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Fluid Rheology& Flow
Regimes
Dr Reza Ettehadi Osgouei
Petroleum Engineering
Department
PAB4333  Advanced Drilling Engineering
The concept that a fluid cannot maintain a rigid shape is a basic,
but important characteristic, which means that fluids cannot
sustain a shear stress (a tangential force applied to the surface).
Rheology is the study of the deformation of fluids.
The fluid flow behavior is described by an applied shear stress
and the resulting shear rate within that fluid.
In general
DRILLING FLUIDS
shear stress
Two parallel fluid layers are separated by a distance dy. An applied
force, F, acting over an area, A, causes the layers to slide past one
another. The resistance to this sliding movement, the frictional drag, is
called shear stress.
Shear stress, t, is defined as the force per unit area required to sustain a
constant rate of fluid movement.
Or, an applied force, F, acting along a unit surface area, A, tending to
deform the fluid element.
Mathematically:
F
A
t =
DRILLING FLUIDS
shear rate: Consider that a fluid is placed between two parallel
plates that are 1.0 cm apart, the upper plate moving at a velocity of 1.0
cm/sec and the lower plate fixed. The fluid layer at the lower plate is
not moving and the layer nearest the top plate is moving at 1.0 cm/sec.
Halfway between the plate, a layer is moving at 0.5 cm/sec. The velocity
gradient is the rate of change of velocity with distance from the plates.
This simple case shows the uniformvelocity gradient with shear rate (v1
 v2)/h = shear rate = (cm/sec)/(cm/1) = 1/sec.
Shear rate, ¸, is the velocity gradient, i.e., is the rate of change of
velocity at which one layer of fluid passes over an adjacent layer.
Mathematically:
DRILLING FLUIDS
dv
dy
¸ =
It has been shown experimentally that the force per unit
area (shear stress) applied to a fluid is proportional to the
velocity change of two fluid layers (shear rate) a unit
distance apart:
where n (power index) depends on the type of fluid.
DRILLING FLUIDS
Time
independent
Fluid
Newtonian
Fluids
Non
Newtonian
Fluids
Pseudoplastic
Power law
Herschel
Bulkley
Bingham
plastic
Dilatant
DRILLING FLUIDS
Newtonian fluid
Newtonian fluids are those whose flow
behavior call be fully described by a
single term called the Newtonian
viscosity, µ .
For these fluids. examples of which
include water and light oil.
The shear stress is related to shear rate
linearly with the proportionality
constant being the Newtonian
constant viscosity, µ .
In engineering units,
t is in dyne/cm
2
= 4.79 lbs/100 ft
2
¸ is in s
1
µ is in poise= dyne x s/cm
2
The field unit of viscosity is the
centipoise (1 poise = 100 centipoise).
The field unit of shear stressis lbs/100
ft
2
.
t µ¸ =
nonNewtonian fluid
•A fluid whose viscosity is not
constant at all shear rates and
does not behave like a Newtonian
fluid.
•Most successful drilling fluids
are nonNewtonian.
•Within that group are several
general types and rheological
mathematical models to describe
them.
•Pseudoplastic is a general type of
shearthinning, nonNewtonian
behavior that is desirable for
drilling fluids.
Source / Illustrations: glossary.oilfield.slb.com
Pseudoplastic
Pseudoplastic is a general type of
shearthinning, (i.e., the apparent
viscosity decreases as the shear rate
increases) nonNewtonian behavior
that is desirable for drilling fluids.
Pseudoplastic rheology: low viscosity
at high shear rates and high viscosity
at low shear rates, benefits several
aspects of drillinghigher drilling rate
and improved cuttings lifting.
Bingham plastic and powerlaw
models describe a psuedoplastic
behavior using only two
measurements (two parameters).
The HerschelBulkley model is a
threeparameter rheological model
Source / Illustrations: glossary.oilfield.slb.com
t µ¸ =
( )
n
K t ¸ =
y p
t t µ ¸ = +
( )
n
y
K t t ¸ = +
Source / Illustrations: glossary.oilfield.slb.com
Bingham plastic model. Fluids that
conformto the Bingham plastic model
do not have a constant viscosity and
require a certain minimum stress to
initiate flow. The yield point, or
threshold stress, is the y intercept.
Bingham Plastics include thickened
hydrocarbon greases, certain asphalts
and bitumen, some emulsions
PV should be as low as possible for
fast drilling and is best achieved by
minimizing colloidal solids.
YP must be high enough to carry
cuttings out of the hole, but not so
large as to create excessive pump
pressure when starting mud flow.
