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MBA SEMESTER III MB0050 –Research Methodology- set-2 1. a. Explain the General characteristics of observation.
General Characteristics of Observation Method Observation as a method of data collection has certain characteristics. 1. It is both a physical and a mental activity: The observing eye catches many things that are present. But attention is focused on data that are pertinent to the given study. 2. Observation is selective: A researcher does not observe anything and everything, but selects the range of things to be observed on the basis of the nature, scope and objectives of his study. For example, suppose a researcher desires to study the causes of city road accidents and also formulated a tentative hypothesis that accidents are caused by violation of traffic rules and over speeding. When he observed the movements of vehicles on the road, many things are before his eyes; the type, make, size and colour of the vehicles, the persons sitting in them, their hair style, etc. All such things which are not relevant to his study are ignored and only over speeding and traffic violations are keenly observed by him. 3. Observation is purposive and not casual: It is made for the specific purpose of noting things relevant to the study. It captures the natural social context in which persons behaviour occur. It grasps the significant events and occurrences that affect social relations of the participants. 4. Observation should be exact and be based on standardized tools of research and such as observation schedule, social metric scale etc., and precision instruments, if any.
b. What is the Utility of Observation in Business Research?
Utility of Observation in Business Research Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. It may be used for studying (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services.: life style, customs, and manner, interpersonal relations, group dynamics, crowd behaviour, leadership styles, managerial style, other behaviours and actions; (b) The behaviour of other living creatures like birds, animals etc. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores, factories, residences etc. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) movement of materials and products through a plant.
2. a. Briefly explain Interviewing techniques in Business Research?
3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Interviewing techniques in Business Research The interview process consists of the following stages: · Preparation · Introduction · Developing rapport · Carrying the interview forward · Recording the interview · Closing the interview 11.7.1 Preparation The interviewing requires some preplanning and preparation. The interviewer should keep the copies of interview schedule/guide (as the case may be) ready to use. He should have the list of names and addresses of respondents, he should regroup them into contiguous groups in terms of location in order to save time and cost in traveling. The interviewer should find out the general daily routine of the respondents in order to determine the suitable timings for interview. Above all, he should mentally prepare himself for the interview. He should think about how he should approach a respondent, what mode of introduction he could adopt, what situations he may have to face and how he could deal with them. The interviewer may come across such situations as respondents; avoidance, reluctance, suspicion, diffidence, inadequate responses, distortion, etc. The investigator should plan the strategies for dealing with them. If such preplanning is not done, he will be caught unaware and fail to deal appropriately when he actually faces any such situation. It is possible to plan in advance and keep the plan and mind flexible and expectant of new development. 11.7.2 Introduction The investigator is a stranger to the respondents. Therefore, he should be properly introduced to each of the respondents. What is the proper mode of introduction? There is no one appropriate universal mode of introduction. Mode varies according to the type of respondents. When making a study of an organization or institution, the head of the organization should be approached first and his cooperation secured before contacting the sample inmates/employees. When studying a community or a cultural group, it is essential to approach the leader first and to enlist cooperation. For a survey or urban households, the research organization’s letter of introduction and the interviewer’s identity card can be shown. In these days of fear of opening the door for a stranger, residents cooperation can be easily secured, if the interviewer attempts to get him introduced through a person known to them, say a popular person in the area e.g., a social worker. For interviewing rural respondents, the interviewer should never attempt to approach them along with someone from the revenue department, for they would immediately hide themselves, presuming that they are being contacted for collection of land revenue or subscription to some government bond. He should not also approach them through a local political leader, because persons who do not belong to his party will not cooperate with the interviewer. It is rather desirable to approach the rural respondents through the local teacher or social worker.
Such initial conversation may create a friendly atmosphere and a warm interpersonal relationship and mutual understanding. Start the interview. In carrying on this task of gathering information from the respondent by putting questions to him. This is described as “rapport”.7. 5. experience. or the like perceiving the probable of the respondent from his context. 2. 2. Ask all the applicable questions in the same order as they appear on the schedule without any elucidation and change in the wording.4 Carrying the Interview Forward After establishing rapport. the following guidelines may be followed: 1. Describe the method by which the respondent was selected. respect and curiosity. MB0050 Set-2 -3- . current news.” “I have come to learn from your experience and knowledge”. Identify the respondent by name. Do not take answers for granted. and keen observation. 3. the interviewer should establish a friendly relationship with the respondent. Assure the anonymity or confidential nature of the interview. greet the respondent in accordance with his cultural pattern.7. However. sports event.” The interviewer should use his discretion in striking a happy medium. 7. “Your response is invaluable. 11. in order to motivate the respondent to permit the interview: 1. the interviewer can follow a sequence of procedures as under. the interviewer should “guard against the over rapport” as cautioned by Herbert Hyman. It means establishing a relationship of confidence and understanding between the interviewer and the respondent.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT After getting himself introduced to the respondent in the most appropriate manner. Too much identification and too much courtesy result in tailoring replied to the image of a “nice interviewer. alertness and ability to listen with understanding. 11. With a smile. 6. covering of course. Start the conversation with a general topic of interest such as weather. the interviewer may tailor his questions to each respondent. If interview guide is used.3 Developing Rapport Before starting the research interview. Mention the name of the organization conducting the research. Ask all the applicable questions listed in the schedule. the technical task of asking questions from the interview schedule starts. 3. self-restraint. the areas to be investigated. Explain their usefulness of the study. Emphasize the value of respondent’s cooperation. This task requires care. It is a skill which depends primarily on the interviewer’s commonsense. making such statements as “You are among the few in a position to supply the information”. Carry it on in an informal and natural conversational style. sensitivity. 4.
