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SingleStorey Steel Buildings
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
SingleStorey Steel Buildings
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  ii
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  iii
FOREWORD
This publication is part five of the design guide, SingleStorey Steel Buildings.
The 10 parts in the SingleStorey Steel Buildings guide are:
Part 1: Architect’s guide
Part 2: Concept design
Part 3: Actions
Part 4: Detailed design of portal frames
Part 5: Detailed design of trusses
Part 6: Detailed design of built up columns
Part 7: Fire engineering
Part 8: Building envelope
Part 9: Introduction to computer software
Part 10: Model construction specification
Part 11: Moment connections
SingleStorey Steel Buildings is one of two design guides. The second design guide is
MultiStorey Steel Buildings.
The two design guides have been produced in the framework of the European project
“Facilitating the market development for sections in industrial halls and low rise
buildings (SECHALO) RFS2CT20080030”.
The design guides have been prepared under the direction of Arcelor Mittal, Peiner
Träger and Corus. The technical content has been prepared by CTICM and SCI,
collaborating as the Steel Alliance.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  iv
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  v
Contents
Page No
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Definition 1
1.2 Use of trusses in singlestorey buildings 1
1.3 Different shapes of trusses 4
1.4 Aspects of truss design for roof structure 7
1.5 Design of wind girders 9
2 INTRODUCTION TO DETAILED DESIGN 11
2.1 General requirements 11
2.2 Description of the worked example 12
3 GLOBAL ANALYSIS 15
3.1 General 15
3.2 Modelling 15
3.3 Modelling the worked example 16
3.4 Simplified global analysis of the worked example 18
3.5 Secondary forces 19
3.6 Effect of clearance of deflection 21
3.7 Modification of a truss for the passage of equipment 23
4 VERIFICATION OF MEMBERS 28
4.1 Verification of members under compression 28
4.2 Verification of members in tension 41
5 VERIFICATION OF CONNECTIONS 45
5.1 Characteristics of the truss post connection 45
5.2 Chord continuity 47
5.3 Connection of diagonals to chords 48
REFERENCES 51
APPENDIX A Worked Example – Design of a continuous chord connection using
splice plate connections 53
APPENDIX B Worked example – Design of a truss node with gusset 79
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  vi
SUMMARY
This publication provides guidance on the design of trusses for singlestorey buildings.
The use of the truss form of construction allows buildings of all sizes and shapes to be
constructed. The document explains that both 2D and 3D truss forms can be used. The
2D form of truss is essentially a beam and is used to supporting a building roof,
spanning up to 120 metres for large industrial buildings. The 3D form of truss can be
used to cover large areas without intermediate supports; this form is often used for large
exhibition halls. The detailed guidance in this document relates mainly to 2D truss
structures composed of rolled profiles but the principles are generally applicable to all
forms of truss structure.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  1
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Definition
A truss is essentially a triangulated system of (usually) straight interconnected
structural elements; it is sometimes referred to as an open web girder. The
individual elements are connected at nodes; the connections are often assumed
to be nominally pinned. The external forces applied to the system and the
reactions at the supports are generally applied at the nodes. When all the
members and applied forces are in a same plane, the system is a plane or 2D
truss.
F
1 2
1
2
1 Compression axial force
2 Tension axial force
Figure 1.1 Members under axial forces in a simple truss
The principal force in each element is axial tension or compression. When the
connections at the nodes are stiff, secondary bending is introduced; this effect
is discussed below.
1.2 Use of trusses in singlestorey buildings
In a typical singlestorey industrial building, trusses are very widely used to
serve two main functions:
 To carry the roof load:
 Gravity loads (selfweight, roofing and equipment, either on the roof or
hung to the structure, snow loads)
 Actions due to the wind (including uplift due to negative pressure).
 To provide horizontal stability:
 Wind girders at roof level, or at intermediate levels if required
 Vertical bracing in the side walls and/or in the gables.
Two types of general arrangement of the structure of a typical singlestorey
building are shown in Figure 1.2 and in Figure 1.3.
In the first case (Figure 1.2), the lateral stability of the structure is provided by
a series of portal trusses: the connections between the truss and the columns
provide resistance to a global bending moment. Loads are applied to the portal
structure by purlins and side rails.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  2
For the longitudinal stability of the structure, a transverse roof wind girder,
together with bracing in the side walls, is used. In this arrangement the forces
due to longitudinal wind loads are transferred from the gables to the side walls
and then to the foundations.
Lateral stability provided by portal trusses
Longitudinal stability provided by transverse wind girder and vertical cross bracings (blue)
No longitudinal wind girder
Figure 1.2 Portal frame a arrangement
In the second case, as shown in Figure 1.3, each vertical truss and the two
columns on which it spans constitute a simple beam structure: the connection
between the truss and a column does not resist the global bending moment, and
the two column bases are pinned. Transverse restraint is necessary at the top
level of the simple structure; it is achieved by means of a longitudinal wind
girder carries the transverse forces due to wind on the side walls to the braced
gable walls.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  3
Vertical trusses are simply supported by columns
Lateral stability provided by longitudinal wind girder and vertical bracings in the gables (blue)
Longitudinal stability provided by transverse wind girder and vertical bracings (green)
Figure 1.3 Beam and column arrangement
A further arrangement is shown in Figure 1.4.The roof structure is arranged
with main trusses spanning from column to column, and secondary trusses
spanning from main truss to main truss.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  4
A A
L
On this plan view, main trusses are
drawn in blue: their span L is the long
side of the column mesh.
The secondary trusses have a shorter
span A (distance between main
trusses).
This arrangement is currently used for
“saw tooth roofs”, as shown on the
vertical section:
 Main beams are trusses with
parallel chords
 Secondary beams (green) have a
triangular shape.
in red, members supporting the north
oriented windows
Figure 1.4 General arrangement 3
1.3 Different shapes of trusses
A large range is available for the general shapes of the trusses. Some of the
commonly used shapes are shown in Table 1.1.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  5
Table 1.1 Main types of trusses
Pratt truss:
In a Pratt truss, diagonal members
are in tension for gravity loads. This
type of truss is used where gravity
loads are predominant
In a truss as shown, diagonal
members are in tension for uplift
loads. This type of truss is used
where uplift loads are predominant,
such as open buildings.
L
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2
0
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1
0
0
m
Warren truss:
In this type of truss, diagonal
members are alternatively in
tension and in compression
This type of truss is also used for
the horizontal truss of gantry/crane
girders (see Figure 1.5)
There are two different types of X truss :
 if the diagonal members are designed
to resist compression, the X truss is
the superposition of two Warren
trusses.
 if the resistance of the diagonal
members in compression is ignored,
the behaviour is the same as a Pratt
truss.
This shape of truss is more commonly
used for wind girders, where the diagonal
members are very long.
It is possible to add secondary members in
order to :
 create intermediate loading points
 limit the buckling length of members in
compression (without influencing the
global structural behaviour).
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.
For any of the forms shown above, it is
possible to provide either a single or a
double slope to the upper chord of a roof
supporting truss
This example shows a duopitch truss
Single slope upper chord for these
triangular trusses, part of a “saw tooth
roof”
North oriented windows
S
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m
Fink truss:
This type of truss is more commonly used
for the roof of houses.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  6
The horizontal truss is positioned at the
level of the upper flange of the gantry
girder in order to resist the horizontal
forces applied by the wheels on the rail
(braking of the crane trolley, crabbing)
1
3
2
1 Crane girder
2 Crane rail
3 Horizontal bracing (V truss)
Figure 1.5 Horizontal bracing for a crane girder
Figure 1.6 and Figure 1.7 illustrate some of the trusses described in Table 1.1.
Figure 1.6 Ntruss – 100 m span
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  7
Figure 1.7 Ntruss (also with Ntruss purlins)
1.4 Aspects of truss design for roof structure
1.4.1 Truss or Ibeam
For the same steel weight, it is possible to get better performance in terms of
resistance and stiffness with a truss than an Ibeam. This difference is more
sensitive for long spans and/or heavy loads.
The full use of this advantage is achievable if the height of the truss is not
limited by criteria other than the structural efficiency (a limit on total height of
the building, for example).
However, fabrication of a truss is generally more time consuming than for an
Ibeam, even considering that the modernisation of fabrication equipment
allows the optimisation of fabrication times.
The balance between minimum weight and minimum cost depends on many
conditions: the equipment of the workshop, the local cost of manufacturing; the
steel unit cost, etc. Trusses generally give an economic solution for spans over
20 or 25 m.
An advantage of the truss design for roofs is that ducts and pipes that are
required for operation of the buildings services can be installed through the
truss web.
1.4.2 General geometry
In order to get a good structural performance, the ratio of span to truss depth
should be chosen in the range 10 to 15.
The architectural design of the building determines its external geometry and
governs the slope(s) given to the top chord of the truss.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  8
The intended use of the internal space can lead either to the choice of a
horizontal bottom chord (e.g. where conveyors must be hung under the chord),
or to an inclined internal chord, to allow maximum space to be freed up (see
the final example in Table 1.1).
To get an efficient layout of the truss members between the chords, the
following is advisable:
 The inclination of the diagonal members in relation to the chords should be
between 35° and 55°
 Point loads should only be applied at nodes
 The orientation of the diagonal members should be such that the longest
members are subject to tension (the shorter ones being subject to
compression).
1.4.3 Section of the members
Many solutions are available. The main criteria are:
 Sections should be symmetrical for bending out of the vertical plane of the
truss
 For members in compression, the buckling resistance in the vertical plane
of the truss should be similar to that out of the plane.
A very popular solution, especially for industrial buildings, is to use sections
composed of two angles bolted on vertical gusset plates and intermediately
battened, for both chords and internal members. It is a very simple and efficient
solution.
For large member forces, it is a good solution to use:
 Chords having IPE, HEA or HEB sections, or a section made up of two
channels (UPE)
 Diagonals formed from two battened angles.
The web of the IPE / HEA / HEB chord section is oriented either vertically or
horizontally. As it is easier to increase the resistance to inplane buckling of the
chords (by adding secondary diagonal members) than to increase their to out
ofplane resistance, it is more efficient to have the web horizontal, for chords in
compression. On the other hand, it is easier to connect purlins to the top chord
if it has a vertical web.
It could be a good solution to have the top chord with a vertical web, and the
bottom chord with a horizontal web.
Another range of solutions is given by the use of hollow sections, for chords
and/or for internals.
1.4.4 Types of connections
For all the types of member sections, it is possible to design either bolted
connections or welded connections. Generally, bolted connections are preferred
on site. Where bolted connections are used with bolts loaded perpendicular to
their shank, it is necessary to evaluate the consequences of slack in
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  9
connections. In order to reduce these consequences (typically, the increase of
the deflections), solutions are available such as use of prestressed bolts, or
limiting the hole size.
1.4.5 Lateral stability
It is necessary to design the chords in compression against the outofplane
buckling. For simply supported trusses, the upper chord is in compression for
gravity loading, and the bottom chord is in compression for uplift loading. For
portal trusses, each chord is partly in compression and partly in tension.
Lateral restraint of the upper chord is generally given by the purlins and the
transverse roof wind girder.
For the restraint of the bottom chord, additional bracing may be necessary, as
shown in Figure 1.8. Such bracing allows the buckling length of the bottom
chord to be limited out of the plane of the truss to the distance between points
laterally restrained: they serve to transfer the restraint forces to the level of the
top chord, the level at which the general roof bracing is provided. This type of
bracing is also used when a horizontal load is applied to the bottom chord (for
example, forces due to braking from a suspended conveyor).
A
A
A
A A
A
Truss
AA
Cross bracing between trusses
Thick black dots: two
consecutive trusses
Blue The purlin which
completes the bracing in
the upper region
Green The longitudinal
element which closes the
bracing in the lower
region
Red Vertical roof bracing
Figure 1.8 Lateral bracing
The roof purlins often serve as part of the bracing at the top chord. Introduction
of longitudinal members at the lower chord allows the trusses to be stabilised
by the same vertical bracing.
It is possible to create a horizontal wind girder at the level of the bottom
chords, with longitudinal elements to stabilize all the trusses.
1.5 Design of wind girders
1.5.1 Transverse wind girder
In general, the form of a transverse wind girder is as follows (see Figure 1.2):
 The wind girder is arranged as an X truss, parallel to the roof plane.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  10
 The chords of the wind girder are the upper chords of two adjacent vertical
trusses. This means that the axial forces in these members due to loading on
the vertical truss and those due to loads on the wind girder loading must be
added together (for an appropriate combination of actions).
 The posts of the wind girder are generally the roof purlins. This means that
the purlins are subject to a compression, in addition to the bending due to
the roof loading.
 It is also possible, for large spans of the wind girder, to have separate posts
(generally tubular section) that do not act as purlins.
 The diagonal members are connected in the plane of the posts. If the posts
are the purlins, the diagonal members are connected at the bottom level of
the purlins. In a large X truss, diagonals are only considered in tension and
it is possible to use single angles or cables.
It is convenient to arrange a transverse wind girder at each end of the building,
but it is then important to be careful about the effects of thermal expansion
which can cause significant forces if longitudinal elements are attached
between the two bracing systems, especially for buildings which are longer
than about 60 m.
In order to release the expansion of the longitudinal elements, the transverse
wind girder can be placed in the centre of the building, but then it is necessary
to ensure that wind loads are transmitted from the gables to the central
windbracing.
Transverse wind girders are sometimes placed in the second and penultimate
spans of the roof because, if the roof purlins are used as the wind girder posts,
these spans are less subject to bending by roof loads.
The purlins which serve as wind girder posts and are subject to compression
must sometimes be reinforced:
 To reinforce IPE purlins: use welded angles or channels (UPE)
 To reinforce cold formed purlins: increase of the thickness in the relevant
span, or, if that is not sufficient, double the purlin sections (with fitting for
the Zed, back to back for the Sigma).
1.5.2 Longitudinal wind girder
It is necessary to provide a longitudinal wind girder (between braced gable
ends) in buildings where the roof trusses are not “portalized”.
The general arrangement is similar to that described for a transverse wind
girder:
 X truss
 The chords are two lines of purlins in small buildings, or additional
elements (usually tubular sections)
 The posts are the upper chords of the consecutive stabilized roof trusses.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  11
2 INTRODUCTION TO DETAILED DESIGN
The detailed design of trusses is illustrated in the following Sections by
reference to a ‘worked example’. This Section summarizes the general
requirements and introduces the example. The topics covered in subsequent
Sections are:
Section 3: Global analysis
Section 4: Verification of members
Section 5: Verification of connections
Fully detailed calculations for verification of a gusset plate connection and a
chord splice are given in Appendices A and B.
2.1 General requirements
The parameters to be taken into account in design are:
 Aesthetics
 Geometry (span length, height, rise, etc)
 Actions.
The following requirements have to be considered:
 Regulatory requirements
 Contractual requirements with regard to standards
 Specific contractual requirements.
The resulting outcome of a design is the set of execution documents for the
structure.
The nature of regulatory requirements varies from one country to another.
Their purpose is usually to protect people. They exist in particular in the area
of seismic behaviour, and for the behaviour of buildings during a fire (see
SingleStorey Steel Buildings. Fire engineering Guide
1
).
The requirements in standards concern the determination of actions to be
considered, the methods of analysis to be used, and the criteria for verification
with respect to resistance and stiffness.
There is no limit to the number of specific requirements which may be imposed
for any particular building but these mainly concern construction geometry;
they influence determination of actions, in particular climatic actions.
Obligations and interface arrangements for detailed design might include:
 Banning the use of tubes for the bottom chord of trusses to which the
industry client wishes to hang equipment
 Obligation to use tubes for truss chords for reasons of appearance
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  12
 Use of the roof to stabilise certain structural elements.
The flowchart below illustrates the main steps in the design of a structural
element.
DATA
CHOICE OF
GLOBAL
ANALYSIS
MEMBER
RESISTANCE
VERIFICATION
CONNECTIONS
RESISTANCE
VERIFICATION
EC318
EC311
Contractual data
Geometrical data
Incidence of neighbouring
construction
Obligations or restrictions
in choice of sections
Nature and position of
permanent loads
Nature and position of
imposed loads
Stabilising role of envelope
Regulatory data and
Standards
Climatic loads
Seismic loads
Exploitation loads
…
SLS
VERIFICATION
CRITERIA
CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5
EC1
EC8
Figure 2.1 Flowchart for the design of a structural element
2.2 Description of the worked example
The worked example that is the subject of subsequent Sections is a large span
truss supporting the roof of an industrial building, by means of purlins in the
form of trusses. This example is directly transposed from a real construction
and has been simplified in order to clarify the overview.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  13
1
2
1 Main truss
2 Purlin truss
Note: the horizontal bracing is not displayed in this diagram but it is designed in such a way that
the purlins provide efficient lateral restraints to the main trusses.
Figure 2.2 Worked example  General layout of the roof
The roof is a symmetrical pitched roof; the slope on each side is 3%.
Each main truss has a span of 45,60 m and is simply supported at the tops of
the columns (there is no moment transmission between the truss and the
column).
General transverse stability of the building is provided by fixity of the columns
at ground level; longitudinal stability is provided by a system of roof bracings
and braced bays in the walls.
1
2 5
6
4
3
7
1
2
4
1 Upper chord IPE 330 with horizontal web
2 Lower chord IPE 330 with horizontal web
3 Post  Single angle L100x100x10
4 Top of the column (IPE 450)
5 Diagonals  Double angle
6 Secondary truss members
7 Sketch of the crosssection
Figure 2.3 Worked example – View of truss
The truss is illustrated in Figure 2.3. The truss chords are parallel and are made
up of IPE 330 profiles with the webs horizontal. The diagonals are made of
twinned angles: two 120 × 120 × 12 angles for diagonals in tension under
gravity loads (in blue in the diagram above), two 150 × 150 × 15 angles for
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  14
diagonals in compression under gravity loads (in red in the diagram above); the
posts are single angles 100 × 100 × 10.
Note that, in the central panels, secondary diagonals and posts are present.
They would generally be installed with one or other of the following
objectives:
 To permit application of a point load between main nodes, without causing
further bending in the upper chord
 To reduce buckling, in the plane of the truss of central members of the
upper chord.
In this example, the secondary trusses reduce the buckling length.
The pairs of angles which make up the section of a diagonal are joined by
battens, to ensure combined action with respect to buckling between the truss
nodes. To be efficient, battens must therefore prevent local slip of one angle in
relation to the other. See Section 4.1.3 for more information.
Each chord is fabricated in two pieces (see Figure 3.6). The diagonals and
posts are bolted at their two ends to vertical gusset plates, which are themselves
welded to the horizontal webs of the IPE 330 chords. Detailed diagrams of this
type of connection are given in Appendix A and in Sections 5.2 and 5.3.
The columns on which the truss is supported are IPE 450, for which the web is
perpendicular to the plane of the truss beam.
In order to illustrate all of the topics here, the truss beam in the worked
example is designed for two situations: a gravity load case and an uplift load
case. The loads correspond to the combination of actions, determined
according to EN 1990 for verification with respect to the ultimate limit state
(ULS).
91 kN
136 kN
182 kN
182 kN
182 kN
136 kN
91 kN
ULS combination n°1: Gravity loading
(without selfweight)
43,50 kN
65,25 kN 87 kN
87 kN
87 kN
65,25 kN
43,50 kN
ULS combination n°2: Uplift loading
Figure 2.4 Worked example – Load Combinations
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  15
3 GLOBAL ANALYSIS
3.1 General
Section 1.1 describes the general behaviour of a truss. In reality, structures
deviate from this theoretical behaviour and their global analysis involves
consideration of the deviations. In particular, the deviations include the
occurrence of bending in the members, in addition to the axial forces. These
bending moments, known as “secondary moments”, can cause significant
additional stresses in the members which make up the truss.
The deviations in design take various forms:
 All the members which make up the structure are not usually articulated at
their original node and their end node. Truss chords, in particular, are
usually fabricated in one length only, over several truss purlins: the
continuous chord members are then connected rigidly to their original and
end nodes. Rotation of the nodes, resulting from general deformation of the
truss beam then causes bending moments in the rigidly connected members;
the more rigid the chord members, the bigger the moments (see
Section 3.4).
 The members are not always strictly aligned on their original and end
nodes. Bending moments which result from a misalignment of axes
increase in proportion to the size of the eccentricity and the stiffness of the
members. This phenomenon is illustrated in Section 3.6.
 Loads are not always strictly applied to the nodes and, if care is not taken to
introduce secondary members to triangulate the point of application of the
loads between nodes, this results in bending moments.
3.2 Modelling
Several questions arise in respect of the modelling of a truss.
It is always convenient to work on restricted models. For example, for a
standard building, it is common and usually justified to work with 2D models
(portal, wind girder, vertical bracing) rather than a unique and global 3D
model. A truss can even be modelled without its supporting columns when it is
articulated to the columns.
Nonetheless, it is important to note that:
 If separate models are used, it may be necessary, in order to verify the
resistance of certain elements, to combine the results of several analyses;
example: the upper chord of a truss also serves as chord of the wind girder.
 If a global 3D model is used, “parasitic” bending can be observed, which
often only creates an illusory precision of the structural behaviour process.
That is why 2D models are generally preferable.
In the worked example, where the truss is simply supported on the columns,
the design model chosen is that of the truss only.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  16
Once the scope of the model has been decided and adapted according to use to
be made of the results, it is important to consider the nature of the internal
connections. In current modelling of member structures, the selection is made
between “a pinjointed member at a node” and a “member rigidly connected to
a node”; the possibility offered by EN 1993 to model connections as semirigid
is rarely used for truss structures.
For trusses, the model is commonly represented as either:
 Continuous chords (and therefore chord members rigidly connected at
both ends)
 Truss members (diagonals and verticals) pin jointed to the chords.
3.3 Modelling the worked example
In the worked example, the truss diagonals are pin jointed to the chords,
although the connections are carried out using high strength bolts suitable for
preloading with controlled tightening. This provides a rigid connection without
slack between the diagonal and the connection gusset plates. The connection
can be considered as pinned due to the fact that the vertical gusset plates are
welded in the middle of the horizontal, not very stiff, IPE 330 web.
The modelling is shown in Figure 3.1, with the numbering of the members.
Left part
Right part
Figure 3.1 Computer model
It is important for the model to be representative of the eccentricities which
exist in the real structure. They can have a significant effect, as illustrated in
Section 3.6.1.
It is also important that modelling of the loads is representative of the real
situation. In particular, the fact of applying to the truss nodes loads which, in
reality, are applied between nodes, risks leading to neglect of the bending with
quite significant outcomes.
The main results of the analysis are given in Figure 3.2 for the left part of the
truss.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  17
ULS Load combination n°1 (Gravity loading) – Axial force (N) in kN
ULS Load combination n°1 (Gravity loading) – Bending moment (M) in kNm
ULS Load combination n°2 (Uplift loading) – Axial force (N) in kN
ULS Load combination n°2 (Uplift loading) – Bending moment (M) in kNm
Figure 3.2 Worked example – Axial forces and bending moments
It is interesting to note the form of the moment diagrams in the member:
 In the chords and the diagonals, the self weight generates a bending
moment with a parabolic shape
 In the chords, continuous modelling (members rigidly connected at both
ends) leads to moments at the nodes.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  18
3.4 Simplified global analysis of the worked example
A triangulated beam, with a constant depth, can be equated to an Ibeam. This
equivalence is possible and provides a good approximation, for example, for a
truss with parallel chords.
The global shear force V
global
and the global bending moment M
global
in the
equivalent beam vary very little along a panel and can be equated with the
mean values in the panel. Therefore the axial load can be assessed using the
following expressions (see Figure 3.3 for the notations):
N
ch
= ±M
global
/h in the chords
N
d
= ±V
global
/cos θ in a diagonal
h
θ
Figure 3.3 Truss with parallel chords  Notation
An estimate can also be made for the deflection of the truss beam by
calculating that for an equivalent beam, for the same loading. In order to do
this, the classic approach is to use elementary beam theory, giving the
equivalent beam a second moment of area equal to:
2
2
1
ch, i
i
i
d A I
¿
=
=
where:
A
ch,i
is the section area of the chord i
d
i
is the distance from the centroid of both chords to the centroid of the
chord i.
In order to take into account global shear deformations, not dealt with in
elementary formulae, a reduced modulus of elasticity is used. Global shear
deformations are not, in fact, negligible in the case of trusses, since they result
from a variation in length of the diagonals and posts. The value of the reduced
modulus of elasticity clearly varies depending on the geometry of the truss, the
section of the members, etc. For a truss beam with “well proportioned” parallel
chords, the reduced modulus of elasticity is about 160000 N/mm
2
(instead of
210000 N/mm
2
).
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  19
4
0
0
0
101 kN 158 202 202 202 158 101
7100 7200 8500 8600 7100 7100
Truss (combination n°1), including selfweight
461 (616)
303 (405)
101 (135)
101 (135)
303 (405)
461 (616)
562
562
Diagram of the global shear force V (kN)
In parentheses: values of N
d
= V/cosu
3273
(818)
5455
(1364) 6320
(1580)
5455
(1364)
3273
(818)
Diagram of the global bending moment M (kNm)
In parentheses: values of N
ch
= M/h
Figure 3.4 Worked example – Approximate calculation
The values of the axial forces in the chords obtained by the simplified
approach, M
global
/h, are shown in Figure 3.4. The values are very close to the
values obtained using structural analysis software (see Figure 3.2), for the
sections close to the applied loads. The small difference comes from the slope
(3%) of the chords of the truss in the worked example, not taken into account
in the hand calculation.
The values of the axial forces in the diagonals obtained by the simplified
approach, V
global
/cos θ, are also very close to the values obtained using
software.
3.5 Secondary forces
3.5.1 Influence of chord rigidity
Chord members in trusses which are used in construction are rarely pinned at
the nodes and are more often rigidly connected; this means that members
connected to the same node have to keep their respective angles. During
deformation of the structure under load, the ends of the members all rotate at
the same angle around the node. In these conditions, bending loads (bending
moments and shear forces) called secondary forces are added to the axial loads
in the members calculated assuming the nodes are pinned (primary forces).
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  20
It is routine in design to use continuous chord members and to pin the truss
members.
In fact, transforming pinned connections into rigid nodes hardly leads to any
modification to the axial forces in the members, because the shear transmitted
by the members has little influence on the equilibrium equation of nodal forces
and, on the other hand, bending of the member due to secondary bending
moments only causes a slight variation in the distance between the ends of this
member compared to the difference in length due to axial force.
Nevertheless, it is essential that the triangulated structures be designed properly
so that the members are adequately arranged to withstand bending stresses, but
not too slender so as to avoid buckling. Note that the greater the stiffness of the
chords (which are usually continuous), compared to the global stiffness of the
truss beam, the bigger the moments developed in the chords. For instance, for a
wind girder in a roof, the stiffness of the chords is relatively small and the
secondary moments remain small as well.
For a stocky truss, i.e. when the flexural stiffness of the individual chords is not
significantly lower than the global stiffness of the truss, it can be necessary to
take into account the secondary moments. Then the members and the
connections must be designed accordingly.
This phenomenon can be illustrated in the worked example by arranging the
IPE 330 sections as ‘standing up’ chord members, instead of being flat in the
initial design (Figure 3.5). The chords therefore bend in the vertical plane of
the truss member, mobilising their strong inertia. The calculation results
demonstrate well a significant increase in the secondary moments.
Figure 3.5 Options for the orientation of the chords
In the upper chord in a standing up IPE 300 section near the halfspan, the
bending moment under gravity loads (ULS) is 28,5 kNm, compared to
2,7 kNm for the flat IPE 330 section.
Similarly, in the lower chord, the bending moment is 23,4 kNm, compared to
1,7 kNm.
The multiplier of the bending moments is 11 for the upper chord, and 14 for the
lower chord. This is comparable with the ratio of the inertia in an IPE 330
section (about 15).
3.5.2 Assumption of rigid connections
In another evaluation of the effect of member stiffness on the value of the
secondary moments, the truss in the example was recalculated by making all
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  21
the internal connections rigid (diagonal and verticals fixed on their original end
nodes). The comparison is summarized in Table 3.1, where it can be seen that
the end moments are in the same range as the moments resulting from the self
weight of the diagonals.
Table 3.1 Effect of rigid connection instead of pinned
Horizontal web Vertical web
End moment in a diagonal in tension
(Double angles 120 x12)
1,03 1,17
End moment in a diagonal in compression
(Double angles 150 × 15)
1,30 2,35
Moment resulting from the selfweight (for comparison) 1,36 1,36
Assumption of bihinged diagonals Acceptable Acceptable
Note: the bending moments are given in kNm.
3.6 Effect of clearance of deflection
When the connections between elements which make up a truss beam are
bolted connections, with bolts in shear (category A in EN 199318
[2]
), the
clearance introduced into these connections can have a significant effect on
displacement of the nodes.
In order to facilitate erection, the bolts are in fact inserted in holes which are
larger than the bolts themselves. For standard bolt sizes, holes more than 2 mm
bigger than the bolt are usually made (usually referred to as a 2mm clearance).
In order for a connection with clearance to transmit to the node the load
required by the attached member, the bolt must come into contact with one or
other of the connected parts: this is called often referred to as ‘taking up slack’.
For a connected tension member, this slack can be assimilated as an additional
extension that is added to the elastic elongation of the member in tension.
Likewise, for a connected compression member, the slack is assimilated as a
reduction in length that is added to the elastic shortening of the compressed
member.
The total slack in the many different connections of a truss structure can lead to
a significant increase in displacements, which can have various and more or
less serious consequences. Amongst these, note:
 In most of the cases, the visual effect is the worst consequence.
 Increased deflection can lead to a reduction of free height under the bottom
chord, which might prevent or upset the anticipated usage. For example, the
additional deflection of a truss holding doors suspended in a gable of an
aeroplane hangar could prevent the passage of the aeroplane.
 Increase in the deflection can result in reduction in the slope of the
supported roof and even, if the nominal slope were small, to a slope
inversion; a risk of water accumulation is therefore associated with an
inversion in pitch.
 If the truss structure is not a statically determinate system, this may lead to
unexpected internal forces.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  22
It is therefore essential, where truss structures are concerned, to control the
effect of connection slack on the displacements. In order to do this, it is often
necessary:
 either to limit slack in category A connections: drilling at +1 mm, even
+0,5 mm and using shear bolts on a smooth bolt shank (to limit the increase
in slack by deformation) of the threads and pieces; or
 to use ‘fit bolts’; or
 to use preloaded bolts (category C connections); or
 to use welded connections instead of bolted connections.
In cases where loading in the members does not result in reversal of axial
force, it is possible to calculate a value for the effect of slack in all the
connections. The following calculation illustrates this phenomenon for the
worked example.
Each of the chords, upper and lower, has a continuous connection with bolted
splice plates around the midspan. In addition, the diagonals are connected by
bolting on gusset plates welded to the chords. Holes are 2 mm larger than the
bolt diameter.
Figure 3.6 Worked example – Position of the chord connections using splice
plates
In a spliced connection of a chord, the effect of slack on the deflection can be
evaluated by assuming that the bolts are initially centred on their holes. If the
diameter of the holes is d + 2 mm (where d is the bolt diameter), a chord in
tension is extended by 4 mm, as shown in Figure 3.7.
1 mm 1 mm d 1 mm 1 mm d
g
g + 4 mm
Figure 3.7 The effect of slack under load
In order for a diagonal to be loaded, 2 mm has to be recovered at each end: the
length of a diagonal in tension is increased by 4 mm; a diagonal under
compression is reduced by a further 4 mm.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  23
The deflection of a truss due to the slack can be evaluated by considering the
effect of a unit load applied at mid span, using the Bertrand Fontviolant
equation.
0,5 0,66 0,68 0,66 0,68 0,71 0,75 0,17 0,75 0,72 0,68 0,66 0,68 0,66 0,5
2,85
Figure 3.8 Worked example – Axial forces (N
1,i
) under unit load
The deflection is given by:
¿
=
=
=
b i
i
i
i i
i
ES
l F
N v
1
1,
Where:
N
1,i
is the axial force produced in the member i by a unit force applied at
the point where the deflection is required
i
l is the length of member i
i
S is the section area of the member i
b is the number of members with bolted connection(s).
i
i i
ES
l F
is the variation in length of member i due to the slack recovery
= ±4 mm according to whether the chord is in compression or tension.
Then:
v = 4 × (2,31 + 2,85 + 0,5 + 0,66 + 0,68 + 0,66 + 0,68 + 0,71 + 0,75 +…
+ 0,17 + 0,75 + 0,72 + 0,68 + 0,66 + 0,68 + 0,66 + 0,5)
v = 58,4 mm
This is a significant additional deflection, compared with the deflection due to
the ULS combination (127 mm).
3.7 Modification of a truss for the passage of
equipment
It frequently occurs that it is necessary to modify the form of a truss in order to
allow equipment to pass (a large section duct for example).
Several solutions can be provided (Figure 3.9):
 Either to increase the passage area available by an eccentricity in the
connection of one of the chords (case 1)
 Or “break” the straight form of a diagonal, by triangulating the breakage
point (case 2).
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  24
Case 1 Case 2
Figure 3.9 Passage of a duct – Local modification of the truss
In case 1, the secondary moments which result from the introduction of an
eccentricity increase in relation to the size of the eccentricity. If there is a
choice, it is always preferable to introduce an eccentricity in the least stressed
chords.
In case 2, care must be taken with several phenomena:
 The axial force can increase significantly in certain chords situated in the
immediate proximity of the modified panel (as a result of modification to
the position of the members).
 “Secondary” moments appear as a result of the lack of stiffness in a broken
diagonal compared with a straight diagonal, even if the breakage point is
triangulated.
 The breakage point must of course be triangulated in the plane of the truss;
it must also be restrained outofplane (where three members meet) if the
broken diagonal is in compression.
These two phenomena (case 1 and case 2) are illustrated using the worked
example.
3.7.1 Introduction of an eccentricity axis in a diagonal (case 1)
The truss panel through which the passage of equipment is required is the
second panel from the support on the right. Figure 3.10 shows a part of the
truss, with the eccentricity of a diagonal.
300 mm
Figure 3.10 Passage of a duct – Eccentricity of a diagonal
Changes in axial forces in the modified area are represented on the Figure 3.11.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  25
Axial force (kN)
Bending moment (kNm)
Initial structure
Modified structure
Figure 3.11 Effects of the eccentricity of diagonal under ULS gravity loading
The 300 mm eccentricity makes the triangulation imperfect.
The main consequence of this arrangement is a significant increase in the
bending moments in the lower chord that receives the eccentric diagonal. A
74,15 kNm moment is calculated in the second chord member from the right
hand support, a 62,72 kNm moment in the first chord member, much higher
than in the initial structure without eccentricity.
The elastic moment resistance of an IPE 330 horizontal section is:
69,2 × 0,355 = 24,57 kNm
The bending capacity is therefore greatly exceeded, apart from any other
interactions. Reinforcement of the lower chord member will therefore be
required in order to support the axis eccentricity introduced.
3.7.2 “Broken” diagonal (example 2)
The panel of the penetration equipment is the same as in 3.6.1. Figure 3.12 is a
diagram of the diagonal “breakage”.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  26
Figure 3.12 Passage of a duct – Broken diagonal
Development of stress in the modified area is represented on the section
diagrams in Figure 3.13.
Axial force (kN)
Bending moment (kNm)
Initial structure
Axial force (kN)
Bending moment (kNm)
Modified structure
Figure 3.13 Effects of a broken diagonal under ULS gravity loading
The effects of modification on the calculated stresses are mainly:
 A noticeable increase is observed in the axial force in the second lower
chord member from the right hand support (in the panel with the broken
diagonal): the tension calculated increases from 818 to 1350 kN.
 A significant increase is also observed in the compression force in the
broken diagonal compared with the rectilinear diagonal of the initial
structure: compression increases from 624 to 1090 kN.
 As far as the additional triangulation member is concerned, this supports a
normal compression force of 755 kN.
 In the lower chord, as well as an increase in the normal tension force, an
increase in “secondary” moments is also observed on the three right panels
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  27
The modification to the structure (broken diagonal) therefore has a significant
effect on the size of the members.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  28
4 VERIFICATION OF MEMBERS
As seen in the preceding section, which dealt with the global analysis, the
members are mainly subjected to axial forces.
It was also observed that, in many cases, members are also subject to stress by
bending moments, i.e. secondary moments.
4.1 Verification of members under compression
The resistance of a member to compression is evaluated by taking into account
the different modes of instability:
 Local buckling of the section is controlled using section classification, and
when necessary, effective section properties (class 4)
 Buckling of the member is controlled by applying a reduction coefficient in
the calculation of resistance.
For a compression member, several buckling modes must be considered. In
most truss members, only flexural buckling of the compressed members in the
plane of the truss structure and out of the plane of the truss structure need be
evaluated.
For each buckling mode, the buckling resistance is obtained from
EN 199311
[3]
by applying a reduction to the resistance of the crosssection.
This reduction factor is obtained from the slenderness of the member, which
depends on the elastic critical force.
For the diagonals and the verticals stressed in uniform compression. the elastic
critical force is determined from the buckling length of the member in
accordance with EN 199311, 6.3.1.3. The following can be observed,
according to Annex BB §BB.1 of EN 199311:
 For buckling in the plane of the truss beam: the buckling length is taken
equal to 90% of the system length (distance between nodes), when the truss
member is connected at each end with at least two bolts, or by welding
(EN 199311 §BB.1.1(4)).
(An exception is made by Annex BB for angle truss members, for which a
different evaluation is given; it is not specified in this annex if the particular
rule also concerns members made up to two pairs of angles: by way of
simplification, it is recommended that a buckling length of 0,9 times the
length of the axis be retained.)
 For buckling out of plane of the truss beam, the buckling length is taken
equal to the system length.
For buckling in the plane of the truss of the chord members in uniform
compression, the buckling length may be taken as 90% of its system length
(distance between nodes).
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  29
For buckling out of plane of the truss, it can be more difficult to determine the
elastic critical force for the following reasons:
 There is not necessarily a lateral support at each node of the truss
 The lateral support points are not necessarily effectively rigid.
When there is no lateral support at each node along the chord, the segment
located between support points is subject to variable compression between
bays. In these circumstances:
 A conservative approach would be to use the normal compression force at
its maximum value and to take the buckling length as the distance between
supports but this can lead to an underestimate of the chord resistance.
 Refined methods can be adopted by investigating an equivalent buckling