DRILLING FLUIDS
Source / Illustrations: glossary.oilfield.slb.com
y p
t t µ ¸ = +
Powerlaw fluid
A fluid described by the twoparameter rheological model of a pseudo
plastic fluid, or a fluid whose viscosity decreases as shear rate increases
In this equation, K is the consistency index and n is the flow behavior
index. The flow behavior index is readily determined as the slope of a
plot of t vs ¸ on logarithmic coordinates. The value of n is less than
unity for Power Law .
Example: Waterbase polymer muds, especially those made with XC
polymer
( )
n
K t ¸ =
DRILLING FLUIDS
Source / Illustrations: glossary.oilfield.slb.com
HerschelBulkley fluid (Yield
Power Law)
A fluid described by a three
parameter rheological model. A
HerschelBulkley fluid can be
described mathematically as
follows:
Many claywater behave as
HerschelBulkley fluid
( )
n
y
K t t ¸ = +
DRILLING FLUIDS
Some Important Definitions
Viscosity : Viscosity is the internal resistance of a fluid to flow. It is
equal to the ratio of shearing stress to the rate of shearing strain.
Plastic Viscosity : The plastic viscosity is the part of the flow
resistance of the fluid caused by mechanical friction within the fluid.
This mechanical friction is due to
1. the interaction of individual solid particles,
2. solid and liquid particles
3. the deformation (shearing) of the liquid particles under shear
stress.
The amount of solid particles, their size, distribution and their shape
have direct effect on the plastic viscosity.
DRILLING FLUIDS
Some Important Definitions
Yield Stress : The yield stress is the part of the flow
resistance of the fluid caused by electrochemical forces
within the fluid.
These electrochemical forces are due to
1. the electrical charges on the surface of reactive
particles,
2. the electrical charges on the submicron particles
3. the presence of the electrolytes in the case of water
base muds.
DRILLING FLUIDS
Effective Circulating Viscosity
Most drilling muds commonly used in the field exhibit viscous
properties which are shear rate dependent. During normal drilling, the
mud being circulated experiences different velocities in the various
sections of the circulating system ranging from practically 0 ft/s in the
pits to over 300 ft/s across the jets of the drill bit. These wide ranging
velocities give rise to mud shear rates of less than 5 sec
1
in mud pits to
over 100,000 sec
1
across the bit jets.
The effective circulating viscosity: therefore, can be defined as the
viscosity of the mud at a given shear rate in a particular section of the
circulating systemunder given conditions of pressure and temperature.
where µ
e
is in cp, K is in lbf/ft
2
(sec
1
)
n
, annular velocity, v
a,
is in ft/s and
wellbore diameter, D
w
, and pipe diameter, D
p
, are in inches.
1
47913.6
n
a
e
w p
v
K
D D
µ
÷
 
=


÷
\ .
DRILLING FLUIDS
1. Place a freshly stirred sample in a
container and immerse the rotorsleeve
exactly to the scribed line.
2. Start the motor by placing the switch in
the highspeed position with the gear
shift all the way down. Wait for a steady
indicator dial value, and record the 600
RPM reading. Change gears only when
motor is running.
3. Change switch to the 300RPM speed.
Wait for a steady value and record 300
RPMreading.
4. Plastic viscosity in centipoise = 600
reading minus 300 reading (see Figure).
5. Yield Point in lb/100 ft2 = 300 reading
minus plastic viscosity in centipoise.
6. Apparent viscosity in centipoise = 600
reading divided by 2.
DRILLING FLUIDS
Field measurements of viscosity:
Newtonian Fluid :
where µ is the Newtonian viscosity in cp, u
N
is the viscometer dial
reading at rotational speed, N.
Bingham Plastic Fluid :
For N=300 and 600 rpm:
where µ
p
is the plastic viscosity in cp, t
y
is the yield point in lbf/100 ft
2
t µ¸ =
300
N
N
u
µ =
y p
t t µ ¸ = + 300
y
N
p
N N
t
u
µ
 
= ÷

\ .
600 300 p
µ u u = ÷
300 600
2
y
t u u = ÷
DRILLING FLUIDS
Power Law Fluid and HerschelBulkley fluid (Yield Power Law):
In filed units, ( Power Law )
where n is the Power Law index, K is the consistency index in eq.cp and
u
o
is the zero gel in lbf/100 ft
2
. The shear rate, ¸ (sec
1
), can be expressed
in terms of N as
( )
n
K t ¸ =
2
3.32log
N o
N o
n
u u
u u
 
÷
=

÷
\ . ( )
N o
n
N
K
u u
¸
÷
=
( )
( )
510
N
n
N
K
u
¸
=
DRILLING FLUIDS
1.704 N ¸ =
Example
 You are given the following data
Mud, powerlaw
• θ600= 65: θ300 = 40;
• 10s/10min; gel = 15/25 lbs/l00 ft2
• Drill pipe
• OD = 4.5 in.
