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Integrated Term Project
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This project was a collaborative approach to the vast field of EMBROIDERY and all the knowledge it provided. This project would have been incomplete without the proper guidance and support of our mentor Sir Anant Phani. He had been a complete pool of knowledge and information regarding the processing of this project. We would also like to thank Mr. Chaudhary Embroidery works, Alkapuri for their great support in letting us visit their industry and providing a solid background to the methods of how the industry utilizes the advents of a machine to provide detailed and quantitative embroideries.
Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 1
Embroidery is the art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. It is an art form that uses close or overlapping stitches to form intricate, three dimensional, surface designs to embellish piece goods, trims or garments. Embroidery has evolved from hundreds of years of handwork by dozens of cultures to an established art form. Today the embroidery process uses advanced technology to embellish styles and mass produce trims for the garment industry. Embroidery is a flat trim that adds interest and differentiation to a product. Embroidery has evolved from a customized hand sewing process to computer controlled stitching for mass production. Some of the first embroidery machines made it possible to apply names on individual garments, such as hats and shirts. This required a great deal of operator skill to manipulate the garment and form the lettering. Modern embroidery machine require the operator to only hoop the fabric to the machine under the head and the embroidery designs are applied directly to piece goods, garments, or as emblems. Types of embroidery include every sort of ornamental work done with a sewing needle of any kind. Embroidery may be done on any number of fabrics from satin to
Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 2
canvas. Embroiderers, known for their resourcefulness, experiment and learn from others which kind of stitch and thread works best and proceed to produce wonderful works of art, many times mixing types of embroidery. Often embroidery types were named after the predominate stitch that was used, such as cross-stitch. Others were named after the place they were first introduced, such as Berlin Wool Work or Mountmellick’s embroidery. What can make finding a "type" of embroidery confusing is that many times there are more than one name for a particular kind of embroidery. For example, pulled thread, drawn thread and Hardanger are often classified as the same embroidery style. Embroidery techniques can produce a wide range of effects. Some produce a flat surface while others produce a relief effect. Almost any effect wanted can be produced in embroidery - from simple line to fancy stitches with beads, baubles and anything else attached. Embroidery is definitely one of the most versatile crafts ever created. Embroidery machines for home sewing may feature builtin designs, a slot for an embroidery card, or even a built-in disk drive through which embroidery designs can be uploaded. Commercial embroidery machines feature multiple needles, stitch a wider variety of fabrics and designs, and stitch multiple colors without stopping to change the thread colors.
Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 3
1.1 History of Embroidery
The History of Embroidery dates back some 3000 years ago. It started with Ancient Egypt, Babylonians, Phoenicians and the Hebrews, who used it for decorating their robes. The Moors also decorated much of their clothing with embroidery. They had a style of their own which spread to other countries like Spain and Sicily. Moorish embroidery greatly influenced many European countries. Embroidery in the middle Ages was very prolific. Rich traders and merchants were willing to pay a large sum of money for the luxury of embroidered clothing. It wasn’t until the Renaissance Period that new applications for embroidery came about such as tapestries, laces, curtains, and bed covers. In America, the first commercial embroidery manufacturing establishment was started in 1848 in New York by Jacob Schiess. He came from Switzerland and within a year had his own embroidery plant in operation. All the stitching was done by hand by fifteen woman stitching exquisite designs by hand. The development of machine embroidery did not take place until the 1800’s. Joshua Heilmann from Mulhouse worked on the design of a hand embroidery machine. Though he did not sell many, it revolutionized the embroidery industry. Heilmann’s invention was quickly followed by
Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 4
The looms used multiple needles and were an unbelievable improvement over the age-old process of stitching by hand. Groebli’s machine utilized the combination of a continuously threaded needle and shuttle containing a bobbin of thread. Issac Groebli of Switzerland invented the first practical Schiffli Embroidery machine. They were. The beginning of shuttle embroidery dates back to the 1860’s when Isaac Groebli. Gallen. Switzerland. Immediately afterwards. making him the first American to use a mechanized embroidery process. In 1873. "Schiffli" in the Swiss dialect of the German language . Inc. from St. Dr. powered manually. thereby making him the real founder of the schiffli embroidery industry in the United States. founder of Robert Reiner. This machine was based on the principals introduced by the newly invented sewing machine. came to this country in 1903 in his early Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 5 . Kursheedt also imported a number of schiffli machines. Robert Reiner. In 1876. Gallen.the "shuttle embroidery" and the "chain stitch embroidery" methods. means "little boat". The shuttle itself looked similar to the hull of a sailboat. was inspired by the work produced on the sewing machine. however. Around the 1870’s there were fourteen companies manufacturing embroidery machines in Switzerland manufacturing hand loom embroidery machines. of Weehawken. Alphonse Kursheedt imported twelve of the then new embroidery hand looms from St.. His machine came to be known as a schiffli machine.
