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Integrated Term Project
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This project was a collaborative approach to the vast field of EMBROIDERY and all the knowledge it provided. This project would have been incomplete without the proper guidance and support of our mentor Sir Anant Phani. He had been a complete pool of knowledge and information regarding the processing of this project. We would also like to thank Mr. Chaudhary Embroidery works, Alkapuri for their great support in letting us visit their industry and providing a solid background to the methods of how the industry utilizes the advents of a machine to provide detailed and quantitative embroideries.

Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 1

1. Introduction
Embroidery is the art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. It is an art form that uses close or overlapping stitches to form intricate, three dimensional, surface designs to embellish piece goods, trims or garments. Embroidery has evolved from hundreds of years of handwork by dozens of cultures to an established art form. Today the embroidery process uses advanced technology to embellish styles and mass produce trims for the garment industry. Embroidery is a flat trim that adds interest and differentiation to a product. Embroidery has evolved from a customized hand sewing process to computer controlled stitching for mass production. Some of the first embroidery machines made it possible to apply names on individual garments, such as hats and shirts. This required a great deal of operator skill to manipulate the garment and form the lettering. Modern embroidery machine require the operator to only hoop the fabric to the machine under the head and the embroidery designs are applied directly to piece goods, garments, or as emblems. Types of embroidery include every sort of ornamental work done with a sewing needle of any kind. Embroidery may be done on any number of fabrics from satin to
Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 2

canvas. Embroiderers, known for their resourcefulness, experiment and learn from others which kind of stitch and thread works best and proceed to produce wonderful works of art, many times mixing types of embroidery. Often embroidery types were named after the predominate stitch that was used, such as cross-stitch. Others were named after the place they were first introduced, such as Berlin Wool Work or Mountmellick’s embroidery. What can make finding a "type" of embroidery confusing is that many times there are more than one name for a particular kind of embroidery. For example, pulled thread, drawn thread and Hardanger are often classified as the same embroidery style. Embroidery techniques can produce a wide range of effects. Some produce a flat surface while others produce a relief effect. Almost any effect wanted can be produced in embroidery - from simple line to fancy stitches with beads, baubles and anything else attached. Embroidery is definitely one of the most versatile crafts ever created. Embroidery machines for home sewing may feature builtin designs, a slot for an embroidery card, or even a built-in disk drive through which embroidery designs can be uploaded. Commercial embroidery machines feature multiple needles, stitch a wider variety of fabrics and designs, and stitch multiple colors without stopping to change the thread colors.

Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 3

1.1 History of Embroidery
The History of Embroidery dates back some 3000 years ago. It started with Ancient Egypt, Babylonians, Phoenicians and the Hebrews, who used it for decorating their robes. The Moors also decorated much of their clothing with embroidery. They had a style of their own which spread to other countries like Spain and Sicily. Moorish embroidery greatly influenced many European countries. Embroidery in the middle Ages was very prolific. Rich traders and merchants were willing to pay a large sum of money for the luxury of embroidered clothing. It wasn’t until the Renaissance Period that new applications for embroidery came about such as tapestries, laces, curtains, and bed covers. In America, the first commercial embroidery manufacturing establishment was started in 1848 in New York by Jacob Schiess. He came from Switzerland and within a year had his own embroidery plant in operation. All the stitching was done by hand by fifteen woman stitching exquisite designs by hand. The development of machine embroidery did not take place until the 1800’s. Joshua Heilmann from Mulhouse worked on the design of a hand embroidery machine. Though he did not sell many, it revolutionized the embroidery industry. Heilmann’s invention was quickly followed by
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founder of Robert Reiner. The looms used multiple needles and were an unbelievable improvement over the age-old process of stitching by hand. Gallen. powered manually. The shuttle itself looked similar to the hull of a sailboat.the "shuttle embroidery" and the "chain stitch embroidery" methods. of Weehawken. thereby making him the real founder of the schiffli embroidery industry in the United States. was inspired by the work produced on the sewing machine. Inc. Dr. "Schiffli" in the Swiss dialect of the German language . Immediately afterwards. Groebli’s machine utilized the combination of a continuously threaded needle and shuttle containing a bobbin of thread. Gallen. In 1876. Switzerland. Kursheedt also imported a number of schiffli machines. making him the first American to use a mechanized embroidery process. from St. The beginning of shuttle embroidery dates back to the 1860’s when Isaac Groebli. came to this country in 1903 in his early Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 5 . His machine came to be known as a schiffli machine. however. This machine was based on the principals introduced by the newly invented sewing machine. In 1873. They were.. means "little boat". Alphonse Kursheedt imported twelve of the then new embroidery hand looms from St. Around the 1870’s there were fourteen companies manufacturing embroidery machines in Switzerland manufacturing hand loom embroidery machines. Robert Reiner. Issac Groebli of Switzerland invented the first practical Schiffli Embroidery machine.