introducing appropriate questions which will aid in revealing the past. jot down unobtrusively the points which need elaboration or verification for later and timelier probing. 9. but avoid interrupting the flow of information. repeat it slowly with proper emphasis and appropriate explanation. Be alert to discover drifting. When the conversation turns to some intimate subjects. 10. When the interviewee fails to supply his reactions to related past experiences. Know the objectives of each question so as to make sure that the answers adequately satisfy the question objectives. 13. When there is a pause in the flow of information. denial.7. saying “Well. your opinions are more important than mine. Take it as a matter of course with an interested look or a sympathetic half-smile. is this…. If a question is not understood.” 11. I was very much interested in what you said a moment ago. Listen quietly with patience and humility. steer the conversation back to the track by some such remark as. Even when you are asked of your views. At times.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT 4. the conversation may go off the track. never showing disapproval or surprise. Neither argue nor dispute. Should not reveal your own opinion or reaction. Give not only undivided attention. Then drop the subject for the time being and pursue another line of conversation for a while so that a less direct approach to the subject can be made later. If the silence is too prolonged. when necessary. I understood fully. but also personal warmth. 6. emotional blockage may occur. he may feel free and may not try to withhold information. maintain an impartial and objective attitude. non specific and inconsistent answers. 12. 15. represent the stimulus situation. 5. Could you tell me more about it?” 14. He will be motivated to communicate when the atmosphere is permissive and the listener’s attitude is non judgmental and is genuinely absorbed in the revelations. At the same time. “you know. When the respondent does not meet the interruptions. laugh off the request. At times the interview “runs dry” and needs re-stimulation. contradiction and other harassment. Talk all answers naturally. be alert and analytic to incomplete. introduce a stimulus saying “You mentioned that… What happened then?” 11. If necessary. at the same time. do not hurry the interview. and particularly when it deals with crises in the life of the individual. Show genuine concern and interest in the ideas expressed by the respondent. “Under what circumstances did such and such a phenomenon occur?” or “How did you feel about it and the like. 7.what you meant?” 8. Then use such expressions as “Uhhuh” or “That interesting” or “I see” “can you tell me more about that?” and the like. The appropriate technique for this probing is to ask for further clarification in such a polite manner as “I am not sure.5 Additional Sittings MB0050 Set-2 -4- .
Consequently the risk of lower response rate will rise especially for sensitive topics.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT In the case of qualitative interviews involving longer duration. as it would cause interview weariness. note down his name and address so that a summary of the result could be posted to him when ready. as the case may be. even the fast writer may fail to record all that is said at conversational speed. The interviewer should also record all his probes and other comments on the schedule.7.6 Recording the Interview It is essential to record responses as they take place. it is useful to interrupt by some such comment as “that seems to be a very important point. Assembling the papers for putting them in the folder at the time of asking the final question sets the stage for a final handshake. faced in securing his cooperation and the interviewer’s assessment of the validity of the respondent’s answers. He has to simply ring the appropriate code or tick the appropriate box. 11. his attitude to the survey. difficulties. But it also has certain disadvantages. At such times. If the note taking is done after the interview. if any. Some respondents may object to or fear “going on record”.7. He should not make mistakes by carelessly ringing or ticketing a wrong item. one single sitting will not do.7. In the case of a qualitative interview of longer duration. Nothing should be made in the schedule under respective question. If the interviewer knows short-hand.7 Closing the Interview After the interview is over.” The respondent is usually flattered by this attention and the rapport is not disturbed. select the occasion for departure more carefully. Hence. 11. a good deal of relevant information may be lost. MB0050 Set-2 -5- . Otherwise. He must ensure that everything is legible. the interviewer’s task is easy. The responses should not be summarized or paraphrased. he can write rapidly by abbreviating word and using only key words and the like. If the respondent desires to know the result of the survey. take leave off the respondent thanking him with a friendly smile. it is desirable to have two or more sittings with the consent of the respondent. he can use it with advantage. the interviewer must edit the schedule to check that he has asked all the questions and recorded all the answers and that there is no inconsistency between answers. so that I can get your words exactly. It is desirable to record a brief sketch of his impressions of the interview and observational notes on the respondent’s living environment. in brackets to set them off from responses. would you mind repeating it. Abbreviations in recording must be replaced by full words. With the pre-coded structured questions. It should be complete and verbatim. It has obvious advantages over note-taking during the interview. How can complete recording be made without interrupting the free flow of conversation? Electronic transcription through devices like tape recorder can achieve this.8 Editing At the close of the interview. However. a thank-you and a good-bye. 11.