Then began the mass importation of embroidery machines into northern New Jersey’s Hudson County. No additional machines were produced until 1953. Wilcom introduced the first computer graphics embroidery design system to run on a minicomputer. The sample head allowed embroiderers to avoid manually sewing the design sample and saved production time. Before computers were affordable. and Swiss immigrants in New Jersey to become manufacturers of embroidery. when Robert Reiner Inc. Switzerland. Melco. Realizing the potential of the embroidery industry. Reiner made it possible for hundreds of Austrian. Germany. The banks arranged long term credit to purchasers. he persuaded the Vogtlandishe Machine Works of Plauen. Dr. Germany. created the first embroidery sample head for use with large Schiffli looms. an international distribution network formed by Randal Melton and Bill Childs. when suddenly the two sources for the manufacture of machines in Plauen. ceased operation because of World War 2. One error could ruin an entire design. introduced the first American made schiffli machine. These looms spanned several feet across and produced lace patches and large embroidery patterns. German. The industry grew until 1938. forcing the creator to start over. In 1980. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 6 . and Arbon. to appoint him it’s American Agent.twenties. most embroidery was completed by punching designs on paper tape that then ran through an embroidery machine.
It sold for $30. The original single-needle sample head sold for $10. which stitched out the pattern.000. The digitized design was composed at six times the size of the embroidered final product.000 and included a 1" paper-tape reader and 2 fonts. a digitizing system for embroidery machines. At the Show of the Americas in 1980. This design would then be run on the embroidery machine. Wilcom enhanced this technology in 1982 with the introduction of the first multi-user system. The digitizer marked common points in the design to create elaborate fill and satin stitch combinations. The economic conditions of the Reagan Years. Brother Industries entered the embroidery industry after several computerized embroidery companies Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 7 . The Digitrac consisted of a small computer. Melco patented the ability to sew circles with a satin stitch. An operator digitized the design using similar techniques to punching. mounted on an X and Y axis on a large white board.Subsequently. Melco unveiled the Digitrac. streamlining production times. coupled with tax incentives for home businesses. similar in size to a BlackBerry. helped propel Melco to the top of the market. transferring the results to a 1" paper tape or later to a floppy disk. as well as arched lettering generated from a keyboard. which allowed more than one person to work on the embroidery process. it became the first computerized embroidery machine marketed to home sewers.
the Japanese company Tajima provided sewing heads that were capable of using multiple threads.contracted it to provide sewing heads. Later. Melco was acquired by Saurer in 1989. and embroidery machines. In addition. computerized machine embroidery has grown in popularity as costs have fallen for computers. and there are free designs available on the internet. The major embroidery machine companies eventually adapted their commercial systems and marketed them to companies such as Janome for home use. many individuals and independent companies also sell embroidery designs. Many machine manufacturers sell their own lines of embroidery patterns. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 8 . software. Since the late 1990s. Singer failed to remain competitive during this time.
Modern embroidery machines only require the operator to hoop and place the garment or fabric to be embroidered under the needles. trims or garments.surface designs to embellish piece goods . This required a great deal of operator skill to manipulate garments and form the lettering. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 9 .finished garments . Embroidery has evolved from a customized handsewing process to computer controlled stitching for mass production. Some of the first embroidery machine made it possible to apply names on individual garments . Embroidery is a flat trim that adds interest and differentiation to a product.or an individual emblem that are an add on type of trim.garment components .such as hats and shirts. Embroidered designs may be applied directly to piece goods . Embroidery Embroidery is an art form that uses close or overlapping stitches to form intricate . Today .three dimensional . Embroidery has evolved from hundreds of years of handwork by dozens of culture an established art form.2. the embroidery process uses advanced technology to embellish styles and mass-produce trims for the garment industry.
