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Integrated Term Project
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This project was a collaborative approach to the vast field of EMBROIDERY and all the knowledge it provided. This project would have been incomplete without the proper guidance and support of our mentor Sir Anant Phani. He had been a complete pool of knowledge and information regarding the processing of this project. We would also like to thank Mr. Chaudhary Embroidery works, Alkapuri for their great support in letting us visit their industry and providing a solid background to the methods of how the industry utilizes the advents of a machine to provide detailed and quantitative embroideries.

Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 1

1. Introduction
Embroidery is the art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. It is an art form that uses close or overlapping stitches to form intricate, three dimensional, surface designs to embellish piece goods, trims or garments. Embroidery has evolved from hundreds of years of handwork by dozens of cultures to an established art form. Today the embroidery process uses advanced technology to embellish styles and mass produce trims for the garment industry. Embroidery is a flat trim that adds interest and differentiation to a product. Embroidery has evolved from a customized hand sewing process to computer controlled stitching for mass production. Some of the first embroidery machines made it possible to apply names on individual garments, such as hats and shirts. This required a great deal of operator skill to manipulate the garment and form the lettering. Modern embroidery machine require the operator to only hoop the fabric to the machine under the head and the embroidery designs are applied directly to piece goods, garments, or as emblems. Types of embroidery include every sort of ornamental work done with a sewing needle of any kind. Embroidery may be done on any number of fabrics from satin to
Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 2

canvas. Embroiderers, known for their resourcefulness, experiment and learn from others which kind of stitch and thread works best and proceed to produce wonderful works of art, many times mixing types of embroidery. Often embroidery types were named after the predominate stitch that was used, such as cross-stitch. Others were named after the place they were first introduced, such as Berlin Wool Work or Mountmellick’s embroidery. What can make finding a "type" of embroidery confusing is that many times there are more than one name for a particular kind of embroidery. For example, pulled thread, drawn thread and Hardanger are often classified as the same embroidery style. Embroidery techniques can produce a wide range of effects. Some produce a flat surface while others produce a relief effect. Almost any effect wanted can be produced in embroidery - from simple line to fancy stitches with beads, baubles and anything else attached. Embroidery is definitely one of the most versatile crafts ever created. Embroidery machines for home sewing may feature builtin designs, a slot for an embroidery card, or even a built-in disk drive through which embroidery designs can be uploaded. Commercial embroidery machines feature multiple needles, stitch a wider variety of fabrics and designs, and stitch multiple colors without stopping to change the thread colors.

Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 3

1.1 History of Embroidery
The History of Embroidery dates back some 3000 years ago. It started with Ancient Egypt, Babylonians, Phoenicians and the Hebrews, who used it for decorating their robes. The Moors also decorated much of their clothing with embroidery. They had a style of their own which spread to other countries like Spain and Sicily. Moorish embroidery greatly influenced many European countries. Embroidery in the middle Ages was very prolific. Rich traders and merchants were willing to pay a large sum of money for the luxury of embroidered clothing. It wasn’t until the Renaissance Period that new applications for embroidery came about such as tapestries, laces, curtains, and bed covers. In America, the first commercial embroidery manufacturing establishment was started in 1848 in New York by Jacob Schiess. He came from Switzerland and within a year had his own embroidery plant in operation. All the stitching was done by hand by fifteen woman stitching exquisite designs by hand. The development of machine embroidery did not take place until the 1800’s. Joshua Heilmann from Mulhouse worked on the design of a hand embroidery machine. Though he did not sell many, it revolutionized the embroidery industry. Heilmann’s invention was quickly followed by
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means "little boat". was inspired by the work produced on the sewing machine. In 1873. Immediately afterwards. Dr. This machine was based on the principals introduced by the newly invented sewing machine. The shuttle itself looked similar to the hull of a sailboat. thereby making him the real founder of the schiffli embroidery industry in the United States. Gallen. however. came to this country in 1903 in his early Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 5 . They were. Issac Groebli of Switzerland invented the first practical Schiffli Embroidery machine. The looms used multiple needles and were an unbelievable improvement over the age-old process of stitching by hand. from St. Robert Reiner. Kursheedt also imported a number of schiffli machines. In 1876. of Weehawken. His machine came to be known as a schiffli machine. Around the 1870’s there were fourteen companies manufacturing embroidery machines in Switzerland manufacturing hand loom embroidery machines. Groebli’s machine utilized the combination of a continuously threaded needle and shuttle containing a bobbin of thread.. founder of Robert Reiner. powered manually. The beginning of shuttle embroidery dates back to the 1860’s when Isaac Groebli. Gallen. making him the first American to use a mechanized embroidery process. Switzerland.the "shuttle embroidery" and the "chain stitch embroidery" methods. Inc. "Schiffli" in the Swiss dialect of the German language . Alphonse Kursheedt imported twelve of the then new embroidery hand looms from St.

