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Study Questions on the Action Potential: 4.Whatcausesanaxonpotentialtooccurattheaxonhillock?

7.Whathappensatthreshold? 8. What happens if there is a weak stimulus at the axon hillock and thresholdisnotreached? 9.Doactionpotentialsalwayshavethesameamplitudeandthesame duration?

11.Whathappenstosodiumvoltagegatedchannelsatthreshold? 12.Explainhowthepositivefeedbackloopmaintainstherisingphaseof theactionpotential.

14.Therisingphaseoftheactionpotentialendswhenthepositive feedbackloopisinterrupted.Whattwoprocessesbreaktheloop? 15.Describethetwogatesonthevoltagegatedsodiumchannels? 16.Whendoesthevoltagesensitivegateopen? 17.Whatisthefunctionofthetimesensitiveinactivationgate? 18.Whathappenstothevoltagegatedsodiumchannelsatthepeakof theactionpotential? 19.Whendothevoltagegatedpotassiumchannelsopen? 20.Whathappenswhenthevoltagegatedpotassiumchannelsopenand thepotassiummovesoutofthecell? 21. When does repolarization occur? What happens to the membrane potential? 22.Whatishyperpolarization? 23.Whydoeshyperpolarizationoccur?

25.Duringtheactionpotential,whendoessodiumpermeabilityincrease rapidly? a.duringrepolarization b. during the rising phase of theactionpotential c.duringhyperpolarization d.duringrepolarization 26.Duringtheactionpotential,whendoessodiumpermeabilitydecrease rapidly? a.duringrepolarization b. during the rising phase of theactionpotential c.duringhyperpolarization d.duringrepolarization 27. During the action potential, when is potassium permeability the greatest? a.duringrepolarization b. during the rising phase of theactionpotential c.duringhyperpolarization d.duringrepolarization 28. During the action potential, when does potassium permeability decreaseslowly? a.duringrepolarization b. during the rising phase of theactionpotential c.duringhyperpolarization d.duringrepolarization 29.Therapidincreaseinsodiumpermeabilityisresponsiblefor_____. a.therepolarizationofthecell b.thehyperpolarization c.therisingphaseoftheactionpotential 30.Therapiddecreaseinsodiumpermeabilityandsimultaneous increaseinpotassiumpermeabilityisresponsiblefor_____. a.therepolarizationofthecell b.thehyperpolarization c.therisingphaseoftheactionpotential 31.Theslowdeclineinpotassiumpermeabilityisresponsiblefor_____. a.therepolarizationofthecell b.thehyperpolarization c.therisingphaseoftheactionpotential

32. Which part of the graph to the right correspondstothefollowing: hyperpolarization depolarization rest initiationofrepolarization repolarization 33. Which part of the graph to the right correspondsto: Atimewhenvoltagegatedsodium channelsresettotheclosedstate. Potassiumchannelscontinueto open. Atimewhenvoltagegatedsodiumand potassiumchannelsareclosed. Atimewhenvoltagegatedsodium channelsbegintoinactivateand voltagegatedpotassiumchannels begintoopen. Atimewhensomevoltagegated potassiumchannelsremainopen, resultinginmovementofpotassium outofthecell. Atimewhenvoltagegatedsodium channelsopenrapidly,resultingin movementofsodiumintothecell. 34. (Page 13.) Which phase of the action potential does the diagram belowbestcorrespondto? a.rest b.depolarizationc.peak d. repolarization e. hyperpolarization

39.Whatistheabsoluterefractoryperiod? 40.Whycan'taneurongenerateanotheractionpotentialduringthe absoluterefractoryperiod? 41.Whatistherelativerefractoryperiod? 42.Whyisitmoredifficultforaneurontogenerateanotheraction potentialduringtherelativerefractoryperiod? 43. Which portion of the graph to the right corresponds to the absolute refractoryperiod? 44.Whatletteronthisgraphtotheright corresponds to the relative refractory period? 46.Howisanactionpotentialpropagated downtheaxoninanunmyelinated neuron? 47.Whatisconductionvelocity? 48.Whattwofactorsdoesconductionvelocitydependon? 49Whatistheeffectofaxondiameteronconductionvelocity? 50.Whatistheeffectofmyelinonconductionvelocity? 51.Whydomyelinatedaxonsconductactionpotentialsfasterthannon myelinatedaxons?