Pneumatic Systems

Operation, maintenance, troubleshooting

Prolific Systems & Technologies Pvt Ltd

PNEUMATICS
Pneumatics is the system of fluid power that transmits and controls energy through the use of pressurised gas. Fluid power: the transmission of force by the movement of a fluid. Why Automation Is Required? In order to increase the productivity, industries are spending more and more on automation. This can be accomplished by: Speed up of production process Material handling Manufacturing processes Safety of Personnel

Fluid Power:
The fluid power is a backbone of automation. It offers the following advantages: With the application of smaller force at one point within the system, a force of several hundred tonnes can be produced at some other location efficiently. With the use of simple levers and knobs the fluid power system can be started, stopped, speed up, slow down the operations easily and accurately. The fluid power system provides a constant torque or force irrespective of the change in the speed.

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What Can Pneumatics Do? The applications for compressed air are limitless. Operation of system valves for air, water or chemicals. Operation of heavy or hot doors. Crop spraying and operation of other tractor equipments. Lifting and moving in slab moulding machine. Spray painting. Soft welding machines Riveting Bottling and filling machines Wood working machinery drives and feeds Test rigs Machine tool, work or tool feeding Components and material conveyor transfer Pneumatic robots Vacuum lifting of thin sheets Dental drills And much more…

Properties of Compressed Air:
Some important reasons for the wild use of compressed air in industry are: Availability: Most factories and industrial plants have a compressed air supply in working areas and portable compressors can serve more remote situations. Storage: It is easily stored in large volumes if required. Simplicity of design of control: Pneumatic components are of simple design and are easily fitted to provide extensive automated systems with comparatively simple control. Choice of movement: It offers both linear movement and angular rotation with simple and continuously variable operational speeds. Economy: Installation is of relatively low cost due to modest component cost. There is also a low maintenance cost due to long life without service. Reliability: Pneumatic components have a long working life resulting In high system reliability. Environmentally clean: It is clean and with proper exhaust air treatment
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and can be installed to clean room standards. Safety: It is not a fire hazard in high-risk areas and the system is unaffected by overload as actuators simply stall or slip. Pneumatic actuators do not produce heat.

The Basic Pneumatic System:
Basic pneumatic system consists of two main sections. The air production and distribution system The air consuming system

The Pneumatic System:
The system uses the compressed air as working fluid. An air compressor can be driven by IC engine or electric motor, sucks an air from the atmosphere and compresses it to high pressure (more than the atmospheric pressure). The compressed air is supplied through a pipe to the cylinder via Filter, Regulator, lubricator and DC valves.

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Air Production System:
Compressor: Air taken in at atmospheric pressure is compressed and delivered at high pressure to the pneumatic system. It transforms mechanical energy into pneumatic energy Electric motor: Supplies the mechanical power to the compressor. It transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy Pressure switch: Controls the electric motor by sensing the pressure into the tank. It is set to a max pressure at which it stops the motor and min pressure at which it restarts the electric motor. Check valve: Lets the compressed air from the compressor into the tank and prevents it leaking back when the compressor is stopped. Tank: Stores the compressed air. Its size is defined by the capacity of the compressor. The larger the volume the longer the intervals between compressor runs. Pressure gauge: Pressure gauge indicates the tank pressure. Auto drain: Drains all the water condensed in the tank without supervision.

