , according to
Chapter 2.3.4 is not to be applied, that is
KY,RSY= 1. (5.3.29)
7 The conversion according to Eq. (5.3.25) refers to an exchange of the
kind of material, while the conversion according to Eq. ( 2.3.18) allows
for the size effect and the requirements of the assessment procedure, see
footnote 12 on page 53 .
8 In general there are various possibilities of defining the nominal stress
- as for instance for a round bar with tranverse hole - so that the
corresponding fatigue notch factor may be different, too.
9 W. = alternating fatigue strength.
195
5.4 Component classes for welded components of structural steel and of aluminum alloys 5 appendices
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded
components of structural steel and of
aluminum alloys IR54 EN.dog
Contents Page
5.4.1 Fatigue classes for an assessment with
nominal stresses
Fatigue classes for an assessment using' nominal stresses
are given in Table 5.4.1 (nominal normal stress,
page 197) and in Table 5.4.2 (nominal shear stress,
page 207) *4.
5.4.0 General 195
5.4.1 Fatigue classes for an assessment with
nominal stresses 195 / 197
5.4.2 Fatigue classes for an assessment with
structural stresses 195/208
5.4.3 Fatigue classes for an assessment with
effective notch stresses 196
5.4.0 General
This chapter contains the fatigue classes (FAT) of
welded components of structural steel and of aluminum
alloys. To a major part the classes were derived with
reference to the IIW-Recommendations /9/ *1 *2. The
fatigue classes of the structural details are different for
an assessment using nominal stresses, Chapter 2.3.1.2,
and for an assessment using structural stresses or
effective notch stresses, respectively, Chapter 4.3.1.2 *3.
1 Kinds of material according to the IIW-Recommendations are ferritic-
perlitic or quenched and tempered structural steels, or aluminum alloys
5000, 6000, 7000.
For other kinds of material (conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel,
weldable cast iron materials, or other weldable aluminum alloys) the
fatigue classes are provisional and therefore they are to be applied with
caution.
2 Fatigue classes different from the IIW-Recommendations:
The fatigue classes for the base material and normal stress - FAT 160
(structural steel) or FAT 70 (aluminum alloys 5000, 6000) or FAT 80
(aluminum alloys 7000) - are not contained in Table 5.4.1 since the
assessment for the base material is to be carried out as for non-welded
components.
The fatigue classes for the base material and shear stress - FAT 100
(structural steel) or FAT 36 (aluminum alloys) - are included in Table
5.4.2, as they are valid also for full penetration butt welds.
For an assessment of welds in structural steel on the basis of the effective
notch stress the fatigue class FAT 225 for normal stress is complemented
by the fatigue class FAT 145 for shear stress. Both values were
determined experimentally /19,20/.
The corresponding fatigue classes for aluminum alloys are FAT 81 and
FAT 52. They are derived by a factor 0,36 from the equivalent fatigue
classes for structural steel; therefore these fatigue classes are provisional
and are to be applied with caution.
3 Concerning the definition of the stresses see Figure 0.0.6 and 0.0.7 on
page 15.
4 For structural steel see Table 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 and for aluminum alloys
see Table 3.2.3 and 3.2.4 of the IIW-Recommendations.
The component classes for nominal stress allow for the influences of the
component form, of the shape of the weld seam and of the weld seam
itself, see Table 5.5.1 on page 210.
5.4.2 Fatigue classes for an assessment with
structural stresses
Fatigue classes for an assessment using structural
stresses are given in Table 5.4.3 (structural normal
stress, page 208) *5. For the structural details in Table
5.4.3 (all were taken from Table 5.4.1) the following
comments apply:
- Structural stresses are to be applied for an assessment
of the stress at the toe of a weld only, but not of the
stress at the root of a weld *6.
- There are no details for longitudinally loaded weld
seams, as structural stresses do not apply for welded
sections *7.
- Butt welds loaded transverse, details no. 200, are full
penetration butt welds.
- Fillet welds, details no. 300, may be load-carrying or
non-load-carrying ·8.
- For cruciform joints or T-joints, details no. 400, a
minor misalignment does not need to be considered
when determining structural stresses *9.
5 For structural steel the fatigue classes for structural stresses were taken
from Tab 3.3.1 of the IIW-Recommendations. The fatigue classes for
aluminum alloys were supplementary ones, derived by a factor 0,36 from
those for structural steel. Therefore they are provisional and are to be
applied with caution.
Values for shear stress in weld seams are not necessary, see footnote 7.
The fatigue classes for structural stresses allow for the influences of the
shape of the weld seam and of the weld seam itself, but not for the
influence of the component form, since-this is considered in evaluating the
structural stresses, see Table 5.5.1 on page 212.
Example: "Transition in thickness and width", detail no. 221 of Table
5.4.1 when using nominal stresses, but detail 211 of Table 5.4.3 when
using structural stresses.
6 The stresses at the root of a weld are to be assessed using nominal
stresses or effectivenotch stresses.
Example: "Cruciformjoint", Detail no. 414 of Table 5.4.1.
7 The stress (normal stress or shear stress) along the weld seam is to be
regarded as constant here so that the structural stress is equal to the
nominal stress and therefore the fatigue classes for nominal stress apply.
Examples:
- "Longitudinal load carrying butt weld",
detail no. 312 of Table 5.4.1 (direct stress).
- "Full penetration butt weld",
Detail no. 1 of Table 5.4.2 (shear stress).
196
5.4 Component classes for welded components of structural steel and of aluminum alloys
5.4.3 Fatigue classes for an assessment with
effective notch stresses
Fatigue classes for an assessment using effective notch
stresses do not need to be specified by structural details,
because for an assessment according to Chapter 4.3.1.2,
Eq. (4.3.8) and (4.3.9), structural particularities are
accounted for when determining effective notch
stresses *10.
8 Examples, for which the fatigue classes of detail no. 300 of Table 5.4.3
are applicable:
- "Transverse non-load-carrying attachment", detail no. 511 of Table
5.4.1: externally and internally non-loaded fillet weld.
Structural stress and nominal stress are identical.
- "Longitudinal flat side gusset welded at the edge of a flange", detail no.
525 ofTable 5.4.1: externally non-loaded, but internally loaded fillet
weld.
The assessment is to be carried out with the structural stress at the end of
the gusset welded. Structural and nominal stress are different.
- "Cruciform joint", detail no. 411 ofTable 5.4.1:
externally and internally loaded fillet welds.
The assessment is in general to be carried out with the structural stress
observing the misalignment. Structural and nominal stress are different if
the misalignment is large, but they are about the same if the misalignment
is small. Some smaller misalignment is already allowed for by the fatigue
class of detail 411.
9 Because some smaller misalignment is already allowed for by the
fatigue class.
10 The fatigue classes for effective notch stresses - FAT 225 for normal
stress and FAT 145 for shear stress (structural steel) and FAT 81 for
normal stress and FAT 52 for shear stress (aluminum alloys) - allow for
the influence of the weld seam, but not for the influence of the component
form and of the shape of the weld seam, since these are considered in
evaluating the effective notch stress, see Table 5.5.1 on page 210.
5 appendices
197
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.1 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal
normal stress),after Hobbacher /9/
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
100 Thermally cut edges
.?'
121

Machine gas cut or sheared material with no drag lines,
140
comers removed, no cracks by inspection, no visible
-
I /'
imperfections
,
.?'
122

Machine thermally cut edges, comers removed, no cracks
125 40
by inspection
! /'
,
.?'
123

Manually thermally cut edges, free from cracks and se-
100 -
vere notches
I /' IUIIlI11
Ll
,
.?'
124

Manually thermally cut edges, uncontrolled, no notch
80
-
I /' IU
IIIII
.!
deeper than .5 mm
,
200 Butt welds, transverse loaded
211

Transverse loaded butt weld (X-groove or V-groove)
125 50
ground flush to plate, 100% NDT* I.
212

Transverse butt weld made in shop in flat position,
100 40
toe angle 30°, NDT
213

Transverse butt weld not satisfying conditions of 212,
80 32
NDT
214

Transverse butt weld, welded on ceramic backing, root
80
-
crack
215

Transverse butt weld on permanent backing bar
71 25
216

Transverse butt welds welded from one side without
backing bar, full penetration
root controlled by NDT 71 28
noNDT 45 18
217 Transverse partial penetration butt weld, analysis based 45 -

on stress in weld throat sectional area, weld overfill not
/1/// {II . .' II" to be taken into account.
The detail is not recommended for fatigue loaded members.It is
recommended to verify by fracture mechanics (3.8.5.2)!
1 NDT = Non-destructive testing
198
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
bl 5 Ta e
.4.1 Fatizue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum allovs (nominal normal stress), cont'd.
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
200
Butt welds transverse loaded
221
~
Transverse butt weld ground flush, NDT, with transition
in thickness and width *2
slope 1:5
125 40
slope
slope 1:3
100 32
~ . ~ .
-+
slope 1:2
80 25
222
~
Transverse butt weld made in shop, welded in flat
position, weld profile controlled, NDT, with transition
in thickness and width: *2
slope .
slope 1:5
100 32
-.........
~ ~
~ , - slope 1:3
90 28
J
slope 1:2
80 25
223
-ECJ
Transverse butt weld, NDT, with transition on thickness
and width*2;
slope 1:5
80 25
sJope
C=
slope 1:3
71 22
- J ~
--l"
slope 1:2 63 20 I
224
- ~ -
Transverse butt weld, different thicknesses without 71 22
transition, centres aligned.
In cases, where weld profile is equivalent to a moderate
slope transition, see no. 222.
225
- ~ -
22
Three plate connection, root crack·
71
226 , , ~
~ Transverse butt weld flange splice in built-up section
112 45
~ ~ ,
welded prior to the assembly, ground flush, with radius
~ b ~ l I,,> b)
transition, NDT
231
!u$
Transverse butt weld splice in rolled section or bar
80 -
besides flats, ground flush, NDT
232
t ~ l
-JO
Transverse butt weld splice in circular hollow section,
welded from one side, full penetration,
root inspected by NDT
71 -
~
noNDT 45 -
2 Some smaller misalignement is already allowed for by the fatigue class
199
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.1 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal normal stress), cont'd.
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
200
Butt welds transverse loaded
233
.zo:t:J).
Tubular joint with permanent backing.
71 -
234
l--J---ID
Transverse butt weld splice in rectangular hollow
section, welded from one side, full penetration,
root inspected by NDT
56
-
~ ~ = 1
noNDT 45
-
241
Transverse butt weld ground flush, weld ends and
125
-
ground
radius ground, 100% NDT at crossing flanges,
\---.
..-
-
radius transition.
242 Transverse butt weld made in shop at flat position, 100
-
weld profile controlled, NDT, at crossing flanges,
radius transition.
..-
-
243 ground
,..,.....,....
Transverse butt weld ground flush, NDT, at
80
-
\-
~ ~
crossing flanges with welded triangular transition
--n
plates, weld ends ground.
Crack starting at butt weld.
~
----'-'-
244 ground
,..,--...
Transverse butt weld, NDT, at crossing flanges,
71 -
\-
~ l -
with welded triangular transition plates, weld ends
- ~
ground.
Crack starting at butt weld.
i...o.o...-
245 ground
,..,.....,....
Transverse butt weld at crossing flanges.
50 -
- ~ ~ -
Crack starting at butt weld.
'---
200
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.1 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal normal stress), cont'd.
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel Al
300 Longitudinal load-carrying welds
311
~
Automatic longitudinal seam in hollow sections
~
without stop/start positions
125 50
with stop/start positions
90 36
312
/ ~
Longitudinal butt weld, both sides ground flush 125 50
parallel to load direction, 100% NDT.
313
/ ~
Longitudinal butt weld,
without stop/start positions, NDT 125 45
with stop/start positions 90 36
321
.s.>:>
Continuous automatic longitudinal fully penetrated 125 50
:t:;f
K-butt weld without stop/start positions (based on
--- :-----
~ -
stress range in flange) NDT.
- ~ ~ ~
322
~
Continuous automatic longitudinal double sided 100 40
fillet weld without stop/start positions (based on
stress range in flange).
323
- - - - - - - - ~
Continuous manual longitudinal fillet or butt weld 90 36
~
(based on stress range in flange).
- - - = - - - : : : : : - ~
weld (based on and at weld ends).
- ~ - : -
--- =..----::::?
~ ; : : : : : : : . - - - - - -
324 Intermittent longitudinal fillet r:/a =
~
=0 80 32
normal stress in flange a = 0.0 - 0.2 71 28
and = 0.2 - 0.3 63 25
shear stress in web r = 0.3 - 0.4 56 22
at weld ends = 0.4 - 0.5 50 20
= 0.5 - 0.6 45 18
=0.6-0.7 40 16
> 0.7 36 14
325 Longitudinal butt weld, fillet weld or intermittent
~ - = ' ~
weld with cope holes, cope holes not higher than
~
40% of web. r:/a =
--......::::: ~ - : : : . - - ~ =0 71 28
::::::r:::-----
normal stress in flange a = 0.0 - 0.2 63 25
and = 0.2 - 0.3 56 22
shear stress in web r: = 0.3 - 0.4 50 20
at weld ends = 0.4 - 0.5 45 18
= 0.5 - 0.6 40 16
> 0.6 36 14
201
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.1 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal normal stress), cont'd.
No. Strctural detail Description FAT
Steel
FAT
AI
300 Longitudinal load-carrying welds
Joint at stiffened knuckle of a flange to be assessed
according to no. 411 - 414, depending on type of
joint.
331
CI,
Stress in stiffener plate:
= 2 sin r
Stress in weld throat:
w = 2 sin
332
A
r
= area of flange
A
St
= area of stiffener
A", = area of weld throat
Unstiffened curved flange to web joint, to be
assessed according to no. 411 - 414, depending on
type of joint.
Stress in web plate
= F, / (r t),
Stress in weld throat:
= F, / (r a),
F
r
axial force in flange
t thickness of web plate
a weld throat
400 Cruciform joints or T-joints
411
412
413
414
-[/////~ ~ v .t///1-
t ~
~
t. ~ e ~
-v///// .!/¥///_
. ~
~
Cruciformjoint or T-joint, K-butt welds, full pene- 80
tration, no lamellar tearing, misalignment e<0.15·t,
weld toes ground, toe crack.
Cruciformjoint or T-joint, K-butt welds, full pene- 71
tration, no lamellar tearing, misalignment e<0.15·t,
toe crack.
Cruciformjoint or T-joint, fillet welds Of partial 63
penetration K-butt welds, no lamellar tearing,
misalignment e <0.15- t, toe crack.
Cruciformjoint or T-joint, fillet welds or partial 45
penetration K-butt welds including toe ground
joints, weld root crack.
Analysis based on stress in weld throat.
28
25
22
16
202
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.1 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal normal stress), cont'd.
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
400 Cruciform joints or T-joints
421

Splice of rolled section with intermediate plate, 45 -
fillet welds, weld root crack.
Analysis base on stress in weld throat.
J
422
-- -I
0
Splice of circular hollow section with intermediate
.. .. - - - -
plate, singlesided butt weld, toe crack
wall thickness > 8 mm 56 -

wall thickness < 8 mm 50 -
423
---I
0
Splice of circular hollow section with intermediate
---- ----
plate, fillet weld, root crack.
wall thickness > 8 mm 45
-

wall thickness < 8 mm 40 -
Analysis based on stress in weld throat.
424 Splice of rectangular hollow section, single-sided
C
butt weld, toe crack
---- ._--- wall thickness > 8 mm 50 -

wall thickness < 8 mm 45 -
425
___ u I[[]
Splice of rectangular hollow section with
intermediate plate, fillet welds, root crack
---- ----
wall thickness > 8 mm 40 -

wall thickness < 8 mm 36 -
431 Weld connecting web and flange, loaded by a - -

concentrated force in web plane perpendicular to

weld. Force distributed on width
h
b = 2·h + 50mm.
Assessment according to no. 411 - 414. A local
-/ bending due to eccentric load should be considered.
203
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.1 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal normal stress), cont'd.
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
500
Non-load-carrying attachments
511
~
Transverse non-load-carrying attachment, not
thicker than main plate
./'
K-butt weld, toe ground
100 36
~ Two-sided fillets, toe ground
100 36
Fillet weld(s), as welded, also single sided
80 28
/
Attachment thicker than main plate
71 25
512 Transverse stiffener welded on girder web or flange,
(l
U:
I)
not thicker than main plate.
K-butt weld, toe ground 100 36
Two-sided fillets, toe ground 100 36
Fillet weld(s), as welded, also single sided 80 28
stiffener thicker than main plate 71 25
For weld ends on web principle stress to be used
513 --- 80 28 r---
Non-load-carrying stud, as welded
- ~ ~
514
I
I
Trapezoidal stiffener to deck plate,
71 25
I
,
t
full penetration butt weld,
_.g'UIIPene.:.....n.....
calculated on basis of stiffener thickness,
out of plane bending.
~
515
fillet weld
""
Trapezoidal stiffener to deck plate,
45 16
..
/ \
fillet or partial penetration weld,
i ~ r 0.5 ray /1; calculated on basis of stiffener thickness and weld
:\.1£
I H.r::
throat, whichever is smaller,
HI
out of plane bending.
• H·I
521
-=- Longitudinal fillet welded gusset at length I
;=-
I
1< 50 mm
80 28
-- 1< 150mm
71 25
~ . . , . , ~
~ - - - ~
1< 300 mm
63 20
-- ---
I> 300 mm
50 18
gusset near edge: see 525 "flat side gusset".
522 r Longitudinal fillet welded gusset with radius
90 32
I ~ - +
transition, end of fillet weld reinforced and ground,
gusset not at edge of flange,
t
c < 2' t, max 25 mm,
I
T r> 150 mm.
-
204
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.1 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal normal stress), cont'd.
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
500 Non-load-carrying attachments
523 Longitudinal fillet welded gusset with smooth
t ~
transition (sniped end or radius) 9- (tl
. ! - ~ " - - -+ welded on beam flange or plate, not at edge.
u
--
C < 2 t, max 25 mm;
I
t
r > 0,5· h 71 25
l'
-
r < 0,5 h or rp < 20
0
63 20
524
r ~
Longitudinal flat side gusset welded on plate edge
a- (tv or beam flange edge, with smooth transition (sniped
L ~ - ____t
end or radius).
u
..-
J
+ -.
c < 2· t, max 25 mm;
(t
1
)
.II;
r> 0,5· h 50 18 j
-
r < 0,5 h or q> < 20
0
• 45 16
For Ii < 0.7 t., FAT rises 12%.
525
~
Longitudinal flat side gusset welded on plate or
beam flange edge, gusset length I:
1< 150 mm 50 18
1< 300 mm 45 16
I> 300 mm 40 14
526
~
Longitudinal flat side gusset welded
on edge of plate or beam flange,
radius transition ground.
~ ~
r> 150 mm or r / w > 1 /3 90 36
r
1/6<r/w<1/3 71 28
r/w<1/6 50 22
531 Circular or rectangular hollow section, 71 -
tr CfFJ
~
fillet welded to another section. Section width
--- ---
parallel to stress direction < 100 mm, ,..,
, ,
, ,
else like longitudinal attachment
I I
I I
, ,
1-:;;' 100 mm
205
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.1 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal normal stress), cont'd.
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
600
Lap joints
611

Transverse loaded lap joint with fillet welds
Fatigue of parent metal
63 22
Fatigue of weld throat
45 16
Stress ratio must be 0< R< 1 !
612

Longitudinally loaded lap joint with side fillet
welds
Fatigue of parent metal
50 18
Fatigue of weld (calculation based on max. weld
50 18
length of 40 times the throat of the weld).
613

Lap joint gusset, fillet welded, non-load-carrying,
" t
with smooth transition (sniped end with <p<20° or
-c
-.
t \ f
radius), welded to loaded element
c<2·t, max 25 mm
to flat bar 63 22
to bulb section 56 20
to angle section 50 18
700
Reinforcements
711


End of long doubling plate on I-beam,

welded ends
1
t
tD 0.8 t 56 20
0.8 t < tD 1.5 t 50 18
tD> 1.5 t 45 16
Based on stress range in flange at weld toe.
712

End of long doubling plate on beam, reinforced
welded ends ground

t
D
0.8t
71 28
'.. .
0.8 t <
63 25 .",
...
L.· /'
t
D
> 1.5t
56 22
t .",.",
Based on stress range in flange at weld toe.
/'
721

End of reinforcement plate on rectangular hollow
50 20
section.

wall thickness: t< 25mm

731
ground
Reinforcements welded on with fillet welds,

toe ground
80 32
Toe as welded
71 25
--[@I-
Analysis based on modified (local) nominal stress·
206
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.1 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal normal stress), cont'd.
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
800 Flanges, branches and nozzles
811
t ~ ·
Stiff block flange, 7I 25
full penetration weld.
812
• ~
Stiff block flange,
partial penetration or fillet weld
toe crack in plate 63 22
root crack in weld throat. 45 16
821
~
Flat flange with almost full penetration butt welds, 7I 25
modified nominal stress in pipe,
~ ~
I
~
toe crack.
i

822
~ l l .
Flat flange with fillet welds, 63 22
modified nominal stress in pipe,
~ ~ l ~
toe crack.
,
831
- ~
Tubular branch or pipe penetrating a plate, 80 28
~
I
K-butt welds *3.
r-..
I
~ ~
"
i ~
832 Tubular branch or pipe penetrating a plate, 7I 25
T
fillet welds *3.
~
I
.....
~
."""""J- ""III
Y
841
-
Nozzle welded on plate, root pass removed by 71 25
'r
~ drilling *3.
~
I
~
- ~ ~ -
842 Nozzle welded on pipe, root pass as welded *3. 63 22
I
~
I ~
i ~ ....
"\",,:,'\.'\.'\.'"
,
3 If the diameter is > 50 mm, stress concentration of cutout has to be considered !
207
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.1 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal normal stress), cont'd.
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
900 Tubular joints
911
-CB-
Circular hollow section butt joint to massive bar, 63 22
as welded.
-
912
t
Circular hollow section welded to component with 63 22

single side butt weld, backing provided.
Root crack.
913
mAl
Circular hollow section welded to component single 50 18
sided butt weld or double fillet welds.
Root crack.
921
¥629?
Circular hollow section with welded on disk
K-butt weld, toe ground 90 32
Fillet weld, toe ground 90 32
Fillet welds, as welded 71 25
931
E)
Tube-plate joint, tubes flattened, 71
1-
-
butt weld (X-groove)
Tube diameter < 200 mm and
E>
plate thickness < 20 mm.
1-
932 Tube-plate joint, tube slitted and welded to plate 63
I-I
So-
-
tube diameter < 200 mm and
plate thickness < 20 mm
:::0) ~
tube diameter> 200 mm and/or 45 -
I
plate thickness > 20 mm
Table 5.4.2 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (nominal shear
stress), after Hobbacher /9/
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
1
~
Full penetration butt welds 100 36
2
~
Fillet weld, partial penetration 80 28
~
208
5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded components of steel and of aluminum alloys 5 Apendices
Table 5.4.3 Fatigue classes (FAT) for structural details in steel and aluminum alloys (structural
normal stress), after Hobbacher /9/
No. Strctural detail Description FAT FAT
Steel AI
200 Butt welds, transverse loaded
211

Transverse loaded butt weld (X-groove or V-groove)
125 50
ground flush to plate, 100% NDT *4.
212

Transverse butt weld made in shop in flat position,
100 40
toe angle 30°, NDT.
213

Transverse butt weld not satisfying conditions of 212,
80 32
NDT
300 Fillet welds
Fillet welds at weld toe Toe ground 112 -
To as welded 100 -
400 Cruciform joints or T-joints
411

e
l
Cruciform joint or T-joint, K-butt welds, full pene- 80 28
i'-'
tration, no lamellar tearing, misalignment e<0.15·t, weld
-v///// I'- t// /1-
f
toes ground, toe crack.
t:::
412
I
t\
e
l
Cruciformjoint or T-joint, K-butt welds, full penetration, 71 25
no lamellar tearing, misalignment e<0.15·t, toe crack.
-v/////.
f