length under constant compression.
In the worked example, where the truss supports a roof, with purlins at the
level of the upper chord of the truss:
 All the purlins connected to a roof bracing can be considered as lateral rigid
support points.
 Intermediate purlins can also be considered as a rigid point of support.
Insofar as a diaphragm role has been attributed to the roof (class 2
construction according to EN 199313).
 With regard to the lower chord, these lateral support points are provided by
additional vertical bracing elements between trusses (see the braces under
the truss purlins in Figure 2.2).
Another point to note, which is very common, concerning determination of the
compression resistance, is the case of pairs of members. It is quite common, as
was stated, to make up members from a truss structure using two angles, or two
channels (UPE).
In order to ensure that such builtup members will behave as sole members in
the flexural buckling mode, the two components are connected by small battens
(Figure 4.1). Since the role of these members is to prevent relative slip of one
component compared with the other, they must be connected without slack.
The gap between the angles, and the thickness of the battens, should be the
same as the thickness of the gusset to which the builtup member is connected.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  30
1
1
2
A
A
AA
1 Batten
2 Gusset
Figure 4.1 Members composed of two angles
The maximum spacing of the connections between members is limited by
EN 199311 to 15 times the minimum radius of gyration of the isolated
component. Otherwise a more complex verification needs to be carried out, by
taking into account the shear stiffness of the composed member. This limitation
is very restrictive. By way of example, in order to link two 50 × 50 × 5 angles
by respecting the spacing limit, it would be necessary to provide a batten every
15 cm.
In order to illustrate the different principles stated above, justifying
calculations are developed in the following sections for the different types of
compressed members in the worked example truss structure. The results are
taken from the basic worked example:
 IPE 330 chords with horizontal web
 Web members are assumed to be hinged at both ends
 Chords are assumed to be continuous.
4.1.1 Upper chord in compression
The verifications set out below, concern the upper chord member adjacent to
mid span (element B107 in Figure 3.1), in which the normal compression force
calculated under gravity ULS loads is greatest and equal to:
N
Ed
= −1477 kN
The checks take into account the coincident bending moments.
Note that the verification should also be carried out on the first member from
the mid span, which is not restrained by the secondary truss: axial force of
lesser compression, but with increased buckling length in the plane of the truss.
Since the calculation is identical, it is not set out formally below. If this
verification indicated a lack of resistance, the reinforcement solution would of
course consist of extending the installation of the secondary truss.
The shear force and the bending moments are given in Figure 4.2.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  31
2,86 kNm
1,05 kNm
2,151
Bending moment M
Ed
1,82 kN
Shear force V
Ed
Figure 4.2 Bending moment and shear force in the upper chord
Crosssection properties
For an IPE 330 with horizontal web (steel grade S355)
A = 62,6 cm
2
I
y
= 11770 cm
4
I
z
= 788 cm
4
W
el,z
= 98,5 cm
3
Class of the crosssection
The material parameter is:
c = 0,81
As simplification, the crosssection can be classified in uniform compression,
even if it is subjected to combined axial force and bending moment.
The compressed flanges are classified as outstand flanges (EN 199311 Table
5.2, Sheet 2):
29 , 7 9 1 , 5
5 , 11
25 , 58
= < = = c
t
c
The flange is Class 1.
The web is classified as an internal compressed part (EN 199311 Table 5.2,
Sheet 1):
02 , 34 42 1 , 36
5 , 7
271
= > = = c
t
c
The web is Class 4.
Effective properties of the crosssection
The effective area A
eff
is calculated for pure compression.
The flanges are Class 1, so fully effective.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  32
The effective width of the web is evaluated according to EN 199315 (Table
4.1):
4 1 = ¬ =
o
¢ k
673 , 0 782 , 0
4 81 , 0 4 , 28
5 , 7
271
4 , 28
σ
p
> =
× ×
= =
k
t
b
c
ì
mm 5 , 124 5 , 0
mm 249 271 919 , 0 919 , 0
) 3 ( 055 , 0
673 , 0 782 , 0
4 81 , 0 4 , 28
5 , 7
271
4 , 28
4 1
eff 2 e 1 e
eff
2
p
p
σ
p
σ
= = =
= × = ¬ =
+ ÷
=
> =
× ×
= = ¬ = ¬ =
b b b
b
k
t
b
k
ì
¢ ì
µ
c
ì ¢
b
eff
= 0,919 × 271 = 249 mm
b
e1
= b
e2
= 0,5 b
eff
= 124,5 mm
The effective area of the section is:
A
eff
= 6260 – (271 – 249) × 7,5 = 6095 mm
2
The effective elastic modulus about the weak axis (W
eff,z
) is calculated for pure
bending.
In simple bending in the plane of the truss, about the weak axis, the flanges are
inevitably Class 1, whilst the web is not stressed. Then the section is fully
effective:
W
eff,z
= W
el,z
= 98,5 cm
3
Resistance of crosssection
In compression (EN 199311 §6.2.4):
0 , 1
355 , 0 6095
M0
y eff
Rd c,
×
= =
¸
f A
N = 2164 kN
1 683 , 0
2164
1477
Rd c,
Ed
< = =
N
N
OK
In bending in the plane of the truss (EN 199311 §6.2.5):
kNm 97 , 34
0 , 1
355 , 0 5 , 98
M0
y z eff,
Rd z,
=
×
= =
¸
f W
M
1 082 , 0
97 , 34
86 , 2
Rd z,
Ed
< = =
M
M
OK
In shear (EN 199311 §6.2.6):
A
v,y
= 2×160×11,5 = 3680 mm
2
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  33
kN 754
0 , 1
3
355 , 0
3680
3
M0
y
y v,
Rd pl,
=
×
= =
¸
f
A
V
1 002 , 0
754
82 , 1
Rd pl,
Ed
< = =
V
V
OK
Since V
Ed
/V
pl,Rd
is less than 0,5, there is no influence of the shear force on the
resistance of the crosssection under bending moment and axial force.
MN interaction (EN 199311 §6.2.93):
The MN interaction is taken into account using the following criterion:
0,683 + 0,082 = 0,765 < 1 OK
Buckling resistance of member
Buckling resistance in the plane of the truss, i.e. about the weak axis of the
crosssection (EN 199311 § 6.3.1)
The buckling length of the upper chord member is equal to 90% of the system
length (EN 199311 §B.B.1.1):
L
cr,z
= 0,9 × 2151 = 1936 mm
The elastic critical force is:
kN 4357
6 , 193
788 21000 π π
2
2
2
z
z
2
z cr,
=
× ×
= =
l
EI
N
The slenderness is given by:
705 , 0
4357
355 , 0 6095
,
eff
=
×
= =
z cr
y
z
N
f A
ì
The buckling curve to use is curve b (EN 199311 Table 6.2), and the
imperfection factor is:
o = 0,34
8344 , 0 ) ) 2 , 0 ( 1 ( 5 , 0
2
z z
= + ÷ + × = ì ì o
z
Φ
781 , 0
705 , 0 8344 , 0 8344 , 0
1 1
2 2 2
z
2
z z
=
÷ +
=
÷ +
=
ì
_
Φ Φ
z
The design buckling resistance is then:
kN 1690
0 , 1
355 , 0 6095 781 , 0
M1
y eff z
Rd z, b,
=
× ×
= =
¸
_ f A
N
N
Ed
/ N
b,z,Rd
= 1477/1690 = 0,874 OK
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  34
Buckling resistance out of the plane of the truss, i.e. about the strong axis
of the crosssection (EN 199311 § 6.3.1)
The lateral supports of the upper chord are composed of truss purlins at
8504 mm intervals.
The normal compression force is almost constant between lateral supports
(see 3.2).
There is therefore no need to use a method which allows for nonuniform force.
The elastic critical force is:
kN 3373
4 , 850
11770 21000 π
π
2
2
2
y
y
2
y cr,
=
× ×
= =
l
EI
N
The slenderness is given as:
8009 , 0
3373
355 , 0 6095
y cr,
y eff
y
=
×
= =
N
f A
ì
The buckling curve is curve a (EN 199311 Table 6.2), and the imperfection
factor is:
o = 0,21
8838 , 0 ) ) 2 , 0 ( 1 ( 5 , 0
2
y y
= + ÷ + = ì ì o
y
Φ
7952 , 0
8009 , 0 8838 , 0 8838 , 0
1 1
2 2 2
y
2
y y
y
=
÷ +
=
÷ u + u
=
ì
_
And so the compression resistance is therefore:
kN 1720
0 , 1
355 , 0 6095 7952 , 0
M1
y eff y
Rd y, b,
=
× ×
= =
¸
_ f A
N
N
Ed
/ N
b,y,Rd
= 1477/1720 = 0,859 OK
MN interaction (EN 199311 §6.3.3):
There is no effect of lateral torsional buckling to consider for a member in
bending about its weak axis (no bending about the strong axis). The criteria
are:
1
/ /
M1 y z eff,
Ed z,
yz
M1 y eff y
Ed
s +
¸ ¸ _ f W
M
k
f A
N
(Eq. 6.61 in EN 199311)
1
/ /
M1 y z eff,
Ed z,
zz
M1 y eff z
Ed
s +
¸ ¸ _ f W
M
k
f A
N
(Eq. 6.62 in EN 199311)
Using resistances already calculated, these criteria can also be written as:
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  35
1
Rd z,
Ed z,
yz
Rd y, b,
Ed
s +
M
M
k
N
N
1
Rd z,
Ed z,
zz
Rd z, b,
Ed
s +
M
M
k
N
N
The interaction factors k
yz
and k
zz
are calculated according to Annex A of
EN 199311, for a Class 4 section:
z cr,
Ed
y
mz yz
1
N
N
C k
÷
=
µ
where:
z cr,
Ed
mz
) 33 , 0 ( 36 , 0 21 , 0 79 , 0
N
N
C ÷ + + = ¢ ¢
367 , 0
86 , 2
05 , 1
÷ =
÷
= ¢
C
mz
= 0,628
8624 , 0
3373
1477
7952 , 0 1
3373
1477
1
1
1
y cr,
Ed
y cr,
Ed
y
=
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
N
N
N
N
y
_
µ
819 , 0
4357
1477
1
8624 , 0
628 , 0
yz
=
÷
× = k
First interaction criterion (eq. 6.61)
1 926 , 0
97 , 34
86 , 2
819 , 0
1720
1477
s = × + OK
z cr,
Ed
z
mz zz
1
N
N
C k
÷
=
µ
where:
C
mz
= 0,628
899 , 0
4357
1477
781 , 0 1
4357
1477
1
1
1
z cr,
Ed
z cr,
Ed
=
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
N
N
N
N
z
z
_
µ
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  36
Then, the factor k
zz
can be calculated:
854 , 0
4357
1477
1
899 , 0
628 , 0 =
÷
× =
zz
k
Second interaction criterion (eq. 6.62)
1 944 , 0
97 , 34
86 , 2
854 , 0
1690
1477
s = × + OK
Note on secondary trusses
The presence of secondary trusses in the central part of the truss (see
diagram 2.3) permitted the reduction by half of the buckling length of the upper
chord in the plane of the truss.
The secondary truss is sized in order to support a buckling restraint load whose
value depends on the compression force in the supported chord and on its
slenderness ratio (see EN 199331 on subject of design of pylons in annex
H4).
4.1.2 Lower chord in compression
With respect to the complete design of the structure, it is also of course
essential to check the lower chord, subject to the lower compression force, but
without support from a secondary truss.
Verification of the lower chord in compression is similar to that described for
the upper chord in compression, in 4.1.1.
Lateral restraint of the lower chord is provided at each purlin (Figure 2.2).
The only specific point which would be interesting to develop is an analysis of
the buckling out of plane of the truss.
Buckling of the lower chord is to be considered similarly to that of the upper
chord, for a length equal to the distance between truss panels, thanks to the
presence of subpanel braces (See Figure 2.3).
The difference is that the axial force in the lower chord varies along the
buckling length, in two panels, whereas the force was constant along the
buckling length for the upper chord.
It should also be noted here that, for the chord member with the greatest
bending moment, the variation in axial force is very small; in a real design, the
small reduction in buckling length due to variation of normal axial force can
safely be ignored.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  37
545 kN
470 kN
Axial force N
Ed
Figure 4.3 Axial force in the lower chord
4.1.3 Diagonal in compression
The diagonal, whose resistance is calculated here, by way of example, is the
second diagonal from the right support (element B40 in Figure 3.1), under ULS
gravity loading.
The compression force is:
N
Ed
= −624,4 kN
Initially, as in common practice, the bending moment due to the self weight of
the member is ignored.
The effect of this moment will be evaluated later.
Crosssection properties of a single angle
For a 150 × 150 × 15 L
A = 43 cm
2
z
G
= y
G
= 4,25 cm
I
y
= I
z
= 898,1 cm
4
I
v
= 369 cm
4
For a pair of angles
Section area:
A = 2 × 43 = 86 cm
2
Second moment of area out of plane of the truss (the section is assumed to
be homogeneous), assuming the gap between the angles is 10 mm:
I
y
= 2 × 898,1 + 2 × 43 × (4,25+1,0/2)
2
= 3737 cm
4
.
Second moment of area in the plane of the truss:
I
z
= 2 × 898,1 = 1796 cm
4
Class of section in uniform compression
Material parameter for f
y
= 355 N/mm
2
: c = 0,81
For an angle (EN 199311 Table 5.2 (Sheet 3)):
31 , 9 5 , 11 10
15 2
150 2
2
15 , 12 15 10
15
150
= > =
×
×
=
+
= < = =
c
c
t
b h
t
h
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  38
The section is a Class 4 and it is therefore not fully effective in uniform
compression. The effective area of the crosssection should be calculated with
reference to EN 199315. Such a calculation leads to a fully effective area:
A
eff
= A = 86 cm
2
Resistance of the crosssection
The resistance of the section in uniform compression is therefore given by:
kN 3053
0 , 1
355 , 0 8600
M0
y
Rd c,
=
×
= =
¸
Af
N
Buckling resistance of member
Buckling resistance in the plane of the truss
The buckling length is equal to:
0,9 × 5,464 = 4,918 m
The elastic critical force is:
kN 1539
8 , 491
1796 21000 π π
2
2
2
y
z
2
z cr,
=
× ×
= =
l
EI
N
The slenderness is given by:
408 , 1
1539
355 , 0 8600
z cr,
y
z
=
×
= =
N
Af
ì
The buckling curve is curve b (EN 199311 Table 6.2), and the imperfection
factor is:
34 , 0 = o
697 , 1 ) ) 2 , 0 ( 1 ( 5 , 0
2
z z
= + ÷ + × = ì ì o
z
Φ
378 , 0
408 , 1 697 , 1 697 , 1
1 1
2 2 2 2
=
÷ +
=
÷ u + u
=
z
z z
z
ì
_
And the buckling resistance is then:
kN 1154
0 , 1
355 , 0 8600 378 , 0
M1
y z
Rd z, b,
=
× ×
= =
¸
_ Af
N
Buckling resistance out of plane of the truss
The buckling length is equal to the system length: L
cr,y
= 5,464m.
The critical axial force is:
kN 2594
5 , 546
3737 21000 π
π
2
2
2
y
y
2
y cr,
=
× ×
= =
l
EI
N
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  39
The slenderness is given by:
085 , 1
2594
355 , 0 8600
,
= = =
x
N
Af
y cr
y
y ì
The buckling curve to use is curve b (see EN 199311, table 6.2), and the
imperfection factor is:
34 , 0 = o
239 , 1 ) ) 2 , 0 ( 1 ( 5 , 0
2
z y
y
= + ÷ + × = ì ì o Φ
544 , 0
085 , 1 239 , 1 239 , 1
1 1
2 2 2 2
=
÷ +
=
÷ u + u
=
y
y y
y
ì
_
The design buckling resistance is:
kN
Af
N
M
y y
Rd y b
1661
0 , 1
355 , 0 8600 544 , 0
1
, ,
=
× ×
= =
¸
_
The buckling resistance in the plane of the truss is less and the verification is:
0 , 1 541 , 0
1154
4 , 624
Rd b,
Ed
< = =
N
N
OK
The resistance of the diagonal is adequate; its section could be optimised.
Connection battens
The diagonal is composed of two angles linked by battens. The calculation of
the resistance previously undertaken assumed the section is homogenous (for
the buckling out of plane of the truss).
In order to support this hypothesis, EN 199311 requires the placing of
connection bars spread out at no more than 15 times the minimum radius of
gyration of the isolated angle;, for an angle 150 × 150 × 15 that is a distance of
15 × 29,3 = 440 mm.
In view of the resistance reserves, it is recommended that the connection bars
be spaced further apart (the costs of fabrication and installation are not
negligible). Instead of the 12 connection battens per diagonal which the above
condition lead to, consider only 3 bars be placed, 1366 mm apart.
L 150x150x15
Plate 150x150x10 and 2 pretensioned bolts with controlled tightening
Figure 4.4 Connection batten
In order for the battens to be effective, they must be arranged as illustrated
here. This results in a buckling length about the principal axis equal to
0,7 × 1366 = 956 mm.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  40
For this type of buckling the elastic critical force is:
kN 8368 10
956
10 369 210000 π π
3
2
4 2
2
v
v
2
v cr,
= ×
× × ×
= =
÷
l
EI
N
The slenderness for a single angle is:
427 , 0
8368000
355 4300
,
=
×
= =
v cr
y
v
N
Af
ì
The buckling curve to use is curve b and the imperfection factor is: o = 0,34
630 , 0 ) ) 2 , 0 ( 34 , 0 1 ( 5 , 0
2
= + ÷ × + × =
v v
v
Φ ì ì
915 , 0
427 , 0 630 , 0 630 , 0
1 1
2 2 2
v
2
v v
v
=
÷ +
=
÷ +
=
ì
_
Φ Φ
Conservatively, the resistance to the compression may be evaluated calculating
the reduction factor as the product of that for the whole member and that for an
individual angle between battens:
_ = Min(_
y
; _
z
) × _
v
= 0,378 × 0,915 = 0,346
The design buckling resistance of the diagonal is:
kN 1056 10
0 , 1
355 8600 346 , 0
3
M1
y
Rd b,
= ×
× ×
= =
÷
¸
_Af
N
0 , 1 591 , 0
1056
4 , 624
Rd b,
Ed
< = =
N
N
The compression resistance is adequate.
Local verification of the section to the right of the gusset plate
connection
This verification carried out in Appendix B
Effect of bending moment due to self weight of the diagonal
The bending moment is:
M
y,Ed
= 2,20 kNm (see 3.2 above).
The elastic modulus of the crosssection for bending in the plane of the truss is:
W
el,z
= 167 cm
3
.
Interaction criteria are given in EN 199311 §6.3.3:
1
/ /
M1 y z el,
Ed z,
yz
M1 y y
Ed
s +
¸ ¸ _ f W
M
k
Af
N
1
/ /
1 ,
,
1
s +
M y z el
Ed z
zz
M y z
Ed
f W
M
k
f A
N
¸ ¸ _
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  41
where:
The k
yz
factor is:
z cr,
Ed
y
mz yz
1
N
N
C k
÷
=
µ
863 , 0
2594
4 , 624
544 , 0 915 , 0 1
2594
4 , 624
1
1
1
y cr,
Ed
y v
y cr,
Ed
y
=
× × ÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
N
N
N
N
_ _
µ
012 , 1
1539
4 , 624
03 , 0 1 03 , 0 1
z cr,
Ed
mz
= + = + =
N
N
C
47 , 1
1539
4 , 624
1
863 , 0
012 , 1
yz
=
÷
× = k
The k
zz
factor is:
z cr,
Ed
z
mz
1
N
N
C k
zz
÷
=
µ
691 , 0
1539
4 , 624
378 , 0 915 , 0 1
1539
4 , 624
1
1
1
z cr,
Ed
z v
z cr,
Ed
z
=
× × ÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
N
N
N
N
_ _
µ
18 , 1
1539
4 , 624
1
691 , 0
012 , 1
zz
=
÷
× = k
From which:
1 465 , 0
0 , 1 / 355 167000
10 20 , 2
47 , 1
0 , 1 / 355 8600 544 , 0 915 , 0
624400
6
s =
×
×
× +
× × ×
1 635 , 0
0 , 1 / 355 167000
10 20 , 2
18 , 1
0 , 1 / 355 8600 378 , 0 915 , 0
624400
6
s =
×
×
+
× × ×
When the bending moment due to self weight of the diagonal is taken into
account, the resistance criterion increases from 0,591 to 0,635: that is an
increase of 7%.
4.2 Verification of members in tension
A particular feature when checking the resistance of tension members is the
existence of criteria which bring into play the net section of the member. This
is explored for the worked example.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  42
4.2.1 Lower chord in tension (flat IPE 330)
The lower chord in tension is verified for calculated forces near the midspan.
Given the results shown in 3.2 above:
N
Ed
= 1582 kN
M
Ed
= 1,69 kNm
The tension resistance of the section is determined by two conditions, one in a
“gross” section and the other in a “net” section :
Gross section
A = 6260 mm
2
kN 2222
0 , 1
355 , 0 6260
M0
y
Rd pl,
= = =
x
Af
N
¸
Net section
2
net
mm 4661 ) 5 , 7 22 3 ( ) 5 , 11 24 4 ( 6260 = × × ÷ × × ÷ = A
kN 1711
25 , 1
51 , 0 4661 9 , 0 9 , 0
M0
u net
Rd u,
=
× ×
= =
¸
f A
N
Tension resistance is given by:
kN 1711 ) , min(
Rd u, Rd pl, Rd t,
= = N N N
In simple bending, in the truss plane (EN 199311 (6.2.5)), class 1 of the
section allows the plastic modulus to be mobilised:
3
2
pl
cm 2 , 147
4
16 15 , 1 2
=
× ×
= W
kNm 3 , 52
0 , 1
355 , 0 2 , 147
M0
y pl
Rd pl,
=
×
= =
¸
f W
M
The verification is:
03 , 0
3 , 52
69 , 1
93 , 0
1711
1582
Rd
Ed
Rd t,
Ed
= =
= =
M
M
N
N
NM Interaction: 0,93 + 0,03 = 0,96 < 1
4.2.2 Diagonal in tension (double angles L120 × 120 × 12)
Checking is done for the diagonal at the left hand support, under gravity loads.
Given the results shown in 3.2 above:
N
Ed
= 616,3 kN
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  43
M
Ed
= 1,36 kNm
Tension resistance
The tension resistance of the section is determined by two conditions, on in
gross section and the other in net section:
Gross section
kN 1956
0 , 1
355 , 0 5510
M0
y
Rd pl,
x
Af
N
Net section (See arrangements described in Annex 2)
2
net
mm 4886 ) 12 26 2 ( 5510 A
For angles connected by a single leg, EN 199318 gives an additional
requirement for the effect of eccentricity of the tension force in the angle
(distance between the neutral axis and the gauge marking) on the forces
(appearance of secondary moments).
This method involves the application of an ultimate resistance reduction factor
for the angle (EN 199318 Clause 3.10.3(2))
M2
u net 3
Rd u,
γ
f A β
N
The reduction factor β
3
depends on the distance between axes p
1
.
For, p
1
= 2,5 d
0
= 65 mm:
3
= 0,5 (EN 199318 Table 3.8)
N.B.: The reduction factors β are only provided for a simple angle; the method
is conservative for a “double angle”. It is recommended that, within the
connection, the behaviour of the two simple diagonals is considered with
respect to these local phenomena.
kN 997
25 , 1
51 , 0 4886 5 , 0 5 , 0
M0
u net
Rd u,
f A
N
Then:
kN 997 ) , min(
Rd u, Rd pl, Rd t,
N N N
Bending resistance
In simple bending in the truss plane (EN 199311 (6.2.5)):
3
el
cm 46 , 85 W
kNm 3 , 30
0 , 1
355 , 0 46 , 85
M0
y el
Rd el,
f W
M
Verification:
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  44
05 , 0
3 , 30
36 , 1
1 62 , 0
997
3 , 616
Rd
Ed
Rd t,
Ed
= =
< = =
M
M
N
N
And the MN interaction criterion is: 0,62 + 0,05 = 0,67 < 1
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  45
5 VERIFICATION OF CONNECTIONS
5.1 Characteristics of the truss post connection
5.1.1 General
It is essential to connect the truss and post according to the assumptions in the
modelling.
In particular, the choice between a fixed connection and a pinned connection
must be respected. The difference between these two types of connection is
that the pinned connection allows a rotation independent deflection of the truss
and the post. The outcome in terms of loading is that the hinge does not
transmit any bending moment from the truss to the post, whereas a fixed
connection does.
The rotation at the support of a truss is manifested by a differential horizontal
displacement between the original node of the upper chord and the original
node of the lower chord.
In order to permit global rotation, it is therefore necessary to allow the
horizontal displacement of the end of one of the chords in relation to the post:
usually, the displacement of the chord which does not receive the diagonal on
support is released.
A
Figure 5.1 Elongated hole on the bottom chord of the truss
With such an arrangement, the axial force is zero in the lower chord in the first
panel. The lower chord of the first truss node could therefore be stopped short
(A in the diagram); nevertheless it is preferable to lengthen the lower chord and
to connect it to the post in order to provide lateral stability of the truss at the
level of the lower chord.
An application of this type of hinge action in the worked example is given in
5.1.2 below.
By contrast, in order to carry out a rigid trusscolumn connection, it is
necessary to make a connection without slack from each of the chords of the
truss to the column.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  46
5.1.2 Convergence of the axes at the trusscolumn connection
Another question to be asked when carrying out the connection of a truss on a
post is that of convergence of the axes of the connected members and of its
effect on the modelling. The choices are illustrated in Figure 5.2.
Convergence of the axes
column/chord/diagonal: solution to avoid
Axis convergence of the axes chord/diagonal at the internal
face of the column: recommended solution
1
1 : Rigid links
Figure 5.2 Rigid trusscolumn connection
In the first example, the actual physical connection and the model are not
consistent: there is a risk of causing significant secondary moments in the
diagonal and the chord. In the second example, the consistency is much
greater; the eccentric moment is clearly supported by the post, which has a
higher bending resistance than the chord or the diagonal, particularly when the
truss is hinged at the post.
Note that this not the case in the worked example in which the posts have their
web perpendicular to the plane of the truss: the convergence of the three axes
happens then without causing secondary moments.
5.1.3 Worked example: detailing a pinned joint
The Figure 5.3 represents horizontal displacements of the lower and upper
nodes of the two support sections, for cases of ULS gravity load combinations
and for cases of ULS uplift load combinations. We can observe that, when the
structure is symmetric or symmetrically loaded, each load case produces equal
global rotations in the two support sections.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  47
35,6 mm 8,6 mm
44,2 mm
(44,2 – 8,6 = 35,6 mm)
Gravity loading
12,2 mm 3,1 mm
15,2 mm
(15,3 – 3,1 = 12,2 mm)
Uplift loading
Figure 5.3 Rotations at truss supports
In order for the global rotations at the supports to be free (assumption for truss
with pinned connections to the column), the elongated holes introduced into the
column on lower chord connection must allow a 35,6 mm movement towards
the outside and 12,2 mm towards the inside. It is of course prudent to allow for
a certain safety margin on the sizing of the elongated holes (say 50 mm), and to
check after erection that, under self weight, the freedom of movement remains
adequate in both directions.
5.2 Chord continuity
It is often necessary to deliver large span truss beams to site in several sections;
it is therefore necessary to provide continuous chord joints between these
sections. Generally, the preferred method is to make such connections on site
by bolting rather than by welding.
The design of these bolted connections depends on the type of chord section to
be connected. However, we can distinguish between two types of such
connections:
 Those in which the bolts are mainly loaded in tension : these use end plates
 Those in which bolts are loaded perpendicular to their shank: these use
splice plates.
When the chords are made of a single profile/section in I or H, either of the
connections can be used.
When the chords are made of two double angle or channel sections, splice
connections are generally used.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  48
When the chords are made of hollow sections end plate connections are
generally used (use of hollow sections is outside the scope of this guide).
Continuity using end plate connections
Continuity using splice plate connections
Figure 5.4 Chord continuity
The splice plate connection shown Figure 5.4 has double cover splice plates on
the web and flanges (giving two interfaces for shear forces). If the force in the
splice is low, single external spliced plates can be used, although double plates
are normally used on the web, to preserve symmetry in the transmission of the
axial force.
The resistance of the splice connections of truss chords must be verified under
dominant load with secondary bending moment in the truss plane, according to
EN 199318, by adapting the components method developed for beampost
connections. Software is freely available for this verification (see the
SteelBizFrance.com website developed by CTICM). Verification of this type
of connection, for the worked example, is given in Appendix A.
As well as verifying the resistance, it is essential to ensure the stiffness of the
continuous chord connections. Generally, when the resistance of a beambeam
connection using end plates is selected, it can be considered as rigid.
Spliced plate connections are only effectively rigid when the slack is controlled
(see Section 3.6 for evaluation example of the effect of slack in the bolted
connections of the truss in the worked example). For splice connections, it is
therefore recommended that one of the following options is selected:
 Use preloaded bolts with controlled tightening, allowing transmission of
loads by friction (nonslip)
 Use fit bolts, preferably loaded on the shank in order to avoid slip under
load by distortion of the thread of the connected pieces.
5.3 Connection of diagonals to chords
Connection of diagonals and posts to chords can be made in different ways,
according to the type of sections to be connected.
When the chords are made of double members (two angles or two UPE
sections), common practice is to insert gusset plates between the two
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  49
component members of the chord. The gussets are, therefore, either welded or
bolted on the chords. The diagonals and posts are connected to the gussets,
usually by bolting.
When the chords are made of IPE or HEA/HEB sections, the most common
connection method is also to use a welded gusset plate on the chord. The gusset
plate is attached to the flange when the section is upright (vertical web), and to
the web when the section is flat (horizontal web).
(a) Bolted gusset in the space between double
angle chords, truss members in bolted
double angles onto gusset
(b) Welded gusset on HEA chord flange,
double angle truss members bolted to
gusset
(c) Gusset welded to web of flat IPE chord
Figure 5.5 Truss connections on chord
When the chord sections are flat, it is also common to use IPE or HEA truss
members with the same depth as the chords and to connect them by double
gussets, one on each flange. An alternative solution is to design a welded
connection without gussets, as shown in Figure 5.6.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  50
1
2
1
2
1
3
4
5
1 Truss members
2 Chord
3 Fillet weld
4 HalfV fillet weld
5 Kfillet weld
Figure 5.6 Welded connection between truss members and chord
When the chords are hollow sections (outside the scope of this guide), the
connection using a gusset welded on the chord is also used. Direct welding of
the diagonals and posts to the chords is also used; this requires profiling for
connections to circular section chords.
In the gusset connections described above, verification of the resistance of the
bolted or welded connection clearly defined in EN 199318. However,
verification of the resistance of the gusset plate is not. Verification of a gusset
plate connection for the worked example is given in Appendix B.
Special attention must be given to checking of the gussets, particularly those
which have a large non stiffened part: many truss problems have been caused
local buckling of the gusset plate. For example, in the connections in
Figure 5.5(c), if the height of the flat chord web is insufficient for the angles
making up the truss members to be connected near the web, the unstiffened
part of the gusset and its stability must be examined carefully.
Although hollow section trusses are not the subject of the present guide, note
that EN 199318 devotes a Section to the design of welded connections of
hollow sections.
In the connections to the chords, slip must also be controlled (as indicated for
continuous chords), in order to control displacements of the structural
components, and, as a result, the distribution of forces if the structure is
hyperstatic.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  51
REFERENCES
1 SingleStorey Steel Buildings. Part 7: Fire engineering.
2 EN 199318:2005 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 1.8 Design of
joints.
3 EN 199311: 2005, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 1.1 General rules
and rules for buildings.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  52
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
5  53
APPENDIX A
Worked Example – Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
5  54
Appendix A Worked Example: Design of a
continuous chord connection using splice
plate connections
1 of 24
Made by PM Date 02/2010
Calculation sheet
Checked by IR Date 02/2010
1. Splice joint using bolted cover plates
This calculation sheet refers to the splice plate connection located on the
Figure A.1. This connection has double spliced plates on the web and single
external spliced plate on the flanges (see Figure A.2).
1
1 Splice plate connection studied
Figure A.1 Location of the splice plate connections
2
3
2
3
1
3
1 Longitudinal axis
2 Lower chords to assembly (IPE 330)
3 Splice plate connection
Figure A.2 Chord continuity by splice plate connections
The resistance of this connection must be verified under tension axial force
with secondary moment in the plane of the truss.
Four bolted cover plates must be verified (See Figure A.3)
It is also essential to ensure the stiffness of the continuous chord connection.
A slip resistant connection is required.
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
2 of 24
5  55
2
1 3
Z
Y
X
Y
1 cover plates of web chord
2 cover plate of flange 1 (on the righthand side)
3 cover plate of flange 2 (on the lefthand side)
Figure A.3 Cover plates
The global coordinates system is such as:
The XOZ plane is that of the truss plane
The XOY plane is that of the web chord
2. Basic data
The sizes of the coverplates and the positioning of holes are shown on the
Figure A.4.
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
3 of 24
5  56
35
70
70
140
70
70
35
35
70
70
35
100
40 95 95 40
14 11,5
7 / 7,5 / 7
165 165
5
50
50
30
30
Figure A.4 Sizes (in mm) and positioning
Material data (except bolts)
The Iprofile and the coverplates are grade S355 to EN 100252.
Steel grade S355
Yield strength f
y
= 355 N/mm
2
Ultimate tensile strength f
u
= 510 N/mm
2
EN 199311
Table 3.1
I Beam data
Depth h = 330 mm
Flange width b = 160 mm
Web thickness t
w
= 7,5 mm
Flange thickness t
f
= 11,5 mm
Radius of root fillet r = 18 mm
Crosssection area A = 62,61 cm
2
Second moment of area I
y
= 788,1 cm
4
Plastic modulus W
pl,y
= 153,7 cm
3
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
4 of 24
5  57
Bolted connections data
Category of bolted connections Category C
Bolt Class Class 10.9
Yield strength f
yb
= 900 N/mm
2
Ultimate tensile strength f
ub
= 1000 N/mm
2
For flanges cover plates
Nominal bolt diameter d
f
= 22 mm
Hole diameter d
0,f
= 24 mm
For web cover plates
Nominal bolt diameter d
w
= 18 mm
Hole diameter d
0,w
= 20 mm
EN 199318
Table 3.1
Partial Factors (Recommended values)
Structural steel ¸
M0
= 1,00
Structural steel ¸
M2
= 1,25
Bolts ¸
M2
= 1,25
Bolts ¸
M3
= 1,25
EN 199311
6.1 NOTE 2B
EN 199318
2.2 NOTE
Internal forces
For the direction of the internal forces see Figure A.5
M
Ed
= 1,71 kNm (about yy axis)
V
Ed
= 1,7 kN
N
Ed
= 1567,4 kN (tension force)
Note: the bending moment and the shear force can be ignored. For all that in
some phases we take them into account so as to show the concept of the
calculation in the presence in such internal forces.
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
5 of 24
5  58
Y
X
Y
Z
V
Ed
N
Ed
M
Ed
M
Ed
Figure A.5 Internal forces and moment
3. Classification of crosssection chord
For the classification of the crosssection, it’s necessary to know the
distribution of the normal stresses.
EN 199311
Table 5.2
Sheet 2 of 3
For the web we consider a uniform stress equal to:
A
N
Ed
w
= o = 250,34 N/mm
2
For the flanges we have:
i yy
Ed Ed
i
v I
M
A
N
÷ = o
Where v
i
is the position of the considered fibre.
And for the upper part (Z > 0) of the flange:
2
f 1
/ b v = and r t v + = 2
w 2
1
o = 180,91 N/mm
2
,
2
o = 245,62 N/mm
2
And for the inner part (Z < 0) of the flange:
( ) 2
f 1
/ b v ÷ = and ( ) r t v + ÷ = 2
w 2
1
o = 319,78 N/mm2,
2
o = 255,06 N/mm
2
In view of these results, the crosssection being all over in tension is
considered of class 1.
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
6 of 24
5  59
4. Global checking of the crosssection chord
4.1. Effect of the shear force
EN 199311
6.2.10
Determination of
Rd pl,
Ed
V
V
With:
w v
t h A A
w
÷ = = 3959 mm
2
( )
M0
y v
Rd pl,
3
¸
f A
V = = 811,3 kN
EN 199311
6.2.6(2)
From where
Rd pl,
Ed
V
V
= 0,002< 0,5
So, no reduction due to the shear force needs to be taken into account.
EN 199311
6.2.10 (2)
4.2. Combination M + N – Effect of the axial force
EN 199311
6.2.9.1
kN 4 , 817 4 , 1567
M0
y w w
Ed
= > =
¸
f t h
N
Allowance has to be made for the effect of the axial force.
EN 199311
6.2.9.1 (5)
4.3. Combination M + N – Consideration of fastener
holes
Axial force
Under tension axial force, the fastener holes should be considered.
Category C connection ¬ the design tension resistance is:
M0
y net
Rd net, Rd t,
¸
f A
N N = =
EN 199311
6.2.3(4)
For the net crosssection, we consider 7 holes for fastener (2 by flange and 3
for the web).
The net area is:
net
A = 4707 mm
2
Therefore:
Rd net,
N = 1671 kN
Bending moment
With
f f
t b A = and
f f 0, f net f,
2 t d A A ÷ =
For each flange in tension, one checks:
kN 2 , 653 473
9 , 0
M0
y f
M2
u net f,
= < =
¸ ¸
f A f A
So, the holes for fasteners in the flange should be considered.
EN 199311
6.2.5 (4)
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
7 of 24
5  60
With
w w 0, f f 0, net
3 4 t d t d A A ÷ ÷ =
For the full tension area, one checks:
kN 7 , 2222 4 , 1728
9 , 0
M0
y
M2
u net
= < =
¸ ¸
Af
f A
So, the holes for fasteners in the web should be considered.
EN 199311
6.2.5 (5)
Design resistance for bending
With for a IPE 330:
y pl
W
,
= 153,7 cm
3
d
z
= 50 mm = distance from centre of holes of flange to zz axis
( )
z f f 0, holes y, pl,
4 d t d W = = 55,2 cm
3
The design plastic moment resistance of the net section is:
( )
M0
y holes y, pl, y pl,
Rd pl,
¸
f W W
M
÷
= = 34,967 kNm
EN 199311
6.2.5(2)
4.4. Combination M + N – Verification
The following criterion should be verified:
Rd N, Ed
M M s
EN 199311
6.2.9.1(1)
With:
Rd net,
Ed
N
N
n = = 0,938
{ } 5 , 0 ; / ) 2 ( min A t b A a
f
÷ = = 0,412
EN 199311
6.2.9.1(3)
We obtain :
(
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷
÷
÷ =
2
Rd pl, Rd N,
1
1
a
a n
M M = 6,99 kNm
M
Ed
= 1,71 < M
N,Rd
= 6,99 kNm OK
5. Distribution of the internal forces
EN 199318
2.5
Note that the web is in the horizontal plane.
5.1. Axial force
The axial force is distributed between the web and the flanges. This
distribution is based on the ratio of the gross crosssection of the web and the
flanges. The fillets are appointed to the flange.
So, with: = ÷ =
w f w
) 2 ( t t h A 2302,5 mm
2
= ÷ = 2 / ) (
w f
A A A 3958,5 mm
2
(per flange)
Then: A A N N /
w Ed w N,
= = 576,4 kN
( ) 2 /
w N, Ed f N,
N N N ÷ = = 495,5 kN
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
8 of 24
5  61
5.2. Shear force
The shear force is fully transferred by the flanges.
So: 2 /
Ed f V,
V V = (per flange)
5.3. Bending moment
The bending moment about the weak axis is fully transferred by the flanges:
=
f M,
M 0,855 kNm for each flanges
6. Internal forces in each connected parts
6.1. Connection of the webs
The cover plate of webs (and its bolts) is only subjected to an axial force:
N
N,w
= 576,4 kN
6.2. Connection of the flanges
Each of cover plates of flanges (and its bolts) is subjected to:
 An axial force N
N,f
= 495,49 kN,
 A shear force V
V,f
= 0,85 kN
 A bending moment M
M,f
= 0,855 kNm
The moment due to the eccentricity of the shear force against the centroid of
the joint (see Figure A.6):
V f V, f V,
e V M =
With: e
V
= 140 mm M
V,f
= 0,119 kNm
V
V,f
G
e
v
M
V,f
Figure A.6 Moment due to the eccentricity of the shear force
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
9 of 24
5  62
6.3. Summary of the internal forces and moments
In the web: N
w
= 576,42 kN
In one flange: N
f
= 495,49 kN
V
f
= 0,85 kN
M
f
= 0,97 kN
7. Verification of the web connection
The connection of the webs is a double lap joint.
The web component will be verified and by symmetry only one plate
component.
7.1. Design details
EN 199318
Table 3.3
It is assumed that the structure is not exposed to the weather or other
corrosive influences.
The design details are verified for the web component and for the plate
component in the tables below
Table A.1 Connection of the webs – Web component – Design details
Distance or spacing Min. value Design value Max. value
e
1
24 47,5
e
2
24 1)
p
1
44 70 105
p
2
48 95 105
1)
Not applicable because of the proximity of the flange
Table A.2 Connection of the webs – Plate component – Design details
Distance or spacing Min. value Design value Max. value
e
1
24 35
e
2
24 40
p
1
44 70 98
p
2
48 95 98
7.2. Design shear force F
V,Ed
for each bolt
6
w
w Ed, V,
N
F = = 96,07 kN for the component web
EN 199318
3.12 (3)
6
2 /
w
p Ed, V,
N
F = = 48,03 kN for each component plate
7.3. Design slip resistance F
S,Rd
By considering: Bolts in normal holes ¬ 0 , 1
s
= k
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
10 of 24
5  63
Class friction surfaces = Class A ¬ 5 , 0 = µ
And with: =
w s,
A 192 mm
2
tensile stress area of the bolt
= =
w s, ub c p,
7 , 0 A f F 134,4 kN pretension force
n number of the friction surfaces
2 =
w
n relatively to the web component
1 =
p
n relatively to the plate component
Then: = =
c p,
M3
w s
w Rd, s,
F
n k
F
¸
µ
107,52 kN
= =
c p,
M3
p s
p Rd, s,
F
n k
F
¸
µ
53,76 kN
EN 199318
3.9.1 (1)
7.4. Design bearing resistance F
b,Rd
for each bolt
Table 3.4 of EN 199318 gives the expressions of the design bearing
resistance. In these expressions, the coefficients
b
o and
1
k depend on the
orientation of the loading, the position compared with the ends of the
component and also the position of the other bolts.
EN 199318
Table 3.4
The general expression for the design bearing resistance is:
M2
u b 1
Rd b,
¸
o t d f k
F =
EN 199318
Table 3.4
According to Table 3.4 of the Eurocode 199318, the coefficients o
b
and k
1
are determined from:
For end bolts
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= 0 , 1 ; ;
3
min
u
ub
0
1
end b,
f
f
d
e
o
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷ = 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 min
0
2
0
2
end 1,
d
e
d
p
k
For inner bolts
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
min
u
ub
0
1
b,inner
f
f
d
p
o
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 min
0
2
1,inner
d
p
k
Web component
Figure A.7 shows how it is processed for the determination of the coefficients
b
o and
1
k .
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
11 of 24
5  64
N
w
F
V,Ed, w
o
b
o
b
k
1
k
1
o
b,inner
k
1,end
o
b,inner
k
1,inner
o
b,inner
k
1,end
o
b,end
k
1,end
o
b,end
k
1,inner
o
b,end
k
1,end
b
4
b
5
b
6
b
1
b
2
b
3
Figure A.7 Connection of the webs – Web component – Determination of
type of bolts
The determination of coefficients k
1
is carried out perpendicularly to the
direction of load transfer. But two directions are conceivable for this
perpendicular and it is difficult for some bolts (b
1
, b
4,
b
3,
and b
6
) to determine
if they are end or inner bolts.
In these cases we consider the minimum value of k
1,inner
and k
1,end
. And by
noticing that { }
end 1, end 1, 1,inner
; min k k k = , these bolts are considered as end
bolts.
In addition, for the web component, it is reminded that the edge distance e
2
is
not applicable because of the proximity of the flange. So, the expressions of
k
1,inner
and k
1,end
are identical.
As the design shear force is identical for each bolt and furthermore:
k
1,inner
= k
1,end
= 2,50
So only one row of bolts is considered, for example the bolts b
1
and b
4
.
Then, for the bolt b
1
:
79 , 0
end b1, b, b1 b,
= = o o
kN 01 , 109
w Rd, b1, b,
= F
And for the bolt b
4
:
92 , 0
inner b4, b, b4 b,
= = o o
kN 23 , 126
w Rd, b4, b,
= F
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
12 of 24
5  65
Therefore, in the end for the web component,
kN 01 , 109
w Rd, b,
= F
Plate component
Compared with the web component, for the plate it can be noticed that the
bolts b
1,
b
2,
b
3
become inner bolts and the bolts b
4
, b
5,
b
6
become end bolts
(see Figure A.8).
Then, for the bolt b
1
:
92 , 0
inner b1, b, b1 b,
= = o o
kN 81 , 117
p Rd, b1, b,
= F
And for the bolt b
4
:
58 , 0
end b4, b, b4 b,
= = o o
kN 97 , 74
p Rd, b4, b,
= F
In the end, for the plate component, it should retained:
kN 97 , 74
p Rd, b,
= F
Figure A.8 Connection of the webs – Plate component – Determination of
type of bolts
o
b o
b
k
1
k
1
o
b,end
k
1,end
o
b,end
k
1,inner
o
b,end
k
1,end
o
b,inner
k
1,end
o
b,inner
k
1,inner
o
b,inner
k
1,end
F
V,Ed,w
b
4
b
5
b
6
b
1
b
2
b
3
N
w
/2
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
13 of 24
5  66
7.5. Checking bolts
7.5.1. With regard to the web component
Individual checking
Design bearing resistance kN 01 , 109 07 , 96
w Rd, b, w Ed, V,
= < = F F
Design slip resistance kN 52 , 107 07 , 96
w Rd, s, w Ed, V,
= < = F F
EN 199318
Table 3.2
Group of fasteners
The shear resistance per shear plane
Rd v,
F is taken as:
M2
ub v
Rd v,
¸
o A f
F =
EN 199318
Table 3.4
By considering that the shear plane does not pass through the threaded portion
of the bolt in normal holes:
¬ o
v
= 0,6
¬ A = 254,47 mm
2
(gross crosssection of the bolt)
Then:
Rd v,
F = 122,15 kN
Since
w Rd, b, Rd v,
F F > for only three bolts as a result the design of our group
of fasteners:
{ } kN 06 , 654 01 , 109 6 min
w Rd, bi, b, bi w Rd, b, r,
= × = × = F n F
g
EN 199318
3.7
Then: kN 06 , 654 42 , 576
w Rd, b, r, w
= < =
g
F N
7.5.2. With regard to the plate component
Individual checking
Design bearing resistance kN 97 , 74 03 , 48
p Rd, b, p Ed, V,
= < = F F
Design slip resistance kN 76 , 53 03 , 48
p Rd, s, p Ed, V,
= < = F F
EN 199318
Table 3.2
Group of fasteners
The shear resistance per shear plane Error! Objects cannot be created from editing
field codes. is equal to:
Rd v,
F = 122,15 kN
Since Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes. for each of the bolts
as a result the design of our group of fasteners:
kN 34 , 578 97 , 74 3 81 , 117 3
1
Rd h, bi, b, Rd h, b, gr,
= × + × = =
¿
bi
n
F F
EN 199318
3.7
Then: kN 34 , 578 21 , 228 2 /
Rd b, r, w
= < =
g
F N
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
14 of 24
5  67
7.6. Design of net crosssection
For a connection in tension, the design plastic resistance of the net cross
section at bolt holes should be verified:
¿
s
b
1
Rd net, Ed V,
n
N F
where n
b
is the number of bolts located in the considered net crosssection.
EN 199318
Table 3.2
7.6.1. Web component
The net crosssection is taken as
2
w w 0, w net w,
mm 5 , 1852 3 = ÷ = t d A A
The design resistance is: kN 64 , 657
M0
y net w,
Rd net, w,
= =
¸
f A
N
Then: kN 21 , 288 07 , 96 3 64 , 657
3
1
w Ed, V, Rd net, w,
= × = > =
¿
F N
7.6.2. Plate component
The net crosssection is taken as
2
p w 0, p net p,
mm 1470 3 = ÷ = t d A A
The design resistance is: kN 85 , 521
M0
y net p,
Rd net, p,
= =
¸
f A
N
Then: kN 10 , 144 03 , 48 3 85 , 521
3
1
w Ed, V, Rd net, w,
= × = > =
¿
F N
7.7. Design for block tearing
The Figure A.9 shows the block tearing for the web and for the plate. EN 199318
3.10.2 (1)
7.7.1. Web component
The bolt group is subjected to concentric loading.
And with:
2
w 0 2 nt
mm 1125 ) 2 2 ( = ÷ = t d p A
2
w 0 1 1 nv
mm 5 , 1312 ) 5 , 1 ( 2 = ÷ + = t d p e A
EN 199318
3.10.2 (2)
Then: kN 01 , 728
Rd eff,1,
= V
576,42kN 01 , 728
w Rd eff,1,
= > = N V
7.7.2. Plate component
Two block tearing are defined. For the both, the shear area is the same, so the
case giving the minimum area subjected in tension is considered. The bolt
group is subjected to concentric loading.
EN 199318
3.10.2 (2)
And with:
2
p 0 2 nt
mm 420 ) 2 ( = ÷ = t d e A
2
p 0 1 1 nv
mm 1050 ) 5 , 1 ( 2 = ÷ + = t d p e A
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
15 of 24
5  68
kN 57 , 386
Rd eff,1,
= V
So: kN 21 , 88 2 2 / 57 , 386
w Rd eff,1,
= > = N V
N
w
/2
A
nt
A
nv
N
w
A
nt
A
nv
A
nv
N
w
/2
A
nt
A
nv
A
nv
1
2
3
1 Block tearing for web component (concentric loading)
2 First block tearing for plate component (concentric loading)
3 Second block tearing for plate component (concentric loading)
Figure A.9 Block tearing for connection of the webs
8. Checking of connection of the flanges
The connection of the flanges is a single lap joint.
The flange component and the plate component will be verified.
In general rule in the presence of a combination of loads, we obtain for each
bolt a design shear force not parallel to the edge of the components. In this
case, the Eurocode states that the bearing resistance can be verified separately
for the bolt load components parallel and normal to the end of components.
EN 199318
Table 3.4
3)
Rd h, bi, b, Ed h, bi, V,
F F s
Rd v, bi, b, Ed v, bi, V,
F F s
In the ECCS publication P126 (European recommendations for the Design of
Simple Joints in Steel Structures – 2009), an additional check is proposed,
based on an interaction expression:
1
2
Rd v, bi, b,
Ed v, bi, V,
2
Rd h, bi, b,
Ed h, bi, V,
s