The Air Consuming System:
Air take-off: For consumption, the air is taken off from the top of the main pipe to allow occasional condensate to stay in the line, when it reaches a low point a water from beneath the pipe will flow in to an automatic drain and the condensate will be removed. Auto drain: Every descending tube should have a drain at its lowest point. The most efficient method is an auto drain, which prevents water from remaining in the tube. Air service unit: Conditions the compressed air to provide clean air at optimum pressure and occasionally adds lubricants to increase the life of all those components that need lubrication.
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308 0.06102 0.5 0.4516 0.155 1. Speed controllers: Allows an easy and step less speed adjustment of the actuator movement.8 10.03531 35.inch (psi) 6 .094 0.281 1.06895 Volume flow Force pressure m³n/min scfm dm³n /min scfm (l/min) N pound force (lbf) bar lbf.0929 6.4484 0.388 28.205 0. ft Factor M e 2.inch cu.31 0. Non metric units: Magnitude Mass Length Metric unit (m) Kg g M M Mm English (e) pound ounce foot yard inch °F sq.76 0. Actuator: Transfers the potential energy of the compressed air into mechanical work.sq. inch cu.914 25.2248 14. ft sq.3048 0.32 0.03527 3.02832 28.8 °C +32 (°F – 32)/1.03937 Factor e M 0. section Volume m² cm² m³ cm³ dm³ 1.4 Temperature °C Area.32 4.Directional valve: Alternately exhausts cylinder connection to control the direction of movement. yard cu.3527 0.4535 28.03531 0.7645 16.

45 1.359 0.45 x 1.89 x 10-2 x 0.02 x 10-2 1 7.89 x 103 Kgf/cm2 9.868 1 Conversion of Pressure: 7 .54 x 1 10-2 10-3 0.02 4.5 1.535 -3 34 x 10 2 Kgf/c m2 Mm of Hg 7.89 104 9.67 10-2 14.333 Hg x 102 Inch of H2O 1.5 x10-3 7.1 105 Dyne/c m2 10 1 106 6.02 x 4.019 1.981 x 2.49 x H2O 102 Mm of 1.49 x 10-3 x 1.03 x 27.49 103 1.75 1 7.333 103 Bar 10-5 10-6 1 x 6.61 x 2.22 1 3.81 x 104 Inch of 2.81 105 2.02 x x10-5 10-6 10-4 14.Startin g Unit Pascal Dyne/c m2 Bar Psi Pasc al 1 0.5 x10-4 7.5 x 102 51.02 x 4.293 7 x 10 3.333 x 10-3 Psi 6.356 x 102 1.02 10-4 10-5 x10 -3 1.

Air compressors: Reciprocating Piston Single stage Double stage Diaphragm Rotary Vane Screw Single Stage Piston Compressor: 8 .Air Compressor: A compressor converts the mechanical energy of an electric motor into the potential energy of compressed air.

Diaphragm Compressor: 9 . The first stage normally compresses the air to approximately 3 bar.Two Stage Piston Compressor: Air is taken in at atmospheric pressure is compressed in two stages to the final pressure. which compresses it to 7bar. The compressed air enters the second stage cylinder at greatly reduced temperature after passing through the intercooler. after which it is cooled. thus improving the efficiency compared to that of a single stage unit. The cooled air is fed into the second stage cylinder.

Provides pulse 10 . so compressing the air. This allows the air intake in the down stroke and compression in the up stroke. As the rotor rotates centrifugal force holds the vanes in contact with the stator wall and the space between the adjacent blades decreases from the air inlet to outlet. Vane Compressor (Rotary): This is an eccentrically mounted rotor having a series of vanes sliding in various slots. Diaphragm compressor provides compressed air in the 3-5 bar range totally free of oil and are therefore widely used by food. pharmaceutical and similar industries.The diaphragm provides a change in the chamber volume.

free delivery. type and make of the machine. In case of two stage cylinders only the first stage cylinder should be considered. given in m3/s. Screw Compressor: Two meshing helical rotors rotate in opposite directions. or /min. pressure: 10 bar can be obtained Compressor Rating: The compressor capacity or output is stated as Standard Volume Flow. The effective delivery is always less due to volumetric and thermal losses. Oil separator removes this oil from outlet air. For a piston compressor it is based on: Q (l/min) = piston area in dm2 X stroke length in dm X No. The free space between them decreases axially in volume and this compresses the air trapped between the rotors. dm3/s or litres/min. the capacity may also be described as displaced volume or theoretical intake volume. number of stages and final pressure The volumetric efficiency of a two stage compressor is less than that of a single stage type as both first and second stage cylinders have dead 11 . Volumetric Efficiency: The ratio of free air delivered and displacement is known as volumetric efficiency and will vary with the size. Of first stage cylinders X rpm. Flow rate: 400 m3/min. Oil flooding provides the lubrication and sealing between the two rotating rotors.