413

Cruciform joint or T-joint, fillet welds or partial 63 22
penetration K-butt welds, no lamellar tearing,
-VZ/fC
misalignment e <0.15' t, toe crack.
4 NDT = Non-destructive testing.
209
5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength of welded components 5 Appendices
5.5.1 Compilation ofthe relationships for
welded components of steel
5.5.1.0 General
5.5 Comments about the fatigue
strength of welded components
~ c - 5 5=-=
ENC":".C":"do-'q
The assessment of the fatigue strength can be carried
out with nominal stresses, Chapter 2, or with local
stresses, Chapter 4, where the local stresses of welded
components may be derived as structural stresses *3 or
as effective notch stresses.
The assessment of the fatigue strength of professionally
welded components *
1
made of structural steel *2 agrees
with or closely follows the IIW-Recommendations and
Eurocode 3.
The assessment is in general to be carried out separately
for the toe section (or the toe of the weld) and for the
throat section (or the root of the weld), since the cross-
section values, the relevant stresses and the fatigue
classes FAT will normally be different.
The particular relationships that apply to welded
components made of steel are compiled in Chapter 5.5.1
and explained in Chapter 5.5.2. Equivalent relationships
apply to components made of aluminum alloys.
(5.5.1)(2.2.3)
(5.5.2)(2.3.4)
GW,zd = GW,W = 92 MFa,
'tW,s = 'tw,W = 37 MFa.
KWK,zd = 225 / FAT,
KWK,s= 145/FAT.
Fatigue classes for the assessment with nominal stresses
are (FAT:::; 140 for normal stress and FAT:::; 100 for
shear stress) are given in Chapter 5.4.1. Fatigue classes
are not applicable to the base material, however.
The assessment using nominal stresses is applicable for
the toe section and for the throat section of rod-shaped
(lD) and of shell-shaped (2D) welded components.
Nominal stresses do not account for the stress
concentration caused by the form of the component nor
by the shape of the weld seam. Therefore the component
strength value is depending not only on the fatigue
strength value of the weld but also on the form of the
component and on the shape of the weld seam, Tab.
5.5.1 *4.
Specific fatigue limit values of welds in steel for
completely reversed stress
Independent of the kind of steel *5 the specific fatigue
limit values of welds in steel for completely reversed
normal stress and shear stress are, Chapter 2.2.1.2 *6,
5.5.1.1 Assessment of the fatigue strength using
nominal stresses
4 The numbers of the equivalent tables and equations in Chapter 2 are
given here as well.
1 Weld imperfections corresponding to normal production standards are
allowable.
2 For other kinds of material (relatively weldable steel, stainless steel,
weldable cast iron material) these specific fatigue limit values of welds in
steel are provisional and are to be applied with caution therefore.
3 Also termed geometrical stresses or hot-spot-stresses.
Design factors for nominal stress
The design factors for normal stress and for shear stress
are, Chapter 2.3.1.2 *7,
5 The type of structural steel (specified by the yield stress R, and further
properties) is important only for an assessment of the static strength, not
ofthe fatigue strength. The same applies in the case of aluminum alloys.
6 All the following is valid for structural steel only.
For aluminum alloys the values 92 MPa and 37 MPa after
Eq. (2.2.3) are to be replaced by 33 MPa and 13 MPa after Eq. (2.2.4)
(Factor 0,36).
For aluminum alloys the values 225 MPa and 145 MPa after Eq. (2.3.4)
are to be replaced by 81 MPa and 52 MPa after Eq. (2.3.6) (Factor 0,36).
These values for aluminum alloys are provisional ones and are to be
applied with caution.
7 Thickness factor f
t
, surface treatment factor, KV and constant KNL,E
are not considered here, since they are not essential in the present context.
215
214
213
210
211
Page
209 General
Compilation of the relationships for
welded components of steel
General
Assessment of the fatigue strength
using nominal stresses
Assessment of the fatigue strength
using structural stresses
Assessment of the fatigue strength
using effective notch stresses
Explanation of the relationships for
welded components
General
Specific fatigue limit values of welds
in steel for completely reversed stress
Mean stress factor and residual stress
factor
Example
General
Assessment using nominal stresses
Assessment using structural stresses
Assessment using effective notch stresses
5.5.1.2
Content
5.5.0
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.2.2
5.5.1.0
5.5.1.1
5.5.1.3
5.5.3
5.5.3.0
5.5.3.1
5.5.3.2
5.5.3.3
5.5.2.0
5.5.2.1
5.5.0 General
210
5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength of welded components 5 Appendices
Table 5.5.1 Differences between the assessments using
nominal stresses, structural stresses or effective notch
stresses.
Table 5.5.2 (Table 2.4.1 or 4.4.1) Residual stress
factors KE,cr , and component mean stress
sensitivities Mc;, for welded components.
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
nominal stress
The stress increasing effects of the form of the component and the notch
effects of the shape of the weld seam are allowed for in a complementary
way either by the stress value or by the strength value.
The values of the component fatigue limit for
completely reversed normal stress and shear stress are,
Chapter 2.4.1:
Assessment with
nominal structural effective
stresses S stresses cr notch
stresses ex
Allowed for bv the stress value
Form of the no yes yes
component
Shape of the no no yes
weld
Allowed for by the strength value
Form of the yes no no
component
Shape of the yes yes no
weld
Effect of yes yes yes
welding
(5.5.6)(4.2.3)
crW,zd = crw,w= 92 MFa,
"w,S ="W,W = 37 MFa.
Specific fatigue limit values of welds in steel for
completely reversed stress
Independent of the kind of steel the specific fatigue limit
values of welds in steel for completely reversed normal
stress and shear stress are, Chapter 4.2.1.2,
Structural stresses allow for all stress increasing
influences of the form of the component, but do not
account for influences of the weld shape. Therefore the
component strength value is determined by the shape of
the weld seam and by the specific fatigue strength value
of welds, but not by the form of the component, Table
5.5.1 *10.
c-I For shear stress there is = M
cr
, = 0,577 after Table
2.2.1 or 4.2.1.
5.5.1.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using
structural stresses
The assessment using structural stresses is applicable for
the toe of the weld of rod-shaped (lD) and of shell-
shaped (2D) components *9 , but not for the root of the
weld.
Residual
KE,cr
M
cr KE;t

stress
high 1,00 0 1,00 0
moderate 1,26 0,15 1,15 0,09
low 1,54 0,30 1,30 0,17
(5.5.3)(2.4.1)
SWK,Zd =crw,w/ KWK,zd,
TWK,s = "W,W / KWK,s .
Component fatigue limit for nominal stress
The mean stress dependent values of the component
fatigue limit *8 for normal stress and for shear stress are,
Chapter 2.4.2.0:
(5.5.7)(4.3.4) KWK,zd = 225 / FAT,
KWK,s = 145/ FAT.
Fatigue classes for the assessment using structural
stresses are given in Chapter 5.4.2.
Design factors for structural stress
The design factors for normal stress and for shear stress
are as above *7, Chapter 4.3.1.2,
9 Also applicable for block-shaped (3D) components welded at the
surface.
laThe numbers of equivalent tables and equations in Chapter 4 are
given here as well.
8 The component variable amplitude fatigue strength is not considered
here, since it is not essential in the present context.
(5.5.5)
(5.5.4)(2.4.6)
. FAT
SAK d = K
AK
d ' KE '--' <Jw W
,z ,z ,cr 225 "
FAT
TAK,s =K
AK.s . KE.<·14'5 . "W,w,
SAK,zd =KAK,zd . KE,cr' SWK,zd,
TAK,s = KAK,s' TWK,s.
The mean stress factors KAK,zd and KAK,s after Chapter
2.4.2.1, are to be determined with the component mean
stress sensitivity M; and after Chapter 2.4.2.4, Table
5.5.2, the residual stress factors KE,cr and after
Chapter 2.4.2.3, Tab. 5.5.2.
By combining Eq. (5.5.2), (5.5.3) and (5.5.4) the
component fatigue limit for normal stress and for shear
stress is obtained in the form
211
5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength of welded components 5 Appendices
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
structural stress
The values of the component fatigue limit for
completely reversed normal stress and shear stress are,
Chapter 4.4.1:
CJWK = CJw,w I KWK,cr,
LWK = LW,W I KWK;t .
(5.5.8)(4.4.1)
Design factors for effective notch stress
The design factors for normal stress and for shear stress
are, Chapter 4.3.1.2,
KWK,crK=225/FAT= 1, (5.5.12)(4.3.8)
KWK;tK = 145 I FAT = 1.
Fatigue classes FAT = 225 for normal stress and
FAT = 145 for shear stress.
Values KAK,cr, ... as above, Chapter 4.4.2.1 ....
By combining Eq. (5.5.7), (5.5.8) and (5.5.9) the
component fatigue limit for normal stress and for shear
stress is obtained in the form
Component fatigue limit for structural stress
The mean stress dependent values of the component
fatigue limit '8 for normal stress and for shear stress are,
Chapter 4.4.2.0:
5.5.1.3 Assessment of the fatigue strength using
effective notch stresses
The assessment with effective notch stresses is
applicable both to the toe and to the root of the weld of
rod-shaped (lD) and of shell-shaped (2D) welded
components *9.
Effective notch stresses, computed with the effective
notch radius r = 1 mm, see Figure 0.0.7, account both
for the influence of the form of the component and for
the influence of the shape of the weld seam (that is all
stress increasing influences). Therefore the component
fatigue limit value is identical with the specific fatigue
limit value of welds for completely reversed stress and
does not contain any influence of the form of the
component nor of the weld seam, Tab. 5.5.1 *10.
By combining Eq. (5.5.12), (5.5.13) and (5.5.14) the
component fatigue limit values for normal stress and for
shear stress are obtained in the form
(5.5.15)
(5.5.14)(4.4.6)
CJAK,K=KAK,crK . KE,cr . CJw,w,
LAK,K =KAK,'tK . KE,'t . LW,W·
CJAK,K = KAK,crK . KE,cr . CJWK,K,
LAK,K = KAK,'tK • KE,'t . LWK,K·
Values KAK,crK, ... as above, Chapter 4.4.2.1 ....
Component fatigue limit for effective notch stress
The mean stress dependent values of the. component
fatigue limit '8 for normal stress and for shear stress are,
Chapter 4.4.2.0:
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
effective notch stress
The values of the component fatigue limit for
completely reversed normal stress and shear stress are,
Chapter 4.4.1:
CJWK,K = CJw,w I KWK,crK (= CJw,w) (5.5.13)(4.4.1)
LWK,K = LW,W I KWK,'tK (= LW,W).
5.5.2 Explanation of the relationships
for welded components
5.5.2.0 General
The relationships between the fatigue limit of welds for
completely reversed stress, the mean stress factor and
the residual stress factor are illustrated by Figure 5.5.1
and explained in the following.
(5.5.10)
(5.5.9)(4.4.6)
FAT
CJAK= KAK,cr . KE,cr' 225 . CJw,w,
FAT
LAK =KAK,'t . KE,'t 'l45 .LW,W .
CJAK = KAK,cr . KE,cr . CJwK,
LAK = KAK;t . KE,'t . LWK .
Specific fatigue limit of welds in steel for completely
reversed stress
Independent of the kind of steel the specific fatigue limit
values of welds in steel for completely reversed normal
stress and shear stress are, Chapter 4.2.1.2,
CJW,zd = CJw,w = 92 MPa,
LW,S =LW,W = 37 MPa.
(5.5.11)(4.2.3)
5.5.2.1 Specific fatigue limit values of welds for
completely reversed stress
According to the concept of the present guideline the
same safety factors are to be applied for non-welded
components and for welded components in order to
maintain a uniform procedure of assessment. These
safety factors are, however, higher than those of the
IIW-Recommendations and of the Eurocode 3, Tab.
5.5.3.
212
5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength of welded components 5 Appendices

(aAI\ )
III
MPa
( 1,36)
225(113)
145(73)
(2,19) k T=5
66 33
sira bild9lkl
° 1
M
a
'"
I
II
b

N

f
/
83 MPa
etre bildtlkl
0,17
0,09
°
aifll bhghtk 0
3
aife bhghsk
-1
°
3
(5.5.17)
Figure 5.5.1 Fatigue limit of welds in structural steel.
Top: Component constant amplitude SoNcurves for high residual stresses
and/or for high stress ratios R
cr
0,5 or 0,5 . Numerically shown
are the stress ranges (double amplitudes) and amplitudes (in parenthesis)
corresponding to Eq. (5.5.17) .
Value L'>crAK = 225 (145) MPa according to the llW-Recommendations.
Bottom: Haigh-diagrams presenting the mean stress dependent amplitudes
crAK or at the fatigue limit or at NO c or NO t , respectively.
Component mean stress sensitivity for high ;esidual stress (M
cr
=
= 0), for moderate residual stress (M
cr
= 0,15 , = 0,09), for low
residual stress (M
cr
= 0,3 , M"t = 0,17).
Left: Normal stress. Right: Shear stress.
Table 5.5.3 Safety factors
Safety factors for steel according to the present
guideline (Table 2.5.1 or 4.5.1).
jo Consequence of failure
high low
regular
I
no 1,5 1,3
Inspection
I
yes 1,35 1,2
Safety factors for structural steel according to
Eurocode 3.
The difference of the safety factors is 1,5/ 1,35 = 1,11.
Therefore the specific fatigue limit values of welds for
completely reversed stresses crw,wand 'Cw,w specified in
the guideline,
crw,w = 92 MFa, (5.5.16)
'Cw,w = 37 MFa,
are higher by a factor of about 1,11 than the original
values to be derived from the fatigue classes (FAT)
given by the IIW-Recommendations and by Eurocode 3
crw,w= 83 MFa,
'Cw,w = 33 Mpa,
Hence in applying the respective safety factors the same
allowable stress values will be obtained.
The fatigue classes (FAT) and the values ofEq. (5.5.17)
derived from these are displayed in Figure 5.5.1.
The above fatigue limit values crw,w and 'Cw,w and the
corresponding values and of the fatigue
classes FAT = 225 and FAT = 145 are valid in the case
of high residual stresses and/or high stress ratios
0,5 or 0,5 in combination with an exponent of
the constant amplitude S-N curve of k
cr
= 3 or k, = 5
and an average probability of survival of PD = 97,5 %.
Deriving the original fatigue limit values
For normal stress the original fatigue limit value of the
IIW-Recommendations, Eq. (5.5.17), is
jo Consequence of failure
high low
regular
I
no 1,35 1,15
Inspection
I
yes 1,25 1,00
crw,w= 83 MFa (5.5.18)
213
5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength of welded components 5 Appendices
This is the stress amplitude of the fatigue limit at a
number of cycles ND,a = 5 . 10
6
. It corresponds to the
experimentally established value of the IIW-
Recommendations:
This is the stress range or double-amplitude of the
fatigue strength at the reference number of cycles of
N
c
= 2· 10
6
,
The relationship between these values follows from the
component constant amplitude S-N curve and the values
No,cr, N
c
and k
cr
= 3, Figure 5.5,1:
erw,w = (Nc / No,cr) I /kcr. !:ierAK / 2 (5.5.20)
= (2 . 10
6/5
. 10
6
) 1/3 ·225/2 = 83 MPa.
For shear stress the original fatigue limit value of the
IIW-Recommendations, Eq. (5.5, 17), is
The residual stress factor in the case of high, moderate
or low residual stresses derived from Eq. (2.4.13) or
(4.4.13) is
Product KAK,O' . KE,cr for normal stress
The mean stress sensitivity in the case of high, moderate
or low residual stresses is, Table 5.5.2:
(5.5.25) M; = 0; 0,15 and 0,30.
The residual stress factor is defined for a stress ratio
R; = -I (R, = -I) and is equal to the reciprocal of the
mean stress factor for a stress ratio Rcr = 0,5 (R, = 0,5).
The product KAK,cr . KE,cr or KAK,"t' KAK,"t describes
the increase of the component fatigue limit as a function
of the mean stress compared to the basic value for high
residual stress which is not dependent on mean stress.
(5,5, (9) !:ierAK = 225 MPa.
This is the stress amplitude of the fatigue limit at a
number of cycles NO,"t = 10
8
. It corresponds to the
experimentally established value of the IIW-
Recommendations *11
This is the stress range or double-amplitude of the
fatigue strength at the reference number of cycles of
Nc = 2.10
6
.
The relationship between these values follows from the
component constant amplitude S-N curve and the values
NO,"t , Nc and k, = 5, Figure 5,5.1:
T-w,w = (Nc / NO,"t) 1/k"t. !:iT-AK / 2 (5,5.24)
= (2 . 10
6
/ 10
8
) 1/5 . 145/2 = 33 MPa.
For Rcr = -00 (zero-compression stress) it follows from
Eq. (2.4.9) or (4.4.9), Figure 5.5.1, (5.5.27)
1
KAKcr' KEcr =--- . KEcr = 1; 1,48 and 2,19.
, , 1-M
cr
'
For Rcr = -1 (alternating stress) it follows from Eq.
(2.4.10) or (4.4.10) (5.5.28)
KAK,cr' KE,cr = 1 . KE,cr = 1; 1,26 and/or 1,54.
For Rcr = 0 (zero-tension stress) it follows from Eq.
(2.4.10) or (4.4.10) (5.5.29)
1
KAKcr' KEcr =-- . KEcr = I; 1,10 and 1,18.
, , I+M
cr
'
(5.5.26)
.,.,..,..... = 3.(I+M
cr
f
KAK,cr,R=0,5 3 + M
cr
I; 1,26 and 1,54.
(5,5.21)
(5.5.22)
T-W,W = 33 MPa
5.5.2.2 Mean stress factor and residual stress factor
Mean stress factor and residual stress factor are closely
related to each other, Chapter 2.4.2 or 4.4.2.
The mean stress factor KAK,cr or KAK,"t describes the
amplitude of the component fatigue limit as a function
of the mean stress. For a stress ratio Rcr = -lor R, = -1
there is KAK,cr = 1 and KAK,"t = 1. For reasons of
uniformity it is determined the same way as for non-
welded components, but with different values of the
mean stress sensitivity M; and M, assigned to the case
of high, moderate or low residual stresses, Table 5.5.2.
The residual stress factor KE,cr or KE,"t describes how the
amplitude of the component fatigue limit differs in the
case of high, moderate or low residual stresses, Table
5.5.2.
For Rcr = 0,5 it follows from Eq. (2.4.13) or (4.4.13)
(5.5.30)
KAK~ . KE ~ = 3 + M
cr
. K E , ~ = I; I and 1.
,u ,u ( \2 U
. 3· 1+ Mcrl
Product KAK,"t . KE,"t for shear stress
The mean stress sensitivity in the case of high, moderate
or low residual stresses is, Table 5.5.2:
(5.5.31)
M, = f"t' M, = 0,58' M
cr
= 0; 0,09 and 0,17.
The residual stress factor in the case of high, moderate
or low residual stresses derived from Eq. (2.4.13) or
(4.4.13) is
11 Actually a value 6"tAK R= -I = 190 MPa was experimentally
establishes for a stress ratio R"t = -1 and low residual stresses, which is
about a factor 1,30 higher than in the case of high residual stresses,
Figure 5.5.1: (5.5.23)
6"tAK,R= -1 = 1,30' L'l"tAK = 1,30 . 145 MPa = 190 MPa.
3.(I+M"t)2
K AK,"t,R=0,5 3 + M,
I; 1,15 and 1,30. (5.5.32)
214
5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength of welded components 5 Appendices
Figure 5.5.2 Standardized Haigh diagrams according
to the IlW-Recommendations (IlW), to Eurocode 3
(EC3) and to the present guideline (Ri).
For Rcr = 0,5 it follows from Eq. (2.4.13) or (4.4.13)
(5.5.35)
3+M
t
KAK t . K
E
t - . KEt = 1; 1 and 1.
, , 3.(I+M
t
)2 '
The basic way of calculation using nominal stresses,
structural stresses or effective notch stresses is explained
by the example of a transverse butt weld in a flange with
wedge-shaped transition in width (slope 1:2) and with
high residual stresses (KE,cr = 1, M
cr
= 0, Table 5.5.2),
Figure 5.5.3.
In simplification the task is to examine the 'existing
safety factor' jYorh for an alternating constant amplitude
loading (tension-compression, R
zd
= R, = -1, mean
stress factor KAK,zd = KAK, cr = KAK, crK = 1). If the three
methods of calculation are compatible, the results will
agree.
Figure 5.5.3 Transverse butt weld in a flange with
wedge-shaped transition in width (slope 1:2).
Stress concentration factor due to the transition in
width: Kt,cr = 1,25. Combined stress concentration factor
due to the transition in width and due to the transverse
butt weld with an assigned effective notch radius r = 1
mm, Figure 0.0.7: Kt,crK = 3,5.
I r-e l mm
i
a.;a, ::::::_
aifa b558_ _ _ .....__