.

\

+


.

\

F
F
F
F
The load components will be performed in a basis { } v h, located at the centre
of gravity of the joint and oriented with the principal directions of the flange
(See Figure A.10).
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
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5  69
8.1. Design details
EN 199318
Table 3.3
It is assumed that the truss is not exposed to weather or other corrosive
influences.
The design details should be verified in both directions of loading. By taking
into consideration the limits specified in Table 3.3 of EN 199318, the
following requirement have to be fulfilled:
{ }
0 2 1
2 , 1 ; min d e e >
{ }
0 2 1
2 , 2 ; min d p p >
{ } { } mm 200 ; 14 min ; max
2 1
t p p s
The tables below check the design details for each component.
Table A.3 Connection of the flanges – Plate component – Design details
Distance or spacing Min. value Design value Max. value
{ }
2 1
e e ; min
28,8 30
{ }
2 1
p p ; min
52,8 70
{ }
2 1
p p ; max
100 161
Table A.4 Connection of the flanges – Plate component – Design details
Distance or spacing Min. value Design value Max. value
{ }
2 1
e e ; min
28,8 30
{ }
2 1
p p ; min
52,8 70
{ }
2 1
p p ; max
100 196
8.2. Design shear force F
V,Ed
for each bolt
With regard to the flange component
The components of the design shear force are calculated in the basis { } v h,
(see Figure A.10). The group of bolts is subjected to a axial force
f
N , a shear
force
f
V and a bending moment
f
M (see 6.2)
The axial force
f
N generates a horizontal shear force:
kN 58 , 82
6
f
h bi, N,
÷ = =
N
F for each bolt
The shear force
f
V generates a vertical shear force:
kN 14 , 0
6
f
v bi, V,
= =
V
F for each bolt
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
17 of 24
5  70
The moment
f
M is divided out the bolts according to the distance
i
r between
the centre of bolts b
i
and the centre of gravity of the group of bolts
¿
=
6
1
2
i
i f
bi M,
r
r M
F
This shear force
bi M,
F resolved in the basis { } v h, gives:
¿
=
6
1
2
i
i f
h bi, M,
r
v M
F a horizontal component for the bolt b
i
.
¿
=
6
1
2
i
i f
v' bi, M,
r
h M
F a vertical component for the bolt b
i
.
With
i
h and
i
v coordinates of centre of bolt b
i
.
In the end, for each bolt:
h bi, M, h bi, N, Ed h, bi, V,
F F F + = Horizontal design shear force
v bi, M, v bi, V, Ed v, bi, V,
F F F + = Vertical design shear force
2
, , ,
2
, , ,
Ed bi, V,
Ed v bi V Ed h bi V
F F F + = Resulting design shear force
The Figure A.10 shows the distribution of the internal forces.
V
f
G
M
f
N
f
F
V,bi,v
F
N,bi,h
F
M,bi
h
v
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
6
b
5
b
4
Figure A.10 Distribution of the internal forces for the flange component.
The Figure A.11 shows the directions of the resulting force and its
components.
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
18 of 24
5  71
F
V,v,Ed
F
V,h,Ed
F
V,Ed
h
v
Figure A.11 Directions of the design shear force
Table A.5 sums up the determination of the design shear forces.
The vertical component of the load can be neglected. We will confine to the
horizontal direction for the design bearing resistance checking.
In addition, if we had not considered the shear force
Ed
V and the moment
Ed
M , the unique horizontal design shear force would be:
h bi, N, Ed h, bi, V,
F F = = 82,58 kN
That is a difference of ± 2%
So the value of 84,02 kN can be retained (= maximum value obtained for
Ed bi, V,
F ) for the design shear force: kN 02 , 84
Ed V,
= F .
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
19 of 24
5  72
Table A.5 Connection of the flanges – Flange component – Design shear
forces in kN in the basis { } v h, .
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
i
h 70 0 70 70 0 70
i
v 50 50 50 50 50 50
i
r 86,02 50 86,02 86,02 50 76,02
bi M,
F 2,42 1,41 2,42 2,42 1,41 2,42
h bi, M,
F 1,41 1,41 1,41 1,41 1,41 1,41
v bi, M,
F 1,97 0 1,97 1,97 0 1,97
h bi, N,
F 82,58 82,58 82,58 82,58 82,58 82,58
v bi, V,
F 0,14 0,14 0,14 0,14 0,14 0,14
Ed bi, V,
F 81,20 81,17 81,20 84,02 83,99 84,01
Ed h, bi, V,
F 81,17 81,17 81,77 83,99 83,99 83,99
Ed v, bi, V,
F 2,11 0,14 1,83 2,11 0,14 1,83
With regard to the plate component
The connection of the flanges is a single lap joint so the design shear forces
for each bolt with regard to the plate component are directly deduced from the
previous results.
The value of 84,02 kN can be retained.
8.3. Design slip resistance F
S,Rd
By considering: Bolts in normal holes ¬ 0 , 1
s
= k
Class friction surfaces = Class A ¬ 5 , 0 = µ
And with: =
f s,
A 303 mm
2
tensile stress area of the bolt
= =
f s, ub c p,
7 , 0 A f F 212,1 kN pretension force
n number of the friction surfaces
Single lap joint ¬ 1 = n for each component
Then: = = =
c p,
M3
s
p Rd, s, f Rd, s,
F
n k
F F
¸
µ
84,54 kN
EN 199318
3.9.1
8.4. Design bearing resistance F
b,Rd
for each bolt
EN 199318
Table 3.4
We confine to the horizontal direction for the determination of the design
bearing resistance (see 8.2).
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
20 of 24
5  73
Flange component
Figure A.12 shows for each bolt how the factors
b
o and
1
k are determined.
o
b
k
1 k
1
k
1
k
1
o
b,end
k
1,end
o
b,inner
k
1,end
o
b,inner
k
1,end
o
b,end
k
1,end
o
b,inner
k
1,end
o
b,inner
k
1,end
F
V,h,Ed
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
Figure A.12 Connection of the flanges – Flange component – Determination of
type of bolts
For all the bolts: k
1,end
= 1,80.
For the bolt b
1
and b
4
: 94 , 0
end b,
= o
kN 19 , 174
f Rd, b,
= F
For the other bolts: 72 , 0
b,inner
= o
kN 19 , 134
f Rd, b,
= F
In the end for the flange component, the minimum value is retained:
kN 19 , 134
f Rd, b,
= F
Plate component
For all the bolts, k
1,end
= 1,80.
For the bolt b
3
and b
6
: 49 , 0
end b,
= o
kN 32 , 90
p Rd, b,
= F
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
21 of 24
5  74
For the other bolts: 72 , 0
b,inner
= o
kN 19 , 134
p Rd, b,
= F
In the end for the plate component, the minimum value is retained:
kN 32 , 90
p Rd, b,
= F
8.5. Verification of the bolts
8.5.1. With regard to the flange component
Individual checking
Design bearing resistance kN 19 , 134 02 , 84
w Rd, b, w Ed, V,
= < = F F
Design slip resistance kN 54 , 84 02 , 84
w Rd, s, w Ed, V,
= < = F F
EN 199318
Table 3.2
Group of fasteners
The design shear resistance per shear plane
Rd v,
F is taken as:
M2
ub v
Rd v,
¸
o A f
F =
EN 199318
Table 3.4
By considering that the shear plane does not pass through the threaded portion
of the bolt in normal holes:
¬ o
v
= 0,6
¬ A = 380,13 mm
2
(gross crosssection of the bolt)
Then:
Rd v,
F = 182,46 kN
Since
w Rd, b, Rd v,
F F > for all the bolts, the design resistance of our group of
fasteners is equal to:
kN 15 , 885 19 , 134 4 19 , 174 2
bi
1
f Rd, bi, b, w Rd, b, r,
= × + × = =
¿
n
g
F F
EN 199318
3.7
Then: kN 15 , 885 49 , 495
f Rd, b, r, f
= < =
g
F N
8.5.2. With regard to the plate component
Individual checking
Design bearing resistance: kN 32 , 90 02 , 84
p Rd, b, p Ed, V,
= < = F F
Design slip resistance: kN 54 , 84 02 , 84
p Rd, s, p Ed, V,
= < = F F
EN 199318
Table 3.4
Group of fasteners
The shear resistance per shear plane
Rd v,
F is equal to:
Rd v,
F = 182,46 kN
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
22 of 24
5  75
Since
w Rd, b, Rd v,
F F > for all the bolts, the design of our group of fasteners is
equal to:
kN 40 , 717 19 , 134 4 32 , 90 2
bi
1
p Rd, bi, b, p Rd, b, r,
= × + × = =
¿
n
g
F F
EN 199318
3.7
Then: kN 40 , 717 49 , 495
p Rd, b, r, f p
= < = =
g
F N N
8.6. Design of net crosssection
For a connection in tension, the design plastic resistance of the net cross
section at bolt holes should be verified:
¿
s
b
1
Rd net, Ed V,
n
N F
Where n
b
is the number of bolts located in the considered net crosssection.
EN 199318
Table 3.2
8.6.1. Flange component
The net section area is:
2
f f 0, net f,
mm 25 , 1427 2 = ÷ = t d A A
f
And: kN 67 , 506
M0
y net f,
Rd net, f,
= =
¸
f A
N
Then: kN 04 , 168 02 , 84 2 67 , 506
2
1
f Ed, V, Rd net, f,
= × = > =
¿
F N
8.6.2. Plate component
The net crosssection is taken as
2
p w 0, p net p,
mm 1568 2 = ÷ = t d A A
From where kN 64 , 556
M0
y net p,
Rd net, p,
= =
¸
f A
N
Then: kN 04 168 02 84 2 64 556
2
1
p Ed, V, Rd net, p,
, , , = × = > =
¿
F N
Note: The global crosssection of the beam has been verified accounting
for the holes for fastener and the combination of the internal forces
(see 4).
The net crosssection of the plate component should also be verified
under this combination of internal forces.
Assuming a uniform distribution of the load in the section, it is
proposed that:
y
2 2
max
3 f s + = t o o
Where:
v I
M
A
N
t ne p,
p
net p,
p
± = o and
net p,
p
A
V
= t
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
23 of 24
5  76
Assuming a uniform distribution of the shear stresses, this leads to a
conservative situation.
With
2
net p,
mm 1568 = A
4
holes p, gross p, net p,
cm 64 306 23 171 87 477 , , , = ÷ = ÷ = I I I
Then:
2
N/mm 316 = o and
2
N/mm 31 25, = t
Finally:
2
y
2
N/mm 355 N/mm 31 341 = s = f ,
max
o
8.7. Design for block tearing
EN 199318
3.10.2
8.7.1. Web component
The bolt group is subjected to a concentric loading N
f
and an eccentric
loading V
f
but considering the presence of the web we only consider the case
with a concentric loading.
The Figure A.13 shows the block tearing for the flange component
A
nt
A
nv
N
f
Figure A.13 Connection of the flanges – Block tearing for flange
component
With:
2
f 0 2 nt
mm 414 ) 5 , 0 ( 2 = ÷ = t d e A
2
f 0 1 1 nv
mm 5 , 3392 ) 5 , 2 2 ( 2 = ÷ + = t d p e A
Then: kN 24 , 826
Rd eff,1,
= V
And: kN 49 , 95 4 24 , 826
w Rd eff,1,
= > = N V
8.7.2. Plate component
The bolt group is subjected to a concentric loading N
p
and an eccentric
loading V
p
.
The Figure A.14 shows the block tearing for the plate component
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord
connection using splice plate connections
24 of 24
5  77
For the cases with a concentric loading, only the case giving the minimum
area in tension is considered:
With : { }
2
p 0 2 0 2 nt
mm 504 ) 5 , 0 ( 2 ); ( min = ÷ ÷ = t d e d p A
2
p 0 1 1 nv
mm 3220 ) 5 , 2 2 ( 2 = ÷ + = t d p e A
Then: kN 60 , 865
Rd eff,1,
= V
And: kN 49 , 495 60 , 865
f Rd eff,1,
= > = N V
A
nt
A
nv
A
nv
A
nt A
nv
A
nt
A
nv
V
p
N
p
N
p
1
3
2
1 First block tearing with concentric loading
2 Second block tearing with concentric loading
3 Block tearing with eccentric loading
Figure A.14 Connection of the flanges  Block tearing for plate component
For the case with an eccentric loading, with:
2
p 0 1 1 nt
mm 1610 ) 5 , 2 2 ( = ÷ + = t d p e A
2
p 0 nv
mm 1316 ) 5 , 1 2 2 ( = ÷ + = t d p e A
Then: kN 17 , 598
Rd eff,2,
= V
And: kN 85 , 0 17 , 598
p Rd eff,2,
= > = V V
So we have just verified successively the bolt group according to the two
loadings. An additional requirement based on an interactive expression should
be fulfilled:
{ }
0 , 1
; min
3 , , 2 , 2 , , 1 , 1 , , 1 ,
s +
block Rd eff
p
bloc Rd eff block Rd eff
p
V
V
V V
N
Then: 0 , 1 57 , 0
17 , 598
85 , 0
60 , 865
49 , 495
s = + OK
Part 5: Detailed design of trusses
5  78
Part 5: Detailed design of trusses
5  79
APPENDIX B
Worked example – Design of a truss node with gusset
5  80
Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss
node with gusset
1 of 44
Made by CZT Date 12/2009
Calculation sheet
Checked by DGB Date 12/2009
The truss includes several types of joints: splice joints by bolted cover plates,
T joints and KT joints. This Appendix gives the detailed design of a KT joint
located on the upper chord, as shown in Figure B.1.
7100 7200 8500 8600 7100 7100
4000
91 kN 136 182 182 136 136 91 kN
1
1 KT joint
Figure B.1 Location of the KT joint
The values of the internal forces in the truss members (see Table B.1) result
from a gravity load case. This load case corresponds to a ULS combination of
actions, determined according to EN 1990.
Table B.1 KT joint – Internal forces in the truss members
Member N (kN) V (kN) M (kNm)
Diagonal 35 609,4 1,27 0
Diagonal 24 406,9 1,03 0
Post 36 2,6 0 0
Chord 101 413,8 1,25 0,46
102 101
24
36
35
136 kN
Chord 102 1084 1,26 0,09
1. General presentation of KT joint
The KT joint studied consists of the following connections: the gusset to web
chord welded connection and the angles to gusset bolted connection (see
Figure B.2 and Figure B.3). Both connections should be verified according to
the rules from EN 199311 and EN 199318.
The gusset to web chord welded connection is a plate welded perpendicular to
the web of the chord by two fillets welds (See Figure B.7).
The angles to gusset bolted connection is composed of two backtoback
doubleangle diagonal members (See Figure B.4) and a single angle post
member (See Figure B.5).
There are three shear connections to be designed as Category C.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 2 of 44
5  81
136 kN
1
2
3
1 Chord (IPE 330)
2 Gusset plate
3 Axes of the web members
Figure B.2 General presentation of KT joint
1
2
3
4
5
6
A
A
B B
1 Web of the chord (IPE 330)
2 Gusset plate 580×260×15
3 Angles L150×150×15
4 Angle L100×100×10
5 Fillet weld
6 Axes of the web members
Figure B.3 KT joint
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 3 of 44
5  82
Figure B.4 KT Joint – Section AA Figure B.5 KT Joint Section BB
2. Gusset plate to web chord welded
connection
This connection is a welded plate perpendicular to the web of the chord, see
Figure B.6. The two fillet welds are identical. The design of the gusset plate
and its weld to the chord takes into account the axial forces in all three angle
members connected to it.
O
α
3
α
1
Y
Z
260 320
30
260
O
g
N
1,Ed
N
2,Ed
N
3,Ed
Figure B.6 Gusset plate to web chord welded connection
The longitudinal axes of all three angle members intersect on the chord axis at
the point O in the web.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 4 of 44
5  83
The gusset plane is not positioned symmetrically about the normal OY to the
web plane (see Figure B.6 and Figure B.7). The moment resulting from the
eccentricity e
Z
should be taken into account.
The moment resulting from the eccentricity e
Y
= t
w
/2 can be neglected.
Y
Z O
e
Z
=30
e
Y
=7,5/2
O
g
Y
X
O
O
g
t
w
=7,5
t
g
=15
Figure B.7 Gusset plate to web chord – Details
The basic assumption is that gusset plate transfers axial forces acting in its
plane and in the direction of the member axes.
2.1. Data
Global coordinates system (see Figure B.6 and Figure B.7)
The YOZ Plane is that of the gusset plate
The XOZ Plane is that of the chord web
Geometric data
Gusset plate thickness t
g
= 15 mm
Web thickness t
w
= 7,5 mm
Angle between gusset and web o
a
= 90°
Number of fillet welds n
a
= 2
Effective throat thickness a = Value to be defined
Length of welds L
w
= 560 mm
Material data
Steel grade: S355
Yield strength: f
y
= 355 N/mm
2
Ultimate tensile strength: f
u
= 510 N/mm
2
EN 199311
Table 3.1
Note: The specified yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the filler
metal are required to be at least equivalent to those specified for the parent
material.
EN 199318
4.2(2)
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 5 of 44
5  84
Partial Factor
Resistance of weld: ¸
M2
= 1,25 (recommended value)
EN 199318
Table 2.1 NOTE
Internal forces in the truss members (see Figure B.6)
All axial forces are applied in the gusset plate XOZ plane:
Tension axial force at an angle to normal OY of o
1
= 42°:
N
1,Ed
= 406,9 kN
Tension axial force on the normal OY so o
2
= 0°
N
2,Ed
= 2,6 kN
Compression axial force at an angle to normal OY of o
3
= 41,3°
N
3,Ed
= 609,4 kN
2.2. Stresses in the gusset crosssection in front of
welds
The approach is based on a linearelastic analysis that leads to a safe
estimation of the resistance of the welded joint.
EN 199318
2.4(2)
2.2.1. Design forces in the gusset plate at the chord web face
The effects of the small eccentricity e
Y
from the chord axis will be neglected.
The gusset plate section is verified for the following forces:
N
g,Ed
Axial force at an eccentricity of e
Z
= 30 mm to the centreline of the
gusset plate
V
g,Ed
shear force
With:
¿
=
=
3
1 i
i i Ed g,
) cos(o N N
¿
=
=
3
1 i
i i Ed g,
) sin(o N V
and
Ed g,
M , the moment resulting from the eccentricity,
Ed g, Z Ed g,
N e M =
Then: N
g,Ed
= 152,83 kN
V
g,Ed
= 674,47 kN
M
g,Ed
= 4,585 kNm
Note: the high axial force component N
g,Ed
is due to the local point load at the
joint and the self weight of the truss.
2.2.2. Normal stress
Assuming a uniform distribution of the load in the section, the normal stress
is:
v I
M
A
N
g
Ed g,
g
Ed g,
max g,
+ = o
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 6 of 44
5  85
Where: A
g
is the crosssection area
I
g
is the second moment of crosssection
v is the position of the end fibre
With: 580 15
w g g
× = = L t A = 8700 mm
2
12
3
w g
g
L t
I = = 243,89.10
6
mm
4
v = 290 mm
Then:
max g,
o = 23,02 N/mm
2
2.2.3. Shear stress
The shear mean stress is:
g
Ed g,
g
A
V
= t
Then:
g
t = 77,53 N/mm
2
One usually checks the combination of axial and shear stresses in the gusset
plate section using the Von Mises criterion.
2.3. Design resistance of the fillet weld
The design resistance of a fillet weld should be determined using either the
directional method or the simplified method.
EN 199318
4.5.3.1(1)
The directional method is based on the comparison between the design tensile
strength and the applied stress in the most severely loaded part of the weld
throat. The applied stress, being determined from a Von Mises formulation,
accounts for the influence on the weld strength of the inclination of the
resultant force per unit length to the weld axis and plane.
The simplified method is based on the design shear strength of the weld to
which is compared directly to an applied weld throat shear stress obtained by
dividing the resultant force per unit of length b the weld throat size. The
simplified method is always safe compared to the directional method.
Here, the directional method is applied. EN 199318
4.5.3.2
2.3.1. Directional method
Note: a uniform distribution of stress is assumed in the throat section of the
weld.
EN 199318
4.5.3.2(4)
With: o
±
the normal stress to the throat plane
t
±
the shear stress (in the plane of throat) perpendicular to the
axis of the weld
t
//
the shear stress (in the plane of throat) parallel to the axis of
the weld
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 7 of 44
5  86
Note: the normal stress o
//
in the weld needs not to be considered.
EN 199318
4.5.3.2(5)
On the throat section of the weld, the force per unit length are:
a o
±
= ) 2 / sin(
a
a
g max g,
o
o
n
e
= 122,08 N/mm.mm
a t
±
= ) 2 / cos(
a
a
g max g,
o
o
n
e
= 122,08 N/mm.mm
a t
//
=
a
g g
n
e t
= 581,44 N/mm.mm
The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient if the following
conditions are both fulfilled:
o
w
= [o
±
2
+3 ( t
±
2
+t
//
2
) ]
0,5
≤ f
u
/ (
w
¸
M2
)
o
±
≤ 0,9 f
u
/ ¸
M2
EN 199318
4.5.3.2(6)
Where: 
w
is the correlation factor for fillet weld