inadequate response. refusal. Another source of response of the interviewer’s characteristics (education.3 Non-response Non-response refers to failure to obtain responses from some sample respondents. when the respondent remains silent or refuses to answer the question · irrelevant response. apparent social status.8. His own attitudes and expectations about what a particular category of respondents may say or think may bias the data. in which the respondent gives a relevant but incomplete answer · non-response. non-response and interviewer’s bias.1 Inadequate response Kahn and Cannel distinguish five principal symptoms of inadequate response. incapacity and inaccessibility. Another source of response bias arises from interviewer’s perception of the situation. For example. As interviewers are human beings. Selection of MB0050 Set-2 -6- .2 Interviewer’s Bias The interviewer is an important cause of response bias. tone of voice and question rephrasing. the researcher must deal with two major problems. non-availability. What are the problems encountered in Interview? Interview Problems In personal interviewing. standardization or interview procedures (use of standard wording in survey questions. employed persons may not be available during working hours.8. Farmers may not be available at home during cultivation season. This depends upon the nature of the respondent and the time of calls. The interviewers can influence the responses by inappropriate suggestions. There is need for more research on ways to minimize bias in the interview. 11. etc) may also bias his answers. when the reply is biased or distorted and · verbalized response problem. but their effects can be reduced by careful selection and training of interviewers. standard instructions on probing procedure and so on) and standardization of interviewer behaviour.8. such biasing factors can never be overcome completely. They are: · partial response. in which the respondent’s answer is not relevant to the question asked · inaccurate response. He may resort to cheating by ‘cooking up’ data without actually interviewing.4 Non-availability Some respondents may not be available at home at the time of call.8. 11.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT b. if he regards the assignment as impossible or sees the results of the survey as possible threats to personal interests or beliefs he is likely to introduce bias. which arises on account of respondent’s failure to understand a question or lack of information necessary for answering it. 11. There are many sources of non-response. proper motivation and supervision. word emphasis. 11.
Nevertheless. Improvements advocated are (a) guarantees of anonymity. These adjustments increase the size of the response and the sampling precision. (b) motivation of the respondent to cooperate (c) arousing the respondents’ interest with clever opening remarks and questions.7 Methods and Aims of control of non-response Kish suggests the following methods to reduce either the percentage of non-response or its effects: 1. substitution for a respondent with a particular size holding by another with the holding of the same size is possible. beneficial substitution methods can sometimes be designed with reference to important characteristics of the population. Attempts to reduce the percentage or effects on non-responses aim at reducing the bias caused by differences on non-respondents from respondents. What are the various steps in processing of data? MB0050 Set-2 -7- .5 Refusal Some persons may refuse to furnish information because they are ill-disposed. or approached at the wrong hour and so on. line respondent’s hours of availability can be ascertained and the next visit can be planned accordingly.8. 2. Usually this is a mistake because the substitutes resemble the responses rather than the non-responses.8. another try or perhaps another approach may find some of them cooperative. Call-backs are most effective way of reducing not-at-homes in personal interviews. Substitution for the non-response is often suggested as a remedy. 11. Non-responses reduce the effective sample size and its representativeness. the farm size is an important variable and if the sampling is based on farm size. as are repeated mailings to no-returns in mail surveys. Although. Incapacity or inability may refer to illness which prevents a response during the entire survey period. 11.8. either by anticipating the size of non-response in designing the sample size or by compensating for it with a supplement. in a farm management study. 3. 3.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT appropriate timing for calls could solve this problem. a.6 Inaccessibility Some respondents may be inaccessible. then. 11. (d) advance notice to the respondents. but they do not reduce the non-response percentage or bias. Some may not be found due to migration and other reasons. Improved procedures for collecting data are the most obvious remedy for non-response. If someone is available. a hardcore of refusals remains. This may also arise on account of language barrier. The non-response bias should not be confused with the reduction of sampled size due to non-response. For example. The latter effect can be easily overcome. Evenings and weekends may be favourable interviewing hours for such respondents.