5.5.3 Example
5.5.3.0 General
3 o -1

1,3,-----\---="'iiiiil;d
aila b552
For Rcr = -I (alternating stress) *12 it follows from Eq.
(2.4.10) or (4.4.10) (5.5.33)
KAK;t' KE;t = 1 . KE,cr = 1; 1,15 and 1,30.
For Rcr = 0 (zero-tension stress) it follows from Eq.
(2.4.10) or (4.4.10) (5.5.34)
1
KAKt' K
Et
= --' KEt = 1; 1,06 and 1,11.
, , I+M
t
'
Although somewhat differing from the IlW-
Recommendations and from Eurocode 3 the application
of the concept presented here appears to be acceptable as
different Haigh-diagrams are given in the two references
and as the present concept is a more or less intermediate
one, Figure 5.5.2.
2,19---.....
I1W-Recommendations: Haigh-diagram for high (1), for moderate (1,3)
and for low (1,6) residual stresses.
Eurocode 3: Haigh-diagram for high (1) and for low (1,67) residual
stresses. The diagram not presented in Eurocode 3 agrees to the given
rule, that only 60 % of the compression part ofthe stress cycle istobe
considered.
Present Guideline: Haigh-diagram for high (1), for moderate (1,48) and
for low (2,19) residual stresses.
5.5.3.1 Calculation using nominal stresses
Nominal stress amplitude
Sa= 20 MFa. (5.5.36)
The component fatigue limit results from Eq. (5.5.5):
FAT
SAK,zd = 225 . crw,w . (5.5.37)
Considering the stress concentration due to the
transition in width (form of the component) and due to
the reinforced weld seam (shape of weld seam) the
fatigue class FAT = 63 (no. 223 in Tab. 5.4.1) appears
to be appropriate and accordingly
63
SAK,zd = 225 . 92 MFa = 26 MFa. (5.5.38)
The available safety factor is
12 The stress ratio R'[ = -CX) is not mentioned because the Haigh-
diagram for shear stresses t
m
< 0 issymmetrically tot
m
> O.
jvorh = SAK,zd / Sa = 26 / 20 = 1,3. (5.5.39)
215
5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength of welded components
5.5.3.2 Calculation using structural stresses
Structural stress amplitude including the stress
concentration ofthe transition in width, Kt,cr = 1,25,
5 Appendices
O"a = 1,25' 20 MPa = 25 MPa. (5.5.40)
(5.5.41)
(5.5.42)
The component fatigue limit results from Eq. (5.5.10):
FAT
O"AK = 225 . O"w,w .
Considering the stress concentration of the reinforced
weld seam (shape of weld seam) the fatigue class
FAT = 80 (no. 213 in Tab. 5.4.3) appears to be
appropriate and accordingly
80
0"AK =225 . 92 MPa =33 MPa.
The available safety factor is as before
jYorh = 0"AK / O"a = 33 /25 = 1,3. (5.5.43)
5.5.3.3 Calculation using effective notch stresses
Effective notch stress amplitude including the stress
concentration of the transition in width and of the
reinforced weld seam with an assigned effective notch
radius r = I mm, Kt,crK = 3,5 ,
O"a,K = 3,5 . 20 MPa = 70 MPa. (5.5.44)
The component fatigue limit results from Eq. (5.5.15):
O"AK,K =O"w,w = 92 MPa. (5.5.45)
The available safety factor is as before
jYorh = 0"AK,K/ O"a,K = 92 /70 = 1,314 = 1,3 (5.5.46)
216
5.6 Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress spectrum and deriving a stepped spectrum 5 Appendices
5.6.1 Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress
spectrum *1
5.6.1.0 General
This chapter describes how to convert the stress ratios of
the steps of a stress spectrum to agree with the stress
ratio of the component constant amplitude S-N curve,
and how to derive a stepped stress spectrum, in order to
allow a damage calculation.
5.6 Adjusting the stress ratio of a
stress spectrum to agree with that of
the S-N curve and deriving a stepped
spectrum IRs6 EN.dog
Usually a component constant amplitude S-N curve is
derived for a constant stress ratio over the whole range
of stress amplitudes. To perform a damage calculation,
Chapter 2.4.3 or 4.4.3, the stress ratios of the individual
steps of the stress spectrum, R"i, and the stress ratio R
of the component constant amplitude S-N curve must
agree. Otherwise the differing stress ratios of all steps,
i = 1 to j, are to be converted to a uniform stress ratio
R"i =R, =R, as described below.
A conversion to a uniform stress ratio R, = R"i =-1 is
normally to be preferred, Chapter 5.6.1.1, as analytically
a S-N curve is primarily derived for a stress ratio
R =-1, Chapter 4.4.1 *2
(5.6.3)
(5.6.2)
(5.6.1)
For I < crm,i / crsa,i < 3 there is
M, crm i
1+-·--'
3 o a,i
Field I (fluctuating compression stress)
For crm,i / cra,i < -1 there is
cra,i,Rcr=-1 =cra,i . (l - M; )
Field II (alternating stress)
For -I s crm,i / cra,i S I there is
cra,i,Rcr=- I =cra,i . (l + M, . crm,i / cra,i ) ,
In a first step the amplitudes of all steps i = 1 to j are to
be converted to a stress ratio Ra = -1 . This conversion
results in the damage equivalent amplitudes cra,i,Rcr=-I.
In performing the conversion the four fields of mean
stress are to be distinguished, see Chapter 2.4.2 or 4.4.2:
cra,i,Rcr=- I =cra,i' 1+M
cr
/3
I+M
cr
Field IV (upper range of fluctuating tension stress)
This chapter is of relevance mainly for stress spectra the
steps of which show different stress ratios. In particular
these are mean stress spectra, Figure 2.1.2 (on top) or
Figure 4.1.2 (on top), or more general, all other types of
(one-parametric) stress spectra where the amplitudes cra,i
and mean values crm,i result in different stress ratios Ra,i
of the individual steps. Furthermore the described
method of conversion is applicable to two-parametric
stress spectra, like rain-flow matrices for example,
where the matrix elements show different amplitudes,
mean values and stress ratios as well.
Field III (lower range of fluctuating tension stress)
5.6.1.1 Conversion to a stress ratio R., = -1
In a second step a so derived stress spectrum for
R, =R"i = -1 may be converted to any other uniform
stress ratio of interest after Chapter 5.6.1.2, Figure 5.6.1
The following equations are written for local normal
stress o , but accordingly they are valid for a nominal
stress as well. For shear stress the normal stress c is to
be replaced by 1:, and the mean stress 1:
m
,i, for i = 1 to j is
always to be regarded as positive *3.
Page
216
217 Deriving a stepped stress spectrum 5.6.2
General
Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress
spectrum
5.6.1.0 General
5.6.1.1 Conversion to a stress ratio R, =-1
5.6.1.2 Conversion to an other stress ratio R,
5.6.0 General
5.6.0
5.6.1
Content
I Also known as the method of 'amplitude transformation'.
2 A conversion to the stress ratio of step i = I with the largest
amplitude of the spectrum is common for variable amplitude fatigue
tests. Converting to the stress ratio of the most damaging step would
be another alternative. For the most damaging step i
max
the term of
Eq. (4.1.10), hi' (a i / sa I )k , reaches a maximum value.
(Number of cycles hi a ~ d ampiitude a.i of step i = i
max,
amplitude
sa, I of the step I with the largest amplitude, exponent of the
constant amplitude S-N curve k
cr
).
for crm,i / cra,i ~ 3 there is
_ .3.(I+M
cr
f
cra,i Rcr=-I - cra,i , (5.6.4)
, 3+M
cr
cra,i stress amplitude in step i of the initial spectrum
crm,i mean amplitude in step i of the initial spectrum
M; component mean stress sensitivity, Chapter
2.4.2.3 or 4.4.2.3 .
In the case of a damage calculation and an analytically derived SN-
curve both alternatives would not make any difference, however. 3 See footnote 5 on page II 5.
217
5.6 Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress spectrum and deriving a stepped spectrum 5 Appendices
Figure 5.6.1 Converting the amplitudes in the steps of
a stress spectrum to a uniform stress ratio R, .
Initial stress amplitudes O"a,i , mean stresses O"m,i and
stress ratios .
Converted stress amplitudes O"a,i,Ra=-1 for the stress
ratio = -1 (step 1), and converted stress amplitudes
O"a,i,Ro,1 for an other stress ratio = , for example.
Amplitude ofthe component fatigue limit according to mean stress, oAK ,
amplitude ofthe component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
aWK ' component mean stress sensitivity M
a
bS8t
R =-1
a
R R =0
c, I fJ
!!l! lIlY
5.6.1.2 Conversion to an other stress
ratio R(J
In a second step the amplitudes O"a,i,Ra=-1 of the stress
spectrum for a stress ratio = -1 can be further
converted to any other uniform stress ratio for
example to O"a,i, Ro,l for = . Again the four fields
of mean stress are to be distinguished:
5.6.2 Deriving a stepped stress spectrum
If a stress spectrum is presented as a continuous
spectrum a corresponding stepped spectrum may be
derived sufficiently exact by the graphical method
according to Figure 5.6.2.
0,6
0;4
t---a.---...
O'"---......l...- L...l
0,2
cr••1 1,0
cr.,1 0,8
(5.6.5)
Field I
For > 1 (O"m,l / O"a,l < - 1) there is
O"a,i,Rcr,1 =O"a,i,Ro=-1 / (1 - M; ),
Field II
for -00 :s; :s; 0 (-I:S; O"m,l / O"a,l :s; 1) there is *4
1
O"a,i,Rcr,1 = O"a,i,Ro=-l . 1 M / ' (5.6.6)
+ a ·O"m,l O"a,l
Field III
for 0 < 0,5 (l < O"m,l / O"a,l < 3) there is
I+M
cr
/3
l+M
0"' =0"' _. 0
a,I,Ra,1 a,I,Rcr--l M '
O"m,l
3 O"a,l
(5.6.8)
5.6;2
Figure 5.6.2 Deriving a stepped stress spectrum.
Presented example: 8 steps.
Field IV
for 0,5 (O"m,I / O"a,l ;:::: 3) there is
3+M
o
O"a,i,Ro,1 = O"a,i,Ro=-l . ---=--
3.(1 +Maf
(5.6.9)
4 O"m 1 fO"a I =(1 +R
a
1 )f(1-R
cr
l)'
" , ,
(5.6.7)
The expression using the ratio of mean stress to stress amplitude avoids
numerical problems when Ro,l = - 00.
5.7 Assessment using classes of utilization
218
5 Appendices
This chapter applies to components made of steel and of
cast iron materials without surface treatment.
5.7 Assessment using classes of
utilization 1R57 EN.dog
5.7.1 Non-welded components
Variable amplitude fatigue strength factors are given by
Figure 5.7.1 (left columns), For a required number of
cycles at the knee point, N = ND,a = ND,t = 10
6
, and a
1KBK,cr, ...for local stresses; KBK,zd, .... for nominal stresses.
2 Following DIN 15018
3 Table 5.7.1 to 5.7.5 and Figure 5.7.1 correspond to a damage
calculation with the elementary version of Miner's rule with a critical
damage sum D
M
= 1, Eq. (4.4.51) and with Va after Eq. (4.1.10) orTable
4.1.1.
Non-welded Welded
components components
KBK,cr KBK,cr
B-7 - 6,49 - -
B-6
-
5,62 - -
B-5 12,59 4,87 -
27,5
B-4 10,00 4,22 -
21,9
B-3 7,94 3,65 42,9 17,4
B-2 6,31 3,16 29,2 13,8
B-1 5,01 2,74 19,9 11,0
BO 3,98 2,37 13,6 8,71
Bl 3,16 2,05 9,24 6,91
B2 2,51 1,78 6,30 5,49
B3 2,00 1,54 4,29 4,38
B4 1,58 1,33 2,92 3,46
B5 1,26 1,15 2,00 2,76
B6 1,00 1,00 1,36 2,19
B7 - -
1,00 1,74
B8 - - - 1,38
B9 - - -
1,10
B10 - - -
1,00
For an intermediate value of the class of utilization (for example
B1/2) the geometrical mean ofthe neighboring values applies.
5.7.2 Welded components
Variable amplitude fatigue strength factors are given by
Figure 5.7.1 (right columns). For a reference number of
cycles N
c
= 2 . 10
6
and a spectrum parameter p = 1 the
class of utilization B6 applies. In this case the B6-class,
however, does not correspond to the component fatigue
limit but serves as a reference value only. The class of
utilization corresponding to the component fatigue limit
is B7 for normal stress and B10 for shear stress. High
values of the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor,
although formally correct, may be irrelevant and
excluded by an assessment of the static strength.
spectrum parameter p = 1 the class of utilization B6
applies. The class B6 corresponds to the component
fatigue limit and serves as a reference value. High
values of the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor,
although formally correct, may be irrelevant and
excluded by an assessment of the static strength.
-c- 1The table applies tobinomially and exponentially distributed standard
stress spectra.
Table 5.7.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factors
for non-welded and for welded components, for normal
stress, KBK,cr, and for shear stress, according to
the classes of utilization B 1
Page
218
A class of utilization is an approximately damage-
combination of the required number of cycles
N with the shapes of particular standard stress spectra,
the frequency distribution of which is of binomial or
exponential type modified by a spectrum parameter p.
Concerning the relationship between the classes of
utilization, the required total number of cycles Nand
the spectrum parameter p for binomially or
exponentially distributed standard stress spectra see
Table 5.7.2 to 5,7.5. Because of different slopes of the
component constant amplitude S-N curves non-welded
and welded components as well as normal stress and
shear stress are to be distinguished.
According to this chapter the variable amplitude fatigue
strength factors KBK,a , KBK,t *1 for a given class of
utilization *2 can be determined, Tab. 5,7.1 *3,
The appropriate class of utilization is to be determined
by the user according to existing experience and outside
of this guideline,
The classes of utilization allow the assessment of the
variable amplitude fatigue strength to be carried out in a
simplified manner, Chapter 2.1.4.2 and 2.4.3,1 or
4.1.4.2 and 4.4,3.1.
Content
5.7.0 General
5.7.1 Non-welded components
5.7.2 Welded components
5.7.0 General
It is supposed, that the recommended damage sum < 1isconsidered
bythe user according to the his experience in selecting the appropriate
class ofutilization.
5.7 Assessment using classes of utilization
Table 5.7.2 Non-welded components, binomially
distributed standard stress spectra, classes of utilization
according to the spectrum parameters Nand p.
Normal stress ~ 1 ~ 2 .
Required Spectrum parameter p
total number of
cycles
N
0 1/3 2/3 I
... 10
4
B-3 B-1 BOil B2
10
4
... 3,2 . 10
4
B-2 BO B1/2 B3
3,2 . 10
4
... 10
5
B-1 BI B2/3 B4
10
5
... 3,2 . 10
5
BO B2 B3/4 B5
3,2' 10
5
... 10
6
B1 B3 B4/5 B6
10
6
... 3,2 . 10
6
B2 B4 B5/6 B6
3,2 . 10
6
... 10
7
B3 B5 B6 B6
10
7
... 3,2 . 10
7
B4 B6 B6 B6
3,2 . 10
7
... 10
8
B5 B6 B6 B6
10
8
... 3,2 . 10
8
B6 B6 B6 B6
3,2' 10
8
... 10
9
B6 B6 B6 B6
10
9
... B6 B6 B6 B6
Shear stress ~ 1 ~ 2 .
Required Spectrum parameter p
total number of
cycles
N
0 1/3 2/3 I
... 10
4
B-5/-4 B-3/-2 BO B2
10
4
... 3,2 . 10
4
B-4/-3 B-2/-1 BI B3
3;2 . 10
4
... 10
5
B-3/-2 B-1/0 B2 B4
10
5
... 3,2 . 10
5
B-2/-1 BOil B3 B5
3,2 . 10
5
... 10
6
B-1/0 B1/2 B4 B6
10
6
... 3,2 . 10
6
BOil B2/3 B5 B6
3,2 . 10
6
... 10
7
BI/2 B3/4 B6 B6
10
7
... 3,2 . 10
7
B2/3 B4/5 B6 B6
3,2 . 10
7
... 10
8
B3/4 B5/6 B6 B6
10
8
... 3,2 . 10
8
B4/5 B6 B6 B6
3,2 . 10
8
... 10
9
B5/6 B6 B6 B6
10
9
... B6 B6 B6 B6
-c- 1 For example BO/1 means the geometrical mean value of the classes
BO and to B1.
~ 2 N= ND,o = ND," = 10
6
and p = 1 corresponds to the component
fatigue limit and to the class of utilization B6 .
219
5 Appendices
Table 5.7.3 Non-welded components, exponentially
distributed standard stress spectra, classes of utilization
according to the spectrum parameters Nand p.
Normal stress ~ 1 ~ 2 .
Required Spectrum parameter p
total number of
cycles
N
0 1/3 2/3 1
... 10
4
B-5 B-2/-1 BOil B2
10
4
... 3,2 . 10
4
B-4 B-1/0 B1/2 B3
3,2 . 10
4
... 10
5
B-3 BOil B2/3 B4
10
5
... 3,2 . 10
5
'B-2 B1/2 B3/4 B5
3,2 . 10
5
... 10
6
B-1 B2/3 B4/5 B6
10
6
... 3,2 . 10
6
BO B3/4 B5/6 B6
3,2 . 10
6
... 10
7
BI B4/5 B6 B6
10
7
... 3,2 . 10
7
B2 B5/6 B6 B6
3,2 . 10
7
... 10
8
B3 B6 B6 B6
10
8
... 3,2 . 10
8
B4 B6 B6 B6
3,2' 10
8
... 10
9
B5 B6 B6 B6
10
9
... B6 B6 B6 B6
Shear stress ~ 1 ~ 2 .
Required Spectrum parameter p
total number of
cycles
N
0 1/3 2/3 1
... 10
4
B-7 B-4 B-1/0 B2
10
4
... 3,2 . 10
4
B-6 B-3 BOil B3
3,2 . 10
4
... 10
5
B-5 B-2 B1/2 B4
10
5
... 3,2 . 10
5
B-4 B-1 B2/3 B5
3,2 . 10
5
... 10
6
B-3 BO B3/4 B6
10
6
... 3,2 . 10
6
B-2 B1 B4/5 B6
3,2 . 10
6
... 10
7
B-1 B2 B5/6 B6
10
7
... 3,2 . 10
7
BO B3 B6 B6
3,2 . 10
7
... 10
8
B1 B4 B6 B6
10
8
... 3,2' 10
8
B2 B5 B6 B6
3,2' 10
8
... 10
9
B3 B6 B6 B6
10
9
... 3,2 . 10
9
B4 B6 B6 B6
3,2 . 10
9
... 10
10
B5 B6 B6 B6
10
10
... B6 B6 B6 B6
5.7 Assessment using classes of utilization
Table 5.7.4 Welded components, binomially
distributed standard stress spectra, classes of utilization
according to the spectrum parameters Nand p.
Normal stress -¢>1 -¢>2.
Required Spectrum parameter p
total number of
cycles
N
0 113 2/3 1
... 2' 10
4
B-2/-1 Bl Bl B2
2 . 10
4
... 6,3 . 10
4
B-I10 Bl B2 B3
6,3 . 10
4
... 2 . 10
5
BOil B2 B3 B4
2 . 10
5
... 6,3 . 10
5
BII2 B3 B4 B5
6,3 . 10
5
... 2 . 10
6
B2/3 B4 B5 B6
2 . 10
6
... 6,3 . 10
6
B3/4 B5 B6 B7
6,3 . 10
6
... 2 . 10
7
B4/5 B6 B7 B7
2 . 10
7
... 6,3 . 10
7
B5/6 B7 B7 B7
6,3 . 10
7
... 2 . 10
8
B6/7 B7 B7 B7
2 . 10
8
... 6,3 . 10
8
B7 B7 B7 B7
6,3 . 10
8
... B7 B7 B7 B7
Shear stress -¢>1 -¢>3.
Required Spectrum parameter p
total number of
cycles
N
0 113 2/3 1
... 2' 10
4
B-3 B-1 BOil B2
2 . 10
4
... 6,3 . 10
4
B-2 BO BII2 B3
6,3 ",10
4
... 2 . 10
5
B-1 Bl B2/3 B4
2 . 10
5
... 6,3 . 10
5
BO B2 B3/4 B5
6,3 . 10
5
... 2 . 10
6
Bl B3 B4/5 B6
2' 10
6
... 6,3 . 10
6
B2 B4 B5/6 B7
6,3 . 10
6
... 2 . 10
7
B3 B5 B6/7 B8
2 . 10
7
... 6,3 . 10
7
B4 B6 B7/8 B9
6,3 . 10
7
... 2 . 10
8
B5 B7 B8/9 BlO
2 . 10
8
... 6,3 . 10
8
B6 B8 BlO BlO
6,3 . 10
8
... 2 . 10
9
B7 B9 BlO BlO
2 . 10
9
... 6,3 . 10
9
B8 BlO BlO BlO
6,3 . 10
9
... 2 . 10
10
B9 BlO BI0 BlO
2' 1010 ... BlO BI0 BlO BlO
-c- 1 For example 80/1 means the geometrical mean value of the classes
80 and to 81.
-¢>2 N= NC = 2 . 10
6
and p = 1 corresponds to the class of utilization
86. The class of utilization 87 corresponds to the component fatigue limit
at ND.cr = 5 . 10
6
.
-¢>3 N= NC = 2 . 10
6
and p = 1 corresponds to the class of utilization
86. The class of utilization 810 corresponds to the component fatigue
limit at ND.t = 10
8
220
5 Appendices
Table 5.7.5 Welded components, exponentially
distributed standard stress spectra, classes of utilization
according to the spectrum parameters Nand p.
Normal stress -¢>1 -¢>2.
Required Spectrum parameter p
total number of
cycles
N
0 113 2/3 1
... 2' 10
4
B-3 Bl Bl B2
2 . 10
4
... 6,3 . 10
4
B-2 Bl B2 B3
6,3 . 10
4
... 2 . 10
5
B-1 B2 B3 B4
2 . 10
5
... 6,3 . 10
5
BO B3 B4 B5
6,3 . 10
5
... 2 . 10
6
Bl B4 B5 B6
2 . 10
6
... 6,3 . 10
6
B2 B5 B6 B7
6,3 . 10
6
... 2 . 10
7
B3 B6 B7 B7
2 . 10
7
... 6,3 . 10
7
B4 B7 B7 B7
6,3 . 10
7
... 2 . 10
8
B5 B7 B7 B7
2 . 10
8
... 6,3 . 10
8
B6 B7 B7 B7
6,3' 10
8
... B7 B7 B7 B7
Shear stress -¢>1 -¢>3.
Required Spectrum parameter p
total number of cycles
N
0 113 2/3 1
... 2' 10
4
B-5 B-2/-1 BOil B2
2 . 10
4
... 6,3 . 10
4
B-4 B-I10 BII2 B3
6,3 . 10
4
... 2 . 10
5
B-3 BOil B2/3 B4
2 . 10
5
... 6,3 . 10
5
B-2 BII2 B3/4 B5
6,3 . 10
5
... 2 . 10
6
B-1 B2/3 B4/5 B6
2 . 10
6
... 6,3 . 10
6
BO B3/4 B5/6 B7
6,3 . 10
6
... 2 . 10
7
Bl B4/5 B6/7 B8
2 . 10
7
... 6,3 . 10
7
B2 B5/6 B7/8 B9
6,3 . 10
7
... 2 . 10
8
B3 B6/7 B8/9 BlO
2 . 10
8
... 6,3 . 10
8
B4 B7/8 BI0 BlO
6,3 . 10
8
... 2 . 10
9
B5 B8/9 BlO BlO
2 . 10
9
... 6,3 . 10
9
B6 BlO BlO BlO
6,3 . 10
9
... 2 . 10
10
B7 BlO BlO BlO
2 . 10
10
...6,3 . 10
10
B8 BI0 BlO BlO
6,3 . 10
10
... 2 . 1011 B9 BI0 BI0 BlO
2' 1011 ... BlO BI0 BI0 BlO
5.7 Assessment using classes of utilization
221
5 Appendices
Non-welded components, Welded components,
Normal stress Normal stress
-,

7
2-10
8


KBK,<r
19,9,r-"'Ir--,---,--.--r-----:r-----.---,---B_l
82
4,29
B3
2,92
84
B5 2,00
10
6
D6
N
1,36
1,00
6,32
2-10
4
2-10
S
'N . B-4
O,a= 10
6
7,94 t---t---'t<---+--1--+--+--r"':'-t--+B-3
6,31, - - _.- -._- :&-:2
5,01 B-1
3,98' no
3,16 ni
2,51 I'-<--+--"":<C-+-
Shear stress
Solid straight lines: binomially distributed standard stress spectra,
dashed straight lines: exponentially distributed standard stress spectra.
* Marked point in CD as an example: class of utilization B3 applies
when combining N = 10
7
and p = a in the case of a binomially
distributed standard spectrum and results in KBI(,cr '" 2.
Figure 5.7.1 Relationship between the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factors KBK,cr and KBK, 't, the
class of utilization B, the required total number of
cycles N and spectrum parameter p.
B-5
B-4
B-3
B-2
8-1
80
Bl
82
B3
84
B7
B8
B9
BI0
2-10' HOll
N
"'-

.K.
<, No,;"" 10
8

.. ...._.
-- -'-' ---J
.-.
-
r-,
""
r<,
"'"
1"'(
K <.
'"

".

<,
<, r-,
<,
-.
<.
<,
--
<;
<,
<, -.


'"
r-.
<S'''\r
<'11"0 1
.. <:
,
<,

"'-: Nc " ....
<,
<,
!--r-6,3'" "'-I )?s
Shear stress
KBK,t
27,5
21;9
17,4
13,8
n,o
8,71
6,91
5,49
4,38
3,46
2,76
2,19
1,74
1,38
1,10
1,00. 4
HO 2'10
5
D-7'
B'-6
B-5
B-4