use more materials but provide a sturdier and more substantial finished textile. Modern canvas work tends to follow very symmetrical counted stitching patterns with designs developing from repetition of one or only a few similar stitches in a variety of thread hues. in which large amounts of yarn are buried on the back of the work. and silk have been in use for thousands of years for both fabric and yarn. linen. by contrast. Today. are distinguished by a wide range Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 10 .1 MATERIAL REQUIRED Material used in embroidery The fabrics and yarns used in traditional embroidery vary from place to place. Many forms of surface embroidery. couching is generally used for gold work. rayon. In both canvas work and surface embroidery an embroidery hoop or frame can be used to stretch the material and ensure even stitching tension that prevents pattern distortion. Canvas work techniques. Ribbon embroidery uses narrow ribbon in silk or silk/organza blend ribbon. most commonly to create floral motifs.2. and novelty yarns as well as in traditional wool. linen. Surface embroidery techniques such as chain stitch and couching or laid-work are the most economical of expensive yarns. embroidery thread is manufactured in cotton. Wool. and silk.
2.1 Free embroidery Designs are applied without regard to the weave of the underlying fabric. 2.of different stitching patterns used in a single piece of work.1.2 TYPES AND CLASSIFICATION OF EMBROIDERY 2. Examples include crewel and traditional Chinese and Japanese embroidery. and by the relationship of stitch placement to the fabric.2. 2.1 Embroidery can be classified according to whether the design is stitched On top Through The foundation fabric. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 11 .
2 Counted-thread embroidery Patterns are created by making stitches over a predetermined number of threads in the foundation fabric. Counted-thread embroidery is more easily worked on an even-weave foundation fabric such as embroidery canvas.2.1. aid a cloth.Since the 19th century. Traditional canvas work such as bargello is a counted-thread technique. Examples include needlepoint and some forms of black work embroidery 2. These are particularly suited to pictorial rather than geometric Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 12 . printed and hand painted canvases where the painted or printed image serves as color-guide have eliminated the need for counting threads.2.2. or specially woven cotton and linen fabrics although non-even weave linen is used as well.1.3 Canvas work In canvas work threads are stitched through a fabric mesh to create a dense pattern that completely covers the foundation fabric.
When created in white thread on white linen or cotton.6 Applique Is the technique of taking a pattern of one material.4 Drawn thread work and cutwork The foundation fabric is deformed or cut away to create holes that are then embellished with embroidery.5Alphabet Design Embroidery Was originally used to mark household linens and then used to personalize handmade gifts. this work is collectively referred to as whitework. ornamented with Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 13 . These techniques are the progenitors of needlelace.2. often with thread in the same color as the foundation fabric. 2. This technique uses padding stitches under an even layer of even stitches to produce a raised embroidery effect.1.designs deriving from the Berlin wool work craze of the early 19th century. The edges of the cut-out design are either sewed over. laid on another which forms the ground. 2.1. 22.214.171.124.
braid.2. It is a kind of fine chenille and came in both silk and wool. Berlin work was used to create cushions. gold thread. The Back Stitch is the only stitch used with this type of embroidery.7 Arrasene Embroidery Is an embroidery material that was very popular during Victorian times. bags and furniture covers.1. a new processes of dyeing wools made this type of embroidery possible.fancy cord. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 14 .2.1. 2.8 Back Stitch Embroidery Back Stitch Embroidery is one of the simplest kinds of embroidery. The resulting embroidery produced very durable and long lasting pieces.1. It was introduced for artistic embroidery around 1883 and was thought to likely supersede other kinds of embroidery materials used in bold designs in decorative needlework.2. 2.9 Bead Embroidery (beading) Berlin embroidery Is a style of canvas work embroidery. or any other appropriate material. In the 1830's. 2.
It is entirely conventional in design and also in manner of working.1.2. a term borrowed from lacemaking. 2.13 Chenille Chip Embroidery Embroidery on Chip was embroidery on material made either of fine plaited chips or wood shavings. 2.2.10 Black work Broderie Anglaise Broderie Anglaise is also known as English Embroidery.2.2. 126.96.36.199 Canvas Work Is stitched onto coarse or tight-textured canvas and also referred to as needlepoint. See Needlepoint.2.11 Bulgarian Embroidery Bulgarian embroidery is used almost exclusively upon heavy linens and canvas.2. It is kind of White Embroidery. The designs used for this type of work were very simple.14 Coral work Crazy Work Crazy work is made by attaching random size and shape pieces of material together to form a larger piece of Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 15 . 2.1.1.