12 . Electrically driven compressors in industrial plants. These are fitted with relief valves. Two Stage) Compressor Accessories: Air Receiver: Its main function is to store sufficient air to meet temporary heavy demands in excess of compressor capacity and minimise frequent loading and unloading of the compressor. The vessel should be fitted with a safety valve. working at almost full capacity accumulates great heat and loses efficiency. it can be assumed that 1KW of electrical energy is needed for the production of 120 – 150 l/min for a working pressure of 7 bar (Single Stage. drain and inspection covers for checking and cleaning inside. As an average figure. partially compressed in a first stage cylinder is cooled in an inter-cooler before compression to final pressure in a second cylinder. Thermal and Overall Efficiency: Total Efficiency 90 80 70 60 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Final Pressure A compressor. size of the system and constant or variable demands. the compression ratio per stage is less and the air.volumes. Mobile compressor with combustion engine is not stopped when a maximum pressure is reached. supply a network and are automatically switched on/off frequently this needs certain minimum receiver volume to avoid such frequent switching. The receivers are sized according to compressor output. pressure gauge. In a two-stage compressor.

the rule of thumb for the size of the reservoir is: Air receiver capacity = compressor output of compressed air per min. which is caused mainly by the abrasive effect of these impurities. average line pressure = 7bar. pistons rings etc. (Not free air delivery) Ex: compressor delivery = 18 m3/min. After-coolers are heat exchangers. which would be avoided. The filter must not be too fine as the compressor efficiency decreases due to high resistance to airflow. air must be dehydrated. Air Dehydration: After-coolers: After final compression the air will be hot and when cooled. will deposit water in considerable quantities in the airline systems. 13 . A tank with a volume of 2750 lit is probably be an available and convenient size. dirt or pollen) per m3. If this air is compressed to 7 bar. Air Filters: A typical city atmosphere may contain 40 million solid particles (dust. An important condition for reliability and durability of a compressor is that it must be provided with suitable and efficient filters to prevent excessive wear of cylinders. the concentration would be 320 million parts/m3. and so every small particles (2-5μ) cannot be removed. being either air-cooled or water-cooled. The most effective way to remove the major part of this condensate is to subject the air to after-cooling. To remove the moisture. Therefore compressed air output per minute = 18000/7 = 2500 lit approx.Air Receiver Sizing: For industrial plants. immediately after compression.

Air Dryers: After coolers cool the air to within 10-150C of the cooling medium. the less moisture remains in the air. The lower the dew point. The drying of the air is lowering its dew point that is the temperature at which the air is fully saturated with moisture (100% humidity). There are three main types of air dryers Absorption Adsorption Refrigeration Absorption (Deliquescent) Dryer 14 .

The compressed air is forced through a drying agent such as dehydrated chalk or magnesium chloride. which remains in solid form lithium chloride or calcium chloride. which reacts with the moisture to form a solution. which is drained from the bottom of the vessel. The drying agent must be replenished at regular intervals as the dew point increases. Adsorption (Desiccant) Dryer 15 .

heating or by a flow of previously dried air.A chemical such as silica gel or activated aluminium in granular form is contained in chamber to physically absorb moisture from the compressed air passing through it. Refrigerant Dryer: 16 . When the drying agent becomes saturated it is regenerated by drying. Wet compressed air is supplied through a direction control valve and passes through desiccant column 1. The DC valve can be switched periodically and alternately by a timer. 10-20% of dried air passes through orifice O2 and column 2 in reverse direction to reabsorb moisture from the desiccant to regenerate it. The regenerating airflow then goes to exhaust. The dried air flows to the outlet port.