• ID=4in.
• Air weight = 14 lbs/ft
• Drill collar
• OD = 7.5 in.
• ID=4in.
• Air weight = 110 lbs/ft
• LDC = 1,000 ft
• flow rate of 400 gpm.
•Hole
•Last intermediate casing set
•8.5 in. ID set at 16.000 ft TVD open hole
washed out to 8.5 in. using a 7.5 in. bit
Determine
•Plastic viscosity
•Yield Point
•Apparent viscosity
•Effective Circulating
•n is the Power Law index,
• K is the consistency index
•Viscosity in each section
Flow Regimes: A range of stream flows
having similar bed forms, flow resistance,
and means of transporting .
Laminar flow is a streamline flow where all
fluid particles move along lines parallel to the
axis of the conduit, and adjacent fluid layers
slip past each other with no mixing of
particles. In steady state conditions, inside
circular conduits, laminar flow can be
visualized as a series of concentric cylinders
slipping pass one another as shown in figure.
http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p
=C20E2B3106BCA23D
As the fluid velocity becomes higher, The
particle travel in irregular paths with no
observable pattern and no definite layer.
Turbulent flow is characterized by the
irregular movement of particles of the fluid.
Laminar Flow is usually found in
the annulus during drilling
operations.
This type of flow is generally desired in
the annulus since
it does not lead to hole erosion
does not produce excessive pressure
drops.
Smoke rising from a cigarette is
turbulent flow. For the first few
centimeters, the flow is certainly
laminar. Then smoke becomes
turbulent as its Reynolds number
increases
Turbulent Flow is the type of
flow regime found inside the
drill string during drilling
operations.
Since high mud velocities are
required to achieve turbulent flow,
this results in high pressure drops.
This type of flow is generally not
desired in the annulus due to its
tendency to cause excessive hole
erosion and high “equivalent
circulating densities”.
However, turbulent flow can
move the mud like a plug, causing
the mud to move at approximately
the same rate. This provides for
better hole cleaning and is
sometimes required on high angle
holes.
The Reynolds number Re is a dimensionless number that gives a measure of the
ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. It is generally used to determine whether a
flow regime is laminar or turbulent. For Newtonian straight pipe flow, it has been
established experimentally that the critical Reynolds number, i.e., the number above
which flow is no more laminar, has a value approximately equal to 2100.
Mathematically, Reynolds number is given by
where µ is the fluid density, v is the average fluid velocity, D is the pipe
diameter and µ is the fluid viscosity. In field units, N
Re
can be expressed as
where µ is in ppg, v is in ft/s, D is in in and µ is in cp.
Re
v D
N
µ
µ
=
Re
928 v D
N
µ
µ
=
Example
An oil well is expected to produce at a rate of 480
SBPD (standard barrel per day). If the viscosity of the
oil is 5 cp and its specific gravity is 0.8, determine the
minimum size of production tubing to be installed in
the well such that laminar flow is maintained. Assume
fluid is Newtonian.
Introduction
The calculations of friction pressure losses in the
rotary rig circulating system are important and
essential because of their direct bearing on
Drill bit hydraulic program design
ECD during tripping in and out of wellbore
ECD during drilling and well control operations
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Drill bit hydraulic program design
To ensure optimum drilling conditions, necessary calculations
Pump operating requirements,
optimum flow rates,
corresponding optimum drill bit nozzle sizes
In drilling, pump pressure (P
p
) required in order to drill to a
certain depth for a given set of operating conditions is equal to
the total friction pressure (P
f
) losses in the circulating system
plus the dynamic pressure changes (generally those across jet
bits P
B
)that is,
where
P
p
is the required pump delivery pressure
P
f
is the circulating system friction pressure loss
P
B
is the dynamic pressure across bit nozzles
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
P
p
=P
f
+ P
B
Pressure changes during tripping and casing operations
(Swab/Surge Pressures)
What is swab pressure?
Swab Pressure: If a drill string , casing
string or logging tool is being pulled out of
hole too fast, due to bigger diameter
almost same hole size, BHA/ bit, casing or
logging tool will possibly swab mud out of
hole, like pulling small a piston of syringe.