Aida cloth is the choice of most Embroiderers today. It is composed of floss stitched in an X like manner on canvas or a canvas like material. This material then can be used in making a quilt or other projects. 2. The designs are generally bold.1. the cut edges are embroidered.1.material.2.16 Cross-Stitch Embroidery Is probably the most common types of embroidery.2. since it is difficult to create small intricate designs in wool. Cretonne fabric made it very easy to make wonderful and unique applique linens quickly. etc.1. Cretonne Applique This type of applique was very popular with Victorian women. 2. and the Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 16 . Many different projects described on this page. Small shapes are cut out of the ground material.2. all of which are but the same style of work under different names. 2.17 Cut-Work Cut Work. also called Venetian embroidery and Roman embroidery. cushions. such as table cover. Java canvas was typically used by Victorian ladies.15 Crewel embroidery This type of embroidery gets its name from the fine wool yarn that is used.
2. It is kind of White Embroidery. and the remaining threads are embroidered.2.2. make this type of embroidery easily recognized.1. done entirely in one color. 2. Hardanger and Hedebo can be classified as cut work.vacant space is often filled in with decorative stitches. 2.1.20 Dresden Embroidery Dresden Embroidery is named from the ware of the same name. 2. Quaint Holland scenes. Linens embroidered in this type of embroidery will add a beautiful sophistication to any Victorian table 188.8.131.52 Delft Embroidery This style of work gains its name from the Delft ware.1.19 Drawn thread Certain threads of the warp or weft (or both) are removed from the ground. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 17 .21 English Embroidery English Embroidery is also known as Broderie Anglaise .
2. also known as Print Work.2.26 French Laid Embroidery French Laid Embroidery.1. also known as White Work. is used to reproduce line engravings with embroidery and paint. By using many different hues of the same color.1.2.22 English Eyelet Embroidery Was a popular means of decorating shirtwaists.1.2.23 Etching Embroidery Etching embroidery. Traditionally designs are very colorful. 2. is known and appreciated the world over. It is a raised embroidery. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 18 .24 Filet Embroidery Is done on a net-like fabric.1. 2.2.2. 2.1. very intricate shading effects were produced. 2. The stitches are close and firm. collars and other apparel in the late 1800s.25 Florentine Embroidery Is also known as Bargello Embroidery.
It is fast and easy.30 Irridescent Embroidery Irridescent Embroidery is sometimes called opalescent embroidery and either term indicates the distinctive feature of the work.2.2.28 Huckaback Embroidery Huckaback Embroidery is embroidered on Huckaback fabric.27 Gretchen Embroidery Gretchen embroidery is an unusual embroidery technique not often found. and is an imitation of the Floss Silk Embroidery made by the natives of India.1.1.1. It is always worked in Kensington Stitch and in the palest of colors Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 19 .1.2.2. 2.29 Indian Floss Silk Embroidery Indian Floss Silk Embroidery is work executed upon black or white net with white or colored floss silks. 2. The most characteristic feature of this style of work consists in the treatment of the background.2. 2.
2.2. as well as other names. and other items because it looked well on both sides.1. It uses the buttonhole stitch and other simple stitches. It is basically an adaption of the Buttonhole stitch.1.31 Jewel Jewel Embroidery is the introduction of dots in a design which are worked in imitation of jewels 2. It can be described as a combination of Drawn Work and Embroidery. muslins. 2.32 Mediaeval Embroidery Is also known as "Point Venice".2. and cambrics.1. tablecloths.2. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 20 .33 Mexican Embroidery Mexican Embroidery is suitable for ornamenting washable materials such as linens.31 Linen Embroidery Linen Embroidery was used to decorate borders of towels.1.2. "Italian Relief Embroidery". 2.
caps. 2. the tent stitch was used most often.1. 2.2.37 Needlepoint is embroidery done on canvas. 2. depending upon locations.35 Mexican Wheel Embroidery Is similar to Mexican Square Embroidery but has its own unique appearance.184.108.40.206.1.2. 2. Although different stitches were used. it may be the perfect addition to your embroidery fancy work. use a much wider range of stitches than ever used before.2.38 Net Embroidery Net Embroidery is an effective way of ornamenting White or Black Net for dress trimmings.2.34 Mexican Square Embroidery Is unusual. Traditionally Needlepoint was completed on a linen canvas with wool thread. when needlepointing.1.36 Mountmellick Embroidery Is also called Mountmellick Work or Fine White Work. Today embroiderers. and other Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 21 .