Humid hot air is pre cooled in the first heat exchanger 1 then it cooled by the refrigeration principle of heat extraction as a result of evaporating Freon gas in the refrigerator circuit in heat exchanger 2. This prevents dew forming on the discharge outlet. The cooled dry air passes through air heat exchanger 1 and gains heat from the incoming hot air. Air Distribution: The air main is a permanently installed distribution system carrying the air to the various consumers.This is a mechanical unit incorporating a refrigeration circuit and two heat exchangers. the pipe work should have a slope of about 1 in 100 in the direction of flow and it should be adequately drained. At suitable places the main can be brought back to its original height by using two long sweep right angle bends and arranging a drain leg at the low point. The cost of drying compressed air may be 10-20% of the cost of compressing air. 17 . Refrigerant Dryer: The moisture and oil mist condenses and are drained automatically. There are two main layout configurations. Dead End Line Ring Main Dead End Line: To assist drainage.

Ring Main: In a ring main system air can be fed from two sides to a point of high consumption. Secondary Lines: Unless an after cooler and air dryer are installed the compressed air distribution pipe-work acts as a cooling surface and water and oil will 18 . This will reduce pressure drop. Isolating valves can be installed to divide the air main into sections. However this drive condensate in any direction and sufficient water take-offs with auto drains should be provided. This limits the area that will be shut down during periods of maintenance or repair.

which will be carried over. but there will always be some. but this is off-set by the manhours saved in the operation of manual type. Pressure Regulation and occasionally Lubrication. Float type Electrically operated type Auto drains are more expensive to install. With manual draining neglect leads to compound problems due to contamination of the main. Auto Drains: Two types of auto drains are in use.accumulate through its length. Filtering: 19 . the air should be cleaned or treated as near as possible to the point of use. All of this is likely to have injurious effects on pneumatic equipments by increased seal and component wear. which are taken from the bottom of the main pipe at each low point. All the atmospheric air carries both dust and moisture. After compression the moisture condenses out in the after-cooler and air receiver. seal expansion and sticking valves. Therefore the branch lines are often taken off the top of the main to prevent water entering them instead of drainage tubes. Air Treatment: The air treatment includes Filtering the compressed air. To remove all these contaminants.

rust scale and carbonised oil as the air flows through to the outlet. water and oil are thrown outward to impact on the walls of the filter bowl before running down to collect at the bottom. The element can be easily removed. The standard element will remove all contamination particles down to 5 microns in size. If the condensate accumulate at high rate. it is desirable to provide automatic draining. The water separation occurs mainly by a rapid rotation of the air.The standard branch line filter is combined with water separator and filter. caused by the deflector at the in let. cleaned and reused a number of times before needing to be replaced because of excessive pressure drop. The filter element removes the finer particles of dust. The heavier particles of dirt. The liquid can be drained off through a manual drain cock or an automatic drain. Micro Filters: 20 .

Sub-micro Filters: A Sub-micro filter will remove virtually all oil and water and also fine particles down to 0. Dust is trapped within the micro filter element. to provide maximum protection for pneumatic precision measuring devices. forming drops on the filter cartridge to collect at the bottom of the bowl. The principle of operation is the same as a micro filter. but its filter element has additional layers with a higher filtration efficiency. The maximum acceptable pressure drop for the application.Where contamination by oil is undesirable. 21 . electronic spray painting. Filter Selection: The size of air filter that is required for a particular application is dependent on two factors: The maximum flow of compressed air used by the pneumatic equipment. The air flows from the inlet to the centre of the filter cartridge then outwards through the outlet. the oil vapour and water mist is converted into liquid by coalescing action within the filter material. Manufacturers provide flow/pressure diagrams to enable correct sizing. a micro filter is used.01 of a micron. cleaning and drying of electronic assemblies etc.

branch 3-6 provide air conditioned by a refrigerated type of dryer. 22 .. branch 7 incorporates an additional dryer of the adsorption type.Air Quality: Different levels of air quality for various uses are divided into three main branches: Branch 1&2 provides air direct from the receiver.