The major criterion in this is to define the data structure. The data structure also defines and stages of the preliminary relationship between variables/groups that have been pre-planned by the researcher. A data structure is a dynamic collection of related variables and can be conveniently represented as a graph where nodes are labelled by variables. MB0050 Set-2 -8- . the data are prepared in a data format. Most data structures can be graphically presented to give clarity as to the frames researched hypothesis. to the resultant end variable. charts and diagrams Types of graphs and general rules Quantitative and qualitative analysis Measures of central tendency Dispersion Correlation analysis Coefficient of determination 12. Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand: Checking for analysis Editing Coding Classification Transcription of data Tabulation Construction of Frequency Table Components of a table Principles of table construction Frequency distribution and class intervals Graphs. which allows the analyst to use modern analysis software such as SAS or SPSS.2 Checking for Analysis In the data preparation step. A sample structure could be a linear structure. in which one variable leads to the other and finally.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT The various steps in processing of data may be stated as: o o o o o Identifying the data structures Editing the data Coding and classifying the data Transcription of data Tabulation of data.
the procedures for drawing the data structure would involve a series of steps. MB0050 Set-2 -9- . the redefinition of variables or later analytical modification requirements could be easily incorporated into the data sets. However.2 Data Editing at the Time of Analysis of Data Data editing is also a requisite before the analysis of data is carried out. Some of the usual check list questions that can be had by a researcher for editing data sets before analysis would be: 1. 3.3.3. which are the same for all research questions? Have variable descriptions been specified? Have labels for variable names and value labels been defined and written? All editing and cleaning steps are documented. 5. so that. 12. This ensures that the data is complete in all respect for subjecting them to further analysis. Editing is a process of checking to detect and correct errors and omissions. the clear definition of such data structures would help in the further processing of data. one at the time of recording of the data and second at the time of analysis of data. Data editing happens at two stages. 4. Do the filters agree or are the data inconsistent? Have missing values been set to values. 7. When the task is complex. which involves several types of instruments being collected for the same research question.1 Data Editing at the Time of Recording of Data Document editing and testing of the data at the time of data recording is done considering the following questions in mind. 8. 2. 12. Is the coding frame complete? Is the documentary material sufficient for the methodological description of the study? Is the storage medium readable and reliable. 6. the heterogeneous data structure of the individual data sets can be harmonized to a common standard and the separate data sets are then integrated into a single data set. 12.3 Editing The next step in the processing of data is editing of the data instruments. coding frame and data? Are there undefined and so-called wild codes? Comparison of the first counting of the data with the original documents of the researcher. Has the correct data set been framed? Is the number of cases correct? Are there differences between questionnaire. In several intermediate steps.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT The identification of the nodal points and the relationships among the nodes could sometimes be a complex task than estimated.
Consistency in response can also be checked at this step. in interpretation of questions and instructions by the data recorders. While interpreting the answers. the data set has to rewritten on the basis of the new information. MB0050 Set-2 .3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT The editing step checks for the completeness. another keen lookout should be for any lack of uniformity. For instance. Accuracy: Apart from checking for omissions. If the information is vital and has been found to be incomplete. If this is possible. Completeness: The first step of editing is to check whether there is an answer to all the questions/variables set out in the data set. then the researcher can take the step of contacting the respondent personally again and solicit the requisite data again. Uniformity: In editing data sets. The final point in the editing of data set is to maintain a log of all corrections that have been carried out at this stage. fact responses should be dropped from the data sets. The documentation of these corrections helps the researcher to retain the original data set. It is therefore a pre-requisite to prepare a coding scheme for the data set. Coding process assigns numerals or other symbols to the several responses of the data set. accuracy and uniformity of the data as created by the researcher. While clear inconsistencies should be rectified in the data sets. The cross verification to a few related responses would help in checking for consistency in responses. the researcher sometimes would be able to deduce the correct answer from other related data on the same instrument. The recording of the data is done on the basis of this coding scheme. If none of these steps could be resorted to the marking of the data as missing must be resorted to.10 - . A random check process can be applied to trace the errors at this step.4 Coding The edited data are then subject to codification and classification. care should be taken as a record the answer as a positive question response or as negative question response in all uniformity checks for consistency in coding throughout the questionnaire/interview schedule response/data set. approximate spending and saving and borrowing habits of family members etc. The reliability of the data set would heavily depend on this step of error correction. the approximate family income can be inferred from other answers to probes such as occupation of family members. the accuracy of each recorded answer should be checked. If there were any omission. 12. the responses towards a specific feeling could have been queried from a positive as well as a negative angle. For example. sources of income.