R;.2
B-1
no
B1
.B2
B3
84
85,
B6
r-,
-
.
1"'-,
1--.
'"
.-
---
,. ,
... - N
n,1'
= 10
6
<, <,
i'--
1'-.'-...
'" <,
',"
/J"" 0 <, I
"
..."--l ",
P""l/.j............. ''-...
os:: r--<' . '-....
P"" /.] I" '-..."
F/JO <, I"- "
Nn 1' I::: <, '-..."
3,16 I -I\i('I( ...'
10
4
lOS ""e f'06 10' 108
KBK,1'
6,49
5,62
4,87
4,22
3,65
3,1.6
2,74
2,37
2,05
1,78
1,54
1,33
1,15
1,00
222
5.8 Particular strength characteristics of components with surface treatment 5 Appendices
5.8 Particular strength characteristics
of surface hardened components
~ - - ~
1R58 EN.dog
In this chapter particular strength characteristics of
surface hardened components are compiled, which are
contained at the mentioned positions of Chapter 1.3
(component static strength) and of Chapter 2.3 and 2.4
(component fatigue strength) *1.
Surface hardening is caused by an application of chemo-
thermical procedures of surface treatment (nitriding,
case hardening, carbonitiding) or thermal procedures of
surface treatment (inductive hardening, flame-
hardening), Table 2.3.5. Mechanical procedures of
surface treatment (cold-rolling, shot-peening) are not
referred to in the present context, however.
Chapter 1.3.2, Eq. (1.3.6),
Section factors n
pl,b
....
In the case of surface hardened components
(components with chemo-thermical or with thermal
surface treatment), see Table 2.3.5, the section factors
npl,b ... > 1 are not to be applied *2:
npl,b, ... = 1 . (1.3.6)
Chapter 2.3.2.1, following Eq. (2.3.15),
Kt:Kf ratios ncr .., .
In the case of surface hardened components
(components with chemo-thermical or with thermal
surface treatment) the Kt-K
f
ratios are lower than in the
case of components not surface hardened *3 *4.
Chapter 2.3.3, preceding Eq. (2.3.27),
Roughness factor KR,cr '" .
In the case of surface hardened components and a crack
originating at the surface the roughness factor is lower
1 OrChapter 3.3, 4.3 and 4.4: In the following the mentioned chapters,
tables, and equations always refer tothe corresponding ones ofChapter 3
and4aswell.
2 Section factors npl,zd , ... > 1 require a reasonable local plasticty to
occur at notches. The limited plasticity of a hardened surface layer,
however, does not allow that but may give rise tocracks instead.
Possibly Eq. (1.3.6) is a demand too far on the safe side, as according to
DIN 743 a value npl = 1,1 isallowed for case-hardened shafts.
3 For cracks originating atthe surface the Kj-Kj ratios are lower because
ofthe higher tensile strength R
m
ofthe hardened surface layer compared
to the lower tensile strength of the tender core (according to material
standard).
For cracks originating inthe core the Kt-Kf ratios are lower since the
related stress gradients G
cr
andG ~ are lower in the core of the
component than the related stress gradients atthe surface notch.
(less favorable) than for components not surface
hardened, since the tensile strength R
m
*4 of the
hardened surface layer is higher.
Chapter 2.3.4, following Eq. (2.3.28),
Surface treatment factor, Kv .
In the case of surface hardened components the surface
treatment factor is dependent on whether the origin of a
crack is expected at the surface or in the core. Essential
are the ratio of the fatigue limit values of the surface
layer and that of the core material as well as the ratio of
the load induced local stresses at the surface and in the
core just below the hardened layer (depth of case or
hardened layer).
Chapter 2.4.2.4, following Eq. (2.4.34),
Component mean stress sensitivity Ma, ....
In the case of surface hardened components the
component mean stress sensitivity is greater than for
components not surface hardened, because of the higher
tensile strength Rm of the hardened surface layer.
Chapter 2.4.3.2, 4th paragraph,
Slope of the component constant amplitude S-N curves,
k
cr
, ....
In the case of surface hardened components the slope of
the component constant amplitude S-N curves are less
steep than in the case of components not surface
hardened. Values k
cr
= 15 and k, = 25 apply for surface
hardened, non-welded components of steel and cast iron
materials instead of the values k
cr
= 5 and k, = 8 that
apply to components not surface hardened, Tab. 2.4.4.
The number of cycles at the knee points ND,cr and
N D , ~ remain unchanged, however.
Chapter 2.6, following Eq. (2.6.6) and (2.6.14),
strength hypothesis for combined stress.
For surface hardened components there is
q = 1 *5.
4The tensile strength ofthe hardened surface layer approximately follows
from its Vickers hardness number HV: R
m
= (3,3 . HV) Mpa. This
equation, however, was not especially established for hardened surface
layers and therefore it is to be applied with caution . In particular the
fatigue limit for completely reversed stress of a hardened surface layer
must not be computed from the tensile strength (crw,zd :F fW,cr . R
m
! ).
5 That means that the normal stress criterion istobe applied.
223
5.9 An improved method for synchronous multiaxial stresses
5 Appendices
5.9 An improved method for
computing the component fatigue
limit in the case of synchronous
multiaxial stresses 1R59 EN.docl
Content
5.9.0
5.9.1
5.9.1.1
5.9.1.2
5.9.1.3
5.9.2
General
Equivalent stress amplitude and
equivalent mean stress
Rod-shaped (ID) components
Shell-shaped (2D) components
Block-shaped (3D) components
Mean stress factor
Page
223
224
225
computed from all single stress amplitudes Sa,zd , ... ,
and an equivalent mean stress Sm,v (in terms of a
related value sm,v ) is computed from all single mean
stresses Sm,zd, ... , and/or Trn.s- ... , and finally from
these a common mean stress factor KAK,v . Using this
common mean stress factor the amplitude values of the
component fatigue limit, SAK,zd , ... , are to be
determined as before.
5.9.1 Equivalent stress amplitude
and equivalent mean stress *2
5.9.1.1 Rod-shaped (ID) components
Equivalent stress amplitude in related form:
Figure 5.9.1 Example for the significance of the
improved method: Mean stress in the direction or
perpendicular to the stress amplitude (Nominal
stresses). The improved method distinguishes these
cases whereas the method after Chapter 2.4.2 or 4.4.2
does not.
According to this chapter the component fatigue limit
may be computed by an improved method and with
higher reliability than according to Chapter 2.4.2 or
4.4.2, Figure 5.9.1. The computation applies for non-
welded components of steel subject to synchronous
multiaxial stresses *1, where
(5.9.3)
(5.9.2)
stress amplitude,
Chapter 2.1.1.1 (or 4.1.1.1),
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress,
Chapter 2.4.1 (or 4.4.1),
constant, Table 5.9.1,
with sa,x = Sa , Sa,y = 0,
mean stress,
Chapter 2.1.1.1 (or 4.1.1.1).
Equivalent mean stress in related form:
sm,v = 0,87 . (sms + t
mt
), (5.9.5)
where *4
sms = (3 /7) . (Bl . Sm + B3 . 1m), (5.9.6)
t
mt
= (liE) . {AI ' S ~ +A
4
. t ~ +A
5
,sm .t
m
}1I 2
Sm,zd Sm,b
Sm = +---
SWK,zd SWK,b'
Tm,s Tm,t
t
m
= - - - +--
TWK,s TWK,t
~
sa,v =Vsa +t
a
'
where *3
Sa,zd Sa,b
sa +---
SWK,zd SWK,b'
Ta,s Ta,t
t
a
= - - +--.
TWK,s TWK,t
Sm,zd ...
SWK,zd ...
Sa,zd, ...
(5.9.1)
alta bUdlq
!Sa,y
Sm.xII Sm.,x
~ L J ~
rSa,y
fw,"t = ""Cw,s / crW,zd = 1 /.J3 = 0,58
(Shear fatigue limit for completely reversed stress ""Cw,s,
axial fatigue limit for completely reversed stress crW,zd)'
!Sa,y
!Sm,y
D
ISm,y
rSa,y
5.9.0 General
2 The equations in Chapter 5.9.1.1 and5.9.1.2 arewritten for nominal
stresses. They apply to local stresses as well, if S andTarereplaced bya
and "to The equations inChapter 5.9.1.3, however, apply for local stresses
only.
According to Chapter 2.4.2 or 4.4.2 an individual mean
stress factor KAK,zd, ... is to be computed for every
single stress amplitude Sa,zd, , either from a single
acting mean stress Sm,zd , or from an equivalent
mean stress Sm,v or Tm,v , respectively. Using these
mean stress factors the amplitude values of the
component fatigue limit, SAK,zd, ... are to be computed.
After the method described in this chapter an equivalent
stress amplitude Sa,v (in terms of a related value sa,v ) is
I seeChapter 0.3.5.
3 For local stresses there is
sa = aa I <:5WK '
t
a
= "t
a
I"tWK·
4 For local stresses there is
sm= am I aWK,
t
m
= "t
m
I "tWK .
(5.9.4)
(5.9.7)
224
5.9 An improved method for synchronous multiaxial stresses 5 Appendices
(5.9.15)
(5.9.16)
(5.9.17)
Sms = (3/7) . (D! . sm,! + D2 . sm,2 + D3 . Sm,3),
t
mt
= (1 1J2l) .
. (C! .S
2
+ C2 . S
2
2 + C3 . S
2
3 +
m, m, m
+ C4 . sm,! . sm,2 + Cs . Sm,2 . sm,3 +
C )
1/ 2
+ 6' Sm,3 . sm! ,
where
sa,! = CYa,1 1CYWK,I ,
Sa,2 = CYa,2
1
CYWK,2 ,
sa,3 = CYa,3 1CYWK,3 .
Equivalent mean stress in related form:
sm,v = 0,87 . (sms + t
mt),
where
5.9.1.3 Block-shaped (3D) components
Equivalent stress amplitude in related form:
sa,v = (5.9.14)
±. ((Sa,1 -Sa,2)2 +(Sa,2 -sa,3 ~ + (Sa,3 - Sa,IP ),
2 2 2
4s +3s -4s
a x
'Say +(7/3)·t
Al
ax a,y ,', a
2 2 2
S +S -Sa,x'Sa,y+t
a.x a.y a
3s
2 2 2
+4s -4s
a x
'Say +(7/3)·t
A2
a,x a,y " a
2 2 2
S +S -Sa,x 'Sa,y +t
a,x a,y a
_4s
2 2 2
-4s +6sa,x,say-2t
A3
a,x a,y 'a
222
S +S -Sa,x'Say+t
a,x a.y , a
7s
2 2 2
A4
a,x
+7sa,y -6sa,x 'Sa,y +12t
a
2 2 2
S +S -Sa,x 'Sa,y +t
a a,x a,y
1 lOsa,x . t
a
- 6s
a,y
. t
a
AS
13'
2 2 2
S +S -Sa,x 'Sa,y +t
a,x a,y a
1 -6s
a,x
. t
a
+ lOSa,y . t
a
A6
13
222
S +S -Sa,x 'Sa,y +t
a,x a.y a
5s
2 2 2
+S +2s
a x
'Say +(4/3)·t
BI
a,x a,y " a
3s
2 2 2
a.x
+3s
a
,y +2s
a,x
'Sa,y +(4/3).t
a
2 2 2
S +5s +2s
a x
'Say +(4/3)·t
B2
a.x a,y " a
3s
2 2 2
+3s +2s
a x
'Say +(4/3)·t
a,x a,y " a
I 8,(sa,x +Sa,y )·t
a
B3
13 3s
2 2 2
+3s +2s
a x
'Say +(4/3)·t
a,x a,y " a
Table 5.9.1 Coefficients Al to A6 and BI to B3 . sm,x = Sm,x 1SWK,x ,
Sm,y = Sm,y 1SWK,y ,
t
m
= Tm/T
WK
,
Sa,x ... stress amplitude,
Chapter 2.1.1.2 (or 4.1.1.2),
SWK,x, ... component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress,
Chapter 2.4.1 (or 4.4.1),
BI,... constant, Table 5.9.1,
Sm,x ... mean stress,
Chapter 2.1.1.2 (or 4.1.1.2).
Sms = (3 17) . (BI . sm,x + B2 . Sm,y + B3 . t
m),
t
mt
= (1 IJ21) .
(
2 2
- A! . s + A2 . S + A3 . sm,x . Sm,y
m,x m,y
2 ) 1/2
+ ~ · t m +AS·sm,x.tm+A6·Sm,y·tm ,
Sm,1 = CYm,! 1 CYWK,l ,
sm,2 = CYm,2 1CYWK,2 ,
sm,3 = CY
m,3
1CYWK,3 ,
stress amplitude, Chapter 4.1.1.3,
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress, Chapter 4.4.1,
constant, Table 5.9.2,
mean stress, Chapter 4.1. 1. 3.
5.9.1.2 Shell-shaped (2D) components
Equivalent stress amplitude in related form:
~ 2 2 2
Sav= S +s -Sa,x'Sa,y+t ,
, a,x a,y a
where "5
sa,x = Sa,x 1SWK,x ,
Sa,y = Sa,y 1SWK,y ,
t
a
= r, 1TWK.
Equivalent mean stress in related form:
sm,v = 0,87 . (sms + t
mt
),
where "6
(5.9.8)
(5.9.9)
(5.9.11)
(5.9.12)
CY
a
, ! .
CYWK,! ..
DI, .
CY
m
, ! .
5 For local stresses thereis
sa,x = O"a,x / O"WK,x ,
Sa,y = O"a,y / O"WK,y ,
t
a
= "t
a
/ "tWK .
6 For local stresses thereis
sm,x = O"m,x / O"WK,x ,
Sm,y = O"m,y / O"WK,y ,
t
m
= "t
m
/ "tWK .
(S.9.!0)
(5.9.13)
225
5.9 An improved method for synchronous multiaxial stresses 5 Appendices
5.9.2 Mean stress factor
Table 5.9.2 Coefficients c, to C6 and Dl to D3.
The mean stress factor KAK,v common for all types of
stress is to be calculated according to the expected type
of overloading. It is
Type of overloading Fl
KAK,v is to be calculated according to Chapter 2.4.2.1
or 4.4.2.1, type of overloading Fl, after having
replaced sm,zd or Sm by sm,v .
Type of overloading F3
KAK,v is to be calculated according to Chapter 2.4.2.1
or 4.4.2.1, type of overloading F3, after having
replaced smin,zd or Smin by smin,v .
Type of overloading F4
KAK,v is to be calculated according to Chapter 2.4.2.1
or 4.4.2.1, type of overloading F4, after having
replaced Smax,zd or Smax by smax,v .
2 3 2 2
CI
4s
a. 1
+ Sa,2 +3sa. 3
-4S
a,I
Sa.2
-2Sa,2
Sa,3
-4Sa,3
Sa,1
2 2 2
Sa,1 +Sa,2 +Sa,3 -Sa,1
Sa,2
-Sa,2
Sa,3
-Sa,3
Sa,1
3s; I + 4s; 2 + 3s; 3 - 4s a I Sa 2 - 4s a 2 Sa 3 - 2s a 3Sa I
Cz
. , . " ., "
2 2 2
Sa,1 +Sa,2 +Sa,3 -Sa,I
Sa,2
-Sa,2
Sa,3
-Sa,3
Sa,1
C3
3S;,1 +3S';,2 +4S';,3 -2S
a,I
Sa,2
-4S
a,2
Sa,3
-4Sa,3
Sa,1
2 2 2
Sa,1 +Sa,2 +Sa,3 -Sa,lSa,2 -Sa,2
Sa,3
-Sa,3
Sa,1
2 2 2 2 2
C4
Sa,1 + Sa,2 +Sa,3 -3Sa,lSa,2 -Sa,2
Sa,3
-Sa,3
Sa,1
2 2 2
Sa,1 +Sa,2 +Sa,3 -Sa,lSa,2 -Sa,2
Sa,3
-Sa,3
Sa,l
2 2 2 2
Cs
Sa,! + Sa,2 +2Sa,3 -Sa,1
Sa,2
-3Sa,2
Sa,3
-Sa,3
Sa,1
2 2 2
Sa,! +Sa,2 +Sa,3 -Sa,lSa,2 -Sa,2
Sa,3
-Sa,3
Sa,l
2 2 2
C6
2S
a,l
+Sa,2 + 2S
a,3
- Sa,1 Sa,2 - Sa,2
Sa,3
- 3S
a,3
Sa,l
2 2 2
Sa,l +Sa,2 +Sa,3 -Sa,lSa,2 -Sa,2
Sa,3
-Sa,3
Sa,l
2 2 2
DI
5s
a1
+Sa2 +Sa3 +2Sa,lSa,2 +(2/3)sa,2
Sa,3
+2Sa,3
Sa,1
, , ,
2 2 2
3s a1+ 3s a 2 + 3s a 3 + 2Sa,1Sa,2 + 2Sa,2
S8,3
+ 2Sa,3
Sa,1
, , ,
2 2 2
Dz
Sal +5s
a 2
+Sa3 +2Sa,l
Sa,2 +2Sa,2
Sa,3 +(2/3)sa,3 Sa,1
, , ,
2 2 2
3s
a1
+3s
a 2
+3s
a 3
+2Sa,l
Sa,2 +2Sa,2
Sa,3 +2Sa,3
Sa,1
, , ,
2 2 2
D3
Sa,l + Sa,2 + 5s a,3 + (2/3) Sa,lSa,2 + 2s a,2
S
a,3 + 2s 8,3 Sa,l
2 2 2
3s
a1
+3s
a 2
+3s
a 3
+2Sa,l
Sa,2 +2Sa,2
Sa,3 +2Sa,3
Sa,1
, , ,
(5.9.18) Smin,v = sm,v - sa,v ,
smax,v = sm,v + sa,v ,
Rcr,v = smin,v1smax,v ,
sm,v, sa,v after Chapter 5.9.1.1 to 5.9.1.3.
Type of overloading F2
KAK,v is to be calculated according to Chapter 2.4.2.1
or 4.4.2.1, type of overloading F2, after having
replaced Sm,zd 1 Sa,zd or am 1 aa by sm,v 1 sa,v (and
Rzd or R
cr
by Rcr,v ).
226
5.10 Approximate assessment for non-proportional multiaxial stresses 5 Appendices
5.10 Approximate assessment of the
fatigue strength in the case of non-
proportional multiaxial stresses

The procedure described in this chapter is a rough
approximation to assess the fatigue strength *1 in the
most general case of non-proportional multiaxial
stresses *2. It may be supposed that it provides a
result that is always on the safe side, but possiblyfar
on the safe side *3.
The approximate procedure is applicable for rod-
shaped (10), shell-shaped (2D) and block-shaped
(3D) components. The assessment can be carried out
with nominal stresses or with local stresses.
A background information and a description of the
procedure are presented in the following.
5.10.1 Background information
Non-proportional multiaxial stresses result if a
component observes at least two different loadings
that vary with time independently. In general
different histories and spectra apply to the these
loadings.
Under the combined action of the different loadings
a multiaxial state of stress occurs at the reference
point *4, where both the magnitude and the direction
of the principle stresses vary with time and where
the stress spectra of the principle stresses (as well as
the spectra of any other stress components) are
different.
On the other hand a separate action of each of the
particular loadings produces a state of stress at the
reference point that varies proportionally with time
Content
5.10.0 General
5.10.1 Background information
5.10.2 Procedure
5.10.0 General
Page
226
while the directions of the principle stresses remain
constant. Moreover the histories and the spectra of
all stress components are identical with those of the
respective loading, and they differ by particular
scaling factors only.
Hence for each of the particular loadings there is no
doubt that the assessment procedure described in
Chapter 2 or 4 is applicable on the basis of the
resulting types of stress (tension-compression stress,
... , normal stress ... , principle stresses) in order to
derive the corresponding degree of utilization for the
combined types of stress according to Chapter 2.6 or
4.6.
Each of the particular loadings is to be considered in
this manner. Finally the degrees of utilization
derived for the particular loadings are to be added
linearly to obtain the overall degree of utilization
due to the combined action of all loadings.
In principle the most detrimental kind of interaction
of the particular loadings is assumed with the linear
summation of the particular degrees of utilization.
5.10.2 Procedure
The particular loadings that act non-proportionally
on the component, are to be determined as
Loading I, (5.10.1)
Loading II,
For everyone of these particular loadings I, II ... the
resulting stresses are to be determined according to
Chapter 2.1 or 4.1 and thereafter the assessment is to
be carried out according to Chapter 2 or 4.
From the particular assessments the degrees of
utilization for the combined types of stress according
to Chapter 2.6 or 4.6 are obtained for everyone of
these particular loadings I, II ...
aSK,Sv,I or aSK,crv,I, (5.10.2)
aSK,Sv,I1 or aSK,sv,I1,
These particular degrees of utilization are to be
added linearly to obtain the overall degree of
utilization due to the combined loadings.
aSK,Sv,ges =aSK,Sv,I + aSK,Sv,I1 +...
(5.10.3)
1 The procedure is applicable both for an assessment of the variable
amplitude fatigue strength and of the fatigue limit.
2 Also in the special case of non-proportional uniaxial stresses.
3 Mechanically reasonable methods of calculating the fatigue
strength under non-proportional multiaxial stresses require a high
computing effort and the application of a suitable computer program.
4 Under the action of more than one loading the very referencepoint
may be different from the respective reference points that would
result for each of the particular loadings. This is because the
maximum damage from the combined loadings may occur at a
location different from the locations where the particular loadings
produce maximum stresses.
or
aSK,sv,ges =aSK,crv,I + aSK,O'V,I1 + ... (5.10.4)
A necessary reservation against this procedure is,
that in every case of application both the loading
situation and the final result has to be carefully and
critically analyzed. In cases of doubt a suitable
computer program is to be applied, or an
experimental assessment is to be carried out.
227
5.11 Experimental determination of component strength values
5 Appendices
5.11 Experimental determination of
component strength values 1R511 EN.docl
Content
5.11.0
5.11.1
5.11.2
General
Experimental determination of a
mean value
Standard deviation and
statistical confidence
Page
227
229
b5Jlle 19(5x) 19(5x,50%) 1 9 ( 5 i , ~
Component strength (logarithmic scale)
5.11.0 General
According to this chapter component static strength
values and/or component fatigue strength values can be
determined experimentally. The given recommendations
are aimed at obtaining component strength values that
are sufficiently reliable, although the number of tests
will be limited in most cases *1.
The loading conditions for these tests may be specified
in terms of loads, moments or stresses observing the
proper load or stress ratio. The obtained test results
may be presented in terms of loads, nominal stresses or
local stresses (structural stresses or effective notch
stresses for welded structures) *2.
Practically a component may be subject to several kinds
of service loadings according to its operating
conditions. The testing procedure described below is
restricted to a single kind of loading the component
strength value for which is of particular interest.
Nevertheless this single kind of loading may cause
multiaxial stresses of the component, which are
proportional stresses, however *3.
As test results will normally show a reasonable scatter
several identical repetitions of the same test are
necessary in order to allow a statistical evaluation of the
results. It is common to assume a logarithmic Gaussian
scatter distribution to exist, Figure 5.11.1.
From an experimental examination of the component
strength, which is usually restricted to a small sample
because of testing time and cost, only the (geometric)
mean of the component strength value, SX,50% , can be
determined sufficiently exact. It is associated with a
probability of survival of Po = 50 % *4.
I The same procedure also applies to material strength values.
2 The description bellow is given in terms of nominal stresses, but it
also is valid for loads or local stresses.
3 Multriaxial testing by applying more than one different kind ofloading
simutaneously, which will result in non-proportional stresses of the
component, is not considered here.
Figure 5.11.1 Sufficiently reliable component strength
value Sx to be derived from a number of experimentally
determined component strength values Si,X.
LSD =logarithmic standard deviation =standard deviation of 19( SiX) .
From a larger sample it would be possible to determine
the logarithmic standard deviation, LSD, too. If the
sample is small, however, this result would not be
reliable. Therefore with small samples an experienced
estimate of the logarithmic standard deviation, LSD,
has to be used instead.
Then, from the experimentally obtained geometric mean
and the experienced logarithmic standard deviation it is
possible to derive the wanted component strength value
for a probability of survival of Po = 97,5 %. It is
obtained by dividing the geometric mean, SX,50% , by a
statistical conversion factor, jn,s after Table 5.11.1,
which is dependent on the logarithmic standard
deviation, LSD, and on the number of tests, n, Figure
5.11.1 *5.
4 The geometric mean is the antilog of the logarithmic mean computed
from Eq. (5.11.1) 5.11.4) or (5.11.7), respectively.
5 The statistical conversion factor Jn s allows for the difference
,
between the (geometric) mean (PO = 50 %) and the component
strength value for PO = 97,5 %, and moreover for the statistical
uncertainty of an experimentally determined (geometric) mean as a
function of the sample size.
228
5.11 Experimental determination of component strength values 5 Appendices
5.11.1 Experimental determination of the geometric
mean value
Component fatigue limit
For an experimental examination of the component
fatigue limit several possibilities exist.
Component static strength
The logarithmic mean value of the experimentally
obtained component static strength values Si,SK (yield
stress or rupture stress, sample size n) is
(5.11.7)
where the number of cycles at the knee point, ND, and
the slope of the S-N curve, k, are those from Table
2.4.4 or 4.4.4.
Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
To determine the component variable amplitude fatigue
strength for a given stress spectrum and a required total
number of cycles N the experimental examination can
be carried out at some stress amplitude exceeding the
expected fatigue limit *
7
,
The experimental examination of n test pieces on that
stress level, SL = Sa,1 results in the numbers of cycles
N i,L , (i= 1 ... n), the logarithmic mean value of
which is
(5.11.2)
(5.11.1)
SSK,50% = antilog [lg ( SSK,50% )]
1 n
19 (SSK 50%) = - . "lg(S, SK )
, n ~ ,
i=!
The mean value of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength for the required number of cycles N
follows from an extrapolation of the variable amplitude
fatigue life curve:
Stair case tests and other test methods
Having available a sufficiently large sample of test
pieces (n ;::: 15 as a minimum) the component fatigue
limit can be experimentally determined in a direct
approach (without extrapolation) by the stair case test
method, or by other test methods proposed in the
literature. Result of the evaluation procedure of the
respective test method is the mean value of the
component fatigue limit,
N L,50% = antilog [lg (NL,50% )]
{- -)lIk
SBK,50% = SL . ,N
L

50
% / N
(5.11.8)
(5.11.9)
SAK,50% = resultofevaluationprocedure (5,11.3)
Tests on a stress level above the fatigue limit
In order to reduce the required testing time and if the
number of possible tests is less than 15 (1 ::; n < 15), the
experimental examination can be carried out at some
stress amplitude exceeding the expected fatigue limit *6.
The experimental examination of n test pieces on that
stress level, SL, results in the numbers of cycles N, L ,
(i = 1 ... n), the logarithmic mean value of which is '
1
19 (NL,50%) = - . "lg(NiL)
n ~ .
NL,50% = antilog [lg (NL,50%)]
(5.11.4)
(5.11.5)
In a first approach the slope k of the variable fatigue
life curve may approximately be taken equal to the
slope k of the component constant amplitude S-N curve
after Table 2.4.4 or 4.4.4. Taking k = k means a
fatigue life curve after the elementary version of
Miner's rule being valid, see Figure 2.1.5 or 4.1.5.
The actual slope of the variable amplitude fatigue life
curve k may, however, be somewhatlarger than that of
the constant amplitude S-N curve, (k ;::: k), see Eigure
2.1.5 or 4.1.5. To observe the actual slope k the
extrapolation has to be based on a fatigue life curve
derived by the consistent version of Miner's rule for a
rough estimate of the fatigue limit, the values k and N
D
after Table 2.4.4 or 4.4.4, and the spectrum of concern,
Chapter 2.3,L or 4,3,1 *8. The stress amplitudes
S*a,1,50% for N L,50% and S*a,l for N may be read off
that fatigue life curve for an extrapolation as follows:
The geometric mean value of the component fatigue
limit follows from an extrapolation along the constant
amplitude S-N curve down to its knee point:
SBK,50%
[S*a 1 for N ]
SL" (5.11.10)
[S*a,I,50% for N L,50%]
SAK,50% = S L . (NL,50% / ND ) 1 / k (5.11.6)
6 Provided that there is a sufficient distance to the yield strength and that
the critical location and the type of failure does not change when
increasing the stress.
7 Provided that there is a sufficient distance to the yield strength.
8 An experimental determination of the slope k from (a small number of
tests an two stress levels would yield an unreliable result and cannot be
recommended.
(5.11.12)
229
5.11 Experimental determination of component strength values
5.11.2.2 Logarithmic standard deviation and
statistical conversion factor
An estimate of the logarithmic standard deviation LSD
is to be applied, Table 5.11.1, as a reliable
determination of the standard deviation is not possible
because of usual test samples being too small.
The "reliable" value of the component strength Sx for
Po = 97,5 % is, with SX,50%= Figure 5.11.1,
Sx = SX,50% / jn,s, (5.11.11)
where
. = 1O(2+IIFn"j.LsD
In,s
5 Appendices
SX,50%
In,s
n
LSD
Geometric mean value SSK,50%, SAK,50% or
SBK,50% of the experimentally determined
stress values S, x ,
Statistical factor, Table 5.11.1 *5,
Sample size,
Logarithmic standard deviation applicable to
the experimentally determined stress values
Si,X , Table 5.11.1.
Tab 5.11.1 Statistical conversion factor jn,s as a
function of the logarithmic standard deviation LSD and
of the sample size n 1.
LSD n
1 2 4 6 10 100 oc
0,02
1,15 1,13 1,12 1,12 1,11 1,10 1,10
0,04 1,32 1,28 1,26 1,25 1,24 1,21 1,20
0,06 1,51 1,45 1,41 1,39 1,38 1,34 1,32
-c- 1 Statistical conversion factor according toIIW Recommendations,
2 Experienced logarithmic standard deviation ofthe static strength
of non-welded or welded components,
Experienced logarithmic standard deviation ofthe fatigue strength
of non-welded components,
Experienced logarithmic standard deviation ofthe fatigue strength
of welded components.
230
5.12 Stress concentration factor for a substitute structure 5 Appendices
5.12 Stress concentration factor for a
substitute structure IRS12 EN.dog
To compute the design factors after Chapter 4.3.1.1, Eq.
(4.3.1) to (4.3.3), stress concentration factors Kt,cr and
Kt;t must be known, if the effect of surface roughness is
to be considered in relation to the notch severity.
The stress concentration factor, however, may not be
known, as in the case of a finite element calculation for
instance. Then it is to be derived for a substitute
structure from the following approximation formula.
This formula provides a general estimate of the stress
concentration factors for normal stress, Kt,cr , and for
shear stress, Kt, , as a function of the notch radius r
and the "wall thickness" b *1"1:
Case 1
Wall thickness
The wall thickness b is given by the drawing, or it is to
be determined from the equivalent diameter deff .
Concerning deff two cases are to be distinguished
according to kind of material, see Table 3.2.3.
Notch radius
The notch radius r is given by the drawing, or an
apparent notch radius r is approximately to be derived
from the related stress gradient G
cr
or see Table
2.3.3:
(5.12.2)
r=2/G
cr
'
r = 1 .
(5.12.1)
Kt,cr = =
= K, = MAX (10 O,066-0,36·lg(r/s) ; 1)
For components (also forged components) of quenched
and tempered steel, of case-hardened steel, of quentched
and tempered and nitrided nitriding steel, of heat
treatable steel casting, GGG, GT and GG there is
The notch radius r and the wall thickness b are to be
determined from the available design data.
The approximation formula for the substitute structure,
Eq. (5.12.1), is exactly valid for a flat specimen with a
deep single-sided notch in bending, Figure 5.12.1 *2.
s = deff/ 2. (5.12.3)
(5.12.4) s = deff.
Case 2
For components (also forged coniponents) of non-
alloyed structural steel, of fine grain structural steel, of
normalized quenched and tempered steel, of cast steel
and of aluminium alloys there is
..
"-nnnTM
1
!
..
r--
-;:;-r I b
I
r
i
,
".'"" - - -.
_.
0,08
-