w
= 0,8
EN 199318
Table 4.1
These conditions can be rewritten in the following forms:
(a o
w
) / a ≤ f
u
/ (
w
¸
M2
)
(a t
±
) / a ≤ 0,9 f
u
/ ¸
M2
From these conditions, a minimum value for the effective throat thickness is
derived.
a
1,min
= a o
w
/ [ f
u
/ (
w
¸
M2
)] = 2,03 mm
a
2,min
= a o
±
/ (0,9 .f
u
/ ¸
M2
) = 0,33 mm
a
min
= max(a
1,min
; a
2,min
) = 2,03 mm
The following requirements must be satisfied:
a > 3 mm
l
eff
> max(30 mm ; 6 a) with l
eff
= L
w
– 2 a
EN 199318
4.5.2(2)
4.5.2(1)
An effective throat thickness of 4 mm is then sufficient.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 8 of 44
5  87
3. Angles to gusset bolted connection
Three shear connections are designed as Category C. These connections are
shown in Figure B.8.
320 260
260
16
41.3° 42°
15
N1
N2
N3
Figure B.8 Angles to gusset bolted connections
This connection is composed of two backtoback doubleangle diagonal
members (N1 and N3) and a single angle post member (N2).
The internal forces in the truss members are:
N
1,Ed
= 406,9 kN tension axial force
N
2,Ed
= 2,6 kN tension axial force
N
3,Ed
= 609,4 kN compression axial force
3.1. Basic Data
Material data (except bolts)
Steel grade S355
Yield strength f
y
= 355 N/mm
2
Ultimate tensile strength f
u
= 510 N/mm
2
EN 199311
Table 3.1
Gusset plate
Thickness t
g
= 15 mm
Length L
g
= 580 mm
Width H
g
= 260 mm
Angle members
N1 two equalleg angles L150×150×15
N2 one equalleg angle L100×100×10
N3 two equalleg angles L150×150×15
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 9 of 44
5  88
Bolted connections data
Category of bolted connections Category C
Bolt Class Class 10.9
Yield strength f
yb
= 900 N/mm
2
Ultimate tensile strength f
ub
= 1000 N/mm
2
Nominal bolt diameter d = 24 mm
Hole diameter d
0
= 26 mm
EN 199318
Table 3.1
Partial Factors (Recommended values)
Structural steel ¸
M0
= 1,00
Structural steel ¸
M1
= 1,00
Structural steel ¸
M2
= 1,25
Bolts ¸
M2
= 1,25
Bolts ¸
M3
= 1,25
EN 199311
6.1 NOTE 2B
EN 199318
2.2 NOTE
3.2. Global checking of gross crosssections of the
gusset plate
The gross crosssections of the gusset plates to check are located on the
Figure B.9.
Note: The gross crosssections of the angles are verified afterward.
320 260
260
2
1
N
3,Ed
N
2,Ed
N
1,Ed
o
1
= 42° o
3
= 41.3°
Figure B.9 Location of the gross crosssections of the gusset plate
Checking of gross crosssection 1
With A
g1
crosssectional area 1 A
g1
= H
g
t
g
= 3900 mm
2
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 10 of 44
5  89
Shear resistance
( )
2 Ed 2, 1 Ed 1, Ed g1,
cos ; cos max o o N N V = = 457,82 kN
( ) 3
M0 y g1 Rd pl, g1,
¸ f A V = = 799,34 kN
Rd pl, g1, Ed g1,
V V < ¬ OK
Axial force resistance
¿
=
=
3
1 i
i Ed i, Ed g1,
) sin(o N N = 674,47 kN
M0 y g1 Rd pl, g1,
¸ f A N = = 1384,50 kN
Rd pl, g1, Ed g1,
N N < ¬ OK
Checking of gross crosssection 2
With A
g2
crosssectional area 2 A
g2
= L
g
t
g
= 8700 mm
2
Shear resistance
¿
=
=
3
1 i
i Ed i, Ed g2,
) sin(o N V = 674,47 kN
( ) 3
M0 y g2 Rd pl, g2,
¸ f A V = = 1783,15 kN
Rd pl, g2, Ed g2,
V V < ¬ OK
Axial force resistance
¿
=
=
3
1 i
i Ed i, Ed g2,
) cos(o N N = 152,83 kN
M0 y g2 Rd pl, g2,
¸ f A N = = 3088,5 kN
Rd pl, g2, Ed g2,
N N < ¬ OK
3.3. Connection N3 – Backtoback doubleangle
diagonal member N3 to gusset bolted connection
The shear connection in compression is designed as Category C.
The sizes of the components and the positioning of the holes are shown on the
Figure B.10 and Figure B.11.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 11 of 44
5  90
172
124
76
90
57
99
141
33
60
57
67,5
65
67
65
65
35
C
C
G
Figure B.10 Connection N3 – Sizes (in mm) and positioning
60 33 57
42.5
15
1
1 Angles neutral axis
Figure B.11 Connection N3 – Section CC
3.3.1. Connection N3 – Design forces
With: N
3,Ed
Axial compression force at an eccentricity of e
N3
to the
centre of gravity of the joint
M
3,N,Ed
Bending moment resulting from the eccentricity, M
3,N,Ed
=
e
N3
N
3,Ed
.
For the gusset:
N
3,g,Ed
= 609,4 kN
e
N3
= 44,5 mm
M
3,g,Ed
= e
N3
N
3,g,Ed
= 27,12 kNm
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 12 of 44
5  91
For each angle:
N
3,a,Ed
= 304,7 kN
M
3,a,Ed
= 13,56 kNm
3.3.2. Connection N3 – Checking of angle
Resistance of gross crosssection
Longitudinal stress
Assuming a uniform distribution of the load in the section, the longitudinal
stress is:
v I
M
A
N
a 3,
Ed a, 3,
a 3,
Ed a, 3,
i
+ = o
Where: A
3,a
is the section area of the angle
A
3,a
= 4302 mm
2
I
3,a
is the second moment of area of angle
I
3,a
= 8,981.10
6
mm
4
v position of considered end fibre (see Figure B.12)
v
1
= 87 mm
v
2
= 63 mm
Then the normal stresses are:
o
1
= 202,18 N/mm
2
(compression)
o
2
= 24,29 N/mm
2
(tension)
o
2
o
1
e
N3
N
3,a,Ed
Compression Tension
M
3,a,Ed
= e
N3
N
3,a,Ed
υ
2 υ
1
Figure B.12 Stresses in the angle N3
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 13 of 44
5  92
Class of section
20 , 12 15 10 = < = c t h
( ) 36 , 9 5 , 11 10 2 = > = + c t h b
¬ class 4
14 , 8 1 / 10 / 10 93 , 7 = = < = c o c t c
¬ class 2
¬ Class of angle = class 4
EN 199311
Table 5.2
Sheet 3 of 3
Table 5.2
Sheet 2 of 3
Combination M + N
Criterion to satisfy:
M0
y
eff a, 3,
Ed a, 3,
eff a, 3,
Ed a, 3,
Ed x,
¸
o
f
W
M
A
N
s + =
with: A
3,a,eff
effective area of crosssection
leg2 eff, a, 3, leg1 eff, a, 3, eff a, 3,
A A A + =
where A
3,a,eff,leg1
effective area relative to the “free” leg
A
3,a,eff,leg2
effective area relative to the “connected” leg
EN 199311
6.2.9.3
determination of the effective area of crosssection A
3,a,eff,leg1
1 1
o o ¢ = = 1,0
buckling factor k
o
= 0,43
p
ì = 0,660 ¬ µ = 1 no reduction
EN 199315
Table 4.2
EN 199315
4.4 (2)
determination of the effective area of crosssection A
3,a,eff,leg2
1 2
o o ¢ = = 0,120
buckling factor k
o
= 2,55
p
ì = 0,271 ¬ µ = 1 no reduction
EN 199315
Table 4.2
EN 199315
4.4 (2)
Verification
a 3, eff a, 3,
A A = (no reduction)
355 18 , 202 ) ; max(
M0
y
2 1 Ed x,
= s = =
¸
o o o
f
N/mm
2
¬ criterion satisfied
Resistance of net crosssection
From 6.2.5 (5) of EN 199311, the fastener holes in tension zone need not be
allowed for, provided that the following limit is satisfied for the complete
tension zone:
M0
y t
M2
u net t,
9 , 0
¸ ¸
f A f A
>
EN 199311
6.2.5 (5)
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 14 of 44
5  93
Here, the holes are in the tension zone (see Figure B.12).
Accounting for
a 3, eff a, 3,
A A = , the following criterion should be fulfilled:
M0
y a 3,
Rd c, a, 3, Ed a, 3,
¸
f A
N N = s
With
2
a 3,
mm 4302 = A :
kN 2 , 1527 7 , 304
Rd c, a, 3, Ed a, 3,
= < = N N
Buckling resistance
A compression member should be verified against buckling.
This condition has been verified in the section dealt with the verification of
the members (see § 4 of this document).
3.3.3. Connection N3 – Checking of gusset plate
Resistance of crosssection
For the determination of the gross crosssection of gusset plate, a diffusion of
45° of the axial force N
g,Ed
is assumed (see Figure B.13).
286,5
45°
45°
112
Figure B.13 Connection N3 – Diffusion by 45°of the axial force
The following criteria must be satisfied:
M0
y
g 3,
Ed g, 3,
g 3,
Ed g, 3,
Ed x,
/ ¸
o
f
v I
M
A
N
s ± =
with:
2
g g 3,
mm 5 , 4297 5 , 286 = × = t A
4 3
g 3,
mm 29395706 12 / 5 , 286 = × =
g
t I
mm 2 / 325 + = v
Then:
2
M0
y
Ed x,
N/mm 355 72 , 291 92 , 149 80 , 141 = s = + =
¸
o
f
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 15 of 44
5  94
Buckling resistance
The gusset is made similar to an embedded column of characteristics:
Area
2
, 3
mm 5 , 4297 =
g
A
Height h
c
= 112 mm (see Figure B.13)
Second moment of area I
c,zz
= 80578 mm
2
We should satisfy:
M1
y g 3,
Rd b, g, 3, Ed g, 3,
¸
_ f A
N N = s
Where _ is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling curve
EN 199311
6.3.1.1
With a buckling length of 2h
c
, the slenderness is given by:
c
2
y c
2
c
4
EI
f A h
t
ì = = 0,677
The buckling curve to use is curve c and the imperfection is:
o = 0,49
( )  
2
) 2 , 0 1 5 , 0 ì ì o + ÷ + = u = 0,846
2 2
1
ì u u
_
÷ +
= = 0,739
Table 6.1
EN 199311
6.3.1.2
Then: kN 1127 4 609
Rd b, g, 3, Ed g, 3,
= < = N N ,
3.3.4. Connection N3 – Checking of bolts with regard to the
gusset component
Design shear force F
V,Ed
for each bolt
Due to the orientation of the axial force N
3,Ed
, the load on each bolt is not
parallel to the edge of gusset. Also, the components of the design shear load
will be performed in a suitable basis.
EN 199318
Table 3.4
3)
In first the components are calculated in the basis { } v h ' ', located at the
centre of gravity of the joint and oriented in agreement with the principal
directions of the fasteners which are also the principal directions of the angles
(See Figure B.14).
Then a change of basis is performed from the initial { } v h ' ', to the basis
{ } v h, (see Figure B.15).
In the basis { } v h ' ', the normal force N
3,g,Ed
causes a horizontal shear load for
each bolt b
i
:
5
Ed g, 3,
h bi, N,
N
F =
'
= 101,57 kN
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 16 of 44
5  95
The moment due to eccentricity is divided out according to the distance
i
r '
between the centre of bolts b
i
and the centre of gravity of the joint:
¿
'
'
=
5
1
2
i
i Ed a, 1,
bi M,
r
r M
F
F
M,b6,h’
F
M,b6,v’
F
M,b6
F
N,b6
N
3,g,Ed
M
3,g,Ed
G
h’
v’
b
4
b
5
b
6
b
2
b
3
b
1
Figure B.14 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Locations
F
V,b1,Ed
G
h
v
F
V,b1,h,Ed
F
V,b1,v,Ed
b
3
b
2
b
1 b
4
b
5
b
6
Figure B.15 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Loadings
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 17 of 44
5  96
This shear load F
M,bi
is resolved in the basis { } v h ' ', :
¿
'
'
=
'
5
1
2
i
i Ed a, 1,
h bi, M,
r
v M
F horizontal component
¿
'
'
=
5
1
2
i
i Ed a, 1,
v' bi, M,
r
h M
F vertical component
With
i
h' and
i
v' coordinates of centre of bolt b
i
.
And we obtain (see Table B.2):
h bi, M, h bi, N, Ed , h bi, V, ' ' '
+ = F F F Horizontal shear force,
v bi, M, Ed , v bi, V, ' '
= F F Transverse shear force,
2
Ed , v bi, V,
2
Ed , h bi, V,
Ed bi, V,
' '
+ = F F F Resulting shear force
Table B.2 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Design shear forces in kN
in the basis { } v h ' ', .
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
i
h'
81,25 16,25 48,75 48,75 16,25 81,25
i
v'
30 30 30 30 30 30
i
r '
86,61 34,12 57,24 57,24 34,12 86,61
bi M,
F
98,34 38,74 64,99 64,99 38,74 98,34
h bi, M, '
F
34,06 34,06 34,06 34,06 34,06 34,06
v bi, M, '
F
92,25 18,45 55,35 55,35 18,45 92,25
bi N,
F
101,57 101,57 101,57 101,57 101,57 101,57
Ed bi, V,
F
164,03 136,88 146,49 87,30 69,98 114,31
Ed , h bi, V, '
F
135,63 135,63 135,63 67,50 67,50 67,50
Ed , v bi, V, '
F
92,25 18,45 55,35 55,35 18,45 92,25
The change of basis is performed with:
) cos( ) sin(
3 Ed , v bi, V, 3 Ed , h bi, V, Ed h, bi, V,
o o
' '
+ ÷ = F F F
) sin( ) cos(
3 Ed , v bi, V, 3 Ed , h bi, V, Ed v, bi, V,
o o
' '
+ = F F F
Where o
3
= 41,3° (See Figure B.6)
Table B.3gives the results.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 18 of 44
5  97
Table B.3 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Design shear loads in kN in
the { } v h, reference system
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
Ed bi, V,
F 164,03 136,88 146,49 87,30 69,98 114,31
Ed h, bi, V,
F 20,21 75,65 131,10 2,97 58,41 113,86
Ed v, bi, V,
F 162,78 114,07 65,36 87,25 38,54 10,17
Design details
The structure is not exposed to the weather or other corrosive influences.
We have to verify the design details in the two directions of the components
of loading. By considering the limits specified in Table 3.3 of EN 199318,
we have to satisfy the following checks:
EN 199318
3.5 (1) and
Table 3.3
{ }
0 2 1
2 , 1 ; min d e e >
{ }
0 2 1
2 , 2 ; min d p p > or { }
0 2 1
2 , 1 ; min d p p > if
0
4 , 2 d L >
{ } { } mm 200 ; 14 min ; max
2 1
t p p s
EN 199318
Table 3.3
5)
For e
1
and e
2
observe the minimum end and edge distances according to the
directions Gh and Gv. And For p
1
and p
2
consider the spacing according to the
directions Gh’ and Gv’.
The design details are verified in the table below.
Table B.4 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Design details
Distance or spacing Minimum value Design value Maximum value
{ }
2 1
e e ; min
31,2 57
{ }
2 1
p p ; min
31,2 60
{ }
2 1
p p ; max
65 200
Design bearing resistance F
b,Rd
for each bolt
Table 3.4 of EN 199318 gives the expressions for the determination of the
design bearing resistance. These expressions bring into play two coefficients
b
o and
1
k .
EN 199318
Table 3.4
For each bolt the value of these coefficients depend on the orientation of its
loading, its location compared with the ends of the gusset but also with the
location of the other bolts.
So we are considering successively the horizontal loading (loads in the
direction Gh) and the vertical loading (loads in the direction Gv).
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 19 of 44
5  98
Horizontal loading
The horizontal loading coming from the results of Table 3 is shown on the
Figure B.16.
On this figure we indicate for each bolt how we are processing for the
determination of its coefficients
b
o and
1
k . So, we can specify for each bolt:
the end and edge distances (e
1
and e
2
) and the spacing (p
1
, p
2
and L) to
consider
the type; end or inner, or end and inner
b
3
b
2
b
1
b
4
b
5
b
6
o
b
o
b
o
b
k
1
k
1
k
1 k
1
Figure B.16 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Horizontal loading
The general expression for the design bearing resistance is:
M2
u b 1
Rd b,
¸
o t d f k
F =
EN 199318
Table 3.4
According to Table 3.4 of the Eurocode 199318, the coefficients o
b
and k
1
are determined from:
For end bolts
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= 0 , 1 ; ;
3
min
u
ub
0
1
end b,
f
f
d
e
o
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷ = 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 8 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 min
0
2
0
2
end 1,
d
e
d
p
k
For inner bolts
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = 0 , 1 ; ;
4
1
3
min
u
ub
0
1
b,inner
f
f
d
p
o
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = 5 , 2 ; 7 , 1 4 , 1 min
0
2
1,inner
d
p
k
Table B.6 gives the value of the horizontal component of the design bearing
resistances F
b,bi,h,Rd
.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 20 of 44
5  99
Table B.5 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Horizontal component of
the design bearing resistances in kN
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
e
1
e
2
172 124 76 90
p
1
1)
68,24 68,24 68,24 68,24 68,24 68,24
p
2
65 65
2)
65
2)
65
2)
65
2)
65
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b
o
0,62 0,62 0,62 0,62 0,62 0,62
min 1,
k
3)
min 1,
k
3)
min 1,
k
3)
1,inner
k
1,inner
k
min 1,
k
3)
1
k
1,80 1,80 1,80 1,80 1,80 1,80
Rd h bi b
F
, , ,
165,19 165,19 165,19 165,19 165,19 165,19
1)
the distance L have been retained
2)
{ } L ; 65 min
3)
{ }
end 1,
;
inner 1,
min
min , 1
k k k =
Vertical loading
The vertical loading coming from the results of Table 3 is shown on the
Figure B.17
b
3
b
2
b
1
b
4
b
5
b
6
k
1
o
b
o
b
o
b
o
b
k
1
k
1
Figure B.17 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Vertical loading
Table B.6 gives the value of the vertical component of the design bearing
resistances F
b,bi,v,Rd
.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 21 of 44
5  100
Table B.6 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Vertical component of the
design bearing resistances in kN
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
e
1
90
e
2
141 99 57
p
1
65 65
1)
65
1)
65
1)
65
1)
p
2
2)
68,24
68,24
68,24
68,24
68,24
68,24
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
end b,
o
b
o
0,58 0,58 0,58 0,58 0,58 1,00
1,inner
k
1,inner
k
1,inner
k
min 1,
k
3)
min 1,
k
3)
min 1,
k
3)
1
k
1,97 1,97 1,97 1,97 1,97 1,97
Rd v bi b
F
, , ,
169,16 169,16 169,16 169,16 169,16 289,98
1)
{ } L ; 65 min
2)
the distance L have been retained
3)
{ }
end 1,
;
inner 1,
min
min , 1
k k k =
Design slip resistance F
s,Rd
With: A
s
= 353 mm
2
tensile stress area of the bolt
s ub C p,
7 , 0 A f F = = 247,1 kN pretension force
n = 2 number of the friction surfaces relatively to the gusset
EN 199318
3.9
EN 199318
3.9.1 (2)
And by considering:
Bolts in normal holes ¬ k
s
= 1,0
Class of friction surfaces = Class A ¬ µ = 0,5
EN 199318
Table 3.6
Table 3.7
Then:
C p,
M3
s
Rd S,
F
n k
F
¸
µ
= = 197,68 kN
EN 199318
3.9.1 (1)
Checking bolts – Individual checking
The criteria to satisfy are:
In relation to the design slip resistance
Rd S, Ed bi, V,
F F s
EN 199318
Table 3.2
In relation to the design bearing resistance
Rd h, bi, b, Ed h, bi, V,
F F s
Rd v, bi, b, Ed v, bi, V,
F F s
EN 199318
Table 3.2 and
Table 3.4
3)
Note: an additional check based on an interactive expression is proposed:
1
2
Rd v, bi, b,
Ed v, bi, V,
2
Rd h, bi, b,
Ed h, bi, V,
s


.

\

+


.

\

F
F
F
F
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 22 of 44
5  101
Each bolt has to be verified. The highest values of resistance do not necessary
correspond with the bolt the most loaded.
Table B.7 summarizes only the checks for the bolt b
1
.
Table B.7 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Checking bolt b
1
Design values Resistance values
Ed b1, V,
F 164,03 197,68
Rd S,
F
Ed h, b1, V,
F 20,21 165,19
Rd h, b1, b,
F
Ed v, b1, V,
F 162,78 169,16
Rd v, b1, b,
F
2
Rd v, b1, b,
Ed v, b1, V,
2
Rd h, b1, b,
Ed h, b1, V,


.

\

+


.

\

F
F
F
F
0,94 1
Checking bolts – Group of fasteners
From the Eurocode, the design resistance of a group of fasteners may be taken
as:
¿
=
bi
n
F F
1
Rd bi, b, Rd b, gr,
if for each bolt b
i
we have
Rd bi, b, Rd v,
F F >
else { }
Rd bi, b, bi Rd b, r,
min F n F
g
× =
EN 199318
3.7
Where
Rd v
F
,
, the shear resistance per shear plane, is taken as:
M2
ub v
Rd v,
¸
o A f
F =
By considering that the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the
bolt in normal holes:
o
v
= 0,5
A = A
s
= 353 mm
2
(tensile stress area)
Then:
Rd v,
F = 141,12 kN
Finally for the design resistance we obtain:
Rd h, b, r, g
F = 991,17 kN for the horizontal components
Rd v, b, r, g
F = 1014,94 kN for the vertical components
And we verify that:
21 , 402 ) sin(
3 , , 3
= o
Ed g
N < kN 17 , 991
Rd h, b, r,
=
g
F
82 , 457 ) cos(
3 , , 3
= o
Ed g
N < kN 94 , 1014
Rd h, b, r,
=
g
F
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 23 of 44
5  102
3.3.5. Connection N3 – Checking bolts with regard to the angle
component
Determination of the design ultimate shear load F
V,Ed
for each bolts
Table B.8 gives the results of the design ultimate shear load F
V,bi,Ed
and its
components F
V,bi,h,Ed
and F
V,bi,v,Ed
(See Figure B.18).
These results are deduced from the results obtained for the gusset in the basis
{ } v h ' ', .
F
V,b6,Ed
N
3,a,Ed
M
3,a,Ed
G
h
v
b
4
b
5
b
6
b
2
b
3
b
1
F
V,b6,v,Ed
F
V,b6,h,Ed
Figure B.18 Connection N3 – Angle component – Loading
Table B.8 Connection N3 – Angle component – Design shear loads in kN
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
Ed bi, V,
F 82,01 68,44 73,24 43,65 34,99 57,16
Ed h, bi, V,
F 67,81 67,81 67,81 33,75 33,75 33,75
Ed v, bi, V,
F 46,13 9,23 27,68 27,68 9,23 46,13
Design details
The design details are verified in the table below.
Table B.9 Connection N3 – Angle component – Design details
Distance or spacing Minimum value Design value Maximum value
{ }
2 1
; min e e 31,2 33
{ }
2 1
; min p p 31,2 60
{ }
2 1
; max p p 65 200
Determination of the design bearing resistance F
b,Rd
for each bolts
Horizontal loading
The horizontal loading coming from the results of Table B.8 is shown on the
Figure B.19
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 24 of 44
5  103
b
4
b
5
b
6
b
2
b
3
b
1
k
1
k
1
k
1
o
b
o
b
Figure B.19 Connection N3 – Angle component – Horizontal loadings
Table B.10 gives the value of the horizontal component of the design bearing
resistances F
b,bi,h,Rd
.
Table B.10 Connection N3 – Angle component – Horizontal component of the
design bearing resistances in kN
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
e
1
e
2
33 33 33
p
1
65 65 65 65 65 65
p
2
1)
68,24 68,24 68,24 68,24 68,24 68,24
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b
o
0,58 0,58 0,58 0,58 0,58 0,58
1,inner
k
1,inner
k
1,inner
k
min 1,
k
2)
min 1,
k
2)
min 1,
k
2)
1
k
1,97 1,97 1,97 1,85 1,85 1,85
Rd h bi b
F
, , ,
169,16 169,16 169,16 158,84 158,84 158,84
1)
the distance L have been retained
2)
{ }
end 1,
;
inner 1,
min
min , 1
k k k =
Vertical loading
The vertical loading coming from the results of Table B.8 is shown on the
Figure B.20
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 25 of 44
5  104
b
4
b
5
b
6
b
2
b
3
b
1
o
b
o
b
o
b
k
1
k
1
Figure B.20 Connection N3 – Angle component – Vertical loading
Table B.11 gives the value of the vertical component of the design bearing
resistances F
b,bi,v,Rd
.
Table B.11 Connection N3 – Angle component – Vertical component of the
design bearing resistances in kN
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
b
5
b
6
e
1
33 33
e
2
35 67,5
p
1
1)
68,24
68,24
68,24
68,24
68,24
68,24
p
2
65 65 65 65 65 65
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
end b,
o
end b,
o
b
o
0,62 0,62 0,62 0,62 0,42 0,42
min 1,
k
2)
1,inner
k
1,inner
k
min 1,
k
2)
1,inner
k
1,inner
k
1
k
1,80 1,80 1,80 1,80 1,80 1,80
Rd v bi b
F
, , ,
165,19 165,19 165,19 165,19 111,85 111,85
1)
the distance L have been retained
2)
{ }
end 1, inner 1, min , 1
; min k k k =
Determination of the design slip resistance F
s,Rd
For the angle component, the number of the friction surfaces is equal to 1.
So with n = 1 we obtain:
C p,
M3
s
Rd S,
F
n k
F
¸
µ
= = 98,84 kN
EN 199318
3.9
EN 199318
3.9.1 (2)
Checking bolts – Individual checking
Each bolt has to be verified.
Table B.12 summarizes only the checks for the bolt b
1
.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 26 of 44
5  105
Table B.12 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Checking bolt b
1
Design values Resistance values
Ed b1, V,
F 82,01 98,84
Rd S,
F
Ed h, b1, V,
F 67,81 169,16
Rd h, b1, b,
F
Ed v, b1, V,
F 46,13 165,19
Rd v, b1, b,
F
2
Rd v, b1, b,
Ed v, b1, V,
2
Rd h, b1, b,
Ed h, b1, V,


.

\

+


.

\

F
F
F
F
0,24 1
Checking bolts  Group of fasteners
For the angle we can consider only the horizontal component. In this case:
Rd h, b, r, g
F = 991,17 kN
And we verify that:
70 , 304
, , 3
=
Ed a
N < kN 03 , 953
Rd h, b, r,
=
g
F
3.3.6. Connection N3 – Design of net crosssection
For a connection in tension, the design plastic resistance of the net cross
section at bolt holes should be verified only for a connection in tension.
EN 199318
3.4.1 (1) c)
3.3.7. Connection N3 – Design of block tearing
Given that this connection is in compression it is not necessary to execute the
design for block tearing.
3.4. Connection N1 – Backtoback doubleangle
diagonal member N1 to gusset bolted connection
We have a shear connection in tension to be designed as Category C.
The sizes of the components of this connection and the positioning of the
holes are shown on the Figure B.21. The section DD is identical to the section
CC of the connection N3 (See Figure B.11).
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 27 of 44
5  106
35
65
65
33
60
57
54
D
D
G
76 124
80
67,5
Figure B.21 Connection N1 – Sizes (in mm) and positioning
3.4.1. Connection N1 – Design forces
With: N
1,Ed
the normal tension force at an eccentricity of e
N1
, to the
centre of gravity of the joint
M
1,N,Ed
the moment resulting from the eccentricity, M
1,N,Ed
= e
N1
N
1,Ed
.
We have for the gusset:
N
1,g,Ed
= 406,9 kN
e
N1
= 44,5 mm
M
1,g,Ed
= e
N1
N
1,g,Ed
= 18,11 kNm
And for each angle:
N
1,a,Ed
= 203,45 kN
M
1,a,Ed
= 9,05 kNm
3.4.2. Connection N1 – Checking of angle
Resistance of gross crosssection
Longitudinal stress
Assuming an uniform distribution of the load on the section, the longitudinal
stress is:
v I
M
A
N
a 1,
Ed a, 1,
a 1,
Ed a, 1,
i
+ = o
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 28 of 44
5  107
Where: A
1,a
crosssectional area of angle
I
1,a
second moment of crosssection of angle
v position of considered end fibre
With: A
1,a
= 4302 mm
2
I
1,a
= 8,981.10
6
mm
4
v
1
= 87 mm and v
2
= 63 mm (see Figure B.22)
We obtain (with compression positive):
o
1
= 134,99 N/mm
2
o
2
= 16,22 N/mm
2
Class of section
20 , 12 15 10 = < = c t h
( ) 36 , 9 5 , 11 10 2 = > = + c t h b
¬ class 4
14 , 8 1 / 10 / 10 93 , 7 = = < = c o c t c
¬ class 2
¬ Class of angle = class 4
EN 199311
Table 5.2
Sheet 3 of 3
Table 5.2
Sheet 2 of 3
o
1
o
2
e
N1
N
1,a,Ed
Compression
Traction
M
1,a,Ed
= e
N1
N
1,a,Ed
G
Figure B.22 Stresses in the angle N1
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 29 of 44
5  108
Combination M + N
Criterion to satisfy:
M0
y
eff a, 1,
Ed a, 1,
eff a, 1,
Ed a, 1,
Ed x,
¸
o
f
W
M
A
N
s + =
with: A
1,a,eff
effective area of crosssection
leg2 eff, a, 1, leg1 eff, a, 1, eff a, 1,
A A A + =
where A
1,a,eff,leg1
effective area relative to the “free” leg
A
1,a,eff,leg2
effective area relative to the “connected” leg
EN 199311
6.2.9.3
determination of the effective area of crosssection A
3,a,eff,leg1
No reduction because “free” leg in traction
determination of the effective area of crosssection A
3,a,eff,leg2
1 2
o o ¢ = = 0,120
buckling factor k
o
= 2,55
p
ì = 0,271 ¬ µ = 1 no reduction
EN 199315
Table 4.2
EN 199315
4.4 (2)
Verification
a 1, eff a, 1,
A A = (no reduction)
355 99 , 134 ) ; max(
M0
y
2 1 Ed x,
= s = =
¸
o o o
f
¬ criterion satisfied
Resistance of net crosssection
We should satisfy:
M0
y net a, 1,
Rd net, a, 1, Ed a, 1,
¸
f A
N N = s
EN 199311
6.2.3. (1) and (4)
The net crosssections considered are shown on the Figure B.23
1
1
2
2
2
Figure B.23 Net crosssections of angle N1
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 30 of 44
5  109
With:
2
2 , , 1 1 , , 1 net a, 1,
mm 3588 ) 3588 ; 3912 min( ) ; min( = = =
net a net a
A A A
we satisfy:
kN 52 , 1317 45 , 203
Rd net, a, 1, Ed a, 1,
= < = N N
3.4.3. Checking of gusset
Resistance of crosssection
For the determination of the gross crosssection of gusset, we use an approach
based on a diffusion of 45° of the internal force N
g,Ed
(see Figure B.24).
45°
45°
195
Figure B.24 Connection N1 – Diffusion by 45°of the internal force
The following criteria must be satisfied:
M0
y
g 1,
Ed g, 1,
g 1,
Ed g, 1,
Ed x,
/ ¸
o
f
v I
M
A
N
s ± =
with:
2
g g 1,
mm 2925 195 = × = t A
4 3
g 3,
mm 9268594 12 / 195 = × =
g
t I
mm 2 / 195 + = v
We obtain:
2
M0
y
Ed x,
N/mm 355 62 , 329 51 , 190 11 , 139 = s = + =
¸
o
f
3.4.4. Connection N1 – Checking of bolts with regard to the
gusset component
Determination of the design ultimate shear load F
V,Ed
for each bolts
Due to the orientation of the normal force N
1,Ed
, the load on each bolt is not
parallel to the edge of gusset. By consequent the components of the design
shear load parallel and normal to the end will be performed.
EN 199318
Table 3.4
3)
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 31 of 44
5  110
The calculation of the components is performed in the same way as for
connection N3 (see 3.3.4). We calculate the components in the basis { } v h ' ',
(see Figure B.25).) then in the basis { } v h, (see Figure B.26).
N
1,g,Ed
M
1,g,Ed
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
F
N,b2
F
M,b2
F
M,b2,h’
G
F
M,b2,v’
h’
v’
Figure B.25 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Locations
Table B.13 gives the calculations and the results of the design ultimate shear
load F
V,bi,Ed
and its two components F
V,bi,h’,Ed
and F
V,bi,v’,Ed
for each bolt b
i
in
the { } v h ' ', reference system.
Table B.13 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Design shear loads in kN in
the { } v h ' ', reference system.
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
i
h' 16,25 48,75 48,75 16,25
i
v' 30 30 30 30
i
r ' 34,12 57,24 57,24 34,12
bi M,
F 69,56 116,70 116,70 69,56
h bi, M, '
F 61,16 61,16 61,16 61,16
v bi, M, '
F 33,13 99,39 99,39 33,13
bi N,
F 101,73 101,73 101,73 101,73
Ed bi, V,
F 166,22 190,82 107,35 52,37
Ed , h bi, V, '
F 162,89 162,89 40,56 40,56
Ed , v bi, V, '
F 33,13 99,39 99,39 33,13
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 32 of 44
5  111
b1
b2
b3
b4
h
v
G
FV,b3,Ed
FV,b2,Ed
FV,b1,Ed
FV,b4,Ed
Figure B.26 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Loadings
The change of basis is performed with:
) sin( ) cos(
3 Ed , v bi, V, 3 Ed , h bi, V, Ed h, bi, V,
o o
' '
+ = F F F
) cos( ) sin(
1 Ed , v bi, V, 1 Ed , h bi, V, Ed v, bi, V,
o o
' '
+ ÷ = F F F
Where o
1
= 42° (See Figure B.6)
Table B.14 gives the results.
Table B.14 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Design shear loads in kN in
the { } v h, reference system.
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
Ed bi, V,
F 166,22 190,82 107,35 52,37
Ed h, bi, V,
F 84,37 182,86 46,72 51,76
Ed v, bi, V,
F 143,22 54,54 96,65 7,97
Design details
The design details are verified in the table below.
For e
1
and e
2
we observe the minimums end and edge distances according to
the appropriate direction (Gh or Gv). For p
1
and p
2
we consider the spacing
according to the principal direction of the joint (Gh’ or Gv’).
Table B.15 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Design details
Distance or spacing Minimum value Design value Maximum value
{ }
2 1
; min e e
31,2 54
{ }
2 1
; min p p
31,2 60
{ }
2 1
; max p p
65 200
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 33 of 44
5  112
Determination of the design bearing resistance F
b,Rd
for each bolts
Horizontal loading
The horizontal loading coming from the results of Table B.14 is shown on the
Figure B.27
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
o
b
o
b
o
b
k
1
k
1
Figure B.27 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Horizontal loading
Table B.16 gives the value of the horizontal component of the design bearing
resistances F
b,bi,h,Rd
.
Table B.16 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Horizontal component of
the design bearing resistances in kN
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
e
1
80 54
e
2
124 76
p
1
65
1)
65
p
2
65
1)
65
1)
65
1)
65
1)
b,inner
o
end b,
o
b,inner
o
end b,
o
b
o
0,58 1,00 0,58 0,69
min 1,
k
3)
min 1,
k
3)
1,inner
k
1,inner
k
1
k
1,80 1,80 1,80 1,80
Rd h, bi, b,
F 154,22 264,38 154,22 183,04
1)
{ } L ; 65 min
2)
{ }
end 1,
;
inner 1,
min
min , 1
k k k =
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 34 of 44
5  113
Vertical loading
The vertical loading coming from the results of Table B.14 is shown on the
Figure B.28.
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
o
b
o
b
k
1
k
1
k
1
Figure B.28 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Vertical loading
Table B.17 gives the value of the vertical component of the design bearing
resistances F
b,bi,v,Rd
.
Table B.17 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Vertical component of the
design bearing resistances in kN
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
e
1
124 76
e
2
80 98 54
p
1
65
1)
65
1)
p
2
65
1)
65
65
65
1)
end b,
o
end b,
o
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
b
o
1,00 0,97 0,58 0,58
1,inner
k
min 1,
k
2)
min 1,
k
2)
min 1,
k
2)
1
k
1,80 1,80 1,80 1,80
Rd v bi b
F
, , ,
264,38 257,60 154,22 154,22
1)
{ } L ; 65 min
2)
{ }
end 1, 1,inner min , 1
; min k k k =
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 35 of 44
5  114
Determination of the design slip resistance F
s,Rd
With n = 2, the number of the friction surfaces relatively to the gusset, we
obtain:
C p,
M3
s
Rd S,
F
n k
F
¸
µ
= = 197,68 kN
EN 199318
3.9
EN 199318
3.9.1 (1)
Checking bolts – Individual checking
Each bolt has to be verified.
Table B.18 and Table B.19 summarize only the checks for the bolt b1 and b
2
.
Table B.18 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Checking bolt b
1
Design values Resistance values
Ed b1, V,
F 166,22 197,68
Rd S,
F
Ed h, b1, V,
F 84,37 154,22
Rd h, b1, b,
F
Ed v, b1, V,
F 143,22 264,38
Rd v, b1, b,
F
2
Rd v, b1, b,
Ed v, b1, V,
2
Rd h, b1, b,
Ed h, b1, V,


.

\

+


.

\

F
F
F
F
0,59 1
Table B.19 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Checking bolt b
2
Design values Resistance values
Ed b1, V,
F 190,82 197,68
Rd S,
F
Ed h, b1, V,
F 182,86 264,38
Rd h, b1, b,
F
Ed v, b1, V,
F 54,54 257,60
Rd v, b1, b,
F
2
Rd v, b1, b,
Ed v, b1, V,
2
Rd h, b1, b,
Ed h, b1, V,


.

\

+


.

\

F
F
F
F
0,52 1
Checking bolts – Group of fasteners
By considering that the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the
bolt in normal holes:
o
v
= 0,5
A = A
s
= 353 mm
2
(tensile stress area)
We obtain:
Rd v,
F = 141,12 kN
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 36 of 44
5  115
And for the design resistance:
Rd h, b, r, g
F = 616,90 kN for the horizontal components
Rd v, b, r, g
F = 616,90 kN for the vertical components
And we verify that:
27 , 272 ) sin(
1 , , 1
= o
Ed g
N < kN 90 , 616
Rd h, b, r,
=
g
F
39 , 302 ) cos(
1 , , 1
= o
Ed g
N < kN 90 , 616
Rd h, b, r,
=
g
F
3.4.5. Connection N1 – Checking bolts with regard to the angle
component
Determination of the design ultimate shear load F
V,Ed
for each bolts
Table B.20 gives the results of the design ultimate shear load F
V,bi,Ed
and its
components F
V,bi,h,Ed
and F
V,bi,v,Ed
(See Figure B.29).
These results are deduced from the results obtained for the gusset in the basis
{ } v h ' ', .
N
1,a,Ed
M
1,a,Ed
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
h
v
G
F
V,b1,Ed
F
V,b2,Ed
F
V,b3,Ed
F
V,b4,Ed
Figure B.29 Connection N1 – Angle component – Loading
Table B.20 Connection N1 – Angle component – Design shear loads in kN
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
Ed bi, V,
F 83,11 95,41 53,67 26,19
Ed h, bi, V,
F 81,44 81,44 20,28 20,28
Ed v, bi, V,
F 16,57 49,70 49,70 16,57
Design details
The design details are verified in the table below.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 37 of 44
5  116
Table B.21 Connection N1 – Angle component – Horizontal loading – Design
details
Distance or spacing Minimum value Design value Maximum value
{ }
2 1
; min e e
31,2 33
{ }
2 1
; min p p
57,2 60 200
{ }
2 1
; max p p
65 200
Determination of the design bearing resistance F
b,Rd
for each bolts
Horizontal loading
The horizontal loading coming from the results of Table B.20 is shown on the
Figure B.30
b1
b2
b3
b4
ob
ob
k1
k1
Figure B.30 Connection N1 – Angle component – Horizontal loadings
Table B.22 gives the value of the horizontal component of the design bearing
resistances F
b,bi,h,Rd
.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 38 of 44
5  117
Table B.22 Connection N1 – Angle component – Horizontal component of the
design bearing resistances in kN
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
e
1
67,5 35
e
2
33 33
p
1
65 65
p
2
1)
68,24 68,24 68,24 68,24
end b,
o
b,inner
o
end b,
o
b,inner
o
b
o
0,87 0,58 0,45 0,58
1,inner
k
1,inner
k
min 1,
k
2)
min 1,
k
2)
1
k
1,97 1,97 1,85 1,85
Rd h, bi, b,
F 250,95 169,16 122,18 158,84
1)
the distance L have been retained
2)
{ }
end 1, inner 1, min , 1
; min k k k =
Vertical loading
The vertical loading coming from the results of Table 20 is shown on the
Figure B.31
b
1
b
2
b3
b
4
o
o
k1
k
1
Figure B.31 Connection N1 – Angle component – Vertical loading
Table B.23 gives the value of the vertical component of the design bearing
resistances F
b,bi,v,Rd
.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 39 of 44
5  118
Table B.23 Connection N1 – Angle component – Vertical component of the
design bearing resistances in kN
Bolt b
1
b
2
b
3
b
4
e
1
33
e
2
67,5 35
p
1
1)
68,24
68,24
68,24
p
2
65 65 65 65
b,inner
o
b,inner
o
end b,
o
b,inner
o
b
o
0,62 0,62 0,42 0,62
min 1,
k
2)
1,inner
k
min 1,
k
2)
1,inner
k
1
k
1,80 1,80 1,80 1,80
Rd h, bi, b,
F 165,19 165,19 111,85 165,19
1)
the distance L have been retained
2)
{ }
end 1,
;
inner 1,
min
min , 1
k k k =
Determination of the design slip resistance F
s,Rd
For the angle component, the number of the friction surfaces is equal to 1.
So with n = 1 we obtain:
C p,
M3
s
Rd S,
F
n k
F
¸
µ
= = 98,84 kN
EN 199318
3.9
EN 199318
3.9.1 (2)
Checking bolts – Individual checking
Each bolt has to be verified. Table B.24 summarizes only the checks for the
bolt b
2
.
Table B.24 Connection N1 – Angle component – Checking bolt b
2
Design values Resistance values
Ed b1, V,
F 95,41 98,84
Rd S,
F
Ed h, b1, V,
F 81,44 169,16
Rd h, b1, b,
F
Ed v, b1, V,
F 49,70 165,19
Rd v, b1, b,
F
2
Rd v, b1, b,
Ed v, b1, V,
2
Rd h, b1, b,
Ed h, b1, V,


.