For this reason, hydrostatic pressure of
bottom hole will be reduced. Pressure
reduction created by this situation is called
“Swab Pressure”. If swab pressure is too
much, kick (wellbore influx) may be into
the hole and well control must be
conducted in order to secure well.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Mathematically
where
P
aei
is the equivalent mud pressure at some well depth D
i
in the
annulus
P
ahi
is the mud hydrostatic pressure at D
i
∆P
a swb
is the swab pressure gradient in the annulus (in psi\ft)
or in terms of mud weight,
where
ρ
me
is referred to as the equivalent circulating mud weight
ρ
mh
is the actual mud weight while not moving
∆ ρ
a swb
is the change in mud weight due to the swab pressure
• for safe drilling, ρ
me
> ρ
ff
where ρ
ff
is the formation pressure gradient
P
aei
=P
ahi
D
i
∆P
a swb
ρ
me
= ρ
mh
 ∆ρ
a swb
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Pressure changes during tripping and casing operations
(Swab/Surge Pressures)
What is surge pressure?
Surge Pressure: When pipe moves
downward with mud circulation
through drill string, additional
bottom hole pressure called “Surge
Pressure” is created. If surge
pressure is too much, many
problems will occur as formation
brake down, partial mud loss and
lost circulation.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
And...
where
P
aei
is the equivalent mud pressure at some well depth D
i
in the annulus
P
ahi
is the mud hydrostatic pressure at D
i
∆P
a swb
is the surg pressure gradient in the annulus (in psi\ft)
or in terms of mud weight,
where
ρ
me
is referred to as the equivalent circulating mud weight
ρ
mh
is the actual mud weight while not moving
∆ ρ
a swb
is the change in mud weight due to the surg pressure
• for safe drilling, ρ
me
< ρ
frac
where ρ
frac
is the formation fracture
gradient
P
aei
=P
ahi+
D
i
∆P
a surg
ρ
me
= ρ
mh
+ ∆ρ
a surg
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Pressure changes during drilling
During drilling, the friction pressure losses in the
annulus will effectively increase the mud weight,
resulting in an ECD that ,as in the case of surge
pressures, may cause fracturing 0f formation:
where ∆ρ
a f
is the change in mud weight in annulus
owing to the friction pressure loss gradient in the
annulus.
For safe drilling, ρ
me
< ρ
frac
. A similar situation may be
encountered during well control operations.
ρ
me
= ρ
mh
+ ∆ρ
a f
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance
The study of fluid dynamics is based on three physical laws:
• Conservation of energy
• Conservation of momentum
• Conservation of mass
These laws, when combined with
•the fluid rheological models (Newtonian, Bingham, power law, and
yield power law)
• the fluid state (compressible or incompressible)
•fluidflow regime (Laminar or turbulent)
• the conduit type (pipe, annular or slot flow)
constitute all the conditions required in order to formulate a fluid dynamic
problem.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance
The mechanical energy balance equation
for an incompressible fluid entering a
physical system at point i and leaving it at
some point j can be written as
where
D is the elevation
ρ is the fluid weight density
V is the average fluid velocity
P is the pressure
W
p
is the work done by pump
W
f
is the friction energy loss
ρ(D
j
D
i
)+(ρ\2g)(V
2
j
V
2
i
)+P
j
P
i
=
Wp + W
f
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance
The mechanical energy balance equation for an incompressible fluid entering a
physical system at point i and leaving it at some point j can be written as
where
P
h
is the hydrostatic head
P
d
is the dynamic pressure
P
p
is the pump pressure
P
f
is the pressure loss due to friction In drilling, the circulation system can
De visualized as a Utube
P
h
+ P
d
+ P
j
P
i
= P
p
P
f
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance
In drilling, the circulation systemcan be visualized as a Utube
P
p
=P
f
+ P
B
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance
The available pump surface pressure or what is normally
referred to as the circulating standpipe pressure is
expanded throughout the circulating system in the
following manner:
where P
p
is the operating pressure, P
s
is the frictional
losses at the surface connections, P
dp
is the frictional losses
inside the drillpipes, P
dc
is the frictional losses inside the
drill collars, P
adc
is the frictional losses in the annular space
of the wellbore and the drill collars, P
adp
is the frictional
losses in the annular space of the wellbore and the
drillpipes, and P
b
is the frictional losses at the bit.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
p s dp dc adc adp b
P P P P P P P = + + + + +
Pressure Drop across the Bit Nozzles (Jets)
P
h
+ P
d
+ P
j
P
i
= P
p
P
f
P
i
P
j
= (ρ\2g)(V
2
j
V
2
i
)
P
p
=0 P
f
, P
h
negligible
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Pressure Drop across the Bit Nozzles (Jets)
P
i
P
j
= P
b
=(ρ\2g)(V
2
j
)= (ρ\2g)(V
2
exit
)
V
i
negligible
The actual exit velocity of the jets is always smaller than
will be predicted by this equation owing to the assumption
made regarding the frictionless state of the jets. To
compensate for this difference, a modifying factor called
the nozzle (jet) discharge coefficient. C
d
, which will be
implemented in equation
The value of C
d
, is assumed to be 0.95 unless otherwise specified.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
Pressure Drop across the Bit Nozzles (Jets)
when the following field units are used:
Q is in gpm
ρ is in Ibs\gal
A
t
is in in.