No additional machines were produced until 1953. Then began the mass importation of embroidery machines into northern New Jersey’s Hudson County. Before computers were affordable. Switzerland. In 1980.twenties. when suddenly the two sources for the manufacture of machines in Plauen. Realizing the potential of the embroidery industry. introduced the first American made schiffli machine. The industry grew until 1938. he persuaded the Vogtlandishe Machine Works of Plauen. Reiner made it possible for hundreds of Austrian. to appoint him it’s American Agent. Germany. Wilcom introduced the first computer graphics embroidery design system to run on a minicomputer. and Arbon. The banks arranged long term credit to purchasers. These looms spanned several feet across and produced lace patches and large embroidery patterns. and Swiss immigrants in New Jersey to become manufacturers of embroidery. ceased operation because of World War 2. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 6 . most embroidery was completed by punching designs on paper tape that then ran through an embroidery machine. an international distribution network formed by Randal Melton and Bill Childs. when Robert Reiner Inc. created the first embroidery sample head for use with large Schiffli looms. Germany. Melco. One error could ruin an entire design. forcing the creator to start over. Dr. The sample head allowed embroiderers to avoid manually sewing the design sample and saved production time. German.

The economic conditions of the Reagan Years. This design would then be run on the embroidery machine. as well as arched lettering generated from a keyboard. which stitched out the pattern. Melco patented the ability to sew circles with a satin stitch. At the Show of the Americas in 1980.000. Wilcom enhanced this technology in 1982 with the introduction of the first multi-user system. Melco unveiled the Digitrac. The original single-needle sample head sold for $10. An operator digitized the design using similar techniques to punching. a digitizing system for embroidery machines. The digitizer marked common points in the design to create elaborate fill and satin stitch combinations. helped propel Melco to the top of the market. The Digitrac consisted of a small computer. streamlining production times. coupled with tax incentives for home businesses. transferring the results to a 1" paper tape or later to a floppy disk.000 and included a 1" paper-tape reader and 2 fonts. It sold for $30. which allowed more than one person to work on the embroidery process. it became the first computerized embroidery machine marketed to home sewers. The digitized design was composed at six times the size of the embroidered final product. similar in size to a BlackBerry. Brother Industries entered the embroidery industry after several computerized embroidery companies Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 7 . mounted on an X and Y axis on a large white board.Subsequently.

Many machine manufacturers sell their own lines of embroidery patterns.contracted it to provide sewing heads. In addition. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 8 . and there are free designs available on the internet. Singer failed to remain competitive during this time. and embroidery machines. The major embroidery machine companies eventually adapted their commercial systems and marketed them to companies such as Janome for home use. computerized machine embroidery has grown in popularity as costs have fallen for computers. software. the Japanese company Tajima provided sewing heads that were capable of using multiple threads. Melco was acquired by Saurer in 1989. many individuals and independent companies also sell embroidery designs. Later. Since the late 1990s.

Embroidery is a flat trim that adds interest and differentiation to a product.garment components . Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 9 .2. Some of the first embroidery machine made it possible to apply names on individual garments . Embroidered designs may be applied directly to piece goods . Embroidery Embroidery is an art form that uses close or overlapping stitches to form intricate .three dimensional . trims or garments. Modern embroidery machines only require the operator to hoop and place the garment or fabric to be embroidered under the needles.surface designs to embellish piece goods .or an individual emblem that are an add on type of trim.finished garments . Embroidery has evolved from hundreds of years of handwork by dozens of culture an established art form. This required a great deal of operator skill to manipulate garments and form the lettering. the embroidery process uses advanced technology to embellish styles and mass-produce trims for the garment industry. Embroidery has evolved from a customized handsewing process to computer controlled stitching for mass production. Today .such as hats and shirts.