I
I
OJ2
I
I
0,2
,
: I
0;4
0,6
.,
-\
.
I "'"7J
I I ;
;
3,4
3,2
3,0
2,8
2,6
2,4
2,2
2,0
1,8
],6
1,4
1,2
1,0
i.o 1;21,41,61,8 2,02,22,42,62,K 3,()
- . . - 1Ilb
Figure 5.12.1 Stress concentration factor for the
substitute structure, with reference to Chapter 5.2,
Figure 5.2.15.
1 MAX means, that the larger term one the right side of the equation
applies.
2 The approximation formula is a provisional one and is to be applied
with caution.
6.1 Shaft with shoulder
231
6 Examples
6 Examples
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Tensile strength and yield strength for the standard
dimension
Rm,N = 1000 MPa, Rp,N = 800 MPa. Tab. 5.1.4
Technological size factor
Tensile strength and yield strength of the component
R
m
= 0,895 . 1 . 1000 MPa = 895 MPa, (1.2.1)
R, = 0,841 . 1 . 800 MPa = 672MPa .
(1.2.17)
Tab. 1.2.1
Tab. 1.2.3
(1.2.9)
ad,m = 0,30, ad,p = 0,44 ,
deff,N = 16 mm,
def
f
= d = 42 mm,
~ , m = 0,895, Kd,p = 0,841 .
Anisotropy factor
Key words: Shaft with shoulder, milled steel,
assessment of static strength, assessment of fatigue
limit, fatigue notch factor by calculation, type of
overloading F2, multiaxial stresses, rotating bending
and torsion. Supplemented: improved calculation of the
fatigue limit, calculation using a class of utilization.
Given:
Stresses: constant amplitude loading in bending and
torsion, where the nominal stresses are, Figure 6.1.1,
6.1 Shaft with shoulder *1
1R61 EN.docl
Sb = ±Sa,b = ±150 MPa,
r, = Tm,t ± Ta,t = 50 MPa ± 100 MPa.
Material: 41 Cr 4 after DIN EN 10 083.
Figure 6.1.1 Shaft with shoulder.
Dimensions:
D = 50 mm, d = 42 mm, r = 5 mm, t = 4 mm,
d / D = 0,84, r / d = 0,119, r / t = 1,25.
(1.3.1)
(1.3.1)
KSK b = I = 0,800 (1,000).
, 1,250(1)
KSK t = 1 = 0,800 (1,000).
, 1,250(1)
Rp,max = 1050 MPa, Tab. 1.3.1
R
p
= 685 MPa,
Kp,b = 1,70, Tab. 1.3.2
Ilpl,b = MIN (J1050/685; 1,70) = 1,250 (1,000).
(1.3.9)
Rp,max = 1050 MPa, Tab. 1.3.1
R, = 685 MPa,
Kp,t = 1,33 , Tab. 1.3.2
npl,t = MIN ( .J1050 / 685 ; 1,33) = 1,250 (1,000).
(1.3.9)
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
Design factor
The calculation is carried out by applying the section
factor n
p
1, although a satisfactory assessment could be
obtained without considering the section factor, that is
n
p
1 = 1 (results given in parenthesis).
Design factor for bending
Section factor
Design factor
Design factor for torsion
Section factor
(1.1.1)
*2
Maximum stresses
Smax,ex,b = + Sa,b = 150 MPa,
Tmax,ex,t = Tm,t + Ta,t = 150 MPa.
Surface: average roughness R
z
= 10 urn.
Type of overloading: When overloaded in service the
stress ratios remain constant (Type of overloading F2).
Safety requirement: according to the statements "with
moderate consequences of failure; regular inspections".
Task: Assessment of the component static strength and
of the component fatigue limit.
Method of calculation: Rod-shaped (ID) component.
Assessment with nominal stresses, Chapter 1 and 2.
ASSESSMENT
OF THE COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
1 Results ofcomputation obtained by the PC-program "WELLE".
2 Numbering of equations, tables and figures according tothe main
chapters of the guideline.
6.1 Shaft with shoulder
232
6 Examples
The degree of utilization of the component static
strength is 47 % (or without section factor 59 %).
The assessment of the static strength is achieved.
4 COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
Component static strength for bending and torsion
Component static strength for bending resulting from
the tensile strength and the design factor:
fa = 1, Tab. 1.2.5
1·895:MPa
SSK b = = 1119 (895) MPa. (1.4.1)
, 0,800 (1)
Component static strength for torsion resulting from the
shear strength factor f,; , the tensile strength and the
design factor:
f,; = 0,58, Tab. 1.2.5
T _ 0,58· 895:MPa
SK,t - 0,800 (1) = 646 (519) MPa. (1.4.1)
Combined types of stress
f,; = 1 /..[3,
q = 0,
s = aSK,b = 0,235 (0,294),
t = aSK,t = 0,406 (0,506),
a
GH
= ~ 0 , 2 3 5 (0,294)2 +0,406 (0,506)2
= 0,469 (0,585),
aSK,Sv = 0,469 (0,585).
Tab. 1.2.5
(1.6.7)
(1.6.6)
(1.6.5)
(1.6.4)
5 SAFETY FACTORS
ASSESSMENT OF THE FATIGUE STRENGTH
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
In general there is
jm = 2,0, jp = 1,5. Tab. 1.5.1
For moderate consequences of failure and high
probability of occurrence of the characteristic stress,
however, there is
Constant amplitude stresses
Sb = ± Sa,b = ±150 MPa,
r, = Tm,t ± Ta,t = 50 MPa ± 100 MPa.
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
(2.1.1)
jm = 1,75 , jp = 1,3.
For normal temperature there is
Tab. 1.5.1
Material fatigue limits for completely reversed normal
stress, crW,zd , and shear stress, 'tw,s :
(1.5.4) .
KT,m = KT,p = 1, (1.2.26)
and in Eq. (1.5.4) the terms 3 and 4 have no relevance:
R
p
= 685 MPa,
R
m
= 895 MPa,
jges =MAX(I,75;1,3. 895)
685
= MAX (1,75; 1,70) = 1,75.
R
m
= 895 Mpa,
fw,e = 0,45 ,
crW,zd = 0,45 . 895 MPa = 403 Mpa ,
f
w,,;
= 0,58,
'tw,s = 0,58 . 403 MPa = 233 Mpa .
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.2.1)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.2.1)
(2.3.14)
Tab 2.3.3
Tab. 2.3.2
r / d = 0,119, r / t = 1,25, d / D = 0,84,
Kt,b = 1,557 . (5.2.7)
KcKfratio
d / D = 0,84, t / r = 0,8 ,
<p = 0,179 ,
r=5mm,
Ga(r) = 0,542 mnr! ,
aa = 0,5 , b
G
= 2700 ,
R
m
= 895 MPa,
Ocr(r) = 1,109.
Design (actor for bending
Fatigue notch factor
Analytically derived from the stress concentration factor
Stress concentration factor
150
aSK,b = 1119 (895)/1,75 = 0,235 (0,294), (1.6.1)
150
aSK,t = 646 (519)/1,75 = 0,406 (0,506).
SSK,b = 1108 (895) MPa, TSK,t, = 642 (519) MPa.
The tensile strength R
m
(term 1) is determining.
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, bending and torsion
Smax,ex,b = 150 MPa, Tmax.ex.t 0= 150 MPa.
Component static strength for bending and for torsion,
see above,
Maximum stresses for bending and for torsion, see
above,
6 ASSESSMENT
d = 42mm,
Gcr(d) = 2 I d = 0,0476 mm" ,
ncr (d) = 1,022
6.1 Shaft with shoulder
Fatigue notch factor
1,557
Kfb =-----
, 1,109·1, 022
1,374.
(2.3.17)
(2.3.13)
(2.3.10)
233
6 Examples
For no surface treatment is Ky = 1. Therefore:
Design factor
KWKt = 1,134 + 1 10,917 -1 = 1,224 (2.3.1)
, .
4 COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
Roughness factor
R
m
= 895 MPa , R
z
= 10 urn ,
aR,cr = 0,22, Rm,N,min = 400 MPa,
KR,cr = 0,857 .
Tab. 2.3.4
(2.3.26)
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
bending and torsional stress
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
bending stress resulting from the material fatigue limit
for normal stress and the design factor for bending:
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
torsional stress resulting from the material fatigue limit
for shear stress and the design factor for torsion:
TWK,t = 233 MPa 11,224 = 190 MPa . (2.4.1)
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit for the given
mean stress for bending and torsion
Mean stress sensitivity
For no surface treatment is Ky= 1. For steel and cast
iron materials is K
s
= 1. For materials except GG is
KNL,E = 1. Therefore:
Design factor
KWK,b = 1,374 + 1 10,857 - 1 = 1,541 (2.3.1)
Design factor for torsion
The calculation is as for bending.
Fatigue strength reduction factor
Analytically derived from the stress concentration
factor.
Stress concentration factor
SWK,b = 403 MPa I 1,541 = 261 MPa .
R
m
= 895 MPa,
aM = 0,00035, b
M
= -0,1 ,
M
cr
= 0,213 ,
fw,'t = 0,577 ,
M't = 0,577 . 0,213 = 0,123 .
(2.4.1)
Tab. 2.4.2
(2.4.34)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.4.34)
rid = 0,119, r/t = 1,25, diD = 0,84,
Kt,t = 1,283 . (5.2.8)
K
t-
Kf ratio
Smin b v = 86,6 MPa- 150 MPa =- 63,4 MPa ,
S m a : , ~ , v = 86,6 MPa + 150 MPa = 236 MPa,
Rb,v =- 0,267 , (2.4.27)
Because of - 00 < -0,267 ~ 0 field II applies:
M
cr
= 0,213 ,
Sm = Sm,b = 0, (2.4.31)
T
m
= Tm,t =.50 MPa,
fw,'t = 0,577 , Tab. 2.2.1
q = °, (2.4.29)
Smv = Smv GH = J3 . 50 MPa = 86,6 MPa ,
, , ,
(2.4.29) (2.4.28)
Tm,v = 0,577 . 86,6 MPa = 50 MPa . (2.4.30)
Calculation for the type of overloading F2.
Mean stress factor for bending
diD = 0,84, t I r = 0,8 ,
r = 5mm
- -I
G't (r) = 0,230 mm ,
aa = 0,5, b
G
= 2700 ,
R
m
is to be replaced by fw,.. R
m.
fw,'t = 0,577 ,
R
m
= 895 MPa,
fw,'t' R
m
= 517 MPa,
n't (r) = 1,098 .
d = 42 mm,
G't(d) = 2 I d = 0,0476 mml,
n't(d) = 1,031.
Fatigue notch factor
1,283
Kf,t = 1,097.1,031 = 1,134 .
Tab. 2.3.3
Tab. 2.3.2
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.3.14)
(2.3.17)
(2.3.13)
(2.3.10)
Equivalent mean stress
1
K = = °890
AK,b 1+0,213.86,61150 ' .
Mean stress factor for torsion
(2.4.10)
. Roughness factor
R
m
= 895 MPa, R
z
= 10 urn ,
fw,'t = 0,58 ,
aR,cr = 0,22, Rm,N,min = 400 MPa ,
KR,'t = 0,917 .
Tab. 2.2.1
Tab. 2.3.4
(2.3.26)
T . t = 50 MPa- 100 MPa =- 50 MPa,
mm, ,v
Tmax,t,v = 50 MPa + 100 MPa = 150 MPa ,
Rt,v =- 0,333 , (2.4.27)
6.1 Shaft with shoulder
234
6 Examples
Because of -1 < -0,333 s °field II applies:
M, = 0,123 ,
1
KAK,I = 1+0,123.50/100 = 0,942 .
(2.4.10)
Amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue
strength for bending and for torsion, see above,
TSBK,b = 233 MPa, TBK,I = 179 MPa.
Residual stress factor for normal stress and for shear
stress
The amplitude of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength results from the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor and from the amplitude of the
component fatigue limit for bending and for torsion,
(2.6.5)
(2.6.4)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.6.7)
(2.6.6)
1,023 ,
a
= 150 = 0 773 (2 6 1)
BK,b 233/1,2 ' , ..
a = 100 = 0 670 .
BK,t 179/1 2 '
,
Combined types of stress
fw,'t = 1//3,
q = 0,
Sa = aBK,b = 0,773 ,
t
a
= aBK,t = 0,670 ,
a
GH
= +0,670
2
aBK,Sv = 1,023 .
The degree of utilization of the component fatigue
limit is 102 %•
The assessment of the fatigue limit is approximately
achieved.
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, bending and torsion,
(2.4.5)
(2.4.48) . KBK,b = KBK,I = 1.
SAK,b = 0,890 . 1 . 261 MPa = 233 MPa, (2.4.6)
TAK,I = 0,942 . 1 . 190 MPa = 179 MPa .
Component variable amplitude fatigue strength for
bending and torsion
Considering the component constant amplitude fatigue
limit, N > No,cr and N > No,'t , and the S-N curve
model I (horizontal for N > No,cr and N > No,'t) the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factors for bending
and for torsion is
KE,cr = KE,'t = 1.
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit
The amplitude of the component fatigue limit results
from the mean stress factor, the residual stress factor
and the component fatigue limit for completely reversed
bending and torsional stress:
SBKb = 1· 233 MPa = 233 MPa,
= 1 . 179 MPa = 179 MPa .
(2.4.41)
5 SAFETY FACTORS
In general there is
In = 1,5 . (2.5.1)
For moderate consequence of failure and regular
inspection, however, there is
jo = 1,2. Tab. 2.5.1
For normal temperature there is
KT,o = 1,
and therefore
jges = 1,2.
(2.2.4)
(2.5.4)
6 ASSESSMENT
Largest stress amplitudes for bending and for torsion,
see above,
Sa,b,1 = Sa,b = 150 MPa ,
Ta.t, I = Ta.t = 100 MPa.
6.1 Shaft with shoulder
235
6 Examples
KAK,v = 1+0,213.0,235/0,778 = 0,940. (2.4.13)
Residual stress factor for normal stress and for shear
stress
Because of - 00 < -0,267 ~ 0 field II applies:
M
cr
= 0,213 ,
1
Related equivalent mean stress for bending and torsion
1 8·0,573·0,526
B3 =-' = 1028
J3 3.0,573
2
+(4/3).0,526
2
'
7.0,573
2
+12.0,526
2
A4 = 7,224 Tab. 5.9.1
0,573
2
+0,526
2
(2.6.5)
(2.6.4)
Tab 5.7.1
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.6.7)
(2.6.6)
KBK,b = 1,26, KBK,1 = 1,15 .
Combined types of stress
fw,'t = 1 /.J3,
q = 0,
sa = aBK,b = 0,732 ,
t
a
= aBK,1 = 0,715 ,
aGH =JO,732
2
+0,715
2
= 1,023 ,
aBK,Sv = 1,023 .
Complementary assessment 2:
Assessment applying a class of utilization
Differing from the constant amplitude loading condi-
tions and the assessment of the fatigue limit considered
above an assessment of a variable amplitude loading
according to the class of utilization B5 is carried out
here. In this case the class of utilization B5 may, for
example, stand for binominally distributed amplitudes
of the stress spectrum, a spectrum parameter p = 1/3
and a required total number of cyclesN = 10
7
, Table
5.7.2.
aBK b = 150 = 0,732 , (2.6.1)
, 246/1,2
a = 100 = °715 .
BK,1 168/1,2 '
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, bending and torsion,
The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength for bending and for torsion for bending
and for torsion are
(2.4.41)
SBK,b = KBK,b . SAK,b = 1,26' 246 MPa =
= 310 MPa,
TBK,1 = KBK,I' TAK,1 = 1,15' 168 MPa =
= 193 MPa.
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor for the
class of utilization B5 for bending and for torsion is
With these values instead of the values 246 MPa and
168 MPa the degrees of utilization are lower than those
from above.
(5.9.3)
(5.9.2)
(5.9.18)
- 0,536
Sa,b = 150 MPa, SWK,b = 262 MPa ,
Sa = 150 / 262 = 0,573 ,
Ta,l = 100 MPa, TWK,1 = 190 MPa,
t
a
= 100 / 190 = 0,526 ,
sa,v =JO,573
2
+0,526
2
= 0,778 .
Common mean stress factor
smin,v = 0,235 - 0,778 = - 0,543 ,
smax,v = 0,235 + 0,778 = 1,013 ,
Rcr,v - 0,543 / 1,013
The constants B
I
, Al and AS are not needed as Sm =0.
Tm,l = 50 MPa, TWK,1 = 190 MPa,
t
m
= 50/190 = 0,263 , (5.9.6)
Sm = 0,
Sms = (3/7) . 1,028' 0,263 = 0,116 ,
t
ml
= (1 /E) .J7,224.0,263
2
= 0,154,
sm,v = 0,87 . (0,116 + 0,154) = 0,235 . (5.9.5)
Complementary assessment 1:
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit for the
given mean stress - improved method of calculation
according to Chapter 5.9
Related equivalent stress amplitude for bending and
torsion
KE,cr = KE;t = 1. (2.4.5)
The amplitude of the component fatigue limit results
from the mean stress factor, the residual stress factor
and the component fatigue limit for completely reversed
bending and torsional stress:
SAK,b = KAK,v . KE,cr . SWK,b = (2.4.6)
= 0,940' I . 262 MPa = 246 MPa,
TAK,1 = KAK,v . KE,'t . SWK,b =
= 0,940 . 1 . 190 MPa = 168 MPa.
Using these values instead of the values 233 MPa and
179 MPa somewhat different degrees of utilization are
obtained.
6.2 Shaft with V-belt drive
236
6 Examples
Given
Loading: Maximum torque (rated torque), idealized as
a fluctuating loading (load ratio R
M
= 0), figure 6.2.1:
6.2 Shaft with V-belt drive *1
lR62 EN.docl
Key words: Shaft, V-belt drive, rolled steel,
assessment of the static strength, assessment of the
fatigue limit, type of overloading F1, combined types
of stress.
M, = M
max
= 1 kNm.
Material: St 60 after DIN EN 10 025.
Dimensions:
(6.2.1)
Surface: average roughness of the shaft: R
z
= 25 J..Lm.
Type of overloading: when overloaded in service the
tension of the belt remains constant and with that the
mean stress remains approximately constant as well
(Type of overloading Fl).
Safety requirements: according to the statements
"severe consequences of failure; no regular
inspections" .
Task: Assessment of the component static strength and
assessment of the component fatigue limit.
Methodof calculation: Rod-shaped (ID) componerit.
Assessment using nominal stresses, Chapter 1 and 2.
Length of shaft 1 = 400 mm,
diameter of shaft d = 56 mm.
Pulley in center position, bearing on the left
horizontally fixed, torque input at the right end.
ASSESSMENT
OF THE COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
1 LOADINGS
(6.2.2)
Data ofthe drive
Diameter of pulley No.1: d1W = 200 mm,
Diameter of pulley No 2: d2W = 100 mm,
Center distance: e =200 mm,
Wedge angle: Ys = 35°,
Friction coefficient between belt and pulley: J..L= 0,1.
Specifying the loadings is not subject of the guideline.
Therefore the loadings are outlined here in brief *2.
M, is the torque input to the shaft. The torque input
results in a maximum of six loads F
x
, ... , M, at the
pulley. The initial tension of the belt results in a
maximum of two lateral forces F
y
, F
z
. The sense of
rotation and direction of input and output are not
important for the loads.
The torque is transmitted by the initial tension and
frictional contact of the belt. Therefore the loadings
"torque" and "initial tension" are to be distinguished.
The axial load of the shaft and the lateral moments at
the pulley are zero:
Z

Figure 6.2.1 Shaft and loads due to the torque M
n
at
the V-belt drive. F
I
- F
2
= F, *2
Calculation equations
Loading "torque"
Circumferential force transmitting the torque
Ft=M
n
' 2/d
1w
,
= 1000 kNmm . 2 I 200 mm = 10 kN. (6.2.3)
Inclination of the belt
1 Results of computation obtained by the PC-program "Welle"
2 Full presentation of the example s given in the manual of the
PC-program "Welle".
sin a, = (d
1w
- d
2w
) 12e, (6.2.4)
= (200 - 100) mm I (2 . 200 mm) = 0,25 ,
a, =14,48°.
6.2 Shaft with V-belt drive
237
6 Examples
M
z
- 2,349kNm