2
C
d
is a nondimensional term
P
b
is in psi
Since
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure
References
Slides presented were prepared with illustrations from the following
referenced documents:
Drilling Engineering: Amazon.ca: J. J. Azar, G. Robello Samuel: Books
http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com
DRILLING FLUIDS
DRILLING FLUIDS
In general
The concept that a fluid cannot maintain a rigid shape is a basic, but important characteristic, which means that fluids cannot sustain a shear stress (a tangential force applied to the surface). Rheology is the study of the deformation of fluids. The fluid flow behavior is described by an applied shear stress and the resulting shear rate within that fluid.
DRILLING FLUIDS
shear stress
Two parallel fluid layers are separated by a distance dy. An applied force, F, acting over an area, A, causes the layers to slide past one another. The resistance to this sliding movement, the frictional drag, is called shear stress. Shear stress, , is defined as the force per unit area required to sustain a constant rate of fluid movement. Or, an applied force, F, acting along a unit surface area, A, tending to deform the fluid element. Mathematically:
F A
DRILLING FLUIDS
shear rate:
Consider that a fluid is placed between two parallel plates that are 1.0 cm apart, the upper plate moving at a velocity of 1.0 cm/sec and the lower plate fixed. The fluid layer at the lower plate is not moving and the layer nearest the top plate is moving at 1.0 cm/sec. Halfway between the plate, a layer is moving at 0.5 cm/sec. The velocity gradient is the rate of change of velocity with distance from the plates. This simple case shows the uniform velocity gradient with shear rate (v1  v2)/h = shear rate = (cm/sec)/(cm/1) = 1/sec. Shear rate, , is the velocity gradient, i.e., is the rate of change of velocity at which one layer of fluid passes over an adjacent layer. Mathematically:
dv dy
DRILLING FLUIDS It has been shown experimentally that the force per unit area (shear stress) applied to a fluid is proportional to the velocity change of two fluid layers (shear rate) a unit distance apart: where n (power index) depends on the type of fluid. .
DRILLING FLUIDS Time independent Fluid Non Newtonian Fluids Newtonian Fluids Pseudoplastic Dilatant HerschelBulkley Power law Bingham plastic .
In engineering units. examples of which include water and light oil. The field unit of shear stressis lbs/100 ft2.Newtonian fluid Newtonian fluids are those whose flow behavior call be fully described by a single term called the Newtonian viscosity. .79 lbs/100 ft2 is in s1 is in poise= dyne x s/cm2 The field unit of viscosity is the centipoise (1 poise = 100 centipoise). For these fluids. . . The shear stress is related to shear rate linearly with the proportionality constant being the Newtonian constant viscosity. is in dyne/cm2 = 4.
oilfield. Source / Illustrations: glossary. •Most successful drilling fluids are nonNewtonian. •Within that group are several general types and rheological mathematical models to describe them. nonNewtonian behavior that is desirable for drilling fluids.slb.nonNewtonian fluid •A fluid whose viscosity is not constant at all shear rates and does not behave like a Newtonian fluid.com . •Pseudoplastic is a general type of shearthinning.
oilfield.e.Pseudoplastic Pseudoplastic is a general type of shearthinning. the apparent viscosity decreases as the shear rate increases) nonNewtonian behavior that is desirable for drilling fluids. (i. Pseudoplastic rheology: low viscosity at high shear rates and high viscosity at low shear rates.com . benefits several aspects of drillinghigher drilling rate and improved cuttings lifting.slb. Bingham plastic and powerlaw models describe a psuedoplastic behavior using only two measurements (two parameters). The HerschelBulkley model is a threeparameter rheological model Source / Illustrations: glossary..