Switzerland. No additional machines were produced until 1953. One error could ruin an entire design. most embroidery was completed by punching designs on paper tape that then ran through an embroidery machine. when Robert Reiner Inc. when suddenly the two sources for the manufacture of machines in Plauen. introduced the first American made schiffli machine. Germany. Dr. The sample head allowed embroiderers to avoid manually sewing the design sample and saved production time. In 1980. to appoint him it’s American Agent. he persuaded the Vogtlandishe Machine Works of Plauen. created the first embroidery sample head for use with large Schiffli looms. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 6 . Realizing the potential of the embroidery industry. ceased operation because of World War 2. Then began the mass importation of embroidery machines into northern New Jersey’s Hudson County. and Arbon. German. The industry grew until 1938. Before computers were affordable. and Swiss immigrants in New Jersey to become manufacturers of embroidery. The banks arranged long term credit to purchasers. Germany. Melco. Wilcom introduced the first computer graphics embroidery design system to run on a minicomputer. forcing the creator to start over. an international distribution network formed by Randal Melton and Bill Childs. These looms spanned several feet across and produced lace patches and large embroidery patterns. Reiner made it possible for hundreds of Austrian.twenties.

The digitized design was composed at six times the size of the embroidered final product. At the Show of the Americas in 1980. transferring the results to a 1" paper tape or later to a floppy disk. The digitizer marked common points in the design to create elaborate fill and satin stitch combinations. The original single-needle sample head sold for $10. similar in size to a BlackBerry. which stitched out the pattern. Melco unveiled the Digitrac.000. as well as arched lettering generated from a keyboard. helped propel Melco to the top of the market. This design would then be run on the embroidery machine. coupled with tax incentives for home businesses. it became the first computerized embroidery machine marketed to home sewers. Brother Industries entered the embroidery industry after several computerized embroidery companies Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 7 . which allowed more than one person to work on the embroidery process. The Digitrac consisted of a small computer.000 and included a 1" paper-tape reader and 2 fonts. An operator digitized the design using similar techniques to punching. Melco patented the ability to sew circles with a satin stitch. mounted on an X and Y axis on a large white board. Wilcom enhanced this technology in 1982 with the introduction of the first multi-user system. streamlining production times. It sold for $30. a digitizing system for embroidery machines. The economic conditions of the Reagan Years.Subsequently.

the Japanese company Tajima provided sewing heads that were capable of using multiple threads. computerized machine embroidery has grown in popularity as costs have fallen for computers.contracted it to provide sewing heads. In addition. and embroidery machines. many individuals and independent companies also sell embroidery designs. and there are free designs available on the internet. The major embroidery machine companies eventually adapted their commercial systems and marketed them to companies such as Janome for home use. Singer failed to remain competitive during this time. Melco was acquired by Saurer in 1989. Later. Since the late 1990s. software. Many machine manufacturers sell their own lines of embroidery patterns. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 8 .

Today . Embroidery has evolved from a customized handsewing process to computer controlled stitching for mass production. trims or garments. Embroidery Embroidery is an art form that uses close or overlapping stitches to form intricate .2. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 9 . the embroidery process uses advanced technology to embellish styles and mass-produce trims for the garment industry.finished garments .garment components . Embroidery has evolved from hundreds of years of handwork by dozens of culture an established art form.such as hats and shirts. This required a great deal of operator skill to manipulate garments and form the lettering.surface designs to embellish piece goods .or an individual emblem that are an add on type of trim. Modern embroidery machines only require the operator to hoop and place the garment or fabric to be embroidered under the needles. Embroidery is a flat trim that adds interest and differentiation to a product.three dimensional . Some of the first embroidery machine made it possible to apply names on individual garments . Embroidered designs may be applied directly to piece goods .