..;.,::
o
lI:l
C>J
B«<::...-----------.J
o
II
-:t. ails b622
A Resulting loads
r, = F
y
= 0, (6.2.5)
F
z
= + F, . sin a. = 10 kN . 0,25 = 2,5 kN ,
M, = M; = I kNm ,
My=M
z=
O.
Load "initial tension"
Necessary minimum initial tension for transmitting the
maximum torque *4
m = exp . . n / 180°), . (6.2.8)
= exp (0,3326 . 151,0°. n /180°) = 2,403.
For the smaller pulley there is a. < 0 and < 180 0. For
the larger Pulley there is a. > 0 and < 180°.
Auxiliary variable
ASSESSMENT
OF THE COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
Maximum torsion moment
Figure 6.2.2 Resulting moments at mid shaft.
The reference point for the assessment of the static
strength is in the middle of the shaft (to the right of the
pulley).
Maximum bending moment (point B in Figure 6.2.2)
Mb= Myz +M; (6.2.12)
+ 2, 349kNm
2
= 2,362 kNm.
(6.2.6)
Value of the groove angle
Ys = 35 0.
Effective coefficient of friction
J.lth = / sin(ys / 2) = 0,1 / sin(35012) = 0,3326 .
_3
Arc of belt contact at the smaller pulley (No.2)
(6.2.7)
= 180° - 2 ·1a.1 = 180° - 2· 14,48 = 151,0°.
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Smax ex b = 32 Mb / pd
3
(1.1.1)
= '32' 2,362 kNm / (n . (56 mm)3 ) = 137 MPa ,
T
max
ext = 16 M
t
/ pd
3
= 't6'· 1 kNm / (rt . (56 mm)3 ) = 29,0 MPa.
Extreme maximum stresses *5
Tensile strength and yield strength for the standard
dimension
Rm,N = 590 MPa, Rp,N = 335 MPa. Tab. 5.1.1
Technological size factor
(6.2.10)
(6.2.9)
I I
2 m+l
Fs
p
= M, ·-·--·cosa.
d
1w
m->I
2 2,403+1
= 1000 kNmm' 200mm 2,403-1 . cosine 14,47°
= 23,49 kN.
Resulting loads
F
x
= 0,
F
y
= + F
sp
= 23,49 kN,
F
z
=0,
M
x=
M
y=
M
z=
O.
2 RESULTING MOMENTS AT MID SHAFT
Tensile strength and yield strength of the component
4 Practically anincreased initial tension value needs tobeconsidered.
5 From here on the numbers of equations, tables and figures are
those of the guideline.
From the loadings "maximum torque" (M; = 1 kNm
and F
z
= 2,5 kN) and from the loading "initial tension"
(Fy = 23,486 kN) the moments in the middle of the shaft
(to the right of the pulley) are
M, = - 1 kNm, (6.2.11)
My = + F, . I / 4 = 2,5 kN . 400 mm / 4
= + 0,250 kNm,
. M
z
= - F
y
. I /4 = 23,49 kN . 400 mm / 4
= - 2,349 kNm .
The bending moments My and M, are presented in
Figure 6.2.2. The loading without torque (only initial
tension) corresponds to the point A. The loading under
maximum M, torque (including initial tension)
corresponds to the point B.
ad,m = 0,15 , ad,p = 0,3 ,
deff,N = 40 mm ,
deff = d = 56 mm ,
= 0,982, Kd,p = 0,960 .
Anisotropy factor
K
A
= 1.
R
m
= 0,982 . 1 ·590 MPa = 579 MPa,
R
p
= 0,960 . 1 . 335 MPa = 321 MPa .
Tab. 1.2.1
Tab. 1.2.3
(1.2.9)
(1.2.17)
(1.2.1)
3 Torque and the pre-tension aretobedetermined for the smaller pulley
6.2 Shaft with V-belt drive
238
6 Examples
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS 6 ASSESSMENT
Design factor for bending
Section factor
Rp,max = 1050 MPa , Tab. 1.3.1
R
p
= 321 MPa,
Kp,b = 1,70, Tab. 1.3.2
npl,b = MIN (J1050/321 ; 1,70)= 1,70, 1.3.9)
Design factor
Maximum stresses for bending and for torsion, see
above,
Smax,ex,b = 137,0 MPa, Tmax,ex,t'= 29,0 MPa.
Component static strength for bending and for torsion,
see above,
SSK,b = 985 MPa, TSK,t = 447 MPa .
KSK,b = 1 / 1,70 = 0,588. (1.3.1)
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, bending and torsion,
Component static strength for bending and torsion
Component static strength for bending resulting from
the tensile strength and design factor:
Rp,max = 1050 MPa , Tab. 1.3.1
R
p
= 321 MPa,
Kp,t = 1,33 , Tab. 1.3.2
npI,t = MIN (J1050/321 ; 1,33) = 1,33. 1.3.9)
Design factor
(1.6.1)
(1.6.5)
(1.6.4)
Tab. 1.2.5
(1.6.7)
(1.6.6)
137 = 0376
aSK,b = 985I 2,70 ' ,
a = 29,0 = 0176.
SK,t 447 I 2,70 '
Combined types of stress
f't = 0,577 ,
q = 0,
s = aSK,b = 0,376 ,
t = a
SKt
= 0,176,
a
GH
= ~ 0 , 3 7 6 2 +0,176
2
= 0,415 ,
aSK,Sv = 0,415 .
The degree of utilization of the component static
strength is 42 %.
The assessment of the static strength is achieved.
(1.3.1)
Tab. 1.2.5
(1.4.1)
KSK,t = 1 / 1,33 = 0,752.
fa = 1 ,
SSK,b = 579 MPa / 0,588 = 985 MPa .
4 COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
Design factor for torsion
Section factor
5 SAFETY FACTORS
For severe consequences of failure and high probability
of the occurrence of the characteristic stress there is
Component static strength for torsion resulting from the
shear strength factor f't , the tensile strength and the
design factor:
f't = 0,577 , Tab. 1.2.5
TSK,t = 0,577 . 579 MPa / 0,752 = 445 MPa .
(1.4.1)
Mm,b = °
The maximum amplitude of the bending moment for the
rotating shaft is, as for the assessment of the static
strength,
Ma,b = 2,362 kNm.
Again the reference point for the assessment of the
fatigue strength is in the middle of the shaft (to the
right of the pulley).
Cyclic bending moment
The mean value and amplitude of the maximum cyclic
bending moment is to be determined.
The mean value of the bending moment for the rotating
shaft is
ASSESSMENT
OF THE COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
(1.5.4)
Tab. 1.5.1 jm = 2,0 , jp = 1,5.
For normal temperature there is
KT,m = KT,p = 1, (1.2.26)
and in Eq. (1.5.4) the terms 3 and 4 have no relevance:
R
p
= 321 MPa,
R
m
= 579 MPa,
jges = MAX (2,0; 1,5. 579)
321
= MAX (2,0; 2,70) = 2,70.
The yield strength R
p
(the second term) is determining.
6.2 Shaft with V-belt drive
239
6 Examples
The cyclic stresses resulting from the bending moment
and the torsion moment are
Material fatigue limits for completely reversed normal
stress, crW,zd , and shearstress, 'tw,s, :
It is valid for the non-rotating shaft too.
Characteristic stresses
Smb = 0, (2.1.1)
, 3
Sa,b = 32 Ma,b / pd
= 32 . 2,362 kNm / (n . (56 mmr' ) = 137 MPa
Tm,t = 16 Mt,m / pd
3
= 16 . 0,5 kNm / (n . (56 mm)3 ) = 14,5 MPa ,
Ta,t = Tm,t == 14,5 MPa.
2 MATERIAL PARAMETERS
(2.3.1)
(2.3.17)
(2.3.13)
(2.3.10)
Tab. 2.2.1
Tab. 2.3.4
(2.3.26)
KWK,b = 0,979 + 1/0,858 - 1 = 1,144
G, (r) = 0, n, (r) = 1 ,
d = 56 mm,
G, (d) = 2/ d = 0,0357 mm -1 ,
n, (d) = 1,027 .
Fatigue notch factor
Kf,t = 1 / (1 . 1,027) = 0,974.
Roughness factor
R
m
= 579 MPa , R
z
= 25 um ,
fw" = 0,58,
aR,cr = 0,22, Rm,N,min = 400 MPa ,
KR" = 0,918 .
For no surface treatment is Ky = 1. For steel and cast
iron materials is Ks = 1. For materials except GG is
KNL,E = 1. Therefore:
Design factor
Design factor for torsion
Fatigue notch factor
Stress concentration factor for the cylindrical shaft *6
Kt,t = 1.
K,-K
r
ratios, no notchradius,
For no surface treatment is Ky = 1. For steel and cast
iron materials is Ks = 1. For materials except GG is
KNL,E = 1. Therefore:
Design factor
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.2.1)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.2.1)
R
m
= 579 MPa,
fw,cr = 0,45 ,
crW,zd = 0,45 . 579 MPa = 261 MPa ,
fw" = 0,577 ,
'tw,s = 0,577 . 261 MPa = 151 MPa .
The amplitude of the bending moment is varying within
the limits defined by no torque input or maximum
torque input, points A and B in Figure 6.2.2. The
assumption of a continuous action of the maximum
bending moment is an approach on the safe side.
Fluctuating torsion moment
The mean value and amplitude of the torsion moment
fluctuating between zero and maximum is
Mm,t = Ma,t =IMxl /2 = 0,5 kNm.
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
KWK,t = 0,974 + 1/0,918 - 1 = 1,063 (2.3.1)
Design factor for bending
Fatigue notch factor
Stress concentration factor for the cylindrical shaft *6
Kt,b = 1.
K,-K
r
ratios, no notch radius,
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
torsional stress resulting from the material fatigue limit
for shear stress and the design factor for torsion,
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
bending and torsional stress
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
bending stress resulting from the material fatigue limit
for normal stress and the design factor for bending,
G
cr
(r) = 0, ncr (r) = 1 ,
d = 56 mm,
Gcr(d) = 2/ d = 0,0357 mm -1 ,
ncr (d) = 1,022 .
Fatigue strength reduction factor
(2.3.17)
(2.3.13)
4 COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
SWK,b = 261 MPa /1,144 = 228 MPa. (2.4.1)
6 Assuming an unnotched cylindrical shaft is an unrealistic simplifica-
tion for the present example. Actually a keyway or a press-fit between
pulley andshaft, Chapter 5.3.3.4, would have tobeconsidered.
Kf,b = 1 / (1 . 1,022) = 0,979 .
Roughness factor
R
m
= 579 MPa, R
z
= 25 um ,
aR,cr = 0,22, Rm,N,min = 400 MPa,
KR,cr = 0,858 .
(2.3.10)
Tab. 2.3.4
(2.3.26)
TWK,t = 151 MPa / 1,063 = 142 MPa . (2.4.1)
6.2 Shaft with V-belt drive
240
6 Examples
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit for the given
mean stress for bending and torsion
Mean stress sensitivity
R
m
= 579 MPa,
aM = 0,00035 , bM = - 0,1 ,
Me; = 0,103 ,
fW;t = 0,577 ,
M't = 0,577 . 0,103 = 0,059 .
Tab. 2.4.2
(2.4.34)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.4.34)
model I (horizontal for N > ND,e; and N > ND,'t ) the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factors for bending
and for torsion is
KBK,b = KBK,t = 1. (2.4.48)
The amplitude of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength results from the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor and from the amplitude of the
component fatigue limit for bending and for torsion,
Largest stress amplitudes for bending and for torsion,
see above,
For severe consequence of failure and no regular
inspections there is
5 SAFETY FACTORS
SBK b = 1 . 225 MPa = 225 MPa,
t = 1 . 141 MPa = 141 MPa.
,
(2.2.5)
(2.5.4)
(2.4.41)
(2.5.1), Tab. 2.5.1
KT,D =1,
Jges = 1,5 .
.io = 1,5.
For normal temperature there is
6 ASSESSMENT
Sm = Sm,b = °, (2.4.31)
T
m
= Tm,t = 14,5 MPa ,
fw,'t = 0,577 , Tab. 2.2.1
q = °, (2.4.29)
Sm,v = Sm,v,GH =J3 . 14,5 MPa = 25,1 MPa,
(2.4.29) (2.4.28)
Tm,v = 0,577 ·25,1 MPa = 14,5 MPa . (2.4.30)
Calculation for the type of overloading F1.
Mean stress factor for bending
Sm,b,v = Sm,v / SWK,b = 25,1 /228 = 0,110,
Me; = 0,103 ,
- 1 / (1 - Me;) = - 1 / (1 - 0,103) = - 1,115 ,
1 / (1 + Me;) = 1 / (1 + 0,103) = 0,907 .
Because of - 1,115:::;; 0,110:::;; 0,907 field II applies:
Equivalent mean stress
For normal stress and for shear stress there is
SAK,b = 0,989 . 1 . 228 MPa = 225 MPa, (2.4.6)
TAK,t = 0,994 . 1 . 142 MPa = 141 MPa .
KE,e; = KE,'t = 1. (2.4.5)
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit
The amplitude of the component fatigue limit results
from the mean stress factor, the residual stress factor
and the component fatigue limit for completely reversed
bending stress and torsional stress,
tm,t,v = Tm,v/ TWK,t = 14,5/142 = 0,102
M, = 0,059,
1 / (1 + M't) = 1 / (1 + 0,059) = 0,944 .
Because of 0:::;; 0,102:::;; 0,944 field II applies:
KAK,'t = 1 - 0,059' 0,102 = 0,994. (2.4.15)
Residual stress factor
(2.6.5)
(2.6.4)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.6.7)
(2.6.6)
Combined types of stress
fw,'t = 0,577 ,
q = 0,
Sa = aBK,b = 0,913 ,
t
a
= aBK,t = 0,155 .
a
GH
= +0,155
2
= 0,926 ,
aBK,Sv = 0,926.
Sa b l = Sa b = 137 MPa ,
Ta',t:! = T
a:t
= 14,5 MPa .
Amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue
strength for bending and for torsion, see above,
SBK,b = 225 MPa, TBK,t = 141 MPa .
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, bending and torsion,
a = 137 = ° (2 6 1)
BK,b 225/15 ' • •
,
a
BK
t = 14,5 = 0,155 .
, 141/ 1,5
(2.4.15) KAK,e; = 1 - 0,103 . 0,110 = 0,989 .
Mean stress factor for torsion
Component variable amplitude fatigue strength for
bending and torsion
Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
Considering the component constant amplitude fatigue
limit, N > ND,e; and N > ND,'t , and the S-N curve
The degree of utilization of the component fatigue
limit is 93 %.
The assessment of the fatigue limit is achieved. *
7
7 See the objections in footnote 4 and 6, however.
241
6.3 Compressor flange made of grey cast iron 6 Examples
6.3 Compressor flange made of grey
cast iron "'I 1R63 EN.docl
ASSESSMENT
OF THE COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
2 MATERIAL PROPERIES
GI max ex = 33,6 MPa, G
2
max ex = 11,2 MPa .
, , , ,
Maximum stresses
Key words: Grey cast iron GG-30, assessment of the
static strength, assessment of the fatigue limit, local
elastic stresses, type of overloading F2, elevated
temperature, combined types of stresses GI and G2 .
Given
Stresses: Proportional, constant amplitude loading,
locally elastic stresses in the directions 1 (longitudinal)
and 2 (circumferential) at the reference point (node 99)
of a block-shaped (3D) component, Figure 6.3.1,
GI = GI,m±GI,a = 15,0 MPa ± 18,6 MPa ,
G2 = G2,m ±G2,a = 5,0 MPa ±6,2 MPa ,
G3 = 0.
Stress amplitudes at the neighbouring point (node 98) in
a distance s = 7,7 mm below the surface
Tensile strength for the standard dimension
Rm,N = 300 MPa .
Technological size factor
deff = 2s = 2 . 32 mm = 64 mm ,
Kd,m = 0,800 .
Anisotropy factor
K
A
= 1.
Tensile strength of the component
*2 (3.1.6)
Tab. 5.1.14
Tab. 3.2.3
(3.2.5)
(3.2.18)
GI,a = ± 10,0 MPa,
G2,a = ± 5,3 MPa.
Flange
Section factor for GG
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
(3.2.1) R
m
= 0,800' 1 . 300 MPa = 240 MPa:
Temperature factors
aT,m = 1,6 , Tab. 3.2.6
K
T
m = 0,769 , (3.2.31)
Crr: = 25 , Tab. 3.2.7
aTt,m = - 1,46, bn,m = 2,36, CTt,m = - 0,90 ,
Pm = 10 - 4. (380 + 273) . (25 + 19 100.000) =
= 1,959, (3.2.35)
_ (-1,46+2,36.1,959-0,90.1,959
2
)
KTt,m -10 = 0,511 .
91.
87 92
6 . ~ . 1
111
npl,O'I = npl,O'2 = 1. (3.3.7)
Constant KNL for the consideration of the non-linear
elastic strain characteristic of GG for tension
Figure 6.3.1 Compressor flange made of grey cast iron.
Material: GG-30 according to DIN 1691 or DIN EN
i,:,61.
KNL = 1,05. Tab. 3.3.4
Temperature and time: T = 380°C, t = 100.000 h.
Dimensions: Effective wall thickness at the reference
point (node 99) s ;::: 32 mm.
Surface: Skin
Type of overloading: : When overloaded in service the
stress ratios remain constant (Type of overloading F2).
Safety requirement: according to the statements:
"severe consequences of failure; no regular inspection",
casting tested non-destructively.
Task: Assessment of the static strength and assessment
of the fatigue limit.
Method of calculation: Block-shaped (3D) component.
Assessment using local elastic stresses, Chapter 3 and 4
Design factor for directions 1 and 2
KSK,O'I = KSK,O'2 = 1/ (1'1,05) = 0,952. (3.3.3)
4 COMPONENT STRENGTH
Component strength resulting from the tensile strength
and the design factor. For directions 1 and 2 there is
f
O'
= 1 , Tab. 3.2.
GI,SK = G2,SK = 240 MFa / 0,952 = 252 MPa .
(3.4.3)
I Results of computation obtained by the PC-program
"RIFESTPLUS"
2 Numbers of Equations, tables and figures arethose of the
guideline.
242
6.3 Compressor flange made of grey cast iron 6 Examples
5 SAFETY FACTORS
Because of the low elongation of GG the safety factor is
to be increased by :
For severe consequences of failure and high probability
of the occurrence of the maximum stress and for non-
destructively tested castings there is
Tab. 3.5.2
Material fatigue limit for completely reversed normal
stress, CfW,zd ,
(4.1.1 )
Constant amplitude cyclic stresses
crl.a = 18,6 MPa, 01,m = 15,0 MPa .
cr2,a = 6,2 MPa, 02.m = 5,0 MPa ,
cr3,a = 0 , 03.m = °.
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
ASSESSMENT OF THE FATIGUE STRENGTH
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
Note: For the assessment of the component static
strength the presented computation for the combined
types of stress applies to both proportional stresses and
non-proportio-nal stresses o l and cr2, see footnote 1 in
Chapter 3.6.
(3.5.4)
(3.5.2)
Jm = 2,5 , jmt = 1,9 .
KT,m = 0,769, KTt,m = 0,511 .
For GG the terms 2 and 4 of Eq. (3.5.4) are not
relevant. Therefore
. =
Jges 0,769'0,511
= MAX (3,90; 4,70) = 4,70.
= 0,5 ,
jm = 3,0 , jmt = 2,4 .
Temperature factors, see above,
The creep strength Rm,Tt is is determining, Figure
3.2.2.
6 ASSESSMENT
Maximum stresses, see above,
R
m
= 240 MPa,
fw,cr = 0,30 ,
crW,zd = 0,30 . 240 MPa = 72,0 MPa .
Temperature factor
aT,D = 1,0,
KT,D = 0,856 .
Tab. 4.2.1
(4.2.1 )
Tab. 4.2.2
(4.2.8)
crLmax.ex = 33,6 MPa, cr2,max,ex = 11,2 MPa .
Component strength values, see above,
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
33,6
crl,SK = cr2,SK, = 252 MPa.
aSK,cr2 = 252/4,70 = 0,209 .
Degrees of utilizaion
Individual types of stress, directions 1 and 2
(4.3.28)
(4.3.29)
Tab. 4.3.2
(4.3.10)
Tah. 4.3 (
(4.3.16)
0,0600
Ch.4.3.3
100 MPa, Tab. 4.3.4
(4.3.26)
K
v
= 1.
Kt-Kf ratios
Gal __I_.(I_IO,OJ
7,7mm 18,6
G ? - I (I 5.3J = 0,0189 mm-
l
,
o : - 7,7mm' - 6,2
aa = - 0,05, b
G
= 3200 ,
nal = 1,179, n
cr2
= 1,056.
Coating factor
KKS = 1.
Constant KNL.E
KNL,E = 1,025 .
3 Even though the present assessment ofthe creep strength may he tar on
the safe side, see Chapter 3.1.0 on.Elevated temperature'
Roughness factor
R
m
= 240 MPa,
R
z
= 200 um ,
aR,cr = 0,06, Rm,N.min =
KR,cr = 0,906 ,
Surface treatment factor,
Tab. 3.2.5
(3.6.23)
(3.6.22)
f, = 0,85 ,
q = 0,759 ,
81 = aSK,crl = 0,627 ,
S2 = a
SK.cr2
= 0,209 ,
Combined types of stress
a
GH
= ((0,627 -0,209)2 +0,209
2
+0,627
2
)
= 0,553 , (3.6.21)
a
NH
= MAX (0,627; 0,209) = 0,627 ,
aSK.sY = 0,759 . 0,626 + (I - 0,759) . 0,553 =
= 0,608 . (3.6.20)
The degree of utilization of the component static
strength is 61 %.
The assessment of the static strength is achieved. *3
6.3 Compressor flange made of grey cast iron
243
6 Examples
Design factors
Kf = 1,
KWK,al = 1,1\9 -(1+i-( 0,:06 -1))
= 0,913,
KWK,a2 = 1,;56 -(
1
+ i -( 0,:06 -1))
= 1,019.
Tab. 4.3.1
1
1·1·1,025
(4.3.3)
1
1·1·1,025
crl,AK = 0,713 . 1 . 79 MPa = 56 MPa , (4.4.8)
cr2,AK = 0,713 . 1 ·71 MPa = 50 MPa .
Component variable amplitude fatigue strength for
bending and torsion
Considering the component constant amplitude fatigue
limit, N > No,a and N > NO;t , and the S-N curve
model I (horizontal for N > NO,a and N > No,'t) the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factors for normal
stress is
KBK,al = KBK,a2 = 1. (4.4.47)
The amplitude of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength results from the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor and from the amplitude of the
component fatigue limit for normal stress
4 COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
normal stresses
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
normal stress resulting from the material fatigue limit
for normal stress and the design factors:
crl,BK = 1·56 MPa = 56 MPa,
cr2,BK = 1 . 50 MPa = 50 MPa.
(4.4.45)
crl,WK = 72,0 MPa / 0,913 = 79 MPa, (4.4.3)
cr2,WK = 72,0 MPa / 1,019 = 71 MPa.
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit for the given
mean stress
5 SAFETY FACTORS
For severe consequence of failure, for no regular
inspection and for castings tested non-destructively
Because of the low elongation of GG the safety factor is
to be increased by :
According to Chapter 4.4.2.2 the individual mean
stresses are to be applied instead of an equivalent mean
stress. Calculation for the type of overloading F2.
crl,min = 15 MPa - 18,6 MPa = - 3,6 MPa ,
crl,max = 15 MPa MPa + 18,6 = 33,6 MPa,
Ral = - 3,6 / 33,6 = - 0,107 .
Because of - CX) < -0,107 °field II applies:
Mean stress sensitivity
aM = 0, b
M
= 0,5 ,
M
a
= 0,5 .
Mean stress factor for direction 1
Tab. 4.4.2
(4.4.34)
(4.4.26)
.io = 1,9 .
= 0,5 ,
.in = 2,4.
Temperature factor, see above,
KT,O = 0,856 .
Total safety factor
jges = 2,4/0,856 = 2,80 .
Tab. 4.5.2
(4.5.2)
(4.5.4)
M
a
= 0,5 ,
1
KAK,al = 1+0,5.15/18,6 = 0,713 .
Mean stress factor for direction 2
The stress ratios of both directions agree:
R
a
2 = Ral = - 0,107 ,
KAK,a2 = 0,713 .
Residual stress factor
(4.4.10)
6 ASSESSMENT
Stress amplitudes, see above
cra,l = 18,6 MPa , cr
a,2
= 6,2 MPa .
Amplitudes of the component variable amplitude fatigue
strength, see above,
crl,BK = 56 MPa, cr2,BK = 50 MPa .
For normal stress there is
KE,a = 1. (4.4.5)
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit
The amplitude of the component fatigue limit results
from the mean stress factor, the residual stress factor
and the component fatigue limit for completely reversed
normal stress:
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, direction 1 and 2
aBK,al = = 0,929 ,
,
aBK,a2 = 50 80 = 0,346 .
,
(4.6.17)
. Tab. 4.2.1
(4.6.23)
(4.6.22)
6.3 Compressor flange made of grey cast iron
Combined types of stress
fw,'t = 0,85 ,
q = 0,759 ,
Sl,a = aBK,crl = 0,929,
S2,a = a
BK,cr2
= 0,346 ,
a
GH
= ±.((0,929-0,346)2 +0,346
2
+0,929
2)
= 0,813, (4.6.21)
a
NH
= MAX (0,929; 0,346) = 0,929 ,
aBK,sv = 0,759 . 0,929 + (1 - 0,759) . 0,813 =
= 0,901. (4.6.20)
The degree of utilization of the component fatigue
strength is 90 %.
The assessment of the fatigue limit is achieved.
Note: Different from an assessment of the static
strength the presented calculation for combined types of
stress applies in the case of proportional stresses only.
For non-proportional stresses o l and cr2 the rules of
superposition in Chapter 4.6 are not applicable and the
procedure proposed in Chapter 5.10 is to be applied
instead.
244
........
6 Examples
245
6.4 Welded notched component 6 Examples
6.4 Welded notched component

Key words: Milled steel, welded notched component,
assessment of the static strength, assessment of the
variable amplitude fatigue strength, type of overloading
F2, class of utilization, nominal stress, structural stress,
effective notch stress.
Given:
Stresses: Cyclic variable amplitude axial stresses,
Figure 6.4.1.
Characteristic nominal stresses, determined elementary:
Safety requirement: According to the statements "with
moderate consequences of failure; regular inspections".
Task: Assessment of the static strength and assessment
of the variable amplitude fatigue strength.
Method of calculation: Rod-shaped (ID) component.
The assessment of the static strength is to be carried out
using nominal stresses and structural stresses (an
assessment of the static strength using effective notch
stresses is not possible). The assessment of the variable
amplitude fatigue strength is to be carried out using
nominal stresses, structural stresses and effective notch
stresses.
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Smax exzd = 150 MPa + 75 MPa = 225 MPa .
, ,
Smax,ex,wv,zd = Sl.,zd = Smax,ex,zd = 225 MPa .
(1.1.2)
*1 (1.1.1)
Maximum equivalent nominal stress
Maximum nominal stress
The degrees of utilization obtained with nominal
stresses, with structural stresses and with effective
notch stresses should agree .
For welded components the assessment of the
component static strength is in general to be carried out
separately for the toe section (toe of the weld) and for
the throat section (root of the weld). In the present case
the assessment of the throat section (root of the weld) is
sufficient. An equivalent stress is to be computed for the
throat section.
Calculation using nominal stresses
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
ASSESSMENT
OF THE COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
Tensile strength and yield strength of the plate material
R
m
= 610 MPa, R
p
= 500 MPa. Tab. 5.1.2
The values apply to the component. The technological
size factor is not relevant, Eq. (1.2.15).
Szd = Sm,zd ± Sa,zd = 150 MPa ± 75 MPa .
Characteristic structural stresses at the edge of the weld
seam, determined by finite element analysis without
observing the weld seam, (stress concentration factor
Kt,cr = O'max / Szd = 2,5),
Figure 6.4.1 Welded notched component
F F