Pressure Regulator: Construction: Pressure regulators have a piston or diaphragm to balance the output pressure against an adjustable spring force. The important pats are: Adjusting knob Adjusting spindle Setting spring Relieving seat Diaphragm Flow compensation chamber Flow compensation tube Valve Valve spring 23 .

Function: The secondary pressure P2 is set by the adjusting screw. P2 will slightly increase. When consumption starts. loading the setting spring to hold the main valve open. creating a lift force against the spring load. diaphragm and valve will then lift until the spring force is equalled again. this increases the force on the diaphragm against the spring force. P2 will initially drop and momentarily the spring force acting on the diaphragm opens the valve. allowing flow from primary pressure P1 inlet port to the secondary pressure P2 outlet port. If the consumption rate drops. The pressure in the circuit connected to outlet rises and acts on the diaphragm. 24 .

with a small gap on the valve that does not yet allow real regulation. This increases the airflow through the valve to match the consumption rate. The curve gives three distinctive portions: The inrush. The figure shows how P2 decreases with increasing flow. The regulation range 25 .The airflow through the valve will be reduced until it matches the consumption rate and the output pressure is maintained. P2 and the force on the diaphragm against the spring will decrease and the valve drops until spring force is equal again. Filter Regulator: The most important is the flow / P2 Diagram. If the consumption rate increases.

not by the 26 .2 bar is required to ensure functioning. For regulators. Sizing of Regulators & Filters: FRL elements have to be sized in accordance with the required flow capacity. The size is therefore defined by the required flow. the average volume flow should be the one in the middle of the regulating range. The size of the filter is defined by the pressure drop.The saturation range. the valve is wide open and further regulation is not possible. ∆p should however be kept below 1 bar. With maximum flow. For a standard filter /separator (not a line filter) a minimum pressure drop of about 0.

connection size of the component. Modular systems give the capability to adapt the connection thread to the available tube size. They are available pre-lubricated for life. Compressed Air Lubricator Lubrication is no longer a necessity for the majority of modern pneumatic components. Oil-free atmosphere. for a healthier. With a fixed size of restriction. Cleaner and more hygienic systems. a greatly increased flow would create 27 . safer working environment. The advantages of non-lube systems include: Saving in the cost of lubrication equipment. used mainly in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Proportional lubricators: In this a pressure drop between inlet and outlet directly proportional to the flow rate is created and oil is lifted from the bowl into the sight feed dome. lubricating oil and maintaining oil levels.

originally the codes previously used the older hydraulic nomenclature. Port Identification: The identification of the ports are not uniform. which is too lean. its normal (not operated) position. The outlet of 2/2 or 3/2 valve has always been A. P for the supply port comes from pump. 3/2 or 2/2 etc. resulting in a mixture. Supply should be 1.an excessive pressure drop and produce an air/oil mixture that had too much oil. and the method of operation. the first figure relates to the number of ports (excluding pilot ports ) and the second to the number of positions. the number of switching positions. The second exhaust port in 5/2 valves was then named S. Direction Control Valves: A direction control valve determines the flow of air between its ports by opening. After 20 years of bargaining about pneumatic and hydraulic symbols one of the ISO/work groups had the idea that port should have numbers instead of letters. To over come this problem. Conversely a decreased flow rate may not create sufficient pressure drop. closing or changing its internal connections. or the former R1 and the latter R2. 28 . the pilot ports connecting 1 with 2 is then 12 . The first two points are normally expressed in the terms 5/2. the outputs 2 and 4. lubricators must have self-adjusting cross section to produce a constant mixture. The valves are described in terms of the number of ports. The exhaust is invariably R from the return (to the oil tank). the second output port B. the hydraulic source of fluid energy. flooding the pneumatic system. The pilot port initiating the power connection to port A was originally coded Z (the two extreme letters in the alphabet belong together) and the other Y.