oilfield.com .slb. K n y p y K n Source / Illustrations: glossary.
com . is the y intercept. Bingham Plastics include thickened hydrocarbon greases. The yield point.oilfield. Fluids that conform to the Bingham plastic model do not have a constant viscosity and require a certain minimum stress to initiate flow.DRILLING FLUIDS Bingham plastic model.slb. some emulsions PV should be as low as possible for fast drilling and is best achieved by minimizing colloidal solids. y p Source / Illustrations: glossary. but not so large as to create excessive pump pressure when starting mud flow. YP must be high enough to carry cuttings out of the hole. certain asphalts and bitumen. or threshold stress.
DRILLING FLUIDS Powerlaw fluid A fluid described by the twoparameter rheological model of a pseudo plastic fluid. The flow behavior index is readily determined as the slope of a plot of vs on logarithmic coordinates.com .oilfield. K is the consistency index and n is the flow behavior index. especially those made with XC polymer Source / Illustrations: glossary.slb. Example: Waterbase polymer muds. or a fluid whose viscosity decreases as shear rate increases K n In this equation. The value of n is less than unity for Power Law .
DRILLING FLUIDS HerschelBulkley fluid (Yield Power Law) A fluid described by a threeparameter rheological model. A HerschelBulkley fluid can be described mathematically as follows: y K n Many claywater behave as HerschelBulkley fluid .
the interaction of individual solid particles.DRILLING FLUIDS Some Important Definitions Viscosity : Viscosity is the internal resistance of a fluid to flow. their size. solid and liquid particles 3. It is equal to the ratio of shearing stress to the rate of shearing strain. . the deformation (shearing) of the liquid particles under shear stress. This mechanical friction is due to 1. distribution and their shape have direct effect on the plastic viscosity. Plastic Viscosity : The plastic viscosity is the part of the flow resistance of the fluid caused by mechanical friction within the fluid. 2. The amount of solid particles.
2. the electrical charges on the surface of reactive particles. the presence of the electrolytes in the case of waterbase muds. . These electrochemical forces are due to 1.DRILLING FLUIDS Some Important Definitions Yield Stress : The yield stress is the part of the flow resistance of the fluid caused by electrochemical forces within the fluid. the electrical charges on the submicron particles 3.
Dw. Dp. The effective circulating viscosity: therefore. .000 sec1 across the bit jets. are in inches. va. va e 47913. is in ft/s and wellbore diameter. During normal drilling. can be defined as the viscosity of the mud at a given shear rate in a particular section of the circulating system under given conditions of pressure and temperature. the mud being circulated experiences different velocities in the various sections of the circulating system ranging from practically 0 ft/s in the pits to over 300 ft/s across the jets of the drill bit. annular velocity. These wide ranging velocities give rise to mud shear rates of less than 5 sec1 in mud pits to over 100. and pipe diameter.DRILLING FLUIDS Effective Circulating Viscosity Most drilling muds commonly used in the field exhibit viscous properties which are shear rate dependent. K is in lbf/ft2(sec1)n.6 K D D p w n 1 where e is in cp.
5. Change switch to the 300RPM speed. Apparent viscosity in centipoise = 600 reading divided by 2. and record the 600 RPM reading. 6. . Plastic viscosity in centipoise = 600 reading minus 300 reading (see Figure). Wait for a steady value and record 300RPM reading. 3. Wait for a steady indicator dial value.DRILLING FLUIDS 1. Yield Point in lb/100 ft2 = 300 reading minus plastic viscosity in centipoise. Place a freshly stirred sample in a 2. Change gears only when motor is running. container and immerse the rotorsleeve exactly to the scribed line. 4. Start the motor by placing the switch in the highspeed position with the gear shift all the way down.
y is the yield point in lbf/100 ft2 . Bingham Plastic Fluid : y p For N=300 and 600 rpm: N y p 300 N N p 600 300 y 2300 600 where p is the plastic viscosity in cp. N is the viscometer dial reading at rotational speed. N.DRILLING FLUIDS Field measurements of viscosity: Newtonian Fluid : 300 N N where is the Newtonian viscosity in cp.