it would be useful in the data analysis. When codification is done.. The categorization could be on a scale i. if the data consists of several public at different localities. It can also be alphabetic. most preferable to not preferable. if a value of 0 is to be given to specific responses in the data sheet. the verification and editing of recordings and further contact with respondents can be achieved without any difficulty. there will be a tendency to give a code of 0 to a no. This responses sheet coding gives a benefit to the research. Coding has to be compulsorily numeric. then it will be better to create a separate variable for the Others please specify category and records all responses as such.e. MB0050 Set-2 . The variables or observations in the primary instrument would also need codification. when the variable is subject to further parametric analysis. An illustration of the coding process of some of the demographic variables is given in the following table. This also helps the researcher to keep track of who the respondents are and who are the probable respondents from whom primary data sheets are yet to be collected.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT The responses collected in a data sheet varies. sometimes the response could be in terms of values and sometimes the response could be alphanumeric. Alphabetic Coding: A mere tabulation or frequency count or graphical representation of the variable may be given in an alphabetic coding. any specific queries on a specific responses sheet can be clarified. the sheets that are distributed in a specific locality may carry a unique part code which is alphabetic. especially when they are categorized. Even at a latter stage. sometimes the responses could be the choice among a multiple response. it should not lead to the same interpretation of non response. The codification can be made at the time of distribution of the primary data sheets itself. it is imperative to keep a log of the codes allotted to the observations.11 - . a numeric code can be attached to distinguish the person to whom the primary instrument was distributed. Others. The first coding done to primary data sets are the individual observation themselves. For instance. At the recording stage itself. when manual analysis is done. In many instances. Professional. Certain classifications can lead to open ended classification such as education classification. If the preparation of the exhaustive list is not feasible. if some codification were done to the responses collected. Graduate. In such instances. Illiterate. Numeric Coding: Coding need not necessarily be numeric. in that. then a different coding than 0 should be given in the data sheet. please specify. Zero Coding: A coding of zero has to be assigned carefully to a variable. or it could be very specific such as Gender classified as Male and Female. a code of 0 would imply a no response from the respondents. The codes can be alphanumeric to keep track of where and to whom it had been sent. For instance. To this alphabetic code. Hence. the codification needs to be carefully done to include all possible responses under Others. This code sheet will help in the identification of variables/observations and the basis for such codification. Please specify.
2 Occupation Salaried Professional Technical Business Retired Housewife Others MB0050 Set-2 .12 - .4 Owner of Vehicle Yes No 4.2 Vehicle performs Excellent Good Adequate Bad Worst 5.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT Question Number 1.1 Variable observation Organisation Response categories Code Private Public Government Pt Pb Go 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 S P T B R H = 3.1 Age Up to 20 years 21-40 years 40-60 years 5.
These given answer rather than being separately considered could be clubbed under the others heading for meaningful interpretation of respondents and reading habits. For instance. That is. an open ended question will be the best mode of getting the responses. A classification method should meet certain requirements or should be guided by certain rules. Third. the categories must also be mutually exhaustive. because responses like widower or separated cannot be fitted into the scheme. Second.5 Classification When open ended responses have been received. The 95 respondents out of 100 could be easily classified into 5 large reading groups while 5 respondents could have given a unique answer. but is outsourced to a data entry firm or individual. the other categorization tends to defeat the very purpose of classification. the classification of martial status into three category viz. For this purpose. Sometimes. the income of the respondent could be an open-ended question. married Single and divorced is not exhaustive. the scheme of classification should be exhaustive. But others categorization has to carefully used by the researcher. which is designed to distinguish between observations in terms of the properties under study. classification is necessary to code the responses. if the data recording is not done by the researcher. a suitable classification can be arrived at. From the responses collected. He may need to classify the responses and then code them. the reading habits of newspaper may be surveyed. as the researcher would like to view it. the researcher can fit a meaningful and theoretically supportive classification. For example. In order to enter the data in the same perspective. The classification others will be very useful when a minority of respondents in the data set give varying answers. However.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT = Could be treated as a separate variable/observation and the actual response could be recorded. the data coding sheet is to be prepared first and a copy of the data coding sheet should be given to the outsourcer to help in the data entry procedure. The new variable could be termed as other occupation The coding sheet needs to be prepared carefully. 12. The objectives of the study will determine the dimensions chosen for coding. so that each case is classified only once. Here. but few responses from the data sheets.. For instance. MB0050 Set-2 .13 - . The inclusion of the classification Others tends to fill the cluttered. classification of data is also necessary at the data entry stage. The categorization should meet the information required to test the hypothesis or investigate the questions. there must be a category for every response. the researcher might not be able to code the data from the primary instrument itself. classification should be linked to the theory and the aim of the particular study. From all responses. This requirement is violated when some of the categories overlap or different dimensions are mixed up. First.