and silk. and silk have been in use for thousands of years for both fabric and yarn. are distinguished by a wide range Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 10 . linen. Surface embroidery techniques such as chain stitch and couching or laid-work are the most economical of expensive yarns. use more materials but provide a sturdier and more substantial finished textile. most commonly to create floral motifs. by contrast.2. Canvas work techniques. Today. Many forms of surface embroidery. couching is generally used for gold work. Ribbon embroidery uses narrow ribbon in silk or silk/organza blend ribbon. In both canvas work and surface embroidery an embroidery hoop or frame can be used to stretch the material and ensure even stitching tension that prevents pattern distortion. rayon. and novelty yarns as well as in traditional wool. Modern canvas work tends to follow very symmetrical counted stitching patterns with designs developing from repetition of one or only a few similar stitches in a variety of thread hues. embroidery thread is manufactured in cotton. linen. in which large amounts of yarn are buried on the back of the work.1 MATERIAL REQUIRED Material used in embroidery The fabrics and yarns used in traditional embroidery vary from place to place. Wool.

2 TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF EMBROIDERY 2. 2. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 11 .2.1 Free embroidery Designs are applied without regard to the weave of the underlying fabric. and by the relationship of stitch placement to the fabric.2. 2. Examples include crewel and traditional Chinese and Japanese embroidery.1 Embroidery can be classified according to whether the design is stitched  On top  Through The foundation fabric.1.of different stitching patterns used in a single piece of work.

2 Counted-thread embroidery Patterns are created by making stitches over a predetermined number of threads in the foundation fabric.2.1.Since the 19th century. Counted-thread embroidery is more easily worked on an even-weave foundation fabric such as embroidery canvas. aid a cloth.2.3 Canvas work In canvas work threads are stitched through a fabric mesh to create a dense pattern that completely covers the foundation fabric. Examples include needlepoint and some forms of black work embroidery 2. printed and hand painted canvases where the painted or printed image serves as color-guide have eliminated the need for counting threads.2. or specially woven cotton and linen fabrics although non-even weave linen is used as well. Traditional canvas work such as bargello is a counted-thread technique.1. These are particularly suited to pictorial rather than geometric Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 12 .

4 Drawn thread work and cutwork The foundation fabric is deformed or cut away to create holes that are then embellished with embroidery. These techniques are the progenitors of needlelace. When created in white thread on white linen or cotton. often with thread in the same color as the foundation fabric. The edges of the cut-out design are either sewed over. 2.6 Applique Is the technique of taking a pattern of one material. This technique uses padding stitches under an even layer of even stitches to produce a raised embroidery effect. ornamented with Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 13 . Design Embroidery Was originally used to mark household linens and then used to personalize handmade gifts. 2.2. laid on another which forms the ground.1. this work is collectively referred to as whitework.2.designs deriving from the Berlin wool work craze of the early 19th century.

8 Back Stitch Embroidery Back Stitch Embroidery is one of the simplest kinds of embroidery. or any other appropriate material. a new processes of dyeing wools made this type of embroidery possible.1.fancy cord. The resulting embroidery produced very durable and long lasting pieces. It is a kind of fine chenille and came in both silk and wool. 2. 2. It was introduced for artistic embroidery around 1883 and was thought to likely supersede other kinds of embroidery materials used in bold designs in decorative needlework. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 14 . bags and furniture covers. Berlin work was used to create cushions.1. gold thread.2. braid.2.7 Arrasene Embroidery Is an embroidery material that was very popular during Victorian times. 2.1.9 Bead Embroidery (beading) Berlin embroidery Is a style of canvas work embroidery. The Back Stitch is the only stitch used with this type of embroidery. In the 1830's.2.

2.2.11 Bulgarian Embroidery Bulgarian embroidery is used almost exclusively upon heavy linens and canvas. The designs used for this type of work were very simple. It is entirely conventional in design and also in manner of working.13 Chenille Chip Embroidery Embroidery on Chip was embroidery on material made either of fine plaited chips or wood shavings.12 Canvas Work Is stitched onto coarse or tight-textured canvas and also referred to as needlepoint. It is kind of White Embroidery. 2. 2. 2. a term borrowed from lacemaking. Coral work Crazy Work Crazy work is made by attaching random size and shape pieces of material together to form a larger piece of Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 15 .2.1.1. See Needlepoint.10 Black work Broderie Anglaise Broderie Anglaise is also known as English Embroidery. 2.1.