Direction Control Valves: Supply NC Output NO Output Exhaust of NC Exhaust of NO Pilot for NC Pilot for NO P P P 1 A A A 2 B B B 4 R R1 EA 3 S R2 EB 5 Z Z PA 12 Y Y PB 14 Direction Control Valves: Direction Control Valves 29 .

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31 .Direction Control Valves Puppet Valves Spool Valve Sliding Valves Rotary Valve Plane Sliding Valve Elastomer Seals Metal Seals Spool Valves: A spool valve slides longitudinally in the valve body with the air flowing at right angles to the spool movement. which are divided into a great number of small holes in the sleeve. O-rings are fitted in grooves on the spool and move in a metal sleeve. Spools have equal sealing areas and are pressure balanced. Two of them are crossing output ports.

In the spool with oval rings. but just need to open or close its own seat. non of them have to cross a port. which are kept in position by means of sectional spacers. But even with a minimal clearance of 0. Spool valve with metal seal: Lapped and matched metal spool and sleeve valves have vary low frictional resistance. a small internal leakage rate of about 1 dcl/min occurs. This design provides a leak free seal with minimum friction and therefore an extremely long life. rapid cycling and exceptionally long working life.003 mm. This is of no consequence as long as the cylinder does not need to be held in position by a 5/3 valve with closed centre for some time.Spool valve with sleeve has seals fitted in the valve body. 32 .

The pressure supply is above the disc. Pressure imbalance is employed to force the disc against its mating surface to minimise leakage.Rotary Direction Control Valves: A metal ported disc is manually rotated to interconnect the ports in the valve body. DC Valve Operation 33 .

Manual Operation: 34 . Care must be taken when using cams to operate roller lever valves. The slope of a cam should have an angle of about 300.Mechanical operation: On an automated machine. steeper slopes will produce mechanical stresses on the lever. mechanically operated valves can detect moving parts to provide signals for the automatic control of the working cycle. The utilised portion of the roller’s total travel should not go to end of the stroke.

Manually operated. onto a mechanically operated valve.Manual operation is generally obtained by attaching an operator head suitable for manual control. stopping and otherwise controlling a pneumatic control unit. Air Operation: 35 . For many applications it is more convenient if the valve maintains its position (bi-stable). mono-stable (spring returned) valves are generally used for starting.

These valves are also referred to as check valves. But it can also be operated by a air spring by applying supply pressure to the spool end. Speed Controllers: 36 . Auxiliary Valves: The various auxiliary valves are: Non-return valves Speed Controllers Shuttle Valves Quick exhaust valves Non-return valves: A non-return valve allows free airflow in one direction and seals it off in the opposite. which is provided by a piston. or a combination of both. No return valves are incorporated in speed controllers and self seal fittings. opposite to the pilot port. In the latter case. the pilot side requires a bigger effective area.A mono stable air operated valve is switched by air pressure acting directly on one side of the spool or on a piston and returned to its normal position by spring force.

Quick Exhaust Valve: 37 . the shuttle prevents the signal pressure from escaping through the exhausted signal port on the opposite side. The outlet is connected to either signal input. In fig. Shuttle valve: This is a three-ported valve with two-signal pressure inlet and one outlet.A speed controller consist of a check valve and a variable throttle in one housing. b it flows back to the exhaust port of the valve with a restricted flow. If only one input is pressurised. a air flows freely in one direction and in fig.

the supply tube is exhausted and the disc lifted by the cylinder pressure.This component permits a maximum out stroking piston speed by exhausting the cylinder directly at its port with a great flow capacity. connected to the inlet port on top is reserved. instead of through the tube and valve. It then closes the inlet port and automatically opens the wide exhaust port. When the direction control valve. Actuators: 38 . The rubber disc closes off the exhaust port on the bottom as the supply air flows to the cylinder.