the data sheet does not contain the details of the statement. CS2. a simple summary of one response from all 200 observations would require shuffling of 200 pages. sorting cards or sorting strips could be used by the researcher to manually transcript the responses. The label names are thus the links to specific questions in the research instrument.6. The main aim of transition is to minimize the shuffling proceeds between several responses and several observations. Transcription is hence. CS6.2 Manual Transcription When the sample size is manageable. However the number of categories is limited by the number of cases and the anticipated statistical analysis that are to be used on the observation. an intermediary process between data coding and data tabulation.6. Suppose a research instrument contains 120 responses and the observations has been collected from 200 respondents. CS5. The label CS indicating Consumer satisfaction and the number 1 to 10 indicate the statement measuring consumer satisfaction. The choice of manual transcription would be when the number of responses in a research instrument is MB0050 Set-2 . reducing the categorization at the analysis level would be easier than splitting an already classified group of responses. 12. CS4. but gives a link to the question in the research instrument though variable labels. CS7.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT The number of categorization for a specific question/observation at the coding stage should be maximum permissible since. the transcription of the response is done.6 Transcription of Data When the observations collected by the researcher are not very large. which can be drawn from the observations. For instance. The computerized transcription could be done using a data base package such as spreadsheets. which is a summary of all responses on all observations from a research instrument. The researcher could prefer a manual transcription and analysis of responses. text files or other databases. The process is quite tedious if several summary tables are to be prepared from the instrument. In this instance the variable names could be given as CS1. CS8. Each variable should be given a label so that long questions can be covered under the label names. the researcher need not use any computerization process to analyze the data. opinion on consumer satisfaction could be identified through a number of statements (say 10). 12. Long work sheets. CS9 and CS10. The main requisite for a transcription process is the preparation of the data sheets where observations are the row of the database and the responses/variables are the columns of the data sheet. Once the labelling process has been done for all the responses in the research instrument. the simple inferences. can be transferred to a data sheet.14 - . 12. CS3. The transcription process helps in the presentation of all responses and observations on data sheets which can help the researcher to arrive at preliminary conclusions as to the nature of the sample collected etc.1 Methods of Transcription The researcher may adopt a manual or computerized transcription.
In all other instances. allowing responses to be written in the boxes. requisite length for recording the actual response of the observer should be provided for in the work sheet. thick enough to last several usages. The first column contains the code of observations.15 - . data entry and processing were made through mechanical and semi auto-metric devices such as key punch using punch cards. If. Heading of responses which are variable names and their coding (options) are filled in the first two rows. In olden days. A transcription sheet with 100x50 (assuming each response has 5 options) row/column can be easily managed by a researcher manually. 12. If one sheet is not sufficient. and the numbers of observations collected are within 100. If the variable cannot be coded into categories. For each variable. the transcript data has to be subjected to a testing to ensure error free transcription of data. These worksheets normally are ruled both horizontally and vertically. if the number of responses is less than 30. now the responses from the research instrument are then transferred to the worksheet by ticking the specific option that the observer has chosen. say 10 responses. it is advisable to use a computerized transcription process. it leads to a worksheet of 100x200 sizes which might not be easily managed by the researcher manually. the researcher may use multiple rules sheets to accommodate all the observations. preferably chart sheets. the frequency tables can be constructed straight from worksheet. The arrival of computers has changed the data processing methodology altogether. As has been discussed under the editing section. Copies of the data sheets can also be kept for future references. then the manual worksheet could be attempted manually.3 Long Worksheets Long worksheets require quality paper. Transcription can be made as and when the edited instrument is ready for processing. In the second instance.6. MB0050 Set-2 . The worksheet can then be used for preparing the summary tables or can be subjected to further analysis of data. Once all schedules/questionnaires have been transcribed. Other methods of manual transcription include adoption of sorting strips or cards. on the other hand the variables in the research instrument are more than 40 and each variable has 5 options.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT very less. A sample worksheet is given below for reference. The original research instrument can be now kept aside as safe documents.
How is data editing is done at the Time of Recording of Data? Data Editing at the Time of Recording of Data Document editing and testing of the data at the time of data recording is done considering the following questions in mind. Do the filters agree or are the data inconsistent? Have missing values been set to values. which are the same for all research questions? Have variable descriptions been specified? Have labels for variable names and value labels been defined and written? All editing and cleaning steps are documented. tabulation is a process of summarizing raw data displaying them on compact statistical tables for further analysis. it is necessary to determine the number of class intervals to be used and the size of the class intervals. Manual tabulation is suitable for small and simple studies. b. so that. temperature etc. cost considerations. weight.16 - . A distinction is usually made between continuous and discrete variables. Tabulation can be done manually or through the computer.7 Tabulation The transcription of data can be used to summarize and arrange the data in compact form for further analysis. a. Thus. It involves counting the number of cases falling into each of the categories identified by the researcher. the redefinition of variables or later analytical modification requirements could be easily incorporated into the data sets. A discrete variable can have a MB0050 Set-2 . What are the fundamental of frequency Distribution? Frequency Distribution Variables that are classified according to magnitude or size are often arranged in the form of a frequency table. time pressures and the availability of software packages. A continuous variable has an unlimited number of possible values between the lowest and highest with no gaps or breaks. 4. The choice depends upon the size and type of study. The process is called tabulation. Examples of continuous variable are age. In constructing this table.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT 12.
