Chapter 7

True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ 1. Peer-to-peer networks pass packets between multiple networks. 2. NetBEUI cannot scale into large internetworks because it cannot hold Network layer information in its network header. 3. IPX/SPX can be routed across the Internet. 4. Routers use metrics to determine which routes are better than other routes. 5. For the RIP (version 1) routing protocol, hop count is the sole metric used to determine the relative desirability of a particular path. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 6. ____ protocols have packet headers that can contain Network layer addresses. a. Routed c. NetBEUI b. Nonrouted d. NetBIOS 7. ____ is a proprietary protocol suite developed by Novell. a. NetBIOS c. IPX/SPX b. NetBEUI d. TCP/IP 8. An autonomous system (AS) uses ____ as routing protocols. a. Exterior Gateway Protocols c. Limit Gateway Protocols b. Border Gateway Protocols d. Interior Gateway Protocols 9. ____ routing protocols broadcast their entire routing table to each neighbor router at predetermined intervals. a. Link-state c. Distance-state b. Distance-vector d. Link-vector




____ 10. ____ are often referred to as count-to-infinity problems because loops, without preventive measures, will cause packets to bounce around the internetwork infinitely. a. Hop loops c. Routing loops b. Routing hops d. Hop counts ____ 11. ____ controls what information a router will send out through a particular interface. a. Defining a maximum c. Defining a minimum b. Split horizon d. Split maximum ____ 12. ____, which are the packets used to send out LSAs, allow every router in the internetwork to share a common view of the topology of the internetwork. a. SPFs c. EGPs b. OSPFs d. LSPs

Networks with one route to the Internet are called ____. Static routes are configured by a network administrator using the ____ command. static networks d. start networks b. show rip b. stub routers b. EIGRP ____ 14. ip route d. you can use the ____ command or the ip route 0. a. hop count b. a. routing rip b. rip table ____ 16. rip ip on ____ 15. a. show ip rip c.0 0. The ____ command displays real-time rip updates being sent and received and places very high processing demands on your router. flush interval ____ 17. which could affect network performance. BGP b. rip interval c.____ 13. The ____ command allows you to configure an administrative distance. rip c. a. stub route ____ 22. a. administrative distance d. d.0. You use the ____ command to display the routing table. a. OSPF d. The Cisco ____ command turns on RIP routing for a network. igrp maximum-hops d. adm route ____ 24. The ____ is the time at which a route will be totally removed from the routing table if no updates are received. a. static route c. RIP c. a.0. ____ is a distance-vector routing protocol that broadcasts entire routing tables to neighbors every 30 seconds. as they allow administrators complete control over path selection. show route d.0. adm distance ip route b. show ip protocol d. stub networks ____ 21. A ____ route is a type of static route that the administrator configures. hub d. ip default-network c. The ____ command allows you to set the maximum hop count for IGRP. a. ip network default . hub routers d. Stub routes ____ 23. RIP routes c. a. network d. breakfall b. a. ____ are very powerful. out of every interface.0 command to configure a default route. show ip route c. Static routes b. default ____ 25. When IP routing is enabled. metric maximum-hops c. a. debug ip rip b. static ip b. ip distance c. Routers with only one route out are known as ____. start routers ____ 20. debug ip protocol ____ 18. a. static routers c. maximum-hops ____ 19.0. stub c. metric hops b. hub networks c. Dynamic routes d.