one strand of which is drawn out.1.42 Punched Work Punched Work is another type of embroidery that has been used to describe different types of embroidery.41 Persian Embroidery Persian Embroidery has changed over the course of history.2.39 Netting Silk in Embroidery The most delicate kinds of embroidery are worked with fine netting silk.40 Oriental Embroidery Oriental Embroidery is actually a class of embroidery.2.1.small articles of dress.1. Indian.2. It includes Chinese. Bulgarian.2. and Turkish embroideries. 2.1. They are celebrated for a number of reasons. It receives its name based upon the designs and colors used. 2. when thinking of Punch or Punched Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 22 . It is also used for home decorative items that do not get a lot of wear. Most people today. Persian. 2. Japanese. 2.
This type of embroidery has been around for centuries. Usually Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 23 . 2. One kind is when stitches are taken over a wadding of cotton. The patterns are usually very simple line drawings.1. such as wire mesh.Embroidery automatically think of the type that has the loops of top of the fabric (similar to a hooked rug). is more of a drawn work 2. The other Punched Work. 2.43 Raised Embroidery There a number of different Raised Embroideries. Another is when the design is formed with loops of Plush Stitch.1. is used.45 Ribbon Embroidery The earlier ribbon embroidery designs were worked out with a narrow China ribbon about one-half inch in width. which are afterward fluffed up and cut. as described and illustrated here. The designs were chiefly floral in nature.1.2.2. then covered with cloth and then embroidered. And yet a third kind is when a stiffening material.2.44 Red work Red work is a form of needlework that uses red cotton embroidery floss on a white background.
1.48 Seed Embroidery Is an German Victorian era embroidery using a variety of seeds and chenilles to produce a very unique type of embroidery. e. chenille. i. the foliage are embroidered in arrasene.2. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 24 .only the wealthy could afford to do this type of embroidery 2.47 Rice Embroidery Rice Embroidery is a type of White Embroidery.2. filoselle or embroidery silk.1.1. 2.2.2. The Rice Stitch is used extensively in this type of embroidery..46 Ribbon Work In Ribbon Work. hence the name. flowers and buds only are made of ribbon.49 Smocking Is decorative stitches that secure gathers or folds. the petals only.1. which have been previously formed in the foundation material. 2. 2.
2.54 Venetian Embroidery Venetian Embroidery takes its name from Venetian lace. owing to a certain similarity in its general Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 25 .1.52 Towelling (Toweling) Embroidery Towelling (Toweling) Embroidery was very popular in the 1880's.2. 2.2.51 Swiss Embroidery Swiss Embroidery Swiss embroidery is known by many different names such as Broderie Anglaise.53 Tulle Embroidery Tulle Embroidery is a true Victorian style embroidery. It is a mix of easy embroidery stitches and drawn work. 2. floss. Irish Work.1. The results are remarkable.2.1. Simple to do using just Tulle.1.1.2. and Madeira Work. and a simple pattern 2.50 Straw Embroidery Straw Embroidery is virtually unheard of now but it was a type of embroidery Victorians were interested in using.2.2.
It resembles Roman Work and Strasbourg Embroidery.2. but is lighter than either in effect.appearance.57 White Embroidery Is also known as White Work.2. 2.1.55 Venetian Long Stitch Embroidery Venetian Long Stitch Embroidery is the old-fashioned description of Worsted Work worked on open canvas.1. of course. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 26 .2. the thread employed must correspond with the material on which the embroidery is done. Often the work is padded and raised.1.56 Wallachian Embroidery The present adaptations of this work show it in any material that can be embroidered. 2. 2. and.
It is an ancient art of threadwork which creates designs and pictures by sewing strands of material on to another layer of fabric. accessories.2. towels and so forth.1 Hand embroidery Embroidery is needlework done for decorative purposes on items such as clothing.3 EMROIDERY CLASSIFICATION Hand embroidery Machine embroidery 2. leather or metallic strands. While most embroidery is done using thread or wool sewn onto a woven fabric. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 27 . bed sheets. it can also be done by working with non-traditional materials such as wire. Today with the advances in science and technology embroidery can also be done on traditional as well as non-traditional fabrics such as leather.3. household linens. plastic and felt as well.