5. 3. Examples of discrete variables are gender of persons (male/female) occupation (salaried. The horizontal line measures time or independent variable and the vertical line the measured variable. 7. What are the types and general rules for graphical representation of data? The most commonly used graphic forms may be grouped into the following categories: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Line Graphs or Charts Bar Charts Segmental presentations. Scatter plots Bubble charts Stock plots Pictographs Chesnokov Faces The general rules to be followed in graphic representations are: 1. The zero point should always be represented and the scale intervals should be equal. MB0050 Set-2 . Each curve or bar on the chart should be labelled. the continuous variables being stated in some discrete unit size according to the needs of a particular situation. Measurements proceed from left to right on the horizontal line and from bottom to top on the vertical. b. Each value of a discrete variable is distinct and separate. profession) car size (800cc. Graphic forms should follow and not precede the related textual discussion. 10. Numerical data upon which the chart is based should be presented in an accompanying table. 2. business. The title should be clear. For example. concise and simple and should describe the nature of the data presented. 9. The chart should have a title placed directly above the chart. 1000cc.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT series of specified values with no possibility of values between these points. all variables are treated as discrete units. 4. 8. Too many forms detract rather than illuminating the presentation.17 - . 6. If there are more than one curves or bar. Graphic forms should be used sparingly. they should be clearly differentiated from one another by distinct patterns or colours. length is described in discrete units of millimetres or a tenth of an inch. 1200cc) In practice.
printed. Must have more than one level.g. Although one of the most frequently used tools for encouraging discussion. written or verbal summaries) Research methods don't seem so intimidating when you're familiar with the terminology. cannot be manipulated by the researcher (e. race. cases are only one of many possible tools. Some variables. before or during discussion) format for case discussion (Email or Internet-based. length. or object to object. when implemented in small groups. roles and responsibilities for discussion leader) outcomes for case discussion (answers to specific questions. or from person to person.. in other words. The effective use of case studies is comprised of many factors. MB0050 Set-2 . to appreciate alternative approaches to identifying and resolving ethical problems. or the level is naturally occurring (as with ex post facto research). answers to general questions. cases help trainees to define or refine their own standards. small group.). would case studies be considered as scientific research? Why or why not? Case studies are a tool for discussing scientific integrity. Variable: Characteristics by which people or things can be described. socioeconomic status. here are some basic definitions used. Strictly speaking. and to develop skills for analyzing and dealing with hard problems on their own. This is important whether you're conducting evaluation or merely reading articles about other studies to incorporate in your program. including: appropriate selection of case(s) (topic. Many of the principles discussed below for discussing case studies can be generalized to other approaches to encouraging discussion about research ethics. called attributes. Manipulation: Random assignment of subjects to levels of the independent variable (treatment groups). to be able to change over time for the same person/object. This occurs when subjects self-select the level of the independent variable. relevance.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT 5. Cases are designed to confront readers with specific real-life problems that do not lend themselves to easy answers. Case discussion demands critical and analytical skills and. etc. complexity) method of case presentation (verbal. large group) leadership of case discussion (choice of discussion leader. also fosters collaboration (Pimple. 2002). Some variables can be manipulated but are not in a particular study. gender. IQ score. To help with understanding.18 - . By providing a focus for discussion.
It is denoted as "X" on the horizontal axis of a graph. etc. If a large enough random samples are taken. MB0050 Set-2 .3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT Independent variable: The treatment. is what you're trying to "prove. Case Study: A case study is conducted for similar purpose as the above but is usually done with a smaller sample size for more in-depth study. plants. This is the observation made and is denoted by "Y" on the vertical axis of a graph. the results can be statistically similar to taking a census of an entire population--with reduced effort and cost. This is typically considered qualitative research. There are a variety of ways samples can be taken. The score of "Y" depends on the score of "X. etc. or presumed cause that will produce a change in the dependent variable. This is what the experimenter tries to manipulate. animals. Correlational Study: A correlational study compares two or more different characteristics from the same group of people and explains how two characteristics vary together and how well one can be predicted from knowledge of the other." Examples of research hypotheses for a relational study: The older the person. Sample: A subset of subjects that can be studied to make the research project more manageable. Dependent variable: The presumed effect or consequence resulting from changes in the independent variable. A case study often involves direct observation or interviews with single subjects or single small social units such as a family. a student's grade point average is related to his or her class rank. school classroom." Population: The complete set of subjects that can be studied: people. the greater the amount of annual savings achieved.19 - . that is. club. For example. The greater the number of money management classes attended. 4-H members attending 4-H summer camp stay enrolled in 4-H longer. objects. Types of relational studies include correlational studies and ex post facto studies. Purpose: Explain or Predict Type of Research to Use: Relational Study In a relational study you start with a research hypothesis. the more health problems he or she encounters. A concurrent correlational study draws a relationship between characteristics at the same point in time. factor.