32 log N o K N o n N In filed units.cp and o is the zero gel in lbf/100 ft2.DRILLING FLUIDS Power Law Fluid and HerschelBulkley fluid (Yield Power Law): K K n 2 N o n 3. can be expressed in terms of N as 1. The shear rate. (sec1). K is the consistency index in eq.704 N . ( Power Law ) 510 N N n where n is the Power Law index.
using a 7. • 10s/10min.5 in.5 in.5 in.5 in. powerlaw • θ600= 65: θ300 = 40.5 in. gel = 15/25 lbs/l00 ft2 • Drill pipe • OD = 4. bit Determine •Plastic viscosity •Yield Point •Apparent viscosity •Effective Circulating •n is the Power Law index.000 ft • flow rate of 400 gpm. • ID=4in. • ID=4in. • Air weight = 110 lbs/ft • LDC = 1.000 ft TVD open hole washed out to 8. • Air weight = 14 lbs/ft • Drill collar • OD = 7. ID set at 16.You are given the following data Mud. • K is the consistency index •Viscosity in each section .Example . •Hole •Last intermediate casing set •8.
com/view_play_list?p =C20E2B3106BCA23D As the fluid velocity becomes higher. laminar flow can be visualized as a series of concentric cylinders slipping pass one another as shown in figure. Laminar flow is a streamline flow where all fluid particles move along lines parallel to the axis of the conduit. http://www.Flow Regimes: A range of stream flows having similar bed forms. and adjacent fluid layers slip past each other with no mixing of particles. inside circular conduits. Turbulent flow is characterized by the irregular movement of particles of the fluid. In steady state conditions. . flow resistance. The particle travel in irregular paths with no observable pattern and no definite layer. and means of transporting .youtube.
. This type of flow is generally desired in the annulus since it does not lead to hole erosion does not produce excessive pressure drops.Smoke rising from a cigarette is turbulent flow. Then smoke becomes turbulent as its Reynolds number increases Laminar Flow is usually found in the annulus during drilling operations. For the first few centimeters. the flow is certainly laminar.
This type of flow is generally not desired in the annulus due to its tendency to cause excessive hole erosion and high “equivalent circulating densities”. Since high mud velocities are required to achieve turbulent flow. causing the mud to move at approximately the same rate. This provides for better hole cleaning and is sometimes required on high angle holes. turbulent flow can move the mud like a plug. However. this results in high pressure drops.Turbulent Flow is the type of flow regime found inside the drill string during drilling operations. .
NRe can be expressed as N Re 928 v D where is in ppg. D is in in and is in cp. v is the average fluid velocity. it has been established experimentally that the critical Reynolds number. the number above which flow is no more laminar.. has a value approximately equal to 2100. D is the pipe diameter and is the fluid viscosity. Reynolds number is given by vD N Re where is the fluid density.e. i. It is generally used to determine whether a flow regime is laminar or turbulent. v is in ft/s. In field units. Mathematically. .The Reynolds number Re is a dimensionless number that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. For Newtonian straight pipe flow.
determine the minimum size of production tubing to be installed in the well such that laminar flow is maintained.Example An oil well is expected to produce at a rate of 480 SBPD (standard barrel per day). . Assume fluid is Newtonian. If the viscosity of the oil is 5 cp and its specific gravity is 0.8.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Introduction The calculations of friction pressure losses in the rotary rig circulating system are important and essential because of their direct bearing on Drill bit hydraulic program design ECD during tripping in and out of wellbore ECD during drilling and well control operations .
necessary calculations Pump operating requirements.Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Drill bit hydraulic program design To ensure optimum drilling conditions. pump pressure (Pp ) required in order to drill to a certain depth for a given set of operating conditions is equal to the total friction pressure (Pf ) losses in the circulating system plus the dynamic pressure changes (generally those across jet bits PB )that is. corresponding optimum drill bit nozzle sizes In drilling. optimum flow rates. where Pp=Pf + PB Pp is the required pump delivery pressure Pf is the circulating system friction pressure loss PB is the dynamic pressure across bit nozzles .
casing string or logging tool is being pulled out of hole too fast. Pressure reduction created by this situation is called “Swab Pressure”. For this reason. If swab pressure is too much. kick (wellbore influx) may be into the hole and well control must be conducted in order to secure well. BHA/ bit.Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Pressure changes during tripping and casing operations (Swab/Surge Pressures) What is swab pressure? Swab Pressure: If a drill string . casing or logging tool will possibly swab mud out of hole. . due to bigger diameter almost same hole size. hydrostatic pressure of bottom hole will be reduced. like pulling small a piston of syringe.
ρme > ρff where ρff is the formation pressure gradient .Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Mathematically where Paei=PahiDi ∆Pa swb annulus Pahi is the mud hydrostatic pressure at Di ∆Pa swb is the swab pressure gradient in the annulus (in psi\ft) or in terms of mud weight. Paei is the equivalent mud pressure at some well depth Di in the where ρme= ρmh.∆ρa swb ρme is referred to as the equivalent circulating mud weight ρmh is the actual mud weight while not moving ∆ ρ a swb is the change in mud weight due to the swab pressure • for safe drilling.