2. The name originates from a series of chairs found in the Bargello palace in Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 28 .2 Bargello Embroidery: Bargello is a type of needlepoint embroidery consisting of upright flat stitches laid in a mathematical pattern to create motifs.3.3. The name is derived from the Italian town of Assisi where the modern form of the craft originated.Some of the types include: 2.1 Assisi Embroidery: Assisi embroidery is a form of counted-thread embroidery based on an ancient Italian tradition where the background is filled with embroidery stitches and the main motifs are left void i.1. unstitched.1.e.
but firmly twisted threads give a better look than embroidery floss.3. Traditionally black work is stitched in silk thread on white or off-white linen or cotton fabric. Sometimes metallic threads or colored threads are used for accents. 2.Florence. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 29 . Any black thread can be used. Sometimes it is counted-thread embroidery which is usually stitched on even-weave fabric.1.3 Black work Embroidery: Black work Embroidery is a form embroidery using black thread. which have a "flame stitch" pattern.
Unlike some other forms of embroidery.1.4 Bunka shishu: In English often shortened to bunka. Bunka has gained in popularity since the advent of numbered kits. bunka is fragile and is usually presented as artwork rather than as clothing adornment.1.5 Crewel Embroidery: Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 30 . Crewel Embroidery 2. Bunka artists use a specialized embroidery needle and rayon threads to create very detailed pictures that some liken to oil paintings.2.3. living things (traditionally fish). and traditional Japanese scenes. is a form of Japanese embroidery originating around the turn of the 20th century. which provide a step-by-step guide to producing artwork.3. Typical subjects include people.
1. is a decorative form of surface embroidery using wool and a variety of different embroidery stitches to follow a design outline applied to the fabric. 2.3. The technique is at least a thousand years old.Crewelwork. This form of cross-stitch is also called counted cross-stitch in order to distinguish it from other Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 31 . Cross-stitch is usually executed on easily countable even weave fabric called aida cloth. rasterlike pattern are used to form a picture. The stitcher counts the threads in each direction so that the stitches are of uniform size and appearance.6 Cross-stitch: Cross-stitch is a popular form of counted-thread embroidery in which X-shaped stitches in a tiled. It was used in the Bayeux Tapestry in Jacobean embroidery and in the Quaker tapestry.
It is also grouped as whitework embroidery because it was traditionally done in white thread on white fabric and is often combined with other whitework techniques. the stitcher simply stitches over the printed pattern. The remaining threads are grouped or bundled together into a variety of patterns.8 Hardanger embroidery Hardanger embroidery or "Hardangersøm" is a form of embroidery traditionally worked with white thread on white even-weave cloth.7 Drawn thread work Drawn thread work is a form of counted-thread embroidery based on removing threads from the warp and/or the weft of a piece of even-weave fabric.forms of cross-stitch.3.3. 2. 2. The more elaborate styles of drawn thread work use in fact a variety of other stitches and techniques. It is sometimes called whitework embroidery.1. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 32 .1. Sometimes cross-stitch is done on designs printed on the fabric (stamped cross-stitch). but the drawn thread parts are their most distinctive element. using counted thread and drawn thread work techniques.
in a row. or in a mass) and the size of the ribbon will all have an effect. Always read the designer's notes for best result Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 33 .1. The size of the stitch and how they are used (singly.2.3.9 Ribbon Embroidery Ribbon embroidery is not as exact as other forms of needlework. There are as many variations to these stitches as there are designers who use them.
3. Hobbyists also machine embroider for personal sewing and craft projects. uses a basic zigzag sewing machine.1 Free-motion machine embroidery In free-motion machine embroidery. The first.2. embroidered designs are created by using a basic zigzag sewing machine. There are two main types of machine embroidery. and uniform adornment. It is used commercially in product branding.2 Machine Embroidery Machine embroidery is a process whereby a sewing machine or embroidery machine is used to create patterns on textiles. free-motion sewing machine embroidery. The second.2. As it is used primarily for tailoring. Machine embroidery is of two types:2. To create free-motion machine embroidery.3. uses an embroidery machine or sewing/embroidery machine. computerized machine embroidery. The operator lowers or covers the "feed dogs" or machine teeth Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 34 . corporate advertising. the embroiderer runs the machine and skillfully moves tightly hooped fabric under the needle to create a design. this type of machine lacks the automated features of a specialized machine.