also called Venetian embroidery and Roman embroidery. since it is difficult to create small intricate designs in wool.2.17 Cut-Work Cut Work.2. Cretonne fabric made it very easy to make wonderful and unique applique linens quickly. cushions. such as table cover. the cut edges are embroidered. 2. Aida cloth is the choice of most Embroiderers today. This material then can be used in making a quilt or other projects. Many different projects described on this page. 2.1. Cretonne Applique This type of applique was very popular with Victorian women. etc. The designs are generally bold.2.1.material. Java canvas was typically used by Victorian ladies.15 Crewel embroidery This type of embroidery gets its name from the fine wool yarn that is used.16 Cross-Stitch Embroidery Is probably the most common types of embroidery. all of which are but the same style of work under different names. Small shapes are cut out of the ground material.1. It is composed of floss stitched in an X like manner on canvas or a canvas like material. and the Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 16 . 2.

2. and the remaining threads are embroidered.21 English Embroidery English Embroidery is also known as Broderie Anglaise . Quaint Holland scenes. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 17 . 2.1. It is kind of White Embroidery. 2.1. Hardanger and Hedebo can be classified as cut work.20 Dresden Embroidery Dresden Embroidery is named from the ware of the same name.2. make this type of embroidery easily recognized. Delft Embroidery This style of work gains its name from the Delft ware.2.2. done entirely in one color. Linens embroidered in this type of embroidery will add a beautiful sophistication to any Victorian table 2.vacant space is often filled in with decorative stitches.19 Drawn thread Certain threads of the warp or weft (or both) are removed from the ground.

24 Filet Embroidery Is done on a net-like fabric. 2.23 Etching Embroidery Etching embroidery. is known and appreciated the world over.2. very intricate shading effects were produced.2. Traditionally designs are very colorful.1.1. is used to reproduce line engravings with embroidery and paint. collars and other apparel in the late 1800s. By using many different hues of the same color.2. It is a raised embroidery. 2. also known as Print Work.2.25 Florentine Embroidery Is also known as Bargello Embroidery.22 English Eyelet Embroidery Was a popular means of decorating shirtwaists. also known as White Work.2. 2.1.26 French Laid Embroidery French Laid Embroidery.1. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 18 . The stitches are close and firm. 2.1.2.

27 Gretchen Embroidery Gretchen embroidery is an unusual embroidery technique not often found.30 Irridescent Embroidery Irridescent Embroidery is sometimes called opalescent embroidery and either term indicates the distinctive feature of the work.2. It is fast and easy. 2. 2.28 Huckaback Embroidery Huckaback Embroidery is embroidered on Huckaback fabric.1.2. and is an imitation of the Floss Silk Embroidery made by the natives of India. The most characteristic feature of this style of work consists in the treatment of the background. It is always worked in Kensington Stitch and in the palest of colors Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 19 .29 Indian Floss Silk Embroidery Indian Floss Silk Embroidery is work executed upon black or white net with white or colored floss silks.

1. and cambrics.2. It uses the buttonhole stitch and other simple stitches.2.31 Jewel Jewel Embroidery is the introduction of dots in a design which are worked in imitation of jewels Linen Embroidery Linen Embroidery was used to decorate borders of towels. "Italian Relief Embroidery". It is basically an adaption of the Buttonhole stitch.1. 2. muslins.32 Mediaeval Embroidery Is also known as "Point Venice". and other items because it looked well on both sides.2. It can be described as a combination of Drawn Work and Embroidery. as well as other names.33 Mexican Embroidery Mexican Embroidery is suitable for ornamenting washable materials such as linens. 2.2. tablecloths. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 20 .2.

Today embroiderers. caps. depending upon locations.1.2.36 Mountmellick Embroidery Is also called Mountmellick Work or Fine White Work.35 Mexican Wheel Embroidery Is similar to Mexican Square Embroidery but has its own unique appearance.1. 2.37 Needlepoint is embroidery done on canvas.2. it may be the perfect addition to your embroidery fancy work. when needlepointing. Traditionally Needlepoint was completed on a linen canvas with wool thread. use a much wider range of stitches than ever used before.34 Mexican Square Embroidery Is unusual. 2. Although different stitches were used. and other Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 21 .2.2. the tent stitch was used most often.38 Net Embroidery Net Embroidery is an effective way of ornamenting White or Black Net for dress trimmings.2. 2.1.