6.4..1
0' = O'm ±O'a = 375 MPa ± 187,5 MPa.
Characteristic effective notch stresses at the edge of the
weld determined by finite element analysis in
considering the weld seam with an effective notch
radius r = 1 mm, (stress concentration factor
Kt,crK = O'K,max / Szd = 5,6),
O'K = O'K,m ±O'K,a = 840 MPa ±420 MPa .
The respective characteristic stress amplitudes refer to
the largest amplitude of the stress spectrum which
co-responds to the class of utilization B2.
S1:d
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
Material: StE 500, DIN 17 102.
Dimensions:
Width of plate B = 375 mm
Thickness of plate s = 20 mm,
Radius of cut-out r = 100 mm.
Weld seam: Full penetration butt weld, as welded, toe
angle S; 30 0, tested non-destructively, low residual
stresses.
Section factor
npl,zd = 1 .
Weld factor Ow
Ow = 1,0 .
(1.3.9)
Tab. 1.3.3
Type of overloading: When overloaded in service the
stress ratios remain constant (type of overloading F2).
1 Numbers of equations, tables and figures arethose of the
guideline.
246
6.4 Welded notched component 6 Examples
Design factor
KSK,zd = 1 / (1 . 1 ) = 1 . (1.3.4)
Maximum equivalent structural stress
O'max,ex,wv = O'-L = 562,5 MPa .
(3.1.2)
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
4 COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH Tensile strength and yield stress of the plate material
Nominal value of the component static strength resul-
ting from the tensile strength and the design factor:
The values apply to the component. The technological
size factor is not relevant, Eq. (3.2.15). fer = 1 ,
SSK,zd = 1 ·610 MPa / I = 610 MPa .
Tab. 1.2.5
(1.4.1)
R
m
= 610 MPa, R, = 500 MPa . Tab. 5.1.2
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
5 SAFETY FACTORS
Plastic notch factor
Tab. 1.5.1
For moderate consequences of failure, however, there is
Kp,er = Kt,a = 2,5 .
Section factor
(3.3.13)
Due to a high yield stress, R
p
/ R
m
> 0,75 , the tensile
strength is deciding.
(3.3.16)
Tab. 3.3.3
KNL = I.
Weld factor Ow
Ow = 1,0.
E = 2,1 . 10
5
MPa, Tab. 3.3.1
8
ert r
= 5 % = 0,05 ,
R
p
= 500 MPa,
npl." = MIN (Jr-
2
-,1-. 1-0-
5
.-0-,0-5-/5-0-0; 2,5) = 2,5 .
(3.3.9)
The section factor is limited by the plastic notch factor .
Constant KNL (1.5.4)
Tab. 1.5.1 Jm = 1,75 , jp = 1,3 .
For normal temperature there is
KT,m = KT,p = I , (1.2.26)
and in Eq. (1.5.4) the terms 3 and 4 have no relevance:
R
m
= 610 MPa, R
p
= 500 MPa
. jges = MAX (1,75; 1,3· : ~ ~ )
= MAX (1,75; 1,59) = 1,75.
6 ASSESSMENT
Design factor
KSK,er = 1 / (2,5 . 1 . 1,0) = 0,400 . (3.3.4)
Maximum nominal stress, see above,
Smax,ex,wv,zd = 225 MPa .
Component static strength, nominal value, see above,
SSK,zd = 610 MPa .
Degree of utilization
4 COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
Local value of the component static strength resulting
from the tensile strength and the design factor:
fa = 1 , Tab. 3.2.5
O'SK = 1 ·610 MPa / 0,400 = 1525 MPa. (3.4.4)
(1.6.1)
225
aSK d = = 0,646 .
.z 610/1,75
The degree of utilization of the component static
strength is 65 %.
The assessment of the static strength is achieved.
5 SAFETY FACTORS
Safety factors according to Chapter 3, as before:
jges = 1,75. (3.5.4)
6 ASSESSMENT
.Calculation using structural stresses
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
Maximum structural stress at the inside edge of the
weld (3.1.1)
O'max,ex = 375 MPa + 187,5 MPa = 562,5 MPa .
Maximum structural stress, see above,
O'max,ex,wv = 562,5 MPa .
Component structural static strength, see above,
O'SK = 1525 MPa .
247
6.4 Welded notched component
6 Examples
Degree of utilization Fatigue class
562,5
aSK,cr = 1525/1,75 = 0,646 .
(3.6.1)
FAT 40.
Thickness factor
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
nominal stress resulting from the weld specific fatigue
limit for normal stress and the design factor:
The degree of utilization of the component static
strength is 65 % (as with nominal stresses).
The assessment of the static strength is achieved.
ASSESSMENT
OF THE COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
For welded components the assessment of the fatigue
strength is in general to be carried out separately for the
toe section (toe of the weld) and for the throat section
(root of the weld).
Furthermore the assessment of the fatigue strength for
welded components is in general to be carried out
separately for the base material (with rolling skin) and
for the weld. *2. The less favorable case is deciding.
Because of the comparatively low fatigue properties of
welded components the weld is normally deciding.
In this present case an assessment of the fatigue strength
for the root of the weld is sufficient.
Surface treatment factor
Kv = 1.
Constant KNL,E
KNL,E = 1.
Design factor
KWK,zd = 225 / (40 . 1 . 1 . 1) = 5,63 .
4 COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
SWK,zd = 92 MPa / 5,63 = 16,3 MPa.
(2.3.33)
(2.3.28)
(2.3.32)
(2.3.4)
(2.4.1)
Mean stress sensitivity, low residual stresses,
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit for the given
mean stress
Calculation using nominal stresses
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
For the weld section the (largest) amplitude and the
mean value of the characteristic nominal stress is
M
cr
= 0,3 .
Calculation for the type of overloading F2.
'.
Tab. 2.4.1
2 Because ofdifferent slopes the SoN curves ofnon-welded and ofwelded
components may overlap for amplitudes exceeding the fatigue limits
Independent of the type of steel the weld specific
fatigue limit for completely reversed nominal stress is
The fatigue class (FAT) is required to derive the design
factor after Eq. (2.3.4). However the welded notched
component considered is not contained in Table 5.4.1
and therefore an assessment using nominal stresses is
not possible, on principle. Nevertheless in order to
demonstrate the respective way of calculation, a
(re-calculated) fatigue class is supposed to be approxi-
mately valid for the calculation below:
Smin,zd = 150 MPa - 75 MPa = 75 MPa , (2.4.26)
Smax,zd = 150 MPa +75 MPa = 225 MPa ,
Rzd = 75 /225 = + 0,333 .
Because of 0 < Rzd < 0,5 field III applies:
(2.4.12)
Tab. 2.4.1
1+0,3/3
1+0,3
KAK,zd = 0 3 150 = 0,705 .
1+-'-·-
3 75
KE,cr = 1,54 .
Mean stress factor
Residual stress factor, low residual stresses,
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit
The nominal stress amplitude of the component fatigue
limit results from the mean stress factor, the residual
stress factor and the component fatigue limit for
completely reversed nominal stress:
(2.4.6)
SAK,zd = 0,705 . 1,54' 16,3 MPa = 17,7 MPa.
Stress ratio
(2.1.1)
(2.2.3) crW,W = 92 MPa .
Sa,zd, I = 75 MPa, Sm,zd = 150 MPa .
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
248
6.4 Welded notched component 6 Examples
Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
For the class of utilization B2 *3 the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor is
Calculation using structural stresses
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
At the inside edge of the weld the (largest) amplitude
and the mean value of the characteristic stress is
KBK,zd = 6,30 . Tab. (5.7.1)
cra,l = 187,5 MPa, crm = 375 MPa . (4.1.2)
The nominal stress amplitude of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength results from the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factor and the amplitude of
the component fatigue limit:
SBK,zd = 6,30' 17,7 MPa= 112 MPa. (2.4.41)
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Independent of the type of steel the weld specific
fatigue limit for completely reversed normal stress is
crw,w = 92 MPa. (4.2.3)
For moderate consequences of failure and regular
inspection there is, however,
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
Fatigue class (FAT)
The fatigue class (FAT) for structural stresses of a butt
weld with a toe angle s 30 0 is required to derive the
design factor after Eq. (2.3.4) for the welded notched
component. It is
5 SAFETY FACTOR
.in = 1,5 .
.io = 1,2.
For normal temperature there is
KT,D = 1,
(2.5.1)
Tab. 2.5.1
(2.2.5)
FAT 100. Tab. 5.4.3, Nr.212
Characteristic (largest) nominal stress amplitude, see
above,
Further factors of influence according to Chapter 4
1
as
before,
Therefore
jges = 1,2.
6 ASSESSMENT
(2.5.4)
f
t
= 1 , Kv = 1 , KNL,E = 1 ,
Design factor
KWK,cr = 225 / (100 . 1 . 1 . 1) = 2,25 . (4.3.4)
Sa,zd,l = 75 MPa .
Nominal value of the amplitude of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength, see above,
SBK,zd = 112 MPa.
Degree of utilization
4 COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
structural stress resulting from the weld specific fatigue
limit for normal stress and the design factor:
The degree of utilization of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength is 80 %.
The assessment of the fatigue strength is achieved.
Mean stress factor according to Chapter 4, as before,
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit for the given
mean stress
KAK,cr = 0,705 , (4.4.12)
Residual stress factor according to Chapter 4, as before,
(4.4.1) crWK = 92 MPa /2,25 = 40,9 MPa .
(2.6.1)
75
aBK,zd = 112 / I 2 = 0,804 .
,
Tab. 4.4.1 KE,cr = 1,54 ,
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit
The structural stress amplitude of the component fatigue
limit results from the mean stress factor, the residual
stress factor and the component fatigue limit for
completely reversed structural stress: (4.4.6)
3 See Chapter 5.7, Footnote 3.
crAK = 0,705 . 1,54' 40,9 MPa = 44,4 MPa .
249
6.4 Welded notched component 6 Examples
5 SAFETY FACTOR
6 ASSESSMENT
Characteristic (largest) structural stress amplitude, see
above,
Safety factor according to Chapter 4, as before,
jges = 1,2 . (4.5.4)
(4.4.1) crK,WK = 92 MPa /1 = 92 MPa .
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit for the given
mean stress
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
effective notch stress resulting from the weld specific
fatigue limit for normal stress and the design factor:
4 COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
5 SAFETY FACTOR
Mean stress factor according to Chapter 4, as before,
KAK,cr = 0,705 , (4.4.12) c(
Residual stress factor according to Chapter 4, as before,
KE,cr = 1,54 , Tab. 4.4.1
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit
The effective notch stress amplitude of the component
fatigue limit results from the mean stress factor, the
residual stress factor and the component fatigue limit
for completely reversed effective notch stress: (4.4.6)
crK,AK = 0,705 . 1,54' 92 MPa = 99,9 MPa .
Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor according to
Chapter 4, as before,
KBK,cr = 6,30 , Tab. (5.7.1) '7
The effective notch stress amplitude of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength results from the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor and the
amplitude of the component fatigue limit:
crK,BK = 6,30 . 99,9 MPa = 629 MPa. (4.4.41)
(4.6.1)
Tab. (5.7.1) KBK,zd = 6,30 .
crBK = 280 MPa .
Degree of utilization
Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor according to
Chapter 4, as before,
The structural stress amplitude of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength results from the
variable amplitude fatigue strength factor and the
amplitude of the component fatigue limit:
crBK = 6,30 . 44,4 MPa = 280 MPa . (4.4.41)
cra,l = 187,5 MPa .
Structural stress amplitude of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength, see above,
187,5
a
BK
cr = = 0,804 .
, 280[1,2
The degree of utilization of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength is 80 % (as with nominal
stresses).
The assessment of the fatigue strength is achieved.
Ca.lcu.lation using effective notch stresses
Safety factor according to Chapter 4, as before,
jges = 1,2 . (4.5.4)
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
At the inside edge of the weld the (largest) amplitude
and the mean value of the characteristic stress is
crK,a,l = 420 MPa, crK,m = 840 MPa . (4.1.3)
6 ASSESSMENT
Characteristic (largest) effective notch stress amplitude,
see above,
Independently of the type of steel the weld specific
fatigue limit for completely reversed normal stress is
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
crw,w = 92 MPa . (4.2.3)
crK,a,l = 420 MPa .
Effective notch stress amplitude of the component
variable amplitude fatigue strength, see above,
crK,BK = 629 MPa .
Degree of utilization
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
420
aBK,crK = 629/12 = 0,802 .
,
(4.6.1)
(4.3.8)
Factors of influence according to Chapter 4, as before,
K
v
= 1, KNL,E = 1 .
Design factor
KWK,crK = 1 / (1 . 1) = 1 .
The degree of utilization of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength is 80 % (as with
structural stresses.
The assessment of the fatigue strength is achieved.
6.5 Shaft subject to two independent loads
250
6 Examples
6.5 Cantilever subject to two
independent loads 1R65 EN.dog
Safety requirements: According to the statements:
"with severe consequences of failure; no regular
inspections".
Key words: Cantilever, two independent random loads,
assessment of the static strength, assessment of the
variable amplitude fatigue strength, combined stresses.
Given
Stresses: In cross-section x = 0 due to two independent
random loads with binomially distributed amplitudes,
figure 6.5.1.
In load case G1 the load Fy,Gl acts with a total number
of cycles N
Gl
= 10
5
which are binominally distributed
with a spectrum parameter PGl = O. The characteristic
mean value and amplitude are:
Fm,y,Gl = 1 kN, Fa,y,GI = ± 23,5 kN.
In load case G2 the the load F
y,G2
acts with a total
number of cycles N
Gl
= 10
7
which are binominally
distributed with a spectrum parameter PGl = 0,5. The
characteristic mean value and amplitude are:
Fm,y,G2 = - 1,5 kN, Fa,y,G2 =± 25 kN.
The loads Fy,Gl and F
y,G2
vary non-proportionally (as
they observe different load spectra!) and they may act
both simultaneously or separately. At the cross-section
at x = 0 bending moments Mz,Gl , M
z,G2
and torsion
moments Mx,Gl, M
x,G2
with their mean values (index
m) and amplitudes (index a) result from Fy,Gl , F
y,G2
and the lever arms I = 0,1 m.
y
z
Bile b65
Figure 6.5.1 Cantilever subject to two independent
loads.
Material: St 60, DIN EN 10 025.
Dimensions:
Diameter of cantilever at x = 0: d = 57,5 mm,
Length oflever arms: 1= 0,1 m.
Surface: Average roughness R, = 25 um.
Type of overloading: When overloaded in the service
the stress ratios remain constant (type of overloading
F2).
Task: Assessment of the static strength and assessment
of the variable amplitude fatigue strength for cross
section x =O.
Method of calculation: Rod-shaped (lD) component.
Assessment to be carried out using nominal stresses.
ANALYSIS OF THE STATICLOADING
Load case GI
Mm,z,GI = 0,10 kNm, Ma,z,GI = ± 2,35 kNm,
Mm,x,Gl = 0,10 kNm, Ma,x,GI = ± 2,35 kNm.
Load case G2
M
m,z,G2
=- 0,15 kNm, Ma,z,GI = ± 2,50 kNm,
M
m,x,G2
= 0,15 kNm, Ma,x,GI = ± 2,50 kNm.
Superimposed loads, case UI
The highest bending moment (absolute value) results if
the amplitudes Fa,y,Gl and Fa,y,G2 act unidirectionally
(in direction of the resulting mean value Fm,y,OI =
Fm,y,Gl +Fm,y,G2, that is downwards in Figure 5.6.1):
Mm,z,OI = (0,1- 0,15) kNm =- 0,05 kNm,
Ma,z,OI = (- 2,35- 2,5) kNm =- 4,85 kNm,
Mmin,z,OI = (- 0,05- 4,85) kNm =- 4,90 kNm.
The related torsion moment is:
Mm,x,OI = (0,1 + 0,15) kNm =0,25 kNm,
Ma,x,OI = (- 2,35 + 2,5) kNm = 0,15 kNm,
Mmax,x,OI = (0,25 +0,15) kNm = 0,40 kNm.
Superimposed loads, case U2
The highest torsion moment results if the amplitudes
Fa,y,Gl, and Fa,y,G2 act opposingly (in direction of the
resulting mean value Mm,y,02 = Mm,y,GI + Mm,y,G2 as
shown in Figure 6.5.1):
Mm,x,02 = (0,1 +0,15) kNm =0,25 kNm,
Ma,x,02 = (+ 2,35 + 2,5) kNm = 4,85 kNm,
M
max,x,02
=(0,25 + 4,85) kNm =5,10 kNm.
The related bending moment is:
Mm,z,02 = (0,1- 0,15) kNm =- 0,05 kNm,
Ma,z,02 = (2,35- 2,5) kNm =- 0,15 kNm,
Mmin,z,02 = (- 0,05- 0,15) kNm =- 0,20 kNm.
6.5 Shaft subject to two independent loads
251
6 Examples
Kp,b = 1,70, Tab. 1.3.2
npl,b = MIN (J1050/321 ; 1,70) = 1,70. 1.3.9)
Design factor
ASSESSMENT OF THE STATIC STRENGTH
The assessment of the static strength is to be carried out
for each of the superimposed loads, cases VI and V2.
The highest degree of utilization is determining.
KSK,b = 1 I 1,70 = 0,588. (1.3.1)
Rp,max = 1050 MPa, Tab. 1.3.1
R
p
= 321 MPa,
Kp,t = 1,33, Tab. 1.3.2
npl,t = MIN (J1050/321 ; 1,33 =1,33. (1.3.9)
Design factor
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
Superimposed loads, case VI
The maximum bending stress and the related torsional
stress at the reference section with d = 57,5 mm is:
Smax,b,-ol = 32 IMmin,Z,OI I I pd
3
= 32 . 4,90 kNm I [TC . (57,5 mm)3] = 263 MPa,
Tmaxt -01 = 16 M
max
x -01 I pd
3
= 16 : 0,40 kNm I [n' .' (57,5 mm)3 ] = 10,7 MPa.
Design factor for torsion
Section factor
KSK,t = 1 11,33 = 0,752.
4 COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
(1.3.1)
Superimposed loads, case V2
The maximum torsional stress and the related bending
stress at the reference section with d = 57,5 mm is:
Smax,b,-02 = 32 IMmin, z,02I I pd
3
= 32· 0,20 kNm I [TC . (57,5 mmj-'] = 10,7 MPa.
Tmax t -02 = 16 Mmax x -02 I pd
3
= 16: 5,10 kNm I [n' .'(57,5 mm)3] = 137 MPa,
Nominal value of the component static bending strength
resulting from the tensile strength and the design factor
r, = 1, Tab. 1.2.5
SSK,b = 1 . 579 MPa I 0,588 = 985 MPa. (1.4.1)
Nominal value of the component static torsional
strength resulting from the tensile strength and the
design factor
f't = 0,577, Tab. 1.2.5, (1.4.1)
TSK,t = 0,577 ·579 MPa I 0,752 = 445 MPa.
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
5 SAFETY FACTORS
Tensile strength and yield strength according to
standard
Rm,N = 590 MPa, Rp,N = 335 MPa. Tab. 5.1.1
Technological size factor
Tensile strength and yield strength of the component
R
m
= 0,980 . 1 ·590 MPa = 579 MPa, (1.2.1)
R, = 0,956 . 1 . 335 MPa = 321 MPa. The second term, the yield strength R, , is determining.
(1.5.4)
Tab. 1.5.1 jm = 1,8, jp = 1,35.
For normal temperature there is
For severe consequences of failure and a low
probability for the simultaneous occurrence of the peak
values of the stress spectra there is
KT,m = KT,p = 1. (1.2.26)
and in Eq. (1.5.4) the terms 3 and 4 have no relevance:
R
m
= 579 MPa, Re = 321 MPa,
jges = MAX (1,8;1,35. 579)
321
= MAX (1,8; 2,44) = 2,44.
(1.2.17)
Tab. 1.2.3
(1.2.9)
Tab. 1.2.1 ad,m = 0,15, ad,p = 0,3,
deff,N = 40 mm,
deff = d = 57,5 mm,
Kd,m = 0,980, Kd,p = 0,956.
Anisotropy factor
K
A
= 1.
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS 6 ASSESSMENT
Design factor for bending
Section factor
Rp,max = 1050 MPa,
R
p
= 321 MPa,
Tab. 1.3.1
Superimposed loads, case VI
Maximum stress in bending and related stress ill
torsion, see above,
Smax,b,-ol = 263 MPa, Tmax,t,-ol = 10,7 MPa.
6.5 Shaft subject to two independent loads
252
6 Examples
Component static strength, in bending and in torsion,
see above,
SSK,b = 985 MPa, TSK,I = 445 MPa.
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, bending or torsion,
ASSESSMENT OF THE FATIGUE STRENGTH
The assessment of the fatigue strength is to be carried
out according to Chapter 5.10: For the two non-
proportional load cases Gl and G2 the individual
degrees of utilization are to be determined and added.
Superimposed loads, case ih
Maximum stress in torsion and related bending stress,
see above,
263
a b = = 0651
SK, 985/ 2 44 ' ,
,
10,7
a K = = 0059.
S ,I 445/2 44 '
,
Combined types of stress
f't = 0,577,
q = 0,
s = aSK,b = 0,651,
t = aSK,1 = 0,059,
a
GH
= +0,059
2
= 0,654,
aSK,sv = aSK,OI = 0,654.
(1.6.1)
Tab. 1.2.5
(1.6.7)
(1.6.6)
(1.6.5)
(1.6.4)
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
Load case Gl
Bending and torsion moments (step 1 of the spectrum):
Mm,z,GI = 0,10 kNm, Ma,z,GI = ± 2,35 kNm,
Mm,x,Gl = 0,10 kNm, Ma,x,GI = ± 2,35 kNm.
Nominal stresses:
Sm,b,1 = Sm,b,GI,1 = 32 Mm,z,Gl / pd
3
(2.1.1)
= 32· 0,10 kNm/[n . (57,5 mm)3 ] = 5,4 MPa,
Sa,b,1 = Sa,b,GI,1 = 32 Ma,z, GI / pd
3
= 32 . 2,35 kNm / [n . (57,5 mm)3 ] = 126 MPa,
TmI I = TmI GI I = 16 M
m
x GI / pd
3
= i6 . 0,10 / [n . (57,5 ] = 2,7 MPa,
Ta,I,1 = Ta,I,GI,1 = 16 Ma,x, GI / pd
3
= 16 . 2,35 kNm / [n . (57,5 mm)3 ] = 63 MPa.
Smax,b,02 = 10,7 MPa, T
max,I,U2
= 137 MPa.
Component static strength in bending and in torsion,
see above,
SSK,b = 985 MPa, TSK,I = 445 MPa.
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, bending or torsion,
10,7 = 0027
aSK,b = 985/2,44 ' , (1.6.1)
137
aSK,1 = 445/2,44 = 0,751.
Definite degree of utilization
aSK = MAX (aSK, 0 I, aSK,02 )
= MAX (0,654; 0,751) = 0,751.
The degree of utilization of the component static
strength is 75 %.
The assessment of the static strength is achieved.
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.2.1)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.2.1)
R
m
= 579 MPa,
fw,« = 0,45,
crW,zd = 0,45 . 579 MPa = 261 MPa,
fw,'t = 0,577,
LW,S = 0,577 . 261 MPa = 151 MPa.
Material fatigue limits for fully reversed normal stress,
crW,zd, and shear stress, LW,S :
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Sm,b,1 = Sm,b,G2,1 = 32IMm,z,Gl/ / pd
3
(2.1.1)
= 32· 0,15 kNrn/[n . (57,5 mm)3 ] = 8,0 MPa,
Sa,b,1 = Sa,b,G2,1 = 32 Ma,z, GI / pd
3
= 32· 2,50 kNm / [n . (57,5 mm)3 ] = 134 MPa,
Tm,I,1 = Tm,I,G2,1 = 16 Mm,x, GI / pd
3
= 16· 0,15 kNm / [n . (57,5 mm)3 ] = 4,0 MPa,
Tm,I,1 = Ta,I,G2,1 = 16 Ma,x, Gl / pd
3
= 16· 2,50 kNm / [n . (57,5 mm)3 ] = 67 MPa.
The negative sign of the mean stress for bending is not
important here.
Bending and torsion moments: (step 1 of the spectrum):
M
m,z,G2
=- 0,15 kNm, Ma,z,Gl = ± 2,50 kNm,
M
m,x,G2
= 0,15 kNm, Ma,x,Gl = ± 2,50 kNm.
Nominal stresses:
Load case G2
(1.6.5)
(1.6.4)