\

+


.

\

F
F
F
F
0,32 1
Checking bolts – Group of fasteners
For the angle we can consider only the horizontal component:
Rd h, b, r, g
F = 488,73 kN
And we verify that:
45 , 203
, , 1
=
Ed a
N < kN 73 , 488
Rd h, b, r,
=
g
F
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 40 of 44
5  119
3.4.6. Connection N1 – Design of net crosssection
Gusset component
For a connection in tension, the design of the net crosssections have to be
verified.
Verify on the net crosssection marked 1 on the Figure B.32. For this section,
we have to satisfy:
M0
y net1
b
Ed g, 1,
b
¸
f A
n
N
n
t
s
EN 199318
3.4.1 (1) c) and
Table 3.2
Where 2
b
= n number of bolts relative to the crosssection
4
bt
= n total number of the connection
With =
1 net
A 2194 mm
2
We satisfy: kN 778 4 , 203
M0
y net1
b
Ed g, 1,
b
= < =
¸
f A
n
N
n
t
Angle component
We have been already verified the net crosssection (see 3.4.2).
Moreover these checking have been realised with N
Ed
in loco n
b
F
V,Ed
.
3.4.7. Connection N1 – Design for block tearing
Gusset component
EN 199318
3.10.2
The Figure B.32 shows the block tearing for the gusset.
N
1,g,Ed
1
1
1
Ant
A
nv
A
nv
A
nv
A
nv
Figure B.32 Connection N1 – Block tearing for gusset
Our bolt group is subjected to eccentric loading and we have to satisfy:
Rd eff,2, Ed g, 1,
V N s
EN 199318
3.10.2 (3)
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 41 of 44
5  120
Where
M0
nv
M2
nt u
Rd eff,2,
3
1 5 , 0
¸ ¸
A f
A f
V
y
+ =
With A
nt
= 633,6 mm
2
A
nv
= 3533,1 mm
2
We satisfy:
kN 4 , 853 9 , 406
Rd eff,2, Ed g, 1,
= s = V N
Angle component
The Figure B.33 shows the block tearing for the gusset.
N
1,a,Ed
A
nv
A
nv
Ant
Ant
Figure B.33 Connection N1 – Block tearing for angle
Our bolt group is subjected to eccentric loading and we have to satisfy:
Rd eff,2, Ed a, 1,
V N s
EN 199318
3.10.2 (3)
With A
nt
= 933,6 mm
2
A
nv
= 1402,5 mm
2
We satisfy:
kN 91 , 407 45 , 203
Rd eff,2, Ed g, 1,
= s = V N
3.5. Connection N2 – Single angle post member N2 to
gusset bolted connection
We have a shear connection in tension to be designed as Category C.
Given that the loading is low, the checking of this connection is not carry out.
Otherwise the procedure stays the same with in addition the following point.
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 42 of 44
5  121
We are dealing with a single angle in tension by a single row of bolts in one
leg. During the checking of the net crosssection of this angle, the design
ultimate resistance should be determined as follows:
M2
u net 2
Rd u,
¸
 f A
N =
With 4 , 0
2
=  (
0 1
5 , 2 65 d p = = )
EN 199318
3.10.3 (2)
and
Table 3.8
3.6. Influences of the eccentricity and other
parameters
We consider only the bolts with regard to the gusset component.
3.6.1. Connection N3 – Moment due to eccentricity
The effects of the eccentricity depend of the locations of the bolts
comparatively with the neutral axis but also to each other.
Lets the moment due to the eccentricity equal to 0. In this case and whatever
the bolt we obtain in the basis { } v h, :
kN 57 , 101
Ed b, V,
= F (value without moment due to eccentricity)
kN 03 , 67
Ed h, b, V,
= F (value without moment due to eccentricity)
kN 30 , 76
Ed v, b, V,
= F (value without moment due to eccentricity)
Values to compare at the results obtained for the bolt b
1
:
kN 03 , 164
Ed b, V,
= F (value with moment due to eccentricity)
kN 21 , 20
Ed h, b, V,
= F (value with moment due to eccentricity)
kN 78 , 162
Ed v, b, V,
= F (value with moment due to eccentricity)
3.6.2. Connection N3 – Influence of number of bolts and
spacing p
1
Reduce the number of bolts from 6 to 5 by suppression of bolt marked b
6
(see
Figure B.14). This modification modifies the location of the centre of gravity
of the bolt group. Even if the moment due to eccentricity decrease, the design
shear loads per bolt increase. And two bolts (b
1
and b
3
) do not again satisfy to
the criteria relative to the design bearing resistances (see tables below).
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 43 of 44
5  122
Table B.25 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Bolt b
1
– Reduction of total
number of bolts
Design values Resistance values
Total number of
bolts
6 5
Ed b1, V,
F 164,03 189,76 197,68
Rd S,
F
Ed h, b1, V,
F 20,21 28,43 165,19
Rd h, b1, b,
F
Ed v, b1, V,
F 162,78 187,62 169,16
Rd v, b1, b,
F
Table B.26 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Bolt b
3
– Reduction of total
number of bolts
Design values Resistance values
Total number of
bolts
6 5
Ed b1, V,
F 146,49 189,76 197,68
Rd S,
F
Ed h, b1, V,
F 131,10 182,40 165,19
Rd h, b1, b,
F
Ed v, b1, V,
F 65,36 52,36 169,16
Rd v, b1, b,
F
At this stage, increase the value of the spacing p
1
from 65 to 75 mm. So all
the bolts satisfy the criteria. Look for example the results for bolt b
1
.
Table B.27 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Bolt b
1
– Increasing of
spacing p
1
to 75 mm
Design values Resistance values
Ed b1, V,
F 180,06 197,68
Rd S,
F
Ed h, b1, V,
F 28,74 225,70
Rd h, b1, b,
F
Ed v, b1, V,
F 177,75 220,50
Rd v, b1, b,
F
3.6.3. Connection N1 – Influence of number of bolts
Reduce the number of bolts from 4 to 3 by suppression of bolt marked b
3
(see
Figure B.25). The moment due to eccentricity decrease whereas the design
shear loads per bolt increase. And two bolts (b
1
and b
2
) do not again satisfy to
the criteria relative to the design bearing resistances (see tables below).
Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 44 of 44
5  123
Table B.28 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Bolt b
1
– Reduction of total
number of bolts
Design values Resistance values
Total number of
bolts
4 3
Ed b1, V,
F 166,22 222,19 197,68
Rd S,
F
Ed h, b1, V,
F 84,37 57,25 154,22
Rd h, b1, b,
F
Ed v, b1, V,
F 143,22 214,69 264,38
Rd v, b1, b,
F
Table B.29 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Bolt b
2
– Reduction of total
number of bolts
Design values Resistance values
Total number of
bolts
4 3
Ed b1, V,
F 190,82 222,19 197,68
Rd S,
F
Ed h, b1, V,
F 182,86 207,52 264,38
Rd h, b1, b,
F
Ed v, b1, V,
F 54,54 79,38 257,60
Rd v, b1, b,
F
In order to satisfy the criteria we need to increase the value of the spacing p
1
from 65 to a minimum of 101 mm. Look for example the results for bolt b
1
.
Table B.30 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Bolt b
1
– Increasing of
spacing p
1
to 101 mm
Design values Resistance values
Ed b1, V,
F 197,33 197,68
Rd S,
F
SingleStorey Steel Buildings Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses
ii .5 .
The second design guide is MultiStorey Steel Buildings. SingleStorey Steel Buildings. Peiner Träger and Corus. The two design guides have been produced in the framework of the European project “Facilitating the market development for sections in industrial halls and low rise buildings (SECHALO) RFS2CT20080030”. The 10 parts in the SingleStorey Steel Buildings guide are: Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: Part 5: Part 6: Part 7: Part 8: Part 9: Part 10: Part 11: Architect’s guide Concept design Actions Detailed design of portal frames Detailed design of trusses Detailed design of built up columns Fire engineering Building envelope Introduction to computer software Model construction specification Moment connections SingleStorey Steel Buildings is one of two design guides.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses FOREWORD This publication is part five of the design guide. 5 . collaborating as the Steel Alliance.iii . The technical content has been prepared by CTICM and SCI. The design guides have been prepared under the direction of Arcelor Mittal.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 5 .iv .
6 Effect of clearance of deflection 3.4 Aspects of truss design for roof structure 1.5 Secondary forces 3.2 Modelling 3.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Contents Page No 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Verification of members under compression 4.2 Use of trusses in singlestorey buildings 1.1 Characteristics of the truss post connection 5.5 Design of wind girders INTRODUCTION TO DETAILED DESIGN 2.3 Modelling the worked example 3.3 Connection of diagonals to chords 1 1 1 4 7 9 11 11 12 15 15 15 16 18 19 21 23 28 28 41 45 45 47 48 51 2 3 4 5 REFERENCES APPENDIX A Worked Example – Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 53 APPENDIX B Worked example – Design of a truss node with gusset 79 5v .7 Modification of a truss for the passage of equipment VERIFICATION OF MEMBERS 4.4 Simplified global analysis of the worked example 3.1 Definition 1.1 General requirements 2.3 Different shapes of trusses 1.2 Description of the worked example GLOBAL ANALYSIS 3.2 Chord continuity 5.1 General 3.2 Verification of members in tension VERIFICATION OF CONNECTIONS 5.
The 2D form of truss is essentially a beam and is used to supporting a building roof. 5 . this form is often used for large exhibition halls. spanning up to 120 metres for large industrial buildings. The detailed guidance in this document relates mainly to 2D truss structures composed of rolled profiles but the principles are generally applicable to all forms of truss structure. The 3D form of truss can be used to cover large areas without intermediate supports.vi . The use of the truss form of construction allows buildings of all sizes and shapes to be constructed.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses SUMMARY This publication provides guidance on the design of trusses for singlestorey buildings. The document explains that both 2D and 3D truss forms can be used.
1 Members under axial forces in a simple truss The principal force in each element is axial tension or compression. The external forces applied to the system and the reactions at the supports are generally applied at the nodes. Wind girders at roof level. The individual elements are connected at nodes. or at intermediate levels if required Vertical bracing in the side walls and/or in the gables. the connections are often assumed to be nominally pinned. the system is a plane or 2D truss. 1 F 1 2 1 2 2 Compression axial force Tension axial force Figure 1. When the connections at the nodes are stiff. To provide horizontal stability: Two types of general arrangement of the structure of a typical singlestorey building are shown in Figure 1. snow loads) Actions due to the wind (including uplift due to negative pressure). trusses are very widely used to serve two main functions: To carry the roof load: Gravity loads (selfweight. When all the members and applied forces are in a same plane. this effect is discussed below.2 Use of trusses in singlestorey buildings In a typical singlestorey industrial building.2 and in Figure 1.1 INTRODUCTION Definition A truss is essentially a triangulated system of (usually) straight interconnected structural elements. the lateral stability of the structure is provided by a series of portal trusses: the connections between the truss and the columns provide resistance to a global bending moment.2).3. 51 . Loads are applied to the portal structure by purlins and side rails. roofing and equipment. 1. In the first case (Figure 1. secondary bending is introduced.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 1 1. either on the roof or hung to the structure. it is sometimes referred to as an open web girder.
2 Portal frame a arrangement In the second case. each vertical truss and the two columns on which it spans constitute a simple beam structure: the connection between the truss and a column does not resist the global bending moment. Transverse restraint is necessary at the top level of the simple structure. is used. Lateral stability provided by portal trusses Longitudinal stability provided by transverse wind girder and vertical cross bracings (blue) No longitudinal wind girder Figure 1. 52 .Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses For the longitudinal stability of the structure. a transverse roof wind girder. In this arrangement the forces due to longitudinal wind loads are transferred from the gables to the side walls and then to the foundations.3. as shown in Figure 1. it is achieved by means of a longitudinal wind girder carries the transverse forces due to wind on the side walls to the braced gable walls. together with bracing in the side walls. and the two column bases are pinned.
53 . and secondary trusses spanning from main truss to main truss.4.The roof structure is arranged with main trusses spanning from column to column.3 Beam and column arrangement A further arrangement is shown in Figure 1.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Vertical trusses are simply supported by columns Lateral stability provided by longitudinal wind girder and vertical bracings in the gables (blue) Longitudinal stability provided by transverse wind girder and vertical bracings (green) Figure 1.
4 General arrangement 3 1. This arrangement is currently used for “saw tooth roofs”.3 Different shapes of trusses A large range is available for the general shapes of the trusses. members supporting the north oriented windows Figure 1.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses A A L On this plan view. main trusses are drawn in blue: their span L is the long side of the column mesh. 54 . in red. The secondary trusses have a shorter span A (distance between main trusses).1. as shown on the vertical section: Main beams are trusses with parallel chords Secondary beams (green) have a triangular shape. Some of the commonly used shapes are shown in Table 1.
This type of truss is used where uplift loads are predominant.5) All these types of trusses can be used either in portal truss structures (see figure 1. 55 Long spans: range from 20 to 100 m . smaller spans Range from 10 to 15 m There are two different types of X truss : if the diagonal members are designed to resist compression. For any of the forms shown above. it is possible to provide either a single or a double slope to the upper chord of a roof supporting truss This example shows a duopitch truss Single slope upper chord for these triangular trusses.3). Simply supported. if the resistance of the diagonal members in compression is ignored. Warren truss: In this type of truss. diagonal members are in tension for gravity loads.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Table 1. This shape of truss is more commonly used for wind girders. diagonal members are alternatively in tension and in compression This type of truss is also used for the horizontal truss of gantry/crane girders (see Figure 1. the X truss is the superposition of two Warren trusses.1 Main types of trusses Pratt truss: In a Pratt truss. where the diagonal members are very long. diagonal members are in tension for uplift loads. such as open buildings. part of a “saw tooth roof” North oriented windows Fink truss: This type of truss is more commonly used for the roof of houses.2) or in simple truss structures (see figure 1. the behaviour is the same as a Pratt truss. This type of truss is used where gravity loads are predominant In a truss as shown. It is possible to add secondary members in order to : create intermediate loading points limit the buckling length of members in compression (without influencing the global structural behaviour).
7 illustrate some of the trusses described in Table 1.6 and Figure 1.1.5 Horizontal bracing for a crane girder Figure 1. Figure 1.6 Ntruss – 100 m span 56 . crabbing) 1 1 2 3 Crane girder Crane rail Horizontal bracing (V truss) Figure 1.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 2 3 The horizontal truss is positioned at the level of the upper flange of the gantry girder in order to resist the horizontal forces applied by the wheels on the rail (braking of the crane trolley.
This difference is more sensitive for long spans and/or heavy loads. The architectural design of the building determines its external geometry and governs the slope(s) given to the top chord of the truss.4 1. Trusses generally give an economic solution for spans over 20 or 25 m. etc. the steel unit cost. The balance between minimum weight and minimum cost depends on many conditions: the equipment of the workshop. The full use of this advantage is achievable if the height of the truss is not limited by criteria other than the structural efficiency (a limit on total height of the building. for example). 57 . 1. However. An advantage of the truss design for roofs is that ducts and pipes that are required for operation of the buildings services can be installed through the truss web. the local cost of manufacturing.4.1 Aspects of truss design for roof structure Truss or Ibeam For the same steel weight. it is possible to get better performance in terms of resistance and stiffness with a truss than an Ibeam.7 Ntruss (also with Ntruss purlins) 1.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Figure 1.4. even considering that the modernisation of fabrication equipment allows the optimisation of fabrication times.2 General geometry In order to get a good structural performance. the ratio of span to truss depth should be chosen in the range 10 to 15. fabrication of a truss is generally more time consuming than for an Ibeam.
and the bottom chord with a horizontal web. HEA or HEB sections. Generally. As it is easier to increase the resistance to inplane buckling of the chords (by adding secondary diagonal members) than to increase their to outofplane resistance. the following is advisable: The inclination of the diagonal members in relation to the chords should be between 35° and 55° Point loads should only be applied at nodes The orientation of the diagonal members should be such that the longest members are subject to tension (the shorter ones being subject to compression). It is a very simple and efficient solution. A very popular solution. or a section made up of two channels (UPE) Diagonals formed from two battened angles. To get an efficient layout of the truss members between the chords. especially for industrial buildings. it is more efficient to have the web horizontal. The main criteria are: Sections should be symmetrical for bending out of the vertical plane of the truss For members in compression. where conveyors must be hung under the chord). it is a good solution to use: Chords having IPE. bolted connections are preferred on site. for chords and/or for internals.4 Types of connections For all the types of member sections. Where bolted connections are used with bolts loaded perpendicular to their shank. is to use sections composed of two angles bolted on vertical gusset plates and intermediately battened. it is possible to design either bolted connections or welded connections.1). 1.3 Section of the members Many solutions are available.4. to allow maximum space to be freed up (see the final example in Table 1.4. 1. It could be a good solution to have the top chord with a vertical web. The web of the IPE / HEA / HEB chord section is oriented either vertically or horizontally. or to an inclined internal chord. for both chords and internal members. it is easier to connect purlins to the top chord if it has a vertical web. for chords in compression.g. For large member forces. On the other hand. it is necessary to evaluate the consequences of slack in 58 . the buckling resistance in the vertical plane of the truss should be similar to that out of the plane. Another range of solutions is given by the use of hollow sections.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses The intended use of the internal space can lead either to the choice of a horizontal bottom chord (e.
For the restraint of the bottom chord. A A A A A Truss A Thick black dots: two consecutive trusses Blue The purlin which completes the bracing in the upper region Green The longitudinal element which closes the bracing in the lower region Red Vertical roof bracing AA Cross bracing between trusses Figure 1.5 Lateral stability It is necessary to design the chords in compression against the outofplane buckling. For portal trusses. 1.2): The wind girder is arranged as an X truss.1 Design of wind girders Transverse wind girder In general. each chord is partly in compression and partly in tension. Such bracing allows the buckling length of the bottom chord to be limited out of the plane of the truss to the distance between points laterally restrained: they serve to transfer the restraint forces to the level of the top chord. 59 . or limiting the hole size. parallel to the roof plane. Lateral restraint of the upper chord is generally given by the purlins and the transverse roof wind girder.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses connections. In order to reduce these consequences (typically. solutions are available such as use of prestressed bolts.4. as shown in Figure 1. forces due to braking from a suspended conveyor). For simply supported trusses.5 1. and the bottom chord is in compression for uplift loading. Introduction of longitudinal members at the lower chord allows the trusses to be stabilised by the same vertical bracing. additional bracing may be necessary.8 Lateral bracing The roof purlins often serve as part of the bracing at the top chord. 1. the level at which the general roof bracing is provided. the upper chord is in compression for gravity loading. It is possible to create a horizontal wind girder at the level of the bottom chords. This type of bracing is also used when a horizontal load is applied to the bottom chord (for example.8. with longitudinal elements to stabilize all the trusses. the increase of the deflections).5. the form of a transverse wind girder is as follows (see Figure 1.
In a large X truss. to have separate posts (generally tubular section) that do not act as purlins. these spans are less subject to bending by roof loads. in addition to the bending due to the roof loading. if the roof purlins are used as the wind girder posts. If the posts are the purlins. The purlins which serve as wind girder posts and are subject to compression must sometimes be reinforced: To reinforce IPE purlins: use welded angles or channels (UPE) To reinforce cold formed purlins: increase of the thickness in the relevant span.10 . the transverse wind girder can be placed in the centre of the building. the diagonal members are connected at the bottom level of the purlins. The posts of the wind girder are generally the roof purlins. or. especially for buildings which are longer than about 60 m. The diagonal members are connected in the plane of the posts.5. 5 . 1. but it is then important to be careful about the effects of thermal expansion which can cause significant forces if longitudinal elements are attached between the two bracing systems.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses The chords of the wind girder are the upper chords of two adjacent vertical trusses. back to back for the Sigma). This means that the axial forces in these members due to loading on the vertical truss and those due to loads on the wind girder loading must be added together (for an appropriate combination of actions). for large spans of the wind girder. diagonals are only considered in tension and it is possible to use single angles or cables. double the purlin sections (with fitting for the Zed. but then it is necessary to ensure that wind loads are transmitted from the gables to the central windbracing. In order to release the expansion of the longitudinal elements. The general arrangement is similar to that described for a transverse wind girder: X truss The chords are two lines of purlins in small buildings. if that is not sufficient. This means that the purlins are subject to a compression. or additional elements (usually tubular sections) The posts are the upper chords of the consecutive stabilized roof trusses.2 Longitudinal wind girder It is necessary to provide a longitudinal wind girder (between braced gable ends) in buildings where the roof trusses are not “portalized”. It is also possible. Transverse wind girders are sometimes placed in the second and penultimate spans of the roof because. It is convenient to arrange a transverse wind girder at each end of the building.
The topics covered in subsequent Sections are: Section 3: Global analysis Section 4: Verification of members Section 5: Verification of connections Fully detailed calculations for verification of a gusset plate connection and a chord splice are given in Appendices A and B. The following requirements have to be considered: Regulatory requirements Contractual requirements with regard to standards Specific contractual requirements. Fire engineering Guide1). The resulting outcome of a design is the set of execution documents for the structure. the methods of analysis to be used. They exist in particular in the area of seismic behaviour. height.11 . The nature of regulatory requirements varies from one country to another. There is no limit to the number of specific requirements which may be imposed for any particular building but these mainly concern construction geometry. This Section summarizes the general requirements and introduces the example. rise. Their purpose is usually to protect people.1 General requirements The parameters to be taken into account in design are: Aesthetics Geometry (span length. Obligations and interface arrangements for detailed design might include: Banning the use of tubes for the bottom chord of trusses to which the industry client wishes to hang equipment Obligation to use tubes for truss chords for reasons of appearance 5 .Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 2 INTRODUCTION TO DETAILED DESIGN The detailed design of trusses is illustrated in the following Sections by reference to a ‘worked example’. and for the behaviour of buildings during a fire (see SingleStorey Steel Buildings. etc) Actions. The requirements in standards concern the determination of actions to be considered. in particular climatic actions. they influence determination of actions. 2. and the criteria for verification with respect to resistance and stiffness.
This example is directly transposed from a real construction and has been simplified in order to clarify the overview. by means of purlins in the form of trusses.12 .Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Use of the roof to stabilise certain structural elements.2 Description of the worked example The worked example that is the subject of subsequent Sections is a large span truss supporting the roof of an industrial building. Contractual data Geometrical data Incidence of neighbouring construction Obligations or restrictions in choice of sections Nature and position of permanent loads Nature and position of imposed loads Stabilising role of envelope Regulatory data and Standards EC1 DATA Climatic loads Seismic loads Exploitation loads … EC8 CHOICE OF GLOBAL ANALYSIS CHAPTER 3 SLS VERIFICATION CRITERIA EC311 MEMBER RESISTANCE VERIFICATION CHAPTER 4 EC318 CONNECTIONS RESISTANCE VERIFICATION CHAPTER 5 Figure 2.1 Flowchart for the design of a structural element 2. The flowchart below illustrates the main steps in the design of a structural element. 5 .
General transverse stability of the building is provided by fixity of the columns at ground level.General layout of the roof The roof is a symmetrical pitched roof. 4 1 3 1 7 6 2 5 2 4 1 2 3 4 Upper chord IPE 330 with horizontal web Lower chord IPE 330 with horizontal web Post .3.13 .Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 1 2 1 Main truss 2 Purlin truss Note: the horizontal bracing is not displayed in this diagram but it is designed in such a way that the purlins provide efficient lateral restraints to the main trusses. Each main truss has a span of 45.Single angle L100x100x10 Top of the column (IPE 450) 5 6 7 Diagonals .60 m and is simply supported at the tops of the columns (there is no moment transmission between the truss and the column).2 Worked example .Double angle Secondary truss members Sketch of the crosssection Figure 2.3 Worked example – View of truss The truss is illustrated in Figure 2. the slope on each side is 3%. two 150 150 15 angles for 5 . Figure 2. The diagonals are made of twinned angles: two 120 120 12 angles for diagonals in tension under gravity loads (in blue in the diagram above). The truss chords are parallel and are made up of IPE 330 profiles with the webs horizontal. longitudinal stability is provided by a system of roof bracings and braced bays in the walls.
secondary diagonals and posts are present.4 Worked example – Load Combinations 5 . In order to illustrate all of the topics here. 91 kN 136 kN 182 kN 182 kN 182 kN 136 kN 91 kN ULS combination n°1: Gravity loading (without selfweight) 43.25 kN 43.3. The pairs of angles which make up the section of a diagonal are joined by battens. The loads correspond to the combination of actions.14 .50 kN ULS combination n°2: Uplift loading Figure 2.2 and 5. The diagonals and posts are bolted at their two ends to vertical gusset plates. without causing further bending in the upper chord To reduce buckling. In this example. Note that.25 kN 87 kN 87 kN 87 kN 65. for which the web is perpendicular to the plane of the truss beam. determined according to EN 1990 for verification with respect to the ultimate limit state (ULS). the secondary trusses reduce the buckling length. to ensure combined action with respect to buckling between the truss nodes. the truss beam in the worked example is designed for two situations: a gravity load case and an uplift load case. battens must therefore prevent local slip of one angle in relation to the other. See Section 4. in the central panels. The columns on which the truss is supported are IPE 450.50 kN 65. in the plane of the truss of central members of the upper chord. Each chord is fabricated in two pieces (see Figure 3. which are themselves welded to the horizontal webs of the IPE 330 chords. They would generally be installed with one or other of the following objectives: To permit application of a point load between main nodes.6).3 for more information.1. the posts are single angles 100 100 10.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses diagonals in compression under gravity loads (in red in the diagram above). To be efficient. Detailed diagrams of this type of connection are given in Appendix A and in Sections 5.
Loads are not always strictly applied to the nodes and.1 GLOBAL ANALYSIS General Section 1. it is important to note that: If separate models are used. if care is not taken to introduce secondary members to triangulate the point of application of the loads between nodes. These bending moments. this results in bending moments. in particular. are usually fabricated in one length only. wind girder. where the truss is simply supported on the columns. Truss chords. known as “secondary moments”. the deviations include the occurrence of bending in the members. 3. in order to verify the resistance of certain elements.1 describes the general behaviour of a truss. the more rigid the chord members. the design model chosen is that of the truss only.4). The members are not always strictly aligned on their original and end nodes. Rotation of the nodes. Nonetheless.15 . This phenomenon is illustrated in Section 3. The deviations in design take various forms: All the members which make up the structure are not usually articulated at their original node and their end node. over several truss purlins: the continuous chord members are then connected rigidly to their original and end nodes. A truss can even be modelled without its supporting columns when it is articulated to the columns. can cause significant additional stresses in the members which make up the truss. for a standard building. That is why 2D models are generally preferable. structures deviate from this theoretical behaviour and their global analysis involves consideration of the deviations. which often only creates an illusory precision of the structural behaviour process. 5 . It is always convenient to work on restricted models.2 Modelling Several questions arise in respect of the modelling of a truss. In particular. to combine the results of several analyses. the bigger the moments (see Section 3. it may be necessary. in addition to the axial forces. Bending moments which result from a misalignment of axes increase in proportion to the size of the eccentricity and the stiffness of the members. vertical bracing) rather than a unique and global 3D model.6. In reality. “parasitic” bending can be observed.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 3 3. For example. If a global 3D model is used. it is common and usually justified to work with 2D models (portal. resulting from general deformation of the truss beam then causes bending moments in the rigidly connected members. In the worked example. example: the upper chord of a truss also serves as chord of the wind girder.
the possibility offered by EN 1993 to model connections as semirigid is rarely used for truss structures. although the connections are carried out using high strength bolts suitable for preloading with controlled tightening. in reality. The modelling is shown in Figure 3. They can have a significant effect. In particular.3 Modelling the worked example In the worked example. IPE 330 web. are applied between nodes.2 for the left part of the truss. The main results of the analysis are given in Figure 3. with the numbering of the members. 3. the model is commonly represented as either: Continuous chords (and therefore chord members rigidly connected at both ends) Truss members (diagonals and verticals) pin jointed to the chords. the fact of applying to the truss nodes loads which.16 . 5 . For trusses. It is also important that modelling of the loads is representative of the real situation. This provides a rigid connection without slack between the diagonal and the connection gusset plates.6.1 Computer model It is important for the model to be representative of the eccentricities which exist in the real structure. not very stiff. as illustrated in Section 3. the truss diagonals are pin jointed to the chords. Left part Right part Figure 3. The connection can be considered as pinned due to the fact that the vertical gusset plates are welded in the middle of the horizontal.1. the selection is made between “a pinjointed member at a node” and a “member rigidly connected to a node”. risks leading to neglect of the bending with quite significant outcomes. it is important to consider the nature of the internal connections.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Once the scope of the model has been decided and adapted according to use to be made of the results. In current modelling of member structures.1.
continuous modelling (members rigidly connected at both ends) leads to moments at the nodes. the self weight generates a bending moment with a parabolic shape In the chords.2 Worked example – Axial forces and bending moments It is interesting to note the form of the moment diagrams in the member: In the chords and the diagonals.17 . 5 .Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses ULS Load combination n°1 (Gravity loading) – Axial force (N) in kN ULS Load combination n°1 (Gravity loading) – Bending moment (M) in kNm ULS Load combination n°2 (Uplift loading) – Axial force (N) in kN ULS Load combination n°2 (Uplift loading) – Bending moment (M) in kNm Figure 3.
3 for the notations): Nch = ±Mglobal/h Nd = ±Vglobal/cos θ in the chords in a diagonal h θ Figure 3. for the same loading. The value of the reduced modulus of elasticity clearly varies depending on the geometry of the truss. not dealt with in elementary formulae. In order to take into account global shear deformations. giving the equivalent beam a second moment of area equal to: I Ach. a reduced modulus of elasticity is used. The global shear force Vglobal and the global bending moment Mglobal in the equivalent beam vary very little along a panel and can be equated with the mean values in the panel. the reduced modulus of elasticity is about 160000 N/mm2 (instead of 210000 N/mm2).18 .4 Simplified global analysis of the worked example A triangulated beam. can be equated to an Ibeam. for example.Notation An estimate can also be made for the deflection of the truss beam by calculating that for an equivalent beam.i d i2 i 1 2 where: Ach. in fact.3 Truss with parallel chords . This equivalence is possible and provides a good approximation. the classic approach is to use elementary beam theory. In order to do this. etc. For a truss beam with “well proportioned” parallel chords. with a constant depth.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 3.i is the section area of the chord i di is the distance from the centroid of both chords to the centroid of the chord i. the section of the members. 5 . Therefore the axial load can be assessed using the following expressions (see Figure 3. Global shear deformations are not. since they result from a variation in length of the diagonals and posts. negligible in the case of trusses. for a truss with parallel chords.
are shown in Figure 3. Mglobal/h.19 . for the sections close to the applied loads. In these conditions. this means that members connected to the same node have to keep their respective angles. 5 . During deformation of the structure under load. The values of the axial forces in the diagonals obtained by the simplified approach.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 101 kN 158 202 202 202 158 101 4000 7100 7200 8500 8600 7100 7100 Truss (combination n°1). are also very close to the values obtained using software.4 Worked example – Approximate calculation The values of the axial forces in the chords obtained by the simplified approach. 3. The values are very close to the values obtained using structural analysis software (see Figure 3. not taken into account in the hand calculation. bending loads (bending moments and shear forces) called secondary forces are added to the axial loads in the members calculated assuming the nodes are pinned (primary forces). the ends of the members all rotate at the same angle around the node.5 3.1 Secondary forces Influence of chord rigidity Chord members in trusses which are used in construction are rarely pinned at the nodes and are more often rigidly connected. including selfweight 562 461 (616) 303 (405) 101 (135) 101 (135) 303 (405) 461 (616) 562 Diagram of the global shear force V (kN) In parentheses: values of Nd = V/cos 3273 (818) 5455 (1364) 6320 (1580) 5455 (1364) 3273 (818) Diagram of the global bending moment M (kNm) In parentheses: values of Nch = M/h Figure 3.2). Vglobal/cos θ.4. The small difference comes from the slope (3%) of the chords of the truss in the worked example.5.