Wool. and silk. Surface embroidery techniques such as chain stitch and couching or laid-work are the most economical of expensive yarns. and novelty yarns as well as in traditional wool. rayon. in which large amounts of yarn are buried on the back of the work. linen. Today. and silk have been in use for thousands of years for both fabric and yarn. Ribbon embroidery uses narrow ribbon in silk or silk/organza blend ribbon. embroidery thread is manufactured in cotton.1 MATERIAL REQUIRED Material used in embroidery The fabrics and yarns used in traditional embroidery vary from place to place. couching is generally used for gold work. linen. use more materials but provide a sturdier and more substantial finished textile. Many forms of surface embroidery. are distinguished by a wide range Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 10 . by contrast. Canvas work techniques. In both canvas work and surface embroidery an embroidery hoop or frame can be used to stretch the material and ensure even stitching tension that prevents pattern distortion. Modern canvas work tends to follow very symmetrical counted stitching patterns with designs developing from repetition of one or only a few similar stitches in a variety of thread hues.2. most commonly to create floral motifs.

2.2.of different stitching patterns used in a single piece of work. 2.1 Free embroidery Designs are applied without regard to the weave of the underlying fabric. Examples include crewel and traditional Chinese and Japanese embroidery. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 11 . 2.1.1 Embroidery can be classified according to whether the design is stitched  On top  Through The foundation fabric. and by the relationship of stitch placement to the fabric.2 TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF EMBROIDERY 2.

or specially woven cotton and linen fabrics although non-even weave linen is used as well. printed and hand painted canvases where the painted or printed image serves as color-guide have eliminated the need for counting threads. Traditional canvas work such as bargello is a counted-thread technique. These are particularly suited to pictorial rather than geometric Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 12 . Counted-thread embroidery is more easily worked on an even-weave foundation fabric such as embroidery canvas.1.3 Canvas work In canvas work threads are stitched through a fabric mesh to create a dense pattern that completely covers the foundation fabric.2. Examples include needlepoint and some forms of black work embroidery 2.2.2 Counted-thread embroidery Patterns are created by making stitches over a predetermined number of threads in the foundation fabric.1.Since the 19th century.2. aid a cloth.

laid on another which forms the ground. These techniques are the progenitors of needlelace. The edges of the cut-out design are either sewed over.4 Drawn thread work and cutwork The foundation fabric is deformed or cut away to create holes that are then embellished with embroidery.designs deriving from the Berlin wool work craze of the early 19th century.1.6 Applique Is the technique of taking a pattern of one material.2.1. this work is collectively referred to as whitework. 2. 2. ornamented with Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 13 . often with thread in the same color as the foundation fabric.2.1. This technique uses padding stitches under an even layer of even stitches to produce a raised embroidery effect.5Alphabet Design Embroidery Was originally used to mark household linens and then used to personalize handmade gifts. 2.2. When created in white thread on white linen or cotton.

2.7 Arrasene Embroidery Is an embroidery material that was very popular during Victorian times. It is a kind of fine chenille and came in both silk and wool. a new processes of dyeing wools made this type of embroidery possible.2.1. It was introduced for artistic embroidery around 1883 and was thought to likely supersede other kinds of embroidery materials used in bold designs in decorative needlework.fancy cord. braid.1. 2. 2. gold thread.9 Bead Embroidery (beading) Berlin embroidery Is a style of canvas work embroidery. The Back Stitch is the only stitch used with this type of embroidery. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 14 . Berlin work was used to create cushions. The resulting embroidery produced very durable and long lasting pieces.2. bags and furniture covers. or any other appropriate material.1. In the 1830's. 2.8 Back Stitch Embroidery Back Stitch Embroidery is one of the simplest kinds of embroidery.

1.13 Chenille Chip Embroidery Embroidery on Chip was embroidery on material made either of fine plaited chips or wood shavings.2. Bulgarian Embroidery Bulgarian embroidery is used almost exclusively upon heavy linens and canvas. It is entirely conventional in design and also in manner of working. 2. a term borrowed from lacemaking.1. 2.12 Canvas Work Is stitched onto coarse or tight-textured canvas and also referred to as needlepoint. 2. The designs used for this type of work were very simple.2. See Needlepoint.14 Coral work Crazy Work Crazy work is made by attaching random size and shape pieces of material together to form a larger piece of Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 15 . It is kind of White Embroidery.10 Black work Broderie Anglaise Broderie Anglaise is also known as English Embroidery.