There is no likely reason why the uniform color had any relationship to the games' outcomes. For example. Similarly. For that matter. ethnicity. contaminating. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus. parent support. it might be found that all football teams with blue uniforms won last week. variables that are completely unrelated could. and it certainly was not the cause for victory. vary together due to nothing more than coincidence. when and how. For example. the research cannot describe what caused a situation. But there are always restrictions to that.. Your research must have an impact to the lives of the people around you e. MB0050 Set-2 . it might be observed that students from one town have higher grades than students from a different town attending the same high school. is to conduct a survey investigation. averages and other statistical calculations. Although the data description is factual. a student's grade point average might predict the same student's grade point average during senior year. where. etc. It is important to recognize that. Analyse the case study and descriptive approach to research? a) Case Study and descriptive approach to research: Descriptive research. That is why the researcher needs to establish a plausible reason (research hypothesis) for why there might be a relationship between two variables before conducting a study. Would just "being from a certain town" explain the differences? In an ex post facto study. The researcher starts by specifying a dependent variable and then tries to identify possible reasons for its occurrence as well as alternative (rival) explanations such confounding (intervening. In other words. in a relational study. The description is used for frequencies. more people will live a healthy life. also known as statistical research. In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied. For instance. such as differences in income. such as when people have self-selected levels of an independent variable or when a treatment is naturally occurring and the researcher could not "control" the degree of its use. or extraneous) variables are "controlled" using statistics. prior to writing descriptive research. Descriptive research answers the questions who. Ex Post Facto (After the Fact) Study: An ex post facto study is used when experimental research is not possible. what. This type of study is very common and useful when using human subjects in real-world situations and the investigator comes in "after the fact.g. descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. in fact. 6. Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship. where one variable affects another. All that can be claimed is that that there is a relationship between the variables. "cause and effect" cannot be claimed.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT A predictive correlational study could predict a later set of data from an earlier set. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. Thus. describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. a. accurate and systematic. A predictive correlational study could also use one characteristic to predict what another characteristic will be at another time. specific reasons for the differences would be explored.20 - . you must be careful about claiming that your Extension program was the "cause" of possible results.. a student's SAT score is designed to predict college freshman grade point average. Often the best approach." For example. finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town.
in which criteria are established for selecting cases from historical records for inclusion in the study. Case study research means single and multiple case studies. used in research. Descriptive statistics tell what is. group. longitudinal (over a long period of time) examination of a single instance or event: a case. They provide a systematic way of looking at events. The latter type is used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did. All the methods used by a researcher during a research study are termed as research methods. but instead it can utilize elements of both. can include quantitative evidence. Its aim is to give the work plan of research. while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect. Case studies may be descriptive or explanatory. statistical approaches. schemes. Essentially. Case studies should not be confused with qualitative research and they can be based on any mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. in which criteria are established and cases fitting the criteria are included as they become available. MB0050 Set-2 . It is a science of studying how research is to be carried out. and reporting the results. experimental studies. Another suggestion is that case study should be defined as a research strategy. collecting data. measurements and observations and Research Methodology Research methodology is a systematic way to solve a problem. etc. Particularly. etc. data and ﬁnd a solution to a problem. A case study is a research method common in social science. and what might become important to look at more extensively in future research. an empirical inquiry that investigates a phenomenon within its real-life context. often within the same study. They may be prospective. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question. design. numerical schemes. case study methods involve an in-depth. They include theoretical procedures. relies on multiple sources of evidence and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. Research methods help us collect samples. or event. It is also deﬁned as the study of methods by which knowledge is gained. the procedures by which researchers go about their work of describing. It is based on an in-depth investigation of a single individual.21 - . algorithms. scientiﬁc research methods call for explanations based on collected facts. explaining and predicting phenomena are called research methodology. Case studies lend themselves to both generating and testing hypotheses. scientiﬁc and value-neutral. Rather than using samples and following a rigid protocol (strict set of rules) to examine limited number of variables. Single-subject research provides the statistical framework for making inferences from quantitative case-study data b. or retrospective. Research Methods Research methods are the various procedures. and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of either quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. analyzing information. Distinguish between research methods & research Methodology. They are essentially planned.
They ac.3RD SEM PROJECT MANAGEMENT not on reasoning alone.cept only those explanations which can be veriﬁed by experiments.22 - . MB0050 Set-2 .
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