If surge pressure is too much. many problems will occur as formation brake down.Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Pressure changes during tripping and casing operations (Swab/Surge Pressures) What is surge pressure? Surge Pressure: When pipe moves downward with mud circulation through drill string. additional bottom hole pressure called “Surge Pressure” is created. . partial mud loss and lost circulation.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure And. where ρme= ρmh+ ∆ρa surg ρme is referred to as the equivalent circulating mud weight ρmh is the actual mud weight while not moving ∆ ρ a swb is the change in mud weight due to the surg pressure • for safe drilling. where Paei=Pahi+Di ∆Pa surg Paei is the equivalent mud pressure at some well depth Di in the annulus Pahi is the mud hydrostatic pressure at Di ∆Pa swb is the surg pressure gradient in the annulus (in psi\ft) or in terms of mud weight. ρme < ρfrac where ρfrac is the formation fracture gradient ...
resulting in an ECD that . .as in the case of surge pressures. the friction pressure losses in the annulus will effectively increase the mud weight. For safe drilling. may cause fracturing 0f formation: ρme= ρmh+ ∆ρa f where ∆ρa f is the change in mud weight in annulus owing to the friction pressure loss gradient in the annulus.Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Pressure changes during drilling During drilling. A similar situation may be encountered during well control operations. ρme < ρfrac .
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Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance The study of fluid dynamics is based on three physical laws: • Conservation of energy • Conservation of momentum • Conservation of mass These laws. annular or slot flow) constitute all the conditions required in order to formulate a fluid dynamic problem. . power law. when combined with •the fluid rheological models (Newtonian. Bingham. and yield power law) • the fluid state (compressible or incompressible) •fluidflow regime (Laminar or turbulent) • the conduit type (pipe.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance The mechanical energy balance equation for an incompressible fluid entering a physical system at point i and leaving it at some point j can be written as ρ(DjDi)+(ρ\2g)(V2jV2i)+Pj Pi= Wp + Wf where D is the elevation ρ is the fluid weight density V is the average fluid velocity P is the pressure Wp is the work done by pump Wf is the friction energy loss .
the circulation system can De visualized as a Utube .Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance The mechanical energy balance equation for an incompressible fluid entering a physical system at point i and leaving it at some point j can be written as Ph + Pd + Pj Pi = PpPf where Ph is the hydrostatic head Pd is the dynamic pressure Pp is the pump pressure Pf is the pressure loss due to friction In drilling.
the circulation system can be visualized as a Utube Pp=Pf + PB .Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance In drilling.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Mechanical Energy and Pressure Balance The available pump surface pressure or what is normally referred to as the circulating standpipe pressure is expanded throughout the circulating system in the following manner: Pp Ps Pdp Pdc Padc Padp P b where Pp is the operating pressure. . and Pb is the frictional losses at the bit. Pdp is the frictional losses inside the drillpipes. Padp is the frictional losses in the annular space of the wellbore and the drillpipes. Pdc is the frictional losses inside the drill collars. Ps is the frictional losses at the surface connections. Padc is the frictional losses in the annular space of the wellbore and the drill collars.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Pressure Drop across the Bit Nozzles (Jets) Ph + Pd + Pj Pi = PpPf Pp=0 Pf . Ph negligible Pi Pj= (ρ\2g)(V2jV2i) .
which will be implemented in equation The value of Cd. is assumed to be 0. Cd.Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Pressure Drop across the Bit Nozzles (Jets) Vi negligible Pi Pj= Pb=(ρ\2g)(V2j)= (ρ\2g)(V2exit) The actual exit velocity of the jets is always smaller than will be predicted by this equation owing to the assumption made regarding the frictionless state of the jets. . a modifying factor called the nozzle (jet) discharge coefficient. To compensate for this difference.95 unless otherwise specified.
Fluid Flow and Associated Pressure Pressure Drop across the Bit Nozzles (Jets) Since when the following field units are used: Q is in gpm ρ is in Ibs\gal At is in in.2 Cd is a nondimensional term Pb is in psi .
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J.slb.com .oilfield. Azar. Robello Samuel: Books http://www. G.ca: J.DRILLING FLUIDS References Slides presented were prepared with illustrations from the following referenced documents: Drilling Engineering: Amazon.glossary.
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