the truss in the example was recalculated by making all 5 . transforming pinned connections into rigid nodes hardly leads to any modification to the axial forces in the members.e.5). For a stocky truss. because the shear transmitted by the members has little influence on the equilibrium equation of nodal forces and. compared to the global stiffness of the truss beam. The chords therefore bend in the vertical plane of the truss member.5 kNm. the stiffness of the chords is relatively small and the secondary moments remain small as well. bending of the member due to secondary bending moments only causes a slight variation in the distance between the ends of this member compared to the difference in length due to axial force. in the lower chord. This phenomenon can be illustrated in the worked example by arranging the IPE 330 sections as ‘standing up’ chord members.2 Assumption of rigid connections In another evaluation of the effect of member stiffness on the value of the secondary moments. instead of being flat in the initial design (Figure 3. Note that the greater the stiffness of the chords (which are usually continuous). 3. In fact. This is comparable with the ratio of the inertia in an IPE 330 section (about 15).4 kNm. compared to 2. the bending moment is 23. i. Nevertheless. Figure 3.5 Options for the orientation of the chords In the upper chord in a standing up IPE 300 section near the halfspan. Similarly. The calculation results demonstrate well a significant increase in the secondary moments. on the other hand. The multiplier of the bending moments is 11 for the upper chord. when the flexural stiffness of the individual chords is not significantly lower than the global stiffness of the truss.7 kNm for the flat IPE 330 section. but not too slender so as to avoid buckling. the bigger the moments developed in the chords. and 14 for the lower chord.7 kNm.20 . Then the members and the connections must be designed accordingly. mobilising their strong inertia. it can be necessary to take into account the secondary moments. it is essential that the triangulated structures be designed properly so that the members are adequately arranged to withstand bending stresses. the bending moment under gravity loads (ULS) is 28. For instance.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses It is routine in design to use continuous chord members and to pin the truss members. compared to 1.5. for a wind girder in a roof.
the bolts are in fact inserted in holes which are larger than the bolts themselves.36 Acceptable Moment resulting from the selfweight (for comparison) 1. In order for a connection with clearance to transmit to the node the load required by the attached member. the clearance introduced into these connections can have a significant effect on displacement of the nodes. 5 .03 1. Likewise. If the truss structure is not a statically determinate system.17 2. with bolts in shear (category A in EN 199318[2]). Increase in the deflection can result in reduction in the slope of the supported roof and even.6 Effect of clearance of deflection When the connections between elements which make up a truss beam are bolted connections. For example.30 1.36 Assumption of bihinged diagonals Note: the bending moments are given in kNm. Table 3.1 Effect of rigid connection instead of pinned Horizontal web Vertical web End moment in a diagonal in tension (Double angles 120 x12) End moment in a diagonal in compression (Double angles 150 15) 1. a risk of water accumulation is therefore associated with an inversion in pitch. to a slope inversion.35 1. holes more than 2 mm bigger than the bolt are usually made (usually referred to as a 2mm clearance). which can have various and more or less serious consequences. The comparison is summarized in Table 3. In order to facilitate erection.1. this may lead to unexpected internal forces.21 . the slack is assimilated as a reduction in length that is added to the elastic shortening of the compressed member. the bolt must come into contact with one or other of the connected parts: this is called often referred to as ‘taking up slack’. For standard bolt sizes. Acceptable 3.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses the internal connections rigid (diagonal and verticals fixed on their original end nodes). where it can be seen that the end moments are in the same range as the moments resulting from the selfweight of the diagonals. which might prevent or upset the anticipated usage. note: In most of the cases. for a connected compression member. the visual effect is the worst consequence. the additional deflection of a truss holding doors suspended in a gable of an aeroplane hangar could prevent the passage of the aeroplane. For a connected tension member. if the nominal slope were small. this slack can be assimilated as an additional extension that is added to the elastic elongation of the member in tension. Amongst these. The total slack in the many different connections of a truss structure can lead to a significant increase in displacements. Increased deflection can lead to a reduction of free height under the bottom chord.
Each of the chords. The following calculation illustrates this phenomenon for the worked example. upper and lower. to control the effect of connection slack on the displacements. 5 . 2 mm has to be recovered at each end: the length of a diagonal in tension is increased by 4 mm.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses It is therefore essential. has a continuous connection with bolted splice plates around the midspan. Figure 3. If the diameter of the holes is d + 2 mm (where d is the bolt diameter). the diagonals are connected by bolting on gusset plates welded to the chords. In cases where loading in the members does not result in reversal of axial force.5 mm and using shear bolts on a smooth bolt shank (to limit the increase in slack by deformation) of the threads and pieces. it is possible to calculate a value for the effect of slack in all the connections.6 Worked example – Position of the chord connections using splice plates In a spliced connection of a chord. Holes are 2 mm larger than the bolt diameter. In addition. 1 mm d 1 mm 1 mm d 1 mm g g + 4 mm Figure 3. or to use preloaded bolts (category C connections).7.7 The effect of slack under load In order for a diagonal to be loaded. or to use ‘fit bolts’. as shown in Figure 3.22 . or to use welded connections instead of bolted connections. it is often necessary: either to limit slack in category A connections: drilling at +1 mm. the effect of slack on the deflection can be evaluated by assuming that the bolts are initially centred on their holes. even +0. In order to do this. where truss structures are concerned. a diagonal under compression is reduced by a further 4 mm. a chord in tension is extended by 4 mm.
85 + 0.66 + 0.71 0.75 0.5 + 0.i i 1 i b Fi li ES i Where: N1.5 0. 5 .8 Worked example – Axial forces (N1.66 0.68 + 0.31 + 2. Then: v = 4 × (2.66 0.9): Either to increase the passage area available by an eccentricity in the connection of one of the chords (case 1) Or “break” the straight form of a diagonal.66 + 0.5 Figure 3.66 0.75 + 0.75 +… + 0.17 0. using the Bertrand Fontviolant equation.75 2.68 0. by triangulating the breakage point (case 2).85 0.17 + 0.72 0.66 + 0.68 0.23 .68 + 0.66 0.68 0.68 0.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses The deflection of a truss due to the slack can be evaluated by considering the effect of a unit load applied at mid span.i li is the axial force produced in the member i by a unit force applied at the point where the deflection is required is the length of member i is the section area of the member i is the number of members with bolted connection(s).68 + 0. compared with the deflection due to the ULS combination (127 mm). Si b Fi l i is the variation in length of member i due to the slack recovery ES i = ±4 mm according to whether the chord is in compression or tension. Several solutions can be provided (Figure 3.7 Modification of a truss for the passage of equipment It frequently occurs that it is necessary to modify the form of a truss in order to allow equipment to pass (a large section duct for example).66 + 0.i) under unit load The deflection is given by: v N1.72 + 0.5) v = 58.71 + 0. 0. 3.4 mm This is a significant additional deflection.68 + 0.
7. These two phenomena (case 1 and case 2) are illustrated using the worked example. the secondary moments which result from the introduction of an eccentricity increase in relation to the size of the eccentricity. “Secondary” moments appear as a result of the lack of stiffness in a broken diagonal compared with a straight diagonal.11. it is always preferable to introduce an eccentricity in the least stressed chords. The breakage point must of course be triangulated in the plane of the truss.24 . with the eccentricity of a diagonal.10 shows a part of the truss. even if the breakage point is triangulated.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Case 1 Case 2 Figure 3. Figure 3. 300 mm Figure 3.9 Passage of a duct – Local modification of the truss In case 1. care must be taken with several phenomena: The axial force can increase significantly in certain chords situated in the immediate proximity of the modified panel (as a result of modification to the position of the members). it must also be restrained outofplane (where three members meet) if the broken diagonal is in compression. 5 . In case 2.10 Passage of a duct – Eccentricity of a diagonal Changes in axial forces in the modified area are represented on the Figure 3. 3. If there is a choice.1 Introduction of an eccentricity axis in a diagonal (case 1) The truss panel through which the passage of equipment is required is the second panel from the support on the right.
much higher than in the initial structure without eccentricity. Figure 3. 3. 5 .25 .7.2 0.72 kNm moment in the first chord member.6.15 kNm moment is calculated in the second chord member from the right hand support. apart from any other interactions.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Axial force (kN) Initial structure Bending moment (kNm) Modified structure Figure 3. A 74.2 “Broken” diagonal (example 2) The panel of the penetration equipment is the same as in 3. The elastic moment resistance of an IPE 330 horizontal section is: 69. The main consequence of this arrangement is a significant increase in the bending moments in the lower chord that receives the eccentric diagonal. Reinforcement of the lower chord member will therefore be required in order to support the axis eccentricity introduced.1.57 kNm The bending capacity is therefore greatly exceeded.11 Effects of the eccentricity of diagonal under ULS gravity loading The 300 mm eccentricity makes the triangulation imperfect. a 62.355 = 24.12 is a diagram of the diagonal “breakage”.
12 Passage of a duct – Broken diagonal Development of stress in the modified area is represented on the section diagrams in Figure 3. an increase in “secondary” moments is also observed on the three right panels 5 .Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Figure 3. this supports a normal compression force of 755 kN.26 . Axial force (kN) Initial structure Bending moment (kNm) Axial force (kN) Modified structure Bending moment (kNm) Figure 3. as well as an increase in the normal tension force.13. As far as the additional triangulation member is concerned. In the lower chord.13 Effects of a broken diagonal under ULS gravity loading The effects of modification on the calculated stresses are mainly: A noticeable increase is observed in the axial force in the second lower chord member from the right hand support (in the panel with the broken diagonal): the tension calculated increases from 818 to 1350 kN. A significant increase is also observed in the compression force in the broken diagonal compared with the rectilinear diagonal of the initial structure: compression increases from 624 to 1090 kN.
27 .Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses The modification to the structure (broken diagonal) therefore has a significant effect on the size of the members. 5 .
the elastic critical force is determined from the buckling length of the member in accordance with EN 199311. The following can be observed. which dealt with the global analysis. only flexural buckling of the compressed members in the plane of the truss structure and out of the plane of the truss structure need be evaluated. it is recommended that a buckling length of 0.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 4 VERIFICATION OF MEMBERS As seen in the preceding section. 6. i. It was also observed that. secondary moments. the buckling resistance is obtained from EN 199311[3] by applying a reduction to the resistance of the crosssection. for which a different evaluation is given.) For buckling out of plane of the truss beam. For each buckling mode.1(4)). For the diagonals and the verticals stressed in uniform compression. members are also subject to stress by bending moments.1 Verification of members under compression The resistance of a member to compression is evaluated by taking into account the different modes of instability: Local buckling of the section is controlled using section classification.9 times the length of the axis be retained.3. and when necessary.3. when the truss member is connected at each end with at least two bolts.1. (An exception is made by Annex BB for angle truss members. or by welding (EN 199311 §BB.e. 4. For a compression member. the buckling length is taken equal to the system length. In most truss members. according to Annex BB §BB.1 of EN 199311: For buckling in the plane of the truss beam: the buckling length is taken equal to 90% of the system length (distance between nodes). This reduction factor is obtained from the slenderness of the member.28 .1. effective section properties (class 4) Buckling of the member is controlled by applying a reduction coefficient in the calculation of resistance. For buckling in the plane of the truss of the chord members in uniform compression. which depends on the elastic critical force. 5 . the members are mainly subjected to axial forces. it is not specified in this annex if the particular rule also concerns members made up to two pairs of angles: by way of simplification. in many cases. several buckling modes must be considered. the buckling length may be taken as 90% of its system length (distance between nodes).
concerning determination of the compression resistance. Intermediate purlins can also be considered as a rigid point of support.29 . Insofar as a diaphragm role has been attributed to the roof (class 2 construction according to EN 199313).Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses For buckling out of plane of the truss. which is very common. The gap between the angles. When there is no lateral support at each node along the chord. It is quite common. In order to ensure that such builtup members will behave as sole members in the flexural buckling mode. where the truss supports a roof. with purlins at the level of the upper chord of the truss: All the purlins connected to a roof bracing can be considered as lateral rigid support points. to make up members from a truss structure using two angles. Since the role of these members is to prevent relative slip of one component compared with the other. With regard to the lower chord. In the worked example.2). Another point to note. they must be connected without slack. it can be more difficult to determine the elastic critical force for the following reasons: There is not necessarily a lateral support at each node of the truss The lateral support points are not necessarily effectively rigid. 5 . and the thickness of the battens.1). Refined methods can be adopted by investigating an equivalent buckling length under constant compression. these lateral support points are provided by additional vertical bracing elements between trusses (see the braces under the truss purlins in Figure 2. the segment located between support points is subject to variable compression between bays. as was stated. should be the same as the thickness of the gusset to which the builtup member is connected. or two channels (UPE). is the case of pairs of members. the two components are connected by small battens (Figure 4. In these circumstances: A conservative approach would be to use the normal compression force at its maximum value and to take the buckling length as the distance between supports but this can lead to an underestimate of the chord resistance.
1. by taking into account the shear stiffness of the composed member. 5 . justifying calculations are developed in the following sections for the different types of compressed members in the worked example truss structure. The shear force and the bending moments are given in Figure 4.30 . If this verification indicated a lack of resistance.1 Upper chord in compression The verifications set out below.2. Since the calculation is identical. The results are taken from the basic worked example: IPE 330 chords with horizontal web Web members are assumed to be hinged at both ends Chords are assumed to be continuous. Otherwise a more complex verification needs to be carried out. By way of example. which is not restrained by the secondary truss: axial force of lesser compression. Note that the verification should also be carried out on the first member from the mid span.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses A A 1 2 AA 1 1 2 Batten Gusset Figure 4. In order to illustrate the different principles stated above. in which the normal compression force calculated under gravity ULS loads is greatest and equal to: NEd = −1477 kN The checks take into account the coincident bending moments.1).1 Members composed of two angles The maximum spacing of the connections between members is limited by EN 199311 to 15 times the minimum radius of gyration of the isolated component. in order to link two 50 × 50 × 5 angles by respecting the spacing limit. concern the upper chord member adjacent to mid span (element B107 in Figure 3. it is not set out formally below. This limitation is very restrictive. it would be necessary to provide a batten every 15 cm. 4. but with increased buckling length in the plane of the truss. the reinforcement solution would of course consist of extending the installation of the secondary truss.
Effective properties of the crosssection The effective area Aeff is calculated for pure compression.5 The flange is Class 1.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 2. Sheet 1): c 271 36.1 9 7.2. even if it is subjected to combined axial force and bending moment.86 kNm 1.z = 98.5 The web is Class 4. The compressed flanges are classified as outstand flanges (EN 199311 Table 5.02 t 7. so fully effective.05 kNm 2. 5 .31 .5 cm3 Class of the crosssection The material parameter is: = 0.6 cm2 = 11770 cm4 = 788 cm4 Wel.2 Bending moment and shear force in the upper chord Crosssection properties For an IPE 330 with horizontal web (steel grade S355) A Iy Iz = 62.29 t 11. Sheet 2): c 58. The web is classified as an internal compressed part (EN 199311 Table 5.82 kN Shear force VEd Figure 4.1 42 34.2.151 Bending moment MEd 1. the crosssection can be classified in uniform compression.25 5.81 As simplification. The flanges are Class 1.
Then the section is fully effective: Weff.355 = 2164 kN 1.5 0.4 k σ 28.z = Wel.81 4 b t p 0.355 34.1): 1 k 4 271 7.683 1 OK N c.86 0.5 mm The effective area of the section is: Aeff = 6260 – (271 – 249) × 7.5 mm beff = 0.5beff 124.Rd 2164 In bending in the plane of the truss (EN 199311 §6.4): N c.2. In simple bending in the plane of the truss. about the weak axis.4 kσ 28. the flanges are inevitably Class 1.673 1 kσ 4 p 28.z f y M0 98.Rd Aeff f y M0 6095 0.5 p 0.5 cm3 Resistance of crosssection In compression (EN 199311 §6.2.5 0.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses The effective width of the web is evaluated according to EN 199315 (Table 4.919 271 249 mm p2 be1 be 2 0.4 0.055(3 ) 0.6): Av.81 4 b t 271 7.782 0.5): M z.Rd 34. whilst the web is not stressed.32 .97 In shear (EN 199311 §6.0 M Ed 2.Rd Weff.782 0.z = 98.4 0.082 1 OK M z.0 N Ed 1477 0.y = 2×160×11.5 = 3680 mm2 5 .5 beff = 124.97 kNm 1.z) is calculated for pure bending.919 beff 0.919 × 271 = 249 mm be1 = be2 = 0.2.673 28.5 = 6095 mm2 The effective elastic modulus about the weak axis (Weff.
Rd Av.2).33 . about the weak axis of the crosssection (EN 199311 § 6.z.765 < 1 Buckling resistance of member OK Buckling resistance in the plane of the truss.781 6095 0.0 VEd 1.1): Lcr.8344 0.z = 0.355 0.2. and the imperfection factor is: = 0.2) z 2 ) 0.z π 2 EI z lz 2 π 2 21000 788 4357 kN 193.e.1. z 6095 0.Rd is less than 0.93): The MN interaction is taken into account using the following criterion: 0.6 2 The slenderness is given by: z Aeff f y N cr .1) The buckling length of the upper chord member is equal to 90% of the system length (EN 199311 §B.B.3.8344 z 1 Φz Φz 2 z 2 1 0.9 × 2151 = 1936 mm The elastic critical force is: N cr.683 + 0.Rd 754 Since VEd/Vpl.082 = 0. there is no influence of the shear force on the resistance of the crosssection under bending moment and axial force.0 NEd / Nb.8344 2 0.705 2 0.355 1690 kN M1 1.Rd = 1477/1690 = 0.874 OK 5 .82 0.002 1 OK Vpl. i.5.Rd z Aeff f y 0.z.y fy 3 3680 M0 0.705 4357 The buckling curve to use is curve b (EN 199311 Table 6.781 The design buckling resistance is then: N b.355 3 754 kN 1. MN interaction (EN 199311 §6.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Vpl.5 (1 ( z 0.34 Φ z 0.
6.0 NEd / Nb.Rd = 1477/1720 = 0.42 3373 kN The slenderness is given as: y Aeff f y N cr. 6.8838 y 1 y y2 y2 1 0.3): There is no effect of lateral torsional buckling to consider for a member in bending about its weak axis (no bending about the strong axis).Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Buckling resistance out of the plane of the truss.2).7952 And so the compression resistance is therefore: N b.Ed N Ed k yz 1 y Aeff f y / M1 Weff.859 OK MN interaction (EN 199311 §6.3. The normal compression force is almost constant between lateral supports (see 3. There is therefore no need to use a method which allows for nonuniform force.5(1 ( y 0.y π 2 EI y ly 2 π 2 21000 11770 850.61 in EN 199311) M z. and the imperfection factor is: = 0.8009 3373 The buckling curve is curve a (EN 199311 Table 6. The elastic critical force is: N cr.34 . y 6095 0. these criteria can also be written as: 5 .2) y 2 ) 0.8838 0.88382 0.e.3.7952 6095 0.355 0. i.Ed N Ed k zz 1 z Aeff f y / M1 Weff.y. y. about the strong axis of the crosssection (EN 199311 § 6. The criteria are: M z.21 Φ y 0.1) The lateral supports of the upper chord are composed of truss purlins at 8504 mm intervals.z f y / M1 (Eq.2).355 1720 kN M1 1.8009 2 0.62 in EN 199311) Using resistances already calculated.z f y / M1 (Eq.Rd y Aeff f y 0.
z 1.628 N Ed 1477 1 N cr.Ed 1 N b.8624 0.21 0.36( 0.z where: Cmz 0.61) 1477 2.819 1477 1 4357 First interaction criterion (eq.z 1 5 .628 N Ed 1477 1 N cr.33) N Ed N cr.819 0.86 Cmz = 0.Rd M N Ed k zz z.35 .926 1 OK 1720 34.Rd N b.z.Rd The interaction factors kyz and kzz are calculated according to Annex A of EN 199311.79 0.y 3373 0.Rd M z.781 1 z 4357 N cr. y.86 0.628 0.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses M z.z where: Cmz = 0.05 0.899 z 1477 N Ed 1 0.Ed N Ed k yz 1 M z.367 2. 6.8624 y N Ed 1477 1 0.7952 1 y 3373 N cr. for a Class 4 section: k yz C mz y 1 N Ed N cr.97 k zz Cmz z 1 N Ed N cr.y 1 k yz 0.z 4357 0.
whereas the force was constant along the buckling length for the upper chord. in 4. but without support from a secondary truss. the factor kzz can be calculated: k zz 0.1.628 0. it is also of course essential to check the lower chord.944 1 OK 1690 34. 6. for the chord member with the greatest bending moment. subject to the lower compression force.854 0. the variation in axial force is very small.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses Then. Buckling of the lower chord is to be considered similarly to that of the upper chord.1. the small reduction in buckling length due to variation of normal axial force can safely be ignored. Verification of the lower chord in compression is similar to that described for the upper chord in compression.3) permitted the reduction by half of the buckling length of the upper chord in the plane of the truss. The only specific point which would be interesting to develop is an analysis of the buckling out of plane of the truss. 5 .899 0. It should also be noted here that. 4. in two panels.854 1477 1 4357 Second interaction criterion (eq.62) 1477 2. The difference is that the axial force in the lower chord varies along the buckling length.2).97 Note on secondary trusses The presence of secondary trusses in the central part of the truss (see diagram 2. for a length equal to the distance between truss panels.3). The secondary truss is sized in order to support a buckling restraint load whose value depends on the compression force in the supported chord and on its slenderness ratio (see EN 199331 on subject of design of pylons in annex H4).2 Lower chord in compression With respect to the complete design of the structure.86 0. in a real design. Lateral restraint of the lower chord is provided at each purlin (Figure 2.1. thanks to the presence of subpanel braces (See Figure 2.36 .
25+1.1 cm4 = 369 cm4 For a pair of angles Section area: A = 2 × 43 = 86 cm2 Second moment of area out of plane of the truss (the section is assumed to be homogeneous). assuming the gap between the angles is 10 mm: Iy = 2 × 898.5 9. is the second diagonal from the right support (element B40 in Figure 3.0/2)2 = 3737 cm4.1 = 1796 cm4 Class of section in uniform compression Material parameter for fy = 355 N/mm2: = 0.3 Diagonal in compression The diagonal.81 For an angle (EN 199311 Table 5.1). whose resistance is calculated here.25 cm = Iz = 898.1 + 2 × 43 × (4. by way of example. The effect of this moment will be evaluated later. The compression force is: NEd = −624.37 . Crosssection properties of a single angle For a 150 × 150 × 15 L A zG Iy Iv = 43 cm2 = yG = 4. the bending moment due to the self weight of the member is ignored.3 Axial force in the lower chord 4.31 2t 2 15 5 .Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 545 kN 470 kN Axial force NEd Figure 4. under ULS gravity loading. Second moment of area in the plane of the truss: Iz = 2 × 898.15 t 15 h b 2 150 10 11.1. as in common practice.4 kN Initially.2 (Sheet 3)): h 150 10 15 12.
697 z 1 z z z 2 2 1 1. The critical axial force is: N cr.5 (1 ( z 0.464 = 4.697 2 1.2) z 2 ) 1.355 3053 kN 1.378 And the buckling resistance is then: N b.z π 2 EI z π 2 21000 1796 491. Such a calculation leads to a fully effective area: Aeff = A = 86 cm2 Resistance of the crosssection The resistance of the section in uniform compression is therefore given by: N c.4082 0. and the imperfection factor is: 0.0 M1 Buckling resistance out of plane of the truss The buckling length is equal to the system length: Lcr.408 1539 The buckling curve is curve b (EN 199311 Table 6. The effective area of the crosssection should be calculated with reference to EN 199315.38 .Rd Af y M0 8600 0.464m.697 1.z 8600 0.9 × 5.378 8600 0.34 Φ z 0.355 1.2).918 m The elastic critical force is: N cr.355 1154 kN 1.y = 5.Rd z Af y 0.y π 2 EI y ly 2 π 2 21000 3737 546.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses The section is a Class 4 and it is therefore not fully effective in uniform compression.z.82 1539 kN ly 2 The slenderness is given by: z Af y N cr.52 2594 kN 5 .0 Buckling resistance of member Buckling resistance in the plane of the truss The buckling length is equal to: 0.
y 8600 x0. for an angle 150 × 150 × 15 that is a distance of 15 × 29.5 (1 ( y 0. Connection battens The diagonal is composed of two angles linked by battens..Rd 1154 The resistance of the diagonal is adequate. 5 .Rd y Af y 0. table 6.0 OK N b.39 . and the imperfection factor is: 0.0 The buckling resistance in the plane of the truss is less and the verification is: N Ed 624. Instead of the 12 connection battens per diagonal which the above condition lead to. This results in a buckling length about the principal axis equal to 0. its section could be optimised.2).2) z 2 ) 1.239 y 1 y y y 2 2 1 1. L 150x150x15 Plate 150x150x10 and 2 pretensioned bolts with controlled tightening Figure 4.541 1.4 0.239 1.4 Connection batten In order for the battens to be effective.085 2594 The buckling curve to use is curve b (see EN 199311.085 2 0.544 8600 0.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses The slenderness is given by: y Af y N cr . The calculation of the resistance previously undertaken assumed the section is homogenous (for the buckling out of plane of the truss). y .7 × 1366 = 956 mm. 1366 mm apart. it is recommended that the connection bars be spaced further apart (the costs of fabrication and installation are not negligible). they must be arranged as illustrated here. In view of the resistance reserves. In order to support this hypothesis.355 1661kN M1 1.34 Φ y 0.3 = 440 mm. EN 199311 requires the placing of connection bars spread out at no more than 15 times the minimum radius of gyration of the isolated angle. consider only 3 bars be placed.239 2 1.355 1.544 The design buckling resistance is: N b.
427 8368000 The buckling curve to use is curve b and the imperfection factor is: = 0.34 Φ v 0.346 The design buckling resistance of the diagonal is: N b.2 above).Rd 1056 The compression resistance is adequate.z = 167 cm3.3: M z.346 8600 355 10 3 1056 kN 1.34 ( v 0.40 .427 2 2 0.v 4300 355 0.3.Ed N Ed k yz 1 y Af y / M1 Wel.915 Conservatively. Local verification of the section to the right of the gusset plate connection This verification carried out in Appendix B Effect of bending moment due to self weight of the diagonal The bending moment is: My.915 = 0.5 (1 0. the resistance to the compression may be evaluated calculating the reduction factor as the product of that for the whole member and that for an individual angle between battens: = Min(y .630 v 1 Φv Φv v 2 2 1 0.v π 2 EI v lv 2 π 2 210000 369 104 956 2 103 8368 kN The slenderness for a single angle is: v Af y N cr .0 N b.630 0.20 kNm (see 3.378 × 0.0 M1 N Ed 624.4 0.Ed = 2.Ed N Ed k zz 1 z A f y / M1 Wel .2) v 2 ) 0.z f y / M1 M z . The elastic modulus of the crosssection for bending in the plane of the truss is: Wel. z) × v = 0. z f y / M 1 5 .591 1.Rd Af y 0.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses For this type of buckling the elastic critical force is: N cr. Interaction criteria are given in EN 199311 §6.630 0.
4 1 0.z 1 k zz 1.4 N Ed 1 0.z N Ed 624 .012 N cr. y 2594 y 0.012 0.z 1539 z 0.012 0.2 Verification of members in tension A particular feature when checking the resistance of tension members is the existence of criteria which bring into play the net section of the member.378 8600 355 / 1. This is explored for the worked example.863 1.4 1 N cr.0 167000 355 / 1.4 1 1539 From which: 624400 2.544 1 vy 2594 N cr.0 When the bending moment due to self weight of the diagonal is taken into account.20 106 1.z N Ed 624.z 1539 k yz 1.47 0.691 624.691 1.20 10 6 1.591 to 0.378 1 vz 1539 N cr.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses where: The kyz factor is: k yz Cmz y 1 N Ed N cr.47 624. the resistance criterion increases from 0. y 1 C mz 1 0.915 0.915 0.465 1 0.03 N Ed 624. 4.544 8600 355 / 1.4 1 1539 The kzz factor is: k zz Cmz z 1 N Ed N cr.4 N Ed 1 0.915 0.18 0.0 624400 2.635 1 0.915 0.0 167000 355 / 1. 5 .635: that is an increase of 7%.863 624 .41 .4 1 N cr.03 1.18 624.
Given the results shown in 3. in the truss plane (EN 199311 (6.03 = 0.1 Lower chord in tension (flat IPE 330) The lower chord in tension is verified for calculated forces near the midspan.0 The verification is: N Ed 1582 0.2 Diagonal in tension (double angles L120 120 12) Checking is done for the diagonal at the left hand support.3 NM Interaction: 0.Rd ) 1711 kN In simple bending.5) (3 22 7. one in a “gross” section and the other in a “net” section : Gross section A = 6260 mm2 N pl.0 Net section Anet 6260 (4 24 11.Rd Wpl f y M0 147.5)).Rd 0.2 above: NEd = 616.2 0. under gravity loads. N u.42 .25 Tension resistance is given by: N t.355 2222 kN 1.03 M Rd 52.Rd min( N pl.3 kN 5 .9 4661 0.93 + 0.69 kNm The tension resistance of the section is determined by two conditions.96 < 1 4.15 16 2 147.Rd 1711 M Ed 1. class 1 of the section allows the plastic modulus to be mobilised: Wpl 2 1.2 cm3 4 M pl.Rd Af y M0 6260 x 0.51 1711 kN 1.355 52.2.2 above: NEd = 1582 kN MEd = 1.2.2.9 Anet f u M0 0.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 4.3 kNm 1. Given the results shown in 3.Rd .5) 4661 mm 2 N u.93 N t.69 0.
the behaviour of the two simple diagonals is considered with respect to these local phenomena.36 kNm Tension resistance The tension resistance of the section is determined by two conditions. EN 199318 gives an additional requirement for the effect of eccentricity of the tension force in the angle (distance between the neutral axis and the gauge marking) on the forces (appearance of secondary moments). on in gross section and the other in net section: Gross section N pl.Rd min( N pl.5)): Wel 85. It is recommended that.: The reduction factors β are only provided for a simple angle.Rd ) 997 kN Bending resistance In simple bending in the truss plane (EN 199311 (6.355 30.Rd Then: 0.43 .5 Anet f u M0 0.Rd Wel f y M0 85.355 1956 kN 1.10. For.2.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses MEd = 1. the method is conservative for a “double angle”.3 kNm 1.46 0.46 cm3 M el.Rd Af y M0 5510 x0. N u.3(2)) N u. p1= 2.Rd β3 Anet f u γM2 3 = 0.8) The reduction factor β3 depends on the distance between axes p1.5 d0 = 65 mm: N.Rd .B.0 Verification: 5 .5 (EN 199318 Table 3. This method involves the application of an ultimate resistance reduction factor for the angle (EN 199318 Clause 3. N u. within the connection.25 N t.51 997 kN 1.0 Net section (See arrangements described in Annex 2) Anet 5510 (2 26 12) 4886 mm2 For angles connected by a single leg.5 4886 0.
44 .05 = 0.Rd 997 M Ed 1.3 And the MN interaction criterion is: 0.36 0.62 1 N t.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses N Ed 616.3 0.67 < 1 5 .05 M Rd 30.62 + 0.
1 Elongated hole on the bottom chord of the truss With such an arrangement. By contrast. the choice between a fixed connection and a pinned connection must be respected.45 . In order to permit global rotation. the displacement of the chord which does not receive the diagonal on support is released. The outcome in terms of loading is that the hinge does not transmit any bending moment from the truss to the post. In particular. the axial force is zero in the lower chord in the first panel.1 VERIFICATION OF CONNECTIONS Characteristics of the truss post connection General It is essential to connect the truss and post according to the assumptions in the modelling. A Figure 5. 5 . The rotation at the support of a truss is manifested by a differential horizontal displacement between the original node of the upper chord and the original node of the lower chord. The difference between these two types of connection is that the pinned connection allows a rotation independent deflection of the truss and the post.1 5.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 5 5. An application of this type of hinge action in the worked example is given in 5. in order to carry out a rigid trusscolumn connection. it is therefore necessary to allow the horizontal displacement of the end of one of the chords in relation to the post: usually.2 below. it is necessary to make a connection without slack from each of the chords of the truss to the column. The lower chord of the first truss node could therefore be stopped short (A in the diagram). whereas a fixed connection does.1.1. nevertheless it is preferable to lengthen the lower chord and to connect it to the post in order to provide lateral stability of the truss at the level of the lower chord.
We can observe that. which has a higher bending resistance than the chord or the diagonal. Convergence of the axes column/chord/diagonal: solution to avoid Axis convergence of the axes chord/diagonal at the internal face of the column: recommended solution 1 1 : Rigid links Figure 5. each load case produces equal global rotations in the two support sections.3 represents horizontal displacements of the lower and upper nodes of the two support sections. The choices are illustrated in Figure 5. the actual physical connection and the model are not consistent: there is a risk of causing significant secondary moments in the diagonal and the chord.1. the eccentric moment is clearly supported by the post. the consistency is much greater. for cases of ULS gravity load combinations and for cases of ULS uplift load combinations.2. Note that this not the case in the worked example in which the posts have their web perpendicular to the plane of the truss: the convergence of the three axes happens then without causing secondary moments.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 5. particularly when the truss is hinged at the post.3 Worked example: detailing a pinned joint The Figure 5.1.2 Convergence of the axes at the trusscolumn connection Another question to be asked when carrying out the connection of a truss on a post is that of convergence of the axes of the connected members and of its effect on the modelling. when the structure is symmetric or symmetrically loaded.2 Rigid trusscolumn connection In the first example. 5.46 . 5 . In the second example.
3 – 3. either of the connections can be used. the freedom of movement remains adequate in both directions. However.1 = 12.6 mm 44.2 mm (44. It is of course prudent to allow for a certain safety margin on the sizing of the elongated holes (say 50 mm).2 mm towards the inside.6 mm movement towards the outside and 12. it is therefore necessary to provide continuous chord joints between these sections.3 Rotations at truss supports In order for the global rotations at the supports to be free (assumption for truss with pinned connections to the column).2 Chord continuity It is often necessary to deliver large span truss beams to site in several sections. When the chords are made of two double angle or channel sections. we can distinguish between two types of such connections: Those in which the bolts are mainly loaded in tension : these use end plates Those in which bolts are loaded perpendicular to their shank: these use splice plates.2 – 8.6 mm) Gravity loading 12. 5 .2 mm) Uplift loading Figure 5. splice connections are generally used.1 mm 15.47 .2 mm 3. the preferred method is to make such connections on site by bolting rather than by welding.6 = 35. under self weight. The design of these bolted connections depends on the type of chord section to be connected. and to check after erection that. 5.2 mm (15. When the chords are made of a single profile/section in I or H.6 mm 8. the elongated holes introduced into the column on lower chord connection must allow a 35.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 35. Generally.