1. It is also used for home decorative items that do not get a lot of wear. Most people today.2. Bulgarian.42 Punched Work Punched Work is another type of embroidery that has been used to describe different types of embroidery.1.2.39 Netting Silk in Embroidery The most delicate kinds of embroidery are worked with fine netting silk.41 Persian Embroidery Persian Embroidery has changed over the course of history. Indian. It receives its name based upon the designs and colors used. 2.small articles of dress. Persian. Japanese. 2. 2.40 Oriental Embroidery Oriental Embroidery is actually a class of embroidery. It includes Chinese. and Turkish embroideries.2.2. when thinking of Punch or Punched Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 22 . one strand of which is drawn out.1.1. 2. They are celebrated for a number of reasons.

1.2.44 Red work Red work is a form of needlework that uses red cotton embroidery floss on a white background. is used. then covered with cloth and then embroidered.43 Raised Embroidery There a number of different Raised Embroideries. as described and illustrated here. Usually Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 23 .1. The designs were chiefly floral in nature. This type of embroidery has been around for centuries. The other Punched Work. which are afterward fluffed up and cut.2. such as wire mesh.1. 2. And yet a third kind is when a stiffening material.Embroidery automatically think of the type that has the loops of top of the fabric (similar to a hooked rug).2. 2. Another is when the design is formed with loops of Plush Stitch. The patterns are usually very simple line drawings.45 Ribbon Embroidery The earlier ribbon embroidery designs were worked out with a narrow China ribbon about one-half inch in width. is more of a drawn work 2. One kind is when stitches are taken over a wadding of cotton.

2. 2. flowers and buds only are made of ribbon. 2.48 Seed Embroidery Is an German Victorian era embroidery using a variety of seeds and chenilles to produce a very unique type of embroidery. the foliage are embroidered in arrasene.2.49 Smocking Is decorative stitches that secure gathers or folds.. Rice Embroidery Rice Embroidery is a type of White Embroidery. e.only the wealthy could afford to do this type of embroidery 2.2. the petals only.1. chenille. The Rice Stitch is used extensively in this type of embroidery. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 24 . i. filoselle or embroidery silk.46 Ribbon Work In Ribbon Work.2. which have been previously formed in the foundation material. hence the name.1.

51 Swiss Embroidery Swiss Embroidery Swiss embroidery is known by many different names such as Broderie Anglaise.2. owing to a certain similarity in its general Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 25 . It is a mix of easy embroidery stitches and drawn work. 2.1. Irish Work. The results are remarkable. and a simple pattern 2.2.52 Towelling (Toweling) Embroidery Towelling (Toweling) Embroidery was very popular in the 1880's. Simple to do using just Tulle. 2.54 Venetian Embroidery Venetian Embroidery takes its name from Venetian lace.50 Straw Embroidery Straw Embroidery is virtually unheard of now but it was a type of embroidery Victorians were interested in using. and Madeira Work.2.53 Tulle Embroidery Tulle Embroidery is a true Victorian style embroidery.2.1. 2. floss.

2.56 Wallachian Embroidery The present adaptations of this work show it in any material that can be embroidered.55 Venetian Long Stitch Embroidery Venetian Long Stitch Embroidery is the old-fashioned description of Worsted Work worked on open canvas.2. the thread employed must correspond with the material on which the embroidery is done. It resembles Roman Work and Strasbourg Embroidery. but is lighter than either in effect.1.appearance. of course.1.2. 2. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 26 .1. Often the work is padded and raised. 2.57 White Embroidery Is also known as White Work. and.2.

While most embroidery is done using thread or wool sewn onto a woven fabric. accessories.2.3. towels and so forth. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 27 . plastic and felt as well.3 EMROIDERY CLASSIFICATION  Hand embroidery  Machine embroidery 2.1 Hand embroidery Embroidery is needlework done for decorative purposes on items such as clothing. household linens. bed sheets. Today with the advances in science and technology embroidery can also be done on traditional as well as non-traditional fabrics such as leather. leather or metallic strands. it can also be done by working with non-traditional materials such as wire. It is an ancient art of threadwork which creates designs and pictures by sewing strands of material on to another layer of fabric.