1. Many different projects described on this page.2. also called Venetian embroidery and Roman embroidery. the cut edges are embroidered.1. Cretonne fabric made it very easy to make wonderful and unique applique linens quickly. etc. Cretonne Applique This type of applique was very popular with Victorian women. The designs are generally bold. Small shapes are cut out of the ground material. Aida cloth is the choice of most Embroiderers today. Java canvas was typically used by Victorian ladies. cushions. 2.15 Crewel embroidery This type of embroidery gets its name from the fine wool yarn that is used. 2. since it is difficult to create small intricate designs in wool. It is composed of floss stitched in an X like manner on canvas or a canvas like material.2.material. 2.1. all of which are but the same style of work under different names. such as table cover. This material then can be used in making a quilt or other projects.16 Cross-Stitch Embroidery Is probably the most common types of embroidery.17 Cut-Work Cut Work.2. and the Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 16 .

done entirely in one color. Linens embroidered in this type of embroidery will add a beautiful sophistication to any Victorian table 2.1.vacant space is often filled in with decorative stitches.1. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 17 .1.19 Drawn thread Certain threads of the warp or weft (or both) are removed from the ground.2. make this type of embroidery easily recognized. It is kind of White Embroidery.2. 2.18 Delft Embroidery This style of work gains its name from the Delft ware. 2. Hardanger and Hedebo can be classified as cut work.21 English Embroidery English Embroidery is also known as Broderie Anglaise .2. Quaint Holland scenes.1. and the remaining threads are embroidered. 2.2.20 Dresden Embroidery Dresden Embroidery is named from the ware of the same name.

Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 18 . also known as Print Work.2. very intricate shading effects were produced. is known and appreciated the world over.2.24 Filet Embroidery Is done on a net-like fabric.1. 2.1. 2.25 Florentine Embroidery Is also known as Bargello Embroidery.26 French Laid Embroidery French Laid Embroidery.2. is used to reproduce line engravings with embroidery and paint. The stitches are close and firm.1. 2.1. 2.1. also known as White Work.2. By using many different hues of the same color.22 English Eyelet Embroidery Was a popular means of decorating shirtwaists. collars and other apparel in the late 1800s.2. Traditionally designs are very colorful.23 Etching Embroidery Etching embroidery.2. It is a raised embroidery.

2.2.1. The most characteristic feature of this style of work consists in the treatment of the background. 2.1. and is an imitation of the Floss Silk Embroidery made by the natives of India. It is always worked in Kensington Stitch and in the palest of colors Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 19 .30 Irridescent Embroidery Irridescent Embroidery is sometimes called opalescent embroidery and either term indicates the distinctive feature of the work. It is fast and easy.2.28 Huckaback Embroidery Huckaback Embroidery is embroidered on Huckaback fabric.2. 2. 2.29 Indian Floss Silk Embroidery Indian Floss Silk Embroidery is work executed upon black or white net with white or colored floss silks. Gretchen Embroidery Gretchen embroidery is an unusual embroidery technique not often found.

and other items because it looked well on both sides.2.1. tablecloths.1.2.31 Linen Embroidery Linen Embroidery was used to decorate borders of towels.32 Mediaeval Embroidery Is also known as "Point Venice". "Italian Relief Embroidery". 2.1. and cambrics. muslins.33 Mexican Embroidery Mexican Embroidery is suitable for ornamenting washable materials such as linens.2. It can be described as a combination of Drawn Work and Embroidery.31 Jewel Jewel Embroidery is the introduction of dots in a design which are worked in imitation of jewels 2.2. as well as other names.1. 2. It is basically an adaption of the Buttonhole stitch. It uses the buttonhole stitch and other simple stitches. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 20 .2.

2.2.38 Net Embroidery Net Embroidery is an effective way of ornamenting White or Black Net for dress trimmings.34 Mexican Square Embroidery Is unusual.1.36 Mountmellick Embroidery Is also called Mountmellick Work or Fine White Work.1.2. Traditionally Needlepoint was completed on a linen canvas with wool thread. 2. depending upon locations. Although different stitches were used. Today embroiderers.1.1.35 Mexican Wheel Embroidery Is similar to Mexican Square Embroidery but has its own unique appearance. when needlepointing.37 Needlepoint is embroidery done on canvas. caps. and other Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 21 . it may be the perfect addition to your embroidery fancy work.1.2. the tent stitch was used most often.2.2. use a much wider range of stitches than ever used before.2. 2. 2.