6 for evaluation example of the effect of slack in the bolted connections of the truss in the worked example). common practice is to insert gusset plates between the two 5 . When the chords are made of double members (two angles or two UPE sections). Spliced plate connections are only effectively rigid when the slack is controlled (see Section 3. Generally. preferably loaded on the shank in order to avoid slip under load by distortion of the thread of the connected pieces. for the worked example. it is essential to ensure the stiffness of the continuous chord connections.3 Connection of diagonals to chords Connection of diagonals and posts to chords can be made in different ways. is given in Appendix A. Software is freely available for this verification (see the SteelBizFrance. by adapting the components method developed for beampost connections.com website developed by CTICM). For splice connections. when the resistance of a beambeam connection using end plates is selected. it is therefore recommended that one of the following options is selected: Use preloaded bolts with controlled tightening. it can be considered as rigid. Verification of this type of connection.48 . The resistance of the splice connections of truss chords must be verified under dominant load with secondary bending moment in the truss plane. according to the type of sections to be connected. single external spliced plates can be used. If the force in the splice is low. to preserve symmetry in the transmission of the axial force. allowing transmission of loads by friction (nonslip) Use fit bolts. according to EN 199318. Continuity using end plate connections Continuity using splice plate connections Figure 5. 5.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses When the chords are made of hollow sections end plate connections are generally used (use of hollow sections is outside the scope of this guide). As well as verifying the resistance. although double plates are normally used on the web.4 Chord continuity The splice plate connection shown Figure 5.4 has double cover splice plates on the web and flanges (giving two interfaces for shear forces).
as shown in Figure 5. it is also common to use IPE or HEA truss members with the same depth as the chords and to connect them by double gussets.49 .6.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses component members of the chord. one on each flange. either welded or bolted on the chords. The gussets are. truss members in bolted double angles onto gusset (b) Welded gusset on HEA chord flange. therefore. usually by bolting. double angle truss members bolted to gusset (c) Gusset welded to web of flat IPE chord Figure 5. 5 . (a) Bolted gusset in the space between double angle chords. An alternative solution is to design a welded connection without gussets. When the chords are made of IPE or HEA/HEB sections.5 Truss connections on chord When the chord sections are flat. The diagonals and posts are connected to the gussets. The gusset plate is attached to the flange when the section is upright (vertical web). the most common connection method is also to use a welded gusset plate on the chord. and to the web when the section is flat (horizontal web).
verification of the resistance of the gusset plate is not. 5 . if the height of the flat chord web is insufficient for the angles making up the truss members to be connected near the web.6 Welded connection between truss members and chord When the chords are hollow sections (outside the scope of this guide). the distribution of forces if the structure is hyperstatic.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 3 1 1 1 4 2 2 5 1 2 3 4 5 Truss members Chord Fillet weld HalfV fillet weld Kfillet weld Figure 5. verification of the resistance of the bolted or welded connection clearly defined in EN 199318. Although hollow section trusses are not the subject of the present guide. particularly those which have a large non stiffened part: many truss problems have been caused local buckling of the gusset plate. as a result. slip must also be controlled (as indicated for continuous chords). in the connections in Figure 5. However. Verification of a gusset plate connection for the worked example is given in Appendix B. Special attention must be given to checking of the gussets. In the gusset connections described above.5(c). and. In the connections to the chords. note that EN 199318 devotes a Section to the design of welded connections of hollow sections. this requires profiling for connections to circular section chords. the connection using a gusset welded on the chord is also used. For example.50 . in order to control displacements of the structural components. the unstiffened part of the gusset and its stability must be examined carefully. Direct welding of the diagonals and posts to the chords is also used.
EN 199318:2005 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures.1 General rules and rules for buildings. 5 . Part 1.51 . Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 7: Fire engineering. Part 1.Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses REFERENCES 1 2 3 SingleStorey Steel Buildings.8 Design of joints. EN 199311: 2005.
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses 5 .52 .
Part 5: Detailed Design of Trusses APPENDIX A Worked Example – Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 5 .53 .
This connection has double spliced plates on the web and single external spliced plate on the flanges (see Figure A. 1 1 Splice plate connection studied Figure A.1 Location of the splice plate connections 3 3 1 2 3 2 1 Longitudinal axis 2 Lower chords to assembly (IPE 330) 3 Splice plate connection Figure A.2 Chord continuity by splice plate connections The resistance of this connection must be verified under tension axial force with secondary moment in the plane of the truss.1. 5 .2).3) It is also essential to ensure the stiffness of the continuous chord connection.54 .Appendix A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections Made by PM 1 Date Date of 24 02/2010 02/2010 Calculation sheet Checked by IR 1. A slip resistant connection is required. Splice joint using bolted cover plates This calculation sheet refers to the splice plate connection located on the Figure A. Four bolted cover plates must be verified (See Figure A.
Basic data The sizes of the coverplates and the positioning of holes are shown on the Figure A.55 . 5 .3 Cover plates The global coordinates system is such as: The XOZ plane is that of the truss plane The XOY plane is that of the web chord 2.4.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 2 of 24 Z Y 3 1 2 X Y 1 2 3 cover plates of web chord cover plate of flange 1 (on the righthand side) cover plate of flange 2 (on the lefthand side) Figure A.
1 Depth Flange width Web thickness Flange thickness Radius of root fillet Crosssection area Second moment of area Plastic modulus Wpl.61 cm2 = 788.5 mm = 11.1 cm4 EN 199311 Table 3.7 cm3 5 . Steel grade Yield strength Ultimate tensile strength I Beam data S355 fy fu h b tw tf r A Iy = 355 N/mm2 = 510 N/mm2 = 330 mm = 160 mm = 7.5 / 7 11.5 14 35 70 70 140 70 70 35 40 95 95 40 35 70 5 100 70 35 165 165 Figure A.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 3 of 24 30 50 50 30 7 / 7.5 mm = 18 mm = 62.y = 153.4 Sizes (in mm) and positioning Material data (except bolts) The Iprofile and the coverplates are grade S355 to EN 100252.56 .
25 M2 = 1. For all that in some phases we take them into account so as to show the concept of the calculation in the presence in such internal forces.71 kNm (about yy axis) = 1.00 M2 = 1.9 fyb fub df d0.25 M3 = 1.7 kN = 1567.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 4 of 24 Bolted connections data Category of bolted connections Bolt Class Yield strength Ultimate tensile strength For flanges cover plates Nominal bolt diameter Hole diameter For web cover plates Nominal bolt diameter Hole diameter Category C Class 10.4 kN (tension force) Note: the bending moment and the shear force can be ignored.w = 20 mm M0 = 1.5 MEd VEd NEd = 1.57 .25 EN 199311 6. 5 .f dw = 900 N/mm2 = 1000 N/mm2 = 22 mm = 24 mm = 18 mm EN 199318 Table 3.2 NOTE Partial Factors (Recommended values) Structural steel Structural steel Bolts Bolts Internal forces For the direction of the internal forces see Figure A.1 NOTE 2B EN 199318 2.1 d0.
For the web we consider a uniform stress equal to: w N Ed = 250.91 N/mm2.78 N/mm2. the crosssection being all over in tension is considered of class 1.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 5 of 24 Z VEd Y MEd X Y MEd NEd Figure A.06 N/mm2 In view of these results. 2 = 255. it’s necessary to know the distribution of the normal stresses.62 N/mm2 And for the inner part (Z < 0) of the flange: v1 b f / 2 and v 2 t w 2 r 1 = 319.34 N/mm2 A For the flanges we have: i N Ed M Ed A I yy v i Where vi is the position of the considered fibre.5 Internal forces and moment 3. Classification of crosssection chord EN 199311 Table 5. 5 .2 Sheet 2 of 3 For the classification of the crosssection. 2 = 245. And for the upper part (Z > 0) of the flange: v1 b f / 2 and v 2 t w 2 r 1 = 180.58 .
6(2) EN 199311 6.Rd EN 199311 6.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 6 of 24 4.Rd A net f y EN 199311 6.2.002< 0. the holes for fasteners in the flange should be considered.2. the fastener holes should be considered.Rd Av f y 3 M0 = 811.5 V pl.10 (2) From where V Ed = 0. 4 kN Allowance has to be made for the effect of the axial force. no reduction due to the shear force needs to be taken into account.Rd So. 9 f u M2 473 M0 653 . The net area is: Therefore: Anet = 4707 mm2 = 1671 kN N net.2.Rd Bending moment With Af b t f and Af.5 (4) For each flange in tension.net 0 . 5 .2.2. Combination M + N – Effect of the axial force hw t w f y EN 199311 6.Rd N net. Category C connection the design tension resistance is: N t.9.1. Global checking of the crosssection chord Effect of the shear force V Ed V pl. 2 kN So. we consider 7 holes for fastener (2 by flange and 3 for the web). Combination M + N – Consideration of fastener holes Axial force Under tension axial force. one checks: Af.3 kN EN 199311 6.9.net Af 2 d 0. 4.1 EN 199311 6.2.1 (5) N Ed 1567 . 4.10 Determination of With: A v A h w t w = 3959 mm2 V pl.2.f t f Af f y EN 199311 6. 4 M0 817 .59 .2. 4.3(4) M0 For the net crosssection.3.
2.f t f d z W pl . y Wpl.2. 9 f u M2 1728 . Distribution of the internal forces Axial force EN 199318 2. Combination M + N – Verification EN 199311 6.5 Note that the web is in the horizontal plane.9. Design resistance for bending With for a IPE 330: dz W pl.w t w Af y EN 199311 6. y = 153.Rd M pl. the holes for fasteners in the web should be considered.7 cm3 = 50 mm = distance from centre of holes of flange to zz axis = 55. The fillets are appointed to the flange.9.1.f N Ed N N.412 We obtain : n a 2 M N.5 mm2 Af ( A A w ) / 2 3958.4. The axial force is distributed between the web and the flanges. one checks: Anet 0 . y. y. 5 = 0.holes f y M0 4.99 kNm OK MEd = 1. 4 M0 2222 .Rd a min ( A 2 b t f ) / A .5 kN 5 .71 < MN.938 N net. So.5 mm2 (per flange) Then: N N. 0 .967 kNm EN 199311 6.5 (5) For the full tension area.1(1) EN 199311 6.w N Ed A w / A = 576.99 kNm 5.Rd = 6.Rd 1 1 a = 6.holes 4 d 0. with: A w ( h 2 t f ) t w 2302.4 kN N N.f t f 3 d 0.Rd With: n N Ed = 0.2. This distribution is based on the ratio of the gross crosssection of the web and the flanges.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 7 of 24 With Anet A 4 d 0.2.1(3) The following criterion should be verified: M Ed M N.2 cm3 = 34.Rd W pl.5(2) The design plastic moment resistance of the net section is: M pl. 5. 7 kN So.w / 2 = 495.60 .
f e V With: eV= 140 mm MV. VV. Internal forces in each connected parts Connection of the webs The cover plate of webs (and its bolts) is only subjected to an axial force: NN.61 .f = 495.f G Figure A.49 kN.855 kNm for each flanges 6.2.6): M V. 6.4 kN 6.85 kN MM.2.855 kNm Each of cover plates of flanges (and its bolts) is subjected to: An axial force A shear force A bending moment The moment due to the eccentricity of the shear force against the centroid of the joint (see Figure A.f V Ed / 2 (per flange) The shear force is fully transferred by the flanges.1.119 kNm ev VV.f = 0.f = 0. Connection of the flanges NN. So: Shear force V V.f 0. Bending moment The bending moment about the weak axis is fully transferred by the flanges: M M.f MV.f = 0.3.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 8 of 24 5. 5.6 Moment due to the eccentricity of the shear force 5 .f V V.w = 576.
value 24 24 44 48 Design value 35 40 70 95 98 98 Max.3.62 .Ed.2 Connection of the webs – Plate component – Design details Min. Design slip resistance FS.5 1) 70 95 105 105 Max.Rd k s 1.w F V.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 9 of 24 6. The design details are verified for the web component and for the plate component in the tables below Table A. 0 By considering: Bolts in normal holes 5 .12 (3) Nw /2 = 48.1.p for the component web EN 199318 3. Summary of the internal forces and moments Nw Nf Vf Mf = 576. 7.2. value 24 24 44 48 Design value 47. value e1 e2 p1 p2 1) Distance or spacing Not applicable because of the proximity of the flange Table A. value e1 e2 p1 p2 Distance or spacing 7. Design shear force FV.42 kN = 495.1 Connection of the webs – Web component – Design details Min.Ed.Ed for each bolt Nw = 96.49 kN = 0.03 kN for each component plate 6 7. Design details EN 199318 Table 3. The web component will be verified and by symmetry only one plate component.07 kN 6 F V. Verification of the web connection The connection of the webs is a double lap joint.97 kN In the web: In one flange: 7.85 kN = 0.3.3 It is assumed that the structure is not exposed to the weather or other corrosive influences.
7 .w Fs.Rd.4. 5 . ub .c 53.1 (1) M3 F p.Rd for each bolt EN 199318 Table 3.p ks nw M3 ks np Fp. 7 . the position compared with the ends of the component and also the position of the other bolts. the coefficients b and k 1 depend on the orientation of the loading.inner min p1 1 f .4 of the Eurocode 199318. 2 . 7 f ub As.63 . w 134. 5 d0 Web component Figure A. 0 3d 0 4 f u p k 1. The general expression for the design bearing resistance is: Fb.4 According to Table 3.1.76 kN 7.5 And with: As. 4 2 1. 2 .4 Table 3. 2 .52 kN EN 199318 3.4 kN n number of the friction surfaces n w 2 relatively to the web component n p 1 relatively to the plate component Then: Fs. 0 For end bolts 3d 0 f u p e k 1.c 0 . 8 2 1. 5 d0 d0 For inner bolts b.1. ub .7 shows how it is processed for the determination of the coefficients b and k 1 . 7 . the coefficients b and k1 are determined from: f e b. w 192 mm2 tensile stress area of the bolt pretension force Fp.Rd.9. Design bearing resistance Fb.end min 1.Rd k 1 b f u d t M2 EN 199318 Table 3.c 107. In these expressions.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 10 of 24 Class friction surfaces = Class A 0.end min 1 .inner min 1.4 of EN 199318 gives the expressions of the design bearing resistance. 4 2 1.
In these cases we consider the minimum value of k1. for the web component.end k1. w b.79 109.end are identical.50 So only one row of bolts is considered.inner k1. As the design shear force is identical for each bolt and furthermore: k1.inner and k1.end k1.inner b.b1. b3. for the bolt b1: b.Rd. these bolts are considered as end bolts. w Nw b.7 Connection of the webs – Web component – Determination of type of bolts The determination of coefficients k1 is carried out perpendicularly to the direction of load transfer.inner .b4.end b. Then.23kN And for the bolt b4: b. it is reminded that the edge distance e2 is not applicable because of the proximity of the flange.b1 Fb.b4.b1.inner b. And by noticing that min k 1.inner and k1.b4 Fb.end = 2. for example the bolts b1 and b4.end.92 126.end Figure A. and b6) to determine if they are end or inner bolts. k 1.inner k1.end b b k1 b.inner 0.end .end k 1.inner = k1.end k1.end 0. b4.Ed.inner k1. In addition.w 5 .end b. the expressions of k1.01kN b. So.Rd. But two directions are conceivable for this perpendicular and it is difficult for some bolts (b1.64 .Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 11 of 24 k1 b4 b1 b5 b2 b6 b3 F V.
inner k1. for the plate it can be noticed that the bolts b1.Rd.inner b.97kN b Nw/2 k1 FV.end b.end b. b5.b4. Then.b4. b2.end 0.65 . for the bolt b1: b.b1.w b4 b1 b5 b2 b6 b3 b k1 b.end k1.81kN b.8 Connection of the webs – Plate component – Determination of type of bolts 5 . b6 become end bolts (see Figure A.inner b.58 74.Rd.8).inner k1.b1 Fb. Fb.p b.p In the end.end k1.Ed. it should retained: 74.inner 0. for the plate component.b1. b3 become inner bolts and the bolts b4.w 109.92 117.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 12 of 24 Therefore.97kN And for the bolt b4: b.end Figure A.end k1.Rd.Rd.01kN Plate component Compared with the web component.end b.b4 Fb.inner k1.p Fb. in the end for the web component.
Rd 3 117 .h. 06 kN Then: 7.p 48 .Rd.66 .5.Rd is taken as: F v. Checking bolts With regard to the web component Individual checking Design bearing resistance Design slip resistance Group of fasteners FV.b.Rd. 34 kN 1 n bi Then: N w / 2 228 .4 By considering that the shear plane does not pass through the threaded portion of the bolt in normal holes: v = 0. 07 Fs.Rd. w n bi min Fb.Rd.Ed. 97 kN Design slip resistance Group of fasteners FV.Rd.7 Then: Since F v. w 109 . 03 Fs.2 The shear resistance per shear plane F v. 01 654 .47 mm2 (gross crosssection of the bolt) F v.Ed. 7.Rd. w 107 .1.p 74 . N w 576 .b. w for only three bolts as a result the design of our group of fasteners: F gr. 07 Fb.7 as a result the design of our group of fasteners: Fgr.b.w 96 .w 96 .h.6 A = 254.Rd Fb.Rd.bi. 21 F gr.Ed.bi. 06 kN With regard to the plate component EN 199318 Table 3.Rd.p 53 .Rd 578 .15 kN Since Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes.Rd v f ub A M2 EN 199318 Table 3. 34 kN 5 .Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 13 of 24 7.5.2. for each of the bolts EN 199318 3. 01 kN FV.Rd Fb.b. 81 3 74 . 03 Fb.p 48 . 52 kN EN 199318 Table 3. is equal to: F v.15 kN EN 199318 3.Ed. 76 kN The shear resistance per shear plane Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes. w 654 . 42 F gr.Rd = 122.5.2 Individual checking Design bearing resistance FV.Rd = 122. 97 578 . w 6 109 .
2 (2) The Figure A.Rd 3 The net crosssection is taken as The design resistance is: Then: 7.2 (2) case giving the minimum area subjected in tension is considered.6. And with: Ant ( 2 p 2 2 d 0 ) t w 1125 mm 2 Anv 2 ( e1 p1 1. 5 mm 2 N w. 01 N w 576.net.7.1. 7. 85 kN N w. the design plastic resistance of the net crosssection at bolt holes should be verified: FV.2.w t p 1470 mm 2 N p.67 .Rd 657 .7.net.6. Web component A w.Rd Ap.10. 5 mm 2 Then: V eff.9 shows the block tearing for the web and for the plate.2 (1) EN 199318 3.10. 01 kN V eff. w t w 1852 . For the both.7.Ed. Design for block tearing EN 199318 3.2 where nb is the number of bolts located in the considered net crosssection. 64 FV.Rd 728 .net f y M0 521. And with: Ant ( 2 e 2 d 0 ) t p 420 mm 2 Anv 2 ( e1 p 1 1.42kN 7.w 3 48 . 5 d 0 ) t w 1312 .Rd EN 199318 Table 3. 03 144 .Rd 728 . Plate component Two block tearing are defined. A w. Web component The bolt group is subjected to concentric loading.10 kN 1 7. the shear area is the same. 7.Rd 521. Design of net crosssection For a connection in tension.2.Ed 1 nb N net.net.1. 07 288 .w 3 96 .6. 5 d 0 ) t p 1050 mm 2 5 .net. 21 kN 1 Plate component The net crosssection is taken as The design resistance is: Then: 3 Ap.net f y M0 657 . 64 kN N w.1.10.1. so the EN 199318 3.net Ap 3 d 0.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 14 of 24 7. The bolt group is subjected to concentric loading. 85 FV.Ed.net A w 3 d 0.
Rd FV.bi.bi. 5 . In general rule in the presence of a combination of loads. FV.h. we obtain for each EN 199318 Table 3.h. The flange component and the plate component will be verified.bi. v.Rd In the ECCS publication P126 (European recommendations for the Design of Simple Joints in Steel Structures – 2009).1. v. v located at the centre of gravity of the joint and oriented with the principal directions of the flange (See Figure A.Ed F b.Ed Fb. v.h. based on an interaction expression: FV. 57 kN So: V eff.Ed Fb.1. v.bi.bi. Checking of connection of the flanges The connection of the flanges is a single lap joint.Rd 2 1 2 The load components will be performed in a basis h . an additional check is proposed.Ed Fb.h.9 Block tearing for connection of the webs 8.4 3) bolt a design shear force not parallel to the edge of the components.bi. the Eurocode states that the bearing resistance can be verified separately for the bolt load components parallel and normal to the end of components.bi.Rd 386 . 57 N w / 2 288 .10).Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 15 of 24 V eff.Rd F V. In this case.68 .bi.Rd 386 . 21 kN 2 Anv 1 Ant Ant Nw/2 Nw/2 Anv Anv Nw Anv 3 Anv Ant 1 2 3 Block tearing for web component (concentric loading) First block tearing for plate component (concentric loading) Second block tearing for plate component (concentric loading) Figure A.
2. p 2 min 14 t .8 Design value 30 70 100 161 Max. By taking into consideration the limits specified in Table 3. the following requirement have to be fulfilled: min e1 .3 of EN 199318.8 52. 58 kN 6 for each bolt The shear force V f generates a vertical shear force: FV.4 Connection of the flanges – Plate component – Design details Min. The group of bolts is subjected to a axial force N f .10). value 28. p2 maxp1. e 2 1.h Nf 82 .Ed for each bolt With regard to the flange component The components of the design shear force are calculated in the basis h .bi.69 .bi. v (see Figure A. Design shear force FV. value Distance or spacing mine1.8 Design value 30 70 100 196 Max. p2 Table A. v Vf 0 .3 It is assumed that the truss is not exposed to weather or other corrosive influences. a shear force V f and a bending moment M f (see 6. p2 maxp1. 2 d 0 max p 1 . 2 d 0 min p 1 . e2 minp1. p2 8. Table A.3 Connection of the flanges – Plate component – Design details Min. p 2 2 .8 52.2) The axial force N f generates a horizontal shear force: F N.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 16 of 24 8.1. e2 minp1. Design details EN 199318 Table 3.14 kN 6 for each bolt 5 . value 28. value Distance or spacing mine1. 200 mm The tables below check the design details for each component. The design details should be verified in both directions of loading.
v' M f hi ri 1 6 a vertical component for the bolt bi.h F V.bi . for each bolt: F V.bi M f ri ri2 1 6 This shear force FM. 2 With h i and v i coordinates of centre of bolt bi.bi resolved in the basis h . v F V.bi.bi.v b1 Nf b4 Mf Vf b2 G b5 b3 b6 v FN.h FM.10 shows the distribution of the internal forces. Ed Resulting design shear force The Figure A.bi. v. Ed FV2.Ed FV.h FM. The Figure A.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 17 of 24 The moment M f is divided out the bolts according to the distance ri between the centre of bolts bi and the centre of gravity of the group of bolts FM.v .bi.bi. FV. v FM.bi. v gives: FM.bi . FM.bi h Figure A.Ed F N.10 Distribution of the internal forces for the flange component.70 .bi.bi. In the end.bi.h M f vi 6 ri2 1 a horizontal component for the bolt bi.11 shows the directions of the resulting force and its components. 5 .bi.Ed Horizontal design shear force Vertical design shear force FV2.h.bi.h .
The vertical component of the load can be neglected.02kN .Ed h Figure A. In addition.h.Ed F N.bi.h. the unique horizontal design shear force would be: F V.bi.v.02 kN can be retained (= maximum value obtained for FV.Ed 84.bi. 5 .11 Directions of the design shear force Table A.Ed ) for the design shear force: FV.Ed FV.h = 82.71 . if we had not considered the shear force V Ed and the moment M Ed .58 kN That is a difference of 2% So the value of 84.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 18 of 24 FV. We will confine to the horizontal direction for the design bearing resistance checking.Ed v FV.5 sums up the determination of the design shear forces.
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections Connection of the flanges – Flange component – Design shear forces in kN in the basis h , v .
b1 70 50 86,02 2,42 1,41 1,97 82,58 0,14 81,20 81,17 2,11 b2 0 50 50 1,41 1,41 0 82,58 0,14 81,17 81,17 0,14 b3 70 50 86,02 2,42 1,41 1,97 82,58 0,14 81,20 81,77 1,83 b4 70 50 86,02 2,42 1,41 1,97 82,58 0,14 84,02 83,99 2,11 b5 0 50 50 1,41 1,41 0 82,58 0,14 83,99 83,99 0,14 b6 70 50 76,02 2,42 1,41 1,97 82,58 0,14 84,01 83,99 1,83
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Table A.5
Bolt
hi vi ri
FM,bi FM,bi,h FM,bi,v F N,bi,h FV,bi, v FV,bi,Ed FV,bi,h,Ed FV,bi, v,Ed
With regard to the plate component
The connection of the flanges is a single lap joint so the design shear forces for each bolt with regard to the plate component are directly deduced from the previous results. The value of 84,02 kN can be retained.
8.3.
Design slip resistance FS,Rd
k s 1, 0
By considering: Bolts in normal holes Class friction surfaces = Class A And with:
0,5
As,f 303 mm2 tensile stress area of the bolt Fp,c 0 , 7 f ub As,f 212,1 kN
n number of the friction surfaces
pretension force
Single lap joint n 1 for each component Then:
Fs,Rd,f Fs,Rd,p
k s n
M3
Fp,c 84,54 kN
EN 199318 3.9.1 EN 199318 Table 3.4
8.4.
Design bearing resistance Fb,Rd for each bolt
We confine to the horizontal direction for the determination of the design bearing resistance (see 8.2).
5  72
Title
APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections
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Flange component
Figure A.12 shows for each bolt how the factors b and k 1 are determined.
k1
k1
b
b4 b5 b6 k1 FV,h,Ed b1 b2 b3 b,end b,inner b,inner k1,end k1,end k1,end k1
b,end b,inner b,inner k1,end k1,end k1,end
Figure A.12 Connection of the flanges – Flange component – Determination of type of bolts
For all the bolts: k1,end = 1,80. For the bolt b1 and b4: b,end 0 , 94
Fb,Rd,f 174 ,19 kN
For the other bolts:
b,inner 0 , 72
Fb,Rd,f 134 ,19 kN
In the end for the flange component, the minimum value is retained:
Fb,Rd,f 134 ,19 kN
Plate component
For all the bolts,
k1,end = 1,80. Fb,Rd,p 90 , 32 kN
For the bolt b3 and b6: b,end 0 , 49
5  73
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APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections
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For the other bolts:
b,inner 0 , 72
Fb,Rd,p 134 ,19 kN
In the end for the plate component, the minimum value is retained:
Fb,Rd,p 90 , 32 kN
8.5.
8.5.1.
Verification of the bolts
With regard to the flange component FV,Ed,w 84 , 02 Fb,Rd, w 134 ,19 kN FV,Ed,w 84 , 02 Fs,Rd, w 84 , 54 kN
EN 199318 Table 3.2
Individual checking
Design bearing resistance Design slip resistance
Group of fasteners
The design shear resistance per shear plane F v,Rd is taken as:
F v,Rd
v f ub A M2
EN 199318 Table 3.4
By considering that the shear plane does not pass through the threaded portion of the bolt in normal holes:
Then:
v = 0,6
A = 380,13 mm2 (gross crosssection of the bolt)
F v,Rd = 182,46 kN
Since F v,Rd Fb,Rd, w for all the bolts, the design resistance of our group of fasteners is equal to:
F gr,b,Rd, w Fb,bi,Rd,f 2 174 ,19 4 134 ,19 885 ,15 kN
1 n bi
EN 199318 3.7
Then:
8.5.2.
N f 495 , 49 F gr,b,Rd,f 885 ,15 kN
With regard to the plate component
Individual checking
Design bearing resistance: Design slip resistance:
Group of fasteners
FV,Ed,p 84 , 02 Fb,Rd,p 90 , 32 kN FV,Ed,p 84 , 02 Fs,Rd,p 84 , 54 kN
EN 199318 Table 3.4
The shear resistance per shear plane Fv,Rd is equal to: F v,Rd = 182,46 kN
5  74
f 2 84 .Rd Ap.Ed. Assuming a uniform distribution of the load in the section.b.p 2 84 .p Fb. 04 kN 1 The global crosssection of the beam has been verified accounting for the holes for fastener and the combination of the internal forces (see 4). 67 kN Then: 8.75 .Rd EN 199318 Table 3.net Ap 2 d 0.Ed 1 nb N net.w t p 1568 mm 2 N p. w for all the bolts.f t f 1427 . 64 FV.net Mp I p. N f.net v and Vp Ap.net.1. 40 kN 1 n bi EN 199318 3.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 22 of 24 Since Fv. 8.p 2 90 .19 717 . 04 kN 1 Plate component The net crosssection is taken as From where 2 Ap. 02 168 .Rd.net f y M0 506 .net.Rd.6.net.bi.40kN 8.2 Where nb is the number of bolts located in the considered net crosssection.Rd 506 .net f y M0 556 . 64 kN Then: Note: N p. the design of our group of fasteners is equal to: F gr. 67 FV.b. Design of net crosssection For a connection in tension.Ed.2.net 5 . The net crosssection of the plate component should also be verified under this combination of internal forces. 02 168.6.p 717. 25 mm 2 N f.net.49 Fgr.Rd Fb.7 Then: N p N f 495.Rd 556 . it is proposed that: max 2 3 2 f y Where: Np Ap. the design plastic resistance of the net crosssection at bolt holes should be verified: FV.Rd.Rd.Rd 2 Af. Flange component The net section area is: And: Af.6. 32 4 134 .net A f 2 d 0.
31 N/mm 2 f y 355 N/mm 2 8.holes 477 . 5 d 0 ) t f 3392 . Design for block tearing EN 199318 3. 64 cm 4 Then: 316 N/mm 2 and 25.1. 24 N w 495 .76 .2.13 shows the block tearing for the flange component Nf Anv Ant Figure A.Rd 826 . Plate component The bolt group is subjected to a concentric loading Np and an eccentric loading Vp.Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 23 of 24 Assuming a uniform distribution of the shear stresses. 5 d 0 ) t f 414 mm 2 Anv 2 ( e1 2 p1 2 .13 Connection of the flanges – Block tearing for flange component With: Ant 2 ( e 2 0 .7.gross I p.net 1568 mm 2 I p.87 171.14 shows the block tearing for the plate component 5 . The Figure A.2 8.net I p.7. 24 kN V eff. 23 306 . 31 N/mm 2 Finally: max 341. With Ap.1.10. Web component The bolt group is subjected to a concentric loading Nf and an eccentric loading Vf but considering the presence of the web we only consider the case with a concentric loading. this leads to a conservative situation. 5 mm 2 Then: And: V eff. 49 kN 8. The Figure A.1.Rd 826 .7.
Rd . 49 0 .bloc 2 V eff . 57 1. 5 d 0 ) t p 3220 mm 2 Then: And: V eff.Rd 865 . 0 5 . 2 ( e 2 0 .1. Rd .2. 60 kN V eff. 49 kN 1 Ant Anv Np 2 Ant Np Anv Anv 3 Anv Vp Ant 1 2 3 First block tearing with concentric loading Second block tearing with concentric loading Block tearing with eccentric loading Figure A. 60 598 .77 .Rd 598 .14 Connection of the flanges .Title APPENDIX A Worked Example: Design of a continuous chord connection using splice plate connections 24 of 24 For the cases with a concentric loading. 85 0 . 0 OK 865 .Block tearing for plate component For the case with an eccentric loading. An additional requirement based on an interactive expression should be fulfilled: min V eff . only the case giving the minimum area in tension is considered: With : Ant min ( p 2 d 0 ).block 1 .17 V p 0 . 2 .17 kN V eff.2.Rd 598 . 5 d 0 ) t p 504 mm 2 Anv 2 ( e1 2 p1 2 .block 3 Then: 495 .V eff . 1 . 1 .17 Np Vp 1. 5 d 0 ) t p 1316 mm 2 Then: And: V eff.Rd 865 . 85 kN So we have just verified successively the bolt group according to the two loadings. with: Ant ( e1 2 p 1 2 . 60 N f 495 .1. 5 d 0 ) t p 1610 mm 2 Anv ( e 2 p 2 1. Rd .
Part 5: Detailed design of trusses 5 .78 .
79 .Part 5: Detailed design of trusses APPENDIX B Worked example – Design of a truss node with gusset 5 .
4 406.Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset Made by CZT 1 Date Date of 44 12/2009 12/2009 Calculation sheet Checked by DGB The truss includes several types of joints: splice joints by bolted cover plates.9 2.7).1 Member 136 kN 101 102 KT joint – Internal forces in the truss members N (kN) Diagonal 35 Diagonal 24 Post 36 609.4) and a single angle post member (See Figure B. 1 91 kN 136 182 182 136 136 91 kN 4000 7100 7200 8500 8600 7100 7100 1 KT joint Figure B.1. The angles to gusset bolted connection is composed of two backtoback doubleangle diagonal members (See Figure B.5).26 M (kNm) 0 0 0 0. T joints and KT joints.80 .09 35 36 24 Chord 101 Chord 102 1.1 Location of the KT joint The values of the internal forces in the truss members (see Table B. Table B. General presentation of KT joint The KT joint studied consists of the following connections: the gusset to web chord welded connection and the angles to gusset bolted connection (see Figure B. as shown in Figure B.2 and Figure B.8 1084 V (kN) 1.3). determined according to EN 1990. There are three shear connections to be designed as Category C. This load case corresponds to a ULS combination of actions.27 1. 5 .25 1.1) result from a gravity load case. This Appendix gives the detailed design of a KT joint located on the upper chord.6 413.46 0.03 0 1. The gusset to web chord welded connection is a plate welded perpendicular to the web of the chord by two fillets welds (See Figure B. Both connections should be verified according to the rules from EN 199311 and EN 199318.
2 General presentation of KT joint 5 6 2 1 A 4 B A 3 B 1 2 3 4 5 6 Web of the chord (IPE 330) Gusset plate 58026015 Angles L15015015 Angle L10010010 Fillet weld Axes of the web members Figure B.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 2 of 44 136 kN 1 2 3 1 2 3 Chord (IPE 330) Gusset plate Axes of the web members Figure B.3 KT joint 5 .81 .
5 . O Z Og 30 260 Y α3 α1 N1.6. see Figure B.Ed 320 N2. The design of the gusset plate and its weld to the chord takes into account the axial forces in all three angle members connected to it. The two fillet welds are identical.5 KT Joint.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 3 of 44 Figure B.4 KT Joint – Section AA Figure B.82 .Section BB 2.6 Gusset plate to web chord welded connection The longitudinal axes of all three angle members intersect on the chord axis at the point O in the web.Ed N3.Ed 260 Figure B. Gusset plate to web chord welded connection This connection is a welded plate perpendicular to the web of the chord.
6 and Figure B. 2. The moment resulting from the eccentricity eZ should be taken into account.2(2) Steel grade: Yield strength: Ultimate tensile strength: Note: The specified yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the filler metal are required to be at least equivalent to those specified for the parent material. Z Og O eY=7.5/2 eZ=30 Y X Og O tw=7.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 4 of 44 The gusset plane is not positioned symmetrically about the normal OY to the web plane (see Figure B. 5 . Data Global coordinates system (see Figure B.6 and Figure B.83 .5 Y tg=15 Figure B. The moment resulting from the eccentricity eY = tw/2 can be neglected.7).1.7) The YOZ Plane is that of the gusset plate The XOZ Plane is that of the chord web Geometric data Gusset plate thickness Web thickness Angle between gusset and web Number of fillet welds Effective throat thickness Length of welds Material data tg = 15 mm tw = 7.1 EN 199318 4.7 Gusset plate to web chord – Details The basic assumption is that gusset plate transfers axial forces acting in its plane and in the direction of the member axes.5 mm a = 90° na = 2 a = Value to be defined Lw = 560 mm S355 fy = 355 N/mm2 fu = 510 N/mm2 EN 199311 Table 3.
6 kN = 609.6) All axial forces are applied in the gusset plate XOZ plane: Tension axial force at an angle to normal OY of 1 = 42°: N1.Ed N i sin( i ) i 1 3 and M g.1.2.Ed Ag M g.3° 2.Ed N i cos( i ) i 1 3 V g.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 5 of 44 Partial Factor Resistance of weld: M2 = 1. 2.Ed = 4.Ed Axial force at an eccentricity of eZ = 30 mm to the centreline of the gusset plate Vg. The gusset plate section is verified for the following forces: Ng.Ed is due to the local point load at the joint and the self weight of the truss.47 kN Mg.2. 2.25 (recommended value) EN 199318 Table 2.2.9 kN = 2.4(2) The approach is based on a linearelastic analysis that leads to a safe estimation of the resistance of the welded joint.2.Ed e Z N g.585 kNm Note: the high axial force component Ng.Ed = 674.Ed N2.Ed Ig v 5 .Ed = 406. Normal stress Assuming a uniform distribution of the load in the section.Ed .83 kN Vg.Ed = 152. Design forces in the gusset plate at the chord web face The effects of the small eccentricity eY from the chord axis will be neglected.84 .Ed shear force With: N g.4 kN Tension axial force on the normal OY so 2 = 0° Compression axial force at an angle to normal OY of 3 = 41.Ed N3. the moment resulting from the eccentricity.1 NOTE Internal forces in the truss members (see Figure B. M g.max N g.Ed Then: Ng. the normal stress is: g. Stresses in the gusset crosssection in front of welds EN 199318 2.
1. the directional method is applied.89. Design resistance of the fillet weld EN 199318 4. Here.3.02 N/mm2 2. 2.53 N/mm2 One usually checks the combination of axial and shear stresses in the gusset plate section using the Von Mises criterion.Ed Ag g = 77. The directional method is based on the comparison between the design tensile strength and the applied stress in the most severely loaded part of the weld throat. EN 199318 4.85 .1(1) The design resistance of a fillet weld should be determined using either the directional method or the simplified method. Directional method Note: a uniform distribution of stress is assumed in the throat section of the weld.2 EN 199318 4.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 6 of 44 Where: Ag Ig v With: is the crosssection area is the second moment of crosssection is the position of the end fibre Ag t g L w 15 580 = 8700 mm2 Ig t g L3 w 12 = 243. 2.3.5.106 mm4 v = 290 mm Then: g. being determined from a Von Mises formulation.5.5. The applied stress.3.max = 23. The simplified method is always safe compared to the directional method.2. accounts for the influence on the weld strength of the inclination of the resultant force per unit length to the weld axis and plane.2(4) With: the normal stress to the throat plane the shear stress (in the plane of throat) perpendicular to the axis of the weld the shear stress (in the plane of throat) parallel to the axis of the weld 5 . Shear stress The shear mean stress is: g Then: V g.3. The simplified method is based on the design shear strength of the weld to which is compared directly to an applied weld throat shear stress obtained by dividing the resultant force per unit of length b the weld throat size.3.3.
fu / M2) = max(a1.min .mm EN 199318 4.2(1) 5 .5. a minimum value for the effective throat thickness is derived.3.03 mm = 0.08 N/mm.min amin = a w / [ fu / (w M2)] = a / (0.mm g. EN 199318 4.5 ≤ fu / (w M2) ≤ 0. EN 199318 4.1 w = 0.max e g na sin( a / 2 ) = 122. 6 a) with leff = Lw – 2 a An effective throat thickness of 4 mm is then sufficient.44 N/mm. the force per unit length are: a = a = a = g.5.9 fu / M2 Where: w is the correlation factor for fillet weld EN 199318 Table 4.8 These conditions can be rewritten in the following forms: (a w) / a ≤ fu / (w M2) (a ) / a ≤ 0.3.min a2.max e g na g eg na = 581.2(6) The design resistance of the fillet weld will be sufficient if the following conditions are both fulfilled: w = [2+3 (2+2) ]0.2(2) 4.5.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 7 of 44 Note: the normal stress in the weld needs not to be considered.03 mm The following requirements must be satisfied: a 3 mm leff max(30 mm .86 . a2.5.33 mm = 2.mm cos( a / 2 ) = 122. a1.min) = 2.9 fu / M2 From these conditions.9 .08 N/mm.2(5) On the throat section of the weld.