1 Assisi Embroidery: Assisi embroidery is a form of counted-thread embroidery based on an ancient Italian tradition where the background is filled with embroidery stitches and the main motifs are left void i.3.Some of the types include: 2.1.2 Bargello Embroidery: Bargello is a type of needlepoint embroidery consisting of upright flat stitches laid in a mathematical pattern to create motifs. The name is derived from the Italian town of Assisi where the modern form of the craft originated. The name originates from a series of chairs found in the Bargello palace in Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 28 . unstitched.3.1.e. 2.

Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 29 . Sometimes metallic threads or colored threads are used for accents.1. but firmly twisted threads give a better look than embroidery floss. Any black thread can be used.3 Black work Embroidery: Black work Embroidery is a form embroidery using black thread. which have a "flame stitch" pattern. Traditionally black work is stitched in silk thread on white or off-white linen or cotton fabric. 2. Sometimes it is counted-thread embroidery which is usually stitched on even-weave fabric.Florence.3.

3. Crewel Embroidery 2.2.1. living things (traditionally fish). Unlike some other forms of embroidery. bunka is fragile and is usually presented as artwork rather than as clothing adornment.5 Crewel Embroidery: Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 30 .1. is a form of Japanese embroidery originating around the turn of the 20th century.3. Bunka artists use a specialized embroidery needle and rayon threads to create very detailed pictures that some liken to oil paintings.4 Bunka shishu: In English often shortened to bunka. which provide a step-by-step guide to producing artwork. Typical subjects include people. and traditional Japanese scenes. Bunka has gained in popularity since the advent of numbered kits.

The technique is at least a thousand years old. 2. rasterlike pattern are used to form a picture. The stitcher counts the threads in each direction so that the stitches are of uniform size and appearance. It was used in the Bayeux Tapestry in Jacobean embroidery and in the Quaker tapestry.1.6 Cross-stitch: Cross-stitch is a popular form of counted-thread embroidery in which X-shaped stitches in a tiled. Cross-stitch is usually executed on easily countable even weave fabric called aida cloth. This form of cross-stitch is also called counted cross-stitch in order to distinguish it from other Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 31 . is a decorative form of surface embroidery using wool and a variety of different embroidery stitches to follow a design outline applied to the fabric.3.Crewelwork.

2. Sometimes cross-stitch is done on designs printed on the fabric (stamped cross-stitch). It is also grouped as whitework embroidery because it was traditionally done in white thread on white fabric and is often combined with other whitework techniques. The more elaborate styles of drawn thread work use in fact a variety of other stitches and techniques. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 32 . The remaining threads are grouped or bundled together into a variety of patterns. the stitcher simply stitches over the printed pattern.8 Hardanger embroidery Hardanger embroidery or "Hardangersøm" is a form of embroidery traditionally worked with white thread on white even-weave cloth. using counted thread and drawn thread work techniques. 2.3. but the drawn thread parts are their most distinctive element.forms of cross-stitch.1.7 Drawn thread work Drawn thread work is a form of counted-thread embroidery based on removing threads from the warp and/or the weft of a piece of even-weave fabric.3. It is sometimes called whitework embroidery.1.

3. Always read the designer's notes for best result Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 33 .9 Ribbon Embroidery Ribbon embroidery is not as exact as other forms of needlework.1. The size of the stitch and how they are used (singly.2. or in a mass) and the size of the ribbon will all have an effect. There are as many variations to these stitches as there are designers who use them. in a row.

uses a basic zigzag sewing machine. It is used commercially in product branding. The first. uses an embroidery machine or sewing/embroidery machine. The operator lowers or covers the "feed dogs" or machine teeth Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 34 .2. embroidered designs are created by using a basic zigzag sewing machine.3. corporate advertising. As it is used primarily for tailoring. Hobbyists also machine embroider for personal sewing and craft projects.2 Machine Embroidery Machine embroidery is a process whereby a sewing machine or embroidery machine is used to create patterns on textiles.2. free-motion sewing machine embroidery. There are two main types of machine embroidery. The second. To create free-motion machine embroidery. computerized machine embroidery.3. this type of machine lacks the automated features of a specialized machine. and uniform adornment.1 Free-motion machine embroidery In free-motion machine embroidery. Machine embroidery is of two types:2. the embroiderer runs the machine and skillfully moves tightly hooped fabric under the needle to create a design.