one strand of which is drawn out. Bulgarian. when thinking of Punch or Punched Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 22 .2.2. Most people today. 2.39 Netting Silk in Embroidery The most delicate kinds of embroidery are worked with fine netting silk.2. They are celebrated for a number of reasons. It receives its name based upon the designs and colors used.41 Persian Embroidery Persian Embroidery has changed over the course of history.40 Oriental Embroidery Oriental Embroidery is actually a class of embroidery.2. It is also used for home decorative items that do not get a lot of wear.1. 2.1. 2. Indian. 2. It includes Chinese. Japanese.small articles of dress.1.42 Punched Work Punched Work is another type of embroidery that has been used to describe different types of embroidery.1. Persian. and Turkish embroideries.

The designs were chiefly floral in nature.1. The other Punched Work. And yet a third kind is when a stiffening material. One kind is when stitches are taken over a wadding of cotton. such as wire mesh. as described and illustrated here.2. then covered with cloth and then embroidered. Usually Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 23 .1.43 Raised Embroidery There a number of different Raised Embroideries.44 Red work Red work is a form of needlework that uses red cotton embroidery floss on a white background.Embroidery automatically think of the type that has the loops of top of the fabric (similar to a hooked rug). 2. Another is when the design is formed with loops of Plush Stitch. is more of a drawn work 2. The patterns are usually very simple line drawings.45 Ribbon Embroidery The earlier ribbon embroidery designs were worked out with a narrow China ribbon about one-half inch in width.1.2.2. This type of embroidery has been around for centuries. 2. is used. which are afterward fluffed up and cut.

48 Seed Embroidery Is an German Victorian era embroidery using a variety of seeds and chenilles to produce a very unique type of embroidery. the petals only. e. 2. hence the name.46 Ribbon Work In Ribbon Work. 2.47 Rice Embroidery Rice Embroidery is a type of White Embroidery. i. filoselle or embroidery silk.1. flowers and buds only are made of ribbon. The Rice Stitch is used extensively in this type of embroidery.2.2. 2.only the wealthy could afford to do this type of embroidery 2. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 24 . chenille. the foliage are embroidered in arrasene.49 Smocking Is decorative stitches that secure gathers or folds.1. which have been previously formed in the foundation material.2..2.1.1.

2.54 Venetian Embroidery Venetian Embroidery takes its name from Venetian lace.50 Straw Embroidery Straw Embroidery is virtually unheard of now but it was a type of embroidery Victorians were interested in using. Irish Work.2.2. 2. It is a mix of easy embroidery stitches and drawn work.2. Simple to do using just Tulle.2. The results are remarkable. owing to a certain similarity in its general Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 25 .2.53 Tulle Embroidery Tulle Embroidery is a true Victorian style embroidery. and a simple pattern 2. Swiss Embroidery Swiss Embroidery Swiss embroidery is known by many different names such as Broderie Anglaise.1. floss.1.2. and Madeira Work.1.52 Towelling (Toweling) Embroidery Towelling (Toweling) Embroidery was very popular in the 1880's.

56 Wallachian Embroidery The present adaptations of this work show it in any material that can be embroidered.55 Venetian Long Stitch Embroidery Venetian Long Stitch Embroidery is the old-fashioned description of Worsted Work worked on open canvas. the thread employed must correspond with the material on which the embroidery is done.1. but is lighter than either in effect.2. and. 2. Often the work is padded and raised. It resembles Roman Work and Strasbourg Embroidery. of course.1. 2.2. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 26 .2.57 White Embroidery Is also known as White Work.appearance.1. 2.

Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 27 . Today with the advances in science and technology embroidery can also be done on traditional as well as non-traditional fabrics such as leather.1 Hand embroidery Embroidery is needlework done for decorative purposes on items such as clothing. it can also be done by working with non-traditional materials such as wire.2.3. bed sheets. It is an ancient art of threadwork which creates designs and pictures by sewing strands of material on to another layer of fabric. household linens. towels and so forth. accessories. plastic and felt as well.3 EMROIDERY CLASSIFICATION  Hand embroidery  Machine embroidery 2. While most embroidery is done using thread or wool sewn onto a woven fabric. leather or metallic strands.