Also accommodating the spring results in a longer overall length and limited stroke length. and so a longer bore may be required. The piston rod is returned by a fitted spring or by external force from the load. These are the output devices. Work done by pneumatic actuators can be linear or rotary and are so classified into: Linear actuators Single acting cylinders Double acting cylinders Rotary actuators Vane-type actuators Rack & pistons-type actuators Special actuators Single Acting Cylinder: Single acting cylinder has one air inlet to produce a power stroke in one direction. Double Acting Cylinder: 39 .Actuators are the components which converts fluid energy into mechanical energy. It develops thrust in one direction only. In single acting cylinder there is a reduction in thrust due to opposing spring force.

This type of cylinder is often mounted with the rods fixed and the cylinder itself moving to displace a part. The thrust available on a the retracting stroke is reduced due to smaller effective piston area. Special Cylinder: Double Rod: Double rod makes a cylinder stronger against a side load. as it has two bearings distance possible.With this actuator thrust is developed in both extending and retracting directions as air pressure is applied alternately to opposite sides of a piston. Flat Cylinder: 40 . but is only a considerable if the cylinder is to “pull” the same load in both directions.

By stretching the piston cylinder to a long rectangular shape with round ends. 41 .Flat cylinder normally has square covers. By simultaneously both cylinder chambers the output force is almost double (not due to the area of the piston rod) that of standard cylinder of the same diameter. Multi Position Cylinder: The two end pistons of a standard cylinder provide two fixed positions. it achieves the same force as a conventional one Tandem cylinder: A tandem cylinder is two double acting cylinders joined together with a common piston rod to form a single unit. It offers a higher force from a given diameter of a cylinder. therefore it can be used where installation place is restricted. and generally a round cylinder.

This allows four different positions. the assembly at the left is required. but a rather unusual structure is required and the movements when cylinders run in the opposite directions. Cylinder Sizing: Linear cylinders have the following standard as recommended in 42 . but the cylinder cannot be fixed. There are two principles: For three positions. The second is to mount two independent cylinders together back to back. a combination of two double acting cylinders may be used.If more than two fixed positions are required. It is vary suitable for vertical movements (for handling devices). A combination with three cylinders of different stroke length give 8 positions (one with 4 cylinders give 16 positions). is very unstable. it enables users to fix cylinder.

Retracting stroke: Fr = P X (∏ /4) X (D2_ d2) Where d = piston rod diameter. 12.0583m =58. The theoretical force developed by a cylinder is a function of the piston diameter. 25.3mm A 63 mm dia. a larger size providing extra force to overcome frictional resistance. 320 mm. 40. 160. 16. 63. 32. 125. 80. 200. P = gauge pressure. As the frictional force is negligible. 250.10. cylinder would be selected.8. 20. the theoretical force is calculated by using the formulae. 50. Rotary Actuators: Rack and Pinion type: 43 . Thus for a single acting cylinder: Fes = P X (∏ /4) X D2 – Fs) Where Fs = spring force at the end of the stroke) Example: Determine the theoretical size of a cylinder operating at a pressure of 6 bar that would generate a clamping force of 1600 N. Assuming this an extending stroke: Fe=P X (∏ /4) X D2 Transposing : D = {(4 Fe)/( ∏ P)}1/2 = {(4 X 1600)N/(∏ X 600000 N/m2)}1/2 = 0. the operating air pressure and the frictional resistance. Force (N) = air pressure (N/m2) X piston area (m2) Or =P X (∏ D2)/4 Force (lbf) = air pressure (lbf/in2) X piston area (in2) Or = P X (∏ D2)/4 Thus for a double acting cylinder: Extending stroke: Fe = P X (∏ /4) X D2 Where D = piston head diameter. 140. 100.ISO.