using the machine's settings for running stitch and fancier built-in stitches.and moves the fabric manually. the operator must stop and re-thread the machine manually for each subsequent color in a multi-color design. The operator develops the embroidery manually. the main use of manual machine embroidery is in fiber art and quilting projects. In this way. With the advent of computerized machine embroidery. As this is a manual process rather than an digital reproduction. many prefer computerized embroidery's ease and reduced costs. He or she must also manually trim and clean up loose or connecting threads after the design is completed. Though some manufacturers still use manual embroidery to embellish garments. A machine's zigzag stitch can create thicker lines within a design or be used to create a border. any pattern created using free-motion machine embroidery is unique and cannot be exactly reproduced. the stitches form an image onto a piece of fabric. unlike with computerized embroidery. Many quilters and fabric artists use a process called thread drawing (or thread painting) to create embellishments on their projects or to create textile art. Since a standard sewing machine only has one needle. Free-motion machine embroidery can be timeconsuming. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 35 . An embroiderer can produce a filled-in effect by sewing many parallel rows of straight stitching.

A multi-needle machine may consist of multiple sewing heads. each of which can sew the same design onto a separate garment concurrently. sequins. each consisting of 15 or more needles.2. Sewing-embroidery machines generally have only one needle and require the user to change thread colors during the embroidery process. Industrial and commercial embroidery machines and combination sewing-embroidery machines have a hooping or framing system that holds the framed area of fabric taut under the sewing needle and moves it automatically to create a design from a pre-programmed digital embroidery pattern. Some can trim and change colors automatically. Depending on its capabilities. and cutwork. These machines require the user to input the correct color change sequence before beginning to embroider.2.3.2 Computerized machine embroidery Most modern embroidery machines are computer controlled and specifically engineered for embroidery. including satin stitch embroidery. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 36 . A head is usually capable of producing many special fabric effects. chain stitch embroidery. the machine will require varying degrees of user input to read and sew embroidery designs. Multi-needle industrial machines are generally threaded prior to running the design and do not require rethreading. Such a machine might have 20 or more heads. appliqué.

2.000 needles.2.3 Schiffli machine embroidery Schiffli Embroidery is manufactured by applying machine embroidering with front yarn and back yarn on base cloth using the Schiffli Embroidery machine. The features that differentiate embroidery from other kinds of lace are its freedom of design and ability to create luxurious three dimensional effects. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 37 .3. which is 18 meters in length and equipped with 1.

4 Variation in the embroidery Embroidery is classified into several variations depending on production methods and materials used.2. Common varieties are:      Allovers Guipires Chemical Automatic Color Change Embroidery on Net Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 38 .

The fabric is dissolved allowing the embroidered stitching and the remains on the final net to remain. thus laces of many styles can be duplicated on the Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 39 .Allovers Embroidery Embroidery on Net The water-soluble fabric is lapped over the net. Guipires Embroidery Bored Embroidery The stitching is performed on waterThe fabric is perforated by a soluble fabric which is dissolved special device called borers on afterward. final product. The stitching is performed Later the water-soluble fabric on the fabric. on which the stitching is performed. allowing only the the machine in addition to being embroidered yarn to remain on the stitched by needles. product.

This process is called punching which is an important element to determine the quality of embroidery.embroidery machine. Embroidery production process Punching and Sampling The sketch created by an embroidery designer is first enlarged by 6 times and traced manually. Color Change Embroidery Multi-color embroidery produced by a special type of machine called •color Change Machine. which enables the needles for different colors to work in turn. then translate them into machine interpretative pattern data which is output on to a floppy disk. When the outlines of the shapes on the drawing are digitized by the use of a mouse. The data on the floppy is loaded into a sampling machine whose length Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 40 . and the resulting drawing is posted on the digitizer of a special CAD system called •computer punching system. the system determines the locations of the stitching point by referring to pre-specified parameters such as stitch width.

embroidering begins on a 15-yard production machine.1 meter width can be embroidered at once.7 meters length and 1.and more than 1000 needles. Mending. one piece on the upper stage. The machine is a large one with 18 meter length. Thus two pieces of fabric. The floating thread is clipped by the Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 41 . the positioning of the machine frame can be performed with higher speed and more accuracy. Machine Embroidering (Production) Once the order is placed. Finishing The defects found upon close inspection will be mended by sewing machine. 4. Since the introduction of computer numerical control. Inspection. Shearing. Two pieces of base fabric are set vertically. The manufactured sample piece is shown to the customers for order.ranges from 1 meter to 4 meters. the other on the lower. each with 13.5 meter height .

Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 42 .shearing machine and sent to a dying factory to be finished.

Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 43 .

How Schiffli Machine Works Front thread and bobbin thread form stitches Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 44 .

The thread starts from the spool and is winded around the thread roller 2-3 times (thread should not slip). From there it passes the thread watcher. one hook and the big thread Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 45 .Combination of needle and shuttle form lock of the switch Frame Movement For each working needle one spool or cone has to be set.

to allow enough thread for the shuttle to pass through the loop. As the needle retracts. thus forming the embroidery design. similar to that of a sewing machine. and the needle is driven again slightly further into the fabric. and the friction of the goods holds the thread. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 46 . tension is applied as the big thread guide tightens the stitch thus formed. In Austria each revolution or movement is counted as a half stitch. Between each of these stitches the frame is moved. A shuttle containing the yarn which is attached to the previous stitch in the back of the goods is driven through this loop. It is then retracted slightly. Each stitch forms in the same manner. while most of the world counts each movement as one full stitch. It embroiders with a front thread and bobbin thread (yarn at the back of the cloth) which from together a lock stitch. The needle is retracted while the shuttle is at its highest point and the shuttle returns to the bottom of the box. The loop is closed with the bobbin thread locked inside. The front yearn is treated in a needle which passes through the goods to a predetermined point. The Schiffli machine is a variation on the sewing machine.guide until the thread finally goes through the eye of the needle. stopped for the stitch and moved again. forcing a loop to be formed.

The spool used for a Schiffli machine is mounted on a shaft to hold a large quantity of yarn. when the spool would not hold enough yarn for a long run without constant changing. This way yarn can be prevented from being stuck. Application of Embroidery Party Dress Formal Dress 47 Lingerie and Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh . cones are fixed on the cone holder device and can therefore not be turned. In such cases the yarn is drawn from the top end through the middle of the cone. The winding off the yarn from full and heavy spools can be facilitated by using metal attachments which are placed in the middle of the tubes of the spools in order to allow a constant front yarn tension. Sometimes cones are used for big order of one design. It is placed on an angular spindle. the yarn is drawn off its right side. Unlike spools. which might be placed on the floor or might be fixed on the cone holder device.

Computerized embroidery machines are programmed to stitch the selected design and all the operator must do is place the garment. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 48 . They were developed for producing small orders and are used for customizing garments.Foundation home furnishing fabric automobile furnishing fabric SINGLE HEAD EMBROIDERY MACHINE Single head embroidery machines are similar to basic lockstitch sewing machine. Manually operated machines depend on skilled operator to position and manipulate materials under the needles. They may be manually operated or computer controlled. Single head machines are most often used for custom work and monoprogramming. Single head machines are most often used for customizing garments.

Technology has expanded the use of single-head embroidery machines.because close-set heads Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 49 . This allows manufacturer to customize their service and produce very small orders as needed by their customers. larger patterns require wider needle range and fewer heads. Smaller areas are best embroidered with more close-set heads. Multi head embroidery machine Multi head embroidery machines are similar in operation to single-head machines except they contain two or more heads that stitch the same pattern simultaneously. A computer network can interface and control multiple single-head machines so that same time. Border machines provide the most flexibility . to stitch a small order of three on a large multi head machines wastes capacity that could better be used for large multi head machines wastes capacity that could better be used for large orders. For example.

Loading time. The optimal number of heads is generally dependent on the firm’s average order size. With multi head machines. Each head utilizes 1 to 6 needles and up to 6 colors in stitching a design. and for designs with a lower stitch count . and size of the area to be stitched. Primary data collection method FIELD VISIT: The industry we worked upon was named Chaudhary’s Computer Embroidery Works. there is more idle time during loading process.can be spaced close together and alternate heads can be uncoupled to allow stitching of a wider pattern. which entails inserting the fabric or garment component under the machine head . should be less than stitching time if the operation is to be productive . Machines are purchased with a specific number of heads. located in the growing urbans of Hyderabad at Dilsukh Nagar in the Alkapuri Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 50 . more heads require lore loading time. average number of stitches per design. garments are individually hooped and inserted under each head. Higher stitch counts are more produced on machine with more heads.

The work process involved collecting all the Location of the industry: About the industry: Time taken to reach the industry Raw material used in the industry Manufacturing process Machines in the industry Types of goods produced Cost analysis Conclusion Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 51 . where the work was done by all the females of the house.Colony. The industry was a home scale computer embroidery setup.