1.Some of the types include: 2.2 Bargello Embroidery: Bargello is a type of needlepoint embroidery consisting of upright flat stitches laid in a mathematical pattern to create motifs. 2. The name originates from a series of chairs found in the Bargello palace in Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 28 . The name is derived from the Italian town of Assisi where the modern form of the craft originated.3.1 Assisi Embroidery: Assisi embroidery is a form of counted-thread embroidery based on an ancient Italian tradition where the background is filled with embroidery stitches and the main motifs are left void i.e.1.3. unstitched.

3.Florence. 2. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 29 . Sometimes metallic threads or colored threads are used for accents. which have a "flame stitch" pattern.1. Sometimes it is counted-thread embroidery which is usually stitched on even-weave fabric. Any black thread can be used. but firmly twisted threads give a better look than embroidery floss. Traditionally black work is stitched in silk thread on white or off-white linen or cotton fabric.3 Black work Embroidery: Black work Embroidery is a form embroidery using black thread.

Bunka artists use a specialized embroidery needle and rayon threads to create very detailed pictures that some liken to oil paintings.4 Bunka shishu: In English often shortened to bunka. Typical subjects include people. Unlike some other forms of embroidery.5 Crewel Embroidery: Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 30 . living things (traditionally fish).2.1. which provide a step-by-step guide to producing artwork.3. Bunka has gained in popularity since the advent of numbered kits. Crewel Embroidery 2. and traditional Japanese scenes. bunka is fragile and is usually presented as artwork rather than as clothing adornment.1.3. is a form of Japanese embroidery originating around the turn of the 20th century.

This form of cross-stitch is also called counted cross-stitch in order to distinguish it from other Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 31 . is a decorative form of surface embroidery using wool and a variety of different embroidery stitches to follow a design outline applied to the fabric. rasterlike pattern are used to form a picture. 2. It was used in the Bayeux Tapestry in Jacobean embroidery and in the Quaker tapestry.1.3.Crewelwork.6 Cross-stitch: Cross-stitch is a popular form of counted-thread embroidery in which X-shaped stitches in a tiled. The technique is at least a thousand years old. The stitcher counts the threads in each direction so that the stitches are of uniform size and appearance. Cross-stitch is usually executed on easily countable even weave fabric called aida cloth.

It is also grouped as whitework embroidery because it was traditionally done in white thread on white fabric and is often combined with other whitework techniques. The more elaborate styles of drawn thread work use in fact a variety of other stitches and techniques. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 32 . 2. using counted thread and drawn thread work techniques. the stitcher simply stitches over the printed pattern.7 Drawn thread work Drawn thread work is a form of counted-thread embroidery based on removing threads from the warp and/or the weft of a piece of even-weave fabric.forms of cross-stitch. The remaining threads are grouped or bundled together into a variety of patterns.1. 2. Sometimes cross-stitch is done on designs printed on the fabric (stamped cross-stitch).3. It is sometimes called whitework embroidery. but the drawn thread parts are their most distinctive element.3.1.8 Hardanger embroidery Hardanger embroidery or "Hardangersøm" is a form of embroidery traditionally worked with white thread on white even-weave cloth.

1. There are as many variations to these stitches as there are designers who use them.9 Ribbon Embroidery Ribbon embroidery is not as exact as other forms of needlework. The size of the stitch and how they are used (singly. Always read the designer's notes for best result Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 33 . or in a mass) and the size of the ribbon will all have an effect.3. in a row.2.

uses an embroidery machine or sewing/embroidery machine. The second. embroidered designs are created by using a basic zigzag sewing machine. this type of machine lacks the automated features of a specialized machine.2.2 Machine Embroidery Machine embroidery is a process whereby a sewing machine or embroidery machine is used to create patterns on textiles. As it is used primarily for tailoring. There are two main types of machine embroidery. Machine embroidery is of two types:2. Hobbyists also machine embroider for personal sewing and craft projects.2. The operator lowers or covers the "feed dogs" or machine teeth Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 34 . corporate advertising. The first.3. computerized machine embroidery.1 Free-motion machine embroidery In free-motion machine embroidery. It is used commercially in product branding. To create free-motion machine embroidery. and uniform adornment.3. uses a basic zigzag sewing machine. free-motion sewing machine embroidery. the embroiderer runs the machine and skillfully moves tightly hooped fabric under the needle to create a design.