A special three-dimensional seal seals the stopper against the shaft and the housing. Standard degrees of rotation are 900 or 1800. The size of the stopper defines the rotation angle of 900. 44 . Vane type: Air pressure acts on a vane. 1800 or 2700. which is attached to the output shaft.The output shaft has an integral pinion gear driven by a rack attached to a double piston. Adjustable stop may be provided to adjust any angle of rotation of the unit. Hollow Rod Cylinders: These actuators are used specially for pick and place applications. A rubber seal or elastomer coating seals the vane against leakage.

This gives a complete pick and place unit for materials handling.Rotating cylinders: A so-called rotating cylinder is an assembly of a linear cylinder with a rotary actuator. Symbols Basic Symbols: The symbols for fluid power systems and components are 45 . A rotating arm can be attached to the shaft and be equipped with a gripper or a vacuum pad to pick up work pieces and deposit them in another location after rotating the arm. The type shown. to open and close the jaws. Air chuck (Gripper): An actuator designed to grip components in robotic type applications. has two opposing pistons.

but do not indicate the construction. The standard combines hydraulic and pneumatic components symbols show the function of a component. ISO symbols for Air treatment Equipment 46 .standardized in ISO 1219.

Valve Operators: Valve Operators: 47 .

Pumps and Motors: Instruments: 48 .

Fluid Cylinders: ISO Symbols for Actuators: 49 .

without 50 .How to combine valve symbols Hydraulic Circuits: Basic rules: A circuit diagram is drawn in the rest position of the controlled machine. with the supply under pressure. But in the case of mixed circuits.

In purely pneumatic circuits. as given in the figure. the air supply (FRL) unit is situated in the lower left corner. The power valves are drawn directly below their cylinders. Circuit Layout: In a circuit diagram. the flow of the working energy is drawn from the bottom to the top and the sequence of the working cycle left to right. are situated in the lower level.electric power. Consequently. each power unit is then coded with capital letters. 3/2 roller / lever valves controlling the end position of the cylinder driven machine parts. in the upper left corner etc. the cylinder that performs the first stroke of the cycle. all components must be drawn in the positions resulting from these assumptions. 51 .

which could allow a hose to spring loose. REMEDY Inspect and repair. Air receiver Compressor unloading pressure system failure. jump around and hit a nearby person A hose to spring loose. Air receiver Automatic drain often blocked or contains damaged. Compressor unloading sys failure.Trouble shooting Poorly maintained compressor with a faulty relief valve Devices operated at excessive pressures which may cause them to explode High pressure systems with bad connections or fittings. Inspect and clean. Safety valve malfunctioning. Inspect. Inspect & repair. Inspect and clean. abnormally high Air receiver outlet blocked. Inspect and replace. clean or repair. 52 . ----As above---Inspect and replace. jump around and hit a nearby person Electrically related heat from power cables or from too little air circulating around the compressor. Trouble Shooting – Receiver: SYMPTOMS Air receiver pressure fails to rise. Air receiver inlet blockage. Safety valve leakage. large amount of water and malfunction s. POSSIBLE CAUSE Leak from the piping point.

due to contamination. clean or replace. oscillates Core contamination. Replace parts. Inspect. clean or replace. Tighten connections Adjust voltage level & replace coil.SYMPTOMS Valve fail to operate either open or close POSSIBLE CAUSE Low supply voltage or Coil breakage Signal failure Contamination Damaged valve REMEDY Check & adjust Replace coil Trouble shoots control system. Iron core malfunction due to contamination. 53 . Heat coil damaged Supply voltage too high. Loose connections Heat damaged Supply voltage too coil high. Inspect & clean Inspect. Adjust voltage. Iron core malfunction Inspect. repair or replace Inspect & clean. Inspect. Inspect. Leakage (in / out Valve seals side) contaminated. repair or replace. Adjust voltage level & replace coil. High ambient core temp. Solenoid plunger Low supply voltage. Damaged solenoid or valve. clean or repair. Worn components. High ambient core Check manufacturers temp specification for operating environment. Check manufacturers specification for operating environment.

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