the stitches form an image onto a piece of fabric. Though some manufacturers still use manual embroidery to embellish garments. many prefer computerized embroidery's ease and reduced costs. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 35 . An embroiderer can produce a filled-in effect by sewing many parallel rows of straight stitching.and moves the fabric manually. unlike with computerized embroidery. Many quilters and fabric artists use a process called thread drawing (or thread painting) to create embellishments on their projects or to create textile art. the operator must stop and re-thread the machine manually for each subsequent color in a multi-color design. the main use of manual machine embroidery is in fiber art and quilting projects. As this is a manual process rather than an digital reproduction. any pattern created using free-motion machine embroidery is unique and cannot be exactly reproduced. using the machine's settings for running stitch and fancier built-in stitches. In this way. Since a standard sewing machine only has one needle. He or she must also manually trim and clean up loose or connecting threads after the design is completed. With the advent of computerized machine embroidery. Free-motion machine embroidery can be timeconsuming. The operator develops the embroidery manually. A machine's zigzag stitch can create thicker lines within a design or be used to create a border.
including satin stitch embroidery. Such a machine might have 20 or more heads. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 36 . Industrial and commercial embroidery machines and combination sewing-embroidery machines have a hooping or framing system that holds the framed area of fabric taut under the sewing needle and moves it automatically to create a design from a pre-programmed digital embroidery pattern.3.2. each consisting of 15 or more needles. each of which can sew the same design onto a separate garment concurrently. chain stitch embroidery. Some can trim and change colors automatically.2. appliqué. These machines require the user to input the correct color change sequence before beginning to embroider. sequins. A multi-needle machine may consist of multiple sewing heads. and cutwork. A head is usually capable of producing many special fabric effects. Sewing-embroidery machines generally have only one needle and require the user to change thread colors during the embroidery process. the machine will require varying degrees of user input to read and sew embroidery designs. Multi-needle industrial machines are generally threaded prior to running the design and do not require rethreading. Depending on its capabilities.2 Computerized machine embroidery Most modern embroidery machines are computer controlled and specifically engineered for embroidery.
which is 18 meters in length and equipped with 1.2. The features that differentiate embroidery from other kinds of lace are its freedom of design and ability to create luxurious three dimensional effects.000 needles.2.3.3 Schiffli machine embroidery Schiffli Embroidery is manufactured by applying machine embroidering with front yarn and back yarn on base cloth using the Schiffli Embroidery machine. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 37 .
2.4 Variation in the embroidery Embroidery is classified into several variations depending on production methods and materials used. Common varieties are: Allovers Guipires Chemical Automatic Color Change Embroidery on Net Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 38 .
thus laces of many styles can be duplicated on the Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 39 . product. final product. on which the stitching is performed. allowing only the the machine in addition to being embroidered yarn to remain on the stitched by needles. The fabric is dissolved allowing the embroidered stitching and the remains on the final net to remain.Allovers Embroidery Embroidery on Net The water-soluble fabric is lapped over the net. The stitching is performed Later the water-soluble fabric on the fabric. Guipires Embroidery Bored Embroidery The stitching is performed on waterThe fabric is perforated by a soluble fabric which is dissolved special device called borers on afterward.
which enables the needles for different colors to work in turn. When the outlines of the shapes on the drawing are digitized by the use of a mouse. The data on the floppy is loaded into a sampling machine whose length Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 40 . the system determines the locations of the stitching point by referring to pre-specified parameters such as stitch width. This process is called punching which is an important element to determine the quality of embroidery. Embroidery production process Punching and Sampling The sketch created by an embroidery designer is first enlarged by 6 times and traced manually. then translate them into machine interpretative pattern data which is output on to a floppy disk. Color Change Embroidery Multi-color embroidery produced by a special type of machine called •color Change Machine.embroidery machine. and the resulting drawing is posted on the digitizer of a special CAD system called •computer punching system.
Mending. The machine is a large one with 18 meter length. the positioning of the machine frame can be performed with higher speed and more accuracy. The manufactured sample piece is shown to the customers for order. Machine Embroidering (Production) Once the order is placed. Shearing.5 meter height . embroidering begins on a 15-yard production machine. Thus two pieces of fabric. Finishing The defects found upon close inspection will be mended by sewing machine. each with 13.1 meter width can be embroidered at once. Two pieces of base fabric are set vertically. the other on the lower.7 meters length and 1. Inspection.ranges from 1 meter to 4 meters.and more than 1000 needles. Since the introduction of computer numerical control. The floating thread is clipped by the Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 41 . one piece on the upper stage. 4.
shearing machine and sent to a dying factory to be finished. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 42 .
Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 43 .