aGH = +0,751
2
= 0,751,
aSK,sv = a
SK,02
= 0,751.
Combined stress
6.5 Shaft subject to two independent loads
253
6 Examples
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS 4 COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
bending and torsional stress:
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
bending stress resulting from the material fatigue limit
for normal stress and the design factor for bending:
Design factor for bendin..g
Fatigue notch factor
Stress concentration factor of a plain shaft *1,
Kt,b = 1.
KcKf ratios, no notch radius, SWK,b = 260 MPa /1,145 = 228 MPa. (2.4.1)
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed
torsional stress resulting from the material fatigue limit
for shear stress and the design factor for torsion:
Gcr(r) = 0, ncr (r) = 1,
d = 57,5 mm,
Gcr(d) = 2/ d = 0,0357 mm -I ,
ncr (d) = 1,021.
(2.3.17)
(2.3.13) TWK,t = 150 MPa /1,064 = 141 MPa. (2.4.1)
Fatigue notch factor
Load case Gl
KWK,b = 0,979 + 1/0,858 - 1 = 1,145 (2.3.1)
For no surface treatment is KV = 1. For materials
except GG KNL,E = 1. Therefore:
Design factor
Component fatigue limit for the given mean stress for
bending and torsion
The calculation for type of overloading F2.
Mean stress sensitivity
Kf,b = 1 / (1 . 1,021) = 0,979.
Roughness factor
Rill = 579 MPa, R
z
= 25 urn,
aR,cr = 0,22, Rm,N,min = 400 MPa,
KR,cr = 0,858.
(2.3.10)
Tab. 2.3.4
(2.3.26)
R
m
= 579 MPa,
aM = 0,00035, bM = - 0,1,
M, = 0,103,
= 0,577
= 0,577 . 0,103 = 0,059.
Equivalent mean stress
Tab. 2.4.2
(2.4.34)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.4.34)
(2.4.31)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.4.29)
Sm = Sm,b,GI = 5,4 MPa,
r., = Tm,t,GI = 2,7 MPa,
= 0,577,
q = 0,
Sm,v,l= Sm,v,GH MPa =
= 7,1 MPa, (2.24.29) (2.4.28)
Tm,v,1 = 0,577 . 7,1 MPa = 4,1 MPa.
Kt,t = 1.
KcKf ratios, no notch radius,
Design factor for torsion
Fatigue notch factor
Stress concentration factor of a plain shaft *1,
KWK,t = 0,974 + 1 /0,918 - 1 = 1,064 (2.3.1)
For no surface treatment is KV = 1. Therefore
Design factor
(2.4.30)
RT,v = (Tm,v,1 - Ta,t,Gl,I) /(Tm,v,1 + Ta,t,GI,I)
=(4,1 63) / (4,1 + 63) = 0,88.
(2.4.10)
Mean stress factor for bending;
because of - 00 :;;; Rs,v :;;; °field II applies:
KAK,b = 1/(1 + Sm,v,1 / Sa,b,GI,I)
= 1/(1 + 7,1 / 126) = 0,947.
Stress ratio for bending
Rs,v = (Sm,v,1 - Sa,b,Gl,I) / (Sm,v,1 + Sa,b,Gl,l)
=(7,1 126) / (7,1 + 126) = - 0,89.
Stress ratio for torsion
Mean stress factor for torsion;
because of -1:;;; RT,v :;;; °field II applies:
KAK,t = 1 / (1 + Tm,v,1 / Ta,t,Gl,1 )
= 1/(1 + 4,1 /63) = 0,939. (2.4.10)
(2.3.17)
(2.3.13)
(2.3.10)
Tab. 2.2.1
Tab. 2.3.4
(2.3.26)
(r) = 0, = 1,
d = 56 mm,
(d) = 2/ d = 0,0357 mm -I ,
n, (d) = 1,026.
R
m
= 579 MPa, R
z
= 25 urn,
= 0,577
aR,cr = 0,22, Rm,N,min = 400 MPa,
= 0,918.
Fatigue notch factor
Kf,t = 1 / (1 . 1,026) = 0,975.
Roughness factor
I This isa simplifying assumption made for the present example that
would not bevalid for a real component, however!
Residual stress factor for normal stress and for shear
stress
KE,cr = = 1. (2.4.5)
6.5 Shaft subject to two independent loads
254
6 Examples
factor and from the mean stress dependent amplitude
of the component fatigue limit for bending or for
torsion:
For severe consequences of failure and no regular
inspections
Load case Gl
Characteristic stress amplitudes for bending and for
torsion, see above,
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit
The amplitude of the component fatigue limit results
from the mean stress factor, residual stress factor and
the component fatigue limit for completely reversed
bending or torsional stress:
SAK,b = 0,947 . 1 . 228 MPa = 216 MPa, (2.4.6)
TAK,t = 0,939 . 1 . 141 MPa = 132 MPa.
Component variable amplitude fatigue strength for
bending and torsion
Variable amplitude fatigue strength factors for bending
and torsion
KBK,b = 3,84, KBK,t = 2,88. (2.4.51)
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factors follows
from the elementary version of Miner's rule and a
critical damage sum D
M
= 0,3 , Chapter 2.4.3.1.
The component variable amplitude fatigue strength
results from the variable amplitude fatigue strength
factor and from the mean stress dependent amplitude
of the component fatigue limit for bending or for
torsion:
SBK b = 1,00' 211 MPa = 211 MPa,
t = 1,04' 129 MPa = 134 MPa.
,
5 SAFETY FACTOR
.io = 1,5.
For normal temperature is
KT,D = 1,
jges = 1,5.
6 ASSESSMENT
(2.4.41)
(2.5.1)
(2.2.4)
(2.5.4)
SBK b = 3,84' 216 MPa = 829 MPa, (2.4.41)
t = 2,88' 132 MPa = 380 MPa.
,
Limitation of the amplitudes
SBK,b ::;; 0,75 . R, .
= 0,75' 321 MPa '1,70 = 409 MPa, (2.4.42)
TBK,t ::;; 0,75' ft . R, .
= 0,75' 0,577 . 321 MPa '1,33 = 185 MPa.
Sa,b,l = Sa,b,Gl,l = 126 MPa,
Ta,t,l = Ta,t,Gl,l = 63 MPa.
Amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue
strength for bending and for torsion, see above,
SBK,b,Gl = 409 MPa, TBK,t,Gl = 185 MPa.
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, bending or torsion,
(2.4.6)
Relevant component variable amplitude fatigue strength
SBK b Gl = MIN (829,409) MPa = 409 MPa,
= MIN (380, 185) MPa = 185 MPa.
Load case G2
Component fatigue limit for the given mean stress for
bending and torsion
An analog calculation results in
SAK,b = 211 MPa,
TAK,t = 129 MPa.
Component variable amplitude fatigue strength for
bending and torsion
126
a = = 0462
BK,b 409/1 5 ' ,
,
63
a K = = 0511.
B,t 185/15 '
,
Combined types of stress
fw,"t = 0,577,
q = 0,
Sa = aBK,b = 0,462,
t
a
= aBK,t = 0,511,
a
GH
= +0,511
2
= 0,689,
aBK,Sv = aBK,Gl = 0,689.
(2.6.1)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.6.7)
(2.6.6)
(2.6.5)
(2.6.4)
Variable amplitude fatigue strength factors for bending
and torsion
KBK,b = 1,00, KBK,t = 1,04. (2.4.51)
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor follows
from the elementary version of Miner's rule and a
critical damage sum D
M
= 0,3 , Chapter 2.4.3.1.
The component variable amplitude fatigue strength
results from the variable amplitude fatigue strength
Load case G2
Characteristic stress amplitudes for bending and for
torsion, see above,
Sa,b,l = Sa,b,G2,l = 134 MPa,
Ta,t,l = Ta,t,G2,l = 67 MPa.
Amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue
strength for bending and for torsion, see above,
SBK,b,G2 = 211 MPa, TBK,t,G2 = 134 MPa.
6.5 Shaft subject to two independent loads
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, bending or torsion,
255
6 Examples
134 = 0953
aBK,b = 211/1,5 ' ,
67
a = = 0750.
BK,t 134/1,5 '
Combined types of stress
fw,'t = 0,577,
q = 0,
Sa = aBK,b = 0,953,
t
a
= aBK,t = 0,750,
a
GH
= ~ 0 , 9 5 3 2 +0,750
2
= 1,213,
aBK,Sv = aBK,G2 = 1,213.
(2.6.1)
Tab. 2.2.1
(2.6.7)
(2.6.6)
(2.6.5)
(2.6.4)
Total degree of utilization from the combined effect
of load case G1 and G2
aBK = aBK,GI + aBK,G2
= 0,689 + 1,213 = 1,902 (5.10.3)
The cyclical degree of utilization of the component is
190 %.
The assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue
strength is not achieved.
6.6 Component made of a wrought aluminium alloy
256
6 Examples
Tensile strength and yield strength for the component
R
m
= 1 . 1 . 300 MPa = 350 MPa, (3.2.1)
R
p
= 1 . 1 . 280 MPa = 280 MPa .
ASSESSMENT
OF THE COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
Maximum stresses (3. 1.6) *2
(JI = 238 MPa, (J2max ex = 58,4 MPa .
,max,ex , ,
(3.2.5)
(3.2.18)
Anisotropy factor
KA = 1.
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
AlZn4,5Mgl T651, Tab. 5.1.22, pp. 151.
R, = 350 MPa, R, = 280 MPa, As = 9 %.
Tensile strength and yield strength for the standard
dimension
Rm,N = 350 MPa , Tab. 5.1.14
Rp,N = 280 MPa .
No technological size factor
Kd,m = 1.
6.6 Component made of a wrought
aluminium alloy *1 lRi66.docl
Key words: Wrought aluminium alloy, assessment of
the static strength, assessment of the fatigue strength for
finite life, local elastic stresses, type of overloading F2,
combined types of stress, (JI and (J2 .
Given:
Stresses: Proportional, constant amplitude, local elastic
stresses in the directions 1 (longitudinal direction) and 2
(circumferential direction) at the reference point of a
block-shaped (3D) component, Figure 6.6.1,
(JI = (JI,m± (JI,a = 119 MPa ± 119 MPa,
(J2 = (J2,m ± (J2,a = 29,2 MPa ± 29,2 MPa ,
(J3 = O.
Stress amplitudes at the neighbouring point in a
distance s = 1,254 mm below the surface
(JI,a = ± 54,1 MPa, (J2,a = ± 22,5 MPa .
Number of cycles: N = 5 . 10
4
(R, = 0).
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
Figure 6.6.1 Aluminum component with pivot.
Section factor
E = 0,70 'lO
s
MPa ,
£crtr=2%,
~ = 280 MPa,
~ , c r = 1,7,
Tab. 3.3.1
5 SAFETY FACTORS
0,70.10
5.0,02
npl,crl = MIN ( 280 ; 1,7)
= MIN (2,24; 1,7) = 1,7 . (3.3.9)
The component strength results from the tensile
strength and the design factor. For directions 1 and 2:
fa = 1, Tab. 3.2.5, (3.4.3)
(JI,SK = (J2,SK = 1 . 350 MPa / 0,588 = 595 MPa .
For moderate consequences of failure and a high
probability of occurrence of the maximum (constant
amplitude) stress there is
jm = 1,75, jp = 1,30. Tab. 3.5.1
(3.3.3)
For n
pl,cr2
the same value is assumed:
npl,cr2 = 1,7 .
Design factor for directions 1 and 2
KSK,crl = KSK,a2 = 1 / 1,7 = 0,588
4 COMPONENT STATIC STRENGTH
Material: AIZn4,5Mgl , T651,
aging wrought aluminium alloy
Temperature: T = 50°C (normal temperature).
Dimensions: Effective diameter at the reference point:
d
efT
= 18 mm.
Surface: average roughness R.. = 10 urn,
Type of overloading: When overloaded in service the
stress ratios remain constant (Type of overloading F2).
Safety requirements: according to the statements: "with
moderate consequences of failure; no regular
inspection" .
Task: Assessment of the static strength and of the
constant amplitude fatigue strength for finite life
(N = 5 . 10
4
cycles).
Method of calculation: Block-shaped (3D) component.
Assessment using local elastic stresses, Chapter 3 and
4. For T = 50°C temperature factors do not need to be
considered (KT,m ~ ... = 1).
I Results of computation obtained by the pc- program "RIFESTPLUS".
2 The numbers of equations, tables and figures are those of the
guideline.
6.6 Component made of a wrought aluminium alloy
257
6 Examples
For an elongation As < 12,5 % (here A
s
= 9 %) the
safety factors are to be increased by
For normal temperature the terms 3 and 4 of Eq.
(3.5.4) are not relevant.
= MAX (1,83: 1,38. 350) (3.5.4)
280
= MAX (1,83, 1,73) = 1,83.
= 0,5 --h/50 = 0,08,
jm = 1,83, jp = 1,38 .
(3.5.2)
Tab. 3.5.2
ASSESSMENT
OF THE COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
1 CHARACTERISTIC STRESSES
Proportional constant amplitude stresses
O"I,a,1 = 119 MPa, 0"1,01,1 = 119 MPa, (4.1.1)
0"2,a,1 = 29,2 MPa, 0"2,01,1 = 29,2 MPa .
2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES
Tab. 4.2.1
(4.2.1)
The tensile strength R
m
is deciding.
6 ASSESSMENT
Maximum stresses, see above,
Material fatigue limit for completely reversed normal
stress, O"W,zd, for N = 10
6
R
m
= 350 MPa,
fw,a = 0,30 ,
O"W,zd = 0,30 . 350 MPa = 105 MPa .
O"I,SK = 0"2,SK = 595 MPa.
O"I,max,ex = 238 MPa, 0"2,max,ex = 58,4 MPa .
Component strength values, see above,
The degree of utilization of the component static
strength is 70 %.
The assessment of the static strength is achieved.
a
GH
= L((0,732-0,179)2 +0,179
2
+0,732
2
)
2
= 0,660, (3.6.21)
aNH = MAX (0,732, 0,179) = 0,732, (3.6.20)
aSK,sv = 0,5 . 0,732 + (1 - 0,5) . 0,660 = 0,696.
Tab. 4.3.2
(4.3.14)
and coating factor
(4.3.28) (4.3.30)
Surface treatment factor
Kv = 1, Ks = 1 .
A universal value forKf after table 4.3.1 would be:
Kf = 2. Tab. 4.3.1
Roughness factor
R
z
= 10 um,
aR,a = 0,22, Rm,N,min = 133 MPa, Tab. 4.3.4
KR,a = 0,841 . (4.3.26)
K,-Krratios (4.3.16)
Gal = 1 .(1- 54,1) = 0,435 mm -I,
1,254mm 119
G
a
2 = 1 .(1- 22,5) = 0,183 mm -I,
1,254mm 29,2
aa = 0,05, b
G
= 850 ,
nal = 1,228, n
a2
= 1,148.
Instead a value forKf derived from the stress
concentration factor of a substitute structure after
Chapter 5.12 shall be applied here:
- -I
G
a
I = 0,435 mm ,
r=2/G
a l
=4,6mm, (5.12.2)
d
err
= b = 18 mm,
K
= 1OO,066-0,36.1g(rlb) = 1 904 (5 12 1)
t ". •
nal = 1,228 ,
I(f,1 = 1,904 I 1,228= 1,550".
3 DESIGN PARAMETERS
(3.6.17)
before (3.6.23), Tab. 3.6.1
(3.6.22)
238
aSK I = = 0,732,
.o 595/1,83
aSK,a2 = = 0,179 .
Combined types of stress
As = 9 % ,
q = 0,5,
Sl = aSK c l = 0,732,
S2 = a
SK:a2
= 0,179 ,
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, direction 1 and 2
This result of the assessment is only exact, however, if
the stresses 0"1 and 0"2 are proportional, even if, on
principle, it is supposed for the assessment of the
component static strength that different types of stress
observe their extreme value simultaneously, that is, as
if they were proportional. But with non-proportional
stresses 0"1 and 0"2 it would be of importance that the
individual degree of utilization aSK ol = 0,732 is
higher than the degree of utilization 'of the combined
types of stress aSK,sv = 0,696 derived.
Accordingly
K
f
,2 = 1,214.
Design factors (4.3.3)
KWK,al = 1,;28 {1+ -1)) = 0,913 ,
KWK a2 = _1_.(1+!.(_1__1)) = 1,007.
, 1,056 1 0,906
6.6 Component made of a wrought aluminium alloy
258
6 Examples
4 COMPONENT FATIGUE STRENGTH
Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
The component fatigue limit for completely reversed
normal stress results from the material fatigue limit for
completely reversed normal stress and the design
factors:
O"I.WK = 105 MPa / 0,913 = 115 MPa ,
O"2.',VK = 105 MPa / 1,007 = 104 MPa .
(4.4.3)
.io = 1,3.
For an elongation As < 12,5 % (here As
safety factors are to be increased by ~ j :
~ j = 0,5 -.Jg/50 = 0,08; .
.io = 1,38.
Therefore the total safety factor is
jges = 1,38.
Tab. 4.5.2
9 %) the
(4.5.2)
(4.5.4)
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit for the given
mean stress ""- .
According to Chapter 4.4.2.2 no equivalent mean stress
is to be applied; the individual mean stresses are to be
applied instead. The type of overloading is F2.
Mean stress factor for the direction 1 and 2.
Mean stress sensitivity
aM = 1,0, b
M
= - 0,04,
M
cr
= 0,31 .
Tab. 4.4.2
(4.4.34)
6 ASSESSMENT
Characteristic stress amplitudes, see above
O"I,a,1 = 119 MPa, 0"2,a,1 = 29,2 MPa.
Amplitudes of the component variable amplitude fatigue
strength, see above,
O"I,BK = 160 MPa, 0"2,BK = 145 MPa .
Degrees of utilization
Individual types of stress, direction 1 and 2
Stress ratios
Rcrl = R
cr
2 = O.
KAK,crl = KAK,cr2 = 1+ 0,31 = 0,763 . (4.4.10)
119
a
BK
I = = 1,027 ,
.c 16011,38
a
BK
2 - 29,2 = 0,277 .
.o - 145/1,38
(4.6.17)
O"I,AK = 0,763 . 1 . 115 MPa = 88 MPa , (4.4.8)
0"2,AK = 0,763 . 1 . 104 MPa = 80 MPa .
Tab. 4.6.1
(4.6.22)
As = 9 % ,
q = 0,5,
SI,a = aBK,crl = 1,027 ,
S2,a = a
BK
cr2 = 0,277 ,
a
GH
= L((1,027-0,277)Z +0,277
2
+1,027
2
)
2
= 0,921 , (4.6.21)
a
NH
= MAX (1,027, 0,277) = 1,027 , (4.6.20)
aBK,crv = 0,5 . 1,027 + (1 - 0,5) . 0,921 = 0,974
Combined types of stress
This result of the assessment of the fatigue strength is
valid only because the stresses 0"1 and 0"2 are
proportional and definitely occur in parallel. Obviously
the degree of utilization of the individual type of stress
0"1 is higher than the degree of utilization of the
combined types of stress 0"1 and 0"2:
a
BK,crl
= 1,027 is higher than aBK,sv = 0,974.
The degree of utilization of the component variable
amplitude fatigue strength is 97 %.
The assessment of the fatigue strength is achieved.
In the case that - different from the present example -
0"1 and 0"2 could occur independent of each other, the
higher individual degree of utilization a
BK
ol of 103 %
would be deciding, a result that supports the demand of
always considering the degrees of the individual types
of stress as well.
(4.4.5)
(4.4.45) O"I,BK = 1,82' 88 MPa = 160 MPa ,
0"2,BK = 1,82' 80 MPa = 145 MPa .
5 SAFETY FACTORS
Residual stress factor
KE,cr = KE;t = 1 .
Amplitude of the component fatigue limit
The amplitude of the component fatigue limit results
from the mean stress factor, the residual stress factor
and the component fatigue limit for completely reversed
stress,
Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor
For the constant amplitude stresses of concern with a
required number of cycles N = N = 5 . 10
4
, where
N < No,cr= 10
6
, and a component constant amplitude
S-N curve model I or model II the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor is
(4.4.48)
KBK,crl = KBK,cr2 = (10
6/5'
10
4
) (I/S) = 1,821.
The amplitude of the component variable amplitude
fatigue strength results from the variable amplitude
fatigue strength factor and the amplitude of the
component fatigue limit:
For moderate consequences of failure and no regular
inspection there is
7 Symbols and basic formulas
lRi7 EN.dog
7.1 Abbreviations
259
7 Symbols and basic formulas
7.2 Indices
a amplitude
b bending
eff effective
I Applies to R
m
. For R
p
the m index is to be replaced by p.
2 Applies to normal stress.
For shear stress c is to be replaced by "to
3 Applies to nominal stress. For local stress (also structural stress or
effective notch stress) S is to be replaced by cr.
4 These symbols apply to nominal stress (tension-compression).
Szd , Sa,zd , Sm,zd , Smax,zd , Smin,zd ,
SAK,zd , SBK,zd ' SSK,zd , SWK,zd ,
KAK,zd , KBK,zd , KSK,zd , KWK,zd , Rzd , Yzd .
... to other kinds of nominal stress
Sb ' T
s
, T
t
' Sx , Sy , T, ....
... to local stress
0', (!a , ... , oAK , ... , KAK,cr , ... , R
cr
, Vcr , t , ax , cry , 0'1 ,0'2,0'3
5 Swv,zd applies to nominal stress (tension-compression).
Also Swv,b ' Twv,s, Twv,t, Swv.x . Swv,y, Twv .
For local stress crwv , "t
wv
, crwv,x ' crwv,y .
6 Kt,zd is applies to nominal stress (tension-compression).
Also Kt,b ' Kt,s , Kt,t .
Similarly for Kf .
7 aBK,zd applies to nominal stress (tension-compression).
Also aBl(,b , aBK,s , aBK.,t , aBK,x , aBK.,y·
For local stress aBK,cr , aBK.,"t , aBK,crx , aBK.,cry , aBK,crl ' aBK,cr2
, aBK.,cr3 .
Similarly for aSK and asK.,wv.
8 npl,b applies to nominal stress in bending, npl,t in torsion.
For local stress npl,cr and npl,"t .
9 Kp,b applies to nominal stress in bending, Kp,t in torsion.
For local stress Kp,cr and Kpl,"t.
10 Fatigue strength value.
II Type of loading tension or compression zd, also types of loading, b, s,
t, X, y.
7.3 Lower case characters
B
F
FAT
GS
GG
GGG
GT
GTS
GTW
class of utilization (B-7, ... , B10)
type of overloading (FI, F2, F3, F4)
fatigue class (for welded components)
cast steel and heat treatable cast steel,
for general purposes
cast iron with lamellar graphite
(grey cast iron)
nodular cast iron
malleable cast iron
GT, black heart (non-decarburized)
GT, white heart (decarburized)
ex
ges
i
j
m
max
mm
s
v
wv
x
x
y
y
z
zd
AK
BK
K
SK
W
WK
I
2
3
cr
1:
aBK,Sv
au, .
aM, .
aR,cr
extreme
total
number of a step of a stepped stress spectrum
number of the last step of a stepped stress
spectrum (smallest amplitude),
number of all steps
mean value
maximum value
minimum value
shear
torsion
equivalent value
equivalent value (assessment of the static
strength of welded components)
axial direction of rod-shaped (ID)
components
first direction of shell-shaped (2D)
components
first lateral direction of rod-shaped' (ID)
components
second direction of shell-shaped (2D)
components
second lateral direction of rod-shaped (ID)
components
tension, compression, or tension-compression
component fatigue limit
component variable amplitude fatigue
strength
local stress (effective notch stress)
component static strength
welded
component fatigue limit for completely
reversed stress
number of the first step of a stepped stress
spectrum (largest amplitude)
index of the first principle stress
index of the second principle stress
index of the third principle stress, normal to
the surface (pointing into the interior of the
component)
normal stress
shear stress
Constant for ~ *1
degree of utilization
(for the assessment of the fatigue strength) *7
aBK for combined stresses *3
Constants for ncr '"
Constants for M
cr
Constant for KR,cr
260
7 Symbols and basic formulas
N
elongation
elongation
width
Larsen-Miller-constants for KTt,m...
diameter
critical damage sum
axial load (tension, compression, or
tension-compression)
related stress gradient *2
total number of cycles in a stress spectrum,
H=Hj=L:hi
technological size factor
Kd for R
m
and/or fJw
Kd for R
p
constant, estimate for K
f
fatigue notch factor *6, applying to the
component in question, dimensions deff and r
Kf,zd(d
p
) K
f
of the reference component
(the test specimen), dimensions d
p
and r
p
*6
Kp,b plastic notch factor *9
stress concentration factor *6
K
A
anisotropy factor
KAK zd mean stress factor *4
KBK'Zd variable amplitude fatigue strength factor *4
, *2
KE,cr residual stress factor (welded components)
K
NL
constant allowing for the non-linear
stress-strain behavior of GG in the case of
static loading
constant allowing for the non-linear
stress-strain behavior of GG in the case of
fatigue loading
Roughness factor *2
design factor (static strength) *4
temperature factor
K
T
for Rm,T
K
T
for
K
T
for fJ
w
K
T
for Rm,Tt
K
T
for
surface treatment factor, .
design factor (fatigue strength) *4
bending moment
torsion moment
mean stress sensitivity *2
number of cycles after the component
constant amplitude S-N curve
total number of cycles after the component
S-N curve (fatigue life
curve), N = L: ni
Reference number of cycles
(for the S-N curve of welded components)
Nc
s wall thickness of the component
time of operation at temperature T
depth of a notch
Vzd damage potential of the stress spectrum *4
7.4 Upper case characters
K
d
Kd,m

Kr
Kf,zd
A,
A
3
, As
B
C
m
, <
D
D
M
F
aSK for welded components (equivalent stress
for a particular type of loading) *7
degree of utilization
(for the assessment of the static strength) *7
aSKfor combined stresses *3
aSKfor welded components (for the
combined types of loading) *3