Default routes are sometimes called ____ routes.b. the most commonly used distance-vector protocol ____ 34. i. the number of routers a packet must pass through to reach a particular network ____ 36. a common technique used to stop routing loops ____ 33. a. break d.0. in which computers communicate with and provide services to their “peers. quad zero Completion Complete each statement.” 28. Routers configured with a link-state routing protocol use ______________________________ to inform neighbor routers on the internetwork. NetBEUI b. BGP ____ 32. Hop count d. value used to define the suitability of a particular route ____ 39. Routed protocols c. h. ____________________ is a state where all routers on the internetwork share a common view of the internetwork routes. 29. value used to determine the reliability of the information regarding a particular route ____ 37. 30. Matching Match each item with a statement below: a. Metric e. developed to support networks consisting of multiple networks or subnetworks ____ 35. Early networks were sometimes configured as ____________________ networks. an example of an EGP ____ 40. ____________________ are protocols used by routers to make path determination choices and to share those choices with other routers. 31.0.0 ____ 26. ip default 0. ip default d. network b. the most common nonroutable protocol Short Answer f. fallback c. g. Hold-down timer Link-state packets RIP Administrative distance . packets used to send out LSAs ____ 38. 27. A(n) _________________________ is a group of routers under the control of a single administration.

What is administrative distance? 47.41. Briefly describe NetBEUI. What are some of the drawbacks of using link-state routing protocols? 45. 42. 48. 43. How can you limit count-to-infinity problems by defining a maximum? 44. Briefly describe Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). Briefly describe IGRP. What are the metrics that can be configured for IGRP? 49. What are some of the attributes of RIP? 46. How can you change a route administrative distance? .

ANS: Routing protocols PTS: 1 REF: 174 29. 5. 17. 13.50. 16. ANS: autonomous system (AS) . 11. 19. 12. 21. How can you configure a default route? Chapter 7 Answer Section TRUE/FALSE 1. ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: F T F T T PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: 1 1 1 1 1 REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: 172 172 173 175 178 MULTIPLE CHOICE 6. 8. 4. 18. 26. 3. 25. 10. 9. 24. 7. 2. 22. ANS: peer-to-peer PTS: 1 REF: 172 28. 23. ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: A C D B C B D A B A D C A C D B C B D A D PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: 173 173 175 176 177 178 178 180 182 182 183 184 186 187 187 187 188 188 189 189 189 COMPLETION 27. 15. 20. 14.

if you try to use NetBEUI—or any nonroutable protocol—in a network with multiple networks. 39. PTS: 1 REF: 175 . in particular. ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: F H B C I G D E A PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: 178 179 173 174 183 178 174-175 176 172 REF: 178 SHORT ANSWER 41. and distance-vector routing protocols in general. It is also fast and efficient. NetBEUI ships with all Microsoft Windows operating systems. can support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM). short for NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface. Therefore. In small. EIGRP. NetBEUI cannot scale into large internetworks because it cannot hold Network layer information in its network header. when used with the no auto summary command. 33. EIGRP. but NetBEUI. Without this information. Unfortunately. like IGRP. 38. is Cisco proprietary and can only be used between Cisco routers. NetBEUI is easy to configure and use. PTS: 1 REF: 172 42. ANS: link-state advertisements (LSAs) link-state advertisements LSAs PTS: 1 MATCHING 32. ANS: Convergence PTS: 1 REF: 176 31. 35. 37. Additionally. 34. packets cannot be routed between multiple network segments. IGRP has been replaced by EIGRP in the most recent versions of the Cisco IOS. peer-to-peer networks. communication between the networks will fail. 40. As a hybrid routing protocol. ANS: EIGRP is a hybrid routing protocol developed by Cisco to overcome some of the limitations associated with IGRP.autonomous system AS PTS: 1 REF: 175 30. ANS: Several nonroutable protocols exist in today’s networking world. is the most common. EIGRP combines the best attributes of both distance-vector and link-state routing protocols. 36.