With the advent of computerized machine embroidery. any pattern created using free-motion machine embroidery is unique and cannot be exactly reproduced. As this is a manual process rather than an digital reproduction. In this way. Many quilters and fabric artists use a process called thread drawing (or thread painting) to create embellishments on their projects or to create textile art. unlike with computerized embroidery. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 35 . Though some manufacturers still use manual embroidery to embellish garments. He or she must also manually trim and clean up loose or connecting threads after the design is completed. The operator develops the embroidery manually. A machine's zigzag stitch can create thicker lines within a design or be used to create a border. the main use of manual machine embroidery is in fiber art and quilting projects. An embroiderer can produce a filled-in effect by sewing many parallel rows of straight stitching. the stitches form an image onto a piece of fabric. using the machine's settings for running stitch and fancier built-in stitches. many prefer computerized embroidery's ease and reduced costs. Free-motion machine embroidery can be timeconsuming. the operator must stop and re-thread the machine manually for each subsequent color in a multi-color design. Since a standard sewing machine only has one needle.and moves the fabric manually.

Multi-needle industrial machines are generally threaded prior to running the design and do not require rethreading. each consisting of 15 or more needles. A multi-needle machine may consist of multiple sewing heads. sequins. A head is usually capable of producing many special fabric effects. Some can trim and change colors automatically. Industrial and commercial embroidery machines and combination sewing-embroidery machines have a hooping or framing system that holds the framed area of fabric taut under the sewing needle and moves it automatically to create a design from a pre-programmed digital embroidery pattern. chain stitch embroidery. and cutwork. appliqué.2. Sewing-embroidery machines generally have only one needle and require the user to change thread colors during the embroidery process. including satin stitch embroidery.3. Such a machine might have 20 or more heads. the machine will require varying degrees of user input to read and sew embroidery designs. Depending on its capabilities. each of which can sew the same design onto a separate garment concurrently.2.2 Computerized machine embroidery Most modern embroidery machines are computer controlled and specifically engineered for embroidery. These machines require the user to input the correct color change sequence before beginning to embroider. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 36 .

2. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 37 .000 needles.3 Schiffli machine embroidery Schiffli Embroidery is manufactured by applying machine embroidering with front yarn and back yarn on base cloth using the Schiffli Embroidery machine.2. which is 18 meters in length and equipped with 1. The features that differentiate embroidery from other kinds of lace are its freedom of design and ability to create luxurious three dimensional effects.3.

2.4 Variation in the embroidery Embroidery is classified into several variations depending on production methods and materials used. Common varieties are:      Allovers Guipires Chemical Automatic Color Change Embroidery on Net Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 38 .

The stitching is performed Later the water-soluble fabric on the fabric. thus laces of many styles can be duplicated on the Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 39 . product.Allovers Embroidery Embroidery on Net The water-soluble fabric is lapped over the net. on which the stitching is performed. allowing only the the machine in addition to being embroidered yarn to remain on the stitched by needles. final product. The fabric is dissolved allowing the embroidered stitching and the remains on the final net to remain. Guipires Embroidery Bored Embroidery The stitching is performed on waterThe fabric is perforated by a soluble fabric which is dissolved special device called borers on afterward.

embroidery machine. then translate them into machine interpretative pattern data which is output on to a floppy disk. Embroidery production process Punching and Sampling The sketch created by an embroidery designer is first enlarged by 6 times and traced manually. the system determines the locations of the stitching point by referring to pre-specified parameters such as stitch width. This process is called punching which is an important element to determine the quality of embroidery. and the resulting drawing is posted on the digitizer of a special CAD system called •computer punching system. The data on the floppy is loaded into a sampling machine whose length Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 40 . When the outlines of the shapes on the drawing are digitized by the use of a mouse. Color Change Embroidery Multi-color embroidery produced by a special type of machine called •color Change Machine. which enables the needles for different colors to work in turn.

5 meter height . The machine is a large one with 18 meter length. one piece on the upper stage. the other on the lower. Finishing The defects found upon close inspection will be mended by sewing machine. the positioning of the machine frame can be performed with higher speed and more accuracy. each with 13.and more than 1000 needles. Thus two pieces of fabric.1 meter width can be embroidered at once. Inspection. Shearing. Mending. 4. Two pieces of base fabric are set vertically. Since the introduction of computer numerical control. Machine Embroidering (Production) Once the order is placed.ranges from 1 meter to 4 meters. The floating thread is clipped by the Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 41 .7 meters length and 1. The manufactured sample piece is shown to the customers for order. embroidering begins on a 15-yard production machine.

shearing machine and sent to a dying factory to be finished. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 42 .

Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 43 .

How Schiffli Machine Works Front thread and bobbin thread form stitches Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 44 .

one hook and the big thread Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 45 .Combination of needle and shuttle form lock of the switch Frame Movement For each working needle one spool or cone has to be set. The thread starts from the spool and is winded around the thread roller 2-3 times (thread should not slip). From there it passes the thread watcher.

thus forming the embroidery design. to allow enough thread for the shuttle to pass through the loop. similar to that of a sewing machine. It is then retracted slightly. A shuttle containing the yarn which is attached to the previous stitch in the back of the goods is driven through this loop. In Austria each revolution or movement is counted as a half stitch.guide until the thread finally goes through the eye of the needle. while most of the world counts each movement as one full stitch. Each stitch forms in the same manner. stopped for the stitch and moved again. The needle is retracted while the shuttle is at its highest point and the shuttle returns to the bottom of the box. The Schiffli machine is a variation on the sewing machine. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 46 . The front yearn is treated in a needle which passes through the goods to a predetermined point. The loop is closed with the bobbin thread locked inside. and the friction of the goods holds the thread. As the needle retracts. It embroiders with a front thread and bobbin thread (yarn at the back of the cloth) which from together a lock stitch. and the needle is driven again slightly further into the fabric. tension is applied as the big thread guide tightens the stitch thus formed. forcing a loop to be formed. Between each of these stitches the frame is moved.

The winding off the yarn from full and heavy spools can be facilitated by using metal attachments which are placed in the middle of the tubes of the spools in order to allow a constant front yarn tension. In such cases the yarn is drawn from the top end through the middle of the cone. Application of Embroidery Party Dress Formal Dress 47 Lingerie and Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh . This way yarn can be prevented from being stuck. It is placed on an angular spindle. which might be placed on the floor or might be fixed on the cone holder device.The spool used for a Schiffli machine is mounted on a shaft to hold a large quantity of yarn. the yarn is drawn off its right side. when the spool would not hold enough yarn for a long run without constant changing. Sometimes cones are used for big order of one design. Unlike spools. cones are fixed on the cone holder device and can therefore not be turned.

They may be manually operated or computer controlled.Foundation home furnishing fabric automobile furnishing fabric SINGLE HEAD EMBROIDERY MACHINE Single head embroidery machines are similar to basic lockstitch sewing machine. Computerized embroidery machines are programmed to stitch the selected design and all the operator must do is place the garment. Single head machines are most often used for custom work and monoprogramming. Single head machines are most often used for customizing garments. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 48 . They were developed for producing small orders and are used for customizing garments. Manually operated machines depend on skilled operator to position and manipulate materials under the needles.

For example. Border machines provide the most flexibility .Technology has expanded the use of single-head embroidery machines. Multi head embroidery machine Multi head embroidery machines are similar in operation to single-head machines except they contain two or more heads that stitch the same pattern simultaneously. This allows manufacturer to customize their service and produce very small orders as needed by their customers.because close-set heads Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 49 . to stitch a small order of three on a large multi head machines wastes capacity that could better be used for large multi head machines wastes capacity that could better be used for large orders. Smaller areas are best embroidered with more close-set heads. larger patterns require wider needle range and fewer heads. A computer network can interface and control multiple single-head machines so that same time.

Higher stitch counts are more produced on machine with more heads.can be spaced close together and alternate heads can be uncoupled to allow stitching of a wider pattern. The optimal number of heads is generally dependent on the firm’s average order size. and for designs with a lower stitch count . Primary data collection method FIELD VISIT: The industry we worked upon was named Chaudhary’s Computer Embroidery Works. there is more idle time during loading process. garments are individually hooped and inserted under each head. average number of stitches per design. With multi head machines. and size of the area to be stitched. located in the growing urbans of Hyderabad at Dilsukh Nagar in the Alkapuri Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 50 . Loading time. Machines are purchased with a specific number of heads. Each head utilizes 1 to 6 needles and up to 6 colors in stitching a design. more heads require lore loading time. should be less than stitching time if the operation is to be productive . which entails inserting the fabric or garment component under the machine head .

The industry was a home scale computer embroidery setup. The work process involved collecting all the Location of the industry: About the industry: Time taken to reach the industry Raw material used in the industry Manufacturing process Machines in the industry Types of goods produced Cost analysis Conclusion Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 51 . where the work was done by all the females of the house.Colony.

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