How Schiffli Machine Works Front thread and bobbin thread form stitches Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 44 .
one hook and the big thread Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 45 .Combination of needle and shuttle form lock of the switch Frame Movement For each working needle one spool or cone has to be set. The thread starts from the spool and is winded around the thread roller 2-3 times (thread should not slip). From there it passes the thread watcher.
and the friction of the goods holds the thread. tension is applied as the big thread guide tightens the stitch thus formed. It is then retracted slightly. In Austria each revolution or movement is counted as a half stitch. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 46 . A shuttle containing the yarn which is attached to the previous stitch in the back of the goods is driven through this loop. The needle is retracted while the shuttle is at its highest point and the shuttle returns to the bottom of the box. similar to that of a sewing machine. The loop is closed with the bobbin thread locked inside. The Schiffli machine is a variation on the sewing machine. The front yearn is treated in a needle which passes through the goods to a predetermined point. It embroiders with a front thread and bobbin thread (yarn at the back of the cloth) which from together a lock stitch. As the needle retracts. forcing a loop to be formed. Each stitch forms in the same manner. while most of the world counts each movement as one full stitch. to allow enough thread for the shuttle to pass through the loop. stopped for the stitch and moved again.guide until the thread finally goes through the eye of the needle. and the needle is driven again slightly further into the fabric. Between each of these stitches the frame is moved. thus forming the embroidery design.
Unlike spools. the yarn is drawn off its right side. In such cases the yarn is drawn from the top end through the middle of the cone. cones are fixed on the cone holder device and can therefore not be turned. It is placed on an angular spindle. The winding off the yarn from full and heavy spools can be facilitated by using metal attachments which are placed in the middle of the tubes of the spools in order to allow a constant front yarn tension. which might be placed on the floor or might be fixed on the cone holder device. This way yarn can be prevented from being stuck. Sometimes cones are used for big order of one design. when the spool would not hold enough yarn for a long run without constant changing.The spool used for a Schiffli machine is mounted on a shaft to hold a large quantity of yarn. Application of Embroidery Party Dress Formal Dress 47 Lingerie and Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh .
Computerized embroidery machines are programmed to stitch the selected design and all the operator must do is place the garment. They may be manually operated or computer controlled. They were developed for producing small orders and are used for customizing garments. Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 48 . Manually operated machines depend on skilled operator to position and manipulate materials under the needles. Single head machines are most often used for customizing garments.Foundation home furnishing fabric automobile furnishing fabric SINGLE HEAD EMBROIDERY MACHINE Single head embroidery machines are similar to basic lockstitch sewing machine. Single head machines are most often used for custom work and monoprogramming.
larger patterns require wider needle range and fewer heads. This allows manufacturer to customize their service and produce very small orders as needed by their customers.because close-set heads Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 49 . For example. A computer network can interface and control multiple single-head machines so that same time. Multi head embroidery machine Multi head embroidery machines are similar in operation to single-head machines except they contain two or more heads that stitch the same pattern simultaneously. Smaller areas are best embroidered with more close-set heads. to stitch a small order of three on a large multi head machines wastes capacity that could better be used for large multi head machines wastes capacity that could better be used for large orders. Border machines provide the most flexibility .Technology has expanded the use of single-head embroidery machines.
Loading time. more heads require lore loading time.can be spaced close together and alternate heads can be uncoupled to allow stitching of a wider pattern. The optimal number of heads is generally dependent on the firm’s average order size. should be less than stitching time if the operation is to be productive . With multi head machines. Primary data collection method FIELD VISIT: The industry we worked upon was named Chaudhary’s Computer Embroidery Works. located in the growing urbans of Hyderabad at Dilsukh Nagar in the Alkapuri Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 50 . Higher stitch counts are more produced on machine with more heads. Each head utilizes 1 to 6 needles and up to 6 colors in stitching a design. and size of the area to be stitched. garments are individually hooped and inserted under each head. and for designs with a lower stitch count . Machines are purchased with a specific number of heads. average number of stitches per design. there is more idle time during loading process. which entails inserting the fabric or garment component under the machine head .
Colony. The industry was a home scale computer embroidery setup. where the work was done by all the females of the house. The work process involved collecting all the Location of the industry: About the industry: Time taken to reach the industry Raw material used in the industry Manufacturing process Machines in the industry Types of goods produced Cost analysis Conclusion Documentation by Apoorv Mohan and Chanchal Sadh 51 .
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