87 .1 Thickness Length Width Angle members N1 N2 N3 two equalleg angles L15015015 one equalleg angle L10010010 two equalleg angles L15015015 5 . 16 41.3° 42° 15 260 N1 N3 320 N2 260 Figure B. These connections are shown in Figure B.9 kN = 2.8 Angles to gusset bolted connections This connection is composed of two backtoback doubleangle diagonal members (N1 and N3) and a single angle post member (N2).8.Ed = 406.Ed N3. Angles to gusset bolted connection Three shear connections are designed as Category C.Ed N2.1. The internal forces in the truss members are: N1. Basic Data S355 fy fu tg Lg Hg = 355 N/mm2 = 510 N/mm = 15 mm = 580 mm = 260 mm 2 Material data (except bolts) Steel grade Yield strength Ultimate tensile strength Gusset plate EN 199311 Table 3.4 kN tension axial force tension axial force compression axial force 3.6 kN = 609.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 8 of 44 3.
2.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 9 of 44 Bolted connections data Category of bolted connections Bolt Class Yield strength Ultimate tensile strength Nominal bolt diameter Hole diameter Category C Class 10.3° 260 1 = 42° 2 1 N3.9 fyb = 900 N/mm2 fub = 1000 N/mm2 d = 24 mm d0 = 26 mm EN 199318 Table 3.Ed 260 N1.Ed 320 N2.1 Partial Factors (Recommended values) Structural steel Structural steel Structural steel Bolts Bolts M0 = 1.9.25 M2 = 1.00 M1 = 1.2 NOTE 3.25 EN 199311 6.9 Location of the gross crosssections of the gusset plate Checking of gross crosssection 1 With Ag1 crosssectional area 1 Ag1 = Hg tg = 3900 mm2 5 .Ed Figure B.00 M2 = 1.1 NOTE 2B EN 199318 2.25 M3 = 1. Global checking of gross crosssections of the gusset plate The gross crosssections of the gusset plates to check are located on the Figure B. Note: The gross crosssections of the angles are verified afterward. 3 = 41.88 .
pl.Rd Ag2 f y M0 = 3088.15 kN V g2.Ed N g2. N 2. Connection N3 – Backtoback doubleangle diagonal member N3 to gusset bolted connection The shear connection in compression is designed as Category C.11.Ed cos 1 .47 kN i 1 V g2.50 kN N g1.pl.34 kN V g1.Ed sin( i ) = 674.47 kN i 1 3 N g1.Rd Ag1 f y M0 3 = 799.pl.pl.pl.Ed V g2.Rd OK Axial force resistance N g1.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 10 of 44 Shear resistance V g1.pl.pl.Rd OK 3.Ed max N 1.Ed V g1.89 .83 kN i 1 3 N g2.Ed N i.Rd OK Checking of gross crosssection 2 With Ag2 3 crosssectional area 2 Ag2 = Lg tg = 8700 mm2 Shear resistance V g2.Ed N i. 5 .10 and Figure B.Ed sin( i ) = 674. The sizes of the components and the positioning of the holes are shown on the Figure B.pl.Ed cos( i ) = 152.Rd Ag2 f y M0 3 = 1783.Ed cos 2 = 457.Ed N g1.Rd Ag1 f y M0 = 1384.82 kN V g1.Ed N i.3.Rd OK Axial force resistance N g2.5 kN N g2.
Title
Appendix B
Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset
11
of
44
33 141 67,5 35 99 65 57 67 G 65 172 C 90 76 124 65 57 60
C
Figure B.10 Connection N3 – Sizes (in mm) and positioning
1 15
42.5 57 60 33
1
Angles neutral axis
Figure B.11 Connection N3 – Section CC
3.3.1. With:
Connection N3 – Design forces N3,Ed Axial compression force at an eccentricity of eN3 to the centre of gravity of the joint
M3,N,Ed Bending moment resulting from the eccentricity, M3,N,Ed = eN3 N3,Ed. For the gusset: N3,g,Ed eN3 = 609,4 kN = 44,5 mm
M3,g,Ed = eN3 N3,g,Ed = 27,12 kNm
5  90
Title
Appendix B
Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset
12
of
44
For each angle: N3,a,Ed M3,a,Ed
3.3.2.
= 304,7 kN = 13,56 kNm
Connection N3 – Checking of angle
Resistance of gross crosssection Longitudinal stress
Assuming a uniform distribution of the load in the section, the longitudinal stress is:
i
N 3,a,Ed A3,a
M 3,a,Ed I 3,a v is the section area of the angle A3,a = 4302 mm2 is the second moment of area of angle I3,a = 8,981.106 mm4 position of considered end fibre (see Figure B.12) v1 = 87 mm v2 = 63 mm
Where: A3,a I3,a v
Then the normal stresses are:
1 = 202,18 N/mm2 (compression) 2 = 24,29 N/mm2 (tension)
N3,a,Ed
eN3 υ2 υ1
M3,a,Ed = eN3 N3,a,Ed
1
2
Tension Compression
Figure B.12 Stresses in the angle N3
5  91
Title
Appendix B
Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset
13
of
44
Class of section
h t 10 15 12 , 20
b h
2 t 10 11, 5 9 , 36
class 4
EN 199311 Table 5.2 Sheet 3 of 3 Table 5.2 Sheet 2 of 3
c t 7 , 93 10 / 10 / 1 8 ,14
class 2 Class of angle = class 4 N 3,a,Ed A3,a,eff M 3,a,Ed W 3,a,eff fy
Combination M + N
Criterion to satisfy: x,Ed with:
M0
EN 199311 6.2.9.3
A3,a,eff effective area of crosssection A3,a,eff A3,a,eff,leg1 A3,a,eff,leg2 where A3,a,eff,leg1 effective area relative to the “free” leg A3,a,eff,leg2 effective area relative to the “connected” leg determination of the effective area of crosssection A3,a,eff,leg1
1 1 = 1,0
buckling factor k = 0,43
EN 199315 Table 4.2 EN 199315 4.4 (2) EN 199315 Table 4.2 EN 199315 4.4 (2)
p = 0,660 2 1 = 0,120
=1
no reduction
determination of the effective area of crosssection A3,a,eff,leg2 buckling factor k = 2,55
p = 0,271
Verification
=1
no reduction
A3,a,eff A3,a (no reduction)
x,Ed max( 1 ; 2 ) 202 ,18
criterion satisfied
fy
M0
355 N/mm2
Resistance of net crosssection
From 6.2.5 (5) of EN 199311, the fastener holes in tension zone need not be EN 199311 6.2.5 (5) allowed for, provided that the following limit is satisfied for the complete tension zone:
A t,net 0 , 9 f u
M2
At f y
M0
5  92
a diffusion of 45° of the axial force Ng.a.3. 92 291. the holes are in the tension zone (see Figure B.93 . 7 N 3.a.eff A3. 5 3 / 12 29395706 mm 4 v 325 / 2 mm Then: x.a 4302 mm 2 : N 3. Accounting for A3. 5 t g 4297 .Rd 1527 .3.13).13 Connection N3 – Diffusion by 45° of the axial force The following criteria must be satisfied: x. 3.Rd A3.g. This condition has been verified in the section dealt with the verification of the members (see § 4 of this document). 5 mm 2 I 3. 286.a.a.g / v fy M0 A3.a .Ed with: N 3.g 286 . Connection N3 – Checking of gusset plate Resistance of crosssection For the determination of the gross crosssection of gusset plate.Ed A3.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 14 of 44 Here. 80 149 .c. 72 fy M0 355 N/mm 2 5 .a f y M0 With A3.Ed I 3.Ed 304 .Ed is assumed (see Figure B.5 112 45° 45° Figure B.g.c.g t g 286 .12).Ed N 3. the following criterion should be fulfilled: N 3.a.g M 3. 2 kN Buckling resistance A compression member should be verified against buckling.Ed 141.
49 0.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 15 of 44 Buckling resistance The gusset is made similar to an embedded column of characteristics: Area Height Second moment of area We should satisfy: N 3.739 N 3.Rd 1127 kN Connection N3 – Checking of bolts with regard to the gusset component EN 199318 Table 3.g. Also.Ed N 3.h N 3. v the normal force N3.3.Ed for each bolt Due to the orientation of the axial force N3.3.Ed.b.g.14).4 3) Design shear force FV.1. g 4297 . 2 2 = 0.2) 2 1 = 0. v located at the centre of gravity of the joint and oriented in agreement with the principal directions of the fasteners which are also the principal directions of the angles (See Figure B.5 1 0.846 Then: 3. 4 N 3. the slenderness is given by: 4hc2 Ac f y 2 EI c = 0.g.677 Table 6.Rd A3 .g.g.b.94 .Ed causes a horizontal shear load for each bolt bi: F N.4.3. 5 mm 2 hc = 112 mm (see Figure B.15).2 The buckling curve to use is curve c and the imperfection is: = 0. In first the components are calculated in the basis h . v to the basis h .1.bi.g f y M1 Where is the reduction factor for the relevant buckling curve With a buckling length of 2hc.13) EN 199311 6.1 Ic.57 kN 5 . v (see Figure B.Ed 5 = 101. the load on each bolt is not parallel to the edge of gusset.g. In the basis h . Then a change of basis is performed from the initial h .Ed 609 . the components of the design shear load will be performed in a suitable basis.zz = 80578 mm2 A3.1 EN 199311 6.
Ed Figure B.Ed FV.b1.v.b1.b6.g.95 .g.b6.b1.Ed b4 v b5 h b6 b3 G b2 b1 FV.b6 b6 FM.v’ b3 v’ h’ M3.h’ FM.a.14 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Locations FV.Ed ri ri 2 1 5 b4 b5 FN.Ed Figure B.h.Ed G b2 b1 FM.15 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Loadings 5 .bi M 1.b6 N3.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 16 of 44 The moment due to eccentricity is divided out according to the distance ri between the centre of bolts bi and the centre of gravity of the joint: FM.
bi. b1 81.h .h FM.25 30 86.06 92.bi FV.6) Table B. v : FM. v FV. v.v .61 98. v F N. And we obtain (see Table B. Transverse shear force. 5 .06 18.57 69.Ed Resulting shear force Connection N3 – Gusset component – Design shear forces in kN in the basis h .Ed The change of basis is performed with: FV.bi.63 18.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 17 of 44 This shear load FM.bi.49 135.61 98.03 135.h .2): FV.25 h i v i ri FM.bi.25 b2 16.45 101. 2 2 FV.35 b5 16.12 38.Ed FM.bi is resolved in the basis h .25 101. v .57 164.57 114.74 34.24 64.99 34.63 55.bi. v .25 101.99 34.bi.h M 1. v .a.Ed FV.2 Bolt Horizontal shear force. v .bi.Ed FV.bi.bi.Ed cos( 3 ) FV.96 .Ed FV.Ed sin( 3 ) Where 3 = 41.h . v .h .bi.bi FM.06 18.06 92.45 b6 81.bi.63 92.a.bi.34 34.bi.45 b3 48.Ed FV.12 38.bi.06 55.bi.06 55.24 64.35 101.bi.25 30 34.bi.50 55.57 146.25 30 86.50 92.bi.bi.25 30 34.34 34.45 101.h FM.h .Ed F N.h FV.Ed cos( 3 ) FV.35 101.74 34.Ed v i 5 horizontal component ri 2 1 FM.50 18.35 b4 48.Ed h i ri 2 1 5 vertical component With h i and v i coordinates of centre of bolt bi.3gives the results.31 67.98 67.3° (See Figure B.Ed Table B.30 67.Ed FV.88 135.75 30 57.57 136.57 87.h.bi.bi. v' M 1.75 30 57.Ed sin( 3 ) FV.
3 of EN 199318. These expressions bring into play two coefficients b and k 1 .Ed FV.Ed Design details The structure is not exposed to the weather or other corrosive influences.bi.bi.88 75.2 Design value 57 60 65 200 Maximum value Distance or spacing Design bearing resistance Fb. 200 mm EN 199318 Table 3.98 58. 4 d 0 max p 1 . p 2 1.41 38.54 b6 114. p2 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Design details Minimum value 31. 2 d 0 min p 1 .65 114.h.5 (1) and Table 3.36 b4 87.97 .17 FV.4 mine1.31 113. we have to satisfy the following checks: min e1 . The design details are verified in the table below.10 65.49 131. its location compared with the ends of the gusset but also with the location of the other bolts.4 of EN 199318 gives the expressions for the determination of the design bearing resistance. For each bolt the value of these coefficients depend on the orientation of its loading. v reference system b1 164. We have to verify the design details in the two directions of the components of loading.Rd for each bolt Table 3. And For p1 and p2 consider the spacing according to the directions Gh’ and Gv’.3 Bolt Connection N3 – Gusset component – Design shear loads in kN in the h . 2 d 0 if L 2 . Table B.Ed FV. p 2 2 .v. So we are considering successively the horizontal loading (loads in the direction Gh) and the vertical loading (loads in the direction Gv).03 20.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 18 of 44 Table B. e 2 1. 2 d 0 or min p 1 .2 31. e2 minp1.07 b3 146. p2 maxp1.3 For e1 and e2 observe the minimum end and edge distances according to the directions Gh and Gv.4 5 .97 87. p 2 min 14 t .bi.21 162.86 10.78 b2 136. EN 199318 Table 3. By considering the limits specified in Table 3.30 2.3 5) EN 199318 3.25 b5 69.
inner min 1. 7 . 0 3d 0 f u p e k 1. 7 .inner min p1 1 f . 8 2 1. we can specify for each bolt: the end and edge distances (e1 and e2) and the spacing (p1.1. p2 and L) to consider the type. 2 . 2 . 5 .Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 19 of 44 Horizontal loading The horizontal loading coming from the results of Table 3 is shown on the Figure B.16 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Horizontal loading The general expression for the design bearing resistance is: Fb. 5 d0 Table B. 4 2 1. 5 d0 d0 For inner bolts b. end or inner.6 gives the value of the horizontal component of the design bearing resistances Fb.end min e1 f ub .1. 2 . the coefficients b and k1 are determined from: For end bolts b. 4 2 1. 7 .4 According to Table 3. 0 3d 0 4 f u p k 1.16.bi.Rd k 1 b f u d t M2 EN 199318 Table 3.Rd. So. . ub . or end and inner b b b b6 b5 b4 b1 b2 b3 k1 k1 k1 k1 Figure B.4 of the Eurocode 199318. On this figure we indicate for each bolt how we are processing for the determination of its coefficients b and k 1 .98 .h.end min 1.
Rd 1) 2) 165.min 1.99 .19 the distance L have been retained min65.17 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Vertical loading Table B.62 b. 5 .inner 1.end Vertical loading The vertical loading coming from the results of Table 3 is shown on the Figure B.inner 0.inner 0.19 k 1.80 3) Fb .min 1.19 165.24 65 2) b3 76 68.19 165.inner 0.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 20 of 44 Table B.inner 0.h .19 165.Rd.80 3) k 1.62 b.inner 0.bi. L 3) k1.min 1.v.min 1.80 3) k 1.80 165.80 165.inner 0.24 65 2) b4 b5 b6 90 68.62 b.17 k1 k1 k1 b6 b5 b4 b1 b2 b3 b b b b Figure B.6 gives the value of the vertical component of the design bearing resistances Fb.24 65 2) 68.inner 1.inner .5 Bolt e1 e2 p1 1) Connection N3 – Gusset component – Horizontal component of the design bearing resistances in kN b1 172 68.80 3) k 1. k1.62 k 1.24 65 2) 68.19 k 1.24 65 b2 124 68.24 65 p2 b k1 b.min min k1.62 b.bi .62 b.
inner 1.Rd 2 2 EN 199318 Table 3.inner 0.58 b.v .5 Class of friction surfaces = Class A Then: FS.24 b k1 b.16 k 1.58 b.16 k 1.min 1. v.16 3) k 1.bi.bi.7 EN 199318 3.1 (2) EN 199318 Table 3.bi.bi .100 .bi.Ed FS.16 3) k 1.Rd Note: an additional check based on an interactive expression is proposed: FV.Ed F b.inner 0.inner 0.1 kN n And by considering: Bolts in normal holes = 2 number of the friction surfaces relatively to the gusset ks = 1.inner 0.inner 1.0 = 0.min min k1.00 k 1.68 kN Checking bolts – Individual checking The criteria to satisfy are: In relation to the design slip resistance FV.97 169.Rd With: As = 353 mm 2 tensile stress area of the bolt pretension force EN 199318 3.Rd In relation to the design bearing resistance FV.bi. v.9 EN 199318 3.58 b.bi.Ed Fb.97 169.58 b.inner .h.Ed Fb.Ed F b.6 Bolt e1 e2 p1 p2 2) Connection N3 – Gusset component – Vertical component of the design bearing resistances in kN b1 b2 b3 b4 141 65 68.1 (1) Fp.Rd FV.58 b.97 289.end Design slip resistance Fs.24 68.98 Fb .Rd k s n M3 Fp.2 EN 199318 Table 3.inner 1.24 65 1) b5 99 65 1) b6 90 57 68.4 3) 1 5 .Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 21 of 44 Table B. Rd 1) 2) 3) min65.24 65 1) 65 1) 68.C 0 .bi.h.97 169.6 Table 3. v.97 169.9. L the distance L have been retained k1. k1.bi.h. v.Rd F V.bi. 7 f ub As = 247.2 and Table 3.C = 197.min 1.16 k 1.97 169.h.24 68.9.24 68.inner 0.end 1.min 3) 1.
h. Ed sin( 3 ) 402 .Ed FV.Ed FV.Rd nbi minFb.Rd Fb.Rd 1 v f ub A M2 By considering that the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt in normal holes: v A = 0.b1.17 kN N 3 .b.101 .bi.v.Ed F b.Rd = 141.Rd = 1014.b.7 summarizes only the checks for the bolt b1.Rd 1014 .b1. the shear resistance per shear plane. 21 < F gr.v.b1.h.h.03 20.94 1 Checking bolts – Group of fasteners From the Eurocode.Rd 2 2 0. 82 < F gr. the design resistance of a group of fasteners may be taken EN 199318 3.b1.b. Table B. g .b.bi.19 169.68 165.7 as: Fgr.Rd 991.b1.Ed Fb.7 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Checking bolt b1 Resistance values 164.Rd Fb.b1.h.bi. Rd .b1.Rd Fb.b1.b1.16 Design values FV. Table B.Rd FV.12 kN Then: Finally for the design resistance we obtain: F gr.v. g . 94 kN 5 . The highest values of resistance do not necessary correspond with the bolt the most loaded.h.78 197.h.h.Rd Fb.b.Rd if for each bolt bi we have F v.Rd = 991.Rd F V.5 = As= 353 mm2 (tensile stress area) F v.v.Rd Where Fv . Ed cos( 3 ) 457 .94 kN for the vertical components And we verify that: N 3 .v.17 kN for the horizontal components F gr.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 22 of 44 Each bolt has to be verified.Rd n bi else Fgr.21 162. is taken as: F v.b.Ed FS.
Ed and FV.75 27.Ed FV. Table B.Ed b3 b6 v h M3. v .23 b3 73.bi.b6.Ed for each bolts Table B.Ed FV. p2 Determination of the design bearing resistance Fb.bi.bi.16 33.h.Ed Design details The design details are verified in the table below.13 FV.8 gives the results of the design ultimate shear load FV.b6. e2 minp1 .Ed Figure B.102 .81 27.99 33.18 Connection N3 – Angle component – Loading Table B. v.Ed and its components FV.8 is shown on the Figure B.v.01 67.65 33.3.75 46.81 9.h.bi.68 b4 43.Ed FV.Ed G b2 b1 N3.24 67.Rd for each bolts Horizontal loading The horizontal loading coming from the results of Table B. Connection N3 – Checking bolts with regard to the angle component Determination of the design ultimate shear load FV.68 b5 34.19 5 .v.5.18).a.2 Design value 33 60 65 200 Maximum value Distance or spacing mine1 .75 9.Ed FV.9 Connection N3 – Angle component – Design details Minimum value 31.b6.bi.a. These results are deduced from the results obtained for the gusset in the basis h .Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 23 of 44 3.13 b2 68. p2 maxp1 .Ed (See Figure B. b4 b5 FV.81 46.8 Bolt Connection N3 – Angle component – Design shear loads in kN b1 82.44 67.23 b6 57.2 31.bi.h.
inner .24 65 68.8 is shown on the Figure B.bi .97 169.bi.103 .85 158.inner 0.84 2) k 1.97 169.58 b.24 65 68.inner 0.85 158.min 1.58 b.min min k1.min 1.end Vertical loading The vertical loading coming from the results of Table B.24 33 65 68.84 2) Fb . k1.58 b.24 33 65 68.16 k 1.58 b.10 Bolt e1 e2 p1 p2 1) 65 68.97 169.20 5 .Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 24 of 44 k1 b4 k1 b5 k1 b6 b2 b3 b b b1 Figure B.58 b.19 Connection N3 – Angle component – Horizontal loadings Table B.min 1.inner 0.24 Connection N3 – Angle component – Horizontal component of the design bearing resistances in kN b1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b k1 b.inner 0.Rd.h .58 k 1.inner 1.inner 0.inner 0.84 2) k 1.85 158.16 k 1.inner 1. Table B.24 33 65 68.h.inner 1.10 gives the value of the horizontal component of the design bearing resistances Fb.16 k 1. Rd 1) 2) the distance L have been retained k1.
Table B.24 65 b2 b3 b4 67.11 gives the value of the vertical component of the design bearing resistances Fb.24 65 68.62 b.5 68.24 65 68.Rd.Rd For the angle component.42 k 1.80 111.84 kN Checking bolts – Individual checking Each bolt has to be verified.80 111.inner 1. the number of the friction surfaces is equal to 1.19 165.24 65 68. Table B.62 b.80 2) k 1.inner 0.85 k 1. So with n = 1 we obtain: FS.C = 98.24 65 68.62 b.1 (2) M3 Fp.inner 0.inner 0. Rd 1) 2) 165.19 the distance L have been retained k1.end 0. 5 .12 summarizes only the checks for the bolt b1.11 Bolt e1 e2 p1 1) Connection N3 – Angle component – Vertical component of the design bearing resistances in kN b1 35 68.80 165.9 EN 199318 3.min 1.104 .80 2) k 1.v .min mink1.bi .end Determination of the design slip resistance Fs.62 b.inner .9.19 k 1.inner 1.80 165.42 b.end 0.85 Fb .v.24 65 b5 33 b6 33 p2 b k1 b.inner 1.min 1.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 25 of 44 b b4 k1 k1 b b5 b1 b b6 b2 b3 Figure B.bi.Rd k s n EN 199318 3. k1.inner 0.20 Connection N3 – Angle component – Vertical loading Table B.19 k 1.inner 1.
h.v.01 67.b1. the design plastic resistance of the net crosssection at bolt holes should be verified only for a connection in tension.Ed FV.3.Rd Fb.Rd Fb.84 169.b1. 3.Rd FV.3.b1.Ed FS.24 1 Checking bolts .a .105 .6. The sizes of the components of this connection and the positioning of the holes are shown on the Figure B. EN 199318 3. The section DD is identical to the section CC of the connection N3 (See Figure B. 5 .b1. Connection N1 – Backtoback doubleangle diagonal member N1 to gusset bolted connection We have a shear connection in tension to be designed as Category C.Rd 2 2 0.Group of fasteners For the angle we can consider only the horizontal component.4.19 Design values FV.Ed F b.4.b1.Rd = 991.Ed Fb.v.17 kN And we verify that: N 3 .Rd 953 .16 165.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 26 of 44 Table B. 03 kN 3.h.Rd F V.b1.b1.12 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Checking bolt b1 Resistance values 82.b. 70 < F gr. In this case: F gr.b1.h.h.v.b1.Ed FV. Connection N3 – Design of net crosssection For a connection in tension.13 98. Connection N3 – Design of block tearing Given that this connection is in compression it is not necessary to execute the design for block tearing. Ed 304 .1 (1) c) 3.h.81 46.v.11).21.7.b.h.
21 Connection N1 – Sizes (in mm) and positioning 3.a v 5 .N.a.a.Ed I 1.a.Ed the normal tension force at an eccentricity of eN1.9 kN = 44.4.a M 1.Ed A1.5 G 65 54 57 80 D 124 76 D Figure B. the longitudinal stress is: i N 1.g.2.Ed M1.Ed the moment resulting from the eccentricity. M1.Ed = eN1 N1.g.Ed = eN1 N1.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 27 of 44 33 60 35 65 67.05 kNm Connection N1 – Checking of angle Resistance of gross crosssection Longitudinal stress Assuming an uniform distribution of the load on the section.45 kN = 9. We have for the gusset: N1.Ed = 18.a.g.5 mm M1.Ed eN1 = 406. = 203.11 kNm And for each angle: N1. to the centre of gravity of the joint M1.Ed 3.N. Connection N1 – Design forces With: N1.1.106 .Ed.4.
106 mm4 v1 = 87 mm and v2 = 63 mm (see Figure B.a = 4302 mm2 I1.22 N/mm2 Class of section h t 10 15 12 .a = 8.2 Sheet 2 of 3 class 4 c t 7 .a v crosssectional area of angle second moment of crosssection of angle position of considered end fibre With: A1.981.14 class 2 Class of angle = class 4 N1.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 28 of 44 Where: A1.2 Sheet 3 of 3 Table 5.Ed eN1 G M1.Ed = eN1 N1.Ed 2 Compression 1 Traction Figure B. 20 b h 2 t 10 11. 36 EN 199311 Table 5.99 N/mm2 2 = 16. 93 10 / 10 / 1 8 .a.107 .a I1.a.a.22 Stresses in the angle N1 5 . 5 9 .22) We obtain (with compression positive): 1 = 134.
a.a.2 EN 199315 4.eff A1.a.9.23 Net crosssections of angle N1 5 .Ed with: N 1.leg1 effective area relative to the “free” leg A1.eff. 2 ) 134 .leg1 A1.120 buckling factor k = 2.eff.4 (2) p = 0.a.108 .a.2.Ed A1.271 Verification =1 no reduction A1.2.a.eff effective area of crosssection A1.eff.eff.eff M 1.eff fy M0 A1.a.leg2 effective area relative to the “connected” leg determination of the effective area of crosssection A3.leg1 No reduction because “free” leg in traction determination of the effective area of crosssection A3.a.a.Ed max( 1 .a.leg2 2 1 = 0.3 where A1.leg2 EN 199311 6.eff A1.Ed N 1.a (no reduction) x. 99 fy M0 355 criterion satisfied Resistance of net crosssection We should satisfy: N 1.a.net.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 29 of 44 Combination M + N Criterion to satisfy: x.a. (1) and (4) The net crosssections considered are shown on the Figure B.a.Rd A1.a.net f y M0 EN 199311 6.3.eff.a.a.55 EN 199315 Table 4.Ed W1.eff.23 1 2 2 1 2 Figure B.
3.Ed (see Figure B.Ed 203 . the load on each bolt is not parallel to the edge of gusset.net 2 ) min( 3912 . By consequent the components of the design shear load parallel and normal to the end will be performed.net. 45 N 1. A1 .g 195 t g 2925 mm 2 I 3. 52 kN 3.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 30 of 44 With: A1. 62 3.Ed I 1.g M 1.24). 3588 ) 3588 mm 2 we satisfy: N 1.g. Checking of gusset Resistance of crosssection For the determination of the gross crosssection of gusset. M0 355 N/mm 2 Connection N1 – Checking of bolts with regard to the gusset component EN 199318 Table 3.a.a .Rd 1317 .24 Connection N1 – Diffusion by 45° of the internal force The following criteria must be satisfied: x.4 3) Determination of the design ultimate shear load FV.4.Ed for each bolts Due to the orientation of the normal force N1.a.Ed A1.net min( A1 .109 .11 190 .Ed 139 . we use an approach based on a diffusion of 45° of the internal force Ng.4.g t g 195 3 / 12 9268594 mm 4 v 195 / 2 mm fy We obtain: x.a .Ed.4.g / v fy M0 A1. 195 45° 45° Figure B.g. 5 .net 1 . 51 329 .a.Ed with: N 1.
b2 N1. We calculate the components in the basis h .24 116.bi. v .g.bi.35 40.39 101.13 101.Ed FV.13 101.Ed FV.b2 FM.56 61.16 99.73 190. b3 v’ b1 G M1.bi.39 101.73 166.26).25). v (see Figure B.v’.13 gives the calculations and the results of the design ultimate shear load FV.12 69.Ed h’ b4 FM.4).Ed for each bolt bi in the h .) then in the basis h .25 30 34.16 33.16 33.25 30 34.bi.24 116.b2.bi.bi FV.12 69.70 61.110 .75 30 57.89 99.75 30 57.Ed Figure B. Table B.82 162.13 h i v i ri FM.Ed and FV.70 61.73 52.56 99.89 33.h .56 61.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 31 of 44 The calculation of the components is performed in the same way as for connection N3 (see 3. v reference system.Ed 5 . b1 16.56 33.22 162.g.Ed and its two components FV.73 107.13 b2 48.bi.39 b4 16. v reference system.h’ FN.37 40.bi.v’ b2 FM.25 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Locations Table B.bi FM.13 Bolt Connection N1 – Gusset component – Design shear loads in kN in the h .h’.b2.16 99.bi.3.h FM.39 b3 48. v (see Figure B. v F N.
Title
Appendix B
Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset
32
of
44
b3
FV,b3,Ed b1
v G h FV,b1,Ed b2
b4 FV,b4,Ed
FV,b2,Ed
Figure B.26 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Loadings
The change of basis is performed with:
FV,bi,h,Ed FV,bi,h ,Ed cos( 3 ) FV,bi, v ,Ed sin( 3 ) FV,bi,v,Ed FV,bi,h ,Ed sin( 1 ) FV,bi, v ,Ed cos( 1 )
Where 1 = 42° (See Figure B.6) Table B.14 gives the results.
Table B.14
Bolt
Connection N1 – Gusset component – Design shear loads in kN in the h , v reference system.
b1 166,22 84,37 143,22 b2 190,82 182,86 54,54 b3 107,35 46,72 96,65 b4 52,37 51,76 7,97
FV,bi,Ed FV,bi,h,Ed FV,bi, v,Ed
Design details
The design details are verified in the table below. For e1 and e2 we observe the minimums end and edge distances according to the appropriate direction (Gh or Gv). For p1 and p2 we consider the spacing according to the principal direction of the joint (Gh’ or Gv’).
Table B.15 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Design details
Design value 54 60 65 200 Maximum value 31,2 31,2
Distance or spacing Minimum value
min e1 ; e 2 min p 1 ; p 2 max p 1 ; p 2
5  111
Title
Appendix B
Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset
33
of
44
Determination of the design bearing resistance Fb,Rd for each bolts Horizontal loading
The horizontal loading coming from the results of Table B.14 is shown on the Figure B.27
b3
b
b4
b1
b
b
b2 k1 k1
Figure B.27 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Horizontal loading
Table B.16 gives the value of the horizontal component of the design bearing resistances Fb,bi,h,Rd.
Table B.16
Bolt e1 e2 p1 p2 124 65 1) 65
1)
Connection N1 – Gusset component – Horizontal component of the design bearing resistances in kN
b1 b2 80 76 65 65
1)
b3
b4 54
65 1)
65 1)
b
k1
b,inner
0,58
b,end
1,00
b,inner
0,58
3)
b,end
0,69
k 1,min
1,80 154,22
3)
k 1,min
1,80 264,38
k 1,inner
1,80 154,22
k 1,inner
1,80 183,04
Fb,bi,h,Rd
1)
min65; L
2)
k1,min min k1,inner ; k1,end
5  112
Title
Appendix B
Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset
34
of
44
Vertical loading
The vertical loading coming from the results of Table B.14 is shown on the Figure B.28.
b3
k1 b4
b1
k1
b2
k1
b
b
Figure B.28 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Vertical loading
Table B.17 gives the value of the vertical component of the design bearing resistances Fb,bi,v,Rd.
Table B.17
Bolt e1 e2 p1 p2 65 1) 65
Connection N1 – Gusset component – Vertical component of the design bearing resistances in kN
b1 124 b2 76 80 98 65 1) 65 54 65 1) 65 1) b3 b4
b
k1
b,end
1,00
b,end
0,97
b,inner
0,58
b,inner
0,58
k 1,inner
1,80 264,38
k 1,min 2)
1,80 257,60
k 1,min 2)
1,80 154,22
k 1,min 2)
1,80 154,22
Fb ,bi ,v , Rd
1)
min65; L
2)
k 1 ,min min k 1,inner ; k 1,end
5  113
5 = As= 353 mm2 (tensile stress area) = 141.v.v.v.h.v.86 54.9.Ed F b.68 264.b1.19 FS. Table B.60 Design values FV.Ed FV.68 154.b1.b1.Rd Fb.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 35 of 44 Determination of the design slip resistance Fs.b1.v.22 84.b1.59 1 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Checking bolt b2 Resistance values 190.Rd k s n EN 199318 3.1 (1) M3 Fp.h.b1.h.Ed F b.b1.h.68 kN Checking bolts – Individual checking Each bolt has to be verified.v.Rd 2 2 0.82 182.37 143.9 EN 199318 3.Ed F b.b1.Rd Fb.Rd 2 0.b1.Rd = 0.Rd Table B.Ed FV.Rd F V.Rd F V.Ed FV.22 197.18 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Checking bolt b1 Resistance values 166.h.Rd With n = 2.Rd Fb.19 summarize only the checks for the bolt b1 and b2.b1.v.12 kN We obtain: 5 .54 197.b1.b1.b1.h.C = 197.38 Design values FV.v.b1.114 .b1.18 and Table B.Ed FV.h.b1.Ed F b.Ed FV.b1.Rd Fb.52 1 Checking bolts – Group of fasteners By considering that the shear plane passes through the threaded portion of the bolt in normal holes: v A F v.b1. the number of the friction surfaces relatively to the gusset.Rd 2 FS. Table B.Ed FV.h.22 264. we obtain: FS.38 257.
Ed G M1.11 81.b3. g .h. 90 kN N 1 .Ed Design details The design details are verified in the table below. FV.44 16.v.b1. 39 < F gr. Connection N1 – Checking bolts with regard to the angle component Determination of the design ultimate shear load FV.115 .Ed h b1 FV. 27 < F gr. Ed sin( 1 ) 272 .bi.Ed and FV.70 b3 53.bi.bi.67 20.57 b2 95.h.Rd 616 .a.Rd = 616.Ed (See Figure B.Ed b3 FV. v.Ed b2 N1.Ed v FV. 90 kN 3.5.b.b4.19 20.b2.bi.Ed and its components FV.h.b.Ed FV.Ed b4 Figure B.57 FV.20 gives the results of the design ultimate shear load FV.bi.v. Ed cos( 1 ) 302 .28 16.Ed for each bolts Table B.28 49.a.b.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 36 of 44 And for the design resistance: F gr.90 kN for the horizontal components = 616.20 Bolt Connection N1 – Angle component – Design shear loads in kN b1 83.Rd 616 .41 81. These results are deduced from the results obtained for the gusset in the basis h .bi.Ed FV. 5 . g .44 49.4.h.90 kN for the vertical components And we verify that: N 1 .b.Rd F gr.29).29 Connection N1 – Angle component – Loading Table B.h. v .70 b4 26.
2 Distance or spacing Minimum value min e1 . p 2 Determination of the design bearing resistance Fb.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 37 of 44 Table B.20 is shown on the Figure B.Rd.21 Connection N1 – Angle component – Horizontal loading – Design details Design value 33 60 65 200 200 Maximum value 31. 5 .2 57.30 Connection N1 – Angle component – Horizontal loadings Table B.Rd for each bolts Horizontal loading The horizontal loading coming from the results of Table B.22 gives the value of the horizontal component of the design bearing resistances Fb.30 b k1 b b3 k1 b4 b1 b2 Figure B. p 2 max p 1 .bi. e 2 min p 1 .116 .h.
97 250.inner 0.min 1.bi.58 b.min 1.95 k 1.end 0.inner 0.end Vertical loading The vertical loading coming from the results of Table 20 is shown on the Figure B.97 169.24 b2 b3 35 33 33 65 68.45 b. k1.24 b4 b k1 b.117 .31 Connection N1 – Angle component – Vertical loading Table B.18 158.24 68.min mink1.5 65 68.22 Bolt e1 e2 p1 p2 1) Connection N1 – Angle component – Horizontal component of the design bearing resistances in kN b1 67.87 b.v.24 68.inner .85 2) k 1.85 2) Fb. 5 .bi.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 38 of 44 Table B.end 0.31 k1 k1 b3 b1 b4 b2 Figure B.inner 1.16 k 1.Rd.58 k 1.Rd 1) 2) 122.23 gives the value of the vertical component of the design bearing resistances Fb.h.84 the distance L have been retained k1.inner 1.
24 65 68.80 165.b1.h.end 0.41 81.h.inner 0.Rd 488 .bi.h.5 68.42 b.h.45 < F gr.85 the distance L have been retained k1.118 .Rd N1.19 k 1.Ed FV.Rd k s n EN 199318 3.Rd F V.16 165. 73 kN 5 .b1.19 Design values FV.44 49.Rd Fb.b.min 1.23 Bolt e1 e2 p1 p2 1) Connection N1 – Angle component – Vertical component of the design bearing resistances in kN b1 67.b1.v.80 165.62 b.h.84 169. Table B. Ed = 488.Rd 2 FS.9.v.62 k 1.b1.min min k1.inner 1.Ed F b.70 98. So with n = 1 we obtain: FS.24 65 65 b2 b3 33 35 68.inner 0.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 39 of 44 Table B.a .b1.Rd Fb. k1.v.b1.end Determination of the design slip resistance Fs.1 (2) M3 Fp.b.24 65 b4 b k1 b.73 kN And we verify that: 203.19 Fb.inner .min 1.inner 1.80 2) k 1.h.62 b.Rd For the angle component.32 1 Checking bolts – Group of fasteners For the angle we can consider only the horizontal component: F gr. Table B.b1.24 summarizes only the checks for the bolt b2.Ed FV.Ed F b.b1.inner 0.9 EN 199318 3.v.80 2) k 1.h.19 111.Ed FV.24 Connection N1 – Angle component – Checking bolt b2 Resistance values 95.84 kN Checking bolts – Individual checking Each bolt has to be verified.Rd 2 0.C = 98.b1. the number of the friction surfaces is equal to 1.Rd 1) 2) 165.
32 Connection N1 – Block tearing for gusset Our bolt group is subjected to eccentric loading and we have to satisfy: N 1. the design of the net crosssections have to be verified.g.6.g.4.g.4.10.119 .2 Gusset component The Figure B.2 Gusset component For a connection in tension. Verify on the net crosssection marked 1 on the Figure B.7. Connection N1 – Design of net crosssection EN 199318 3. For this section. Moreover these checking have been realised with NEd in loco nb FV.Rd EN 199318 3. Connection N1 – Design for block tearing EN 199318 3.4.Ed n bt 203 .32 shows the block tearing for the gusset.g.4. 3.1 (1) c) and Table 3. 4 Anet1 f y With We satisfy: M0 778 kN Angle component We have been already verified the net crosssection (see 3.2.Ed. we have to satisfy: nb N 1.Ed n bt Anet1 f y M0 Where n b 2 number of bolts relative to the crosssection n bt 4 total number of the connection Anet 1 2194 mm2 nb N 1.10.Ed Figure B.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 40 of 44 3. Anv Ant Anv 1 1 Anv Anv 1 N1.32.Ed V eff.2 (3) 5 .2).
10. 5 .Rd With 0 . 4 kN Angle component The Figure B.Ed V eff.2.Ed 406 .Ed Anv Ant Anv Ant Figure B.a.120 .5 mm2 EN 199318 3. Given that the loading is low.1 mm2 We satisfy: N 1.2.5.Rd Ant = 933.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 41 of 44 Where V eff. 5 f u Ant M2 1 f y Anv 3 M0 Ant = 633. 45 V eff.Rd 853 .33 Connection N1 – Block tearing for angle Our bolt group is subjected to eccentric loading and we have to satisfy: N 1.Ed 203 . the checking of this connection is not carry out.6 mm2 Anv = 3533.33 shows the block tearing for the gusset.g. Otherwise the procedure stays the same with in addition the following point.2. 91 kN 3.2 (3) With We satisfy: N 1.6 mm2 Anv = 1402. Connection N2 – Single angle post member N2 to gusset bolted connection We have a shear connection in tension to be designed as Category C. 9 V eff. N1.a.2.g.Rd 407 .
Influences of the eccentricity and other parameters We consider only the bolts with regard to the gusset component. 78 kN (value with moment due to eccentricity) Connection N3 – Influence of number of bolts and spacing p1 Reduce the number of bolts from 6 to 5 by suppression of bolt marked b6 (see Figure B.Ed 20 .Ed 101.v.v.Ed 76 . 5 . the design ultimate resistance should be determined as follows: N u. 3.b. v : FV.2.6.Ed 67 .b. And two bolts (b1 and b3) do not again satisfy to the criteria relative to the design bearing resistances (see tables below). Lets the moment due to the eccentricity equal to 0.b.Ed 164 .Ed 162 . 57 kN (value without moment due to eccentricity) FV.b.14). Connection N3 – Moment due to eccentricity The effects of the eccentricity depend of the locations of the bolts comparatively with the neutral axis but also to each other. 03 kN (value without moment due to eccentricity) FV.121 .3 (2) and Table 3. During the checking of the net crosssection of this angle.6. 03 kN (value with moment due to eccentricity) FV. Even if the moment due to eccentricity decrease.1. 30 kN (value without moment due to eccentricity) Values to compare at the results obtained for the bolt b1: FV.h. 5 d 0 ) EN 199318 3.Rd 2 Anet f u M2 With 2 0 .8 3.10. In this case and whatever the bolt we obtain in the basis h .b.b.h. the design shear loads per bolt increase. 4 ( p 1 65 2 .6. 3. 21 kN (value with moment due to eccentricity) FV. This modification modifies the location of the centre of gravity of the bolt group.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 42 of 44 We are dealing with a single angle in tension by a single row of bolts in one leg.
25).Ed FS.10 65.h.b1.06 28.16 Design values Total number of bolts FV.49 131.Rd 3.25 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Bolt b1 – Reduction of total number of bolts Resistance values 6 164.16 Design values Total number of bolts FV.h.78 5 189.b1.Ed FV.Ed FV.v.74 177. Connection N1 – Influence of number of bolts Reduce the number of bolts from 4 to 3 by suppression of bolt marked b3 (see Figure B.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 43 of 44 Table B.Ed FV.Ed Table B.h.Rd Fb.50 Design values FV.68 165.68 225.43 187.v.h.21 162.6.b1.76 182.v.Ed FV. So all the bolts satisfy the criteria.b1.Rd Fb.b1. The moment due to eccentricity decrease whereas the design shear loads per bolt increase.68 165.75 197.Ed FS.v.Rd Connection N3 – Gusset component – Bolt b3 – Reduction of total number of bolts Resistance values 6 146. Look for example the results for bolt b1.b1.b1.62 197.36 197.40 52.b1.Ed FV.b1.b1.19 169.03 20.Rd At this stage.19 169.Rd Fb.122 .b1.36 5 189.b1.v.27 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Bolt b1 – Increasing of spacing p1 to 75 mm Resistance values 180.b1. And two bolts (b1 and b2) do not again satisfy to the criteria relative to the design bearing resistances (see tables below).3.70 220.Rd Fb.b1. increase the value of the spacing p1 from 65 to 75 mm. Table B. 5 .Rd Fb.Rd Fb.v.h.b1.26 FS.76 28.h.Ed FV.
22 264.v.Ed FS.37 143.v.h.60 Design values Total number of bolts FV.b1.b1.25 214.b1.Title Appendix B Worked Example: Design of a truss node with gusset 44 of 44 Table B.b1.86 54.Rd In order to satisfy the criteria we need to increase the value of the spacing p1 from 65 to a minimum of 101 mm.Rd 5 .b1.b1.38 257.h.Rd Fb.v.h. Look for example the results for bolt b1.52 79.38 197.30 Connection N3 – Gusset component – Bolt b1 – Increasing of spacing p1 to 101 mm Resistance values 197.v.b1.Ed FV.Ed Table B.b1.b1. Table B.19 57.29 FS.82 182.h.68 264.b1.Ed FV.Rd Connection N1 – Gusset component – Bolt b2 – Reduction of total number of bolts Resistance values 4 190.22 3 222.b1.Rd Fb.Rd Fb.Ed FS.Ed FV.Rd Fb.28 Connection N1 – Gusset component – Bolt b1 – Reduction of total number of bolts Resistance values 4 166.33 197.68 154.19 207.69 197.Ed FV.123 .68 Design values FV.38 Design values Total number of bolts FV.22 84.54 3 222.
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