distance-vector routing protocols such as RIP and IGRP are typically used instead of OSPF. for smaller scale internetworks. defines a maximum hop count of 15. In fact. You should set the hop count to the maximum number of routers within your network if you are going to use hops with IGRP. The more reliable routing protocol will always be favored over the less reliable and will therefore have its route installed in the IP routing table of the router. • 16 hops is considered infinity. In addition. IGRP supports a hop count of 255. on the 256th hop IGRP will return an ICMP destination network unreachable message. ANS: Using link-state routing protocols does have some drawbacks. If you assign a packet a maximum hop count. if a routing loop did occur on a RIP internetwork. Administrative distances range from 0–255. Therefore. link-state routing protocols such as OSPF are much more complicated to configure on the routers. • It is easy to configure. the less reliable the routing protocol is considered to be. one of the most common distance-vector protocols. the 16th router that the packet tried to cross on a RIP internetwork would see that the packet had exceeded its TTL and would drop the packet. Due to the complexity of the Shortest Path First algorithm and the need to hold a view of the entire internetwork topology. If. The metric maximum-hops command allows you to set the maximum hop count for IGRP. PTS: 1 REF: 180 46. it cannot bounce infinitely around the internetwork. RIP. ANS: Administrative distance is a value used to determine the reliability of the information regarding a particular route.43. • It broadcasts the entire routing table to neighbors every 30 seconds. • It is capable of load balancing. In some situations you may actually want to reduce IGRP’s hop count to speed convergence and route processing. ANS: REF: 186 . PTS: 1 48. routers using link-state protocols must be configured with more memory and processing power than those using distance-vector routing protocols. for example. In other words. ANS: RIP has the following attributes: • It is a distance-vector routing protocol. ANS: IGRP is a proprietary distance-vector routing protocol created by Cisco to solve some of the problems associated with RIP. The larger the number. PTS: 1 REF: 179 45. ANS: Defining a maximum is one of the easiest ways to limit count-to-infinity problems. although 100 is the default if hop count is configured to be used as a metric. • It has a maximum hop count of 15. the packet would only travel through 15 routers before the packet exceeded its TTL and was dropped. • Hop count is the only metric available for path selection. PTS: 1 REF: 178 44. IGRP is configured to use hops as a metric and 255 hops is the value configured. This is why. A larger hop-count metric allows IGRP to be used on larger networks. PTS: 1 REF: 183 47.

which.0. if you want the static route to be used as a backup route to one learned via a dynamic routing protocol. When IP routing is enabled.0 0. The table would be massive and difficult to maintain. all packets addressed to destinations on networks not specifically listed in the routing table will not reach their destinations.0. This is why most network administrators use a combination of dynamic routing protocols and static routes to maintain the routing tables on their routers. all packets that are not defined specifically in your routing table will go to the specified interface for the default route. you can enter a default route for your router. you can use the ip default-network command or the ip route 0. be sure to set the administrative distance of the static route higher than that of the default dynamic routing protocol. IGRP can also be configured to use load and reliability metrics. In the case of stub networks. unless you add an administrative distance value to the end of your ip route command.IGRP does not use hops as a metric by default. as a practical matter. The metrics that can be configured for IGRP are: • Hops—Number of routers between source and destination networks • Load—The load on a link in the path • Bandwidth—The speed of the link (default) • Reliability—Measures reliability with a scale of 0 to 255 • Delay—The delay on the medium (default) • MTU—The size of the datagram PTS: 1 REF: 186 49.0. very often only static routing is used. Remember. because a static route is considered to be a preferred route since someone took the trouble to enter it. PTS: 1 REF: 189 .0. ANS: When you connect a router to the Internet.0 command to configure a default route. and you want all other packets to go to a specific location (usually a router that connects to the Internet). PTS: 1 REF: 188 50. as discussed previously. the administrative distance will be 1. Without a default route. ANS: The ip route command also allows you to configure an administrative distance. you cannot and would not want to enter all of the possible networks that are beyond your network. Once you have the routing table set up to handle all of the networks that you care to configure. The default metrics for IGRP are bandwidth and delay only. is a value used by the router to select the best route to a destination when there are two or more different routes to the same destination being reported from more than one source. Static routes have a much lower default metric than routes learned by dynamic routing protocols. A default route is a type of static route that the administrator configures. When you do. Of course.

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